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Structured Qn 1a

Pure Biology TYS Unit 2.5A
Respiration: Gaseous Exchange

Diaphragm must appear dome-shaped, base of diaphragm must be at the base of ribcage.

Structured Qn 1bi
•  Balloons will inflate [1/2] •  When the rubber sheet is pulled down, the volume inside the bell jar increases, decreasing the pressure; •  Surrounding air outside the jar has a higher pressure and moves into the balloons [1/2]

Structured Qn 1bii
•  Walls of the bell jar are rigid and do not move while the ribs move during breathing; •  Rubber sheet does not arch upwards while diaphragm arches upwards during expiration; •  Balloons representing the lungs consist of only 1 chamber each while the lungs have many alveoli;

Structured Qn 2
(a) A: Alveolus • B: Capillary • C: Red blood cell (b) During inhalation:
• External intercostal muscles contract • Ribs rise

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Structured Qn 2c
• The molecule of oxygen dissolves in the layer of moisture lining the wall of the alveolus; • The molecule then diffuses across the one-cell thick alveolar wall and one-cell thick endothelium (capillary wall) down a concentration gradient; • The molecule then enters into blood plasma, diffuses into the cytoplasm of the red blood cell (E) and binds reversibly with haemoglobin;

Structured Qn 2d
•  There would be no change in the % oxygen in inspired air which remains at 20.5% [1/2] •  But the % oxygen in expired air would increase from 16.5% to a higher value (but lower than 20.5%) [1/2] •  This is because a person who has an iron deficiency might develop anaemia, as iron is required for haemoglobin synthesis; •  A decrease in haemoglobin levels would mean less oxygen would be taken up into the blood from inspired air in the alveoli, leading to a higher % of oxygen in expired air;

Structured Qn 3
• (a) 5 x (60/20) = 15 breaths/min • (b)(i) C and E • (b)(ii) Points C and E marks the end of exhalation and inhalation respectively, where there is no change in volume of air in the lungs, indicating an equal pressure in the lungs compared to pressure in the surrounding air;

Structured Qn 3c
• (i) The volume of air is increasing from 2 dm3 to 2.5 dm3 across a period of 2 seconds; • (ii) The increase in volume of air is due to inhalation, in which the external intercostal muscles contract and the internal intercostal muscles relax; • causing the ribs to swing upwards and outwards [1/2] • The diaphragm contracts, and flattens [1/2] • This increases volume of the thoracic cavity and pressure drops [1/2] • Lungs expand and pressure in the lungs decreases below pressure in surrounding air; • Air outside the body rushes/drawn into the lungs [1/2]

Structured Qn 3d Breathing: Summary
External 

• Line extends for 12 seconds on the graph • Should have a higher frequency & volume

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Structured Qn 4

Structured Qn 4
Comments: Some candidates drew several arrows for both oxygen and carbon dioxide and sometimes lost marks through carelessly leaving one of the oxygen arrows just short of a red blood cell, or simply ending in the plasma.

Essay Qn 1a
• Layer of moisture that is secreted by the cells of the alveolar wall, that allow gases in the air to dissolves in to facilitate diffusion; • One-cell thick alveolar wall reduces diffusion distance for faster diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide; • Large surface area to allow faster diffusion; or • Richly supplied with blood to maintain diffusion gradient;

Essay Qn 1b
• The lining of the trachea has:
• C-shaped rings of cartilage that enable it to stay open to conduct air; • Gland cells in its lining that secrete mucus which helps to trap dust & foreign particles in the air; • And cilia in its lining that sweep the mucus containing the particles up to the pharynx;

Essay Qn 2a
• i) The Diaphragm
• A dome-shaped sheet of muscle & elastic tissue, separating the thorax from the abdomen; • During inhalation, the muscles contract, the diaphragm flattens downwards; increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity [1/2] • During exhalation, the muscles relax, the diaphragm arches upwards; again to reduce the volume of the thoracic cavity [1/2]

