Quality Control Measures Group 1 in the Process of Canning

What am I going to tell you ?
• • • • • • • • • Canning : What is it and why do we do it? The Principles behind Canning The Methodology The Detailed Process Flow Diagram Detailed Machinery Quality norms for Products Labels Scope and Present Scenario

What is Canning?
• Method of preserving food in which the food is processed and sealed in an airtight container. • It is a Value Addition to the Processed food. • First developed by Nicolas Appert (French Military)-The Father of Canning: A Confectioner

• Prevents micro organisms from entering and proliferating inside.

What can be Canned?
 Fruits,  Vegetables,  Fruit and vegetable juices;  Processed ketchup and other tomato sauces  Jams and jellies.

The Principles of Canning

• Canning is done to extend the shelf life. • Shelf life can be increased up to 1 year. • The idea is to make food available and edible long after the processing time. • It destroys any micro organisms in the food and prevent re-contamination by micro organisms. Heat : destroy micro organisms. Removal of oxygen : to prevent the growth of oxygen requiring micro organisms.

• Prepare equipment • Pre heat the canner • Prepare the jars and lids. • Prepare the food to be preserved • Pack the food according to directions • Close the jars correctly • Use the correct canning method • We can use either of the following methods:
▫ Boiling water bath procedure ▫ Pressure canner procedure

• Test sealed jars • Use proven recipes

CANNING : The detailed Process
• Assemble and wash equipment and containers before gathering fruit or vegetables. • Fill the boiling water bath or pressure canner with the appropriate amount of hot water and begin heating. Boiling water bath – 1 to 2 inches of water above the tops of the jars. ▫ Pressure canner – 2 to 3 inches of water in the bottom of the canner

CANNING : The detailed Process
• Examine jars and discard any that have nicks, cracks, or rough edges. These defects will prevent an airtight seal, allowing food to spoil. • Wash canning jars in soapy water, rinse well, and keep hot.

• The jars need to be kept hot to prevent breakage when they are filled with a hot product and placed in the canner for processing.

CANNING : The detailed Process
• You must sterilize jars that will be filled with food and processed for less than 10 minutes in a boiling water bath canner. • Wash the product carefully, a little at a time. Lift food out of the water, drain the water, and continue rinsing until the water is clear and free of dirt. • Don’t let the food soak; it will lose flavour and nutrients.

CANNING : The detailed Process
• Fruits and vegetables may be packed raw or preheated .
▫ Hot pack often gives better colour and flavour, particularly when foods are processed in a boiling water bath.

Boiling Water Bath

Head –Space ( Ref : Next Slide)

CANNING : The detailed Process
• Leave the specified amount of headspace in the jar. The amount depends on the type of food, so follow the directions in the recipe. • Remove air bubbles • Re-adjust headspace if necessary • Wipe off the rims of the jars with a clean, damp cloth. Place the treated lid on the jar, centre it, and hold it in place with your fingers while you tighten the screw band to fingertip tight. Tightening the screw band too tight will prevent air from escaping as necessary during processing. • Adjust two-piece lids, fingertip-tight

CANNING : The detailed Process
• Choose the correct canning method. Use boiling water bath for fruits or high-acid foods. Use pressure canners for all other foods. • Read the canner manufacturer’s instructions and follow them carefully. Be sure to vent or exhaust all pressure canners for 10 minutes before closing them up to pressurize.

