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Gramática - Inglês

Gramática - Inglês

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Published by Fernando Rezende

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Published by: Fernando Rezende on Sep 29, 2010
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Gramática - Inglês

Concurso IFSP

Present Continuous
‡ Talk about something that is happening at the time of speaking;
± I m studying

‡ Something happening around the time of speaking;
± Maria is studying English at a language school

‡ Talk about a period around the present;
± You re working hard today

‡ Talk about changing situations.
± Is your English getting better?

± Ann doesn t go out very often.Simple Present ‡ Talk about things in general. ± Do you speak English? ‡ Use the SP to express how often things happen. ± The earth goes around the sun ‡ Use do/does to make questions. routines and universal truths. .

believe. see. like. remember. prefer. forget. seem .Simple Present X Present Continuous ‡ We use Present Cont. know. hear. love. hate. realize. for a permanent situation ± My parents live in Boston ‡ We use some verbs just in simple present ± Want. suppose. belong. mean. understand. for a temporary situation ± I m living with some friends until I find a flat ‡ Use the Simple Pres. need.

Present tenses future meaning ‡ Things you have already arranged to do ± What are you doing tomorrow evening? ± I m going to the theater ‡ Talk about timetables. etc. . schedules. ± The football game starts at 2:00 ± Tomorrow is Wednesday.

. ± I ve heard she is going to travel ‡ We prefer to use the PC to say what is arranged ± I m leaving to Europe tomorrow ‡ We use going to when we say what we think will happen ± He can t see the hole.Going to (I am going to do) ‡ To say what we have already decided or what we intend to do in the future. He is going to fall into the hole.

± The car won t start ‡ Promising to do something. ± I won t tell him anything ‡ Asking someone to do something ± Will you shut the door please . ± I left the door opened. I ll go and close it ‡ To offer something.Will ‡ Use will when we decide something at the time of speaking. I ll help you ‡ Agreeing or refusing something. ± The bag is heavy.

Will . but I ll pass ‡ I bet Carol will get the job ‡ Will and shall ± Will is more common ‡ I ll probably go to Europe ± We use Shall in questions ‡ Shall we go? .2 ‡ Use will to make predictions ‡ I m worried with the test.

‡ To talk about things that are already planned. ‡ Use will have done to say that sthg will already have happened. . I guess the movie will already have started by the time we get to the theater. ± We re late.Will be doing and Will have done ‡ Use will be doing to say what will be in the middle of doing something. ± I ll be going downtown later. I ll probably be wearing a yellow hat. ± This time next week I ll be on vacation.

Simple Past (I did) ‡ Use SP to talk about situations in the past. ± Did you go out yesterday? ± I didn t have enough money to buy anything to eat . ± I enjoyed the party very much ‡ In questions and negatives we use did/didn t.

we were having dinner .Past continuous ‡ Use PC to say somebody was in the middle of doing sthg at a certain time. ± Dan was cooking dinner ‡ Often use SP and PC together. ± When Helen arrived. ± This time last year I was living in Brazil ‡ PC doesn t tell if a situation is finished or not.

± He has just arrived .Present perfect (I have done) 1 ‡ There is a connection with the present ± I ve lost my key (I don t have it now) ‡ Give new information or to announce a recent happening.

± I have never smoked . ± This is the first time I ve been here ‡ To say you have never done something.2 ‡ Ever / never ± Have you ever eaten caviar? ± We have never had a car ‡ This is the first time.Present Perfect . It s the first time.

this week. ± I haven t been feeling very well lately.Present Perfect . . today. etc ± I haven t seen him this morning.3 ‡ Yet. ± Has it stopped raining yet? ‡ This morning. Perfect Continuous to talk about a period of time continuing up to present. ‡ Pres.

± She has been playing tennis since she was eight.Pres. ± How long have you been studying English? ‡ For actions repeated over a period of time. ± I ve been talking to Tom about you ‡ To ask or say how long something has been happening. Perfect Continuous ‡ To talk about an action that began in the past and has recently or just stopped. .

Pres. Perfect Continuous X Simple ‡ Finished actions PPS ± She has painted the wall ‡ Unfinished action PPC ± She has been painting the wall ‡ To say how long things are happening ± Ann has been writing letters all day ‡ To say how much we have done. ± Ann has written ten letters today . how many.

Present Perfect X Simple past ‡ SP to ask or say when something happened ± When did it start raining? ‡ PP to ask or say how long something has been happening (up to present) ± How long has it be raining? ‡ Since / For ± I ve been waiting for you since 8 o clock ± I ve been waiting for you for two hours .

± The Chinese invented printing (not have invented) ‡ PP has always a connection with present. use SP. . ± I lost my key yesterday (not I have lost) ‡ Do not use PP with actions not related to present. ± Dan has been sick this year ‡ SP tells us only about the past. ± Dan wasn t sick last year.Present Perfect Simple Past ‡ PP and SP can be equal ± I lost my key = I have lost my key ‡ Do not use PP to say when something happened.

Tom had already gone home. ‡ Past Perfect is the past of Present Perfect ± I m not hungry. When I arrived at the party. ± I wasn t hungry. I d just had lunch. I ve just had lunch. . ± I arrived at the party.Past Perfect ‡ To talk about things that happened before a time in the past.

. ± Ken had been smoking for 30 years when he finally gave it up.Past Perfect Continuous ‡ PPC to say how long something had been happening before something else happened.

Used to ‡ Use used to to say that something happened regularly in the past but it no longer happens ± I used to play tennis. but now I m too lazy ± Sue used to travel a lot. These days she doesn t go away so often .

be able to ‡ Can something is possible or ability ± I can play the guitar ‡ Be able to formal ± Are you able to speak English? ‡ Could past of can ± My father could speak four languages ‡ Was able to someone managed to do something ± Bob played very well. but in the end Jack was able to beat him .Can. could.

Must (have) and Can t (have) ‡ Must we are sure something is true. (he won the game) ‡ Can t something is impossible. ± You ve just had lunch. . You can t be hungry. ± Bill must be a very good player.

use may have or might have ± He might have been working ‡ Could mean a smaller possibility. ± Jack could be in his office. ± He may be in his office ± He might be in his office ‡ To say what was possible in the past. . but I m not sure.May and Might ‡ May or might to say something is possible.

May and Might (future) ‡ May and might possibilities ± The weather forecast is not good. It might rain ‡ Continuous form may/might be doing ± I may be going to Puerto Rico in July (possible) ± I m going to Puerto Rico in July (for sure) .

Can. please? ‡ Asking and giving permission. ± Could I use your telephone? ‡ To offer. ± Can I get you a cup of tea? ‡ For offering and invite. ± Can you wait a moment. may and would ‡ To ask for something. ± Would you like a cup of tea? . could.

± You must see a doctor. ± I have to pay my bills ‡ Mustn t and don t have to are different. Just facts. ± You have to work ‡ With have to there is no feelings. ± You mustn t smoke in hospitals (forbidden) ± You don t have to use uniforms here (it s not obligated) .Have to and Must ‡ To say something is necessary.

Should ‡ To give advice. ± She s been studying hard. You ought to see it. . ± The kids shouldn t be playing ‡ For past should have. ± I shouldn t have eaten so much ‡ To say something will probably happen. so she ought to pass the exam. ± This evening I should be at home ‡ Ought to instead of should in this case: ± It s a good movie. ± Do you think I should go there? ‡ To say something isn t right. ± You should stop smoking ‡ To ask for opinion.

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