Yael R. Dragwyla Email: Polaris93@aol.com http://polaris93.livejournal.


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Qaballah and Tarot: A Basic Course in Nine Lessons
Lesson III: The 22 Paths of the Tree of Life and the Greater Arcana of the Tarot
B. The Individual Paths
20. Key 30

Resh ‫“ ,ר‬Head.” Trump XIX, The Sun. Sol Ö. Cardinal value, 200; ordinal value, 20. Connects Sephirah 8, Hod, with Sephirah 9, Yesod. Roman/English equivalent: R.

a. Qaballistic Meanings and Theory
The thirtieth Path is the Collective Intelligence. It is associated with the astrological judgment of the stars and celestial signs. This is a Path of enlightenment. The Hebrew letter means the Head, implying intelligence, while the Yetziratic Text emphasizes the perfection of scientific study and practice. (Here, astrology may be taken to represent all sciences, for the aim of all sciences, as with astrology, is the formulation of laws by which predictions of future occurrences may be made. Our human technological evolution is based on exactly that, the formulation of laws in order to predict the operation of cause and effect in the physical, objective universe.)* *Unfortunately, astrology, once considered a science, now has the name of “quackery,” thanks to the tireless efforts of the idiots and frauds who perpetrate rank stupidity and fraudulent claims in the name of a once-noble discipline. When done the way it’s supposed to be, however, astrology is practiced scientifically; dedicated astrologers who know what they are doing and do astrology honestly keep files full of data on the matters for which their charts have been erected and assiduously pursue research to determine what astrological configurations are most strongly associated with given types of events and personalities in the real world? But even more unfortunately, the mainstream media pay no attention to the latter group, only dealing with those who make outlandish, even sensationalistic claims about astrology, running “daily horoscope” columns that don’t predict worth a damn, and making people who have a serious interest in astrology look stupid.

There is also the operation of forces on higher planes, as yet little understood by science, the effects of which eventually manifest in the physical universe. Hence the reference here to astrology is appropriate, referring not to the largely superstitious newspaper type of “astrology,” but rather to the “starry wisdom” of the spiritual realms, the interaction of the great Logoi or Gods whose vehicles of physical manifestation are made manifest in the heavenly bodies. The Sun represents our own Solar Logos, Who is omnipotent as far as the Solar System is concerned. The forces attributed to the Zodiacal signs are not so much emanations to Earth of the constellations themselves, but are markers on a great clock which serve to indicate the type of force emanating from the Solar Logos at any particular time. The term Collective Intelligence is a useful name for the influence of this Path, for in its ultimate sense it implies knowledge of the whole range of forces, which, on every level, are synthesized into knowledge. Resh leads from Yesod to Hod, connecting the Vision of the Machinery of the Universe with the Vision of Splendor. Hod is rooted in Chesed, the Sephirah of the Vision of Love.* Thus the sunny aspect of this Path stems largely from the realization of the divine love and splendor which motivates the lower planes of manifestation, which in themselves are known as the Machinery of the Universe, the etheric structures of Yesod. *Chesed, the Path connecting Hod with Tiphareth, is associated with the astrological sign Cancer, which is traditionally considered to be ruled by Luna. But as it is the first month of astrological and astronomical Summer, when the heat of the Sun finally begins to raise temperatures well above those of much cooler Spring weather, it is also ruled by the Sun, whose life-giving energies are so in harmony with this astrological month. For similar reasons, Luna co-rules Leo, which is traditionally ruled by the Sun.

Hod is the Sephirah of Hermes, the Divine Messenger, Who is Lord of Books and of Learning, and also of the Archangel Michael, who disperses the forces of darkness. All this is part of the human mind and of the vertebrate mind in general. The flowering of rational thought after the Dark Ages, the time when barbarity and superstition stalked the land, is appropriately called the Age of Enlightenment. But there is such a thing as too much of a good thing. When the Sun shines without any mitigation of its heat by clouds and rain, life withers and dies. The unremitting and unbalanced glare of reason has a similar effect on the mind and body, and everything around them. The pendulum swings to and fro like night and day or Summer and Winter alternate, and the gross materialism of the nineteenth century, the effects of which persist to this day, represents reason gone beyond its due limits. When such is the case, it isn’t the life-giving Sun of the 30th Path that holds sway over the world, but rather the life-enchaining Devil of the 26thPath.* *On the level of neurobiology, neuropsychology, and neurobehavior, this has been amply confirmed by current research. See, e.g., Oliver Sacks, An Anthropologist on Mars: Seven Paradoxical Tales (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995), passim; Antonio R. Damasio, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain (New York: A Grosset/Putnam Book, 1994), passim; and Richard E. Cytowic, M.D., The Man Who Tasted Shapes: A Bizarre Medical Mystery Offers Revolutionary Insights into Emotions, Reasoning, and Consciousness (New York: Jeremy Tarcher/Putnam Books, 1993), passim. The “30 years that shook physics,” the first few decades of the 20th century, during which a fantastic revolution in the discipline took place, when particle physics first came into its own, the Special and General Theories of Relativity were postulated and proved out, and the older, dependable models of mechanics and optics were shown to be inadequate to explain many of the workings of the cosmos at large, only came about because people were able to cast off the chains of the hidebound “clockwork universe” mentality of the 19th century. Steampunk technology and science are all very well, but when it comes to truly understanding the universe we live in and developing advanced technologies that will aid in the quest for such understanding and finally give

Earthly life the stars, that sort of mechanical understanding of mind and body has to go. At the dawn of the 20th century, when we stepped off the 26th Path and onto the 30th, it did. This Path is also the polar opposite of the 28th Path, which links Yesod to Netzach. It has enormous potential – but also weaknesses brought about by human misuse. Someone who is emotionally caught up in factors having to do with an imbalance of the 28 th Path is usually urged to “use his reason,” which is, in effect, an appeal to get his subjective Tree of Life balanced up within himself. The differences in the effects of the two Paths, the 28 th and the 30th, has to do with that between thought and feeling, which are opposites in nature. Thus concentrated working upon one or other of the Paths should, in a normal person, bring about a balancing up of the psyche, or an integration process. Just as an imbalance of the forces of the 28 th Path creates a “glamour” that misleads the emotions and causes one to go astray, so does an imbalance of the 30 th Path lead to spiritual and emotional aridity. However, Trump XIX, The Sun, whose title is Lord of the Fire of the World (or Divine Reason), shows the true powers of this Path, as symbolized by the Sun showering golden rain upon two near-naked children, representing the outpouring of the forces of life, light, and love upon young humans. The wall shown on the Trump signifies an enclosure, the protective limitation, and cultivated plants within a garden, which is sealed off from wild nature. This has implications on a cosmic level, for only by limitation can growth be attained. Moreover, the 30th Path, the Path from Yesod, the unconscious mind, to Hod, the conscious intellect, is one on which great wisdom can be attained. Hod is the means of contact with great teachers, whose main sphere of influence is in Chesed. The strong link between Chesed and Hod means that teaching from these high sources is projected down the planes to form a pool of teaching in Hod. Thus Resh is the start of the great hermetic Key, the path of Wisdom, which leads via the 26 th Path to Tiphareth. But Hod is no more a Sephirah only of barren intellectual activity than Netzach is of weak sentimentality. Just as there is the lithe, hard splendor and power of the 28th Path, so the expanding of consciousness is the light of pure reason on the 30 th Path. Resh is essentially a Path of light – sunlight – the light of the whole concourse of Solar Logoi throughout Creation, hence the phrase Light in Extension. There is a further range of powers upon this Path, suggested by the Magical image of Hod: the Hermaphrodite. Resh is on a direct line with the course of the Lightning Flash of energy from Kether to Malkuth, whose glyph shows the order of the increasingly denser manifestation of the Spirit. Resh represents the stage at which the differentiation of the sexes comes about. The main cause of suffering within the individual is the gulf within himself. The widening chasm between vision and reality produces insatiate, nameless desire within him. Many still refuse to incarnate fully by hedging themselves about with a protective barrier of mental defenses and avoiding experience with life. Because many such are naturally attracted to the sciences, and the scientist has become a figure of power, this is a cause for concern. Such individuals are quite capable of destroying or experimenting with life for the sake of a theory, and enabled in this by their selfimposed deadening of their own emotional lives. And when such Spirits choose for their sphere of interest politics or warfare, then, with the means of destruction now available, humanity had better beware.*

*A point well-taken, and one which we would do better in today’s high-tech, high-energy world to keep well in mind. See Roger Shattuck, Forbidden Knowledge: From Prometheus to Pornography (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996) on the perils of taking too lightly the power and influence of the Word. One outstanding exemplar of the end-point of that emotional deadening was Dr. Josef Mengele, a.k.a. the Angel of Death of Auschwitz, a medical doctor who performed hideous experiments on living men, women, and children consigned to the camp and given over to Mengele’s tender mercies simply because they were Jews. It can be argued that Mengele was probably born a sociopath and therefore never developed those aspects of the brain and personality that would have kept him from perpetrating such horrendous evil, and that the apparent deadening of affect necessary for someone to embark on the life-path he did so enthusiastically was not at issue, for the neurological underpinnings necessary to the complete development of empathy, conscience, and true social awareness simply didn’t develop in him. Perhaps we might then consider that the over-

dependence on narrow intellect and rejection and starvation of emotion by the 19 th-century intellectual elite might have come about because at least some members of that elite were, like Mengele, born without the neurological resources required to fully develop as a social being.

The Sun of the 30th Path can throw a blazing-hot light on the deviations within the self as they manifest in the personality. The sword and spear of the Archangel Michael are not just symbolic weapons for use against medieval pantomime demons, but points of accusation and cauterization directed at the inmost heart of whoever treads this Path on its deeper levels. The Qlippoth need no mighty conjurations, they are embedded deeply in us, inextricably entwined around the core of our being. Clearly Hod should be right where it is, at the base of the Pillar of Severity. Resh is a Path of great light, but that light may be real more of the self and the soul that the seeker finds comfortable. The astronomical and physical reality of Sol So what is the Sun? In the world’s religions, Sol has a prominence rivaled only by Luna. Even in cases in which a religion incorporates Lunar elements to any significant degree, her importance isn’t always greater than or even as great as his.* In particular, Christianity is a Solar religion. So was Zoroastrianism. The Egyptian cult of Ra is another example of a religion based upon worship of the Sun. As for religions either based upon worship of Luna as chief deity, as is true of many versions of nature religions such as Wicca, or incorporating a number of Lunar elements, such as the Lunar calendars of Judaism and Islam, all take Sol into account as central to life. *It might be more appropriate to refer to Sol as “she” rather than “he.” All Earth’s life, including ourselves, feeds on Sol’s endless, selflessly provided, and divinely generous bounty as a child does at its mother’s breast. Indeed, in The Book of Thoth, the Tarot pack designed by Aleister Crowley and painted by Lady Frieda Harris, the illustration for Trump XIX, The Sun, hints at just that.

This is unavoidable, considering that without Sol our world would be lifeless – and in fact wouldn’t have come into existence in the first place. From its conception as part of Eurynome, the same furiously incandescent nebula of gas and dust which also gave birth to the Sun,* all down through the vast ranges of geological time to the present day our world has taken Her life from Sol. The Sun’s light, falling upon the young Earth’s nascent atmosphere and oceans, provided them with the energy necessary to generate the ultimate biophysical spark that gave life to our world. From then on, most of Earth’s life has fed off sunlight, either directly, as in the case of cyanobacteria and green plants, or indirectly, as in the case of the animals that eat green plants, the animals that in turn prey on the herbivores, and the scavengers that are nourished upon the dead bodies of plants and animals alike.

* The Pelasgian Greek creation story teaches that in the beginning was Chaos, Night, and the Abyss. From Chaos was born Eurynome, Goddess of All Things. Rising naked out of the Abyss, Eurynome found nothing substantial for Her feet to rest upon, so She divided the sea from the sky, and danced all alone across the waves of the sea for untold Aeons. As She danced toward the South, the wind set in motion in Her wake seemed to Her to be something new, separate from Herself, suitable as raw material for the construction of a work of creation. Wheeling about, She caught hold of this North wind, rubbed it between Her hands, and thereby created the great serpent Ophion. As She danced to warm Herself with ever-increasing wildness, Ophion, watching Her, grew lustful and finally threw Himself upon Her, coiling Himself about Her divine limbs, and coupled with Her. Now the North Wind, Whose name is Boreas, is fertile, which is why mares often turn their hindquarters to the wind, thereby breeding foals without the aid of a stallion. So Eurynome, coupling with an avatar of that same North wind, likewise became pregnant. Assuming the form of a dove brooding on the waves, eventually She laid the Universal Egg. At Her bidding, Ophion coiled seven times around

this egg, until it hatched and split in two. Out tumbled everything in existence, Her children: Sun, Moon, Planets, Stars, the Earth with Her mountains and rivers, trees, herbs, and all other forms of life. Eurynome and Ophion made Their home upon Mount Olympus. Eventually She created the seven Planetary powers, setting a Titaness and a Titan over each. But the first man was Pelasgus, ancestor of the Pelasgians; he sprang from the soil of Arcadia, followed by others whom he taught to make huts, feed upon acorns and sew pig-skin tunics. Thus the name of this just-so story. It seems fitting to call that nebula out of which were born Sol and His family of worlds Eurynome, after the Goddess of Everything in this story; at least as far as we and our world are concerned, that nebula did give birth to everything important to us and our existence. (As for Ophion, perhaps He might have been a nearby supernova whose shock-waves triggered collapse of that planetary nebula, thereby giving birth to Sol and His Planets; the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the origin of that catastrophic stellar suicide might have had an effect on the collapsed nebula’s subsequent evolution something like that of Ophion’s coils on the World-Egg laid by Eurynome. The interested reader might wish to explore this analogy further, for Magickal, scholarly, or other purposes. For more on the Pelasgian creation story, see Robert Graves, The Greek Myths (New York: Penguin Books, 1960), Volume I, Chapter 1, pp. 27-30.

