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Talk about something that is happening at the time of speaking;
± I m studying
Something happening around the time of speaking;
± Maria is studying English at a language school
Talk about a period around the present;
± You re working hard today
Talk about changing situations.
± Is your English getting better?
± Ann doesn t go out very often.Simple Present Talk about things in general. ± Do you speak English? Use the SP to express how often things happen. ± The earth goes around the sun Use do/does to make questions. routines and universal truths. .
believe. see. like. remember. prefer. forget. seem .Simple Present X Present Continuous We use Present Cont. know. hear. love. hate. realize. for a permanent situation ± My parents live in Boston We use some verbs just in simple present ± Want. suppose. belong. mean. understand. for a temporary situation ± I m living with some friends until I find a flat Use the Simple Pres. need.
Present tenses future meaning Things you have already arranged to do ± What are you doing tomorrow evening? ± I m going to the theater Talk about timetables. etc. . schedules. ± The football game starts at 2:00 ± Tomorrow is Wednesday.
. ± I ve heard she is going to travel We prefer to use the PC to say what is arranged ± I m leaving to Europe tomorrow We use going to when we say what we think will happen ± He can t see the hole.Going to (I am going to do) To say what we have already decided or what we intend to do in the future. He is going to fall into the hole.
± The car won t start Promising to do something. ± I won t tell him anything Asking someone to do something ± Will you shut the door please . ± I left the door opened. I ll go and close it To offer something.Will Use will when we decide something at the time of speaking. I ll help you Agreeing or refusing something. ± The bag is heavy.
Will . but I ll pass I bet Carol will get the job Will and shall ± Will is more common I ll probably go to Europe ± We use Shall in questions Shall we go? .2 Use will to make predictions I m worried with the test.
To talk about things that are already planned. Use will have done to say that sthg will already have happened. . I guess the movie will already have started by the time we get to the theater. ± We re late.Will be doing and Will have done Use will be doing to say what will be in the middle of doing something. ± I ll be going downtown later. I ll probably be wearing a yellow hat. ± This time next week I ll be on vacation.
Simple Past (I did) Use SP to talk about situations in the past. ± Did you go out yesterday? ± I didn t have enough money to buy anything to eat . ± I enjoyed the party very much In questions and negatives we use did/didn t.
we were having dinner .Past continuous Use PC to say somebody was in the middle of doing sthg at a certain time. ± Dan was cooking dinner Often use SP and PC together. ± When Helen arrived. ± This time last year I was living in Brazil PC doesn t tell if a situation is finished or not.
± He has just arrived .Present perfect (I have done) 1 There is a connection with the present ± I ve lost my key (I don t have it now) Give new information or to announce a recent happening.
± I have never smoked . ± This is the first time I ve been here To say you have never done something.2 Ever / never ± Have you ever eaten caviar? ± We have never had a car This is the first time.Present Perfect . It s the first time.
this week. ± I haven t been feeling very well lately.Present Perfect . . today. etc ± I haven t seen him this morning.3 Yet. ± Has it stopped raining yet? This morning. Perfect Continuous to talk about a period of time continuing up to present. Pres.
± She has been playing tennis since she was eight.Pres. ± How long have you been studying English? For actions repeated over a period of time. ± I ve been talking to Tom about you To ask or say how long something has been happening. Perfect Continuous To talk about an action that began in the past and has recently or just stopped. .
Pres. Perfect Continuous X Simple Finished actions PPS ± She has painted the wall Unfinished action PPC ± She has been painting the wall To say how long things are happening ± Ann has been writing letters all day To say how much we have done. ± Ann has written ten letters today . how many.
Present Perfect X Simple past SP to ask or say when something happened ± When did it start raining? PP to ask or say how long something has been happening (up to present) ± How long has it be raining? Since / For ± I ve been waiting for you since 8 o clock ± I ve been waiting for you for two hours .
± The Chinese invented printing (not have invented) PP has always a connection with present. use SP. . ± I lost my key yesterday (not I have lost) Do not use PP with actions not related to present. ± Dan has been sick this year SP tells us only about the past. ± Dan wasn t sick last year.Present Perfect Simple Past PP and SP can be equal ± I lost my key = I have lost my key Do not use PP to say when something happened.
Tom had already gone home. Past Perfect is the past of Present Perfect ± I m not hungry. When I arrived at the party. ± I wasn t hungry. I d just had lunch. I ve just had lunch. . ± I arrived at the party.Past Perfect To talk about things that happened before a time in the past.
. ± Ken had been smoking for 30 years when he finally gave it up.Past Perfect Continuous PPC to say how long something had been happening before something else happened.
Used to Use used to to say that something happened regularly in the past but it no longer happens ± I used to play tennis. but now I m too lazy ± Sue used to travel a lot. These days she doesn t go away so often .
be able to Can something is possible or ability ± I can play the guitar Be able to formal ± Are you able to speak English? Could past of can ± My father could speak four languages Was able to someone managed to do something ± Bob played very well. but in the end Jack was able to beat him .Can. could.
Must (have) and Can t (have) Must we are sure something is true. (he won the game) Can t something is impossible. ± You ve just had lunch. . You can t be hungry. ± Bill must be a very good player.
use may have or might have ± He might have been working Could mean a smaller possibility. ± Jack could be in his office. ± He may be in his office ± He might be in his office To say what was possible in the past. . but I m not sure.May and Might May or might to say something is possible.
May and Might (future) May and might possibilities ± The weather forecast is not good. It might rain Continuous form may/might be doing ± I may be going to Puerto Rico in July (possible) ± I m going to Puerto Rico in July (for sure) .
Can. please? Asking and giving permission. ± Could I use your telephone? To offer. ± Can I get you a cup of tea? For offering and invite. ± Can you wait a moment. may and would To ask for something. ± Would you like a cup of tea? . could.
± You must see a doctor. ± I have to pay my bills Mustn t and don t have to are different. Just facts. ± You have to work With have to there is no feelings. ± You mustn t smoke in hospitals (forbidden) ± You don t have to use uniforms here (it s not obligated) .Have to and Must To say something is necessary.
Should To give advice. ± She s been studying hard. You ought to see it. . ± The kids shouldn t be playing For past should have. ± I shouldn t have eaten so much To say something will probably happen. so she ought to pass the exam. ± This evening I should be at home Ought to instead of should in this case: ± It s a good movie. ± Do you think I should go there? To say something isn t right. ± You should stop smoking To ask for opinion.
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