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4.6 Aspects of Horizontal Well Stimulation

# 4.6 Aspects of Horizontal Well Stimulation

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Aspects of Horizontal Well
Stimulation
2
Benefits of horizontal wells
 Larger exposure of reservoir rock to the wellbore, similar
to hydraulic fracture, but in a controlled way
 Ability to connect laterally distributed reservoir
features such as isolated sand bodies, reservoir
compartments or natural fracture systems
 Require a significantly lower drawdown to achieve higher
production rates than vertical wells
 The use of horizontal wells can reduce the number of
wells required to drain a given reservoir (offshore!)
 In environmentally sensitive areas, horizontal wells can
be used to drain a reservoir with minimum surface
disturbance
Horizontal Well Performance Horizontal Well Performance
 Up to this point we have talked about
predicting performance of wells vertically
(or approximately vertically) intersecting
the reservoir.
 In recent years with advances in
extended reach and horizontal drilling
applications, we encounter more
opportunities to evaluate horizontal well
production performance.
Basic Considerations To Date Basic Considerations To Date
 Single-phase, incompressible flow
 Simulator modeling
 Increasingly complex geometries
 Assuming a constant productivity index
Concerns and Complications Concerns and Complications
 Wellbore hydraulic effects
 Multiphase flow effects
 Compressible flow
 Multilateral completions
IPR Methods IPR Methods
 While there are several IPR or rate
relationships for horizontal wells,
they are generally limited by the
single-phase flow assumption.
 We will only look at an example
relationship.
Joshi Relation Joshi Relation ± ± Single Phase Oil Single Phase Oil
X
Y
q
o
=
o o wf R h
B p p h k Y µ / ) ( 00708 . 0 =
´ )
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦

¦
¦
'
+

'

+
¦
¦
'
+

'

+
¦
¦
'
+

'

+
=
5 . 0
2
2
5 . 0
5 . 0
2 2
2
4
ln
2 /
) 2 / (
ln
v
h w
v
h
v
h
v
h
k
k hr
k
k
k
h k
k
k
L
h
L
L a a
X
E
Joshi Relation Joshi Relation ± ± Single Phase Oil Single Phase Oil
h/2
d
E
C
5 . 0
5 . 0
4
2
25 . 0 5 . 0
2
¦
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

L
r L
a
eh
d
h
=
2
E
5 . 0
) / ( T Area r
eh
\$
Units Units
 = Horizontal Permeability, md
 = Vertical Permeability, md
 = Reservoir Height, ft
 = Flow Rate, STB/day
 = Oil Viscosity, cp
 = Oil Formation Volume Factor, Rbl/STB
 = Horizontal Well Length, ft
 = Outer Boundary Radius Horizontal Well, ft
 = Average Reservoir Pressure, psia
 = Wellbore Sandface Pressure, psia
wf
R
eh
o
o
o
v
h
p
p
r
L
B
q
h
k
k
µ
Two Two- -Phase Flow in Depletion Drive Phase Flow in Depletion Drive
Reservoirs Reservoirs
Bendakhlia and Aziz, 1989
´ )
n
wf wf
o
o
p
p
V
p
p
V
q
q
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
'
+

'

2
max ,
1 1
V and n are functions of depletion
Wang and Wiggins, 1996
General relationship
2
max ,
5467 . 0 4533 . 0 1
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
'
+

'

p
p
p
p
q
q
wf wf
o
o
Two Two- -Phase Flow in Depletion Drive Phase Flow in Depletion Drive
Reservoirs Reservoirs
´ )
2
max ,
1 1
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
'
+

