1 Theme 4: Managing International Relations Chapter 6: Managing Peace and Security Deterrence and Diplomacy Causes for conflicts

between countries Competing territory 1. Control over certain tracts of land may mean a lot if it is crucial to its defence of pride 2. Control extending by certain countries by taking control of territories not belonging to them a. Area claimed by two or more countries, conflicts arise 3. India inherited frontier drawn by British when it gained independence a. China disagreed to frontier b. Difficult to have a clear frontier as it lays between inaccessible Himalayas c. Aksai Chin Plateau and North East Frontier Agency areas of conflict d. China was unwilling to negotiate seriously over the matter and did not want a definite boundary e. When China built a road built a road on the Aksai Chin Plateau, India protested, saying that it invaded their territory. China responded by saying that no definite border was defined but India argued that it was clearly defined f. Fighting broke out on Aksai Chin Plateau and North East Frontier Agency

g. When China took up more of what India deemed as its land, India demanded for the return of the land. Refusing, China initiated war. h. Agreement in 2005 was signed between India and China to address the border issue fairly and reasonably. Conflict over scarce resources 1. Natural resources such as land, water, water, oil and fish are divided unequally in the world a. Countries with less may use force to get more, especially if their livelihood depends on it 2. Iceland and Britain·s conflict a. Fishermen from European countries were overfishing around Iceland, resulting decreased fish stocks b. After looking for help from the UN, Iceland extended its area of control over fishing grounds from 50 to 200 nautical miles beyond its shores c. No country could fish within the boundary with Iceland·s permission d. Britain refused to acknowledge the new boundary and Iceland cut diplomatic ties with Britain in February 1976 e. Ties were restored in June 1967 on an agreement:

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i. Britain to catch a maximum amount of fish with a maximum of 24 trawlers within the boundary at any one time ii. Iceland·s patrol vessels are allowed to stop and inspect British trawlers suspected of violating the agreement iii. After 6 months, Britain would no longer be able to fish within the boundary Conflict over ideological differences 1. Different values and beliefs 2. North Korea and South Korea a. Korea was first occupied by Japan before WWII b. In 1945, Japanese troops left when they were defeated in the war c. Korea was divided by two halves at the 38th Parallel: Northern controlled by USSR and South by the USA d. UN called for election in 197 to establish single government for unification, but USSR refused and installed a communist regime to be known as the Democratic People·s Republic of Korea in the North e. 1948: Independent Republic of Korea formed with support of the USA f. North Korea invaded the South in 1950 to reunify the Korean Peninsula, under communism

g. Fearing the North would spread communism, USA + its allies and the UN defended South Korea h. UN counter-attacked and pushed North Korean and Chinese forces back i. 1951: China feared for its national interest and joined the war, aiding the North in pushing the UN troops back to the south

1953: Agreement to stop the fighting was signed by all parties and a demilitarised zone was created at the 38th parallel Deterrence A citizen armed force 1. Singapore could not afford a large professional army in 1965 2. Population was only 2 million, of which most have to work to boost economic growth shortage of manpower 3. Enlisted able-bodied men into army 4. 1967: National Service introduced a. Singaporeans learn to defend their own countries b. Helps Singaporean men bond through shared experience

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3 c. Develop sense of loyalty, patriotism and shared destiny 5. Upon completing full-time NS, men would continue to serve in the citizen armed force as Operationally Ready NS men for another 10 years, a maximum of 40 days per year a. During this training, they would be undergoing refresher courses to maintain competence in handling new weapons and equipments b. Learn tactics of war 3rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces 1. Warfare became complex with recent advances in info-communication technologies 2. SAF should continually enhance capabilities and review its method of warfare through research and development 3. Project with research institutes of Ministry of Defence and local universities was initiated to develop the 3rd generation SAF a. Maximising defensive capabilities through modern technologies b. Equips soldiers to fight decisively in war and respond flexibility in peacetime 4. Create an intelligent defence force where surveillance and strike systems operate together for early intelligence to destroy enemy without them locating us Singapore·s Defence Industry 1. Army needs to use latest technology and equipment to develop army into an effective fighting force. 2. Enable SAF to be self-reliant in essential defence weapons and equipment 3. Defence industry started in 1967 when Chartered Industries of Singapore established ² produce small arms ammunitions a. Successful defence company now ² subsidiaries: SembCorp Industries and SembCorp Logistics 4. Defence Science and Technology Agency formed in 2000 ² provide cost-effective and modern technology to SAF and Ministry of Defence a. Focuses on buying and upgrading weapons; and developing new weapon systems for SAF b. Conducts defence-related research and development activities with other countries and local tertiary institutions 5. Improves capability and effectiveness of SAF a. Powerful defence force b. Overcome constrains through innovation Total Defence 1. 1984: Involve everyone in defence of country 2. Defence is only effective when all Singaporeans believe that Singapore is worth defending

