Course RF100

Wireless CDMA RF Wireless CDMA RF Engineering: Week 1 Engineering: Week 1

February, 2005

RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.0

1-1

Integrated RF/CDMA/Performance Training
Course RF100: RF Introduction, CDMA Principles, Understanding System Design & Performance Issues Monday
•Wireless Industry Intro. •Modulation Techniques •Mult. Access Methods •Wireless system Architectures •RF Propagation •Physics •Mechanisms •Models •Link Budgets •Margins •Pred. Tools •Meas. Tools

Tuesday
•Wireless Antennas •Intro: Principles •Families/Types •Choosing the right antenna •Selecting ants. •Other devices •Tests/Problems •Traffic Engineering •Units, principles •Traffic tables •Wireless appls.

Wednesday
•Introduction to CDMA •Spread Sp. Principles •CDMA’s Codes •Fwd & Rev Channels •System Architecture •Power Control •Phone Architecture •Handoff Process •Ec/Io, Eb/No •phone’s limitations •Call Processing •CDMA Messages

Thursday
•CDMA Flow Examples •Critical CDMA Issues •Interference control •Managing Soft HO% •Capacity constraints •Forward big picture •Reverse big picture •Sys Architecture details •Lucent •Nortel •Motorola

Friday
•System Growth Mgt. •Stopgap measures •Longterm strategies •Multiple carriers •Intercarrier Handoff •Intro to Optimization •Perspectives •Bottom-up: mobile •Top-down: OMs •Survey of Tools •Performance Goals •Design Implications

Course RF200: Optimization Principles, Tools, Techniques, and Real-Life Examples/Exercises Day 1
•Optimization Overview •RF100 Fast Review •General Q&A •Meet the CDMA performance indicators •Signatures of CDMA transmission problems •The classic CDMA death scenario •Introduction to Performance Data •System-side tools and their implications

Day 2
•Intro to Mobile Tools •Collection Tools •Grayson, LCC, HP •PN Scanners •HP, Grayson, Berkeley •Post-processing •Analyzer, DeskCat •Drive-test Demo files •Grayson •LCC •Intro to Post-Processing •Analyzer, DeskCat

Day 3
•Handsets as test tools •Drive-Test Demo Lab •RSAT/Collect 2000! •Grayson Inspector •Data Analysis and PostProcessing •Analyzer, DeskCat •what events did you see? •Identifying root causes •Parameter & configuration changes

Day 4
•Operators’ Corporate RF Benchmarking Overview •PN Scanner Lab •HP, Grayson, Berkeley •Gathering data, interpreting problems •Applied Optimization •common scenarios

February, 2005

RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.0

1-2

RF100 Chapter 1

Wireless Systems: Wireless Systems:
How did we get here? What’s it all about? How did we get here? What’s it all about?

MTS, IMTS

February, 2005

RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.0

1-3

Radio Hasn’t Been Around Long!
Days before radio.....
• 1680 Newton first suggested concept of spectrum, but for visible light only
N S

U

• 1831 Faraday demonstrated that light, electricity, and magnetism are related • 1864 Maxwell’s Equations: spectrum includes more than light • 1890’s First successful demos of radio transmission

LF HF VHF UHF MW IR

UV XRAY

February, 2005

RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.0

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First Wired Communication: Telegraphy
Samuel F.B. Morse had the idea of the telegraph on a sea cruise in the 1833. He studied physics for two years, and In 1835 demonstrated a working prototype, which he patented in 1837. Derivatives of Morse’ binary code are still in use today The US Congress funded a demonstration line from Washington to Baltimore, completed in 1844. 1844: the first commercial telegraph circuits were coming into use. The railroads soon were using them for train dispatching, and the Western Union company resold idle Samuel F. B. Morse time on railroad circuits for public telegrams, nationwide at the peak of his career 1857: first trans-Atlantic submarine cable was installed

Submarine Cable Installation news sketch from the 1850’s
February, 2005

Field Telegraphy during the US Civil War, 1860’s
1-5

RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.0

Wired Communication for Everyone: Telephony
By the 1870’s, the telegraph was in use all over the world and largely taken for granted by the public, government, and business. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone, a device for carrying actual voices over wires. Initial telephone demonstrations sparked intense public interest and by the late 1890’s, telephone service was available in most towns and cities across the USA

Alexander Graham Bell and his phone from 1876 demonstration
February, 2005

Telephone Line Installation Crew 1880’s
1-6

RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.0

Radio Milestones
1888: Heinrich Hertz, German physicist, gives lab demo of existance of electromagnetic waves at radio frequencies 1895: Guglielmo Marconi demonstrates a wireless radio telegraph over a 3-km path near his home it Italy 1897: the British fund Marconi’s development of reliable radio telegraphy over ranges of 100 kM 1902: Marconi’s successful trans-Atlantic demonstration 1902: Nathan Stubblefield demonstrates voice over radio Guglielmo Marconi 1906: Lee De Forest invents “audion”, triode vacuum tube radio pioneer, 1895
• feasible now to make steady carriers, and to amplify signals

MTS, IMTS

1914: Radio became valuable military tool in World War I 1920s: Radio used for commercial broadcasting 1940s: first application of RADAR - English detection of incoming German planes during WW II 1950s: first public marriage of radio and telephony MTS, Mobile Telephone System 1961: transistor developed: portable radio now practical 1961: IMTS - Improved Mobile Telephone Service Lee De Forest 1970s: Integrated circuit progress: MSI, LSI, VLSI, ASICs vacuum tube inventor 1979, 1983: AMPS cellular demo, commercial systems
RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.0 1-7

February, 2005

Overview of the Radio Spectrum Frequencies Used by Wireless Systems
AM LORAN Marine 3,000,000 i.e., 3x106 Hz CB 30,000,000 i.e., 3x10 Hz

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

1.2

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

2.4

3.0 MHz

Short Wave -- International Broadcast -- Amateur

3

4
VHF LOW Band

5

6

7

8

9

10
FM

12

14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 MHz 7
VHF VHF TV 7-13

VHF TV 2-6

30

40

50
UHF

60

70

80 90 100
Cellular

120 140 160 180 200
GPS

300,000,000 i.e., 3x108 Hz DCS, PCS

240

300 MHz

UHF TV 14-69

0.3

0.4

0.5

0/6

0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

1.2

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

3,000,000,000 i.e., 3x109 Hz

2.4

3.0 GHz

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

12

14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 GHz 10
30,000,000,000 i.e., 3x10 Hz

Broadcasting
February, 2005

Land-Mobile Aeronautical Mobile Telephony Terrestrial Microwave Satellite
RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.0 1-8

In the 1990’s. GSM in Europe/worldwide) • CDMA (IS-95) US Operators did not pay for their spectrum.55. although processing fees (typically $10. range for public mobile telephony. creating cellular as we know it today • The USA was divided into 333 MSAs (Metropolitan Service Areas) and over 300 RSAs (Rural Service Areas) In 1987. FCC allocated an additional 10 MHz. FCC adopted Bell Lab’s AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) standard.000’s) were charged to cover license administrative cost 333 MSAs 300+ RSAs February.0 1-9 . 2005 RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2. the FCC (USA Federal Communications Commission) allocated 40 MHz.56. all MSAs and RSAs had competing licenses granted and at least one system operating. of spectrum in the 800 MHz. IS-136) (also. additional technologies were developed for cellular • TDMA (IS-54. of “expanded spectrum” By 1990.Development of North American Cellular In the late 1970’s.

2005 RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.5 869 870 880 890 894 A 825 B A B 891.10 . 846.5 Ownership and Licensing Frequencies used by “A” Cellular Operator Initial ownership by Non-Wireline companies Frequencies used by “B” Cellular Operator Initial ownership by Wireline companies In each MSA and RSA. ESMR.North American Cellular Spectrum Uplink Frequencies (“Reverse Path”) 824 835 845 849 Downlink Frequencies (“Forward Path”) Frequency. etc.0 1 . MHz Paging. eligibility for ownership was restricted • “A” licenses awarded to non-telephone-company applicants only • “B” licenses awareded to existing telephone companies only • subsequent sales are unrestricted after system in actual operation February.

and 20 MHz.11 1910 MHz. for new wireless telephony known as PCS (Personal Communications Systems). 51 MTAs 493 BTAs PCS SPECTRUM ALLOCATIONS IN NORTH AMERICA A 15 1850 MHz. unlic. of spectrum around 1900 MHz.Development of North America PCS By 1994. February. for unlicensed services • allocation was divided into 6 blocks.2 billion (1995) • C. 2005 D 5 B 15 E F 5 5 C 15 unlic. 1 . data voice A 15 D 5 B 15 E F 5 5 C 15 1990 MHz. They wrangled in and out of court. US cellular systems were seriously overloaded and looking for capacity relief • The FCC allocated 120 MHz. 10-year licenses were auctioned to highest bidders PCS Licensing and Auction Details • A & B spectrum blocks licensed in 51 MTAs (Major Trading Areas ) • Revenue from auction: $7. F blocks were licensed in 493 BTAs (Basic Trading Areas) • C-block auction revenue: $10. D-E-F block auction: $2+ B (1996) • Auction winners are free to choose any desired technology • About half the C-block winners were unable to pay for their licenses. RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.2 B.0 . with final disposition in 2005. D. 1930 MHz. E.

and Technologies Sprint PCS • Began as partnership of Sprint.gov RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2. Lucent. Nokia. check www. Motorola AT&T Wireless Systems • Bid & won a majority of markets in A&B Blocks • will combine and integrate service between its new PCS 1900 systems and its former McCaw cellular 800 MHz. Areas. Cox Cable • Bid & won in 2/3 of US markets A or B blocks • Sprint won D and/or E blocks in remaining markets • CDMA: Mix of Nortel. OmniPoint. and Nortel networks For auction details.12 AT&T Wireless IS-136 Primeco CDMA Western Wireless Pacific Bell Aerial OmniPoint BellSouth Powertel GSM February. properties • IS-136: mix of Lucent and Ericsson equipment Other CDMA Operators • Primeco: partnership of various operators • GTE.fcc. others GSM Operators • Western Wireless.Major PCS Auction Winners Sprint PCS CDMA The Largest Players. 2005 . TCI. Pacific Bell • Mix of Ericsson. Powertel.0 1 . BellSouth. GTE.

0 .Progress in Radio Technology Development Systems. 2005 RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.13 1910 February. Transistors LSI ASICS 1940 1950 1960 Time 1970 1980 1990 2000 1 . Signals. & Devices Radio Communication Systems HFAmateur Marine Military VHFLand Mobile Mobile Telephony30-50MHz 150MHz 450MHz 800MHz 1900MHz Microwave Microwave Satellite RADAR Point-to-Point AM Bcst1MHz FM Bcst100MHz VHF-TV Bcst UHF-TV Bcst FM PM PSK QAM DQPSK GMSK Modulation CW AM FSK Devices Spark Vacuum Tubes 1920 1930 Discrete MSI VLSI.

Evolution of Wireless Telephony Standards.14 RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2. & Capacity Standards Evolution MTS150MHz IMTS150MHz 450MHz Technology Evolution Analog AM. etc ESMR800MHz FDMA TDMA CDMA Access Strategies Vacuum Tubes Discrete Transistors MSI LSI VLSI. 2005 PCS-1900 = FDMA = TDMA = CDMA = 1990 Personal Communication Systems Frequency Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access Code Division Multiple Access 1 . FM Digital Modulation DQPSK GMSK AMPS800MHz N_AMPS D-AMPS CDMA PCS1900MHz GSM CDMA AMPS.000’s System Capacity Evolution . ASICs 1.0 . Technologies.000’s 1960 AMPS = Advanced Mobile Phone System N_AMPS = Narrowband AMPS (Motorola) D-AMPS = Digital AMPS (IS-54 TDMA) ESMR = Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio February.000.Users Dozens Hundreds 100.

Summary: Wireless Economics and Logistics Trends in Radio Communications Technology: System Organization: Analog Centralized Digital Distributed Cost per Subscriber System Capacity System Complexity Radio Frequencies Used Time February.15 . 2005 RF100a(c) 2005 Scott Baxter v2.0 1 .

2005 RF100 v2.RF100 Chapter 2 Wireless Systems: Wireless Systems: Modulation Schemes and Bandwidth Modulation Schemes and Bandwidth Q axis b a fc Lower Sideband Upper Sideband 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 Q axis r c φ I axis fc QPSK b a c φ I axis fc 1 fc p v π/4 shifted DQPSK February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2-1 .

timevarying radio signal Natural Frequency of the signal S (t) = A cos [ ωc t + ϕ ] Amplitude (strength) of the signal Phase of the signal Compare these Signals: Different Amplitudes The purpose of telecommunications is to send information from one place to another Our civilization exploits the transmissible nature of radio signals. two if by sea” Three commonly-used RF signal characteristics which can be varied for information transmission: Different Frequencies Different Phases February.Characteristics of a Radio Signal SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS The complete. ‘modulated’) to represent the information The sender and receiver must have a consistent understanding of what the variations mean to each other • “one if by land.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2-2 . some characteristic of the radio signal must be altered (I..e. using them in a sense as our “carrier pigeons” To convey information. 2005 • Amplitude • Frequency • Phase RF100 v2.

AM: Our First “Toehold” for Transmission The early radio pioneers could only turn their crude transmitters on and off. Despite its disadvantages and antiquity. commercial. with carrier suppressed or attenuated. are used for marine. • AM modulation is used for the visual portion of commercial television signals (sound portion carried by FM modulation) • Citizens Band (“CB”) radios use AM modulation • Special variations of AM featuring single or independent sidebands. RF power could now be linearly modulated in step with sound vibrations. band). PM. military. Kentucky. and amateur communications SSB LSB USB February. • AM modulation remains the international civil aviation standard. used by all commercial aircraft (108-132 MHz. Commercial public AM broadcasting began in the early 1920’s. Voices and music could now be transmitted!! Still. and elsewhere. By 1910. The first successful radio experiments happened during the mid-1890’s by experimenters in Italy. 2005 RF100 v2. England. AM is still alive: • AM broadcasting continues today in 540-1600 KHz.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2-3 . nobody anticipated FM. or digital signals. They could form the dots and dashes of Morse code. vacuum tubes gave experimenters better control over RF power generation.

AM has definite drawbacks which complicate its use for wireless systems: • Only part of an AM signal’s energy actually carries information (sidebands).the spectrum of the baseband signal translates directly into sidebands on both sides of the carrier frequency Despite its simplicity. the radian carrier freq. otherwise. the rest is the carrier • The two identical sidebands waste bandwidth • AM signals can be faithfully amplified only by linear amplifiers • AM is highly vulnerable to external noise during transmission • AM requires a very high C/I (~30 to 40 dB). 2005 RF100 v2. interference is objectionable mn(t) a Σ x(t) x(t) = [1 + amn(t)]cos ωc t where: a = modulation index (0 < a <= 1) mn(t) = modulating waveform ωc = 2π fc.Amplitude Modulation (“AM”) Details TIME-DOMAIN VIEW of AM MODULATOR + + 1 cos ωc AM is “linear modulation” -.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2-4 . FREQUENCY-DOMAIN VIEW Voltage mn(t) CARRIER LOWER SIDEBAND UPPER SIDEBAND BASEBAND x(t) fc 0 Frequency February.

