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The objective behind developing IMPRO (Industrial Manpower Resource Organizer) is to maintain the hierarchy of the employees within an organization. It provides the manger and administrative department an overall hierarchical view of the complete enterprise and helps them in managing employees. Description: Every Organization has many managers, who are responsible for all the activities in the organization. These managers manage different aspects of the organizational management issues, such as manufacturing, production, Marketing, etc; one such essential management issue is IMPRO. As years progressed, the approach of the management changed towards the human capital. Now Hierarchical Organization is part of every organization, and has its own identity and importance. In this scenario, the bigger organizations need to put lot of effort in the management of human Resources, as they are underlying capital asset to the organization. In doing so, along with times, the Organization Information changed from its basic operations to more strategic approach. Features include Maintenance of profile details of the employees, and retrievals as and when required. Overall & detailed view of the organization hierarchy, which is very much essential in making effective decisions. Maintenance of the data when the organization has many branches spread over wide geographical area. Accessing one branch information from another branch. Vacancy situations and their priority /effect on the organizations performance. Job Rotation
2.1 PROBLEM DOMAIN
2.1 .1EXISTING SYSTEM • The existing system is a manual system. In this system User needs to save his information in the form of excel sheets or Disk Drives. • • • There is no sharing possibility if the data is in the form of paper or Disk drives. There is no rich user interface. There is very less security for saving data; some data may be loss due to mismanagement. • • • • In this system there is no report generation. . It’s a limited system and fewer users friendly. In this system users cannot able to restrict the information. There is no vacancies information facility for the employee within firm.
2.1.2 PRPOSED SYSTEM IMPRO BENEFITS: The project is identified by the merits of the system offered to the user. The merits of this project are as follows: • • • It’s a webenabled project. This project offers user to enter the data through simple and interactive forms. This is very helpful for the client to enter the desired information through so much simplicity. The user is mainly more concerned about the validity of the data, whatever he is entering. There are checks on every stages of any new creation, data entry or updation so that the user cannot enter the invalid data, which can create problems at later date.
Sometimes the user finds in the later stages of using project that he needs to update some of the information that he entered earlier. There are options for him by which he can update the records. Moreover there is restriction for his that he cannot change the primary data field. This keeps the validity of the data to longer extent.
User is provided the option of monitoring the records he entered earlier. He can see the desired records with the variety of options provided by him. From every part of the project the user is provided with the links through framing so that he can go from one option of the project to other as per the requirement. This is bound to be simple and very friendly as per the user is concerned. That is, we can sat that the project is user friendly which is one of the primary concerns of any good project.
Data storage and retrieval will become faster and easier to maintain because data is stored in a systematic manner and in a single database. Decision making process would be greatly enhanced because of faster processing of information since data collection from information available on computer takes much less time then manual system.
• • •
Allocating of sample results becomes much faster because at a time the user can see the records of last years. Easier and faster data transfer through latest technology associated with the computer and communication. Through these features it will increase the efficiency, accuracy and transparency,
2.2 Advantages for Employees For employees of IMPRO, advantages primarily concern access, time, and cost factors compared to those incurred from attending as manual. Employees to make online registration view his profile and update his profile and look vacancies list and upload resume.
2.3 STUDY OF THE SYSTEM In the flexibility of uses the interface has been developed a graphics concepts in mind, associated through a browser interface. The GUI’s at the top level has been categorized as follows 1. Administrative User Interface Design 2. The Operational and Generic User Interface Design The administrative user interface concentrates on the consistent information that is practically, part of the organizational activities and which needs proper authentication for the data collection. The Interface helps the administration with all the transactional states like data insertion, data deletion, and data updating along with executive data search capabilities. The operational and generic user interface helps the users upon the system in transactions through the existing data and required services. The operational user interface also helps the ordinary users in managing their own information helps the ordinary users in managing their own information in a customized manner as per the assisted flexibilities. 2.4 NUMBER OF MODULES The system after careful analysis has been identified to be presented with the following modules: 1 Administrator 2 HR Manager 3 Employee 4 Web Registration 5 Reports 6 Authentication
2.4.1 Administrator Administrator is treated as a super user in this system. He can have all the privileges to do anything in this system. He is the person who adds the Profile of a HR Manager. 1. He is the person who can manage Employees, Branches, Departments and Designations. 2. He can take care of maintain the monthly database backup. 3. He can generate the reports of branches and employees. Another tasks done by the administrator is he can generates log files, backup, recovery of data any time. 2.4.2 HR Manager 1. He has to login with secured Credentials. 2. He can recruit the employees. 3. He can find the department wise vacancies and assign the employees 4. He can change the employees from one department to another department. 5. He can generate Reports of employees and vacancies. 2.4.3 Employee 1. He has to login with Username and Password. 2. He can view his profile. 3. He can change his profile and password also. 4. He can view the vacancies list and upload the resume. 2.4.5 Web Registration The system has a process of registration. Every User need to submit his complete details in the form of registration. Whenever a User registration completed automatically he/she can get a user id and password. By using that user id and password he/she can log into the system.
2.4.6 Reports Different kind of reports is generated by the system. 1. Branches Report 2. Employees Report 3. Vacancies Report 2.4.7 Authentication: Authentication is nothing but providing security to the system. Here every must enter into the system throw login page. The login page will restrict the unauthorized users. A user must provide his credential like user Id and password for log into the system. For that the system maintains data for all users. Whenever a user enters his user id and password, it checks in the database for user existence. If the user is exists he can be treated as a valid user. Otherwise the request will throw back. 2.5 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS The major inputs and outputs and major functions of the system are follows: Inputs: 1. Admin enter his user id and password for login 2. Admin Add the Employees Details into the System. 3. Admin add the branches, departments and designations and assign HR . 4. Employee enters his user id and password for login. 5. New user gives his completed personnel, address and phone details for registration. 6. HR Manager gives information to generate various kinds of reports. 7. HR adds the vacancies and assigns employees to designations.
Outputs: 1. Admin can have his own home page. 2. HR Manager can get the entire vacancies list. 3. Employees can have their own home pages. 4. Admin can get all the employee details. 5. Different kinds of reports are generated. 2.6 SDLC METHDOLOGIES This document play a vital role in the development of life cycle (SDLC) as it describes the complete requirement of the system. It means for use by developers and will be the basic during testing phase. Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have to go through formal change approval process. SPIRAL MODEL was defined by Barry Boehm in his 1988 article, “A spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement. This model was not the first model to discuss iterative development, but it was the first model to explain why the iteration models. As originally envisioned, the iterations were typically 6 months to 2 years long. Each phase starts with a design goal and ends with a client reviewing the progress thus far. Analysis and engineering efforts are applied at each phase of the project, with an eye toward the end goal of the project. The steps for Spiral Model can be generalized as follows: 1. The new system requirements are defined in as much details as possible. This usually involves interviewing a number of users representing all the external or internal users and other aspects of the existing system. 2. A preliminary design is created for the new system. 3. A first prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design. This 9
is usually a scaleddown system, and represents an approximation of the characteristics of the final product. 4. A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure: 1. Evaluating the first prototype in terms of its strengths, weakness, and risks. 2. Defining the requirements of the second prototype. 3. Planning an designing the second prototype. 4. Constructing and testing the second prototype. 1. At the customer option, the entire project can be aborted if the risk is deemed too great. Risk factors might involve development cost overruns, operatingcost miscalculation, or any other factor that could, in the customer’s judgment, result in a lessthansatisfactory final product. 2. The existing prototype is evaluated in the same manner as was the previous prototype, and if necessary, another prototype is developed from it according to the fourfold procedure outlined above. 3. The preceding steps are iterated until the customer is satisfied that the refined prototype represents the final product desired. 4. The final system is constructed, based on the refined prototype. 5. The final system is thoroughly evaluated and tested. Routine maintenance is carried on a continuing basis to prevent large scale failures and to minimize down time.
