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Nitrogen Cycle Report

Nitrogen Cycle Report

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Published by Dom Gudez

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Published by: Dom Gudez on Sep 29, 2010
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The Biogeochemical Cycles

Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen
Nitrogen -one of the most essential elements -used to produce a number of complex molecules like amino acids, nucleic acids and lipids - covers 78% of the earth atmosphere -cannot be used by most of the living organisms until fixed

Nitrogen

N2
Atmosph eric Nitrogen

AMMONIFICA SYNTHE FIXATIO TION SIS N

Ammonium Ammoni a

NH3 Amino NH + acids 4

Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle -the movement of nitrogen between the earth and the atmosphere -consists of a series of processes that convert nitrogen gas to organic substances and these back to nitrogen in nature - nitrogen cycle can be broken down into five types of reactions

Anammox

Reactions of Nitrogen Cycle

‡Nitrogen fixation ‡Ammonification ‡Nitrification ‡Denitrification ‡Anammox

Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen Fixation

N2

NH3 FIXATIO
N
Ammoni a

-reduction of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia -requires alot of energy to break the N2 bond

Atmosph eric Nitrogen

Nitrogen Fixation
Ways to Fix Nitrogen 1. Atmospheric Fixation- using enormous energy of lightning to break nitrogen molecules 2. Industrial Fixation- use of atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen as a catalyst under a great temperature(600°C) 3. Biological Fixation- fixation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterias -contain an enzyme complex called nitrogenase - use at least 16 ATP on each N2 Nitrogenase -catalyst in the nitrogen-fixation -it supplies oxygen and ATP -consists of two distinct proteins, dinitrogenase and dinitrogenase

Examples of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (*photosynthetic bacterium)

Nitrogen Cycle
Symbiotic with plants Aerobic Anaerobic Legumes Other plants Azotobacter Clostridium (som Rhizobiu Frankia Beijerinckia e) m Azospirill Klebsiella (som Desulfovibrio um e) Purple sulphur Cyanobacteria ( bacteria* *Examples of nitrogen-fixing bacteria some)* Purple non(*photosynthetic bacterium) Free living

Red nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a black alder tree. The nodules contain symbiotic Frankia sp. bacteria Nodules on the roots of soybean plants containing Rhizobium sp. bacteria

Desulfovibrio sapovorans Desulfovibrio vulgaris Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

Ammonification
Ammonification -decomposition process that converts organic nitrogen into ammonia (NH3) or ammonium in neutral environment -performed by a large variety of organism, aerobes and anaerobes as well as fungi(decomposers)

Ammonification
Ammonification Process 1. Initially done through the action of extracellular proteolytic enzymes 2. The breakdown products goes into the cell 3. Release of ammonium

Streptomyces coelicolor colonies
Bacillus cereus colonies on sheep blood agar plate

Nitrification
Nitrification -oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrate -done by a group of bacteria collectively known as nitrifiers -a cooperative two-step process

Nitrification
Nitrification Process 1. Nitrosomonas (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria), oxidizes ammonia to nitrite(Nitritation) 2. Nitrospira (nitrite-oxidizing bacteria) oxidizes nitrite to nitrate (Nitratation)
Ammoni a

N H3

NITRITA TION

NO
Nitrite

NITRATA TION

NO
Nitrate

2

-

3

-

Nitrosomonas sp. bacteria Uptake of Pyruvate by Nitrosomonas(green) and Nitrospira(red). Taken via microautoradiography

Denitrification
Denitrification -conversion of nitrates into primarily nitrogen gas but also nitrous oxide -done by denitrifying bacterias

NO
3
Nitrate

NITRITA TION

Atmosph eric Nitrogen

N2 + N2 O

Nitrous Oxide

Denitrification
Environmental Consequences of Denitrification -N2O can be photochemically oxidized to NO in the atmosphere. NO reacts with the ozone (O3) in the to form nitrite (NO2-), and this returns to Earth as nitric acid (HNO2).  thinning of ozone layer  formation of acid rain

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XLD)Xylose lysine deoxycholate agar plate

Paracoccus denitrificans

Annamox
Annamox -oxidation of ammonium under anaerobic conditions to form atmospheric nitrogen(N2) -bacteria capable of this process possess a special membrane-bound ANNAMO organelle called annamoxosomes2 X

NH +NO
+ 4
Ammoni um

2

Nitrate

Atmosph eric Nitrogen

N + 2 2H O
water

Groups of annamox bacteria

‡Brocadia ‡Kuenenia ‡Anammoxoglobus ‡Jettenia (all fresh water species) ‡Scalindua(marine species)

Reaction Microorganis m Nitrogen Nitrogenfixation fixing bacteria e.g. Rhizobium Ammonific Ammonifying ation bacteria (decay) (decomposers)

The first step in the synthesis of virtually all nitrogenous compounds. Nitrogen gas is fixed into forms other organisms can use. Aerobic/ The decomposers, certain soil anaerobi bacteria and fungi, break down c proteins in dead organisms and animal wastes, releasing ammonium ions which can be converted to other nitrogen compounds. Nitrificatio Nitrifying Aerobic Nitrification Nitrifying bacteria n bacteria (e.g. Aerobic Nitrification is a two-step Nitrosomonas, process. Ammonia or ammonium Nitrobacter) ions are oxidized first to nitrites

Conditio ns Aerobic/ anaerobi c

Process

Anammox

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