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Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Multirate : Changing the Sampling

Rate of the Discrete

Time Signal.

Multirate Signal Processing

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Need for Multirate

Digital Audio : Three different sampling

rates are employed

Broadcasting : 32 KHz

Digital Compact Disc : 44.1 KHz

Digital Audio Tape : 48 KHz

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Digital Video :

Luminance signal is sampled at 13.5 MHz

Color difference signal is sampled at

6.75 MHz

Sampling rate of

NTSC Composite signal : 14.31818 MHz

PAL Composite signal : 17.73447 MHz

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Over sampling A / D Converter :

Sample the signal at much

higher rate than Nyquist rate and

then decimate (lower the sampling

rate) it.

Eliminates the need of very sharp

cut- off frequency antialiasing filter

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Digital Communication :

Trans multiplexers

Communication Receivers

Biomedical :

Narrow band filter for Fetal ECG & EEG

Speech Processing :

To reduce storage space and transmission

rate

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

The process of converting a signal from

a given rate to a different rate is

called sampling rate conversion.

Systems that employ multiple sampling

rates in the processing of digital

signals are called multirate digital

signal processing systems.

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Can be accomplished in two ways:

D/A

converter

x(n)

A/D

converter

x1(n)

Adv: New sampling rate can be arbitrarily selected

Disadv: Signal distortion is introduced by

-D/A converter in signal reconstruction

-Quantization effects in A/D converter

Changing the sampling rate in digital domain --Multirate

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Fundamental Operations in multirate

signal processing are

Decimation ( Down sampling )

Interpolation ( Up Sampling )

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

DECIMATION

Decimation is the process of

decreasing the sampling rate by a

factor of M i.e. from F

s

to F

s

/ M

Down sampling : by a factor of M

is achieved by discarding M-1

samples for every M samples.

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

n

m

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

12 13

x(n)

y(m)

0 1 2 3

4

M = 3

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

|X(F)|

0 5 10 15 F

Fs/2

|Y(f)|

0 5 10 15

frequencies

causing aliasing

M = 3

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

This combined operation of filtering and

down sampling is called as DECIMATION

F

s

h(k) M

x(n)

w(n) y(m)

F

s

F

s

/ M

Block diagram of Decimator

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

The rate compressor reduces the

sampling rate from F

s

to F

s

/ M.

To prevent aliasing at lower rate,

digital filter is used to band limit the

i/p signal to less than F

s

/ 2M.

(new folding frequency)

Sampling rate reduction is achieved

by discarding M-1 samples for every

M samples of filtered signal w(n)

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

|H(F)|

|W(F)|

|Y(F)|

0 5

0 5

0 5 10

frequencies

causing aliasing

Spectral interpretation of decimation from 30 to 10 Hz

|X(F)|

0 5 10 15 F

Fs/2

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( k mM x k h mM w m y

k

÷ = =

¯

·

÷· =

) ( ) ( ) ( k n x k h n w

k

÷ =

¯

·

÷· =

where

I/P O/P relationship :

I/P O/P relationship :

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Here

) ( ) (

0 0

n n y n n x ÷ = ÷

Filtering operation is linear & time invariant,

But downsampling is not.

Therefore DECIMATION is a time variant operation

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Frequency domain characteristics

Let o/p sampling frequency be F

y

or ω

y

I/p sampling frequency be F

x

or ω

x

Decimation factor be M

M or M

x y

x

y

= =

Thus frequency range 0 <= | ω

x

| <= Л /M

is stretched into corresponding

Frequency range of 0 <= | ω

y

| <= Л/M

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

| X(ω

x

) |

ω

x

| H(ω

x

) |

ω

x

| W(ω

x

) |

ω

x

| y(ω

x

) |

ω

y

0

-Л Л

Л /M -Л /M

-Л -Л

-Л /M Л /M

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

INTERPOLATION

Process of increasing the sampling rate of the

signal by a factor of L i.e. from F

s

to LF

s

Upsampling by a factor L inserting L-1 zeros

between two samples

n

1

2

3 0

1 2 3 4 5

6

7 8 0

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Inserting zeros create image bands.

| X(ω

x

) |

ω

x

0 -Л -Л

| Y(ω

x

) |

ω

y

/L

3Л /L -Л /L -3Л /L

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Frequency domain characteristics

Let o/p sampling frequency be F

y

or ω

y

I/p sampling frequency be F

x

or ω

x

Interpolation factor be L

L

x

y

=

Thus frequency range 0 <= | ω

x

| <= Л

is compressed into corresponding

Frequency range of 0 <= | ω

y

| <= Л/L

and the o/p spectrum is L fold periodic repitition

of i/p spectrum.