All other bodies in the Solar System represent aspects of the Solar Spirit. Luna is his mirror, his reflection, as the sensitive, receptive, reactive soul that is her domain reflects the willful mutations and evolutions of spirit. Mercury represents Sol’s energy, as this is translated into thought and work. Venus expresses the infinite fertility engendered by him, the endless capacity for life which he nourishes. Mars represents Sol’s will and self-assertion. Jupiter is the vehicle of his relations with the other, mighty, incandescent beings of the stellar societies of Heaven. Saturn represents the limits on his being, on his individuation out of the original stuff of the World Egg that gave rise to everything. Uranus is the avatar of his transcendence of those same limits; Neptune represents his psyche, his connections to the universal Collective Unconscious; and Pluto is the vessel of the power of his spirit, his will. In the microcosm, every living organism is one of his avatars, its individual spirit, soul, mind, body, and behavior all expressions of his being and nature. As the planets are macrocosmic representations and avatars of the various aspects of the Sun’s nature and evolution, so are the traits of individual organisms, each with its planetary ruler, representations in the microcosm of these same solar characteristics. Over a million kilometers in diameter, so big that a quarter of a million worlds the size of Earth could easily fit into his vast volume, every second the Sun emits 3.86 x 1026 joules – 1.1 x 1020 = 110 million million million kilowatt-hours – of raw electromagnetic energy, which is continuously radiated away into space. His mighty heart is 113,475 times as dense as water,* with a temperature of 15 million degrees Kelvin (27 million degrees Fahrenheit); even the average temperature of his surface, the solar photosphere, is around 6,050 degrees K (5,777º C or 10,400º F). His average density is 1.4 times that of water; his mass is 1.981 x 1030 kilograms, more than a third of a million times that of Earth. *The density of water, the standard measurement of density for all materials, is one gram of mass per cubic centimeter.

As observed from Earth, the rotation of his equator about his axis takes 26.8 days; at successively higher latitudes, his rotation period is longer, so that, for example, at solar latitude 75°, the rotation period is 31.8 days.* His physical composition is about 73% hydrogen and 25% helium, the rest consisting, in descending order of their contribution to Sol’s mass, of oxygen, carbon, iron, neon, nitrogen, silicon, magnesium, and sulfur, as well as a number of other elements present only in trace quantities. Sol’s surface is often violently active, and at any time displays a number of distinctive features. The latter include sunspots, which have a magnetic field-strength of up to 3,000 Gauss and a typical temperature of 5,000-6,000 degrees Kelvin; bright granules and granular networks, the granules themselves being polygonal in shape and separated by dark lines; and prominences, enormous fiery eruptions large enough to consume many Planets the size of Earth.

*Thus the average rotational period of a point on the Sun’s surface is about 28 days. Only recently has it been determined that the sidereal period of the Solar core’s rotation is 22.8 days – in other words, about 23 days. From long before the beginning of written history, human beings have been well aware that the mature human female has a biological cycle equal in length to the sidereal period of revolution of Luna around the Earth, which is 28 days – coincidentally, the same as the average rotational period of the Solar surface. But there is also an analogous biological cycle of 23 days in the human male, a phenomenon noted by Sigmund Freud and his colleagues, among others. Clearly the female menstrual cycle is timed according to Luna’s sidereal period of revolution around the Earth – but what timing mechanism is responsible for the 23-day male biorhythm? Now it seems that the sidereal rotation of the Solar core, the period of which was determined in the late 1970s, may be the timing “gear” for the male cycle. From the far, forgotten reaches of human prehistory, the Moon has symbolized Woman, as the Sun has symbolized Man. It was always clear to us that the lives of women are geared to the cycles of Luna as She passes across the backdrop of the Starry Heavens. Now it seems that deep in our biorhythms, as these are tied to the Sun, there may be a basis for the symbolic link in the human psyche between the Sun and the male human being. Here also may be a natural basis for the psychospiritual power of the number 23, upon which modern Discordian religion is based, a power as great as that of 2, 7, and other numbers which we have always associated with sacred and esoteric things. (For many years, from 1978 until about 1991, the author’s own menstrual cycles were 23 days long, as regular as clockwork. As it happens, my own natal Sun stands at 0° 3’ Aries, in mutual reception with Pluto – Luna’s higher octave in the heliocentric system of astrology [see Volume 1, Part 2 of this work for more thereon] – in Leo. Somehow, apparently my body’s biological clock became unhitched from the Moon and geared instead to the Sun and Pluto for some 14 years [which, incidentally, is the length of time it takes Saturn to go through about half the Zodiac, Uranus to go through two Signs, and Neptune to go through one Sign]. Was it the sidereal rotation of the Solar core to which my menstrual cycle became re-geared?)

That portion of Sol’s light that is visible to our eyes is only a tiny fraction of his vast output. Sol emits radiation of all types, from gamma radiation, with a frequency of up to 10 15 megahertz*, all the way to radio emissions, with frequencies of less than 103 MHz (with wavelengths longer than a meter). By contrast, the visible light emitted by Sol has wavelengths ranging from about 3800-7300 angstroms (an angstrom is equal to 10-10 meters), corresponding to some 108 MHz. But Gaia, the biosphere of our planet, lets only a very small portion of the energy she receives from Sol at the top of her atmosphere reach her land and water surface, namely the visible light she receives from him, together with some of his radiation in the high infra-red and low ultra-violet ranges. Most frequencies of Sol’s radiant energy received by our planet are so powerful, and so potentially deadly to life, that Gaia, using free ozone in the higher regions of Earth’s atmosphere, screens out almost all of Sol’s overwhelming luminescent bounty, letting only that tiny range of frequencies ranging from the high infrared to the low ultraviolet through to her surface. She screens out all other frequencies, which otherwise would make Earthly life as we know it impossible. The Solar Constant, the amount of energy of all wavelengths received per second from Sol at the top of Earth’s atmosphere is about 1.37 kW per square meter. About 99% of it consists of light in the visible and near-visible ranges of the spectrum, constant to about 1 per cent, radio and X-ray light contributing insignificantly to the total, quantitatively speaking. Earth’s atmosphere has no trouble screening out that part of Sol’s light which would be definitely harmful to living organisms.** The albedo of the Earth – the amount of Solar radiation which Her atmosphere reflects back into space rather than transmitting it down to Earth’s surface – is about 40%, so about 60% of the solar energy which Earth receives at the top of Her atmosphere is transmitted to the ground. It is that light that nourishes all Earth’s life – indeed, which generated it in the first place. *One megahertz is equal to 1,000 cycles per second (cps). 10 15 is thus 1,000 million million million cycles per second, equivalent to a wavelength of less than a hundredth of an angstrom. **Or at least this was so up until the advent of PCPs and other ozone-destroying compounds in the last few decades. This now may be no longer the case, at least in those parts of the Earth where gigantic

ozone holes exist for part of the year, places where the ozone levels of the upper layers of our atmosphere drop to virtually nothing for increasingly longer fractions of each year due to destruction of atmospheric ozone by chemicals such as PCP. If this isn’t remedied soon, all Earth’s surface life, ourselves included, may soon be in very serious trouble. It is now thought that the Sun began life as an enormous, collapsing cloud of gas. As this incandescent gas-cloud shrank in size, contracting under the ruthless grip of its own gravitational field, becoming denser and denser, its temperature rose until a self-sustaining thermonuclear fusion reaction – the Solar Phoenix – ignited at its core. With the ignition of this self-sustaining fusion cycle the Sun was born.* *The traditional exaltation of Sol is in the Sign Aries, the first third of Solar Spring, the Sign of Birth and Resurrection, when the ancient fertility festival which we now call Easter takes place. Fittingly, Pluto, Who represents thermonuclear reactions in general and the Solar Phoenix in particular, is the diurnal mundane Lord of Aries. (Incidentally, The ancient Anglo-Saxon name for this same festival, “Eastor,” came from the name of the Goddess of the Dawn, the hour of Sol’s exaltation, Who also gave Her name to the Eastern Quarter of the compass. We still celebrate this festival, by essentially the same name they did, albeit in very different ways than was their custom; our word “Easter” is also collaterally related to “oyster” and “oestrus.” According to the Norse Eddas, Eastor’s consort was Austri or Austro, God or Spirit of Light. Our word “austral,” referring to the South, comes from that God’s name. So does the German world Ostern, which, however, refers to the Eastern rather than the Southern Quarter. )

At the time of Sol’s birth, his bulk consisted almost entirely of hydrogen gas, save for insignificant traces of various other elements left over from the catastrophic stellar suicides of gigantic, older stars whose remains, thrown out from the supernovae that ended their lives, provided the raw material out of which Sol first evolved. But as billions of years passed, more and more of his hydrogen was converted via the Solar Phoenix reaction into helium, with radiant energy produced as a by-product of that reaction. Now, five to ten billion years after Sol’s birth, this helium “ash” constitutes about one-quarter of His mass. As Sol ages, he also heats up. Eventually, when he has used up most of his store of hydrogen, He will leave the Main Sequence, evolving into a red giant.* What this means is that once he has exhausted virtually all of his hydrogen, using it up in the process of generation of thermonuclear energy that constitutes His living metabolism, he will then begin “burning” helium by means of a similar process, but at a much higher temperature than during His hydrogen-burning phase, expanding as his temperature rises until he becomes far larger than before, increasing in size until his radius is greater than that of the orbit of Venus or even Earth, engulfing and consuming everything in the way. His surface temperature per unit area will drop as he expands, but by then his surface will be so vast, the thermonuclear fires of the burning of helium within him so hot, that the total radiation from his surface will be far greater than it was before he exhausted His stores of hydrogen, and even if Earth somehow manages to avoid being engulfed by his expanded bulk, she will be left a roasted, charred hulk lapped by the fires of his hugely inflated corona..

The Main Sequence is the name given by astrophysicists to the evolutionary sequence through which most Stars pass during Their middle years, as plotted by temperature/spectral type versus luminosity/absolute visual magnitude in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, a plot of the absolute magnitude of stars against their spectral class. Equivalently, a plot of the luminosity of stars against their surface temperature. In the early 1900s, Ejnar Hertzsprung in Denmark and Henry Norris Russell in the United States independently began to consider how the brightness of stars might be related to their spectra. In 1911, Hertzsprung plotted the apparent magnitudes of stars in several clusters against their spectral class. In 1913, Russell plotted the absolute magnitudes of stars in the solar neighborhood against their spectral class. Both astronomers were quick to emphasize the non-random patterns they saw in

the arrangement of the data on these graphs. Such graphs have become extremely important in modern astronomy and are today called Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. A Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, or H-R diagram, is any graph on which a parameter measuring stellar brightness is plotted against a parameter related to a star’s surface temperature. For example, the ordinate of the graph may be apparent magnitude, absolute magnitude, absolute bolometric magnitude, or luminosity, the abscissa spectral class, color index, or surface temperature. Consider the following two equivalent H-R diagrams, A and B:

A resembles Russell’s original graph. Each dot on it represents a star whose absolute magnitude and

spectral class have been determined from observations. Most of the data lie along a broad line called the Main Sequence (cv.) that extends diagonally across the diagram. The Sun (absolute magnitude +5, spectral type G2) is a typical main sequence star. A second prominent grouping of data points represents very large, cool stars called red giants. In the lower left corner, a third grouping identifies compact, hot stars called white dwarfs. An H-R diagram can also be drawn by plotting the luminosity of stars against their surface temperatures, as shown in diagram B. Notice that temperature increases toward the left. The spectral classes OBAFGKIM constitute a temperature sequence and the first H-R diagrams were drawn with the hot O stars on the left and the cool M stars on the right. These H-R diagrams show that the total range in stellar brightness is 27 magnitudes, corresponding to a factor of 1011 in luminosity, and the range in the surface temperature of stars is from 2,200º K to 50,000º K. The size of a star is related to both its luminosity and its surface temperature, as indicated by the dashed lines. Most main sequence stars are roughly the same size as the sun. White dwarfs are about the same size as the Earth, while red giants and supergiants can be as big as Earth’s orbit around the Sun. The statistical distribution of data on an H-R diagram demonstrates that stars fainter than the Sun are far more numerous than those brighter than the Sun. In a given volume in the solar neighborhood, about 90% of the stars are main sequence stars, about 10% are white dwarfs, and about 1% are red giants or supergiants. The existence of three main groupings on the H-R diagram means that a typical star passes through three very different stages during its life. The temperature of a star changes as it evolves, enabling us to plot the path followed by an evolving star on an H-R diagram. The evolutionary tracks of contracting protostars show that they change rapidly as gravitational contraction compresses and heats their cores. When a protostar’s central temperature reaches several million degrees, hydrogen burning begins, and the evolutionary track stops at the main sequence. Consequently, main sequence stars are comparatively young, and have hydrogen only recently ignited burning at their cores. Pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks deposit new-born stars along the main sequence in agreement with the mass-luminosity relation (the more massive a star is, the brighter it is). Thus the main sequence is a sequence in mass, as well as temperature and luminosity. These tracks also show that the more massive a star is, the more rapidly it evolves.