) 2-5 February. AM demodulation can also be performed by coherent detectors • incoming signal is mixed (multiplied) with a locally generated carrier • enhances performance when S/N ratio is poor (<10 dB.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . information Lin. 2005 RF100 v2.Circuits to Generate & Detect AM Signals TIME-DOMAIN VIEW: AM MODULATOR [1 + amn(t)] Modulated signal Sat. mn(t) RF carrier ∼ ∼ x(t) cos ωc TIME-DOMAIN VIEW: AM DETECTOR (non-coherent) x(t) ∼ mn(t) AM modulation can be simply accomplished in a saturated amplifier • superimpose the modulating waveform on the supply voltage of the saturated amplifier AM de-modulation (detection) can be easily performed using a simple envelope detector • example: half-wave rectifier • this “non-coherent” detection works well if S/N >10 dB.

the instantaneous frequency of the signal is varied by the modulating waveform Advantages of FM • the amplitude is constant – simple saturated amplifiers can be used – the signal is relatively immune to external noise – the signal is relatively robust.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2-6 .Better Quality: Frequency Modulation (“FM”) TIME-DOMAIN VIEW Frequency Modulation (FM) is a type of angle modulation • in FM. 2005 fc RF100 v2. in wireless applications Disadvantages of FM • relatively complex detectors are required • a large number of sidebands are produced. requiring even larger bandwidth than AM t sFM(t) =A cos ωc t + mω m(x)dx+ϕ0 t0 [ ] where: A = signal amplitude (constant) ωc = radian carrier frequency mω = frequency deviation index m(x) = modulating signal ϕ0 = initial phase FREQUENCY-DOMAIN VIEW Voltage LOWER SIDEBANDS UPPER SIDEBANDS SFM(t) 0 Frequency February. required C/I values are typically 17-18 dB.

Circuits to Generate and Detect FM Signals TIME-DOMAIN VIEW: FM MODULATOR information FM modulated signal m(x) ~ VCO x LO HPA sFM(t) TIME-DOMAIN VIEW: FM DETECTOR sFM(t) m(x) LNA x LO PLL One way to build an FM signal is a voltage-controlled oscillator • the modulating signal varies a reactance (varactor. then heterodyned to a desired communications frequency FM de-modulation (detection) can be performed by any of several types of detectors • Phase-locked loop (PLL) • Pulse shaper and integrator • Ratio Detector February. 2005 RF100 v2.) or otherwise changes the frequency of the oscillator • the modulation may be performed at a low intermediate frequency.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2-7 . etc.

2005 .The Inventor of FM Major Edwin H. Sarnoff and RCA were promoting television. the technology he started is used not only in broadcasting and the sound portion of TV. Armstrong’s primary motivation was to improve the audio quality of broadcast transmission. In 1933. but also in land mobile and first-generation analog cellular systems.and implemented the basic mixing principle of heterodyne frequency conversion used in virtually all modern radio receivers. Armstrong was one of the most famous inventors in the early history of radio. the US FCC decided to change the frequencies allocated for FM broadcasting. Others got the credit. despondent over these setbacks.000+ home receivers Armstrong had helped finance as an FM demonstration. In 1918. Mainly due to RCA influence. But today. In 1954. Armstrong took his life. he invented the superheterodyne circuit -. RF100 v2. Promotion and commercial development of FM placed Armstrong in competition with David Sarnoff and Radio Corporation of America. and worried Armstrong’s FM would compete with TV and slow its public acceptance. he invented wide-band frequency modulation. which had suffered from noise and static because it used AM modulation. obsoleting hundreds of FM transmitters and 500.1954 February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2-8 Edwin Howard Armstrong 1890 .

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2-9 . just like FM.Sister of FM: Phase Modulation (“PM”) TIME-DOMAIN VIEW Phase-modulated signal information sPM(t) =A cos ωc t + mω m(x) +ϕ0 where: A = signal amplitude (constant) ωc = radian carrier frequency mω = phase deviation index m(x) = modulating signal ϕ0 = initial phase [ ] FREQUENCY-DOMAIN VIEW Voltage LOWER SIDEBANDS UPPER SIDEBANDS SFM(t) Phase Modulation (PM) is a type of angle modulation. requiring even larger bandwidth than AM 0 Frequency February. in wireless applications Disadvantages of PM • relatively complex detectors are required. required C/I values are typically 17-18 dB. just like FM • a large number of sidebands are produced. closely related to FM • the instantaneous phase of the signal is varied according to the modulating waveform Advantages of PM: very similar to FM • the amplitude is constant – simple saturated amplifiers can be used – the signal is relatively immune to external noise – the signal is relatively robust. 2005 fc RF100 v2.

sFM(t) m(x) LNA x LO PLL February.Circuits to Generate and Detect PM Signals TIME-DOMAIN VIEW: PHASE MODULATOR information Phase-modulated signal m(x) x ~ Phase Shifter HPA sFM(t) LO TIME-DOMAIN VIEW: FM DETECTOR FOR PM PM and FM signals are identical with only one exception: in FM. preemphasis and de-emphasis are often used in FM systems The phase of a PM signal is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. The phase of an FM signal is proportional to the integral of the amplitude of the modulating signal. 2005 RF100 v2.10 . the analog modulating signal is inherently deemphasized by 1/F Consequences of this realization: • the same types of circuitry can be used to generate and detect both analog PM or FM. Therefore. determined by filtering the modulating signal at baseband • FM has poorer signal-to-noise ratio than PM at high modulating frequencies.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2 .

2005 RF100 v2. called “input” or “baseband” • bandwidth usually is small.How Much Bandwidth do Signals Occupy? Time-Domain (as viewed on an Oscilloscope) Frequency-Domain (as viewed on a Spectrum Analyzer) The bandwidth occupied by a signal depends on: Voltage Voltage Time 0 Frequency fc Lower Sideband Upper Sideband fc fc fc • input information bandwidth • modulation method Information to be transmitted.11 February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . much lower than frequency of carrier Unmodulated carrier • the carrier itself has Zero bandwidth!! AM-modulated carrier • Notice the upper & lower sidebands • total bandwidth = 2 x baseband FM-modulated carrier • Many sidebands! bandwidth is a complex Bessel function • Carson’s Rule approximation 2(F+D) PM-modulated carrier • Many sidebands! bandwidth is a complex Bessel function 2 .

24. at age 84.Claude Shannon: The Einstein of Information Theory The core idea that makes CDMA possible was first explained by Claude Shannon.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . February. channel bandwidth. A Mathematical Theory of Communication." His paper so clearly established the foundations of information theory that his framework and terminology are standard today. 2001. and detection error probability • It shows the theoretical upper limit attainable In 1948 Claude Shannon published his landmark paper on information theory. 2005 SHANNON’S CAPACITY EQUATION C = Bω log2 [ 1+ S N ] Bω = bandwidth in Hertz C = channel capacity in bits/second S = signal power N = noise power 2 . a Bell Labs research mathematician Shannon's work relates amount of information carried. He observed that "the fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point.12 RF100 v2. signal-to-noise-ratio. Shannon died Feb.

2005 RF100 v2.Digital Sampling and Vocoding Digital Sampling and Vocoding February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2 .13 .

Introduction to Digital Modulation The modulating signals shown in previous slides were all analog.carrying multiple streams of information intermixed using time-sharing 2 . It is also possible to quantize modulating signals. each demodulation and remodulation produces a clean output signal free of past noise and distortion Digital bit streams are ideally suited to multiplexing .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . and use such signals to perform digital modulation. added to the noise and distortion from previous demodulations/remodulations. • in digital systems. restricting them to discrete values.14 transmission demodulation-remodulation transmission demodulation-remodulation transmission demodulation-remodulation February. Digital modulation has several advantages over analog modulation: Digital signals can be more easily regenerated than analog • in analog systems. 2005 RF100 v2. the effects of noise and distortion are cumulative: each demodulation and remodulation introduces new noise and distortion.

Theory of Digital Modulation: Sampling
m(t) Voice and other analog signals first must be converted to digital form (“sampled”) before they can be transmitted digitally The sampling theorem gives the requirements for successful sampling • The signal must be sampled at least twice during each cycle of fM , its highest frequency. 2 x fM is called the Nyquist Rate. • to prevent “aliasing”, the analog signal is low-pass filtered so it contains no frequencies above fM Required Bandwidth for Samples, p(t) • If each sample p(t) is expressed as an n-bit binary number, the bandwidth required to convey p(t) as a digital signal is at least N*2* fM • this follows Shannon’s Theorem: at least one Hertz of bandwidth is required to convey one bit per second of data • Notice: lots of bandwidth required!
2 - 15

Sampling p(t)

m(t) Recovery

The Sampling Theorem: Two Parts
•If the signal contains no frequency higher than fM Hz., it is completely described by specifying its samples taken at instants of time spaced 1/2 fM s. •The signal can be completely recovered from its samples taken at the rate of 2 fM samples per second or higher.
February, 2005

RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

The Mother of All Telephone Signals: DS-0
Band-Limiting
0 dB -10dB -20dB -30dB -40dB 100 300 1000 3000 Frequency, Hz 10000

C-Message Weighting

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

16 15 8 3 1 3 4 4

Companding
t

8

µ-Law

y = sgn(x)

(whereµ = 255) 1

ln(1+ µ| x|) ln(1 + µ)

A-LAW A|x| y = sgn(x)

for 0 ≤ x ≤ A ln(1+ A) 1 ln(1+ A|x)| y = sgn(x) for < x ≤1 A ln(1+ A)
(where A = 87. 6)

Telephony has adopted a world-wide PCM standard digital signal, using a 64 kb/s stream derived from sampled voice data Voice waveforms are band-limited (see curve) • upper cutoff beyond 3500-4000 Hz. to avoid aliasing • rolloff below 300 Hz. For less sensitivity to “hum” picked up from AC power mains Voice waveforms sampled 8000 times/second • A>D conversion has 1 byte (8 bit) resolution; thus 256 voltage levels possible • 8000 samples x 1 byte = 64,000 bits/second • Levels are defined logarithmically rather than linearly, to handle a wider range of audio levels with minimum distortion – µ-law companding is used in North America & Japan – A-law companding is used in most other countries

x = analog audio voltage y = quantized level (digital)

February, 2005

RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

2 - 16

Was Digital Supposed to Give More Capacity!?
A DS-0 telephone signal, carrying one person talking, is a 64,000 bits/second data stream. Shannon’s theorem tells us we’ll need at least 64,000 Hz. of bandwidth to carry this signal, even with the most advanced modulation techniques (QPSK, etc.) But regular analog cellular signals are only 30,000 Hz. wide! So does a digital signal require more bandwidth than analog?!! YES -- unless we do something fancy, like compression. We DO use compression, to reduce the number of bits being transmitted, thereby keeping the bandwidth as small as we can The compressing device is called a Vocoder (voice coder). It both compresses the signal being sent, and expands the signal being received Every digital mobile phone technology uses some type of Vocoder • There are many types, with many different characteristics
February, 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2 - 17

Vocoders: Compression vs. Distortion
Objective: to significantly reduce the number of bits which must be transmitted, but without creating objectionable levels of distortion We are concerned mainly with telephone applications, with voice signal already band-limited to 4 kHz. max. and sampled at 8 kHz. The objective is toll-quality voice reproduction General Categories of Speech Coders • Waveform Coders – attempt to re-create the input waveform – good speech quality but at relatively high bit rates • Vocoders – attempt to re-create the sound as perceived by humans – quantize and mimic speech-parameter-defined properties – lower bit rates but at some penalty in speech quality • Hybrid Coders – mixed approach, using elements of Waveform Coders & Vocoders – use vector quantization against a codebook reference – low bit rates and good quality speech
February, 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2 - 18

Meet some Families of Speech Coders
Objective: to significantly reduce the number of bits which must be transmitted, but without creating objectionable levels of distortion We are concerned mainly with telephone applications, with voice signal already band-limited to 4 kHz. max. and sampled at 8 kHz. The objective is toll-quality voice reproduction A few different strategies and algorithms used in voice compression:
PCM (pulse-code modulation), APCM (adaptive PCM) DPCM (differential PCM), ADPCM (adaptive DPCM) DM (delta modulation), ADM (adaptive DM) CVSD (continuously variable-slope DM) APC (adaptive predictive coding) RELP (residual-excited linear prediction) SBC (subband coding) ATC (adaptive transform coding) MPLP (multipulse-excited linear prediction) RPE (regular pulse-excited linear prediction) VSELP (vector-sum excited linear prediction) CELP (code-excited linear prediction) Channel, Formant, Phase, Cepstral, or Homomorphic LPC (linear predictive coding) STC (sinusoidal transform coding) MBE (multiband excitation), IMBE (improved MBE)
RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2 - 19

Waveform Coders

Hybrid Coders

Vocoders

February, 2005

Speech Coders Used Mobile Technologies:
Vocoders are usually described by their output rate (8 kilobits/sec, etc.) and the type of algorithm they use. Here’s a list of the vocoders used in currently popular wireless technologies:
bits/sec 64k 32k 32k 16k 13/7/4/2 v 13k 9.6k 8k 8k 6.7k 6.4k 8/4/2/1 v 8/4/2/1 v 4.8k 2.4k
February, 2005

Algorithm log PCM ADPCM LD-CELP APC QCELP RPE-LTP MPLP EFRC VSELP VSELP IMBE QCELP QCELP CELP LPC-10

Standard (Year) CCITT G.711 (1972) CCITT G.721 (1984) CCITT G.728 (1992) Inmarsat-B (1985) CTIA, IS-54/J-Std008 (1995) CDMA Pan-European DMR, GSM (1991) BTI Skyphone (1990) IS-136 (1997) TDMA enhanced CTIA IS-54 (1993) TDMA Japanese DMR (1993) Inmarsat-M (1993) Enhanced Vocoder, 1997 CDMA CTIA, IS-95 (1993) CDMA US, FS-1016 (1991) US, FS-1015 (1977)

MOS 4.3 4.1 4.0 n/avail n/avail 3.5 3.4 n/avail 3.5 3.4 3.4 n/avail 3.4 3.2 2.3
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RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

The Latest Vocoder Technology, 2005
CDMA Family: • SMV (selective multirate vocoder) ETSI GSM/WCDMA Family • AMR (adaptive multirate vocoder)

February, 2005

RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

2 - 21

Digital Modulation Digital Modulation

February, 2005

RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

2 - 22

Modulation by Digital Inputs Our previous modulation examples used continuously-variable analog inputs. If we quantize the inputs.23 February. modulate a signal with this digital waveform. • The user gets to decide what levels mean “0” and “1” -.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . We call this “shift keying”. now we’re “shifting” between discrete levels. 2005 RF100 v2. restricting them to digital values. GSM & PCS-1900 2 . we will produce digital modulation. Voltage Time 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 For example. No more continuous analog variations.there are no inherent values Steady Carrier without modulation Amplitude Shift Keying ASK applications: digital microwave Frequency Shift Keying FSK applications: control messages in AMPS cellular. TDMA cellular Phase Shift Keying PSK applications: TDMA cellular.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2 . CDPD Hybrid Combinations of Linear and Constant Envelope Modulation • MPSK M-ary Phase Shift Keying • QAM M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation • MFSK M-ary Frequency Shift Keying FLEX paging protocol Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Techniques • DSSS Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum IS-95 CDMA • FHSS Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum February.Digital Modulation Schemes There are many different schemes for digital modulation.24 . immunity to errors in transmission. each a compromise between complexity. 2005 RF100 v2. required channel bandwidth. and possible requirement for linear amplifiers Linear Modulation Techniques • BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying • DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying • QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying IS-95 CDMA forward link – Offset QPSK IS-95 CDMA reverse link – Pi/4 DQPSK IS-54. IS-136 control and traffic channels Constant Envelope Modulation Schemes • BFSK Binary Frequency Shift Keying AMPS control channels • MSK Minimum Shift Keying • GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying GSM systems.

so that I and Q never change simultaneously and the mobile TX never passes through (0.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2 .25 . pilot. sync. paging) has its own amplitude. 2005 Q Axis Short PN I cos ωt User’s chips Short PN Q 1/2 chip sin ωt Σ I Axis Base Stations: QPSK Q Axis Short PN I cos ωt User’s chips Short PN Q Σ I Axis sin ωt RF100 v2.0) sometimes.Modulation used in CDMA Systems Mobiles: OQPSK CDMA mobiles use offset QPSK modulation • the Q-sequence is delayed half a chip. so the transmitter is unavoidably going through (0.0) CDMA base stations use QPSK modulation • every signal (voice. no reason to include 1/2 chip delay February.