CANNING : The detailed Process
• After 12 to 24 hours, make sure the jars are sealed. Most lids will seal with a pop sound while they are cooling. When it is completely cool, test the lid. It should be curved downward and should not move when pressed with a finger. If a jar is not sealed, refrigerate the food and use it within two or three days. You may also reprocess the food within 24 hours or freeze it. • It is important to use recipes from reliable sources because these recipes have been tested for safety and quality. A good place to find tested recipes is the National Centre for Home Food Preservation

Detailed Machinery
• Water bath canner
For processing jellies, fruits and other high acid food. Includes wire rack to hold 7 quart jars Kettle has 21.5 quart liquid capacity It has enamel on heavy gauge steel. Not recommended for glass or ceramic top stoves as it does not have a flat bottom

Quality Norms for Products

Quality Norms- The Food Product Order 1995
• The Head Space in the Can should not be more than an Inch(1.6 cms). • The Drained weight of fruit shall not be less than 50 % of the contents of the net weight of the contents. • The Fruit to be packed should be approaching maturity and it should be practically free from blemishes and should have no extraneous material on it. • Where it is required to cut the fruit, it is important that it be cut in uniform sizes.

Quality Norms- The Food Product Order 1995
• No artificial coloring agent should be added. • The final product should have the original taste of the original product and should be reasonably free from disintegration damage from bruises.

Example : Pineapple Canning
• The canned pineapple should
▫ Blemish free ▫ Not Broken ▫ Free of Excessive Trim Uniformity of size and shape is very essential.

Defect Allowance in Pineapple
Styles Units with Blemishes or Excessive Trim Blemished Units

Slices or Spiral Slices 1 unit if 10 or less 1 unit if 5 or less per or Whole Slices; per can; can;

Broken Slices; Tidbits; Not applicable

12.5% by count of all units

• Wide mouth jars have openings about 3 inches in diameter • Narrow mouth or standard mouth jars are about 2 3/8 inch diameter • Half gallon, quart, pint and half pints are the sizes available • The screw bands are reusable but the seals or flats need to be purchased new each time.

• It saves time, energy and water and are so simple and easy to use . • Use only three pints of water and cut preheating time by up to 50% • Eliminates heavy lifting, boil-overs and messy clean ups

Stainless Steel Canning Rack
• This rack won’t rust like regular steel wire racks • The superior construction and design of this rack features extra steel rings on a flat bottom with no dividers to accommodate non standard jars. • This basket easily holds 14 jelly jars, 14 half pint, 8 pint or 7 quart jars at one time • And with the extra rings on the bottom of the rack, small jelly jars won’t fall through

• Date of Manufacturing • Expiry Date • Shelf Life of the product • Manufacturers name, address and number • Ingredient

Methods of Packing
• Raw Pack
▫ For foods that lose shape when cooked ▫ Place raw food directly in jars. Pour boiling liquid over the food ▫ Pack firmly, but don’t crush. ▫ Add jars carefully to warm canner to avoid breakage from heat shock

• Hot Pack
▫ Preferred method for most foods ▫ Food is cooked in liquid before packing. Cooking liquid is added to food in the jars. ▫ Food floats less than with cold packing ▫ Better food colour and taste ▫ Easier to pack—foods are more pliable (easily bent) ▫ Heat during preparation kills microorganisms

Present Scenario
• The market for canned food in India increased at a compound annual growth rate of 4.5% between 2003 and 2008. • The Canned fruit category led the canned food market in India, accounting for a share of 45.9%. • Leading players in Indian canned food market include Maharashtra Agro Industries Development Cooperation Ltd., Chauria Foods and ITC Limited.

Scope of Canned F&V in India
• Middle class segment : 350-370 million The working profile is changing; hired domestic help getting costlier. • The market size for the processed foods: INR 4,600 bn to INR 13,500 bn by 2014-15, assumed to grow at 10%
• The share of the value added products in processed foods: INR 2800 bn to INR 5700 bn, growing at the rate of 15%

Scope of Canned F&V in India
• The government says around one lakh crore of investment is needed in this sector, out of which bulk of investment will be from private sector. • Cold chain infrastructure, establishment of terminal markets, retail setup, establishment of world class processing units, packaging and grading units.

• ―The industry is ready to meet the challenges, provided the government, not only acts as a facilitator by providing the infrastructure support but also works toward providing the conducive regulatory and fiscal regime for sustainable growth and development of processed food industry.‖ (Sameer Barde, Director of Confederation of Indian Food Trade & Industry in interview with Commodity Online )

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