Power Supply

By Mohd Zuhaimi Zolkifli

Inside PC Power Supply

Connector

Introduction
‡ A power supply unit (PSU) is the component that supplies power to the other components in a computer. ‡ Convert general-purpose alternating current (AC) electric power from the mains (220-240V) to usable low-voltage DC power for the internal components of the computer.

PC Power Supply ‡ In a personal computer (PC). . while the 12V is used to run motors in disk drives and fans. the power supply is the metal box usually found in a corner of the case.3V and 5V are typically used by digital circuits. The typical voltages supplied are: 3. often referred to as "switching power supplies". ‡ Power supplies. use switcher technology to convert the AC input to lower DC voltages. 5V and 12V. ‡ The 3.3V. ‡ The power supply is visible from the back of many systems because it contains the powercord receptacle and the cooling fan.

switched mode supplies are almost universal. and weight became important.Types of Power Supply ‡ The first generation of computers power supplies were linear devices. ‡ So that. but as cost became a driving factor. two(2) types of PC Power Supply are: ± Linear Power Supply ± Switching Power Supply .

Overview Linear Power Supply Switching Power Supply .

‡ Capacitor is used to smooth the pulsating current from the rectifier. which is known as ripple. ‡ These pulsations occur at a frequency related to the AC power frequency. . ‡ A rectifier is used to produce DC.Linear Power Supply ‡ An AC powered linear power supply usually uses a transformer to convert the voltage from the wall outlet (mains) to a different. ‡ Some small periodic deviations from smooth direct current will remain. usually a lower voltage.

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please refer to E1002. You had learned it. .Further information.

power supplies tended to be heavy and bulky.Switching Power Supply ‡ Prior to 1980 or so. . They used large. heavy transformers and huge capacitors (some as large as soda cans) to convert line voltage at 120 volts and 60 hertz into 5 volts and 12 volts DC.

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How it work? ‡ The AC input is rectified and filtered to give a steady DC voltage. . then the switching control ensures that the voltage switch is on for longer periods. ‡ The resultant waveform which is a square wave is rectified and filtered (This waveform is sampled). ‡ If the current required at the load is high. ‡ This DC input to the voltage switching block is either blocked or allowed to pass through depending on the state of the switch.

‡ The sampling is done by a comparator and DC amplifier along with a DC reference. ‡ The output voltage is compared with a DC reference. ‡ If the output voltage reduces due to increase in load current. . the comparator sends a positive signal to the pulse width modulator and increase the on time of the pulse.

. ‡ Also need isolation and auto transformer. ± Isolation transformer : for safety ± Auto transformer : provides adjustable AC output.Fault Testing ‡ We need correct load resistor to test the power supply.

Power Supply Form Factors ‡ Technically. the power supply of PC¶s described as a constant voltage switching power supply. ± Constant Voltage: the power supply puts out the same voltage to the computer¶s internal components. . no matter what the voltage of AC current running it or the capacity of the power supply. ± Switching: the design and power regulation technique that most supplier use.

Power Supply Form Factors .

ATX-style ATX- .ATAT-style vs.

Power SW. ATX-Style ‡ There are two basic differences between AT and ATX power supplies: ± The connectors ± The soft switch. SW Power. etc . the power switch on the front of the computer goes to the motherboard over a connector labeled something like.AT-Style vs. ‡ On newer ATX power supplies. PS ON. ‡ On older AT power supplies. the Power-on switch wire from the front of the computer is connected directly to the power supply.

AT Power Connector .

‡ P8 and P9 connectors have them installed end to end so that the two black wires on both power cables are next to each other. at up to 250V. each with six pins that attach the power supply to the motherboard.AT Power Connector ‡ Two main power connectors (P8 and P9. ‡ These are rated at 5A per pin. also called P1 and P2). .

ATX Main Power Connector .

at up to 600V. connector number 3929-9202 (20 pins ATX connector). Jr. ‡ Molex rates each pin to handle 6A.ATX Main Power Connector ‡ The industry-standard ATX power supplyto-motherboard main connector is the Molex Mini-Fit. .

ATX Auxiliary Power Connector .

chipsets and DIMMs were designed to run on 3. and the additional two +3. ‡ The additional +5V wire allows a total of 29A of +5V to be available to the motherboard.ATX Auxiliary Power Connector ‡ In particular.3V power to be available to the motherboard. . ‡ The connector is normally keyed to prevent a misaligned connection. ‡ This type of connector are rated for 5A per pin at up to 250V.3V.3V wires allow a total of 28A of +3. increasing the current demand at that voltage.

Peripheral Power Connector .

Floppy Power Connector RED BLACK BLACK YELLOW +5V GND GND +12V .

