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Microbiology and Parasitolgy - Chapter II

CELL STRUCTURE AND


TAXONOMY

PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by Frances Rowena H. Mercado, MAED General Science


What is a cell?

 The fundamental living unit of any organism.


 Metabolism- refers to all of the chemical
reactions that occur within a cell.
 What are the importance of metabolism?
 Growth, reproduction and irritability.
 Mutation-accidental changes in the
genetical material.
Cells are classified as…
 Prokaryotes
 Do not have complex system of membranes and
organelles.
 Bacteria and Archaea

 Eukaryotes
 More complex cells, containing true nucleus and
many membrane bound organelles.
 Algae, protozoa, fungi, plants, animals and
humans.
Acellular and Cellular Microbes
Relative Sizes of Microorganisms
Eukaryotic Cell

 eu=true; karyo=nucleus
 Have true nucleus, DNA is enclosed by a
nuclear membrane.
 10X larger than most prokaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic Animal Cell
Eukaryotic Cell Structures

 Cell Membrane  Lysosomes and


 Nucleus Peroxisomes
 Cytoplasm  Mitochondria
 Endoplasmic Reticulum  Plastids
 Ribosomes  Cytoskeleton
 Golgi Complex  Cell Wall
 Flagella and Cilia
Cell Membrane
 Enclosed and keep the
cell intact.
 Composed of large
molecules of proteins
and phospholipids.
 Like a “skin”
 Regulates passage of
substances in and out.
 Selective permeability
Nucleus
 Controls the functions
of the entire cell.
 “command center”
 4 components:
 Nucleoplasm
 Nuclear membrane
 Chromosomes
 Nucleolus

back
Cytoplasm
 Semifluid, gelatinous
nutrient matrix
 Contains the
“organelles”
 Organelles has highly
specific functions which
maintains the cells and
allow it to properly
perform its actvities.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Highly convoluted
system of membranes
that are interconnected
to form a transport
network tubules and
flattened sacs within
the cytoplasm.
 Rough ER
 Smooth ER
Ribosomes

 18 to 22 nm in
diameter
 consists of rRNA
 play important part in
protein synthesis
 free or attached in the
RER
Golgi Complex
 Stack of flattened,
membranous sacs
 Packages newly
synthesized proteins
into small, membrane-
enclosed vesicles for
storage within the cell
or export outside the
cell (exocytosis).
 “packaging plants”
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes
 Lysosomes
 contain lysozyme and
other digestive enzymes
 phagocytosis and
autolysis
 Peroxisomes
 where hydrogen
peroxide is both
generated and broken
down
 found in mammalian
liver cells
Mitochondria

 Where most of the ATP


(energy carrying
molecules) are formed
by cellular respiration.
 Energy is released
from glucose
molecules and other
nutrients to drive other
cellular functions.
Plastids
 Contains various
photosynthetic
pigments.
 Chloroplasts- one
type of plastid, contain
a green, photosynthetic
pigment called
chlorophyll.
 Found in plant cells
and algae.
Cytoskeleton

 System of fibers
present throughout the
cytoplasm.
 Strengthen, support
and stiffen the cell,
giving its shape.
 Microtubules- slender,
hallow tubules (tubulins).
 Microfilaments- Slender,
thread-like contractile
structures which facilitate cell
contraction.
Cell Wall
 External structures that
provide rigidity, shape,
and protection.
 May contain cellulose,
pectin, lignin, chitin and
some mineral salts.
 Cellulose-
polysaccharide, present
in algae and plants
 Chitin- present in fungi
and exoskeleton of
arthropods.
Presence or absence of cell wall in various types of cells.
Flagella and Cilia

 Flagella- relatively
long, thin structure,
the organelle of
locomotion.
 Cilia- tend to be
more shorter (hair-
like), thinner and
more numerous
Prokaryotic Cells

 10X smaller than eukaryotic cells


 Very simple cells than eukaryotic cells
 Do not contain membrane-bound organelles
 Reproduce by binary fission
 Includes bacteria and archaeans
Typical Prokaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic Cell Structure

 Cell Membrane  Bacterial Cell Wall


 Chromosome  Glycocalyx

 Plasmid  Flagella

 Cytoplasm  Pili (Fimbriae)

 Cytoplasmic particles  Endospores


Cell Membrane
 Enclose the cytoplasm
 Similar in structure and
function to the
eukaryotic cell
membrane.
 Consists of proteins
and phospholipids.
 Selectively permeable
Chromosome

 Consists of a single,
long, supercoiled,
circular DNA molecule.
 Serves as the control
center of the bacterial
cell.
 Capable of replicating
itself, guiding cell
division, and directing
cellular activities. A bacterial cell may contain
between 850 and 6,500 genes
Plasmid

 Small, circular
molecules of double-
stranded DNA that are
not part of the
chromosome.
 May contain 10 to
hundred genes
 May or may not be
present in bacterial
cell.
Cytoplasm