As a star consumes its store of hydrogen, it gradually brightens and cooler. When its supply of hydrogen is exhausted, the star’s core contracts, its atmosphere expands, and it becomes a red giant. Ageing stars spend their final years as bloated red giants. Massive stars can end their lives with supernova explosions that leave behind neutron stars and black holes. These are detected at non-visible wavelengths, so the H-R diagram has no relevance to the post-red giant evolution of massive stars. A star less massive than about three solar masses can eject as much as half its mass at the end of its life, producing a planetary nebula, i.e., a halo of gas and dust surrounding the star in question. The exposed, burnt-out core of the star then contracts to become a white dwarf. Detailed calculations of this process produce evolutionary tracks that rapidly take low-mass stars from the red giant region in the upper right of the H-R diagram to the white dwarf region in the lower left. Stellar evolution calculations relate the H-R diagram to time, so that these graphs can provide information about the ages of stars. Such age dating is especially applicable to star clusters. A very young cluster, such as NGC2362, consists primarily of main sequence stars. However, the more massive a star is, the more rapidly it consumes its core supply of hydrogen and becomes a red giant. Since the main sequence is a progression in stellar mass, the stars are the upper end of the main sequence are the first to leave. As the cluster ages, its main sequence “burns down like a candle” as stars of progressively decreasing mass and luminosity become red giants. For example, M67 is an old cluster because only those stars less massive and luminous than the Sun still remain on its main sequence. Horizontal branch stars, stars aligned along horizontal branches jutting out from the right side of the H-R diagram, are believed to be low-mass stars that have recently ignited helium in their cores via the “helium flash” (A theoretically predicted event in the evolution of a lower-mass star. After the hydrogen in its core has been exhausted and the star has become a red giant, the central temperature will rise to the point at which helium fusion suddenly begins. It is unlikely that the explosion will reach the surface of such a star. In a more massive star, helium fusion begins gradually because of different conditions in its core). In an asymptotic red giant, helium burning occurs in a thin shell surrounding the star’s center. Between the horizontal branch stars and the red giants is a gap. When the evolutionary track of a low-mass star takes it across this region, the star pulsates as an RR Lyrae variable (RR Lyrae variables are often called short-period Cepheids or cluster-type variables, which have Cepheid-like variations in luminosity but with extremely short periods of a fraction of a day. These rapidly pulsating stars have light curves that differ from the classical Cepheids. Most rise very quickly to maximum brightness in only a tenth or less of their total period. Their minima are comparatively prolonged, so that for a few hours their light remains constant. Their spectral types range from A to F. They are giants; those in our galaxy belong to spherical clusters). This gap is at the lower end of the so-called instability strip, a vertical region in the middle of the H-R diagram where stars are unstable against radical oscillations. When a massive star passes through this region, it pulsates, and is called a Cepheid variable. Eventually, Sol will use up all his helium, as well. At that point, he will start to collapse again, then begin burning the by-products of the former helium-burning, elements heavier than helium. This cycle of exhaustion of one kind of fuel, potential collapse of his core, and re-ignition of thermonuclear burning at the core using still heavier fuels that are the by-products of earlier stages of thermonuclear burning will continue on and on, using calcium, then oxygen, then even heavier elements as fuel to keep His core alive with thermonuclear fire, until his core consists entirely of iron, which can’t be fused into heavier elements through normal thermonuclear synthesis. Finally, when nothing more remains which Sol can use as a fuel-source, at which point he will collapse into a shrunken reddish ghost of his former glory, Sol will die, his burnt-out corpse becoming a “white dwarf,” a very dead star radiating the last of his revenant heat and light into a void increasingly less populated with living stars for tens of billions of years or more, until at last he becomes a “black dwarf,” utterly lightless and cold. But that ultimate, last, long sleep of our star lies a hundred billion or more years in the future. Long before then, well before Sol undergoes his dramatic expansion and evolution into a helium-burning red giant, his temperature will rise until he becomes so hot and bright that life finally becomes impossible on our world. If we or some future species of Earthly life* has, in the meantime, managed to successfully transport itself, along with a representative sample of the rest of Earth’s life, to other, more viable ports of call, then Earth’s – and thus Sol’s – great spirit will live on. But, save for the hope of the

colonization of the worlds of other Stars by Earthly life, all of Earth’s burgeoning fertility will have been irrevocably extinguished by the remorselessly increasing heat and light of Sol long before he uses up his last stores of hydrogen and evolves into a red giant, let alone dies himself. As far as we are concerned, relative to us, he is immortal – and the source not only of the sustenance absolutely necessary for our world’s life, but indeed of her very existence in the first place, as well.** *Though there may not now be enough time left for another species to arrive that could do the job for our world. E.g., at any time, floods of deadly radiation from a nearby supernova or the impact of a gigantic comet on our world of the sort that caused the great mass-extinctions of Earthly life could create the sort of devastation on our world that ended the Cambrian and much of its life, putting paid to the dinosaurs, and such things could happen to our world more than once in the future. If they happened often enough over the next billion years, that would effectively wrap it up for Earth’s chances of evolving another handy, ingenious firebug of an organism capable of producing the sort of pan-species, space-going grex needed for Earth’s successful reproduction somewhere out there in the vast, Starry reaches of the universe. **Patrick Moore and Garry Hunt, Atlas of the Solar System (New York: Rand McNally and Co., 1983), pp. 18-75 (Sol and 132-141 (Earth).

In a strictly physical sense – a thermodynamic, quantum mechanical, and ergonomic sense –as living beings, we are fields of Solar energy. In a generalized sense, we are fields of stellar energy, but the nucleus of these fields is of course our Sun, the most massive body in the Solar System, the most massive anywhere near us, far and away the most important star in all the heavens to us. Of course, those fields are articulated in relatively massive material as part of Gaia, our living world, and that is where the focus of our consciousness normally is. Even so, physical fields extend to infinity, in all dimensions, in however attenuated a form. So part of our being extends to every particle of matter in the universe, with secondary foci in the heart of every star that exists – it may be that every living organism has a true focus in a star not our Sun, one star to each.* But the main body of what each of us is, is concentrated in our day-star, and together we all form an interacting three-dimensional, ever-changing dynamic system of fields of Solar energy embracing and enwrapping our Sun as well as every planet in the Solar System, all of which lie within the Sun’s electromagnetic fields (however thin those fields may become out past the orbit of Saturn, the last of the classical planets of Western astrology!). The Gods, the vast Intelligences associated with the universal processes of the living universe, each also has His or Her or Its expression in the form of enormous standing-wave systems in the Sun’s envelope and/or core, like ours except for their gigantic scale and intensity. Each such system is associated with one of the Solar planets – the one which in astrology is always associated with that God – according to the gravitational perturbations of the Sun’s huge fluid body caused by that planet in its dance about the Sun. Apollo is Sol himself; Athena is an expression of the dance of Earth and Moon around Sol; Hades is one of Pluto, deep within the Sun; Dark Isis, Kali is the hot black heart of Sol, so massive that even light has trouble escaping it. So we and our Gods are united in our Sun – and in every star in all the universe. Consciousness and the “material” body, made of clay, die; but the spirit goes on forever, and its physical expression is in Starlight. Love entails, among other things, consciousness of this unity and community in the Sun, our kinship as beings of sunlight and wave-forms which collectively make up our day-star. As long as there is light, anywhere, we do not die in the spirit, and we exist in that great stellar community, perfect awareness of expresses itself in what the Greeks and Aleister Crowley call “Agape.” *An eerie echo of the declaration in Aleister Crowley’s The Book of the Law that “Every man and every woman is a star.” The religion based upon The Book of the Law is a Solar religion. Is an awareness of the nature of our relationship to Sol on an actual physical level embedded in The Book of the Law, if only on an unconscious level?

In Chaos: Making a New Science,* James Gleick reports that over the last decade or so, medical science has been able to demonstrate that chaos is the hallmark of a healthy organism. Chaotic patterns, in the mathematical sense, are the hallmark of the beat of a healthy heart, the electromagnetic signals from a healthy brain, and every other functioning part of the body. When chaos begins to decrease and non-chaotic patterns start to emerge, the organism comes closer and closer to death. Thus Eris, Goddess of Chaos and Discord, is the ultimate spirit of life. Life exists only as long as She is present; when She leaves, so does life. She is thus a representative of Sol, Who has the same relationship to all Earthly life. *James Gleick, Chaos: 0140092509). Making a New Science (New York: Penguin Books , 1988; , ISBN 978-

The Sun is the point at which religion, psychism, Magick, and astrology all converge. Every living Earthly organism, and all the Gods of Earth, are represented by standing-wave patterns, large and small, in the Sun; wave-forms can interact and overlap in every possible way and still each be discrete, an entity in its own right,* and thus, in terms of the physics of the spirit, we are joined together, indestructible, unbounded, in the ergonomic community that is the Sun, however separate and bounded our bodies and conscious minds on Earth may be. This is true of all the Gods, as well; so each of us is bound up in all other beings, and all beings in each. What astrology apparently documents is the everchanging form of interaction of these standing-wave patterns in the Sun, the dynamics of which are due to the ever-changing gravitational matrix of the Solar System, a result of the continuous permutations of the geometry of the Solar System due to the dance of planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and dust and gas about Sol. The planets collectively tug and haul on the Sun’s fluid plasma body in ways that never cease changing, due to that dance; so their geometry at any given time is an indication of the overall interaction-pattern of the living standing-wave patterns that are life at that moment, which have their main physical focus in our Sun.

*“– nothing but twinkles. But what twinkles!” – Aleister Crowley, The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, {809} (http://www.hermetic.com/crowley/confess/chapter82.html).

As that geometry changes, so does that pattern, and thus the forces on any of those physical particles and fields in the Sun associated with any one living spirit. The so-called “astral planes,” at least their physical expression, are simply those aspects of our physical being associated with parts of the Solar System removed from Earth, especially our Sun – or, more remotely, the far stars. What we are conscious of when in trance-states, or experiencing ESP, etc., are levels of our being that are literally extra-terrestrial, perhaps even interstellar, in this sheerly physical sense – i.e., our focus of consciousness shifts from its normal locus on Earth to loci farther and farther removed from our world. When doing Magick, we work mostly on these extra-terrestrial aspects of being, but in a very physical sense – a sense which can be elegantly described in terms of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. And most of these “planes of being” are, for most psychics, Magickians, and other esoteric artists, within the solar corona, that solar envelope that is Christos-Apollo in all his glory, though these of course also reflect both deeper levels of the Sun and extra-solar/extraterrestrial regions of the fields that are living being. Thus astrology documents the tugging and hauling of gravity on our Solar bodies, the envelope of energy, gas, fields that constitutes most of what we are as living beings, which has its major physical focus in the Sun, and predicts how this will affect that focus of our conscious, mortal lives that comprises our ego and physical body, as expressed in our behavior, feelings, and the courses of our lives. Magick is the Art and Science of causing change in conformity with Will by shifting one’s focus of consciousness sunward (or planetward, or starward, whatever works), then, from that point of view, reaching out via one’s solar body to manipulate living being by subtle biophysical techniques. Psychics simply plug into the ancient solar Internet, the interconnections among all the solar expressions of life. The Sun is central to Earthly life, and that is no less true of humans than any other terrestrial creature.

Astromythology and Psychospiritual Aspects of the Sun What are the astromythological and psychospiritual aspects of our world’s great blazing primary? Since time out of mind, Sol has represented wealth to us. Without the Sun, there would be no life, the basis of wealth and that which gives it meaning. The creation of wealth ultimately rests on the production of food, and it is sunlight on which that production depends. For that reason, astrologically speaking, the Sun rules wealth. On the other hand, Cancer and the Fourth House rule the ultimate sources of all wealth, material and spiritual: land and ancestry – and, of course, the sunlight locked up in all forms of life and in once-living things that provides all the energy for most of life’s activities.* The Sun is Tiphareth, beauty; the source and informing spirit of all beauty is the Great Spirit, the spirit of the living land, Gaia, Mother Earth. The Sun represents our children, and thus the Earth and all Her wealth, which we have only borrowed for a little while from the generations yet to come. *There are organisms, such as numerous marine organisms that live at extreme depths in the ocean where sunlight cannot reach, that live in a world without any light save, perhaps, that of deep-ocean volcanic vents or whatever light might exist coming from magma in environments deep within the Earth’s crust. These include, e.g., Archaea such as Ignicoccus, a genus of Archaea living in marine hydrothermal vents, which were discovered in Kolbeinsey Ridge north of Iceland and in the Pacific Ocean (at 9 degrees N, 104 degrees W) in 2000 (Huber et al., 2000); Clypiosectidae, a family of small deepwater hydrothermal vent limpets, marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Vetigastropoda (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005); Lamellibrachia, a genus of tube worms related to the giant tube worm, Riftia pachyptila, living at deep-sea cold seeps where hydrocarbons (oil and methane) are leaking out of the seafloor, entirely reliant on internal, sulfideoxidizing bacterial symbionts for its nutrition, etc. Most such creatures either subsist on deep-sea energy sources such as volcanism, e.g. Archaea and bacteria in such environments, or on such organisms or the creatures that eat them, etc. Some, of course, are detritivores, living off or supplementing their diets with organic material filtering down from above, but most of the life around deep-sea vent communities tends to depend only on the volcanic energy that drives such ecosystems, not needing solar input at all. That Earth’s animal, plant, and fungal life is closely related to the Archaea is not in dispute. The Archaea, a group of single-celled microorganisms (a single individual or species from this domain is called an archaeon (sometimes spelled “archeon”), have no cell nucleus or any other organelles within their cells. In the past they were viewed as an unusual group of bacteria and named archaebacteria; but since the Archaea have an independent evolutionary history and show many differences in their biochemistry from other forms of life, they are now classified as a separate domain in the three-domain system. In this system, the phylogenetically distinct branches of evolutionary descent are the Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. (Archaea are further divided into four recognized phyla, but many more phyla may exist. Of these groups the Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota are most intensively studied. Classification is still difficult, since the vast majority have never been studied in the laboratory and have only been detected by analysis of their nucleic acids in samples from the environment.) Although archaea have, in the past, been classed with bacteria as prokaryotes (or Kingdom Monera), this classification is outdated. The relationship between archaea and eukaryotes remains problematic. Aside from the similarities in cell structure and function that are discussed below, many genetic trees group the two. Complicating factors include claims that the relationship between eukaryotes and the archaeal phylum Euryarchaeota is closer than the relationship between the Euryarchaeota and the phylum Crenarchaeota, and the presence of archaean-like genes in certain bacteria, such as Thermotoga maritima, from horizontal gene transfer. The leading hypothesis is that the ancestor of the eukaryotes diverged early in terrestrial life’s history from the Archaea, and that eukaryotes arose as a result of fusion of an archaean and eubacterium (true bacteria, a separate evolutionary domain from that of the archaea), which became the nucleus and cytoplasm, which accounts for various genetic similarities, but runs into difficulties when it comes to explaining cell structure. Given this, it’s possible that complex life first arose from Archaea living around undersea volcanic vents or in deep subsurface realms where volcanic water provided the necessary medium for their physiology and metabolism, not dependent at all on sunlight for energy even through consumption of other, photosynthetic organisms. Even so, currently almost all complex Earthly life

does depend on sunlight as its ultimate source of energy, plants using photosynthesis to make sugars for food themselves and for the creation of the structures comprising their physical corpi (e.g., cellulose), animals eating plants or other animals which in turn eat plants, fungi consuming the remains of dead plants and animals. We ourselves are definitely creatures of sunlight, omnivores whose diets usually include the tissues of plants, animals, and fungi. (As to the latter, if nothing else, we eat a great deal of bread, and for most of us, that bread is made to rise via the good offices of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a variety of fungus known colloquially as Brewer’s yeats. Many of us drink beer, ale, and other alcoholic beverages, as well, and the same fungal organism is used to ferment various kinds of fruits and grains to produce them. And ’shrooms are definitely on the menu for many of us, who relish them.) So in the end, we are children of the Sun, and our responses to the spikes in the Sun’s electromagnetic field – and in Earth’s, which is inside the Sun’s – caused by the ever-changing geometry of the Solar System and its gravitational gradients astrologer study and mark proves it.