26 . Paging. 2005 RF100 v2. and certain traffic channels are in use February.CDMA Base Station Modulation Views The view at top right shows the actual measured QPSK phase constellation of a CDMA base station in normal service The view at bottom right shows the measured power in the code domain for each walsh code on a CDMA BTS in actual service • Notice that not all walsh codes are active • Pilot. Sync.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 2 .

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3-1 . 2005 RF100 v2.Chapter 3 Wireless Systems: Wireless Systems: Multiple Access Technologies & Standards Multiple Access Technologies & Standards February.

GSM) Time Division Multiple Access • each user has a private time on a private frequency (at least in their own neighborhood) e cy en u eq Fr TDMA Power Ti m e CDMA (examples: IS-95. J-Std.Multiple Access Technologies FDMA (example: AMPS) Frequency Division Multiple Access • each user has a private frequency (at least in their own neighborhood) FDMA Power T im TDMA (examples: IS-54/136. 008) Code Division Multiple Access • users co-mingle in time and frequency but each user has a private code (at least in their own neighborhood) e qu Fr e y nc CDMA Power Tim e F cy en u req February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3-2 . 2005 RF100 v2.

the C/I is controlled mainly by the distance between co-channel cells • frequency usage is planned so that co-channel users don’t have interference worse than C/I • any undesired interference we face is coming from the nearest co-channel cells. the desired signal must be stronger than all interference by at least a certain margin called C/I (carrier-to-interference ratio) • the type of signal modulation determines the amount of interference which can be tolerated. February. far away • if the signal is delicate.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3-3 . we can tolerate more interference (smaller C/I) allowing the cochannel cells a bit closer without bad effects AMPS-TDMA-GSM 1 4 7 6 1 4 2 3 6 1 5 1 7 3 5 1 4 2 3 6 5 1 2 7 1 Figure of Merit: C/I (carrier/interference ratio) AMPS: +17 dB TDMA: +14 to 17 dB GSM: +7 to 9 dB. then we need a big C/I and the co-channel cells must be very far away • if the signal is more rugged. 2005 RF100 v2.Conventional Technologies: Recovering the Signal / Avoiding Interference In ordinary radio technologies. and thus the required C/I In conventional systems.

Quality Indicator C/I ≅ 17 dB C/I ≅ 17 dB C/I ≅ 17 dB C/I ≅ 17 dB Eb/No ≅ 6dB -50 B A C D A B C D RSSI.Handoffs and C/I One purpose of handoff is to keep the call from dropping as the mobile moves out of range of individual cells Another purpose of handoff is to ensure the mobile is using the cell with the best signal strength and best C/I at all times Notice in the signal graphs at lower right how the mobile’s C/I is maintained at a usable level as it goes from cell to cell Sites Technology AMPS NAMPS TDMA GSM CDMA Modulation Type Analog FM Analog FM DPQSK GMSK QPSK/OQPSK Channel Bandwidth 30 kHz.250 kHz.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3-4 . 10 kHz. dBm -120 C/I February. 1. 30 kHz. 2005 RF100 v2. 200 kHz.

2005 RF100 v2.CDMA: Using A New Dimension All CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Frequency and time are not used as discriminators CDMA operates by using a new dimension. the decoding process recovers the user’s energy while discarding others’ energy. Instead. to discriminate between users • In CDMA. typically about +6 db. Although the CDMA C/I is negative. the interference originates mainly from nearby users in the same general area Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd -. 3-5 . We’ll study this in detail later. The final net result is Eb/No. CDMA: -10 to -17 dB. and detect little patterns which are the “signature” of the user we wish to decode In CDMA.but with a uniquely recoverable code February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter CDMA Figure of Merit: C/I AMPS: +17 dB TDMA: +14 to +17 dB GSM: +7 to 9 dB. we do not try to immediately recover the pulses of energy from each user. CODING. we watch long groups of the totals of everybody’s pulses.

Data Capabilities 2. 1250 kHz.4K by modem Features: Incremental Progress First System.1 Mb/s DL 1. R: 3687k 50-80 voice 120-210 per 1 20-35 25-40 3 carriers and data 14.4 Mb/s DL 1. A 1xRTT 3xRTT 1xTreme IS-856 IS-856 RL FL RL FL RL FL RL FL RL FL 2G 2G IS-95A/ IS-95B J-Std008 RL FL RL FL 1250 kHz. 59 active Many packet users users 3.The CDMA Migration Path to 3G CDMAone Generation Technology Spectrum Signal Bandwidth.8 Mb/s UL Higher data rates on dataonly CDMA carrier 5 Mb/s None. F: 3x 1250k 30 kHz. Capacity & Handoffs 2.0 Mb/s 153 Kb/s UL First CDMA. 0 Rev.5G? 3G 3G 3G IS-2000: IS-2000: 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV Rev. 2005 RF100 v2. 1250 kHz. #Users 1G AMPS RL FL CDMA2000 / IS-2000 2. 59 active users 1250 kHz. Capacity.4K 64K 153K 307K 230K •Enhanced Access •Channel Structure 1250 kHz.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3-6 . 1250 kHz. Quality •Improve d Access •Smarter Handoffs Faster data rates on shared 3-carrier bundle High data rates on data-only CDMA carrier High data rates on Data-Voice shared CDMA carrier February.

Modulation Techniques of 1xEV Technologies 1xEV.6 kbps reverse • A 1xEV DO carrier holds only packet data. Data and Voice”. • Max throughput of 5 Mbps forward. 307. is a family of alternative fast-data schemes that can be implemented on a 1x CDMA carrier.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3-7 . QPSK CDMA IS-95. “1x Evolution”. IS-2000 1xRTT. 1xEV DO means “1x Evolution. • Up to 2. Data Only”. work continues All versions of 1xEV use advanced modulation techniques to achieve high throughputs. and does not support circuit-switched voice • Commercially available in 2003 1xEV DV means “1x Evolution. 153.2k reverse • Backward compatible with IS-95/1xRTT voice calls on the same carrier as the data • Not yet commercially available. and lower rates of 1xEV-DO. originally proposed by Qualcomm as “High Data Rates” (HDR).4576 Mbps forward. 2005 RF100 v2. DV 16QAM 1xEV-DO at highest rates 64QAM 1xEV-DV at highest rates February.

2005 RF100 v2.5 avg. UMTS UTRA GPRS EDGE WCDMA 3. 7. 200 kHz.84 MHz. up to 200+ Many fast data voice users Pkt.GSM Technology Migration Path to 3G Generation Technology Signal Bandwidth.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3-8 . 200 kHz. users many users and data 9-160 Kb/s 384 Kb/s (conditions mobile user determine) 2Mb/s static user various none Features: Incremental Progress various Europe’s first Digital wireless Integrated •Packet IP 8PSK for voice/data access 3x Faster (Future rates •Multiple data rates to 12 MBPS attached than GPRS using adv. users modulation?) February. #Users Data Capabilities 1G various analog 2G GSM 2.5G or 3? 3G 3G various 200 kHz.

users many users and data 9-160 Kb/s 384 Kb/s (conditions mobile user determine) 2Mb/s static user 30 kHz. none First System. #Users Data Capabilities 1G AMPS 2G CDPD 2G TDMA IS-54 IS-136 2G GSM 2.TDMA IS-136 Technology Migration Path to 3G the familiar GSM path! Generation Technology Signal Bandwidth. 2005 RF100 v2. USA’s first Digital wireless Integrated •Packet IP Europe’s 8PSK for voice/data access first 3x Faster (Future rates •Multiple Digital data rates to 12 MBPS attached wireless than GPRS using adv. 2.84 MHz. users modulation?) February. 1 None. up to 200+ Many fast data voice users Pkt. 7.5 avg. 200 kHz.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3-9 .4K by modem 30 kHz. 200 kHz. Features: Incremental Capacity & Progress Handoffs US Packet Data Svc.5G or 3? 3G 3G UMTS UTRA GPRS EDGE WCDMA 3.2 kbps none 200 kHz. Many 3 users Pkt Usrs 19. 30 kHz.

or 256QAM GMSK 64QAM OFDM 23.16 2-11 GHz 10-66 GHz TDD. for comparison only BLUETOOTH 802.4 GHz 2. QPSK. WILAN Infrared IRDA February.20 Mobile BWA various 4 Mb/s CCK FSK or BPSK.5 Mb/s 54 Mb/s 54 Mb/s 11 Mb/s 54 Mb/s Not BWA.11b 2. or 64QAM HIPERLAN HIPERLAN Type 1 Type 2 5 GHz OFDM 5 GHz various. 16QAM.4G: Broadband Wireless Access Technologies High Hopes! Technology Frequency Band Access Method Modulation Type Max Raw Data Rate Infrared IRDA Optical Single User per Optical Carrier Bluetooth 802. FDD various 802. 2005 RF100 v2. WIFI. 802.10 . B.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3 .11A. QPSK.11a 5 GHz DSSS BPSK. BPSK to 16QAM.4 GHz various GFSK FH 1 Mb/s DSSS 802.

11b “Wi-Fi” 802. new 3G arriving 2002 through 2005 • A groundswell of commercial (and even free!) WILAN deployment 3G networks and 4G networks have their own unique advantages Ultimately 3G and 4G will be integrated by wireless operators! February.5G: GPRS. 1xEV DV UMTS WCDMA PSTN IP/VPNs Low-Tier $ 4G: Wireless LAN 802. 1xEV DO.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3 . 2005 RF100 v2.11 . GSM. IS95 CDMA.org There’s a revolution going on! • New 2.4G – Evolution or Revolution? Technology High-Tier $$$ 1G: AMPS 2G: TDMA. EDGE 3G: IS2000 1xRTT. g HIPERLAN Type 1 HIPERLAN Type 2 Bluetooth Infrared Hotspots freenetworks.11a. IDEN Environment Service Provider/ Infrastructure Owner Near-Universal Macro-Coverage 2.5G services arriving now.

000 65.7% 18.Global and US Wireless Snapshot 4Q 2003 Total Wireless Users GSM users CDMA users TDMA users IDEN users Analog users Worldwide 1.000 of each.000 5.000. 2/3 of worldwide wireless customers use the GSM technology CDMA is second-most-prevalent with 17. with 1.232 11.000.503.080.000 2.6% 8.000.000.9% 224.000 33.0% 124.2% 34.320.732.12 .4% 68.000. CDMA is the most prevalent technology at 45.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3 .978.2% Total Worldwide Wireless customers surpassed total worldwide landline customers at year-end 2002.000 9.375.5% 3.382 4.000.7% Both CDMA and GSM are growing in the US • most IS-136 TDMA systems are converting to GSM + GPRS + EDGE February.510.000.594 100% 23.287 26. 2005 RF100 v2.00.0% In the US.000 100% 870.6% USA 141.9% 45.506 64.000 17.

6 kb/s 19. 2005 RF100 v2.6 – 4.1200 DL 307 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3 . IS-136 IDEN IS-136 TDMA 19.com.A Quick Survey of Wireless Data Technologies US CDMA IS-95 14.6 – 80 kb/s GPRS 40 – 30 kb/s DL 15 kb/s UL Other Misc.2 – 19.800 kb/s TD-SCDMA In Development 1xEV-DV 5000 .153 UL WCDMA HSPDA 12000 – 6000 kb/s Flarion OFDM 1500 – 900 kb/s This summary is a work-in-progress.2 – 9. latest announced details.2 – 160 kb/s EDGE 200 .6 kb/s ETSI / GSM GSM CSD 9.8 kb/s obsolete IS-95B 64 -32 kb/s GSM HSCSD 32 – 19.6 – 4.2 kb/s 1xRTT RC4 307.8 kb/s discontinued 1xRTT RC3 153. or corrections to the above? Email to Scott@ScottBaxter.2 kb/s CDPD 19.8 kb/s w/modem PAGING Mobitex 9.90 kb/s DL 45 kb/s UL 1xEV-DO 2400 – 600 DL 153.8 kb/s ANALOG AMPS Cellular 9.4 – 9. Thanks for your comments! February.6 – 76 UL WCDMA 0 384 – 250 kb/s 1xEV-DO A 3100 – 800 DL 1800 – 600 UL WCDMA 1 2000 .6 – 4.2 – 4.13 . tracking latest experiences and reports from all the high-tier (provider-network-oriented) 2G and 3G wireless data technologies Have actual experiences to share.

we will develop the number of users and traffic in erlangs per site for each of the popular wireless technologies February. N-AMPS 1 3 1 Users 2 3 7 1 6 4 5 Signal Bandwidth determines how many RF signals will “fit” in the operator’s licensed spectrum Robustness of RF signal determines tolerable level of interference and necessary physical separation of cochannel cells 30 30 Vulnerability: C/I ≅ 17 dB 10 kHz Bandwidth Typical Frequency Reuse N=7 8 Users Vulnerability: C/I ≅ 6.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3 . NAMPS.5-9 dB 1 4 2 3 200 kHz Number of users per RF signal directly affects capacity In the following page. D-AMPS. CDMA) uses a specific modulation type with its own unique signal characteristics AMPS. 2005 Typical Frequency Reuse N=4 Vulnerability: EbNo ≅ 6 dB CDMA 22 Users 1250 kHz 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Typical Frequency Reuse N=1 RF100 v2. D-AMPS.14 . GSM.Wireless System Capacity Each wireless technology (AMPS.

66 13. AMPS800 1 3.5 132 316. 15.000 5.500 Technology AMPS TDMA CDMA Req'd C/I or Eb/No.000 15.3 B.500 12.2 1900 PCS (A.000 5.3 2.9 11.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3 .000 CDMA TDMA GSM 6 17 12 1 7 4 1250 30 200 11 166 25 11 23 6 3 3 3 0 1 0 11 6 2 22 3 8 1.9 115.5 P.1 90.000 CDMA 6 1 1250 3 3 3 0 3 22 1. N 7 7 1 RF Signal BW.253 Voicepaths/Sector 18 54 198 Unique Voicepaths/Sector 18 54 119 P.5 9.0 0.02 Erlangs per site 34.8 3. per cell @N 59 59 9 # Sectors per cell 3 3 3 #CCH per sector 1 1 0 RF Signals per sector 18 18 9 Voicepaths/RF signal 1 3 22 SH average links used 1 1 1.253 66 39 30. C) 1900 PCS (D.B) Fwd/Rev Spectrum kHz. 15.5 29.3 38.8 9.83 392. F) 5. 12.7 34.2 4.500 12.253 3 8 242 18 16 145 18 16 130.4 1. 2005 RF100 v2. db 17 17 6 Freq Reuse Factor.5 44 105.9 E.15 . kHz 30 30 1250 Total # RF Carriers 416 416 9 RF Sigs.02 Erlangs per sector 11.Comparison of Wireless System Capacities 800 Cellular (A.4 165.66 Unique Voicepaths/carrier 1 3 13.000 TDMA GSM 17 12 7 4 30 200 500 75 71 18 3 3 1 0 22 6 3 8 1 1 3 8 66 48 66 48 55.49 11.5 Capacity vs.6 February.66 1 1 13.