'

p
p
V
p
p
V
q
q
wf wf
o
o
Wang and Wiggins, 1996
Depletion-based relationship
Two Two- -Phase Flow in Depletion Drive Phase Flow in Depletion Drive
Reservoirs Reservoirs
Recovery V n V
1% 0.125 1.350 0.675
2% 0.150 1.100 0.475
4% 0.125 1.000 0.250
6% 0.150 0.090 0.125
8% 0.175 0.8750 0.200
10% 0.150 1.050 0.225
12% 0.300 1.150 0.250
14% 0.475 1.400 0.275
Aziz Wang
Two Two- -Phase Flow in Depletion Drive Phase Flow in Depletion Drive
Reservoirs Reservoirs
Horizontal Gas Well Relationship
± Akhimiona and Wiggins, 2005
 In terms of pressure-squared
2
2
2
2
2
max ,
867 . 0 867 . 1 1
¦
¦
'
+

'

+ =
R
wf
R
wf
g
g
p
p
p
p
q
q
± Akhimiona and Wiggins, 2005
 In terms of pseudopressure
´ )
´ )
´ )
´ )
2
max ,
8005 . 0 8005 . 1 1
¦
¦
'
+

'

+ =
R p
wf p
R p
wf p
g
g
p p
p p
p p
p p
q
q
Horizontal Gas Well Relationship
Horizontal Well
Why and When to Plan to Drill Horizontally
³Questions You Need to Ask Before Drilling Horizontally´
 1. Why (and when) to drill horizontally?
 2. How do you screen-out a horizontal candidate?
 3. How long of a horizontal section is long enough?
 4. Rules-of-Thumb to Screen Horizontals
 5. What are the key drilling concerns to achieve the
goals?
Why and When to Plan to Drill Horizontally
Why and When
to Drill
Horizontally?
 Why drill horizontally?
To improve project economics via
> production
< capital cost (Capex)
< operating cost (Opex)
When to drill horizontally?
Anisotropic reservoir properties
A development tool, not an exploration tool«understand the
reservoir
Minimize pressure drawdown related operating problems
Sanding
Gas and/or water coning
Why and When to Plan to Drill Horizontally
When to drill horizontally (continued)?
More economically attractive than other completions options ±
screen candidates properly
Hydraulic fracturing
Acidizing
High-angle wells
Increase flooding sweep efficiency & injectivity
Reduce
Platform construction costs
Surface lease construction costs
Heavy Oil
Why and When to Plan to Drill Horizontally
How To Screen
Horizontal
Candidates?
» r¶
w
> r
w
««««stimulation
» r¶
w
< r
w
««««damage
 Step 2««««««.productivity index ratio?
» J
h
/J
v
= [Ln(r
e
/r
w
)]
v
/ [Ln(r
e
/r

w
)]
h
» relative to un-stimulated vertical well on 40 acres
 Step 3««««««pseudoskin?
» S
h
~ Ln(r
w
) ± Ln(L/4), when L >> h
» compare to other pseudoskin completion options
» S = Ln(r
w
/r

w
)
Screening (Analytical) ± Basic Idea
Productivity Indices of High-Angle and Horizontal Well Scenarios
Relative to an Un-Stimulated Vertical Well on 40 Acres
Horizontal & 500 Feet Pay
Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm
High-Angle with 50 - 500 Feet Pay
Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm
Horizontal & 50 Feet Pay
Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm
J
h
/J
v
= [Ln(r
e
/r
w
)]
v
/ [Ln(r
e
/r

w
)]
h
PseudoSkin of High-Angle and Horizontal Well Scenarios
Relative to an Un-Stimulated Vertical Well on 40 Acres
Hydraulic Fracturing in Sandstones for Vertical Wells
with matrix permeability < 10-20 md
HCl Acid in Carbonates for Vertical Wells
Mud Acids and/or Retard Acids in Sandstones for Vertical Wells
In thin reservoirs horizontals > 500 feet can be
more competative than fracturing vertical well
In thicker reservoirs horizontals > 1500 feet can
be more competative than fracturing vertical well
No significant advantage to drill high-
angle in thick reservoirs until > 60
0
inclination
Horizontal & 50 Feet Pay
Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm
Horizontal & 500 Feet Pay
Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm
High-Angle & 500 Feet Pay
Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm
High-Angle & 50 Feet Pay
Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm
S = Ln(r
w
/r