As far as the astrology of the Sun goes, Sol in the sign Cancer represents Shiva, the male partner in Tantric Magick. In Tantric or Sexual Magick, one partner plays a passive role, being stimulated to orgasm or even kept at a point just before orgasm, without actually climaxing, over a long period of time by the ministrations of the active, female partner, Kali. (Here, “male” and “female” need not be taken literally; they represent roles rather than morphology, though usually such rituals involve one man and one woman, the man taking the passive part of “Shiva,” the woman the active one of “Kali.”) When it is desired that “Shiva” actually be eventually brought to full climax by “Kali,” in order to attain Samadhi or union with God at the point of climax (having been primed for this throughout the ritual by means of the various ritual accompaniment such as music, incense, chants, dancing, etc.), this induces in him a temporary blackout of the ego or critical mind. Theologically and symbolically this is represented in the Hindu religion as the Dance of Kali, in which She kills Her consort, Shiva, by cutting off his head – which represents His temporary loss of cerebral consciousness – and dancing on his body, representing Her ecstatic writhing in the throes of orgasm. In these scenarios, She is coal-black, while He is white. Astrologically, this is linked to the total eclipse of Sun or Moon – especially the occultation* of the Sun by the Moon – in which, temporarily, the disc of the Moon cuts off the light of the Sun, or the bulk of the Earth throws the Moon into total darkness. This only happens at Full or New Moon, total eclipse of the Moon coming when the Moon is full, and that of the Sun only at New Moon.** Especially in the case of a total eclipse of the Sun, the brilliant light of the eclipsed body just prior to and after eclipse is the critical, “male” mind and ego of Shiva, the male partner in Tantra, while the dark, eclipsing body is Kali, the yin force that “steals” away the rational, critical faculties of Her male partner via orgasm, thereby liberating Him from the chains of “daylight” thinking so that He can then experience Samadhi and His own apotheosis. *An occultation occurs when an apparently larger body passes in front of an apparently smaller one, as occurs, e.g., during a total eclipse of the Sun by the Moon (at such times, the Moon appears to be as large as or larger than the Sun). A transit occurs when an apparently smaller body passes in front of an apparently larger one. An eclipse occurs when a body disappears or partially disappears from view, either by an occultation, as with a solar eclipse, or by passing into the shadow of another body, as with a lunar eclipse (thus both are listed on NASA’s eclipse page (http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse.html)). **That we can experience total eclipses of both the Sun and the Moon is due to the fact that we exist at a fortunate moment in the evolution of the Solar System and the Earth-Moon system. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the Moon’s formation 4.527 ± 0.010 billion years ago, some 30–50 million years after the origin of the Solar System. These include the fission of the Moon from the Earth’s crust through centrifugal forces, which would require too great an initial spin of the Earth, the gravitational capture of a pre-formed Moon, which would require an unfeasibly extended atmosphere of the Earth to dissipate the energy of the passing Moon, and the co-formation of the Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk, which does not explain the depletion of metallic iron in the Moon. These hypotheses also cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system. The prevailing hypothesis today is that the Earth–Moon

system formed as a result of a giant impactor, a Mars-sized body now called Thea that hit the protoEarth, which was in a late stage of formation, blasting material into orbit around it which accreted to form the Moon. Giant impacts are thought to have been common in the early Solar System; computer simulations modeling a giant impact are consistent with measurements of the angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system, and the small size of the lunar core, and also show that most of the Moon came from the impactor, not from the proto-Earth. From meteorites it is clear that other inner Solar System bodies, such as Mars and Vesta, have very different compositions of isotopes of oxygen and tungsten than does the Earth, while the Earth and Moon have near-identical isotopic compositions. Post-impact mixing of the vaporized material between the forming Earth and Moon could have equalized their isotopic compositions, although this is still a matter of debate. The large amount of energy released in such a giant impact event and the subsequent re-accretion of material in Earth orbit would have melted the outer shell of the Earth, forming a magma ocean. The newly formed Moon would also have had its own lunar magma ocean; estimates for its depth range from about 500 km to the entire radius of the Moon. This accounts quite nicely for the composition and geology of both bodies today. When the Moon first formed, it was much closer to the Earth than it is today. At that time, the tidal interaction between the Earth and the Moon was ferocious, causing rock-tides as well as oceantides of enormous size and power. The tides on the Earth are mostly generated by the gradient in intensity of the Moon’s gravitational pull from one side of the Earth to the other, the tidal forces. This forms two tidal bulges on the Earth, which are most clearly seen in elevated sea level as ocean tides. Since the Earth spins about 27 times faster than the Moon moves around it, the bulges are dragged along with the Earth’s surface faster than the Moon moves, rotating around the Earth once a day as it spins on its axis. The ocean tides are magnified by other effects: frictional coupling of water to Earth’s rotation through the ocean floors, the inertia of water’s movement, ocean basins that get shallower near land, and oscillations between different ocean basins. The gravitational attraction of the Sun on the Earth’s oceans is almost half that of the Moon, and their gravitational interplay is responsible for spring and neap tides. Gravitational coupling between the Moon and the bulge nearest the Moon acts as a torque on the Earth’s rotation, draining angular momentum and rotational kinetic energy from the Earth’s spin. In turn, angular momentum is added to the Moon’s orbit, accelerating it, which lifts the Moon into a higher orbit with a longer period. As a result, the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing, and the Earth’s spin slowing down. Measurements from lunar ranging experiments with laser reflectors left during the Apollo missions have found that the Moon’s distance to the Earth increases by 38 mm per year (though this is only 0.10 ppb/year of the radius of the Moon’s orbit). Atomic clocks also show that the Earth’s day lengthens by about 15 microseconds every year, slowly increasing the rate at which UTC is adjusted by leap seconds. This tidal drag will continue until the spin of the Earth has slowed to match the orbital period of the Moon; however, long before this could happen, the Sun will have become a red giant, engulfing the Earth. So the Moon and Earth have been gradually moving away from each other ever since the Moon’s formation. When the Moon was very young, and even well into the evolution of life on Earth, every solar eclipse was total, while there was no such thing as a total eclipse of the Moon; the Moon was so close to the Earth then that its apparent size, seen from Earth, would always have been greater than that of the Sun. Because of that, at every eclipse of the Sun by the Moon, the Moon always completely covered the disc of the Sun, but the shadow of the Earth cast by the Sun upon the Moon during lunar eclipses wasn’t quite wide enough to cause a total eclipse of the Moon. At some point in the future, as the Moon continues to move away from the Earth due to tidal drag and loss of angular momentum by the Earth to the Moon, the apparent size of the Moon as seen from Earth will be too small to allow for a total eclipse of the Sun at any time. On the other hand, at that time, every lunar eclipse will be total, because the shadow of the Earth cast by the Sun upon the Moon will always be larger than the Moon’s apparent size. We came into existence at a fortunate time for observing solar and lunar eclipses, then – much earlier, and we could never have seen a total eclipse of the Moon, while much later, and we could never have seen one of the most beautiful sights in the heavens: a total eclipse of the Sun. For more on the formation and evolution of the Moon, see, e.g., http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon.

Kali and Shiva both began as deities of the original Dravidian peoples of the Indian sub-continent, before the coming of the Aryan peoples that displaced them. Kali represented the Lunar eclipse, while Shiva represented the eclipsed Moon. Later, with the coming of the Aryans with their Solar religions, Shiva became as well a solar God, but He was still Kali’s consort and complement, just as the Sun and Moon are two halves of one astrological dyad, co-ruling the same Signs. The Sun in Cancer by night is Shiva, “eclipsed” by the bulk of the Earth so that He may come into His own as God; the Moon in Leo is Kali, for She draws Her Kundalini power from the Fire of that Fixed, Kerubic Sign. In Cancer, the Sun gives up the daylight power He has in Leo in order to gain another kind of power, the power gained by becoming perfectly passive, an empty vessel waiting to be filled by the fires of Kundalini evoked by one’s sexual partner, by which one attains to Godhead through Samadhi. Likewise, in Leo, the Moon gives up the night-time power which She has in Cancer in order to create Godhood in Her partner via Tantric ritual, giving up the Power of the Chalice, the passive receptacle to which all things finally come, Womb and Tomb in one, in order to gain the Power of the Fire-Dagger, the active generation in another of Godhead via cultivation of sexual ecstasy. Luna in Leo is the classic representation of Kali’s role in such ritual; Pluto in Leo is the modern-day symbol for Her in this role, clearly representing Her simultaneously in Her most benign, creative form and at Her most destructive. But anciently the Moon, as Pluto does today, represented both Womb and Tomb, and Woman as the vessel of both. Likewise, the Sun represented the masculine powers of insemination, reason, and brute force – Lingam at once both an instrumentality of Life and a means of rape, death, and destruction. In Cancer, the Sun sets aside his normal, “daylight” aspects of initiative, force, logic, and control in order to achieve elevation to Godhood via the ministrations of his feminine side or anima, his soul, represented by Luna in Leo; Luna in Leo, likewise, sets aside her normal, “nocturnal” aspects of passivity, subtlety, seduction, sensitivity, and receptiveness in order to achieve elevation to Godhood via Her insemination of her partner, Sol in Cancer, with the Kundalini energy which she evokes during her sexual “dance.” For this reason also Sol rules Cancer by night, just as Luna is the nocturnal ruler of Leo. Sol’s central biophysical place in our lives is an accurate reflection on the Outer Planes of his influence upon us on the Inner Planes. The Sun sign is the most important single factor for interpretation of a natal horoscope, for it indicates the way the native expresses his or her basic sociobiological, ecological, and psychospiritual potentials and creative drive to grow and develop as an individual. According to Robert Hand, . . . The Sun represents the energy that enables everything else to exist. It is the basic energy of Being. Just as the physical Sun shines and [thereby] enables all the other bodies [of the Solar System] to shine by reflecting [His] light, so the symbolic astrological Sun is the basic energy of which all the other planetary energies are specialized reflections.*

Robert Hand, Horoscope Symbols (Gloucester, MA: Para Research, Inc., 1981), p. 47-50.

According to some authorities on the subject, the Sun’s natal position also indicates the stage of growth represented by the native’s present incarnation, as well as the “life-lessons” which he or she “must” master before being allowed to matriculate permanently to a “higher plane” of existence. However, in this author’s view, at least, above all the Sun represents the optimal ecological niche for the native, the one for which he or she was, genetically and circumstantially, “custom-made” by nature to fit the needs of Gaia, the biosphere of our living world, at the time of his or her conception. In this view, the Sun sign represents some aspect of Gaia’s metabolism and physiology in which those individuals who have their natal Sun in that Sign are supposed to participate during their lifetimes, and helps define their ecological fit into Gaia. (In this same view, the other factors in an organism’s horoscope add refinements and higher- and more thoroughly articulated definition to the potential ecological fit shown by the placement of that individual’s Sun. These have to do with sub-sub-systems of sub-systems of the basic physiological and metabolic systems of Gaia associated with the Sun signs.) The Sun generates Life; without him, Gaia would be lifeless and barren, save, perhaps, for a Deep Hot Biosphere in the depths of the Earth’s crust and creatures huddled around volcanic vents deep in the ocean. In one form or another, all cultures recognize this, and give worship to the Solar light that is life

in ways appropriate to their needs and drives.* For example, ancient Egypt worshipped the Sun as the greatest of the Gods; Christianity worships the Solar Light as the Christos. All peoples show, in however indirect a form, their instinctive understanding that the Sun is life, the life of the world and its lord. In the Northern Hemisphere, at least, almost all cultures have a midwinter festival, at the time when the Sun’s light and warmth begins to return to the world and, with it, the world’s life. The Magickal name of the poet William Butler Yeats reflects this: “Demon est Deus inversus.” For if Satan, or Saturn, is “Lord of this world,” as many sects of Christianity remind us, it is only in Satan/Saturn’s Sign, Capricorn, that the Solar Light that is the Christ is rekindled, and only by that Light that Satan/Saturn’s wintery power is authorized. *For example, we sacrilegious, capitalistic Yankees worship the Almighty Dollar, backed up by the goldstandard; and human cultures have used gold to symbolize the Sun since time out of mind. The SubGenii worship J. R. “Bob” Dobbs, a Solar God Who promises that by following His teachings, much gold – and $lack – is to be had. And the Discordians worship Eris, Whose Weapon is the Golden Apple. Throughout human history, gold has been considered to be the metal of the Sun, and things haven’t changed significantly in that respect in modern times. The Sun is the motivating power behind all action. He is will – spirit – and his basic earthly, outward manifestation is the Ego. He is light, consciousness, and day. In terms of Chinese metaphysics, he embodies the essence of the Yang, the intentionality, assertiveness and activity of all life, on all the planes of being. Qaballistic correspondences: Yetziratic text: The Thirtieth Path is the Collective Intelligence and astrologers deduce from it the judgment of the stars and celestial signs, and perfect their science according to the rules of the motions of the stars. Yetziratic title: The Lord of the Fire of the World. Hebrew letter: ‫( ר‬Resh), “Head.” Numerical value: 200 Astrological assignment: The Sun, which, with the Moon, rules Leo and Cancer; is exalted in Aries and Taurus; and is the esoteric ruler of Gemini and Pisces. The Lights and Planets are classified according to “temperament,” which includes such traits as “hot” vs. “cold,” “dry” vs. “wet,” “diurnal” vs. “nocturnal,” electric, magnetic, and others. Sol’s traits include: fruitful, benefic (when favorably aspected), diurnal, dry, electric, magnetic, and masculine.*

*Nicholas de Vore, Encyclopedia of Astrology (NY: Astrology Classics Publishing, 1947, 2002; ISBN 1-53810-104-1)., pp. 277-278.