7 80.050 CDMA 6 1 1250 10 10 3 0 10 22 1.5 316.3 13.66 Unique Voicepaths/carrier 1 13.66 13.4 February.3 220 132 119.1 43.500 1.8 P.3 10.300 10.3 13.300 CDMA 6 1 1250 11 11 3 0 11 22 1. 2005 RF100 v2.66 1.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 3 .3 13.5 9. AMPS800 1 0. db 17 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Freq Reuse Factor.550 6. kHz 30 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 Total # RF Carriers 416 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 RF Sigs.3 129.3 13.16 .3 13.1 357.64 1.66 1.2 55.3 67.1 55.66 1.02 Erlangs per site 34.0 8. 12.5 22.2 11.550 Technology AMPS CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA Req'd C/I or Eb/No.66 13.2 13.3 13.7 4.66 1.9 392.800 8.800 CDMA 6 1 1250 9 9 3 0 9 22 1.050 4.800 3.3 242 145 130.5 7.3 Voicepaths/Sector 18 22 44 66 88 110 132 154 176 Unique Voicepaths/Sector 18 13 26 39 53 66 79 92 106 P.66 13. per cell @N 59 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 # Sectors per cell 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 #CCH per sector 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF Signals per sector 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Voicepaths/RF signal 1 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 SH average links used 1 1.6 3.1 240.66 1.2 93.66 1.66 1.4 14.7 11.9 7.3 13.Capacity of Multicarrier CDMA Systems CDMA Carrier Frequencies 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 f Fwd/Rev Spectrum kHz.3 198 119 105.300 5.9 203.8 5. N 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RF Signal BW.4 30.60 2.02 Erlangs per sector 11.6 281.4 Capacity vs.4 18.2 90.3 165.050 9.

Chapter 4 Section A Physical Principles of Physical Principles of Propagation Propagation February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4-1 . 2005 RF100 v2.

These effects are overcome through a variety of special techniques • time variability . Attenuation is the most important single factor in propagation. • multipath and group delay distortions – the signal diffracts and reflects off irregularly shaped objects. During propagation. the signal will fall below the reliable detection threshold at the receiver. If there is too much attenuation. 2005 RF100 v2.signal strength and quality varies with location and distance • frequency variability . many processes act on the radio signal. • attenuation – the signal amplitude is reduced by various natural mechanisms. producing a host of components which arrive in random timings and random RF phases at the receiver. you must know: • Physics: understand the basic propagation processes • Measurement: obtain data on propagation behavior in area of interest • Statistics: analyze known data.signal strength and quality differs on different frequencies To master propagation and effectively design wireless systems. often dramatically • space variability . This blurs pulses and also produces intermittent signal cancellation and reinforcement.signal strength and quality varies with time. extrapolate to predict the unknown • Modelmaking: formalize all the above into useful models February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4-2 .Introduction to Propagation Propagation is the heart of every radio link.

Frequency and Wavelength: Implications Radio signals in the atmosphere propagate at almost speed of light λ = wavelength C = distance propagated in 1 second F = frequency.6 inches for PCS-1900: for AMPS: F= 870 MHz λ = 0.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .153 m = 6. 2005 RF100 v2.0 inches F = 1960 MHz The wavelength of a radio signal determines many of its propagation characteristics • Antenna elements size are typically in the order of 1/4 to 1/2 wavelength • Objects bigger than a wavelength can reflect or obstruct RF energy • RF energy can penetrate into a building or vehicle if they have apertures a wavelength in size. or larger 4-3 λ/2 February.345 m = 13. Hertz λ=C/F λ = 0.

Propagation Effects of Earth’s Atmosphere Earth’s unique atmosphere supports life (ours included) and also introduces many propagation effects -. 11-year sunspot cycle • these effects are negligible for wireless systems at their much-higher frequencies February. 2005 RF100 v2.) are routinely reflected off layers of the upper atmosphere which become ionized by the sun • this phenomena produces intermittent worldwide propagation and occasional total outages • this phenomena is strongly correlated with frequency. day/night cycles. variations in earth’s magnetic field. some troublesome Skywave Propagation: reflection from Ionized Layers • LF and HF frequencies (below roughly 50 MHz.some useful.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4-4 .

and in tropical areas • must be considered in reliability calculations during path design • not major factor in wireless systems propagation Diffraction. May last minutes or hours • can occur in wireless systems RF100 v2. are possible • troublesome mainly above 10 GHz. 2005 . droplet size • rain attenuations of 20 dB..More Atmospheric Propagation Effects “Rain Fades” on MIcrowave Links Attenuation at Microwave Frequencies • rain droplets can substantially attenuate RF signals whose wavelengths are comparable to. Wave Bending. or smaller than. Ducting • signals 50-2000 MHz. or more per km. can be bent or reflected at boundaries of different air density or humidity • phenomena: very sporadic unexpected longdistance propagation beyond the horizon.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4-5 Refraction by air layers Ducting by air layers >100 mi. February.

. no obstructions – first Fresnel Zone clear • Signal spreading is only mechanism • Signal decays 20 dB/decade Reflection • Reflected wave 180°out of phase • Reflected wave not attenuated much • Signal decays 30-40 dB/decade Knife-edge diffraction • Direct path is blocked by obstruction • Additional loss is introduced • Formulae available for simple cases We’ll explore each of these further. 2005 RF100 v2..0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . 4-6 February.Dominant Mechanisms of Mobile Propagation Free Space d A D B with partial cancellation Reflection Knife-edge Diffraction Most propagation in the mobile environment is dominated by these three mechanisms: Free space • No reflections.

db (between two dipole antennas) = 32.e.AB < λ/2 } Fresnel Zone radius d = 1/2 (λD)^(1/2) 4-7 February..0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . first Fresnel zone is not penetrated by obstacles) Free Space “Spreading” Loss energy intercepted by receiving antenna is proportional to 1/r2 d A D 1st Fresnel Zone B First Fresnel Zone = {Points P where AP + PB .26 +20*Log10(FMHZ)+20Log10(DistMILES ) • Notice the rate of signal decay: • 6 db per octave of distance change. 2005 RF100 v2.58 +20*Log10(FMHZ)+20Log10(DistMILES ) • Path Loss.Free-Space Propagation r The simplest propagation mode • Antenna radiates energy which spreads in space • Path Loss. db (between two isotropic antennas) = 36. which is 20 db per decade of distance change Free-Space propagation is applicable if: • there is only one signal path (no reflections) • the path is unobstructed (i.

HtFeet) SCALE PERSPECTIVE DMILES Comparison of Free-Space and Reflection Propagation Modes Assumptions: Flat earth.10 x Log (Mobile Ant.20 x Log (Base Ant.0 2 -58.4 -103.0 15 -75.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4-8 .5 6 -67.4 -89.7 10 -72.2 4 -64.4 -69. HtFeet) .9 -95.4 -99. DistanceMILES Received Signal in Free Space. DBM Received Signal in Reflection Mode 1 -52.9 -109. @ 1950 MHz. 2005 RF100 v2.4 -79. Base Ht = 200 ft. TX ERP = 50 dBm.Reflection With Partial Cancellation Heights Exaggerated for Clarity HTFT HTFT Mobile environment characteristics: • Small angles of incidence and reflection • Reflection is unattenuated (reflection coefficient =1) • Reflection causes phase shift of 180 degrees Analysis • Physics of the reflection cancellation predicts signal decay of 40 dB per decade of distance Path Loss [dB ]= 172 + 34 x Log (DMiles ) .4 8 -70. Mobile Ht = 5 ft.2 February.4 -113.0 20 -78.

Signal Decay Rates in Various Environments We’ve seen how the signal decays with distance in two basic modes of propagation: Free-Space • 20 dB per decade of distance • 6 db per octave of distance Reflection Cancellation • 40 dB per decade of distance • 12 db per octave of distance Real-life wireless propagation decay rates are typically somewhere between 30 and 40 dB per decade of distance Signal Level vs. Miles 10 One Decade One Octave of distance (2x) of distance (10x) February.16 5 6 7 8 Distance. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4-9 . Distance 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 1 2 3.

Knife-Edge Diffraction Sometimes a single well-defined obstruction blocks the path. First calculate the diffraction parameter ν from the geometry of the path Next consult the table to obtain the obstruction loss in db Add this loss to the otherwisedetermined path loss to obtain the total path loss. This calculation is fairly easy and can be used as a manual tool to estimate the effects of individual obstructions. introducing additional loss.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . Other losses such as free space and reflection cancellation still apply. 2005 RF100 v2.10 H R1 ν = -H 2 λ R2 ( 1 R1 + 1 R2 ) 0 -5 atten -10 dB -15 -20 -25 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 ν February. but computed independently for the path as if the obstruction did not exist 4 .

2005 RF100 v2.11 Multi-path Propagation Rayleigh Fading A λ/2 10-15 dB d February.Local Variability: Multipath Effects The free-space. but other mechanisms introduce small-scale local fading Slow Fading occurs as the user moves over hundreds of wavelengths due to shadowing by local obstructions Rapid Fading occurs as signals received from many paths drift into and out of phase • the fades are roughly λ/2 apart in space: 7 inches apart at 800 MHz. reflection. 3 inches apart at 1900 MHz • fades also appear in the frequency domain and time domain • fades are typically 10-15 db deep.. and diffraction mechanisms described earlier explain signal level variations on a large scale.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . occasionally deeper • Rayleigh distribution is a good model for these fades these fades are often called “Rayleigh fades” 4 .

Rayleigh fades are very short and last a small percentage of the time Two antennas separated by several wavelengths will not generally experience fades at the same time “Space Diversity” can be obtained by using two receiving antennas and switching instantby-instant to whichever is best Required separation D for good decorrelation is 10-20λ • 12-24 ft. 4 . @ 800 MHz. @ 1900 MHz.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . 2005 Fortunately.Combating Rayleigh Fading: Space Diversity D Signal received by Antenna 1 Signal received by Antenna 2 Combined Signal February.12 RF100 v2. • 5-10 ft.

space diversity is applied only on the “uplink”.e. 2005 Space Diversity can be applied only on the receiving end of a link. since the two signals combine to produce only one value of signal level at a given point -..no diversity results.13 . reverse path • there isn’t room for two sufficiently separated antennas on a mobile or handheld RF100 v2. i.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . • produce objectionable nulls in the radiation at some angles Therefore. Transmitting on two antennas would: • fail to produce diversity.Space Diversity Application Limitations D Signal received by Antenna 1 Signal received by Antenna 2 Combined Signal February..

14 V+H or \+/ A B A B Antenna A Antenna B Combined February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . this is almost as good as separate space diversity Antenna pair within one radome can be V-H polarized.Using Polarization Diversity Where Space Diversity Isn’t Convenient Sometimes zoning considerations or aesthetics preclude using separate diversity receive antennas Dual-polarized antenna pairs within a single radome are becoming popular • Environmental clutter scatters RF energy into all possible polarizations • Differently polarized antennas receive signals which fade independently • In urban environments. TX duplexing OK RF100 v2. or diagonally polarized • Each individual array has its own independent feedline • Feedlines connected to BTS diversity inputs in the conventional way. 2005 .

apart • antenna: gain/frequency slope? • different Rayleigh fades up/downlink • often.The Reciprocity Principle Does it apply to Wireless? Between two antennas.15 -148. 2005 RF100 v2.03 MHz February.03 MHz -151. reciprocity holds only in a general sense for cellular 4 .21 db @ 870.03 MHz -148.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . on the same exact frequency.86 db @ 870. different TX & RX antennas • RX diversity Notice also the noise/interference environment may be substantially different at the two ends So.21 db @ 835. path loss is the same in both directions But things aren’t exactly the same in cellular -• transmit and receive 45 MHz.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . 2005 RF100 v2.16 .Chapter 4 Section B Propagation Models Propagation Models February.

17 .Types Of Propagation Models And Their Uses Examples of various model types Simple Analytical models • Used for understanding and predicting individual paths and specific obstruction cases General Area models Simple Analytical • Free space (Friis formula) • Reflection cancellation • Knife-edge diffraction • Primary drivers: statistical • Used for early system dimensioning (cell counts.) Point-to-Point models Area • Okumura-Hata • Euro/Cost-231 • Walfisch-Betroni/Ikegami • Primary drivers: analytical • Used for detailed coverage analysis and cell planning Local Variability models Point-to-Point • Ray Tracing . confidence-of-service probability February. Biby-C • Primary drivers: statistical • Characterizes microscopic level fluctuations in a given locale. etc. 2005 Local Variability • Rayleigh Distribution • Normal Distribution • Joint Probability Techniques RF100 v2.Lee’s Method.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . others • Tech-Note 101 • Longley-Rice.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .General Principles Of Area Models -50 -60 -70 -80 +90 +80 +70 RSSI. Suburban. +50 dBµV/m +60 +40 +30 +20 Distance from Cell Site. Rural. km Green Trace shows actual measured signal strengths on a drive test radial. etc. -90 dBm -100 -110 -120 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 Field Strength.18 . Red Trace shows the Okumura-Hata prediction for the same radial. However. February. the signal strength at a specific location on the radial may be much higher or much lower than the simple prediction. 2005 Area models mimic an average path in a defined area They’re based on measured data alone. with no consideration of individual path features or physical mechanisms Typical inputs used by model: • Frequency • Distance from transmitter to receiver • Actual or effective base station & mobile heights • Average terrain elevation • Morphology correction loss (Urban. The smooth curve is a good “fit” for real data. as determined by real-world physics.) Results may be quite different than observed on individual paths in the area RF100 v2.

The measurements were statistically processed and analyzed with respect to almost every imaginable variable. for BS antenna height ht = 200 m and MS antenna height hr = 3 m.d). both horizontally and vertically polarized. 2005 RF100 v2. showing a median attenuation relative to free space loss Amu (f.19 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . (MHz) 2000 3000 The Okumura model is based on detailed analysis of exhaustive drive-test measurements made in Tokyo and its suburbs during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. and has spawned a number of newer models adapted from its basic concepts and numerical parameters. and microwave signal sources. at a wide range of heights.d) and correlation factor Garea (f. Okumura has served as the basis for high-level design of many existing wireless systems. The collected date included measurements on numerous VHF. dB 80 50 70 d. February. MHz 850 3000 10 9 dB 5 850 MHz 100 200 300 500 700 1000 Frequency f. This analysis was distilled into the curves above. Garea io ua s pen area 20 15 n ar r ba ubu S ea 40 30 26 5 2 1 10 100 500 Frequency f.The Okumura Model: General Concept 70 100 Median Attenuation A(f. km Urban Area (dB) 35 30 25 Q area Open Correction factor. UHF.area).

Structure of the Okumura Model Path Loss [dB] = LFS + Amu(f.d) .d) Additional Median Loss from Okumura’s Curves 70 Median Attenuation A(f.G(Hm) .d).0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .Garea Morphology Gain 0 dense urban 5 urban 10 suburban 17 rural 35 Correction factor. (MHz) 850 3000 The Okumura Model uses a combination of terms from basic physical mechanisms and arbitrary factors to fit 1960-1970 Tokyo drive test data Later researchers (HATA. dB 100 80 d.20 . km 50 70 Urban Area si o a pen rea 20 15 10 5 850 MHz Sub a are an urb 40 30 26 5 2 1 10 100 Frequency f. others) have expressed Okumura’s curves as formulas and automated the computation February.G(Hb) . Garea (dB) 30 25 Qua Open area Free-Space Path Loss Base Station Height Gain = 20 x Log (Hb/200) Mobile Station Height Gain = 10 x Log (Hm/3) Amu(f. MHz 500 100 200 300 500 700 1000 2000 3000 Frequency f. 2005 RF100 v2. COST231.