Fig Spiral Model 11
2.7 ADVANTAGES: 1. Estimates (i.e. budget, schedule etc.) become more realistic as work progresses, because important issues discover earlier. 2. It is more able to cope with the changes that are software development generally entails. 3. Software engineers can get their hands in and start woring on the core of a project earlier. 2.8 INPUT DESIGN Input design is a part of overall system design. The main objective during the input design as given below: 1. To produce costeffective method of input 2. To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy. 3. To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user. Input States: The main input stages can be listed as below: 1. Data recording 2. Data transcription 3. Data conversion 4. Data verification 5. Data control 6. Data transmission 7. Data validation 8. Data correction 12
Input Types: It is necessary to determine the various types of input. Inputs can be categorized as follows: 1. External Inputs which are prime inputs for the system. 2. Internal Inputs, which are user communications with the systems. 3. Operational, which are computer department’s communications to the system? 4. Interactive, which are inputs entered during a dialogue. Input Media: At this stage choice has to be made about the input media. To conclude about the input media consideration has to be given to: 1. Type of Input 2. Flexibility of Format 3. Speed 4. Accuracy 5. Verification methods 6. Rejection rates 7. Ease of correction 8. Storage and handling requirements 9. Security 10. Easy to use 11. Portability 13
Keeping in view the above description of the input types and input media, it can be said that most of the inputs are of the form of internal and interactive. As input data is to be directly keyed in by the user, the keyboard can be considered to be the most suitable input device. 2.9 OUTPUT DESIGN: Outputs from computer systems are required primarily to communicate the results of processing to users. They are also used to provide a permanent copy of the results for later consultation. The various types of outputs in general are: 1. External Outputs, whose destination is outside the organization,. 2. Internal Outputs whose destination is within organization and they are the User’s main interface with the computer. 3. Operational outputs whose use is purely within the computer department. 4. Interface outputs, which involve the user in communicating directly with User Interface. Output Definition:The outputs should be defined in terms of the following points: • • • • • • • Type of the output Content of the output Format of the output Location of the output Frequency of the output Volume of the output Sequence of the output
It is not always desirable to print or display data as it is held on a computer. It should be decided as which form of the output is the most suitable. For Example 1. Will decimal points need to be inserted 2. Should leading zeros be suppressed. 14
Output Media: In the next stage it is to be decided that which medium is the most appropriate for the output. The main considerations when deciding about the output media are: 1. The suitability for the device to the particular application. 2. The need for a hard copy. 3. The response time required. 4. The location of the users 5. The software and hardware available. Keeping in view the above description the project is to have outputs mainly coming under the category of internal outputs. The main outputs desired according to the requirement specification are: The outputs were needed to be generated as a hot copy and as well as queries to be viewed on the screen. Keeping in view these outputs, the format for the output is taken from the outputs, which are currently being obtained after manual processing. The standard printer is to be used as output media for hard copies.
3.REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS 3.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY
Preliminary investigation examine project feasibility, the likelihood the system will be useful to the organization. The main objective of the feasibility study is to test the Technical, Operational and Economical feasibility for adding new modules and debugging old running system. All system is feasible if they are unlimited resources and infinite time. There are aspects in the feasibility study portion of the preliminary investigation: • • •
Technical Feasibility Economical Feasibility Operation Feasibility
3.1.1 Technical Feasibility The technical issue usually raised during the feasibility stage of the investigation includes the following: • Do the proposed equipments have the technical capacity to hold the data required to use the new system? Yes, the proposed equipments have the technical capacity to hold the data required to use the new system and the requirements are • • • • • • Personal computer Microsoft windows operating system Microsoft visual studio 2008 Sql server 2008
The proposed system be upgraded if developed in the feature aspects?
If necessary the system can be upgraded. Are there technical guarantees of accuracy, reliability, ease of access and data security? Yes, Permission to the users would be granted based on the roles specified. Therefore, it provides the technical guarantee of accuracy, reliability and security. So, the current system developed is technically feasible. Thus it provides an easy access to the users. 16
3.1.2 Economic Feasibility The proposed system can be developed technically .organization still equipped with all proposed technologies, it must still be a good investment for the organization. They don’t go for new technologies .so it will be a economical feasible for implementing the proposed system. It does not require any addition hardware or software. 3.1.3 Operational Feasibility Operational feasibility aspects of the project are to be taken as an important part of the project implementation. Some of the important issues raised are to test the operational feasibility of a project includes the following: • • Is there sufficient support for the management from the users?
Yes, the user by entering the fields the management is easy to handle. Will the system be used and work properly if it is being developed and implemented? The system is user friendly and works properly if also it is developed and implemented. Finally according to the management issues and user requirements have been taken into consideration this system operationally feasible. Conclusion This system is targeted to be in accordance with the abovementioned issues. Beforehand, the management issues and user requirements have been taken into consideration.
3.2 DATA MODELING
3.2.1 ER-DIAGRAM In software engineering, an entityrelationship model is an abstract and conceptual representation of data. Entity relationship modeling is a database modeling method, used to produce a type of conceptual schema or semantic data model of a system, often a relation database, and its requirements in a topdown fashion. Diagrams created by this process are called entityrelationship diagrams ER diagrams or ERD’s. Definition: An entityrelationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database. ER diagrams often use symbols to represent three different types of information. Boxes are commonly used to represent entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes.
3.3 DATAFLOW DIAGRAMS
A dataflow diagram (DFD) is a significant modelling technique for analyzing and constructing information processes. DFD literally means an illustration that explains the course or movement of information in a process. DFD illustrates this flow of information in a process based on the inputs and outputs. A DFD can be referred to a Process Model. Additionally, a DFD can be utilized to visualize data processing or a structured design. A DFD illustrates technical or business processes with the help of the external data stored, the data flowing from process to another, and the results. A designer usually draws a contextlevel DFD showing the relationship between the entities inside and outside of a system as one single step. This basic DFD can be disintegrated to a lower level diagram demonstrating similar steps exhibiting details of the system that is being modelled. Numerous levels may be required to explain a complicated system. Therefore, the principle for creating a DFD is that one system may be disintegrated into subsystems, which in turn can be disintegrated into subsystems at a much lower level, and so on and so forth. Every subsystem in a DFD represents a process. In this process are activity the input data is processed. Processes can not be decomposed after reaching a certain lower level. Each process in DFD characterizes an entire system. In a DFD system, data is introduced into the system from the external environment. Once entered the data flows between processes. And then processed data is produced as an output or a result. 3.3.1 DFD SYMBOLS In the DFD, there are four symbols 1. A square defines a source (originator) or destinations of the system data 2. An arrow identifies data flow. It is the pipeline through which the information flows 3. A circle or a bubble represents a process that transforms incoming data flow into outgoing data flows. 4. An open rectangle is a data store, data at rest or a temporary repository of data 19
Process that transforms data flow
Source or Destination of data
Data Store 22.214.171.124 SAILENT FEATURES OF DFD’S The DFD shows of data flow of data, not of control loops and decisions are controlled considerations do not appear on a DFD. 1. The DFD does not indicate the time factor involved in any process whether the dataflow take place daily, weekly, monthly or yearly. 2. The sequence of events is not brought out on the DFD. 126.96.36.199 RULES GOVERNING THE DFD’S Process 1. No process can have only outputs. 2. No process can have only inputs. If any object have only inputs than it must be a sink. 3. A process has a verb phrase label. Data flow
Data Store 1. Data cannot move directly from one data store to another data store, a process must move data. 2. Data cannot move directly from an outside source to a data store, process, which receives, must move data from the source and place the data into data store. 3. A data store has a noun phrase label. Source or Sink The origin and/or destination of data 1. Data cannot move directly from a source to sink it must be moved by a process 2. A source and/or sink have a noun phrase land. Data Flow 1. A Data Flow has only one direction of low between symbols. It may flow in both directions between a process and a data store to show la read before an update. The later is usually indicated however by two separate arrows since these happen at different type. 2. A join in DFD means that exactly the same data comes from any of two or more Different processes data store or sink to a common location. 3. A data flow cannot go directly back to the same process it leads. There must be at least one other process than handles the data flow produce some other data flow produce some other data flow returns the original data into the beginning process. 4. A Data Flow to a data store means update (delete or change). 5. A Data Flow from a data store means retrieve or use. A Data Flow has a noun phrase label more than one data flow noun phrase can appear on a single arrow as long as all of the flows on the same arrow move together as one package.