Y-Adapter Power Cable .

Noise. brief high voltage excursion. Sag: momentary or sustained reduction in input voltage. Surge: momentary or sustained increase in the mains voltage.Common Power Problem ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Power failure: total loss of input voltage. high frequency transient or oscillation. Frequency instability: temporary changes in the mains frequency. usually injected into the line by nearby equipment. . Harmonic distortion: departure from the ideal sinusoidal waveform expected on the line. Spikes.

Power Protection System ‡ Sometimes power supply by AC outlet not in stable condition (up to 280V). there is few power supply supporting peripherals such as: ± Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) ± Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) ± Power Line Conditioner (PLC) . ‡ It called µPower Surge¶. ‡ To overcome this situation.

UPS A small free-standing UPS A large datacenter-scale UPS .

. ‡ It will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users.UPS ‡ An electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source fails.

AVR .

AVR ‡ A device intended to regulate voltage automatically: that is to take a varying voltage level and turn it into a constant voltage level. ± Short circuit protection (circuit breaker). . ‡ An automatic voltage regulator combined with one or more other power-quality capabilities such as: ± Surge suppression. etc. ± Harmonic filtering. ± Line noise reduction. ± Phase-to-phase voltage balancing.

PLC .

‡ A device that acts in one or more ways to deliver a voltage of the proper level and characteristics to enable load equipment to function properly. .PLC ‡ A device intended to improve the quality of the power that is delivered to electrical load equipment.

Power Supply Specification .

5W 18W 45W .PC Item Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) card Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) card small computer system interface (SCSI) PCI card floppy disk drive network interface card 50X CD-ROM drive RAM 5200 RPM Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) hard disk drive 7200 RPM IDE hard disk drive Motherboard (without CPU or RAM) 550 MHz Pentium III 733 MHz Pentium III 300 MHz Celeron 600 MHz Athlon Watts 20 to 30W 5W 20 to 25W 5W 4W 10 to 25W 10W per 128M 5 to 11W Power Supply Wattage 5 to 15W 20 to 30W 30W 23.

‡ Example:>>>>>>> .Power Use Calculation ‡ One way to see whether your system is capable of expansion is to calculate the levels of power drain in the various systems components and deduct the total from the maximum power supplied by the power supply.

0 A .0 A . ‡ Power Consumption Calculation ± Available 5V Power : ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Motherboard 4 slots filled at 2.0 A .0 A .0 A ± Remaining Power: 5.5.‡ 200-watt power supply rated for 20A at +5V and 8A at +12V.1.0 3 ½´ floppy drive logic 3 ½´ hard disk drive logic CD-ROM/DVD drive logic 20.5 A .5 A .0.8.0.

1.1 A .0.0 A .7 A .0.0 A .± Available 12V Power: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 4 slots filled at 0. .2 A ‡ With half of slot filled. a floppy drive.1. and one hard disk.0 A ± Remaining Power: 4.175 each 3 ½´ hard disk drive motor 3 ½´ floppy drive motor Cooling fan motor CD ROM/DVD drive motor 8. the system still has room for more.1.0 A .

0 5 +12V Power 0.0 1.Maximum Power Consumption Per Bus Slot (Amps) Bus type ISA EISA VL-bus 16-bit MCA 32-bit MCA PCI +5V Power 2.3V Power n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 7.5 2.175 1.175 0.5 n/a 0.175 0.6 .5 +3.0 4.6 2.

Electric shocks felt on the system case Slight static discharges that disrupt system operation Erratic recognition of bus-powered USB peripherals.Power Supply Troubleshooting ‡ List of PC problems that often are related to the power supply: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Any power-on startup failure Spontaneous rebooting Intermittent parity check Hard disk and fan failing to spin (no +12V) Overheating due to fan failure. .

Power Supply Troubleshooting ‡ Fairly obvious symptoms point right to the power supply as a possible cause: ± System that is completely dead (no fan. no cursor) ± Smoke ± Blown circuit breakers .

Check the DC power output. Check the AC power input. If it works. Use digital multimeter to check for proper voltages. Make sure the motherboard and disk drive power connectors are firmly seated and making good contact. Check for loose screw.Zero in on common power supplyrelated problem 1. . 2. The last item added before the failure returns is likely defective 3. Make sure the cord is firmly seated in the wall socket and in the power supply socket. Check the DC power connections. add items back in one at a time until the system fails again. 4. If it¶s below spec. replace the power supply. Remove all boards and drive and retest the system. Check the installed peripherals. Try a difference cord.

Repairing the Power Supply ‡ Simply replacing the supply with a new one is usually cheaper. . Even high-quality power supplies are not that expensive when compared to the labor required to repair them.

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