The propagation loss in an urban area is presented in a simple general format A + B x log R. to facilitate automatic calculation.21 . where A and B are functions of frequency and antenna height. BS antenna heights 30-200 m. MS antenna heights 1-10 m The model is simplified due to following limitations: • Isotropic antennas • Quasi-smooth (not irregular) terrain • Urban area propagation loss is presented as the standard formula • Correction equations are used for other areas Although Hata model does not imply path-specific corrections.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . it has significant practical value and provide predictions which are very closely comparable with Okumura’s model February. R is distance between BS and MS antennas The model is applicable to frequencies 100 MHz-1500 MHz. distances 1-20 km. 2005 RF100 v2.The Hata Model: General Concept The Hata model is an empirical formula for propagation loss derived from Okumura’s model.

1.9 .2 x [ log ( 1175 x hm ) ]2 .78 x [ log ( f ) ]2 .[ 1.5.7 ] x hm .29 x [ log ( 1.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .Hata Model General Concept and Formulas (1) LHATA (urban) [dB] =69.For rural areas Formulas for MS antenna ht. km Environmental Factor C 0 dense urban -5 urban -10 suburban -17 rural 4 .98 (4) A ( hm ) [dB] = [ 11 x log ( f ) .1 (for f<= 300 MHz.16 x log ( f ) + [ 44. gain correction factor A(hm) (4) .33 x log ( f ) -40.8 ] (5) A ( hm ) [dB] = 8. 2005 RF100 v2.18.) Formulas for median path loss are: (1) .6.2 x [ log ( f/28 ) ]2 .82 x log ( hb ) .BS and MS antenna heights.4.0. MHz hb and hm .0.54 x hm ) ]2 .4.55 + 26.A ( hm ) (2) LHATA (suburban) [dB] = LHATA (urban) .For suburban areas (3) .For a small to medium sizes cities (5) and (6) . m d .56 x log ( f ) .carrier frequency.55 x log ( hb ) ] x log ( d ) -13.For large cities f .22 February.distance between BS and MS antennas.4 (3) LHATA (rural) [dB] =LHATA (urban) .) (6) A ( hm ) [dB] = 3.97 (for f > 300 MHz.Standard formula for urban areas (2) .

A ( hm ) The COST-231 model was developed by European COoperative for Scientific and Technical Research committee. It extends the HATA model to the 1. band in anticipation of PCS use.8-2 GHz.The EURO COST-231 Model LCOST (urban) [dB] = 46. BS antenna heights 30-200 m. COST-231 is applicable for frequencies 1500-2000 MHz.3 + 33. MS antenna heights 1-10 m Parameters and variables: • f is carrier frequency . in MHz • hb and hm are BS and MS antenna heights (m) • d is BS and MS separation.9 . distances 1-20 km.55 x log ( hb ) ] x log ( d ) + Cm -13.9 x log ( f ) + [ 44. in km • A(hm) is MS antenna height correction factor (same as in Hata model) • Cm is city size correction factor: Cm=0 dB for suburbs and Cm=3 dB for metropolitan centers February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Environmental Factor C 1900 -2 dense urban -5 urban -10 suburban -26 rural 4 .23 .82 x log ( hb ) . 2005 RF100 v2.6.

Examples of Morphological Zones Suburban: Mix of residential and business communities. the examples and definitions illustrated above are typical of practice in North American PCS designs.24 . hotels. Urban: Urban residential and office areas (Typical structures are 5-10 story buildings. hospitals. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .) Dense Urban: Dense business districts with skyscrapers (10-20 stories and above) and high-rise apartments Suburban Suburban Urban Urban Dense Urban Dense Urban Although zone definitions are arbitrary. Structures include 1-2 story houses 50 feet apart and 2-5 story shops and offices. etc. February.

Example Morphological Zones Rural .Highway: Highways near open farm land.In-town: Open farm land. etc.Highway Rural .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . large open spaces.Highway Rural Rural Suburban Suburban Rural . large open spaces. and anticipated traffic densities. and sparsely populated residential areas. Rural . barns. and sparsely populated residential areas. In the case immediately above. Typical structures are 1-2 story houses. Notice how different zones may abruptly adjoin one another. 2005 RF100 v2. farm land (rural) adjoins built-up subdivisions (suburban) -. barns. penetration requirements.25 . but different land use. etc.same terrain. February. Typical structures are 1-2 story houses.

correction factor for base station antenna height gain K4 .Okumura-Hata correction factor for antenna height and distance K6 .correction factor for diffraction loss (accounts for clutter heights) K5 . February. 2005 RF100 v2.correction factor due to clutter at mobile station location Ko .mobile station effective antenna height DL .slope K3 .correction factor for mobile station antenna height gain Kc .received power (dBm) Pt .base station effective antenna height Hm .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .correction factor for street orientation This is the general model format used in MSI’s popular PlaNET propagation prediction software for wireless systems. along with additional terms to include effects of specific obstructions and clutter on specific paths in the mobile environment.intercept K2 . It includes terms similar to Okumura-Hata and COST-231 models.The MSI Planet General Model Pr = Pt + K1 + k2 log(d) + k3 log(Hb) + K4 DL + K5 log(Hb) log(d) + K6 log (Hm) + Kc + Ko Pr .transmit ERP (dBm) Hb .26 .diffraction loss (dB) K1 .

3 4 .9 6. Dense Urban Urban Suburban Rural Tower Height. km 4.50 4. Dense Urban Urban Suburban Rural February. 2005 EIRP (watts) 200 200 200 200 C.27 RF100 v2.8 COST-231/Hata f =1900 MHz. m 30 30 30 50 Tower Height.7 26.0 4. dB 0 -5 -10 -17 Range.Typical Model Results Including Environmental Correction Okumura/Hata f = 870 MHz. m 30 30 30 50 EIRP (watts) 200 200 200 200 C. dB -2 -5 -10 -26 Range.52 3.8 10. km 2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .

28 . but all effects are more pronounced.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .Propagation at 1900 MHz. 800 MHz. but absorbing materials within buildings and their walls attenuate the signal more severely than at 800 MHz. system. is similar to 800 MHz. same antenna height.. BTS is approximately two-thirds the distance which would be obtained with the same ERP. compared to what would have been obtained at 800 MHz. Overall. vs. at 800 MHz. The net result of all these effects is to increase the “contrast” of hot and cold signal areas throughout a 1900 MHz. coverage radius of a 1900 MHz. Propagation at 1900 MHz. • Reflections are more effective • Shadows from obstructions are deeper • Foliage absorption is more attenuative • Penetration into buildings through openings is more effective. February. 2005 RF100 v2.

2005 RF100 v2.29 . but the Walfisch models attempt to improve accuracy by exploiting the actual propagation mechanisms involved Path Loss = LFS + LRT + LMS LFS = free space path loss (Friis formula) LRT = rooftop diffraction loss LMS = multiscreen reflection loss Signal Level Legend -20 dBm -30 dBm -40 dBm -50 dBm -60 dBm -70 dBm -80 dBm -90 dBm -100 dBm -110 dBm -120 dBm Area View Propagation in built-up portions of cities is dominated by ray diffraction over the tops of buildings and by ray “channeling” through multiple reflections down the street canyons February.Walfisch-Betroni/Walfisch-Ikegami Models Ordinary Okumura-type models do work in this environment.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .

Statistical Techniques Distribution Statistics Concept Signal Strength Predicted Vs. dB 4 . 2005 Model is tweaked to produce “Best-Fit” curve Observed Signal Strength 50% of observed data is above curve RSSI. Observed An area model predicts signal strength Vs.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . distance over an area • This is the “median” or most probable signal strength at every distance from the cell • The actual signal strength at any real location is determined by local physical effects.30 RF100 v2. dBm Distance 50% of observed data is below curve Occurrences Normal Distribution RSSI Median Signal Strength σ. and will be higher or lower • It is feasible to measure the observed median signal strength M and standard deviation σ • M and σ can be applied to find probability of receiving an arbitrary signal level at a given distance February.

dBm General Approach: • Use favorite model to predict Signal Strength • Analyze measured data.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter σ. σ (determine from histogram) • add an extra allowance into model – drop curve so a desired % of observations are above model predictions 25% of locations exceed blue curve 50% exceed red 75% exceed black Min signal req’d for operation Distance Cell radius for 75% reliability at edge Cell radius for Cell radius for 25% reliability 50% reliability at edge at edge Occurrences Normal Distribution RSSI Median Signal Strength February. dB 4 . obtain: – median signal strength M (build histogram of observed vs. 2005 RF100 v2.31 .Statistical Techniques Practical Application Of Distribution Statistics SIGNAL STRENGTH vs DISTANCE RSSI. measured data) – standard deviation of error.

32 Statistical View of Cell Coverage 75% 90% Area Availability: 90% overall within area 75%at edge of area February. probability will be 75% at cell edge • Result derived theoretically. and the field measurement techniques necessary to demonstrate an arbitrary degree of coverage reliability RF100 v2. 2005 . and decreases with increasing distance away from BTS For overall 90% location probability within cell coverage area. and observed from measurements • True if path loss variations are log-normally distributed around predicted median values. Pete Bernardin describe the relationship between area and edge reliability. as in mobile environment • 90%/75% is a commonly-used wireless numerical coverage objective • Recent publications by Nortel’s Dr.Cell Edge Area Availability And Probability Of Service Overall probability of service is best close to the BTS. confirmed in modeling with propagation tools.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .

we must deliver a median signal strength which is .33 February.5 0 0.5 3 0.675 x 10 dB ) = .675 times σ stronger than -95 dBm • Calculate: .95 dBm + ( .5 1 1. design for a median signal strength of -88 dBm! 4 .5 -1 -0.Application Of Distribution Statistics: Example Cumulative Normal Distribution 100% 90% 80% 75% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -3 -2.5 -2 -1.88 dBm • So.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . 2005 RF100 v2.5 2 2.675σ Standard Deviations from Median (Average) Signal Strength Let’s design a cell to deliver at least 95 dBm to at least 75% of the locations at the cell edge (This will provide coverage to 90% of total locations within the cell) Assume that measurements you have made show a 10 dB standard deviation σ On the chart: • To serve 75% of locations at the cell edge .

34 .1% 1% 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 70% 75% 80% 90% 95% 99% 99.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .99% 99. 2005 RF100 v2.65 -1.84 1.5 1 1.999% February.5 -1 -0.5 3 Standard Deviation from Mean Signal Strength Standard Deviation -3.52 0.72 4.28 1.675 0.9% 99.52 0 0.Statistical Techniques: Normal Distribution Graph & Table For Convenient Reference Cumulative Normal Distribution 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -3 -2.84 -0.09 -2.65 2.5 0 0.5 2 2.35 3.5 -2 -1.32 -1.09 3.27 Cumulative Probability 0.28 -0.

Suburban Bldg. Urban Bldg. Dev.Building Penetration Statistical Characterization Building penetration Vehicle penetration Typical Penetration Losses. dB compared to outdoor street level Environment Type (“morphology”) Dense Urban Bldg.35 February. Loss.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . 2005 RF100 v2. Rural Bldg. dB 20 15 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 4 Statistical techniques are effective against situations that are difficult to characterize analytically • Many analytical parameters. all highly variable and complex Building coverage is modeled using existing outdoor path loss plus an additional “building penetration loss” • Median value estimated/sampled • Statistical distribution determined • Standard deviation estimated or measured • Additional margin allowed in link budget to offset assumed loss Typical values are shown at left 4 . Typical Vehicle Median Std. dB σ.

36 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .Composite Probability Of Service Adding Multiple Attenuating Mechanisms Building Outdoor Loss + Penetration Loss σCOMPOSITE = ((σOUTDOOR)2+(σ ENETRATION)2)1/2 P LOSSCOMPOSITE = LOSSOUTDOOR+LOSSPENETRATION For an in-building user. the actual signal level includes regular outdoor path attenuation plus building penetration loss Both outdoor and penetration losses have their own variabilities with their own standard deviations The user’s overall composite probability of service must include composite median and standard deviation factors February. 2005 RF100 v2.

31 dB Cumulative Normal Distribution 100% 90% 80% On cumulative normal distribution curve.6 Rural Bldg. 2005 RF100 v2..6 Typical Vehicle 8 4 8 90%/75% @edge 6. and penetration loss σ is 8 dB. Availability Margin dB Target.0 75% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -3 -2. % dB σ.675) = 7. 10 8 8 90%/75% @edge 7. Desired probability of service is 75% at the cell edge What is the composite σ? How much fade margin is required? σCOMPOSITE = ((σOUTDOOR)2+(σPENETRATION)2)1/2 = ((8)2+(8)2)1/2 =(64+64)1/2 =(128)1/2 = 11.675 February. Dev. Area Fade (“morphology”) Loss.5 2 2. Dev.Composite Probability of Service Calculating Fade Margin For Link Budget Example Case: Outdoor attenuation σ is 8 dB.31) • (0. Fade Margin required = (11.5 1 1.675 σ above median.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . dB σ. 15 8 8 90%/75% @edge 7.5 -1 -0. 75% probability is 0.37 . 10 8 8 90%/75% @edge 7. Composite Probability of Service Calculating Required Fade Margin Building OutComposite Penetration Door Total Environment Type Median Std. Std.5 0 0.5 -2 -1. dB Dense Urban Bldg.63 dB.6 Urban Bldg.6 Suburban Bldg.5 3 Standard Deviations from Median (Average) Signal Strength . 20 8 8 90%/75% @edge 7.

38 .Chapter 4 Section C Commercial Commercial Propagation Prediction Propagation Prediction Software Software February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . 2005 RF100 v2.

39 February.Point-To-Point Path-Driven Prediction Models Use of models based on deterministic methods • Use of terrain data for construction of path profile • Path analysis (ray tracing) for obstruction. 2005 . reflection analysis • Appropriate algorithms applied for best emulation of underlying physics • May include some statistical techniques • Automated point-to-point analysis for enough points to appear to provide large “area” coverage on raster or radial grid Commonly-used Resources • • • • • Terrain databases Morphological/Clutter Databases Databases of existing and proposed sites Antenna characteristics databases Unique user-defined propagation models RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .

cell grid Terrain elevation data • USGS & Commercial databases • Satellite or aerial photography Clutter data • Roads. • State. railroads. county.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . etc.40 . rivers. BTA boundaries Traffic density overlay Land use overlay February. MTA. 2005 RF100 v2.Path-Driven Propagation Prediction Tools Data Structure Geographic “Overlay” Format: Output Map(s) on screen or plotter • Coverage – field strengths @ probability – probabilities @ field strength • Best-Server • C/I (Adjacent Channel & CoChannel) Cell locations.

exaggerated 8 times in this view.The World as “seen” by a Propagation Prediction Tool Propagation tools use a terrain database. February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . Notice the granularity of the data and the very mild terrain undulations in the area. 2005 RF100 v2.41 . and vectors to represent features and traffic levels. The figure at right is a 3-D view of such databases in the area of this demonstration. clutter data for land use.

42 . 2005 RF100 v2. others on more powerful UNIX platform Capabilities and user interfaces vary greatly Several of the better-known tools for cellular RF engineering are shown in the table at right RF Prediction Software Tools •Qualcomm •QEDesign CDMA Tool (Unix) •MSI •PlaNet (Unix) (Unix) (DOS PC) (Unix) (mainframe) (Unix) (DOS PC) (Unix) •LCC •CellCad •ANet •CNET •Wings •Solutions •ComSearch •IQSignum •AT&T •PACE •Motorola •proprietary •TEC Cellular: Wizard (DOS) •Elebra: CONDOR. CELTEC •Virginia Tech MPRG •SMT-Plus Indoor Site Planning Tool February.Survey Of Commercially Available Tools A wide variety of software tools are available for propagation prediction and system design Some tools are implemented on PC/DOS/Windows platforms.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .

Composite Coverage Plot A composite coverage plot shows the overall coverage produced by each sector in the field of view The color of each pixel corresponds to the signal level of the strongest server at that point Such plots are useful for identifying coverage holes and overall coverage extent February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . 2005 RF100 v2.43 .

an Equal Power Handoff Boundaries plot paints each pixel with a unique color to identify the best-serving sector at that point • the boundaries shown are the equal-power points between cells This type of plot is extremely useful in creating initial neighbor lists and identifying areas of no dominant server Some tools (MSI Planet) can generate automatic neighbor lists from such a plot February. 2005 RF100 v2.44 .Equal Power Handoff Boundaries Plot A Best Server Plot or in CDMA terms.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 .

45 .Qualcomm’s QEDesign Qualcomm’s commercial tool QEDesign offers a number of features targeted at CDMA system design and analysis. or a coverage footprint calculated from that location. Other features of this package include live cursor mode in which the user can drag the cursor about and see in near-real-time the line-of-sight area visible from the selected location. 2005 RF100 v2. February. DC area. and a three-dimensional view of an antenna pattern.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . The figures above show the output of its microcell propagation analysis tool in the Washington.

46 . etc. etc. interference. C/I. Used for analysis of sites. Drawback: requires significant computation power. estimated geographic traffic distribution.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Signal Level Legend -20 dBm -30 dBm -40 dBm -50 dBm -60 dBm -70 dBm -80 dBm -90 dBm -100 dBm -110 dBm -120 dBm C/I Legend >20 dB <20 dB <17 dB <14 dB 4 . C/I evaluation. time and RF staff special training February. environmental conditions. building “clutter”. frequency planning. etc. land use. • User-definable 3-dimensional antenna patterns • Automatically analyzes paths. selects appropriate algorithms based on path geometry • Produces plots of coverage. 2005 RF100 v2.General Survey Of Tool Features Universal Basic Features of Most Tools Automatically calculates signal strength at many points over a geographic area • Use databases of terrain data.

4 SITE . can automatically generate predicted-vsmeasured statistics and map displays Automatic hexagon-manipulation grid utility Maintains cell sites in relational database • Easy manipulation. export Flexible user interface allows multitasking Allows multiple user-defined propagation models Three dimensional terrain view Roads.000 Site Name Site # Latitude LongitudeType Capacity SITE .1 SITE . import.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Pred. 2005 RF100 v2. Continued A Popular Features of Advanced Tools A A AA A A A A A A A A A Accepts measurement input. Meas Mean -76 72 Std.2 SITE . Dv 9 12 Samples 545 545 - Date: Area Name: DALLAS Initial Service Subs: 100. boundaries.3 SITE .47 . coastline easily overlaid onto any display February.General Survey Of Tool Features.5 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 33/17/4696/08/33 33/20/0896/11/49 33/16/5096/12/14 33/10/2896/11/51 33/25/2196/03/53 S322 S211 S332 S11 01 77 37 91 8 8 Number of Sites 5 Total Capacity (Erlangs)221 7 9 1 3 2 9 8 6 7 3 5 8 3 4 9 1 6 2 7 1 8 10 11 2 4 6 4 .

type. Allows interactive change of antenna number.General Survey Of Tool Features. power and tilt Using growth-scaleable traffic input mask. etc.48 . # channels required • Can automatically highlight cells not meeting specified grade of service Algorithms for automatic frequency planning and optimization User can define or “mask” cells to be changed or unchanged during automatic optimization February. handoff boundaries. 2005 RF100 v2. can predict traffic carried by each site. C/I plots.1 5 1. orientation.3 17 2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter CELL 14 22 26X 26Y 26Z ERL Channels 8.7 4 23 31 14 20 2 3 7 1 6 4 5 2 3 7 1 6 4 5 4 . Continued More Popular Advanced Features Produces plots of server boundaries.

Continued More Popular Advanced Features Identification of server and interferer signal levels in live cursor mode upon graphical coverage display Generates bin C/I & coverage statistics for system evaluation Predicted handoff analysis • Statistical analysis of most likely handoff candidates • Automatic generation of neighbor cell lists • Percentage probability of handover Runs on powerful workstations to minimize computation time February. of Area >20 dB 93.49 .0% <17 dB 2.2% Cell 18 Cell 24 48% Cell 16 22% Cell 17 18% Cell 05 8% Cell 22 4% 4 . 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Cell 51 -82 dBm Cell 76 -97 dBm C/I +15 dB C/I Pct.0% <20 dB 7.General Survey Of Tool Features.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . 2005 RF100 v2. digitized from topographic maps • Elevation sample points on rectangular grids with fixed spacing • Elevation sample points on latitude-longitude grids with spacing of a fixed number of arc-seconds • Data can be converted from one format to another 10m 10m 3 arc-seconds 3 arc-seconds February.50 .Resolution Of Terrain Databases Elevation data in terrain databases can be stored in any of several formats: • Contour vectors: lines of constant elevation in vector segment form.

Resolution Of Terrain Databases, Continued
It is useful to know the horizontal (North Pole) N90º 0º Greenwich, UK spacing in feet between sample points N60º W 30º in a terrain database using arc-seconds, N30º i.e., latitude-longitude spacing W 60º (Equator) 0º North-South spacing is constant, W 90º S30º everywhere on the planet S60º W 120º • 1 arc-second = 101.34 feet (South Pole) S90º • 1 degree = 69.096 miles East-West sample spacing varies with the cosine of the North Latitude 1 101.34 ft • = 101.34 feet/arcsecond sec. at the Equator • = 0 feet/arcsecond at Poles 101.34 ft * Cos (N Latº ) • = 101.34 ft. * Cos (N Lat) per arcsecond, everywhere
Latitude Longitude

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4 - 51

Chapter 4 Section D

Commercial Commercial Measurement Tools Measurement Tools

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4 - 52

Propagation Data Collection Philosophy
RF testing of sites is usually performed for one of two reasons: Drive Testing for model calibration • Prior to cell design of a wireless system, accurate models of propagation in the area must be developed for use by the prediction software. A significant number of typical sites are evaluated using the test transmitter and receiver to determine signal decay rates and to get a fairly accurate understanding of the effects of typical clutter in the area. • Tests are also conducted to evaluate the additional attenuation which the signal suffers during penetration of typical buildings and vehicles. • The focus is on developing models generally applicable to the area, not on the performance of specific individual sites. Drive Testing for site evaluation • Although propagation models for an area already have been refined, coverage of a particular site is so critical, or its environment so variable due to urban clutter, that it is essential to actually measure the coverage and interference it will produce. The focus is on this specific site.
February, 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 - 53

CW or Modulated Test Signals?
Can measurements of unmodulated RF carriers provide adequate propagation data for system design, or is it advisable to use a modulated RF signal similar to the type which will be radiated by actual BTS in the contemplated system? • CW (continuous wave, i.e., unmodulated carriers) transmitters are moderately priced ($10K-$25K). CW-only receivers are priced from $5K to over $20K. • Technology-specific GSM or CDMA modulated test transmitterreceiver systems are available, at costs in the $100,000$275,000 range per TX-RX system.
Multiple Sites Simultaneously Propagation Loss Mapping FER, BER statistics Modulated Systems Too expensive! Yes Yes CW Systems Yes Yes No
Usually Not. However, DSP post-processing can yield some multipath data using various transforms. (Not commercially available yet.) 4 - 54

Multipath Characteristics

Delay Spread

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Summary of Commercial Data Collection Tools
Measurement data can be collected manually, but it is simply too tedious to obtain statistically useful quantities by hand There are many commercial data collection systems available to automate the collection process Many modern propagation prediction software packages have the capability to import measurement data, compare it with predicted values, and generate statistical outputs (mean error, standard deviation, etc.).
Commercial Measurement Systems •Agilent (formerly HP)
•Digital receiver with spectrum analyzer and PN scanner capabilities; handset data collection capabilities

•Andrew (formerly Grayson):
•Invex device and collection software •Interpreter post-processing tool

•COMARCO
•configurable multi-device tool with scanners, receivers, handset data capture

•Ericsson TEMS tool
•handset capture

•Qualcomm
•CAIT tool (Common Air Interface Tester) •Willtech •Bluerose tool with handset, PN scanner, and receiver functions)

•ZKSAM
•collection tool and postprocessing module 4 - 55

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Elements of Typical Measurement Systems
Main Features
Field strength measurement • Accurate collection in real-time • Multi-channel, averaging capability Location Data Collection Methods: • Global Positioning System (GPS) • Dead reckoning on digitized map database using on-board compass and wheel revolutions sensor • A combination of both methods is recommended for the best results Ideally, a system should be calibrated in absolute units, not just raw received power level indications • Record normalized antenna gain, measured line loss
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Wireless Receiver

GPS Receiver Dead Reckoning

PC or Collector

4 - 56

Typical Test Transmitter Operations
Typical Characteristics • portable, low power needs • weatherproof or weather resistant • regulated power output • frequency-agile: synthesized Operational Concerns • spectrum coordination and proper authorization to radiate test signal • antenna unobstructed • stable AC power • SAFETY: – people/equipment falling due to wind, or tripping on obstacles – electric shock – damage to rooftop
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Example of Mobile Receiver: Andrew’s Invex3G Tool
100 MB ethernet connection to PC the eight card slots can hold receivers or dual-phone cards there’s also room for two internal PN scanners Multiple Invex units can be cascaded for multi-phone load-test applications Cards are field-swappable - Users can reconfigure the unit in the field for different tasks without factory assistance Receivers and decoders are installed only for the appropriate technologies and frequency bands Internal GPS or external GPS may be used, with or without deadreckoning capabilities
February, 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 - 58

59 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . and deriving error statistics Prediction model parameters then can be “tuned” to minimize observed error February.Selecting and Tuning Propagation Models Parameters of propagation models must be adjusted for best fit to actual drive-test measured data in the area where the model is applied The figure at right shows drivetest signal strengths obtained using a test transmitter at an actual test site Tools automate the process of comparing the measured data with its own predictions. 2005 RF100 v2.

Measured Data vs.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . Model Predictions Is the propagation model approximately correct? • Is the data scatter small enough to justify use of a model? • correct slope to match data • correct position up/down on Y-axis? February. 2005 RF100 v2.60 .

graph) February. Predicted Several tools produce histograms showing the distribution of the differences between measured and predicted values The mean of the difference between predicted and measured is a very important quantity. 2005 RF100 v2. The standard deviation of the difference also should be small.Analysis of Measured vs. If it is substantially larger than 8 dB.. then either: • the environment is very diverse (perhaps it should be broken into pieces with separate models for better fit) or • the slope of the model is significantly different than the observed slope of the measurements (review the Sig. vs.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . It should be small (on order of a few dB).61 . Dist.

or the antenna pattern had an unexpected minimum in that direction This would cause the data in the shadowed region to differ substantially from data in all remaining directions Some tools can display the error values on a map like the one at right.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 4 . to provide quick visual evidence for recognizing this type of problem February.62 .Displaying Error Distribution by Location Suppose a major hill blocked the signal in one direction. 2005 RF100 v2.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5-1 . 2005 RF100 v2.Chapter 5 Radiating Systems Radiating Systems for Wireless Networks for Wireless Networks Dipole Isotropic Typical Wireless Omni Antenna February.

Chapter 5 Section A Antennas for Wireless Antennas for Wireless February. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5-2 .

Understanding Antenna Radiation The Principle Of Current Moments Zero current at each end each tiny imaginary “slice” of the antenna does its share of radiating An antenna is just a passive conductor carrying RF current TX RX Maximum current at the middle Current induced in receiving antenna is vector sum of contribution of every tiny “slice” of radiating antenna Width of band denotes current magnitude • RF power causes the current flow • Current flowing radiates electromagnetic fields • Electromagnetic fields cause current in receiving antennas The effect of the total antenna is the sum of what every tiny “slice” of the antenna is doing • Radiation of a tiny “slice” is proportional to its length times the current in it • remember. the current has a magnitude and a phase! RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5-3 February. 2005 .

due to the different distances the various components must travel to reach the receiver. depending on direction of departure from radiating antenna Maximum Radiation: contributions in phase. leaving a much weaker signal An antenna’s directivity is the same for transmission & reception February. 2005 RF100 v2. the components add up in phase to a strong signal level • In other directions. they are out of phase and cancel.Different Radiation In Different Directions Minimum Radiation: contributions out of phase.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5-4 . cancel Each “slice” of the antenna produces a definite amount of radiation at a specific phase angle Strength of signal received varies. reinforce TX Minimum Radiation: contributions out of phase. cancel • In some directions.

. so polarization is not as critical • Handset users hold the antennas at seemingly random angles…. a receiving antenna must be oriented parallel to the transmitting antenna • A receiving antenna oriented at right angles to the transmitting antenna is “cross-polarized”.Antenna Polarization Antenna 1 Vertically Polarized Electromagnetic Field Antenna 2 Horizontally Polarized TX current RX almost no current RF current in a conductor causes electromagnetic fields that seek to induce current flowing in the same direction in other conductors. Coupling between two antennas is proportional to the cosine of the angle of their relative orientation To intercept significant energy. The orientation of the antenna is called its polarization. energy becomes scattered and “de-polarized” during propagation.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5-5 . will have very little current induced • Vertical polarization is the default convention in wireless telephony • In the cluttered urban environment. February. 2005 RF100 v2.

in its direction of maximum radiation. This gain can be expressed in dB or as a power ratio. It applies both to radiating and receiving A directional antenna.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Directional Antenna 5-6 . appears to have “gain” compared against a non-directional antenna Gain in one direction comes at the expense of less radiation in other directions Antenna Gain is RELATIVE. an antenna can appear to have “gain” compared against another antenna or condition.Antenna Gain Antennas are passive devices: they do not produce power • Can only receive power in one form and pass it on in another. not ABSOLUTE Omni-directional Antenna • When describing antenna “gain”. the comparison condition must be stated or implied February. minus incidental losses • Cannot generate power or “amplify” However. 2005 RF100 v2.

Isotropic Antenna but mathematically very simple to describe • A popular reference: 1000 MHz and above – PCS. physically practical • A popular reference: below 1000 MHz – 800 MHz.Reference Antennas Isotropic Radiator • Truly non-directional -. land mobile. 5-7 RF100 v2. Isotropic Effective Radiated Power Vs. Dipole Antenna • Non-directional in 2-dimensional plane only • Can be easily constructed. 2005 Units dBi dBd (watts or dBm) EIRP (watts or dBm) ERP Dipole Antenna Notice that a dipole has 2. Dipole February.in 3 dimensions • Difficult to build or approximate physically. etc. cellular.15 dB gain compared to an isotropic antenna. microwave. TV & FM Quantity Gain above Isotropic radiator Gain above Dipole reference Effective Radiated Power Vs.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .

75 stronger than the signal from antenna A.Effective Radiated Power An antenna radiates all power fed to it from the transmitter. its signal seems 2. it happens to be isotropic. minus any incidental losses. Antenna A is our reference. 2005 RF100 v2. Antenna B’s EIRP in this case is 275 watts. In its maximum direction.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter A (ref) A B 275w 100w 5-8 . Antenna B is directional. February. Every direction gets some amount of power Effective Radiated Power (ERP) is the apparent power in a particular direction Reference Antenna A 100 W TX • Equal to actual transmitter power times antenna gain in that direction Effective Radiated Power is expressed in comparison to a standard radiator Directional Antenna ERP B B 100 W TX • ERP: compared with dipole antenna • EIRP: compared with Isotropic antenna Example: Antennas A and B each radiate 100 watts from their own transmitters.