3.3.2 ALL LEVELS OF DFD’s
Context Level DFD
ADMINISTRATOR HR EMPLOYEE
ADMINISTRATOR HR EMPLOYEE
ADMINISTRATOR EMPLOYEE Registration
Open Login Form
Enter User Name & Password
User Home Page
ADMIN First - Level DFD
Add/modify BRANCHES Registration ADMIN Add/modify EMPLOYEE/ HR departments
Open admin home page
ADMIN Second - Level DFD
branches ADMIN ADD BRANCHES branches
Open BRANCHES form
ADMIN Reports HR
ADMIN Level-3 DFD
Add BRANCHES BRANCHES info Update BRANCHE
assign HR registration Post HR vacancy Change HR
add DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS info update DEPARTMENT
Reports ADMIN Reports
HR First- Level DFD
Registration HR ADD EMPLOYEE
hr home page
Add/update VACANCIES Reports Reports HR
HR Second - Level DFD
Registration HR ADD EMPLOYEE Department s
hr home page
ASSIGN DEPARTMENTS Vacancies
Reports HR Reports EMPLOYEE
HR Level-3 DFD
Hr home page
Add/updat e VACANCIE S
designations ADD EMPLOYEE
ASSIGN DESIGNATIONS Department s ASSIGN DEPARTMENT S Reports
HR Reports EMPLOYEE
EMPLOYEE First - Level DFD
Registration EMPLOYEE Manage/update PROFILE vacancies a Employee home page
APPLY VACANCIES Reports EMPLOYEE
EMPLOYEE Second - Level DFD
Registration EMPLOYEE Manage profile Registration Open employee home page
3.3.3 Activity Diagrams Registration Activity Diagram:
[Enter User Name and Password ]
Get The Details [submit] Validate Details [Enter Registration Details]
Get Details [submit]
Accepted [Success Fully Registered ]
Login Activity Diagram:
[Enter User Name and Password ]
Admin Activity Diagram:
[Enter Login Details ]
Get the Data
Get the Data
[Add Branches ]
Get the Data
Validate Details Validate Data
no yes yes no
HR Manager Activity Diagram
[Enter Login Details ]
Get the Data
Get the Data
Get the Data
Validate Details Validate Data
no yes yes no
[Enter Login Details ]
Get the Data
Get the Data
Get the Data
Validate Details Validate Data
no yes yes no
3.4 DATA DICTIONARY
DATA DICTIONARY S. NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Abbreviation Abbreviation Address Address Answer App_id Appdate Attfile Branchid Branchid Branchid Branchid Branchname Contactname Contactno Departmentid departmentid Deptcode deptid deptid Desgcode Desgid desgid Designationid Dob Dor education Email experience Fathername DATATYPE Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Big int Datetime varchar Int Int Int Int Varchar Varchar Varchar Int Int Varchar Int Int Varchar Int Int Int Datetime Datetime varchar Varchar varchar Varchar SIZE 50 50 250 250 50 max 50 45 15 25 25 45 50 45 45 CONSTRAINT Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Primary key Not null Not null Foreign key Foreign key Foreign key Primary key Not null Not null Foreign key Primary key Not null Foreign key Foreign key Not null Foreign key Foreign key Primary key Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null DESCRIPTION Abbreviation of the designation Description of the department Address of employee Address of branch Answer Indicates application id Date of application posted Attach the file It references branch id It references Brach id It references Branch id It indicates Branch id Branch name Vacancy creator name Another phone number It references Department id in section It indicates Department id Code of the Department It references Department id invacancies It references Department id in registration Code of the Designation It references designation id in vacancies It references Designation id in vacancies It indicates Designation id Date of birth Date of registration Educational qualifications Email Experience Father or guardian name LOCATION Designations Department Registration Branches Registration applications applications applications Vacancies Registration department Branches Branches Vacancies Registration Section Department Department Vacancies Registration Designations Vacancies Registration Designations Registration Registration Vacancies Registration Vacancies Registration
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65
Firstname gender Hintquestion hrid Image Job posted Jobdescription Last date Lastname Middlename Noofvacancies Password Phoneno phoneno Priority qualification Receiverid Recrutedby Secname sectionid Sectionid Senid Status status status Status status status status teleponeno Userid Username vacancyid Vacancyid Workexp
Varchar Varchar Varchar Long int Varbinary Datetime varchar datetime Varchar Varchar Int Varchar Varchar Varchar varchar Varchar Long int Long int Varchar Int Int Big int Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar varchar Varchar varchar Big int Varchar Int Int Varchar
25 5 50 Max 250 45 45 10 15 15 15 70 50 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 15 45 50
Not null Not null Not null Foreign key Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Foreign key Not null Not null Foreign key Primary key Foreign key Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Primary key Unique Primary key Foreign key Not null
First name Male or female Hint question It references HR manager id User image Indicates job posted description about the job Last date of the job posted Last name Middle name Indicates number of vacancies Password Phone number Phone number Indicates priority Qualification of the employee It indicates receiver id It indicates Hr id It indicates section name It references Section id in registration Indicates the sectionid It indicates the sender id indicates the status Status of employee Status of the branch Status of the section Status of the designation Status of the departments Status of the application Call canter number User registration id User name Indicates vacancy id It references vacancy id in apllications Previous work experience or fresher
Registration Registration Registration Branches Registration Vacancies Vacancies Vacancies Registration Registration Vacancies Registration Registration branches Vacancies Registration applications Registration section Registration section applications Vacancies Registration branches section designations department applications Vacancies Registration Registration Vacancies applications Registration
Design is the first step in the development phase of any engineering product or system. It may define as “the process of applying various techniques and principles for the purpose of defining a device, a process, or system insufficient detail to permit its physical realization. Software design is an interactive process through which requirements are translated into a ‘Blue Print’ for construction of software. The design is represented at high level of abstraction a level that can be directly translated to specific data, functional and behavioural requirements. Design Principles Basic design principles that enable the software engineer to navigate the design process are: • • • • The design process should not suffer from “tunnel vision”. The design should be traceable to the analysis model. The design should not reinvent the wheel The design should not exhibit uniformity and integrity
4.1 DATABASE DESIGN
4..1.1NORMALIZATION It is a process of converting a relation to a standard form. The process is used to handle the problems that can arise due to data redundancy i.e. represent of data is the database, maintain data integrity as well as handling the problems that can arise due to insertion, updating, deletion anomalies. Decomposing is the process of splitting relations into multiple relations to eliminate anomalies and maintains anomalies and maintains data integrity. To do this we use normal forms for structuring relation. Insertion anomaly: Inability to add data to the database due to absence of other data. Deletion anomaly: Unintended loss of data due to deletion of other data. Update anomaly: Data inconsistency resulting from data redundancy and partial update. Normal Forms: These are rules for structuring relations that eliminate anomalies.
FIRST NORMAL FORM (1NF) A relation is said to be in first normal form if the values in the relation are atomic for every attribute in the relation. By this we mean simply that no attribute value can be set of values, or as it is sometimes expressed, a repeating group. SECOND NORMAL FORM (2NF) A relation is said to be in second Normal form is it is in first normal form and it should satisfy any one of the following rules.
1) Primary key is not a composite primary key. 2) No nonkey attributes are present. 3) Every nonkey attribute is fully functionally dependent on full set of primary key.
THIRD NORAML FORM (3NF) A relation is said to be in third normal form if there exists no transitive dependencies. Transitive Dependency: If two nonkey depend on each other as well as on the primary key then they are said to be transitively dependent. The above normalization principles were applied to decompose the data in multiple tables thereby making the data to be maintained in a consistent state.