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Spectral components of x(n) in the range

0 <= | ωy | <= Л/L are unique

Images above ωy = Л /L are to be rejected by filtering

L h(k)

x(n)

w(n) y(m)

F

s

LF

s

LF

s

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Decimation = Filtering + Downsampling

(antialiasing)

Interpolation = Upsampling + Filtering

(antiimaging)

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Sampling rate conversion

by

Rational / Non Integer factor

Transferring data from Compact Disc to Audio Tape

44.1 KHz 48 KHz

M

L

= =

147

160

1 . 44

48

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

L h1(k)

x(n)

F

s

LF

s

LF

s

M

L h(k)

x(n)

F

s

LF

s

LF

s

h2(k)

LF

s

(L/M)F

s

M

(L/M)F

s

y(n)

y(n)

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Specifications of antiimaging filter

< <

< =

| | / 0

/ ) (

L

L L e H

j

Specifications of antialiasing filter

< <

< =

| | / 0

/ 1 ) (

M

M e H

j

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Specifications of combined filter

otherwise

L M L e H

j

0

) / , / . (min ) (

< =

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Multistage approach to

sampling rate conversion

High sampling rate conversion

Efficient to change rate in more no. of stages

M = M

1

M

2

M

3

…. M

I

Reduced computational effort and

storage requirements

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Estimation of Filter Order ( M ) :

Kaiser’s formula:

. ·

f

M

s p

A

÷ ÷

=

6 . 14

13 log 10

10

M is inversely proportional to transition bandwidth ( ω

s

– ω

p

)

and not on transition band location.

. ·

2 / ) ( 6 . 14

13 log 10

10

p st

s p

M

÷

÷ ÷

=

or

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

• Hermann-Rabiner-Chan’s Formula:

where

with

2 / ) (

] 2 / ) )[( , ( ) , (

2

p s

p s s p s p

F D

M

÷

÷ ÷

~

·

s p p s p

a a a D

10 3 10 2

2

10 1

log ] ) (log ) (log [ ) , ( + + =

·

] ) (log ) (log [

6 10 5

2

10 4

a a a

p p

+ + +

] log [log ) , (

10 10 2 1 s p s p

b b F ÷ + =

4761 . 0 , 07114 . 0 , 005309 . 0

3 2 1

÷ = = = a a a

4278 . 0 , 5941 . 0 , 00266 . 0

6 5 4

= = = a a a

51244 . 0 , 01217 . 11

2 1

= = b b

Estimation of Filter Order ( M ) :

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Filter specifications for each stage

Passband 0 <= F <= F

p

Stopband ( F

i

– F

s

/2M ) < F < F

i-1

/2 i= 1,2,….,.,I

Passband ripple δ

p

Stopband ripple δ

s

where F

i

o/p sampling frequency of i

th

stage

F

i-1

i/p sampling frequency of i

th

stage

F

s

original sampling frequency

F

p

highest frequency of interest

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Determining the no. of stages and

decimation factors

Least computational effort Optimum no. of stages

¯

=

=

I

i

i i

F N MPS

1

¯

=

=

I

i

i

N TSR

1

where Ni is the no. of filter coefficients per stage

MPS is no. of Multiplications Per Second

TSR is Total Storage Requirement for coefficients

Mrs.Aarti Bang,

VIIT, Pune

Advantages of Multistage design:

•Multistage design yields significant reductions in

computation & storage requirements compared to

single stage.

•Reductions are due to wide transition bands of filters

at early stages (even though sampling rates are high)

leading to small values of N.

•In the last stage though the transition band is small,

the sampling rate is also low, hence filter order (N)

is also small as compared to single stage decimation.

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