Planetary Age of Man: There are several schools which teach that the life-span of the individual is divided into distinct periods, each ruled by its own Planet. According to the Chaldeans and others, Sol rules the Fourth period of life, a time of great virility for men and fertility for women, representing one’s most active And healthy years, the prime of life. If the life-span of a human being is the Biblical “three-score and ten” or 70 years, and if only the traditional

seven Planets – the Sun, Luna, and the Planets Mercury through Saturn – are considered, then this fourth Age of Man comprises the years 31-40, assuming each such period to be one-seventh the total number of years in a person’s life. For the ideal length of life we could use some other figure, such as the 120 years that were supposed to have been the span of Moses’ life (Deut. 34:7), as reflected in the Jewish blessing: “May you live to 120 [years of age]!” Also, we could vary the number of Planets; for example, we could also consider the three Outer Planets, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, as well as the traditional Seven – or even hypothetical Planets beyond Pluto, e.g., Persephone and Hera/Durga, discussed in Chapters 11 and 12 of this part of Volume 2. Suppose the ideal length of life is X and the total number of Planets and Lights together is Y. Then the length of any given Planetary Age is X/Y. On the other hand, in ascending order, the order of the Planetary Ages corresponds to that of the Planets and Lights associated with those Ages, according to their apparent radial velocity across the sky from day to day, as seen from Earth, from most to least rapid in motion.* E.g., the First Age is ruled by Luna, Who moves the most swiftly through our skies; the Second Age, by Mercury, next swiftest; the Third Age, by Venus; the Fourth Age, by Sol; the Fifth, by Mars; and so on.** In general, if a Planet is nth in order of its speed of motion through the sky, night after night, then its Age spans the period [(n-1) x X/Y + 1] through (n x X/Y) years of life. For example, if the ideal length of life is 120 years and there are ten Planets, Luna through Pluto, a Planetary Age is 12 years long. And given that a Planet is nth in order of its apparent speed of motion through the sky, taken on a night-by-night basis, then a given Planetary Age comprises the years [(n - 1) x 12] through n x 12. Thus, e.g., Jupiter’s Planetary Age would be the Sixth, beginning at 5 x 12 + 1 = 61 years of age and continuing through 6 x 12 = 72 years; Pluto’s would be the Tenth, beginning at 9 x 12 + 1 = 109 years and continuing through 10 x 12 = 120; and so on. If, however, the ideal length of life were 70 years and there were a total of 12 Planets and Lights, one Planetary Age would be 70/12 = 5.8333 . . . years long. Then, say, the Planetary Age of Uranus, the 8th Planet, would span the period 7 x (70/12) + 1 = 41.8333 . . . through 8 x (70/12) = 46.6666. . . years of life (from 41 years plus 10 months to 46 years and 8 months of age). According to Alan Oken, however, Sol’s Planetary Age covers the years 23-41.† Oken, like most other astrologers, uses only the seven traditional bodies, the Sun, Moon, and Planets out through Saturn, and an ideal length of life more or less conforming to the Biblical “three score and ten,” for determination of the rulers of the Planetary Ages in the normal sense. He assigns the rulerships of the known Outer Planets, Uranus through Pluto, to portions of life that aren’t normally considered to be part of bodily life as defined by the natal chart, such as life in the womb, conception, dream, the period between physical death and reincarnation, etc. †† There are many such systems for establishment of the Planetary Ages. Nicholas De Vore, for example, reminds us of the ancient classification of the Planets as chronocrators (markers of time), which Shakespeare incorporated into his comedy “As You Like It”:‡ Planet Luna – growth Mercury – education Venus – emotion, passion Sol – virility, vitality Mars – ambition Jupiter – reflection Saturn – resignation Span 4 years 10 years 8 years 19 years 15 years 12 years 30 years Age of Life 1-4 15-22 15-22 23-42 43-57 58-69 70-93 Stage of Life The mewling babe The schoolboy The lover The citizen The soldier (general) Judge (scholar) The slippers 43

De Vore also quotes Sephariel on a somewhat altered scheme of this type, modified to include the Outer Planets:

Planet Luna Mercury Venus Sol Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

Span of years 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Ages 0-7 7-15 15-24 25-34 35-45 46-57 57-70 70-84 84-99 99-115 ‡‡

Perhaps ultimately, like the various, seemingly irreconcilable systems of mutual receptions, Sign rulerships for the Outer Planets and so forth, the various systems of the rulerships of the Planetary Ages may each actually be relevant to differing genotypes. Just as different peoples are each supposed to be ruled by different Signs and Planets, and each cultural system seems to have its own astrology, alchemy, numerology and Magickal theory and practice, so different forms of a particular aspect of a given astrology may accurately describe different genetic sub-populations of a culture having that astrology.

*It also corresponds, in descending order, to the number of the Sephiroth corresponding to those Planets and Lights, exclusive of Malkuth (which corresponds to Earth). That is, the First Age is associated with Yesod, Sephirah 9, Luna’s Sphere of influence; the Second, with Hod, Sephirah 8, the Sphere of Mercury; and so on up the Tree of Life to the Tenth Age, associated with Kether, Sephirah 1, and the Planet Pluto. Ages after the Tenth Age would be associated with the new Sephiroth, such as Zero, Null Set, Aleph2, etc., and with trans-Plutonian Planets. **As we have seen, this latter ordering is the inverse of the progression of the rulers of the hours by day and night, i.e.: Luna, Mercury, Venus, Sol, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn (by night: Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Persephone, Hera/Durga, Luna). †Oken, op. cit., p. 180. ††Ibid. ‡Nicholas de Vore, op. cit.; and see also http://www.zaytsev.com/Devore/main.html. Curiously, Shakespeare reversed the Planetary rulerships of the Fourth and Fifth Ages, giving that of Mars to the Fourth, and that of Sol to the Fifth: All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players: They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts, His acts being seven ages. At first the infant [First Age, Luna] Mewling and puking in the nurse’s arms. And then the whining school-boy [Second Age, Mercury] with his satchel, And shining morning face, creeping like snail Unwillingly to school. And then the lover [Third Age, Venus] Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad Made to his mistress’ eyebrow. Then a soldier [Fourth Age, here ruled by Mars rather than by Sol], Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard, jealous in honor, sudden and quick in quarrel, Seeking the bubble reputation

Even in the cannon’s mouth. And then the justice [Fifth Age, here ruled by Sol, rather than by Mars] . . . As You Like It, II, vii, 139 ‡‡Ibid., p. 279.

Alchemical and Pythagorean Associations: Gold (atomic number Z = 79 in the Periodic Table) is the traditional metal of the Sun The Element Air is associated with Sol Other Magickal Correspondences, according to Barrett,* et. al:

*Francis Barrett. The Magus (a Complete System of Occult Philosophy) ( Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1967. Reprint of original work copyright 1967 by University Press; originally published in London by Lackington, Allen & Co., 1801.

Day of the Week ruled by Sol: Geocentric: Sunday (first day of the week) Heliocentric: Second day of the week Hours of the Day ruled by Sol: Geocentric: The first, eighth, and fifteenth 60-minute periods after dawn of the first day of the week; also, traditionally, the third, tenth, and seventeenth 60 minutes periods after sunset of that day. In all cases, the hour preceding the hour ruled by Venus, and following that ruled by Mars. Heliocentric: The first, eighth, and fifteenth 60-minute periods after dawn of the second day of the week; and the third, tenth, and seventeenth 60 minutes periods after sunset of that day. In all cases, the hour preceding that ruled by Saturn, and following that ruled by Mercury. Ecological process, realm, or principle: Physical chemistry: Compounds of gold. Helium (atomic number Z = 2), first discovered in the spectrum of the Sun, and only later found on Eart. The noble gases, of which helium is the lightest.*

*The noble gases are a group of chemical elements with very similar properties: under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases, with very low chemical reactivity. The six noble gases that occur naturally are helium (He), neon (Ne; atomic number 10), argon (Ar; atomic number 18), krypton (Kr; atomic number 36), xenon (Xe; atomic number 54), and the

radioactive radon (Rn; atomic number 86). For the first six periods of the periodic table, the noble gases are exactly the members of group 18 of the periodic table. However, this no longer holds in the seventh period (due to relativistic effects): the next member of group 18, ununoctium (atomic number 118; “ununoctium” is a temporary name given to this hypothetical element until such time as it is found in manifest form due to experiment or naturally, when it will be officially named according to the rules of nomenclature of physical chemistry and particle physics)**, is probably not a noble gas. Instead, group 14 member ununquadium** (atomic number 114; “ununquadium,” like “ununoctium,” is a temporary name given to the element until such time as it is officially named) exhibits noble-gas-like properties. The properties of the noble gases can be well explained by modern theories of atomic structure: their outer shell of valence electrons is considered to be “full”, giving them little tendency to participate in chemical reactions, and it has only been possible to prepare a few hundred noble gas compounds. The melting and boiling points for each noble gas are close together, differing by less than 10 °C (18 °F); consequently, they are liquids over only a small temperature range. **And no, neither ununoctium nor ununquadium are unobtainium. In engineering, fiction, or thought experiments, unobtainium (also spelled unobtanium) is any extremely rare, costly, or physically impossible material, or (less commonly) device needed to fulfill a given design for a given application. The properties of any particular unobtainium depend on the intended use. For example, a pulley made of unobtainium might be massless and frictionless; however, if used in a nuclear rocket unobtainium would be light, strong at high temperatures, and resistant to radiation damage. The concept of unobtainium is often applied flippantly or humorously. The word unobtainium is derived from unobtainable + -ium (the suffix for a number of metal elements). The term also closely resembles the systematic element name for unnamed or undiscovered elements that have an atomic number of 113 – 199, for example, Ununoctium. Like unobtainium, these all have five-syllable names beginning with “un” and ending in “ium.” However, the name unobtainium was in use long before the IUPAC systematic names were created. An alternate form of unobtainium is handwavium, which gives you a good idea of what the whole thing is all about.

Colors: Liber 777: King Scale: orange Queen Scale: gold-yellow Emperor Scale: rich amber Empress Scale: amber, rayed red* According to Alan Oken, Sol’s colors are golden shades, oranges, and deep yellow hues.** Geraldine Davis, in Horary Astrology, gives yellow, inclined to purple.† Ivy M. Goldstein-Jacobson, in Simplified Horary Astrology, adds royal purple.‡

*See Aleister Crowley, Liber 777, in 777 and Other Qaballistic Writings of Aleister Crowley (York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser, Inc., 1983), particularly pp. 45-124, “Explanations of the Attributions in the More Important Columns of Tables I-VI,” which often adds a great deal of material to that given in the various columns listed in pp. 2-36. The colors associated with the keys are given in Columns XV-XVIII. **Alan Oken, Alan Oken’s Complete Astrology (New York: Bantam Books, 1980, 1988; Library of Congress catalog number BF1708.1.034-1988), p. 180. †Geraldine Davis, Horary Astrology (Los Angeles: Tate Printing Company, 1942), p. 37.

‡Ivy M. Goldstein-Jacobson, Simplified Astrology (Alhambra, California: 1960), p. 45. Patterns and compounds of color: Sunbursts

Frank Severy Publishing,

Solar forms, shapes, lineal figures, geomantic figures, figures related to pure number, and numerological associations: De Vore gives circles, full curves, and helical scrolls.* The Hexagram, Calvary cross, truncated pyramid, swastika, and cube are all Solar. Sol is traditionally associated with the center-point of the Hexagram. The Key Numbers of Sol are 6 and 30; the Trump Number of His Tarot Trump, The Sun, is XIX (19); the value of the Hebrew letter associated with Him, Resh, has the value 200; and the Mystic Numbers of the Sephiroth that are associated with Keys 6 and 30 are respectively 1 + 2 + . . . + 6 = 21 and 1 + 2 + . . . + 30 = 465. Many other numerological correspondences with Sol come to mind; for example, in Hebrew, Sol (the physical Star) is called ShaMaSh (Shin-Mem-Shin), the value of which is 300 + 40 + 300 = 640; so this number, 640, is also one that could be considered Solar in nature, or at any rate having Solar aspects. And, of course, as previously mentioned, the number 23 has Solar associations, due to the 23-day sidereal rotational period of the Solar core. The interested reader may wish to expand this list even farther. For research in this area, Liber 777 is one of the best possible places to start; I also highly recommend David Godwin’s Godwin’s Cabalistic Encyclopedia: Complete Guidance to Both Practical and Esoteric Applications, 3rd edition (Llewellyn, 1994) for this purpose. The Magick Square for Sol, used to create Sigils for Solar talismans and amulets, is 6 7 19 18 25 36 32 11 14 20 29 5 3 27 16 22 10 33 34 28 15 21 9 4 35 8 23 17 26 2 1 30 24 13 12 31

*Nicholas de Vore, op. cit., p. 281.

Gods: Egyptian: Ra, Asar, Harpocrates, Hrumachis. Greek: Iacchus, Apollo, Adonis, Helios, Dionysos, Eris (because of the 23-day long rotational period of the Solar core, for more discussion of which, see Section 1, above; also, Eris is the chief Discordian deity). Roman: Bacchus, Apollo, Aurora, Ops (God of Wealth, etymological source of our English word “opulent”). Hindu: Vishnu-Hari-Krishna-Rama, Surya (as Sol), Shiva (the Power of the Sun on the Waters is one of the principal manifestations of Shiva – the fact that the Sun is fueled by thermonuclear reactions deep in His mighty heart, reactions identical to those

involved in thermonuclear explosions; that Shiva is God of Destruction; and that heavy water – oxygen dideuteride or oxygen ditritride is used in production of nuclear devices is a reflection on the Outer Planes of Sol’s nature on the Inner Planes). Chinese: Japanese: Amaterasu (天照?), Amaterasu-ōmikami (天照大神/天照大御神?) or Ōhirumenomuchi-no-kami (大日孁貴神 ?): a Sun Goddess and one of the principal Shinto deities ( 神 , kami?). The meaning of Her name, Amaterasu-ōmikami, is "the great august Kami who shines in the heaven." She was born from the left eye of Izanagi as he purified himself in a river and went on to become the ruler of the Higher Celestial Plain (Takamagahara). She is also said to be directly linked in lineage to the Imperial Household of Japan and the Emperor, Who are considered to be descendants of the Kami Themselves. The French Enlightenment: Sumerian: Babylonian: Judaism: Michael, Raphael Christianity: God the Sun, the Christos, the Solar Logos. Islam: Scandinavian: Baldur the Beautiful. (The name in Hebrew for the Sphere of Sol is Tiphareth, “Beauty.”) Szekeli (Romany Gypsy): Russian: Hungarian: Africa: Southeast Asia: Celtic: Voudon: Obatala or Oshala, Oshagun. Oceania: Micronesia: Quat Polynesia: Tama Nui-Te-Ra Native Australian: Gnowee: a solar goddess who lived on Earth before there was a Sun. People had to carry torches or other light sources to see. Gnowee's baby son wandered off while She was gathering yams, and She began searching for him, carrying a large torch. So that She could see further, She climbed into the sky. Every day, she still searches for Her son, and Her torch is the Sun. Wuriupranili: a solar Goddess Who carries a torch that is the Sun. At the ocean to the West, She douses the torch in water and uses the glowing embers to find Her way beneath the Earth back to the East again. The colours of dawn and dusk come from the ochre body paints She wears. American Indian: American folklore: Gulliver Foyle; Pecos Bill Science-fiction: Gulliver Foyle SubGenius: “Bob,” the Fightin’ Jesus. Discordianism: Eris (see above, under Creek Gods); disposition) The Land of Oz: Ozma, Empress of Oz H. P. Lovecraft: Stephen King: the kings in Eyes of the Dragon LaVeyan Satanism: God-Name in Hebrew: ‫( תעדו הולא הוהי‬IHVH ALVH V-DA’aTh, or Yehowah Eloah Va-Da’ath)

Porky Pig (because of his sunny

World Religions: Zoroastrianism; Christianity; SubGenius (because of the Solar aspects of “Bob”); Mammonism (worship of much gold, a Solar metal); the Thule cult of the German Nazis (the swastika, a Solar emblem) Archangel: Mikhael Angelic Choir: Melekim Angel: Mikhael Angels given by Barrett, et al.: Barrett: Angels of Sunday: Michael, Dardiel, Huratapel Angels of the air ruling on Sunday: Varcan, king; his ministers, Tus, Andas, Cynabal Wind ruled by angels of air ruling on Sunday: the North wind. Angels of the Fourth Heaven ruling on Sunday: East: Samael, Baciel, Abel, Gabriel, Vionatraba South: Haludiel, Machasiel, Charsiel, Uriel, Naromiel West: Anael, Pabel, Ustael, Burchat, Suceratos, Capabili North: Aiel, Ariel, vel Aquiel, Masgabriel, Saphiel, Matuyel Angels ruling the hours of the day, beginning with the first hour after dawn: Michael (Sol), Anael (Venus), Raphael (Mercury), Gabriel (Luna), Cassiel (Saturn), Sachiel (Jupiter), Samael (Mars), Michael, Anael . . . Angels ruling the hours of the night, beginning with the first hour after sunset: Sachiel , Samael, Michael, Anael, Raphael, Gabriel, Cassiel, Sachiel, Samael . . . *

*See, e.g., passim, Barrett, op. cit., passim; and Franz Bardon, The Practice of Magical Evocation: Instructions for Invoking Spirits from the Spheres Surrounding Us (West Germany: Dieter Rüggerberg/Wuppertal, 1975).