4.1.2 TABLE STRUCTURE
Description : stores the details of vacancies information
NAME vacancyid branchid deptid Desgid education experience Jobdescription Job posted Noofvacancies contactname teleponeno Priority Last date Status DATATYPE Int Int Int Int Varchar Varchar Varchar Datetime Int Varchar Varchar Varchar Datetime Varchar 15 45 15 15 45 45 250 SIZE CONSTRAINT Primary key Foreign key Foreign key Foreign key Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null DESCRIPTION Indicates vacancy id Indicates branch id Department id Indicates designation id Educational qualifications Experience description about the job Indicates job posted Indicates number of vacancies Vacancy creator name Call canter number Indicates priority Last date of the job posted indicates the status
Description : stores the details of Registration information
NAME Userid Username Password Firstname Middlename Lastname Fathername gender qualification Workexp Dob Dor Address Email DATATYPE Long int Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Datetime Datetime Varchar Varchar 250 50 45 10 25 45 45 45 5 70 50 Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null SIZE CONSTRAINT Primary key Unique Not null Not null DESCRIPTION User registration id User name Password First name Middle name Last name Father or guardian name Male or female Qualification of the employee Previous work experience or fresher Date of birth Date of registration Address Email
Phoneno Contactno Image Hintquestion Answer Recrutedby branchid deptid desgid sectionid status
Varchar Varchar Varbinary Varchar Varchar Long int int Int int Int Varchar
15 15 Max 50 50
Phone number Another phone number
Not null Not null Not null Not null Foreign key Foreign key Foreign key Foreign key
User image Hint question Answer Recruited employee id Brach id Department id Designation id Section id Status of employee
Description : stores the details of Branches information
NAME Branchid Branchname phoneno address hrid status DATATYPE Int Varchar Varchar Varchar Long int Varchar 5 50 15 250 SIZE CONSTRAINT Primary key Not null Not null Not null Foreign key Not null DESCRIPTION Branch id Branch name Phone number Address HR manager id Status of the branch
Description : stores the details of section information
NAME Sectionid Secname Departmentid Status DATATYPE Integer Varchar Integer Varchar 5 50 SIZE CONSTRAINT Primary key Not null Foreign key Not null DESCRIPTION Indicates the sectionid section name Department id Status of the section
Description : stores the details of Designation information
NAME Designationid Desgcode Abbreviation status DATATYPE Int Varchar Varchar Varchar 25 50 5 SIZE CONSTRAINT Primary key Not null Not null Not null DESCRIPTION Designation id Designation name Abbreviation of the designation Status of the designation
Description : stores the details of Departments information
NAME departmentid Deptcode abbreviation DATATYPE Int Varchar Varchar 25 50 SIZE CONSTRAINT Primary key Not null Not null DESCRIPTION Department id Department name Description of the department Branch id Status of the departments
Int varchar 5
Foreign key Not null
Description : stores the details of applications of vacancies information NAME App_id DATATYPE Long int SIZE CONSTRAINT Primary key Foreign key Not null Foreign key Foreign key max 5 Not null Not null DESCRIPTION Indicates application id Indicates vacancy id Date of application posted It indicates the Sender id It indicates receiver id Attach the file Status of the application
Vacancyi int d appdate Datetime Senid Long int
Receiveri Long int d Attfile varchar Status Varchar
4.2 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN To implement a web application clientserver architecture is required. The most popular clientserver architectures are the twotier and the threetier architecture. The choice of architecture affects the development time and the future flexibility and maintenance of the application. While selecting the architecture most suitable for an application, many factors including the complexity of the application, the number of users and their geographical dispersion are considered. This system is designed based on a traditional threetier architecture used by many web applications. Threetier architecture includes a presentation layer, business rules/ logic layer, and the data layer. The threetier architecture is shown in Figure .
Tier 1: Presentation/ Client Layer user interaction with the system is entirely through this layer.
Tier 2: Business Rules/Logic Layer consists of compiled business objects, components and
Tier 3: Data Layer SQL Server, Oracle or any other database engine required to support web application.
Figure : Threetier architecture
The threetier architecture is generally used when an effective distributed client/server design is needed that provides • • • • • increased performance flexibility maintainability reusability and Scalability
This model hides the complexity of distributed processing from the user. These features have made the threetier architecture a popular choice over the twotier architecture for Internet applications. The three layers are discussed below. The Data layer The Data layer is responsible for data storage. Primarily this tier (layer) consists of one or more relational databases and/or file systems. The Business Rules/Logic layer
The Business Rules/Logic layer is the middleman between the presentation layer and the data layer. This middle tier was introduced to overcome the deployment limitation (whenever the application logic changed the application had to be redistributed at each and every client) in the twotier architecture. The middle tier provides process management where business logic and rules are executed and can accommodate hundreds of users.
The Presentation Layer
The Presentation Layer, also called the Client tier, is responsible for the presentation of data, receiving user events, and controlling the user interface. The user interaction with the system is entirely through this layer. 47
4.3 INTERFACE DESIGN 4.3.1 SCREENS
4.SYSTEM TESTING Testing is the phase where the errors remaining from all the previous phase must be detected. Hence, testing is very critical role for quality assurance and for ensuring the reliability of software. Testing of designed software consists of providing the software with a set of test outputs and observing if the software behaves as expected. If the software fails to behave as expected, then the conditions under which failure occurs when needed for debugging and correction. Presence of an error implies that a failure must have occurred, and the observation of a failure applies that a fault does not imply a failure must occur. We have tested our project in many ways for e.g., by storing information of employees branches and their departments etc., into the database and checking the information by retrieving them from the database. Testing Objectives A good case is one that has a high probability of finding an undiscovered error. A testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. Successful test is one that uncovers yet undiscovered error. Testing can’t show the absences of defects are present. It can only show that software defects are present. Testing Principles: Before applying methods to design effective test cases, a software engineer must understand the basic principles that guide software testing. All tests should be traceable to consumer requirements. Test should be planned long before testing begins. Testing should begin “in small” and progress toward testing “in large”. Exhaustive testing is not possible. To be most effective, an independent third party should conduct testing. 5.1 TEST CASE DESIGN The primary objective for test case is to derive a set of tests that has the highest likelihood for uncovering defects in the software. Testing is the process of executing program with the intent of finding as an yet uncovered error. To accomplish these objective two different categories of test case techniques used. 77
5.1.1 BLACK BOX TESTING Black box testing allows to tests that are conducted at the software interface. They are used to demonstrate these software functions operational that input is properly accepted and the output is correctly produced, at the same time searching for errors. Case 1: In the registration form the user click on update link it opens update form then user enters the details and change password etc. then it should updates the database. Case 2: In the update profile the user click on change password it opens change password form the user enters the password then username should be changed, shows current password of employee. 5.1.2 WHITE BOX TESTING Knowing the internal working of the system, tests can be conducted to ensure that “all gears mesh”, that is, the internal operation performs according to specifications and all internal components have been adequately exercised. It is predicted on close examinations of procedural details and logical details providing test cases that exercise specific sets of conditions and/or loops test paths through the software. The basis path method enables the test case designer to derive a logical complexity of a procedural design and use this measure as a guide for defining as basis set of execution paths. Using the white box testing methods, the software engineer can derive test cases that 1. Guarantee that all independent paths within a module have been exercised at least once is called Basis path testing. 2. Exercise all logical decisions on there true and false sides are Condition Testing. 3. Exercise internal data structure to assure their validation is called Data Flow Testing. 4. Exercise all loops at their boundaries and within their operation bounds is called Loop. Data Flow Testing The data flow testing method selects test paths of a program according to the location of definitions and uses of variables in the program.
Test Case Explanation Case 1: When the user log on to the application, they should enter their user name and password for security of application in login form. The user must give their username and password without spelling mistakes and proper design. Case 2: When the user log on to the application, they should enter their user name and password for security of application in login form. If the user enters the spelling mistakes it will display error message “Invalid Username/Password.”. TEST CASES Test Case 1 – Login Test 1: • • • • Test 2: • • • • Incorrect input: Wrong user name and/or wrong password. Pass criteria: The user shouldn’t be allowed to login to the system and an appropriate error message should be displayed. Correct input: Right user name and password. Pass criteria: The user should be login to the system and directing to the requested secure web page. Incorrect input: An empty requirement field. (user name and password) Pass criteria: An appropriate error message should be displayed and the user shouldn’t be allowed to login. Correct input: Right user name and password. Pass criteria: The user should be directed to the secure web page which the user is requested.