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4 3. Potential aggressors think twice knowing that they·ll face the whole country, not only armed forces How Total Defence is carried out ² Total Defence Day: 15th February Civil Defence 1. Knowing what to do during civil emergencies 2. 15 March 1986, collapse of Hotel New World a. Singapore Civil Defence Force and trained Singapore volunteers [regardless of possible injuries] worked together to clear rubble and rescue survivors b. Civil Defence volunteers even turned up at the sire without being mobilised Economic Defence 1. Ability to cope with and adjust to changing demands 2. A need to upgrade skills of workers 3. Singapore Workforce Development Agency [2003] works with labour unions and professional associations to support industry growth and upgrade skills of existing workers 4. Industries remain competitive and workers have relevant skills to remain employable in competitive economy Social Defence 1. Community Development Councils, schools and Inter-Racial Confidence Circles strengthening social ties 2. Emergency preparedness exercises, visits to places of worship of different faiths and inter-faith dialogues and workshop 3. Ensure unity will not be broken should terrorist attacks break out Psychological Defence 1. Pride and loyalty, wanting to stand up and defend the country. Will and mental strength to overcome challenges 2. SARS, 2003: Ordinary people overcome the challenges because they believed in Singapore

Multi-agency Coordination on Security

1. National Security Coordination Secretariat: contribute work of various government agencies a. Ministry of Defence b. Ministry of Home Affairs c. Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2. Close networking and coordination among different ministries strengthens and enhances national security a. Meet regularly for discussions on national security strategies and strategies planning

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5 3. Works also with commercial and private parties 4. Prevent, protect and effectively respond to security threats by sharing intelligence and resources Military Co-operation with other countries Bilateral military agreements and exercises 1. Allows Singapore troops to train in their countries: a. France b. Australia c. New Zealand d. India 2. Regular military training with neighbouring countries, strengthening ties a. Malaysia b. Indonesia Multilateral military agreements and exercises 1. 1971: Five Power Defence Arrangements a. Singapore b. Australia c. Malaysia d. United Kingdom e. New Zealand 2. Conducts exercises each year to enhance cooperation and coordination 3. If an external threat against Singapore or Malaysia occurs, members would consult one another for appropriate measures

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Diplomacy Bilateral Relations 1. 1970s: Trading relationships with Singapore a. Allowed Singapore to acquire advanced technological skills from: b. Japan, USA and Germany 2. Promotion of political, economical and cultural ties with neighbouring countries a. Speed up economic and social development 3. Help to other countries: a. Doctors, nurses and teachers to countries such as Nepal and Vietnam b. Humanitarian aid to Ache after the Indian Ocean Tsunami i. Singapore Red Cross provided medicine, first aid, food parcels, water and other relief supplies ii. Ambulances with medical supplies and equipment Regional Relations European Union [EU] South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation [SAARC] Association of Southeast Asian Nations[ASEAN] 1. ASEAN Free Trade Area [AFTA] a. SEA has been attractive destination for foreign investors due to political stability and economically vibrancy b. Intense competition from China and India Lower cost of productions and larger markets c. Economic integration was needed to remain economically viable in times of globalisation d. Remove import taxes among SEA, integrating Asian economies into a single production base, creating a region of 500 million people and remove all taxes by 2015 2. ASEAN Regional Forum [ARF] a. Maintain peace by promoting political and security dialogue and cooperation amongst countries b. Provide avenue for countries in region to discuss security issues and resolve conflicts peacefully c. Participants: China, Japan, North Korea. India, New Zealand, Australia, USA and Canada 3. Singapore and ASEAN

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a. Singapore: better relationships with neighbouring countries [Indonesia and Malaysia] b. Avenue to discuss differences between countries peacefully and allow countries to manage haze problems through peaceful dialogues 4. Education and professional exchange a. Singapore provided technical training to 1700 officials from Laos since 1993 ² English and handling trade promotion b. Scholarships to students of other ASEN countries under Singapore Cooperation Programme ² Without bond and allow students to study courses offered in local universities [excluding medicine]. After studies, students return to country and contribute to development 5. Economic cooperation and assistance a. Initiative for ASEAN Integration [IAI] project in 2000 b. 5 years aid package of over $80m to selected countries between 2000 and 2003 6. Environmental collaboration a. Forest fires in Indonesia caused serious haze problems in 1997. b. Singapore assisted by monitoring fire through satellite images International Relations [UN] 1. Singapore and the UN a. 177th member of UN on 21st September 1965 helped Singapore gain recognition as a sovereign state b. UN helped Singapore by sending experts to advise and help economic and social development c. Dr. Albert Winsemius helped in industrial planning and development 2. UN Law of the Sea Conference a. Defines how countries can draw territorial borders in sea, stating that landlocked countries have the rights to access the sea b. Guidelines to safeguard marine environment and protection of freedom of scientific research on high seas c. Conference was organised to decide on territorial rights over waters d. Tommy Koh was president of Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea from 1980 ² 1982 3. Security Council a. 5 permanent countries [US, UK, France, China and Russia] and 10 rotating countries

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b. Singapore elected to serve as non-permanent member from 2001 to 2002 by UN General Assembly as President c. Elections showed confidence member countries have in Singapore are Singapore's commitment to the UN. d. Main role of Security council maintain international peace and security 4. UN Peacekeeping Operations a. Help countries torn by conflicts to create conditions for long-term peace b. Operations authorised by UN Security Council c. Peacekeepers include soldiers, military officers and civilian personnel deployed from multiple countries d. Singapore participated since 1989; by 2005: 13 operations, 11 countries and 1500 personnel

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