Olympic Planetary Spirit: Och Spirits given by Bardon, Barrett, et al: Bardon: The 45 genii of the Sun Sphere, in order (each of these, beginning with Emnasut, 1°-8° Aries, and ending with Debytzet (23°-30° Pisces), rules 8 degrees of the Zodiac): Emnasut, Lubech, Teras, Dubezh, Amser, Emedetz, Kesbetz, Emaylsa, Emvetas, Bunam, Serytz, Wybiol, Lubuyil, Geler, Wybitzis, Wybalap, Tzizhet, Dabetz, Banamol, Emuyir, Dukeb, Emtzel, Tasar, Fusradu, Firul, Ebytzyrukm Lhomtab, Tzybayol, Gena, Kasreyobu, Etzybet, Balem, Belermche, Aresut, Tinas, Gane, Emtub, Erab, Tybolyr, Chibys, Selhube, Levem, Basat, Ezhabsab, Debytzet*

*Bardon, op. cit.

Seal of Sol:

Seal of the Solar Intelligence, NAKHIEL:

Seal of Solar Spirit SORATH:

Name of Planet in Hebrew: ‫( שםש‬ShMSh, or Shemesh)

Commandment from Exodus: Don’t murder (kill unlawfully or wrongfully). Exodus 20:13 Ten Plagues of Egypt: Plague of Murrain (cattle-plague)* *Liber 777, Column CXXII.

Verses from Creation Story in Genesis: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was formless and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God moved over the face of the waters. And God said, ‘Let there be light’; and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. Genesis 1:1-5 And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth.” And it was so. God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night; He made the stars also. God set them in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth, to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening, and there was morning – the fourth day. Genesis 1:14-19 Grade of the Temple: Fifth Degree = Sixth Grade, Adeptus Minor (first [lowest] Grade of Second Order)* *Actually, this degree is associated with Key 6 and Sephirah 6, Tiphareth. But because the Sun is associated with both Key 6 and Key 30, there is a resonance between the two. Hence this entry.

Quarter of the compass: The East Cantos from the Inferno of Dante Alighieri: Cantos IX-XI (Dis, the administrative center of Hell) Cantos from the Purgatorio of Dante Alighieri: Cantos X, XI (the Proud)

Cantos from the Paradiso of Dante Alighieri: Cantos X-XVI (The Sun) Orders of Qlippoth: ‫ ( ןורירגת‬ThGRIRON, “The Litigation”) Qlippothic Spirit (from Kenneth Grant) Raflifu (Path 30, Resh). His name should be vibrated mellifluously in the key of D. His sigil is painted in rayed red upon an amber disc. Article of Bill of Rights: Amendment VI Right to speedy trial, witnesses, etc. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. Buddhist meditation: Light*

*Liber 777, Column XXIII.

Magickal Power: The Great Work; talismans; crystal-gazing (scrying) Perfume: Onycha, myrrh Musical tone: D natural. Qlippoth: Raflifu: can make things dry up, or make things grow, to radiate a certain energy, glamour Magick, to unfold new powers. Legendary orders of being: Will o’ the Wisp Element (Alchemical): Gold. Metals, elements, stones, gems, and metals: Liber 777: Metal: gives gold, the traditional Solar metal.* Gem: Crysoleth.**

Alan Oken adds ruby, diamond, cat’s-eye (for Leo, ruled by Sol) and carbuncle.*** Ivy Goldstein-Jacobson adds the metal brass, presumably because of its color (brass is composed of copper and zinc, respectively associated with Venus and, possibly, Pluto [because of the nutritional role of zinc in the processes of healing, regeneration of the body, and production of sperm cells]).† Dr. George Frederick Kunz (1856-1932 e.v.), a gemologist and mineralogist of international fame who became vice-president of Tiffany’s at the tender age of 23, gives alectoria, aetites, garnet, amber, lyncurius, hyena, copper- and gold-colored pyrites, thenarcus, and opal as solar gems. As he says, some of the attributions given by him are definitely not the usual ones, and “may represent another tradition.”‡ Element (chemical): Helium (atomic element 2, the first true element in the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements); gold (atomic element 79).

*Liber 777, Column LXXXI. **Liber 777, Column XL. ***Oken, op. cit., p. 180. †Goldstein-Jacobson, op. cit., p. 45. ‡George Frederick Kunz, The Curious Lore of Precious Stones (New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1989), pp. 350-351.

Plants, real and imaginary: Liber 777: sunflower, laurel, heliotrope*. John Lust, in The Herb Book, gives: 1) plants resembling Sol in shape and/or color, e.g., the orange, the reddish-orange spice saffron, and such yellow flowers as chamomile, celandine, marigold, and sunflower; medicinal plants which affect the heart, a Solar organ, such as European angelica, lovage, rosemary, and rue, all of which stimulate circulation of the blood; and centaury, eyebright (Sol is one of the rulers of the eyes), storax, and walnuts.** Ivy Goldstein-Jacobson adds all large, showy yellow flowers; and rare specimen trees, especially those from the desert. † Nicholas De Vore, quoting Alan Leo, adds almond, angelica, citrus trees, corn hornwort, frankincense and other aromatic herbs, heart trefoil, juniper, male peony, poppy, marigold, mistletoe, olive, pimpernel, rice, saffron, St. John’s wort, sun dew, tormentil, turnsole, and viper’s bugloss.‡ Sun-loving plants of any kind.

*Liber 777, Column XXXIX. **John Lust, The Herb Book (New York: Bantam Books, 1974), p. 572. †Goldstein-Jacobson, op. cit., p. 44. ‡De Vore, op. cit., p. 300.

Animals, Real and Imaginary: Liber 777: the Lion, a typical Solar animal, and the image of Leo, Sol’s traditional astrological dominion; and the Sparrowhawk, associated with Horus, a Solar avatar, symbol of the All-Seeing Eye of God.* Goldstein-Jacobson adds the rooster and the peacock, and pedigreed animals such as horses and cattle (the rooster heralds the dawn, Sol’s exaltation; the peacock reflects the Solar Splendor**; and pedigreed beasts are extremely valuable, hence a form of wealth, ruled by Sol).† Desert creatures and those native to the tropics are ruled by the Sun. The Leopard, because of its kinship to the lion, and its black spots, like sunspots.

*Liber 777, Column XXXVIII. **Goldstein-Jacobson, op. cit., p 44. As can be seen from the discussion of Key 13, above, and Key 32, below, the functions of Luna and Saturn are very similar in some respects, particularly for progressed Luna and transiting Saturn, as these influence a particular horoscope. Saturn is Luna’s geocentric higher octave, her collective expression in geocentric astrology, so this makes sense. But in heliocentric astrology, Saturn is Sol’s higher octave. The peacock is an ancient symbol for Saturn, because of its association with the rainbow of the Sign of Aquarius, one of Saturn’s traditional rulerships, as well as the fact that the Yezidi God, Tawsi Melek, became the “Peacock Angel” of Islamic hagiology. Here we see a similar relationship between Sol and Saturn in heliocentric astrology as that between Luna and Saturn in geocentric astrology, in which one of the traditional symbols of Saturn is shared with Sol, His lower octave. (It must be remembered in this context that Luna and Earth share the same orbit around Sol, so that “geocentric” astrology is, to some extent, “Lunarcentric” astrology, as well.) †Ibid., p. 45.

Creatures in general: Foods, drugs, flavors, and perfumes: Drugs: Liber 777: Alcohol, sacred to Bacchus/Dionysos, and also because it is an allpurpose menstrum for the Astral Light, useful for extractions** of all kinds. Homeopathic tinctures of gold or any Solar substance or material, including Solar foods, herbs, and animal tissue, are excellent Solar drugs for use in Magickal Workings dedicated to Sol. I suggest that the number of dilutions employed in making them be a Solar number, such as 6, 21, 30, etc. (see discussion above on Solar numerology). Perfumes: Liber 777: cinnamon and “all glorious odors”*** Barrett gives “red sanders” (sandalwood?).† Flavors: De Vore: sweetness and “pungency.”†† Foods:

Ivy Goldstein-Jacobson: fine wines and rare liqueurs.‡ Solar foods include citrus, especially oranges, for reasons already discussed, as well as dishes made of heart-tissues, since the heart is ruled by Sol.

*Liber 777, Column XLIII. **By “extraction” is meant a fluid produced by submersion of a substance in water, alcohol, or other suitable extraction medium for a certain period of time, that necessary to ensure that specific oils and other parts of the substance dissolve into the medium. The medium is then siphoned off and used in whatever way is desired, e.g., for medicinal purposes, as a condensing fluid for evocation, etc. (A “condenser fluid,” as used in evocation of spirits, is used to provide a suitable medium for manifestation of the spirit being called up in this way. Usually a piece of blotter-paper, cloth, or other suitable material is soaked in it, then dried out, and placed in the Triangle of Art, into which the spirit is called by ritual evocation. The type of condenser fluid used for this is one that is in keeping with the type of spirit to be called up, e.g., a Solar spirit should be evoked into a cloth or paper impregnated with a condenser fluid made from Solar materials, such as gold, etc. For more on condenser fluids, see Franz Bardon, Initiation Into Hermetics: A Practice of Magic (West Germany: Dieter Rüggerberg/Wuppertal, 1987), esp. pp. 189-148), and Franz Bardon, The Practice of Magical Evocation (West Germany: Dieter Rüggerberg/Wuppertal, 1975), esp. 61-115.) ***Liber 777, Column XLII. ††Barrett, op. cit. ††De Vore, op. cit., pp. 286, 296. ‡Goldstein-Jacobson, op. cit., p. 44.

Clothing, Magickal Weapons, and other objects, phenomena, and processes: Magickal Weapons: Liber 777: The Bow and Arrow Magickal Powers: Liber 777: The Red Tincture and the Power of Acquiring Wealth** Clothing: Other: Sol rules wealth of all kinds, and anything of great value, including that which is genuine, rare, one of a kind, the work of a great master, magnificent, splendid, showy, and/or luxurious. He therefore rules such things as emblems, regalia, and the royal scepter; magnificent structures and vehicles, such as mansions, royal coaches and barges, and so forth; rich furnishings, valuable furs, beautiful clothing, brocades, and ornate personal belongings. Goldstein-Jacobson assigns the rule of the atom to Him because of His rulership of “that which is unique.” According to Nicholas de Vore, the Sun rules all glistening substances, and religious and industrial organizations.† Sol rules everything that is large, showy, palatial, magnificent in construction, gives pride of ownership and pleasure in its use and possession, and is easy to see from afar.

Examples include, e.g., mansions and palatial edifices, spas, brothels (which Sol co-rules with Venus), gambling and sports clubs, great halls, show-boats, theaters, pleasure resorts, great villas, splendid castles, and great, ornate civic buildings, especially buildings up on cliffs where they are the more easily seen, and those embellished by towers, minarets, and other ornate decoration.

*Liber 777, Column XLI. **Liber 777, Column XLV †De Vore, op. cit., p. 286.

Anatomy and Physiology: Liber 777 assigns the circulatory system to Sol.* Oken gives the “generation of vital forces,”* the circulation of the blood, the health of the spinal cord, and physical growth in general. De Vore says that it is Sol’s influence upon the anterior pituitary gland that ultimately regulates the circulation of the blood. He also assigns the rule of the tear-ducts to the Sun. † According to traditional authorities, the length of the physical life is dependent upon the positions of the Sun, Moon, and Planet ruling the Ascendant at birth. Likewise the eyes are ruled by Sol, Luna, and Uranus. Other parts of the body traditionally ruled by Sol are the heart, the upper back, the sides of the body, and the spine. To this list could be added the thalamus and, perhaps, the corpus callosum, of the brain. Both of these structures mediate the processes by which the Personality and the Individuality become focused and centralized in such a way that the person has a stable identity, above and beyond any identity accorded to him or her by others, which is supreme and permanent in the Personality and Individuality. Cases of multiple-personality dysfunction arise when this process is disrupted and distorted by trauma of one kind or another, with the result that the Individuality no longer has a central focus, and the Personality becomes permanently multiplied or else completely lost.

*Liber 777, Column CLXXXII. **A person born with a natal chart in which Sol is debilitated by his placement – in a sign or house of his detriment, with hard aspects to Malefics with stronger placements than the Sun’s, etc. – will have little stamina, low energy, and frequent illness throughout life. †De Vore, op. cit., p. 279.