Test Case 2 – New User Register • name Incorrect input: An empty requirement field. (first name, last name, middle, Photo, address, Date Of Birth, phone number, user name, password, e mail address) • • • Pass criteria: An appropriate error message should be displayed and the user shouldn’t be allowed to create an account. Correct input: Fill in all requirement fields in correct format. Pass criteria: The user information should be added into the database.
Test Case 3 – Generate Report (Order) • • Incorrect input: An empty requirement field. (Select Date) Pass criteria: An appropriate error message should be displayed and the user should not be able to generate a report. • • Correct input: Enter(Select) Correct Date Pass criteria: The user (admin) should be allowed to generate the report.
5.1.3 Basis Path Testing The Basis Path method enables the test case designer to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and use this measure as a guide for defining a basis set of execution paths. Test cases derived to exercise the basis test are guaranteed to execute every statement in the program at least one time during testing. It consists of Flow Graph Notation, Independent Program paths, Deriving Test Cases, Graph Matrices. 5.1.4 Control Structure Testing Although Basis Path Testing is simple and effective, it is not sufficient in it self. In this section, variations on control structure testing discussed briefly. Condition testing is a test case design method that exercises the logical conditions contained in a program module. Data flow testing method selects test paths of program according to the locations of definitions and uses of variables in a program. Loop testing is focuses exclusively on the validity of loop constructs.
5.2 TESTING STRATEGIES A strategy for software testing must accommodate low level tests that that are necessary to verify that a small source code segment has been correctly implemented as well as high level tests that validate major system functions against customer requirements. A strategy must provide guidance for the practitioner. 5.2.1 UNIT TESTING Unit testing focuses verification effort on smallest unit of software design. This is white box testing oriented in the “INDUSTRIAL MANPOWER RESOURCE ORGANIZER” project each and every module is tested in the following ways. This module interfaces are tested to ensure the information properly flows into and put the program unit under test. The local data structure is examined to ensure data stored temporarily maintains its integrity during all steps in an algorithm execution. Boundary conditions are tested to ensure that the module operations properly at boundaries establish to limit or restrict processing. All independent paths through the control structure are exercised to ensure that all statements in a module have been executed at least once. Error handling paths tested. Case 1: Input: The employee must input all the values in the registration form except employeeid number. Process: The system checks all the constraints, necessary validations and finally stores the account creation details of the particular employee. Output: The details of a particular employee will be displayed in the corresponding fields whenever we select the particular employee id. Case 2: Input: The employee must input all the values while Registration updating except employee number. Process: The system checks all the constraints, necessary validations and finally stores the details of specific account in corresponding databases.
Output: The registration details of a particular employee or branch will be displayed whenever we select the particular employee. 5.2.2 INTEGRATION TESTING Integration testing is a systematic technique for construction the program structure while at the some time conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing. The objective is to take unit tested modules and build a program structure that has been dictated by design. All the modules are combined in advance. The entire program tested as a whole. Present developed software is tested using bottom integration begins construction and testing with atomic modules. Lowlevel modules are combined into clusters and driver was written to coordinate test case input output. The cluster is tested. The drivers are removed and clusters are combined and moving upward in the program structure. 188.8.131.52 TopDown Integration TopDown Integration testing is an incremental approach to construction of the software architecture. Modules are integrated by moving downward through the control hierarchy, beginning with the main control module. Modules subordinate to the main control module are incorporated into the structure in either a depthFirst or BreadthFirst manner. 184.108.40.206. BottomUp Integration BottomUp Integration testing, as its name implies, begins constructions and testing with atomic modules. Because components are integrated from the BottomUp, processing required for components subordinate to a given level is always available and the need for stubs is eliminated. 220.127.116.11 Regression Testing Each time a new module is added as a part of integration testing, the software changes. New data flow paths are established, new I/O may occur and new control logic is invoked. These changes may cause problems with functions that previously worked flawlessly. In the context of an integration test strategy, regression testing is the reexecution of some subset of tests that have already been conducted to ensure that changes have not propagated unintended side effects.
5.2.3 VALIDATION TESTING Software validation is achieved through a series of blackbox tests that demonstrate conformity with requirements. A test plan outlines the classes of tests to be conducted, and a test procedure defines specific test cases that will be used in an attempt to uncover errors in conformity with requirements. In this validation testing we check each object for its validity like whether it is valid with the value entered or not. Test Case Explanation Case 1: All the validations will be checked when the user pressing the create button like name should be entered in Alphabetic and all the codes should be entered in numeric. Case 2: If we enter the already existing data into database the system will generate the warning messages that “The record information is already exist”. Case 3: In the registration, whatever the details updated by the employee immediately then the system generated the status of the employee as profile updated. 5.2.4 SYSTEM TESTING System testing is actually a series of different test whose primary purpose is to fully exercise the computerbased system. Steps taken during software design and testing can greatly improve the probability of successful software integration in the larger system. 18.104.22.168 Security Testing Security testing verifies that protection mechanisms built into a system will, in fact, protect it from improper penetration. To quote Beizer: “The system’s security must, of course, be tested for invulnerability from frontal attackbut must also be tested for invulnerability from flank or rear attack”. 22.214.171.124 Stress Testing Stress testing executes a system in a manner that demands resources in abnormal quantity, frequency, or volume. 83
For example, (1)Special tests may be designed that generate ten interrupts per second, when one or two is the average rate, (2)(2)input data rates may be increased by an order of magnitude to determine how input functions will respond. 126.96.36.199 Performance Testing Performance tests are often coupled stress testing and usually require both hardware and software instrumentation. That is, it is often necessary to measure resource utilization in an exacting fashion. Externally instrumentation can monitor execution intervals, log events has they occur, and sample machine states on a regular basis. 188.8.131.52. Debugging Debugging occurs has a consequence of successful testing. That is, when test case uncovers an error, debugging is an action that results in the removal of error. Although debugging can and should be an orderly process, it is still very much an art. A software engineer, evaluating the results of a test, is often confronted with a “Symptomatic” indication of a software problem. 5.3 SYSTEM SECURITY The protection of computer based resources that includes hardware, software, data, procedures and people against unauthorized use or natural Disaster is known as System Security. System Security can be divided into four related issues: • • • • 5.3.1 5.3.2 It refers to the technical innovations and procedures applied to the hardware and operation systems to protect against deliberate or accidental damage from a defined threat. Security Integrity Privacy Confidentiality SYSTEM SECURITY
5.3.2 DATA SECURITY It is the protection of data from loss, disclosure, modification and destruction. 5.3.3 SYSTEM INTEGRITY It refers to the power functioning of hardware and programs, appropriate physical security and safety against external threats such as eavesdropping and wiretapping. 5.3.4 PRIVACY It defines the rights of the user or organizations to determine what information they are willing to share with or accept from others and how the organization can be protected against unwelcome, unfair or excessive dissemination of information about it. 5.3.5 CONFIDENTIALITY It is a special status given to sensitive information in a database to minimize the possible invasion of privacy. It is an attribute of information that characterizes its need for protection. 5.4 SECURITY SOFTWARE System security refers to various validations on data in form of checks and controls to avoid the system from failing. It is always important to ensure that only valid data is entered and only valid operations are performed on the system. The system employees two types of checks and controls. 5.5 CLIENT SIDE VALIDATION Various client side validations are used to ensure on the client side that only valid data is entered. Client side validation saves server time and load to handle invalid data. Some checks imposed are: • • C# Script in used to ensure those required fields are filled with suitable data only. Maximum lengths of the fields of the forms are appropriately defined. Forms cannot be submitted without filling up the mandatory data so that manual mistakes of submitting empty fields that are mandatory can be sorted out at the client side to save the server time and load. • Tabindexes are set according to the need and taking into account the ease of user while working with the system. 85
5.6 SERVER SIDE VALIDATION Some checks cannot be applied at client side. Server side checks are necessary to save the system from failing and intimating the user that some invalid operation has been performed or the performed operation is restricted. Some of the server side checks imposed is: • Server side constraint has been imposed to check for the validity of primary key and foreign key. A primary key value cannot be duplicated. Any attempt to duplicate the primary value results into a message intimating the user about those values through the forms using foreign key can be updated only of the existing foreign key values. • • User is intimating through appropriate messages about the successful operations or exceptions occurring at server side. Various Access Control Mechanisms have been built so that one user may not agitate upon another. Access permissions to various types of users are controlled according to the organizational structure. Only permitted users can log on to the system and can have access according to their category. User name, passwords and permissions are controlled o the server side. • Using server side validation, constraints on several restricted operations are imposed.
6. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
By implementation the transformation of the design into a database system, this operates on a particular machine. An application is complete only on the successful installation of the same. The successful installation of the application requires the hardware and software as specified in the requirements analysis phase. After implementing some traditional methods, it checks for problems in them and implements the same using modern methods. But the proposed system is not implemented in a stretch. During the implementation stage, the system is physically created. Necessary program are coded, debugged and documented. The test plan is implementation. Including the following activities: • • • • •
Obtaining and installing the system hardware. Installing the system and making it run on its intended hardware. Providing use access to the system. Training the users on the new system. Documentation the system for its users and for those who will be responding for maintaining it in future.
Transferring on going responsibility for its system from its developers to the operations or maintenance part.
Evaluating the operation and use of the system.
SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
HARDWARE REQUIREMNTS Processor RAM HDD Video : PC with a Pentium IV Processor, 1 GHz : 512 MB : 40 GB on System Drive Recommended 80 GB on System Drive : 1024X786, 32 Bit Color Mode
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Operating System Database Server Clients Tools Services : Microsoft Windows vista : Microsoft SQL Server 2008 : Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or Latest : Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2008 : ASP.NET XML Web Services
7.SYSTEM MAINTENANCE 7.1 ASP.NET Server Application Development Serverside applications in the managed world are implemented through runtime hosts. Unmanaged applications host the common language runtime, which allows your custom managed code to control the behavior of the server. This model provides you with all the features of the common language runtime and class library while gaining the performance and scalability of the host server. The following illustration shows a basic network schema with managed code running in different server environments. Servers such as IIS and SQL Server can perform standard operations while your application logic executes through the managed code. Serverside managed code ASP.NET is the hosting environment that enables developers to use the .NET Framework to target Webbased applications. However, ASP.NET is more than just a runtime host; it is a complete architecture for developing Web sites and Internetdistributed objects using managed code. Both Web Forms and XML Web services use IIS and ASP.NET as the publishing mechanism for applications, and both have a collection of supporting classes in the .NET Framework. XML Web services, an important evolution in Webbased technology, are distributed, serverside application components similar to common Web sites. However, unlike Webbased applications, XML Web services components have no UI and are not targeted for browsers such as Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. Instead, XML Web services consist of reusable software components designed to be consumed by other applications, such as traditional client applications, Webbased applications, or even other XML Web services. As a result, XML Web services technology is rapidly moving application development and deployment into the highly distributed environment of the Internet.
If you have used earlier versions of ASP technology, you will immediately notice the improvements that ASP.NET and Web Forms offers. For example, you can develop Web Forms pages in any language that supports the .NET Framework. In addition, your code no longer needs to share the same file with your HTTP text (although it can continue to do so if you prefer). Web Forms pages execute in native machine language because, like any other managed application, they take full advantage of the runtime. In contrast, unmanaged ASP pages are always scripted and interpreted. ASP.NET pages are faster, more functional, and easier to develop than unmanaged ASP pages because they interact with the runtime like any managed application. The .NET Framework also provides a collection of classes and tools to aid in development and consumption of XML Web services applications. XML Web services are built on standards such as SOAP (a remote procedurecall protocol), XML (an extensible data format), and WSDL ( the Web Services Description Language). The .NET Framework is built on these standards to promote interoperability with nonMicrosoft solutions. For example, the Web Services Description Language tool included with the .NET Framework SDK can query an XML Web service published on the Web, parse its WSDL description, and produce C# or Visual Basic source code that your application can use to become a client of the XML Web service. The source code can create classes derived from classes in the class library that handle all the underlying communication using SOAP and XML parsing. Although you can use the class library to consume XML Web services directly, the Web Services Description Language tool and the other tools contained in the SDK facilitate your development efforts with the .NET Framework. If you develop and publish your own XML Web service, the .NET Framework provides a set of classes that conform to all the underlying communication standards, such as SOAP, WSDL, and XML. Using those classes enables you to focus on the logic of your service, without concerning yourself with the communications infrastructure required by distributed software development. Finally, like Web Forms pages in the managed environment, your XML Web service will run with the speed of native machine language using the scalable communication of IIS. 90
Active Server Pages.NET ASP.NET is a programming framework built on the common language runtime that can be used on a server to build powerful Web applications. ASP.NET offers several important advantages over previous Web development models:
Enhanced Performance. ASP.NET is compiled common language runtime code
running on the server. Unlike its interpreted predecessors, ASP.NET can take advantage of early binding, justintime compilation, native optimization, and caching services right out of the box. This amounts to dramatically better performance before you ever write a line of code.
WorldClass Tool Support. The ASP.NET framework is complemented by a rich
toolbox and designer in the Visual Studio integrated development environment. WYSIWYG editing, draganddrop server controls, and automatic deployment are just a few of the features this powerful tool provides.
Power and Flexibility. Because ASP.NET is based on the common language
runtime, the power and flexibility of that entire platform is available to Web application developers. The .NET Framework class library, Messaging, and Data Access solutions are all seamlessly accessible from the Web. ASP.NET is also languageindependent, so you can choose the language that best applies to your application or partition your application across many languages. Further, common language runtime interoperability guarantees that your existing investment in COMbased development is preserved when migrating to ASP.NET.
Simplicity. ASP.NET makes it easy to perform common tasks, from simple form
submission and client authentication to deployment and site configuration. For example, the ASP.NET page framework allows you to build user interfaces that cleanly separate application logic from presentation code and to handle events in a simple, Visual Basic like forms processing model. Additionally, the common language runtime simplifies development, with managed code services such as automatic reference counting and garbage collection.
Manageability. ASP.NET employs a textbased, hierarchical configuration
system, which simplifies applying settings to your server environment and Web applications. Because configuration information is stored as plain text, new settings may be applied without the aid of local administration tools. This "zero local administration" philosophy extends to deploying ASP.NET Framework applications as well. An ASP.NET Framework application is deployed to a server simply by copying the necessary files to the server. No server restart is required, even to deploy or replace running compiled code.
Scalability and Availability. ASP.NET has been designed with scalability in
mind, with features specifically tailored to improve performance in clustered and multiprocessor environments. Further, processes are closely monitored and managed by the ASP.NET runtime, so that if one misbehaves (leaks, deadlocks), a new process can be created in its place, which helps keep your application constantly available to handle requests.
Customizability and Extensibility. ASP.NET delivers a wellfactored architecture
that allows developers to "plugin" their code at the appropriate level. In fact, it is possible to extend or replace any subcomponent of the ASP.NET runtime with your own customwritten component. Implementing custom authentication or state services has never been easier.
Security. With built in Windows authentication and perapplication configuration,
you can be assured that your applications are secure. Language Support: The Microsoft .NET Platform currently offers builtin support for three languages: C#, Visual Basic, and JScript. What is ASP.NET Web Forms? The ASP.NET Web Forms page framework is a scalable common language runtime programming model that can be used on the server to dynamically generate Web pages. Intended as a logical evolution of ASP (ASP.NET provides syntax compatibility with existing pages), the ASP.NET Web Forms framework has been specifically designed to address a number of key deficiencies in the previous model. In particular, it provides: 92
The ability to create and use reusable UI controls that can encapsulate common
functionality and thus reduce the amount of code that a page developer has to write.
The ability for developers to cleanly structure their page logic in an orderly
fashion (not "spaghetti code").