Essay Qn 2a
• ii) Between the ribs are 2 sets of antagonistic muscles – the external & internal intercostal muscles • During inhalation, the external intercostal muscles contract and internal intercostal muscles relax; • Ribs swing upwards and outwards [1/2] • During exhalation, the external intercostal muscles relax and internal intercostal muscles contract; • Ribs swing downwards and inwards [1/2]

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Essay Qn 2b
• Cilia lines the trachea and sweeps the mucus; containing the dust/foreign particles up to the pharynx;

Essay Qn3
• One method of study is to track non-smokers and smokers over a length of time (retrospective case studies) to verify the correlation between smoking and risk of getting lung cancer. The studies can also be differentiated between the numbers of cigarettes smoked to establish whether heavier smoking increases the risk of lung cancer. • Another method is to study whether the chemicals contained in cigarette smoke have carcinogenic characteristics.

Essay Qn 4
Carbon Monoxide binds readily and irreversibly to Haemoglobin. reducing the ability of Hb to bind with oxygen; The oxygen carrying capacity of maternal blood is reduced hence reducing the supply of oxygen to the foetus via the placenta; Insufficient oxygen hinders cell metabolism and hence tissue growth, leading to compromise of child’s development;
Vague answers such as “hinder child’s development” or “suffocate baby” not advised, be specific in naming the effect on a biological process.

Pure Biology TYS Unit 2.5B
Respiration II

Structured Question 1
i)  71-20 = 51 cm3/kg/min
The most common error was to give incomplete units, such as ‘cm 3 ’, although some misread the value as 50, rather than 51.

1b(iv)
iv) After strenuous exercise, the body incurs an oxygen debt as the oxygen demand exceeded the oxygen uptake during exercise. [1] Oxygen levels remain high after exercise as oxygen is used to oxidise some lactic acid to produce energy to convert the rest of the lactic acid accumulated to glucose. [1]
Comments: Candidates, having already been awarded the oxygen debt mark, often went on to describe how the debt was created, rather than answering the question posed, by explaining why the additional oxygen was needed after the exercise. The more able candidates who did this, often gave an excellent and detailed explanation as to the fate of lactic acid.

ii) 55-15 = 40 mins iii) Anaerobic respiration

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Unit 2.5B Essay Qn 1
 Anaerobic respiration refers to the processes occurring in living cells;  Which involves the breakdown of food for the release of energy (as ATP);  In the absence of Oxygen;

Unit 2.5B Essay Qn 1
 In yeast, anaerobic respiration produces ethanol and carbon dioxide;  In skeletal muscle in man, anaerobic respiration produces lactic acid;  As the products of anaerobic respiration are more complex; than those produced during aerobic respiration, only a small amount of energy is released;

Unit 2.5B Essay Qn 2
• ai) The body uses energy for active transport processes like absorbing important food molecules in the small intestine against a concentration gradient. • Another important process where energy is used in the synthesis of new protoplasm to make new cells (synthesis of complex molecules).

Unit 2.5B Essay Qn 2
• aii) Anaerobic respiration does not require the presence of oxygen whereas aerobic respiration requires oxygen. • Anaerobic respiration produces a small amount of energy whereas aerobic respiration produces a large amount of energy.

Unit 2.5B Essay Qn 2
• b) During a sprint race, there is a very high demand for oxygen by respiring muscle tissue. The rate of breathing as well as the heart rate cannot provide sufficient oxygen to these muscles. Thus, muscle tissue must rely on anaerobic respiration to provide the energy required by the muscle. However, the amount of energy can only be provided for a short period of time as lactic acid builds up and oxygen debt occurs. (Anaerobic is the primary not exclusive, metabolic system to support high intensity but short duration work)

Unit 2.5B Essay Qn 2
• During a long distance race, the pace is much slower than a sprint and so the rate of oxygen demand is much less though oxygen is will be required for a longer period of time. Thus, the heart rate and rate of breathing can provide sufficient oxygen to the aerobically respiring muscles. This allows the runner to run for a much longer period of time as lactic acid and oxygen debt build up is much slower. (Aerobic is the primary not exclusive, metabolic system to support lower intensity but longer duration work) •