Psychology: The Sun rules the ego and the central focus of consciousness; and any central, driving force or ideational core around or on which one bases one’s life, particularly one’s mental life; and thus, in cases of pathology, the Idee fixe, ideational core which serves as the mind’s focus in paranoid schizophrenia. Sol rules the individuality, associated with the genes and the history of one’s past lives, as opposed to the personality, associated with one’s environmental history from birth on in a given life Solar traits include ambition, dignity, grandeur, authority, and will, particularly the True Will, one’s avocation or calling

in life. The solar type of person tends to operate more as a result of inspiration than on the basis of intellect, and is paternal (or at any rate, parental), generous, masterful, honest, truthful, creative, vital, forceful, sanguine, and melodramatic. Negatively, this type can become a little too melodramatic, authoritarian, overbearing, pompous, headstrong, ostentatious, despotic, and too fond of pomp and ritual. And since the ideal solar type is quite courageous, an afflicted solar type can be extremely cowardly (a humorous example of which is the Cowardly Lion in L. Frank Baum’s series of novels about the Magickal land of Oz). Diseases: Liber 777: “repletion.” Ivy Goldstein-Jacobson gives constitutional or organic involvement in diseases, such as might be found in genetically caused disease or congenital conditions; mental unrest, clouded vision (cataracts?), burning, and severely upsetting symptoms. He reflects symptoms of planets which he aspects unfavorably. This is especially true for Saturn; solar afflictions of Saturn give chronic, drawn-out constitutional, and organic problems from which one never becomes entirely free. Afflicting Mars, Sol gives agonizing pain, inflammations and hemorrhaging. Afflicting Uranus, he causes sudden, overwhelming and sometimes incurable conditions, often neurological, psychosomatic, or psychogenic in origin. Afflicting Neptune, he causes neuroses, hysteria, and wasting away of tissue. When he afflicts Jupiter or Venus, He brings disease caused by self-indulgence and excess, such as obesity, heart disease, venereal disease, pathological clotting of the blood, or systemic toxicity.** De Vore gives ailments of the heart and the upper portion of the spine; fevers and degeneration of tissue; organic ailments; fainting spells; and diseases of the spleen.†

*Liber 777: Column CLXXXVI. **Goldstein-Jacobson, op. cit., p. 196. †De Vore, op. cit., p. 286.

Magickal image: The Sun.*

*Liber 777, Column CLXXXI.

Occupations, businesses, employment, and ecological niches: Sol rules all positions of authority and dignity, such as kings and princes, lieutenants, magistrates, justices of the peace, managers, athletes, employers of all kinds, executives, ambassadors, and religious and spiritual leaders. (This reinforces the Satan/SaturnChrist/Sol symbolism of the celebrations of Mid-Winter or Sun-Return festivals, especially Christmas, which takes place at the beginning of Capricorn, ruled by Saturn, the first Solar month of Winter. Capricorn and the Tenth House rule all forms of authority and power. But the Sun in Capricorn represents the coming to Earth of the Christ, the incarnation of the Holy Spirit, the Ultimate Authority over all things on Earth; while Sol in the Tenth House, the Noon Sun, represents the Zenith of all temporal authority. Thus Satan, or Saturn, is related to the Christ, or Sun, by a complementary, Figure-ground relationship; and each is necessary to the manifestation and realization of the other.) On another level, Sol rules

bankers, jewelers, money-lenders, and proprietors and proprietresses of houses of prostitution, together with the institutions they govern or their careers and occupations. Professions and jobs ruled by Sol: Actors, actresses, acting, the theater; the science of biology; creativity; fame and fortune; fathers, husbands, male lovers, male authority figures; lovers of either gender; men (male persons); heads of nations, the Pope, presidents, and any other executive authority figures; virility; physical vitality; viability of a proposed project. Matters of the horoscope ruled by Sol: The vitality of the organism, and hence the viability of the matter in question. A weak, afflicted Sun in a horary chart usually indicates that the question is not important, that the matter lacks the vitality to endure. The heart, both the heart of the body and the heart of the matter under consideration. Any male in a position of authority over one, e.g., one’s employer or boss, one’s ruler or leader, one’s father, etc. In a patriarchal society, the Sun also represents a woman’s husband or lover. In mundane charts, the Sun rules the king, president, prime minister, premier, dictator, or other head of a nation. It also rules the Pope. In general, the Sun represents Man and men, while the Moon represents Woman and women. Music: Handel’s great oratorios Grandiose organ-music Religions anthems of a grandiose type Richard Strauss’s Also Sprach Zarathustra The “Sunrise” movement of the Peer Gynt Suite “Dawn-Song” from the Navajo Blessing Way Mozart’s “Hymn to the Sun” from Die Zauberfloete Pink Floyd, “Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun” “Hail to the Chief” Johann Sebastian Bach, “Jesu Joy of Man’s Desiring” The Beatles: “Here Comes the Sun” Poetry: “The Sun Rising,” by John Donne Graphic arts: All kitsch cards, calendars, etc. featuring Solar motifs Paintings of Christ Books and other literary productions: Autobiographies of leaders and authorities, particularly of heads of state or masters of their respective crafts; books about lions; books about the Sun; non-fiction works on the mining and uses of gold; C. S. Lewis’ Chronicles of Narnia; the New Testament. Cantos X-XIV of Paradiso, Volume III of Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy, is the perfect literary representative of the Sun. Canto XI is especially apt, above all its verses on the life and works of Saint Francis d’Assisi (1182-1226). Sculpture: The Apollo Belvedere

Architecture: The palace of Louis Soleil (the “Sun King”) Performance Art: Cats, the musical. Jesus Christ Superstar, the musical. Films: Saints and exemplars: Yeshua ben Yoseph ha Nazareth (Jesus, son of Joseph, from Nazareth, A.K.A. Jesus the Christ) Alexander the Great Aslan, in C. S. Lewis’s Chronicles of Narnia Ozma of Oz, L. Frank Baum’s character The Cowardly Lion, from L. Frank Baum’s The Wizard of Oz (as an example of an afflicted Solar person) The aforementioned St. Francis d’Assisi. American emblems, sigils, symbols, myth, folklore, and urban legend: The Gold Standard, the gold that backs the US dollar.

Far Eastern cosmological associations:
Attributions from the I Ching and Taoist Cosmology: The Sun is traditionally associated with the Yang and the metal gold. In his translation of the I Ching, Aleister Crowley associates Sol with the Trigram Li, “The Clinging, Fire”: _______ __ __ _______ In the King Wen arrangement of the I Ching, Li is associated with the following Hexagrams: 14. Ta Yu, “Possession in Great Measure,” Fire above Heaven (Fire in Heaven above) _______ __ __ _______ _______ _______ _______ above: Li, the Clinging, Flame below: Ch’ien, the Creative, Heaven

21. Shih Ho, “Biting Through,” Fire above Thunder” (storm with lightning and thunder) _______ __ __ _______ __ __ __ __ _______ above: Li, the Clinging, Fire below: Chên, the Arousing, Thunder 64. Wei Chi, “Before Completion,” Fire above Water (Spring, transition from Winter to Summer) _______ __ __ _______ __ __ _______ __ __ above: Li, the Clinging, Flame below: K’an, the Abysmal, Water 56. Lü, “The Wanderer,” Fire over Mountain (fire on the mountain, brushfire) _______ __ __ _______ _______ __ __ __ __ above: Li, the Clinging, Flame below: Kên, Keeping Still, Mountain 35. Chin, “Progress,” Fire over Earth (Sunrise, dawn) _______ __ __ _______ __ __ __ __ __ __ above: Li, the Clinging, Flame below: K’un, the Receptive, Earth 50. Ting, “The Caldron,” Fire over Wood (cook-fire, kettle on the hearth)

_______ __ __ _______ _______ _______ __ __ above: Li, the Clinging, Flame below: Sun, the Gentle, Wind, wood 30. Li, “The Clinging, Fire,” Fire above Fire (Elemental Fire) _______ __ __ _______ _______ __ __ _______ above: Li, the Clinging, Flame below: Li, the Clinging, Flame 38. K’uei, “Opposition,” Fire over Lake (separation, opposition, distancing) _______ __ __ _______ __ __ _______ _______ above: Li, the Clinging, Flame below: Tui, the Joyous, Lake 13. T’ung Jên, “Fellowship with Men,” Heaven above Fire (Fire flaming up to Heaven) _______ _______ _______ _______ __ __ _______ above: Ch’ien, the Creative, Heaven below: Li, the Clinging, Flame 55. Fêng, “Abundance” [“Fullness”], Thunder over Fire __ __ __ __ _______ _______ __ __

_______ above: Chên, the Arousing, Thunder below: Li, the Clinging, Flame 63. Chi Chi, “After Completion,” Water over Fire (Autumn, transition from Summer to Winter), __ __ _______ __ __ _______ __ __ _______ above: K’an, the Abysmal, Water below: Li, the Clinging, Flame 22. Pi, “Grace,” Mountain over Fire (volcanic eruption, fire seen through a crack in a mountain) _______ __ __ __ __ _______ __ __ _______ above: Kên, Keeping Still, Mountain below: Li, the Clinging, Flame 36. Ming I, “Darkening of the Light,” Earth over Fire (Sunset, twilight, night), __ __ __ __ __ __ _______ __ __ _______ above: K’un, the Receptive, Earth below: Li, the Clinging, Flame 37. Chia Jên, “The Family” [“The Clan”], Wind over Fire (interrelationships among family members, genealogy, lineage, lines of duty), _______ _______ __ __ _______ __ __ _______ above: Sun, the Gentle, Wind below: Li, the Clinging, Flame

and 49. Ko, “Revolution” [“Molting”], Lake over Fire (political revolution, release of a butterfly from its cocoon, snake shedding its skin, earthquake) __ __ _______ _______ _______ __ __ _______ above: Tui, the Joyous, Lake below: Li, the Clinging, Flame In particular, Hexagram 30, also called Li, is an archetypal expression of Li. Oddly, the number of this Hexagram, 30, is the same as the Key Number of the 20th Atu, Resh, associated with Sol and Tarot Trump XIX, The Sun. However, it must be remembered that the original Taoist ascription for Sol is Yang, which is, rather than an Element per se, an even more primordial building-block of reality. Out of Yang and Yin (associated with Luna and silver) are all the other Elements created, and into which the latter ultimately decompose. There are five Elements in the Taoist cosmology: Fire, Water, Air or Wood (the energy and manifestations of natural growth, e.g., trees, bushes, animal flesh, etc.), Metal (the energy and manifestation of artificial things, e.g., tools or weapons fashioned out of metal), and Earth. Fire is associated with Mars, Earth with Saturn, Wood/Air with Jupiter, Metal with Venus, and Water with Mercury. The Sun and the Moon do not have Elemental correspondences as such in Taoist cosmology, but rather the primordial correspondences of Yang and Yin. Earth, chi, is composed of the Elements, which are in turn composed of various proportions of Yang (positive/male/light/radiating) and Yin (negative/female/dark/receptive). Crowley’s ascription is logical to Western minds, but it does not correspond with Taoist cosmology or philosophy. Attributions from Ninpo (Way of the Ninja, Way of Wisdom) and Shinto (Way of the Kami or Gods): Fire

b. Design and Title of Trump
Numerous religions, especially the oldest ones, are based on worship of the Sun or a Sky God Who incorporates within Himself a solar component. The Sun is usually thought of as masculine, as the Moon is feminine. Even so, there are reversals of these roles, e.g., in Japan, where the Sun Goddess was believed to be incarnated in the person of the Mikado. (And see the description of Crowley’s version of this Trump, below). The basic solar symbol is a circle, usually with a dot at its center; a circle with a human face; or a solar wheel, which has two diameters at right angles to each other. Other versions are some variant upon an eye, such as the Eye of Ra, the Eye of Varuna, or the Eye of Ahuramazda: the eye sees, and, having seen, reflects on what it has seen, which may be the origin of the belief that the Sun is all-seeing or omniscient. The God of Resurrection fits the Sun far more easily than the Moon. His death is whole; he vanishes for a specific, observable period of time, eclipsed by a known horizon. His sister or mother, the Moon, is nibbled away by the lunar month, devoured by some dragon-like monster over the last

14 days of her cycle, so that in some sense Her death is more real than that of Her brother, the Sun, Who is reborn every sunrise. Solar religions are generally masculine in nature and in their priesthoods, equating solar energy with masculine energy impregnating a feminine and passive Earth. The parallel is taken even farther by solar Gods such as Osiris, Who suffers mutilation and death, only to be reborn, proving the reality of resurrection. (In the case of Osiris, however, his dismemberment by Set was so complete that Isis was unable to find his genitals; according to the myth, Her reassembly of Osiris substituted a prosthetic device to replace his penis and testicles. Later on, the phallos became a symbol of Osiris, just as it did in India, where the Lingam became symbolic of Shiva, the generating and destroying part of the Hindu Trinity; in Rome, where Bacchus became a phallic deity; in the Middle East, where Baal was worshipped in the form of an erect pillar; and in Britain, the phallic solar God survives in the figure of the Cerne Giant, Helith, or Hercules.) The numerology and arrangement of the figures in Trump VII, The Chariot, Trump XV, The Devil, and Trump XIX, The Sun suggests that these cards are probably related to one another.* Gringonneur Tarot: A woman stands with a spear behind her. Her hands appear to be bound in some way. Above her is the Sun in splendor. Bembo Tarot: A cherub bears the Sun aloft. The Sun is represented in the form of a disembodied head. Swiss Tarot: Two lovers are shown by themselves. The girl holds an open book. Above is the Sun in glory. Insight Tarot: A smiling, naked child sits on the back of a white horse. In his left hand he carries a long banner on a pole. Behind him is a walled garden with sunflowers visible above it. Above is the Sun in glory. Marseille Tarot: Two small boys stand before a wall. Above them is the Sun in glory. Italian Tarot: Similar to the above. Wirth Tarot: Similar to the above, save that here the children are somewhat older, and one of them is a girl. Waite Tarot: Similar to the Insight pack’s version of the card. B.O.T.A. Tarot: Based on the Marseille version of the card. Two children, a boy and a girl, stand before a wall. Each has one foot in a small circle, and the other in a larger circle concentric with the first one. Aquarian Tarot: The Sun in splendor. At the bottom of the card is a winged series of concentric semicircles. Flames shoot from the side of the Sun, which is represented as a huge, smiling, round face. The flames seem to form part of a headdress worn by the Sun. Crowley Tarot: The Sun in splendor, surrounded by the signs of the Zodiac. Below is a green hill, before which hover two winged, dancing figures that might be cherubim. Around the top of the hill is a red wall. (The shape of the hill is like that of a breast, and the wall could signify the boundary of its nipple.) Crowley says of it: The green mound represents the fertile earth, its shape, so to speak, aspiring to the heavens. But around the top of the mound is a wall, which indicates that the aspiration of the new Aeon does not mean the absence of control. Yet outside this wall are the twin children who (in one form or another) have so frequently recurred in this whole symbolism. They represent the male and female, eternally young, shameless and innocent. They are dancing in the light, and yet they dwell upon the earth. They represent the next stage which is to be attained by mankind, in which complete freedom is alike the cause and the result of the new access of solar energy upon the earth. The