The ability for development tools to provide strong WYSIWYG design support
for pages (existing ASP code is opaque to tools). ASP.NET Web Forms pages are text files with an .aspx file name extension. They can be deployed throughout an IIS virtual root directory tree. When a browser client requests .aspx resources, the ASP.NET runtime parses and compiles the target file into a .NET Framework class. This class can then be used to dynamically process incoming requests. (Note that the .aspx file is compiled only the first time it is accessed; the compiled type instance is then reused across multiple requests). An ASP.NET page can be created simply by taking an existing HTML file and changing its file name extension to .aspx (no modification of code is required). For example, the following sample demonstrates a simple HTML page that collects a user's name and category preference and then performs a form post back to the originating page when a button is clicked: ASP.NET provides syntax compatibility with existing ASP pages. This includes support for <% %> code render blocks that can be intermixed with HTML content within an .aspx file. These code blocks execute in a topdown manner at page render time.
CodeBehind Web Forms ASP.NET supports two methods of authoring dynamic pages. The first is the method shown in the preceding samples, where the page code is physically declared within the originating .aspx file. An alternative approachknown as the codebehind methodenables the page code to be more cleanly separated from the HTML content into an entirely separate file.
Introduction to ASP.NET Server Controls In addition to (or instead of) using <% %> code blocks to program dynamic content, ASP.NET page developers can use ASP.NET server controls to program Web pages. Server controls are declared within an .aspx file using custom tags or intrinsic HTML tags that contain a runat="server" attribute value. Intrinsic HTML tags are handled by one of the controls in the System.Web.UI.HtmlControls namespace. Any tag that doesn't explicitly map to one of the controls is assigned the type of System.Web.UI.HtmlControls. Html Generic Control. Server controls automatically maintain any cliententered values between round trips to the server. This control state is not stored on the server (it is instead stored within an <input type="hidden"> form field that is roundtripped between requests). Note also that no clientside script is required. In addition to supporting standard HTML input controls, ASP.NET enables developers to utilize richer custom controls on their pages. For example, the following sample demonstrates how the <asp:adrotator> control can be used to dynamically display rotating ads on a page. • • ASP.NET Web Forms provide an easy and powerful way to build dynamic Web UI. ASP.NET Web Forms pages can target any browser client (there are no script library or cookie requirements). • • • ASP.NET Web Forms pages provide syntax compatibility with existing ASP pages. ASP.NET server controls provide an easy way to encapsulate common functionality. ASP.NET ships with 45 builtin server controls. Developers can also use controls built by third parties. • • ASP.NET server controls can automatically project both uplevel and downlevel HTML. ASP.NET templates provide an easy way to customize the look and feel of list server controls.
7.2 C#.NET ADO.NET Overview ADO.NET is an evolution of the ADO data access model that directly addresses user requirements for developing scalable applications. It was designed specifically for the web with scalability, statelessness, and XML in mind. ADO.NET uses some ADO objects, such as the Connection and Command objects, and also introduces new objects. Key new ADO.NET objects include the DataSet, DataReader, and DataAdapter. The important distinction between this evolved stage of ADO.NET and previous data architectures is that there exists an object the DataSet that is separate and distinct from any data stores. Because of that, the DataSet functions as a standalone entity. You can think of the DataSet as an always disconnected recordset that knows nothing about the source or destination of the data it contains. Inside a DataSet, much like in a database, there are tables, columns, relationships, constraints, views, and so forth. A DataAdapter is the object that connects to the database to fill the DataSet. Then, it connects back to the database to update the data there, based on operations performed while the DataSet held the data. In the past, data processing has been primarily connectionbased. Now, in an effort to make multitiered apps more efficient, data processing is turning to a messagebased approach that revolves around chunks of information. At the center of this approach is the DataAdapter, which provides a bridge to retrieve and save data between a DataSet and its source data store. It accomplishes this by means of requests to the appropriate SQL commands made against the data store. The XMLbased DataSet object provides a consistent programming model that works with all models of data storage: flat, relational, and hierarchical. It does this by having no 'knowledge' of the source of its data, and by representing the data that it holds as collections and data types. No matter what the source of the data within the DataSet is, it is manipulated through the same set of standard APIs exposed through the DataSet and its subordinate objects. 95
While the DataSet has no knowledge of the source of its data, the managed provider has detailed and specific information. The role of the managed provider is to connect, fill, and persist the DataSet to and from data stores. The OLE DB and SQL Server .NET Data Providers (System.Data.OleDb and System.Data.SqlClient) that are part of the .Net Framework provide four basic objects: the Command, Connection, DataReader and DataAdapter. In the remaining sections of this document, we'll walk through each part of the DataSet and the OLE DB/SQL Server .NET Data Providers explaining what they are, and how to program against them. The following sections will introduce you to some objects that have evolved, and some that are new. These objects are:
• • •
Connections. For connection to and managing transactions against a database. Commands. For issuing SQL commands against a database. DataReaders. For reading a forwardonly stream of data records from a SQL Server data source.
DataSets. For storing, remoting and programming against flat data, XML data and relational data.
DataAdapters. For pushing data into a DataSet, and reconciling data against a database.
When dealing with connections to a database, there are two different options: SQL Server
.NET Data Provider (System.Data.SqlClient) and OLE DB .NET Data Provider (System.Data.OleDb). In these samples we will use the SQL Server .NET Data Provider. These are written to talk directly to Microsoft SQL Server. The OLE DB .NET Data Provider is used to talk to any OLE DB provider (as it uses OLE DB underneath). Connections: Connections are used to 'talk to' databases, and are respresented by provider specific classes such as SQLConnection. Commands travel over connections and resultsets are returned in the form of streams which can be read by a DataReader object, or pushed into a DataSet object. 96
Commands :Commands contain the information that is submitted to a database, and are represented by providerspecific classes such as SQLCommand. A command can be a stored procedure call, an UPDATE statement, or a statement that returns results. You can also use input and output parameters, and return values as part of your command syntax. The example below shows how to issue an INSERT statement against the Northwind database. DataReader :The DataReader object is somewhat synonymous with a readonly/forwardonly cursor over data. The DataReader API supports flat as well as hierarchical data. A DataReader object is returned after executing a command against a database. The format of the returned DataReader object is different from a recordset. For example, you might use the DataReader to show the results of a search list in a web page. DataSet: The DataSet object is similar to the ADO Recordset object, but more powerful, and with one other important distinction: the DataSet is always disconnected. The DataSet object represents a cache of data, with databaselike structures such as tables, columns, relationships, and constraints. However, though a DataSet can and does behave much like a database, it is important to remember that DataSet objects do not interact directly with databases, or other source data. This allows the developer to work with a programming model that is always consistent, regardless of where the source data resides. Data coming from a database, an XML file, from code, or user input can all be placed into DataSet objects. Then, as changes are made to the DataSet they can be tracked and verified before updating the source data. The GetChanges method of the DataSet object actually creates a second DatSet that contains only the changes to the data. This DataSet is then used by a DataAdapter (or other objects) to update the original data source. The DataSet has many XML characteristics, including the ability to produce and consume XML data and XML schemas. XML schemas can be used to describe schemas interchanged via WebServices. In fact, a DataSet with a schema can actually be compiled for type safety and statement completion.