w
)
PseudoSkin ~ Ln(r
w
) ± Ln(L/4), when L >> h

Benefits of horizontal wells
 Larger exposure of reservoir rock to the wellbore, similar to hydraulic fracture, but in a controlled way  Ability to connect laterally distributed reservoir features such as isolated sand bodies, reservoir compartments or natural fracture systems  Require a significantly lower drawdown to achieve higher production rates than vertical wells  The use of horizontal wells can reduce the number of wells required to drain a given reservoir (offshore!)  In environmentally sensitive areas, horizontal wells can be used to drain a reservoir with minimum surface 2 disturbance

.Horizontal Well Performance  Up to this point we have talked about predicting performance of wells vertically (or approximately vertically) intersecting the reservoir.  In recent years with advances in extended reach and horizontal drilling applications. we encounter more opportunities to evaluate horizontal well production performance.

Basic Considerations To Date  Single-phase. incompressible flow  Simulator modeling  Increasingly complex geometries  Assuming a constant productivity index .

Concerns and Complications  Wellbore hydraulic effects  Multiphase flow effects  Compressible flow  Multilateral completions .

IPR Methods  While there are several IPR or rate relationships for horizontal wells.  We will only look at an example relationship. . they are generally limited by the single-phase flow assumption.

Joshi Relation ± Single Phase Oil Y qo ! X Y ! 0 .5 0 ¨ a  . 00708 k h h ( p R  p wf ) / Q o B o « k h2 k » ¬ h  h E2 ¼ 0.

5 ¼ ¬ © ¹ L © kv ¹ L/ 2 ª º ª º ¬ hrw ¨ kh ¸ ¼ © ¹ ¬ 2 © kv ¹ ¼ ª º ½ ­ .5 ¸ h ¨ k ¸ a © ¹  © h ¹ ln¬ kv 4 kv ¼ X ! ln 0. 2  (L / 2)2 .

5 h E ! d 2 d E C .Joshi Relation ± Single Phase Oil a ¨ L© 0.5 reh \$ ( Area / T ) h/2 0.5 0 .5 2© © ª 4 ¸ ¸ ¨ ¨ 2reh ¸ ¹ ¹ © 0.25 © ¹ ¹ ¹ © ª L º º ¹ ª º 0 .

ft  = Outer Boundary Radius Horizontal Well. psia  = Wellbore Sandface Pressure. ft  = Flow Rate. ft  = Average Reservoir Pressure. md  = Reservoir Height.Units k h qo Q L r eh p p R wf o h  = Horizontal Permeability. Rbl/STB  = Horizontal Well Length. STB/day  = Oil Viscosity. cp  = Oil Formation Volume Factor. psia kv Bo . md  = Vertical Permeability.

1989 qo q o .TwoTwo-Phase Flow in Depletion Drive Reservoirs Bendakhlia and Aziz. max ¨ © 1  V ¨ p wf © © p © ª ª ¸ ¹  .

V ¹ 1 º ¨ p wf © © p ª ¸ ¹ ¹ º 2 ¸ ¹ ¹ º n V and n are functions of depletion .

max ¨ pwf ¸ ¨ pwf ¸ 1  0.4533© ¹ ¹ © © p ¹  0.5467© p ¹ º º ª ª 2 .TwoTwo-Phase Flow in Depletion Drive Reservoirs Wang and Wiggins. 1996 General relationship qo qo.

TwoTwo-Phase Flow in Depletion Drive Reservoirs Wang and Wiggins.max ¨ pwf ¸ ¨ pwf ¸ 1V © © p ¹  . 1996 Depletion-based relationship qo qo .

 V © p ¹ ¹ 1 © ¹ ª º ª º 2 .