restriction of such ideas as sin and death in their old sense has been abolished, At their feet are the most sacred signs of the old Aeon, the combination of the Rose and Cross from which they are arisen, yet which still forms their support. New Tarot: Retitled “Doer.” The card shows an eye at the Midheaven, its pupil dilated. In the foreground a man stands, presenting the open pages of a book to the viewer. In his left hand he holds a ribbon which is loosely tied to the right forefoot of a black horse. Over his head a white horse so burley it resembles a white bull rears up. The man is unconcerned about the white horse. At the bottom left of the card is a skull with flowers growing from it. America’s Tarot: The Sun. Children of all races and ethnic backgrounds, playing under a great golden Sun in a fertile meadow. “Purple mountain majesties” and “amber waves of grain” in background. The Divine Comedy Tarot: Biblical Tarot: Jesus, risen from the dead, returning to tell his followers that he has been resurrected. The MAD Tarot: Mine: Alfie and Moxie at Atlantic City, on the beach. Moxie is putting lotion on Alfie’s back, which has been burned lobster-red due to too much exposure to the brightly blazing Sun in the sky above them; Alfie, obviously in real pain from sunburn, winces as Moxie puts the lotion on. The burn on his back forms the Hebrew letter ‫( ר‬Resh). Within the solar disc are Moxie and Alfie, smiling and holding hands; dangling below it are two sets of legs, on each of which is a “hinged foot” of the sort typical of Don Martin’s Neanderthal’s – i.e., the Sun is a cardboard cutout of the sort provided in those boardwalk studios where tourists can get themselves photographed with their heads sticking out above cardboard mockups of cowboys, cops, Indians, etc., and two faceless unknown idiots have decided to get photographed with only their legs showing beneath the solar disc. In each upper corner of the card is a Cupid, holding his nose with one hand, and holding up an end of a banner displaying the legend “HUMOR IN A JUGULAR VEIN” with the other. Several seagulls, looking down on this scene from the sky, look utterly confused by it. John Burt: Two boys pee against a wall while a Sun with Alfred’s smiling face rises above it. The Robert A. Heinlein Tarot: The H. P. Lovecraft Tarot: Mine: Revelations (The Sun). Within a sterile-looking scientific laboratory, a man of science is blasted by the weird light emanating from a rock (cf. “The Color Out of Space,” by H. P. Lovecraft): through a window in the lab, outside, under the night sky, can be seen a group of horrified cultists staring as Great Cthulhu bears down on them. A huge supernova floods the area with its terrible light. David Winn: Night-Gaunt (The Moon). A creature with a vaguely human shape, thin, black, and faceless, with slick, rubbery skin, sporting a pair of inward-facing horns on their heads, functional membranous wings sprouting from its back, and with clawed hands and a long barbed tail which is used to tickle their victims into submission, stands under a crescent Moon, holding the head of what might be another night-gaunt. The Moon is to the viewer’s right, hence to the night-gaunt’s left, its concave side up and to the viewer’s right (the night-gaunt’s left), suggesting that it is a waning crescent, close to the New Moon. The Stephen King Tarot: The R. R. McCammon Tarot:

Luis Royo Labyrinth Tarot: A beautiful young man and a beautiful young woman, both nude, skin white as marble, stand, facing each other and embracing. Her light hair cascades all the way to the ground; his head is shaven. Directly behind them is a structure made of four levels of brown stone blocks: five at the top, four in the level just below that one, five in the next highest level, and six in the bottom level – twenty blocks in all. Behind the structure made of stone blocks is the Sun, vast, blazing, blasting out white light, scouring all around it with its light. It takes the form of a 24pointed star, 12 long and 12 short flares forming the points, an exercise of pure geometry made into graphic art. In the upper left-hand corner of the card is the number 100; in the upper righthand corner is ò(the sigil of Aries); in the lower left-hand corner is ö (the sigil of Leo); in the lower right-hand corner,

Ö (the sigil of the Sun);

to the immediate right of the sigil of Leo is ‫ק‬

(Qoph); and between the latter and the solar sigil is

ý (the sigil of Pisces), so that, from left to

right along the bottom, the legend ö ‫ ק‬ý Ö is shown. Directly under the feet of the lovers, just above the legend of four sigils, is half of the sigil for Aquarius: Overall, the illustration for this card is done in sepia tones, white, and off-white; the two sigils at the top of the card are done in white or near-white tones against light brown tones; and the line of four sigils at the bottom are done in dark brown against the lighter brown of the ground on which the two lovers stand. Salvador Dalí Tarot: A nude young man somewhat resembling the Apollo Belvedere, standing, his head turned toward the left-hand side of the card, holds up a forked stick in his left hand. His skin is darkened, his hair is tousled, and he is gripped by what seems to be the bright scarlet ectoplasmic claw of the lobster/crayfish of Dalí’s version of Trump XVIII, The Moon, suggesting that the night of that Trump haunts him. Above and to the viewer’s right hover two Cupids below whose knees hovers a brown cloud; the left-most of the Cupids holds a sunflower out toward the young man. A lion appears near his feet at the lower right-hand corner of the illustration. The young man has his face turned away from the Cupids and the lion, suggesting he isn’t yet ready for the warmth and joy this card usually represents. The background against which he and the other symbols are posed is cornflower blue, suggesting that all are posed against the daytime sky. The gilt frame above has the Hebrew letter ‫( ק‬Qoph) on the left, “XVIIII” on the right, and the legend “The Sun” between them; the one at the bottom of the card has “XVIIII” on the left, ô (the sigil of Gemini) on the right, and “El Sol” between them. Tarot of the Witches: Against a sky ranging in color from rich salmon below to reddish umber above is the Sun. The Sun Within the solar disc is a broad, smiling face, its skin a rich golden-yellow; the rim of the disc is the same shade of reddish brown as the sky at the top of the illustration, and between it and the yellow of the interior of the disc is a narrow transition zone that shades from brown to yellow. The face wears a wide, manic smile; its scarlet-lipped mouth is partly open, revealing two rows of perfect white teeth. Its eyes are a brilliant electric blue; along the tops of its eyelids is brown eyeliner. On the left cheek of the solar face is an electric-blue pentagram (fivepointed star), either a tattoo or a decal. Its eyes are set into deep sockets; they are surmounted by what might be brown eyebrows, or heavy brow-ridges whose lower contours have been outlined with brown eyeliner. The solar disc is surrounded by 26 yellow rays spaced evenly about it, longer rays alternating with shorter ones; but whereas all the other rays are straightedged isosceles triangles, the four longer rays at the bottom of the disc are more like fat tails or tentacles, sinuous and wiggly, and much longer than the other longer, straight-sided rays above. Below the Sun is a bank of white clouds among which dance partial brightly-colored rainbows. In the frame above is the legend “XVIIII”; in the one below is the legend “The Sun.” SubGenius Tarot:

Ivan Stang is asleep and dreaming of a great solar disc in the sky out of which peers “Bob”’s smiling face, ever-present pipe clenched at one side of his mouth. The disc is rimmed with 30 great solar rays, longer rays alternating evenly with shorter ones. Below the solar disc frolic male and female SubGenii in a field filled with lush stands of flowering Habafropzipulops (= ’frop, the Golden Herb smoked by all true Yetinsyny); each of them is crowned with a golden dollar sign ($). To one side is Don Martin, who is happily creating a cartoon of the scene, hinged feet and all. The sky against which the Sun is positioned is a bright electric blue; small, fluffy white clouds share it with the Sun. On the nightstand next to the bed in which Stang sleeps is an alarm clock primed to go off in a second or two from now; Stang’s wife stands beside the bed, glaring down at Stang, about to roust him out of bed. The frame at the top of the card bears the legend “XIX,” and the one below has the Hebrew letter ‫( ר‬Resh) and the legend “The Sun.”

*See Bill Butler, Dictionary of the Tarot (NY: Schocken Books, 1975, 1977; ISBN 0-8052-0559-4), pp. 180-181.

c. Divinatory Meanings
Case: Resh, the head and face of man. The Sun, exalted in Aries, ruling Leo. Fruitfulness and sterility. Collecting or Collective Intelligence. Christian: The Blazing Light. Earthly happiness. The Supreme Heaven, Sacred Truth, Peaceful Happiness. Crowley: Resh, “the head.” The Sun. Collecting Intelligence. Orange. Ra. Hathor. The Right Eye. Helios. Apollo. The lion, the sparrowhawk. The Lion as the Cherub of Fire. Sunflower, laurel, heliotrope. Crysoleth. Magickal Weapon: the Lamen, or the Bow and Arrow. (The Spear?) Olibanum, cinnamon, all glorious odors. Drug: alcohol. Magickal Powers: The Red Tincture, the Power of Acquiring Wealth. The Lord of the Fire of the World. Glory, gain, riches, triumph, pleasure, frankness, truth, shamelessness, arrogance, vanity, manifestation, recovery from sickness, but sometimes sudden death. Douglas: Generally speaking, the card signifies success, possibly after a period of danger or doubt. Misjudgment ending in disaster, exposure of fraud or trickery, fantasy substituting for success. Gray: Happiness of all kinds: material, emotional, creatively, freedom. Negative meanings, as when the card is badly aspected or reversed, have to do with future troubles, clouds on the horizon. Golden Dawn: The Splendor of the Material World. Mercury acting through the Sun upon the Moon. Lord of the Fire of the World. Glory, gain, riches. Sometimes also arrogance. When badly aspected or with evil cards, display or vanity. Grimaud: Universal radiance. Elements of triumph and success in whatever circumstances one finds oneself. Very powerful, in no case influenced by cards around it; can be applied to all cards. Huson: Abundant joy. Kahn: Traditional positive aspects. Negative aspects include distinct imperfections in an otherwise powerful and fertile circumstance, perversion or sterility, unused powers, divorce, lack of money, discoveries which must be guarded. Kaplan: Traditional.

Knight: Enlightenment. Lind: Spiritual victory over the flesh. Naked innocence. The regenerated soul illuminated by divine light. Mathers: Happiness, content, joy. reduced degree. Reversed, the card signifies the positive meanings, but in a

Mayananda: The Lord of the Aeon. Renewal, a change of outlook, and a new point of view incident upon cosmic cycles and the opening of the Third Eye: a turning of the attention from the physical person to the mental individual and the possibility of reincarnation and life in the higher bodies. Papus: Qoph, “back of the head.” A sharp weapon. Awakening of the spirit, the body of man renewed, the material world commencing an ascension towards God. Sadhu: Qoph. An axe. Fruitful truth, human virtue, gold of the philosophers. Thierens: The positive or masculine elements in general, power and the function of the will and concentration, great benefit and mighty protection in spiritual as well as mundane matters. The spiritual center of man, the center of importance. The heart and the solar plexus. Ussher: The super-rational, the freedom of the harmonized personality, regained innocence, renewal out of chaos. Self-expression. Waite: The transit from the manifest light of this world to the light of the world to come. Consciousness in the spirit. Material happiness, fortunate marriage. Reversed or in bad aspect, the same, but in a lesser degree. Butler: Sensation and thought. All of the attributions of the Pentacles and Swords and all that they stand for. That which is manifest, and which in that sense is male. That which is present, here, now. The tangible, the real. In all senses this card is the complement of the preceding Trump (XVIII, The Moon), neither being, in and of itself, good or evil. Both are statements of things as they are. The evil and the good are what you make of them. The light half of the Tai Chi.* The Divine Comedy Tarot: Biblical Tarot: John Burt’s MAD Tarot: The Robert A. Heinlein Tarot: The H. P. Lovecraft Tarot: Mine: Be careful what you pray for – you might get it. There really is such a thing as too much of a good thing. The light of 10,000 Suns is probably not a good thing, and no, sunblock won’t ward it off. Great Cthulhu is coming – look busy. Upright: Treasure and wealth – with a terrible price attached. Earthly success, ditto. Reversed: The same in a lesser degree. David Winn: Self-created obstacles, negative thoughts and influences internal to the seeker. The Stephen King Tarot: The R. R. McCammon Tarot: Luis Royo Labyrinth Tarot: Love, affection, romance. Bounty, abundance, wealth. Good luck. Happiness, contentment.

Salvador Dalí Tarot: Awakening from nightmares, release from a bad situation. Love, affection, romance. Good luck. Happiness, contentment. Bounty, abundance, wealth. Tarot of the Witches: Triumph. Success. Happiness. Accomplishment. Contentment. Warmth. Affection. Sincerity. Friendship. New friend. Devotion. Trust. Achievement in the arts. Liberation. Appreciation of small favors. SubGenius Tarot: Upright and well-aspected: Infinite $lack. Reversed or badly aspected: – And then you wake up . . . Suggested meanings: Upright and well-aspected: Love, affection, romance. Good luck. Happiness, contentment. Bounty, abundance, wealth. Reversed or badly aspected: The same in a lesser degree.

*Butler, op. cit., p. 183.

d. Interrelationships of the Path and the Trump
Resh, associated with the Sun, connects Sephirah 8, Hod, associated with Mercury, with Sephirah 9, Yesod, associated with Luna. The Sun is associated with Apollo; Mercury, with Hermes; and Luna, with Artemis. These three Gods are siblings; Apollo and Hermes are especially close. Astrologically speaking, the Sun and Mercury are both strong in the signs Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer (Mercury, because of the affinity between its nature and that of the Watery sign Cancer), and Leo; Sol and Luna are both strong in Pisces, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, and Leo; and Luna and Mercury are strong in the signs Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, and Leo. The signs the three of them together have in common are thus Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, and Leo, signs of Spring and the first two-thirds of Summer. Those are times of abundance, bounty, warmth, and wealth, when romance is in the air and preparations are made for marriage and the founding of families – the good things associated with Trump XIX, The Sun.

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