Data Adapter (OLEDB/SQL) The DataAdapter object works as a bridge between the DataSet and the source data. Using the providerspecific SqlDataAdapter (along with its associated SqlCommand and SqlConnection) can increase overall performance when working with a Microsoft SQL Server databases. For other OLE DBsupported databases, you would use the OleDbDataAdapter object and its associated OleDbCommand and OleDbConnection objects. The DataAdapter object uses commands to update the data source after changes have been made to the DataSet. Using the Fill method of the DataAdapter calls the SELECT command; using the Update method calls the INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE command for each changed row. You can explicitly set these commands in order to control the statements used at runtime to resolve changes, including the use of stored procedures. For adhoc scenarios, a CommandBuilder object can generate these at runtime based upon a select statement. However, this runtime generation requires an extra roundtrip to the server in order to gather required metadata, so explicitly providing the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE commands at design time will result in better runtime performance. 1. ADO.NET is the next evolution of ADO for the .Net Framework. 2. ADO.NET was created with nTier, statelessness and XML in the forefront. Two new objects, the DataSet and DataAdapter, are provided for these scenarios. 3. ADO.NET can be used to get data from a stream, or to store data in a cache for updates. 4. There is a lot more information about ADO.NET in the documentation. 5. Remember, you can execute a command directly against the database in order to do inserts, updates, and deletes. You don't need to first put data into a DataSet in order to insert, update, or delete it. 6. Also, you can use a DataSet to bind to the data, move through the data, and navigate data relationships 98
7.3 SQL SERVER 2008 DATABASE A database management, or DBMS, gives the user access to their data and helps them transform the data into information. Such database management systems include dBase, paradox, IMS, SQL Server and SQL Server. These systems allow users to create, update and extract information from their database. A database is a structured collection of data. Data refers to the characteristics of people, things and events. SQL Server stores each data item in its own fields. In SQL Server, the fields relating to a particular person, thing or event are bundled together to form a single complete unit of data, called a record (it can also be referred to as raw or an occurrence). Each record is made up of a number of fields. No two fields in a record can have the same field name. During an SQL Server Database design project, the analysis of your business needs identifies all the fields or attributes of interest. If your business needs change over time, you define any additional fields or change the definition of existing fields. SQL Server Tables: SQL Server stores records relating to each other in a table. Different tables are created for the various groups of information. Related tables are grouped together to form a database. Primary Key:Every table in SQL Server has a field or a combination of fields that uniquely identifies each record in the table. The Unique identifier is called the Primary Key, or simply the Key. The primary key provides the means to distinguish one record from all other in a table. It allows the user and the database system to identify, locate and refer to one particular record in the database. Relational Database:Sometimes all the information of interest to a business operation can be stored in one table. SQL Server makes it very easy to link the data in multiple tables. Matching an employee to the department in which they work is one example. This is what makes SQL Server a relational database management system, or RDBMS. It stores data in two or more tables and enables you to define relationships between the table and enables you to define relationships between the tables. 99
Foreign Key: When a field is one table matches the primary key of another field is referred to as a foreign key. A foreign key is a field or a group of fields in one table whose values match those of the primary key of another table. Referential Integrity:Not only does SQL Server allow you to link multiple tables, it also maintains consistency between them. Ensuring that the data among related tables is correctly matched is referred to as maintaining referential integrity. Data Abstraction:A major purpose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the data. This system hides certain details of how the data is stored and maintained. Data abstraction is divided into three levels. Physical level: This is the lowest level of abstraction at which one describes how the data are actually stored. Conceptual Level: At this level of database abstraction all the attributed and what data are actually stored is described and entries and relationship among them. View level: This is the highest level of abstraction at which one describes only part of the database. Advantages of RDBMS • • • • • • • • Redundancy can be avoided Inconsistency can be eliminated Data can be Shared Standards can be enforced Security restrictions ca be applied Integrity can be maintained Conflicting requirements can be balanced Data independence can be achieved. A significant disadvantage of the DBMS system is cost. In
Disadvantages of DBMS:
addition to the cost of purchasing of developing the software, the hardware has to be upgraded to allow for the extensive programs and the workspace required for their execution and storage. While centralization reduces duplication, the lack of duplication requires that the database be adequately backed up so that in case of failure the data can be recovered. 100
FEATURES OF SQL SERVER (RDBMS) SQL SERVER is one of the leading database management systems (DBMS) because it is the only Database that meets the uncompromising requirements of today’s most demanding information systems. From complex decision support systems (DSS) to the most rigorous online transaction processing (OLTP) application, even application that require simultaneous DSS and OLTP access to the same critical data, SQL Server leads the industry in both performance and capability • SQL SERVER is a truly portable, distributed, and open DBMS that delivers unmatched performance, continuous operation and support for every database. • SQL SERVER RDBMS is high performance fault tolerant DBMS which is specially designed for online transactions processing and for handling large database application. • SQL SERVER with transactions processing option offers two features which contribute to very high level of transaction processing throughput, which are • The row level lock manager
Enterprise wide Data Sharing: The unrivaled portability and connectivity of the SQL SERVER DBMS enables all the systems in the organization to be linked into a singular, integrated computing resource. Portability: SQL SERVER is fully portable to more than 80 distinct hardware and operating systems platforms, including UNIX, MSDOS, OS/2, Macintosh and dozens of proprietary platforms. This portability gives complete freedom to choose the database sever platform that meets the system requirements. Open Systems: SQL SERVER offers a leading implementation of industry –standard SQL. SQL Server’s open architecture integrates SQL SERVER and non –SQL SERVER DBMS with industries most comprehensive collection of tools, application, and third party software products SQL Server’s Open architecture provides transparent access to data from other relational database and even nonrelational database. Distributed Data Sharing: SQL Server’s networking and distributed database capabilities to access data stored on remote server with the same ease as if the information was stored on a single local computer. A single SQL statement can access data at multiple sites. You can store 101
data where system requirements such as performance, security or availability dictate. Unmatched Performance: The most advanced architecture in the industry allows the SQL SERVER DBMS to deliver unmatched performance. 7.4 IIS (Internet Information Services) IIS (Internet Information Services) is a group of Internet servers including a Web or
Hypertext Transfer Protocol server and a File Transfer Protocol server. IIS is Microsoft's entry to compete in the Internet server market that is also addressed by Apache, Sun Microsystems (Sun Java System Web Server), O'Reilly and others. The current version of IIS is 7.0 for Windows Vista, 6.0 for Windows Server 2003 and IIS 5.1 for Windows XP Professional. IIS 5.1 for Windows XP is a restricted version of IIS that supports only 10 simultaneous connections and a single web site . The web server itself cannot directly perform server side processing but can delegate the task to ISAPI (Internet Server Application Program Interface) applications on the server. Microsoft provides a number of these ISAPI applications including one for Active Server Page and one for ASP.NET. A typical company that buys IIS can create pages for Web sites. There are two types of web pages, static and dynamic web pages. The static web pages are discussed in detailed in section 7.4..1 and the dynamic web pages are discussed in section7.4.2. 7.4.1 Static Web pages A Static web page consists of some HTML code typed directly into a text editor and saved as a .htm or .html file. The content and appearance of these web pages is always the same, regardless of who visits the page, or when they visit, or how they arrive at the page. The following five steps are involved for the building of a static web page : 1. An author writes a HTML page, and saves it within an .htm or .html file on the server 2. Sometime later, a client (user) requests a page by typing a URL into their browser, and the request is passed from the browser to the web server 3. The web server locates the .htm or .html page and converts it to an HTML stream 4. The web server sends the HTML stream back across the network to the browser 5. The browser processes the HTML and displays the page 102
There are several limitations for Static Web Pages. HTML offers no features for personalizing the web pages. Each web page that is served is the same for every user who request the page. The other limitation is that there is also no security with HTML as the code can be viewed by everybody. Though Static pages are very fast to download, as quickly as copying a small file over a network, they are quite limited without any dynamic features. 7.4.2. Dynamic Web Pages In a dynamic web page content (text, images, fields, etc.) on the web page can change, in response to different contexts or conditions. There are two ways to create this kind of web pages: 1. Using clientside scripting to change interface behaviours within a specific web page 2. Using serverside scripting to change the sequence of the web pages or web content Supplied to the browser. These are determined by conditions such as data in a posted HTML form, parameters in the URL, the type of browser being used and so on. 184.108.40.206. ClientSide Dynamic Web Page In the clientside model, modules (or plug ins) attached to the browser do all the work of creating dynamic pages. The HTML code is sent to the browser along with a separate file containing a set of instructions. These instructions are referenced from within the HTML page. It is also quite common to find these instructions intermingled with the HTML codes. The modules within the browser then use the instructions to generate pure HTML for the page, generating the page dynamically on request, which is sent back to the browser. This model hence involves six steps: 1.An author writes a set of instructions for creating HTML, and saves it within an .htm file. The instructions might be contained within the .htm file, or within a separate file. 2. Sometime later, a client (user) requests a page by typing it into their browser, and the request is passed from the browser to the web server. 3. The web server locates the .htm page, and any other file that contains the instructions. 4. The web server sends both the newly created HTML stream and instructions back across the network to the browser. 5. A module within the browser processes the instructions and returns it as HTML 6. The HTML is then processed by the browser which displays the page 103
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