8750 1.090 0.250 0.200 0.125 0.100 1.TwoTwo-Phase Flow in Depletion Drive Reservoirs Aziz Recovery 1% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% V 0.150 0.275 .475 0.175 0.300 0.350 1.000 0.150 1.475 n 1.675 0.400 Wang V 0.125 0.150 0.250 0.125 0.150 0.050 1.225 0.

867© © p ¹ p ª º p 2 wf 2 R 2 wf 2 R 2 . 2005  In terms of pressure-squared qg q g . max ¨p ¸ ¹ ! 1  1.Horizontal Gas Well Relationship ± Akhimiona and Wiggins.867  0.

Horizontal Gas Well Relationship ± Akhimiona and Wiggins. 2005 qg q g . max ¨ p p .

pwf ¸ p p .

p ¹ p p .

p R ª p R º  In terms of pseudopressure 2 .

Horizontal Well Why and When to Plan to Drill Horizontally ³Questions You Need to Ask Before Drilling Horizontally´ .

How long of a horizontal section is long enough? 4.Why and When to Plan to Drill Horizontally      1. How do you screen-out a horizontal candidate? 3. What are the key drilling concerns to achieve the goals? . Rules-of-Thumb to Screen Horizontals 5. Why (and when) to drill horizontally? 2.

Why and When to Drill Horizontally? .

Why and When to Plan to Drill Horizontally  Why drill horizontally?  To improve project economics via     > production < capital cost (Capex) < operating cost (Opex) When to drill horizontally?  Anisotropic reservoir properties   A development tool. not an exploration tool«understand the reservoir Minimize pressure drawdown related operating problems   Sanding Gas and/or water coning .

Why and When to Plan to Drill Horizontally  When to drill horizontally (continued)?  More economically attractive than other completions options ± screen candidates properly      Hydraulic fracturing Acidizing High-angle wells Increase flooding sweep efficiency & injectivity Reduce   Platform construction costs Surface lease construction costs  Heavy Oil .

How To Screen Horizontal Candidates? .

when L >> h compare to other pseudoskin completion options S = Ln(rw/r¶w) .productivity index ratio? » » Jh/Jv = [Ln(re/rw)]v/ [Ln(re/r¶w)]h relative to un-stimulated vertical well on 40 acres  Step 3««««««pseudoskin? » » » Sh ~ Ln(rw) ± Ln(L/4).Screening (Analytical) ± Basic Idea  Step 1««««««.apparent wellbore radius? » » r¶w > rw ««««stimulation r¶w < rw ««««damage  Step 2««««««.

Productivity Indices of High-Angle and Horizontal Well Scenarios Relative to an Un-Stimulated Vertical Well on 40 Acres Jh/Jv = [Ln(re/rw )]v/ [Ln(re/r ¶w )]h Horizontal & 50 Feet Pay Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm Horizontal & 500 Feet Pay Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm High-Angle with 50 .500 Feet Pay Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm .

when L >> h .PseudoSkin of High-Angle and Horizontal Well Scenarios Relative to an Un-Stimulated Vertical Well on 40 Acres No significant advantage to drill highangle in thick reservoirs until > 600 inclination Mud Acids and/or Retard Acids in Sandstones for Vertical Wells HCl Acid in Carbonates for Vertical Wells High-Angle & 50 Feet Pay Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm Hydraulic Fracturing in Sandstones for Vertical Wells with matrix permeability < 10-20 md High-Angle & 500 Feet Pay Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm Horizontal & 50 Feet Pay Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm Horizontal & 500 Feet Pay Isotropic and Anisotropic Perm In thicker reservoirs horizontals > 1500 feet can be more competative than fracturing vertical well S = Ln(rw /r ¶ w In thin reservoirs horizontals > 500 feet can be more competative than fracturing vertical well ) PseudoSkin ~ Ln(rw) ± Ln(L/4).

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