 Semi-fluid, consists of
water, enzymes,
dissolved oxygen,
waste products,
essential nutrients,
proteins and
carbohydrates, and
lipids.
 No organelles.
Cytoplasmic Particles
 Many tiny particle in the
bacterial cytoplasm.
 Most of these are
clusters of ribosomes-
polyribosomes or
polysomes.
 Site of protein
synthesis.
Bacterial Cell Wall

 Rigid exterior cell wall


that defines the shape
of bacteria.
 Consist of a complex
macromolecule known
as peptidoglycan.
 Gram positive
bacteria- thick layer
 Gram negative
bacteria- thinner layer
Gram Stain

 The most widely used


procedure for staining
bacteria.
 Developed over a
century ago by Dr.
Hans Christian Gram.
 Bacteria are grouped
as Gram-negative
and Gram-positive
Glycocalyx
 Slimy, gelatinous
material produced by
the cell membrane and
secreted outside the
cell wall.
 Slime layer- not highly
organized and is not
firmly attached to the
cell wall.
 Capsule- highly
organized and firmly
attached to the cell wall.
Flagella
 Thread-like, protein
appendages that
enable the bacteria to
move.
 Flagellated bacteria are
said to be motile.
 monotrichous (A)
 lophotrichous (B)
 amphitrichous (C)
 peritrichous (D)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Spirillum

amphitrichous

lophotrichous
Pili (Fimbriae)
 Hair-like structures,
most often observed on
Gram-negative
bacteria.
 Kinds:
 Pili that enables transfer
of genetic material from
one bacterial cell to
another (conjugation).
 Pili that enable bacteria
to anchor themselves to E. coli fimbriae
surfaces.
Endospores

 Formed by a few
bacteria when the
environment is
unfavorable for their
survival.
 Sporulation- process
of forming endospore.
 Resistant to heat, cold,
drying and most
Bacillus thuringiensis with
chemicals. terminal endospore.
Sporulation
The Discovery of Endospores

 John Tyndall concluded


that certain bacteria can be
killed by simple boiling,
while others cannot be
killed.
 Tyndallization
 Ferdinand Cohn called the
small bodies inside the
bacteria “spores”.
 He concluded that spores
are heat resistant.
John Tyndall
EUKARYOTIC CELLS

PLANT TYPE ANIMAL TYPE PROKARYOTIC CELLS

Biologic distribution All plants, fungi, and All animals and protozoa All bacteria
algae

Nuclear membrane Present Present Absent

Membranous structures Generally absent except for


other than cell membrane Present Present mesosomes and
photosynthetic membranes

Microtubules Present Present Absent

Cytoplasmic ribosomes 80S 80S 70S


(density)

Chromosomes Composed of DNA and Composed of DNA and Composed of DNA alone
proteins proteins

When present, have a When present, have a When present, flagella have
Flagella or cilia complex structure complex structure a simple twisted protein
structure; prokaryotic cells do
not have cilia

When present, of simple Absent Of complex chemical


Cell Wall chemical constitution; constitution, containing
usually contains cellulose peptidoglycan
Photosynthesis Present Absent Present in cyanobacteria and
some other bacteria
Prokaryotic Cell Reproduction
 Prokaryotic cells reproduce
by binary fission.
 One cell (parent cell) splits
into half to become two
daughter cells.
 Before a prokaryotic cell
can divide into half, its
chromosomes must be
duplicated.
 Generation time- varies
from one bacterial species
to another (ex. E. coli, 20
mins.)
Eukaryotic Cell Reproduction

 Eukaryotic cell reproduce in a process called


mitosis.
 Mitosis the type of division that gives rise to
daughter cells for the purpose of tissue
growth, regeneration or asexual (vegetative)
reproduction.
Let’s Review….

INTERPHASE

PROPHASE MITOSIS TELOPHASE

METAPHASE ANAPHASE
Taxonomy

 Taxonomy is the science of classification of living


organism.
 Consists of 3 but interrelated areas:
 Classification- arrangement of organisms into
taxonomic groups (taxa).
 Nomenclature- assignment of names
 Identification- process of determining whether
an isolate belongs to a taxa.
Microbial Classification
 Carolus Linnaeus-
established the
binomial nomenclature
 genus + specific epithet
 Genus- capitalize the
first letter
 Specific epithet- not
capitalized
 “sp.”- single specie,
“spp.”- more than one
specie
Taxonomic Hierarchies
 Species- group of related organism/strains
 Genus- collection of related species
 Family- collection of similar genera
 Order- collection of similar families
 Class- collection of similar orders
 Phylum/Division- collection of similar
classes
 Kingdom- collection of similar
phyla/divisions
 Domain- collection of similar kingdoms
The 5-Kingdom Classification

 Founded in 1969 by Robert H.


Whittaker.
 Prokaryotes were placed in Kingdom
Monera.
 Eukaryotes were placed in the other 4
kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae,
Protista, & Fungi).
The Five-Kingdom Classification Scheme
Modern Classification

 In 1978, Carl R. Woese


proposed elevating the
three cell types to a level
above kingdom, called
DOMAIN
 Cells are classified into
three types:
 ARCHAEBACTERIA
 EUBACTERIA
 EUKARYA
The Three-Domain Classification Scheme
That’s All Folks!
Prepare for a long QUIZ next meeting!!