Antenna Gain And ERP Examples Many wireless systems at 1900 & 800 MHz use omni antennas like the one shown in this figure These patterns are drawn to scale in E-field radiation units.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5-9 . Isotropic Dipole Gain Comparison 12. and 10 dB stronger than the dipole (so 10 dBd gain). 2005 RF100 v2. at the expense of sending less radiation sharply upward or downward The wireless antenna’s maximum radiation is 12.1 dBi or 10 dBd Typical Wireless Omni Antenna February.1 dBi gain). based on equal power to each antenna Notice the typical wireless omni antenna concentrates most of its radiation toward the horizon.1 dB stronger than the isotropic (thus 12.1 dBi 10dBd Isotropic Dipole Omni Gain 12. where users are.

.direction N-E-S-W) The Vertical Plane Pattern graphs the radiation as a function of elevation (i. 2005 RF100 v2. -10 dB points • Front-to-back ratio • Angles of nulls.e.10 . -6 dB..0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .. up. minor lobes.Key Features And Terminology An antenna’s directivity is expressed as a series of patterns The Horizontal Plane Pattern graphs the radiation as a function of azimuth (i. down. nulls or a Minor minima Lobe Front-to-back Ratio 180 (S) February.e. horizontal) Antennas are often compared by noting specific landmark points on their patterns: Typical Example Radiation Patterns Horizontal Plane Pattern Notice -3 dB points 0 (N) 0 -10 -20 -30 dB 270 (W) 10 dB points Main Lobe 90 (E) • -3 dB (“HPBW”).. etc.

where reflectors are small • Examples: – corner reflector used at cellular or higher frequencies – parabolic reflector used at microwave frequencies – grid or single pipe reflector for cellular Array techniques (discrete elements) In phase • Power is fed or coupled to multiple antenna elements. focusing) • Reflectors can be used to concentrate radiation – technique works best at microwave frequencies.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Out of phase 5 .11 .How Antennas Achieve Their Gain Quasi-Optical Techniques (reflection. 2005 RF100 v2. a phase delay for each element creates pattern lobes and nulls February. each element radiates • Elements’ radiation in phase in some directions • In other directions.

unless deliberately filled Arrays in horizontal plane • Directional in horizontal plane: useful for sectorization • Yagi – one driven element.12 .Types Of Arrays Collinear vertical arrays Collinear Vertical Array • Essentially omnidirectional in horizontal plane • Power gain approximately equal to the number of elements • Nulls exist in vertical pattern. 2005 RF100 v2. parasitic coupling to others RF power Yagi RF power • Log-periodic – all elements driven – wide bandwidth Log-Periodic All of these types of antennas are used in wireless February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .

ASPP2933 February.13 .78 8.41 10.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . first null angle Models with many elements have very narrow beamwidths • Require stable mounting and careful alignment • Watch out: be sure nulls do not fall in important coverage areas Rod and grid reflectors are sometimes added for mild directivity Examples: 800 MHz. dB 0.31° 9.: dB803. 2005 -3 d B Vertical Plane Pattern beamwidth θ Angle of first null RF100 v2.76° 4.14 11.00 3. PD10017. Kathrein 740-198 1900 MHz.02 6.13° 6. BCR-10O.09° • Physical size • Gain • Beamwidth.46° 8.04° 11.99 7.71° 5.79 11.57° 18.43° 14.54 10.46 Angle θ n/a 26.34° 5.19° 4.01 4.: dB-910.40° 4.Collinear Vertical Arrays The family of omni-directional wireless antennas: Number of elements determines Omni Antennas Typical Collinear Arrays Number of Elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Power Gain 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Gain.13° 7.77 6.45 9.00 10.03 9.

14 . 2005 RF100 v2. affecting mainly gain and vertical plane beamwidth Down Horizontal Plane Pattern N • Horizontal plane pattern is determined by: – number of horizontally-spaced elements – shape of reflectors (is reflector folded?) W E S February. yagis.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . or log-periodic elements with reflector (panel or grid) backing Vertical Plane Pattern Up Sector Antennas • Vertical plane pattern is determined by number of vertically-separated elements – varies from 1 to 8.Reflectors And Vertical Arrays Typical commercial sector antennas are vertical combinations of dipoles.

4) Wind area .1 (25.1) Integral February.1 <1. dB910C-M 1850-1970 10/12.54 (.9) ASPA320 ASPP2936 36 (915) 1. Antenna Model Frequency Range.17 (. Gain .5:1 32° Vertical 400 50 Direct Ground N-Female Order Sep.4) 9 (4.5:1 15° Vertical 400 50 Direct Ground N-Female Order Sep.0155) Wind load @ 125 mph/201 kph lb-f (n) 4 (17) Maximum wind speed .5 (38) .7) 13 (5.0233) 6 (26) 140 (225) 6 (2.ft2 (m2) .2 (2.in (mm) 24 (610) Radome OD .mph (kph) 140 (225) Weight .lbs (kg) Clamps (steel) 4 (1.Standard Jumper Cable ASPP2936 1850-1990 6/8. MHz.4) .Watts Input Impedance .Ohms Lightning Protection Termination .1 <1.1 <1.05) 14 (61) 125 (201) 5.0 (25.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .15 .8) 11 (4.Example Of Antenna Catalog Specifications Electrical Data ASPP2933 1850-1990 3/5.in (mm) 1.9) ASPA320 dB910C-M 77 (1955) 1. 2005 RF100 v2. Mechanical Data Antenna Model ASPP2933 Overall length .dBd/dBi VSWR Beamwidth (3 dB from maximum) Polarization Maximum power input .5:1 5° Vertical 400 50 Direct Ground N-Female Order Sep.lbs (kg) Shipping Weight .25 (.

Example Of Antenna Catalog Radiation Pattern Vertical Plane Pattern • E-Plane (elevation plane) • Gain: 10 dBd • Dipole pattern is superimposed at scale for comparison (not often shown in commercial catalogs) • Frequency is shown • Pattern values shown in dBd • Note 1-degree indices through region of main lobe for most accurate reading • Notice minor lobe and null detail! February.16 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . 2005 RF100 v2.

Chapter 5 Section B Other RF Elements Other RF Elements February. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .17 .

wattmeters .18 . Duplexers .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .Antenna Systems Antenna Directional Coupler Jumper Transmission Line Jumpers F R D u p l e x e r Combiner TX TX RX BPF Antenna systems include more than just antennas Transmission Lines • Necessary to connect transmitting and receiving equipment Other Components necessary to achieve desired system function • Filters.for measurement of performance Manufacturer’s system may include some or all of these items • Remaining items are added individually as needed by system operator February. 2005 RF100 v2. Combiners.to achieve desired connections • Directional Couplers.

1/2”. openwire • Balanced. 1-5/8”. unbalanced Physical configuration • Dielectric: – air – foam • Outside surface – unjacketed – jacketed Size (nominal outer diameter) • 1/4”. 7/8”. 2005 RF100 v2.Characteristics Of Transmission Lines Physical Characteristics Type of line Used as feeders in wireless applications Typical coaxial cables • Coaxial.19 . stripline. 2-1/4”. 3” Foam Dielectric Air Dielectric February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . 1-1/4”.

despite slightly higher loss – small pinholes and leaks can allow water penetration and gradual attenuation increases Air Dielectric Foam Dielectric February.20 . so specify the frequency band when ordering • Air dielectric lines – lower loss than foam-dielectric. low maintenance.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .Some Practical Considerations Transmission lines practical considerations Transmission Lines • Periodicity of inner conductor supporting structure can cause VSWR peaks at some frequencies. dry air is excellent insulator – shipped pressurized. do not accept delivery if pressure leak • Foam dielectric lines – simple. 2005 RF100 v2.

dielectric characteristics February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . Continued Electrical Characteristics Attenuation • Varies with frequency.Characteristics Of Transmission Lines. 2005 RF100 v2. conductor materials. Power-handling capability • Varies with size. size. dielectric D d characteristics of insulation • Usually specified in dB/100 ft and/or dB/100 m Characteristic impedance Z0 (50 ohms is the usual standard.21 . 75 ohms is sometimes used) Characteristic Impedance of a Coaxial Line • Value set by inner/outer diameter ratio Zo = ( 138 / ( ε 1/2 ) ) Log10 ( D / d ) and dielectric characteristics of ε = Dielectric Constant insulation = 1 for vacuum or dry air • Connectors must preserve constant impedance (see figure at right) Velocity factor • Determined by dielectric characteristics of insulation.

input to line is a complex function of frequency and line length. 2005 RF100 v2. Use Smith Chart or formulae to compute Special case of interest: Line section one-quarter wavelength long has convenient properties useful in matching networks Mismatched condition ZIN = ? Zo=50Ω ZLOAD= 83 -j22Ω Deliberate mismatch for impedance transformation λ/4 ZIN=25Ω Zo=50Ω ZIN= ZO2/ ZLOAD ZLOAD= 100Ω • ZIN = (Zo2)/(ZLOAD) February. input to line appears as impedance Zo • When terminated with impedance different from Zo.22 .Special Electrical Properties Transmission lines have impedancetransforming properties Matched condition ZIN = 50Ω Zo=50Ω ZLOAD= 50Ω Transmission Lines • When terminated with same impedance as Zo.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .

Important Installation Practices Respect specified minimum bending radius! Transmission Lines • Inner conductor must remain concentric.23 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . stiff lines (15/8” or larger) to make direct connection with antennas Use appropriate jumpers. kinks in outer conductor change Zo Don’t bend large. Secure jumpers against wind vibration. otherwise Zo changes • Dents. 2005 RF100 v2. Observe Minimum Bending Radius! February. weatherproofed properly.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 200 ft 3-6 ft ~60 m Max.24 . Continued Transmission Lines During hoisting • Allow line to support its own weight only for distances approved by manufacturer • Deformation and stretching may result. 5 . changing the Zo • Use hoisting grips. 2005 RF100 v2.Important Installation Practices. messenger cable After mounting • Support the line with proper mounting clamps at manufacturer’s recommended spacing intervals • Strong winds will set up damaging metal-fatigueinducing vibrations February.

lower cutoff frequencies • Attenuation slope at band edge • Ultimate out-of-band attenuation February. Attenuation slope and out-of-band attenuation depend on # of poles & design RF100 v2. Bandwidth is typically 1-20% of center frequency. dB • Single-pole: – pass – reject (notch) -3 dB • Multi-pole: – band-pass – band-reject Key electrical characteristics Frequency. megaHertz • Insertion loss • Passband ripple • Passband width – upper. and passband ripple of 2-6 dB.Basic Characteristics And Specifications Typical RF bandpass filter Types of Filters insertion loss 0 passband ripple passband width RF Filters Attenuation. depending on application. 2005 Typical bandpass filters have insertion loss of 1-3 dB.25 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .

2005 RF100 v2. 5 . Each element is individually set and forms a pole in the filter’s overall response curve.Types And Applications Filters are the basic building blocks of duplexers and more complex devices Most manufacturers’ network equipment includes internal bandpass filters at receiver input and transmitter output Filters are also available for special applications Number of poles (filter elements) and other design variables determine filter’s electrical characteristics RF Filters Typical RF Bandpass Filter ∼λ/4 • • • • Bandwidth rejection Insertion loss Slopes Ripple. Notice construction: RF input excites one quarter-wave element and electromagnet fields propagate from element to element. finally exciting the last element which is directly coupled to the output.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .26 February. etc.

27 .Basics Of Transmitting Combiners Allows multiple transmitters to feed single antenna. 2005 RF100 v2. providing Typical tuned combiner application Antenna • Minimum power loss from transmitter to antenna • Maximum isolation between transmitters Combiner types TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX • Tuned – low insertion loss ~1-3 dB – transmitter frequencies must be significantly separated Typical hybrid combiner application Antenna ~-3 dB ~-3 dB ~-3 dB TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX • Hybrid – insertion loss -3 dB per stage – no restriction on transmitter frequencies • Linear amplifier – linearity and intermodulation are major design and operation issues February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .

2005 Antenna Duplexer fR RX fT TX Principle of operation Duplexer is composed of individual bandpass filters to isolate TX from RX while allowing access to antenna for both.Duplexer Basics Duplexer allows simultaneous transmitting and receiving on one antenna • Nortel 1900 MHz BTS RFFEs include internal duplexer • Nortel 800 MHz BTS does not include duplexer but commercial units can be used if desired Important duplexer specifications • TX pass-through insertion loss • RX pass-through insertion loss • TX-to-RX isolation at TX frequency (RX intermodulation issue) • TX-to-RX isolation at RX frequency (TX noise floor issue) • Internally-generated IMP limit specification February.28 . Filter design determines actual isolation between TX and RX. and insertion loss TX-to-Antenna and RX-to-Antenna. RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .

One end is used. it has 4 ports: • Input (from TX). leaving only sample of other direction Typical performance specifications • Coupling factor ~20. ~40 dB. order as appropriate for application • Directivity ~30-~40 dB. Output (to load) • Forward and Reverse Samples Sensing loops probe E& I in line • Equal sensitivity to E & H fields • Terminations absorb induced current in one direction. 2005 Typical directional coupler Principle of operation RT Input ZLOAD= 50Ω Reverse Sample Forward Sample RT Main line’s E & I induce equal signals in sense loops..0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . ~30. but I’s polarity depends on direction and cancels sample induced in one direction.. the other terminated.Directional Couplers Couplers are used to measure forward and reflected energy in a transmission line.29 . f($) – defined as relative attenuation of unwanted direction in each sample February. RF100 v2. Thus sense loop signals are directional. E is direction-independent.

30 . 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .Chapter 5 Section C Basics of Antenna Testing Basics of Antenna Testing February.

causing many problems Precisely shaped cables and connectors.31 . heat is not allowed to build up. “leaking” energy • even splices and connections can leak energy unless their shape and dimensions are closely controlled • abrupt changes in cable shape “reflect” energy back down the transmission line. 2005 RF100 v2. and you’ll have good results • AC power frequencies and audio signal frequencies have wavelengths of many miles – a few feet of wire won’t radiate much energy High frequency RF wiring practice is much more critical since signal wavelengths are only a few inches or feet • any bend or protruding bit of wire can serve as an unintentional antenna. careful installation and accurate testing are required to avoid significant antenna system performance problems February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .Testing Communications Feedlines and Antennas AC power wiring and voice telephone wiring do not require extremely critical wiring practices • just make sure the connections and insulation are good.

the transmission line and the antenna have the same impedance • we say they are “impedance matched” All the energy from the transmitter passes through and is radiated from the antenna • virtually no energy is reflected back to the transmitter February.Forward and Reflected Energy Antenna 50Ω Transmitter 50Ω Transmission Line Forward Power Virtually no reflected power 50Ω In a perfect antenna system. 2005 RF100 v2.32 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .

33 . the impedance match is not good • there could be a dent. causing it to have an altered impedance – the antenna’s different impedance will reflect some of the energy backwards down the line The Site Master® Distance-To-Fault mode will be helpful in finding the location of the damage February. 2005 RF100 v2. or a spot with water in the transmission line – the different impedance in the line at this spot will cause some of the energy to be reflected backwards • the antenna could be damaged or dangling.Forward and Reflected Energy Antenna 42-j17Ω Transmitter dent or kink 50Ω Transmission Line 37Ω Forward Power Significant Reflected Power In a damaged antenna system. kink.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .

use percent Return Loss (used by field personnel) • how many db weaker is the reflected energy than the forward energy Reflection Coefficient (academic users) • vector ratio of reflected/incident voltage or current • usually expressed as a polar vector. 2005 RF100 v2.34 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter SWR: Standing Wave Ratio = Vmax/ Vmin Vmin Vmax Reflected Power (%) FORWARD REFLECTED = 100 x RevPwr FwdPwr Return Loss (db) FORWARD REFLECTED = 10 x Log10 RevPwr FwdPwr Reflection Coefficient (vector ratio) FORWARD REFLECTED = Vreflected Vincident 5 .How Much Reflection? Four Ways to Say It There are four ways of expressing how much energy is being reflected • different users like different methods Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) (used by hobbyists and consumers) • the reflected voltage is in phase with the incident voltage at some places and out of phase at others • VSWR is the ratio of Vmax/Vmin Reflected Power as % of Forward Power (used by field personnel in some industries) • just divide Rev by Fwd. with magnitude and phase February.

2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter REFLECTED . consider a VSWR of 1.5 3 SWR: STANDING WAVE RATIO = Vmax/ Vmin Reflected Power Forward Power Reflected Power Forward Power 1+ Vmin = Vmax 1- Reflected Power (%) FORWARD REFLECTED = 100 x RevPwr FwdPwr Return Loss (db) FORWARD REFLECTED = 10 x Log10 RevPwr FwdPwr Reflection Coefficient (vector ratio) FORWARD = Vreflected Vincident 5 .5 2 2. the phase of the reflection is also needed VSWR vs. Return Loss 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 1.35 VSWR February.Comparing Reflection Reports in Different Forms Reflection expressed in one form can be converted and expressed in the other forms For example.5 : 1 • this is 4% reflected power • this is a return loss of 14 db • to calculate the reflection coefficient.

36 . maximum acceptable observation on the ground is -14 -3 -3 = . measured at the antenna Power goes through the line loss of -3 db to reach the antenna. 2005 RF100 v2.Antenna Swept Return Loss and TDR Measurements It’s a good idea to take swept and TDR return loss measurements of a new antenna at installation and to recheck periodically • maintain a printed or electronically stored copy of the analyzer output for comparison • most types of antenna or transmission line failures are easily detectable by comparison with stored data Jumper Feedline -10 Site Master® Jumper -20 -30 f1 f2 What is the maximum acceptable value of return loss as seen in sketch above? Given: Antenna VSWR max spec is 1.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .5 : 1 between f1 and f2 Transmission line loss = 3 dB. Consideration & Solution: From chart. February.20 dB. and -3 db to return Therefore.5 : 1 is a return loss of -14 dB. VSWR of 1.

2005 RF100 v2.Example Frequency Sweep Test Plot February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .37 .

Example Distance-to-Fault Plot February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . 2005 RF100 v2.38 .

39 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .Chapter 5 Section D Some Antenna Some Antenna Application Considerations Application Considerations February. 2005 RF100 v2.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . with their individual directivity Far-field region: the area beyond roughly 10 times the spacing between the antenna’s internal elements Near-field • In this region. 2005 RF100 v2. the signal behaves as independent fields from each element of the antenna.40 .Near-Field/Far-Field Considerations Antenna behavior is very different close-in and far out Near-field region: the area within about 10 times the spacing between antenna’s internal elements • Inside this region. the antenna seems to be a point-source and the contributions of the individual elements are indistinguishable • The pattern is the composite of the array Obstructions in the near-field can dramatically alter the antenna performance Far-field February.

2005 RF100 v2.41 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . as for example roof edge in the figure at right • Knife-edge diffraction analysis can help estimate diffraction loss in these situations • Explore other antenna mounting positions Local obstruction example Diffraction over obstructing edge February.Local Obstruction at a Site Obstructions near the site are sometimes unavoidable Near-field obstructions can seriously alter pattern shape More distant local obstructions can cause severe blockage.

42 .Estimating Isolation Between Antennas Often multiple antennas are needed at a site and interaction is troublesome Electrical isolation between antennas • Coupling loss between isotropic antennas one wavelength apart is 22 dB • 6 dB additional coupling loss with each doubling of separation • Add gain or loss referenced from horizontal plane patterns • Measure vertical separation between centers of the antennas – vertical separation usually is very effective One antenna should not be mounted in main lobe and near-field of another • Typically within 10 feet @ 800 MHz • Typically 5-10 feet @ 1900 MHz February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . 2005 RF100 v2.

etc. correlate your sightings of objects you want to cover with angles in degrees and the antenna pattern February.43 “Calibrate” yourself using the formula! RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . 2005 Visually estimating angles with tools always at hand distance width angle = arctangent (width / distance) Typical Angles Thumb width Nail of forefinger All knuckles ~2 degrees ~1 degree ~10 degrees 5 . beamwidths. and depression angles. do some personal experimentation at a high site to gain a sense of the angles involved Visible width of fingers.Visually Estimating Depression Angles in the field Before considering downtilt. can be useful approximate benchmark for visual evaluation Measure and remember width of your own chosen references Standing at a site.

Antenna Downtilt What’s the goal? Scenario 1 Cell A Cell B Downtilt is commonly used for two reasons 1. Prevent “Overshoot” • Improve coverage of nearby targets far below the antenna – otherwise within “null” of antenna pattern Are these good strategies? How is downtilt applied? February. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . Reduce Interference • Reduce radiation toward a distant co-channel cell • Concentrate radiation within the serving cell Scenario 2 2.44 .

Consider Vertical Depression Angles Basic principle: important to match vertical pattern against intended coverage targets • Compare the angles toward objects against the antenna vertical pattern -. both in miles.) θ = ArcTAN ( Vertical distance / Horizontal distance ) February.what’s radiating toward the target? θ Depression angle Vertical distance • Don’t position a null of the antenna toward an important coverage target! Sketch and formula Horizontal distance • Notice the height and horizontal distance must be expressed in the same units before dividing (both in feet.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . etc.45 . 2005 RF100 v2.

and behind goes up • Popular for sectorization and special omni applications Electrical downtilt • Incremental phase shift is applied in the feed network • The pattern “droops” all around.46 .Types Of Downtilt Mechanical downtilt • Physically tilt the antenna • The pattern in front goes down.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 . 2005 RF100 v2. like an inverted saucer • Common technique when downtilting omni cells February.

but significantly reduce the radiation toward the area of Cell B The Reality: When actually calculated.4 degrees = ArcTAN ( 150 / ( 12 * 5280 ) ) = -0.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .47 height difference 150 ft 4 Reality θ2 θ1 12 miles θ1 θ2 = ArcTAN ( 150 / ( 4 * 5280 ) ) = -0.Reduce Interference Scenario 1 Cell A Concept weak Cell B strong The Concept: Radiate a strong signal toward everything within the serving cell.3 degrees!! • Let’s look at antenna patterns 5 .1 degrees February. 2005 RF100 v2. it’s surprising how small the difference in angle is between the far edge of cell A and the near edge of Cell B • Delta in the example is only 0.

alignment accuracy and wind-flexing would be problems – delta θ in this example is less than one degree! • Also.4 degrees = -0. 2005 RF100 v2.1 -0.4 θ1 θ2 = -0. but usually the angle between edge of serving cell and nearest edge of distant cell is just too small to exploit • Downtilt or not.Reduce Interference Scenario 1 . if downtilting -.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .watch out for excessive RSSI and IM involving mobiles near cell! Soft handoff and good CDMA power control is more important -0.48 . Continued It’s an attractive idea.1 degrees February. can’t get much difference in antenna radiation between θ1 and θ2 • Even if the pattern were sharp enough.

2005 RF100 v2.49 .Avoid Overshoot Scenario 2 Scenario 2 Application concern: too little radiation toward low. investigate special “nullfilled” antennas with smooth patterns February. close-in coverage targets The solution is common-sense matching of the antenna vertical pattern to the angles where radiation is needed • Calculate vertical angles to targets!! • Watch the pattern nulls -.where do they fall on the ground? • Choose a low-gain antenna with a fat vertical pattern if you have a wide range of vertical angles to “hit” • Downtilt if appropriate • If needed.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .

if possible • Ideally. investigate: Manufacturer’s measured patterns • Observe pattern at low end of band. do your own limited pattern verification Check with other users for their experiences February. “clean” measured patterns • Obtain Intermod Specifications and test results (-130 or better) • Inspect return loss measurements across the band Inspect a sample unit • Physical integrity? weatherproof? • Dissimilar metals in contact anywhere? • Collinear vertical antennas: feed method? • End (compromise) or center-fed (best)? • Complete your own return loss measurements. 2005 RF100 v2. mid-band. and high end of band • Any troublesome back lobes or minor lobes in H or V patterns? • Watch out for nulls which would fall toward populated areas • Be suspicious of extremely symmetrical.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 5 .50 .Other Antenna Selection Considerations Before choosing an antenna for widespread deployment.

Chapter 6 Traffic Engineering Traffic Engineering Typical Traffic Distribution on a Cellular System 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Hour SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT 80% Efficiency % 41 Capacity.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter . 2005 RF100 v2. Erlangs 1 # Trunks 50 6-1 February.

2005 RF100 v2. cancel service • very poor economic efficiency! February.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6-2 .A Game of Avoiding Extremes The traffic engineer must walk a fine line between two problems: Overdimensioning • too much cost • insufficient resources to construct • traffic revenue is too low to support costs • very poor economic efficiency! Underdimensioning • blocking • poor technical performance (interference) • capacity for billable revenue is low • revenue is low due to poor quality • users unhappy.

2005 PSTN Office Cell DMS-MTX RF100 v2.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6-3 .Dimensioning the System: An Interactive. with the related site engineering and frequency or code planning February. Iterative Process Some traffic engineering decisions trigger resource acquisition • additional blocks of numbers from the local exchange carrier • additional cards for various functions in the switch and peripherals • additional members in PSTN trunk groups. additional T-1/E-1s to busy sites Some traffic engineering decisions trigger more engineering • adding additional carriers to congested areas • adding additional cells to relieve blocking • finding short-term fixes for unanticipated problems This course is concerned primarily with determining the number of voice channels required in cells.

Basics of Traffic Engineering Terminology & Concept of a Trunk Traffic engineering in telephony is focused on the voice paths which users occupy. They are called by many different names: • trunks • circuits • radios (AMPS. for traffic routing purposes • member – one of the trunks in a trunk group February.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6-4 . 2005 RF100 v2. channel elements (CDMA) Some other common terms are: • trunk group – a trunk group is several trunks going to the same destination. combined and addressed in switch translations as a unit . transceivers (“TRXs” in GSM). TDMA).

An Erlang of traffic is one circuit continuously used during an observation period one hour long. In his honor.Units of Traffic Measurement Traffic is expressed in units of Circuit Time General understanding of telephone traffic engineering began around 1910. was one of the first to master the science of trunk dimensioning and publish the knowledge for others. the basic unit of traffic is named the Erlang. Other units have become popular among various users: CCS (Hundred-Call-Seconds) MOU (Minutes Of Use) It’s easy to convert between traffic units if the need arises: 1 Erlang = 60 MOU = 36 CCS February. An engineer in the Danish telephone system.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6-5 . 2005 RF100 v2. Mr. Erlang.

this is the limit! If anyone else wants to talk -. 2005 RF100 v2.sorry! Absolute Maximum Capacity of One Trunk One Trunk Constant Talker One Erlang It’s not acceptable to keep all trunks busy all the time.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6-6 . There must be a reserve to accommodate new talkers! How much? February.How Much Traffic Can One Trunk Carry? Traffic studies are usually for periods of one hour In one hour. one trunk can carry one hour of traffic -.One Erlang If nothing else matters.

2005 RF100 v2. and various queue strategies. the Erlang-C formula applies • If a wait is allowed but is limited in time. Binomial & Poisson formulae apply • Engset formulae apply to rapid. packet-like transactions such as paging channels 6-7 February. Erlang-B formula applies (popular in wireless) • If unlimited waiting is allowed before a call receives service. number of servers.Traffic Engineering And Queuing Theory Ticket counter analogy Servers Queue User population Queues we face in everyday life 1) for telephone calls 2) at the bank 3) at the gas station 4) at the airline counter Traffic engineering is an application of a science called queuing theory • Queuing theory relates user arrival statistics.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter . and a blocked call simply goes away. with the probability of a user receiving service • If waiting is not allowed.

2005 RF100 v2. blocked traffic must be estimated based on number of blocked attempts and average duration of successful calls Offered Traffic = Carried Traffic + Blocked Traffic Offered Traffic TOff = NCA x TCD TOff = Offered traffic NCA = Number of call attempts TCD = Average call duration February.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6-8 .Offered And Carried Traffic PSTN or other Wireless user Carried Traffic MTXBSC BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS Blocked Traffic Offered traffic is what users attempt to originate Carried traffic is the traffic actually successfully handled by the system Blocked traffic is the traffic that could not be handled • Since blocked call attempts never materialize.

02 occurs at the radio level. blocking can occur anywhere in a wireless system: • not enough radios.Principles of Traffic Engineering Blocking Probability / Grade of Service Blocking is inability to get a circuit when one is needed Probability of Blocking is the likelihood that blocking will happen In principle. 2005 RF100 v2.001 P.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6-9 .005 radio level in a system Cell Cell February. the cell is full • not enough paths between cell site and switch • not enough paths through the switching complex • not enough trunks from switch to PSTN Blocking probability is usually Typical Wireless System expressed as a percentage Design Blocking Probabilities using a “shorthand” notation: PSTN Office • P.02 is 2% probability.02 is a common goal at the P. • Blocking probability sometimes P. • P. etc.005 is called “Grade Of Service” Cell DMS-MTX Most blocking in cellular systems P.

Efficiency rises to 11% Erlang-B P.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter # Trunks 6 . Erlangs utilization approaches 100%.Number of Trunks vs. Now we can use trunk 1 heavily. It can only carry . Efficiency 2%! Adding just one trunk relieves things greatly. Capacity. 1 February. 2005 RF100 v2.02 GOS Trks Erl Eff% 1 2 0. At a P. how much traffic could it carry? • The trunk can only be used 2% of the time. • 98% availability forces 98% idleness. with trunk 2 handling the overflow.10 50 . Utilization Efficiency Imagine a cell site with just one voice channel. trunk 41 utilization efficiency increases as the number of trunks in the pool grows larger.02 Erlangs.22 11% The Principle of Trunking Efficiency 80% Efficiency % For a given grade of service.02 2% 0. • For trunk groups of several hundred. otherwise the blocking will be worse than 2%.02 Grade of Service.

tables of traffic data are available • Capacity. Erlangs • Blocking Probability (GOS) • Number of Trunks Notice how capacity and utilization behave for the numbers of trunks in typical cell sites 6 . 2005 RF100 v2. as well as the achievable utilization efficiency For accurate work.Number of Trunks.11 Capacity and Trunk Utilization Erlang-B for P. Erlangs February.02 Grade of Service 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Utilization Efficiency Percent Trunks Capacity. and Utilization Efficiency The graph at left illustrates the capacity in Erlangs of a given number of trunks.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter . Capacity.

02 Probability of blocking 0.0001 0. 2005 RF100 v2.12 .Traffic Engineering & System Dimensioning Using Erlang-B Tables to determine Number of Circuits Required E n 1 2 0.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6 .935 Number of available circuits Capacity in Erlangs 300 A = f (E.002 0.2 7 2.n) February.

7 57 46.4 168.8 233.1 121.8 68 57.9 221.6 150.6 72.9 231.94 3.1 28 20.0204 0.5 107.6 70 59.2 14 14.5 74.5 12.2 82.9 436.8 67.6 154.1 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 213.4 51 41.9 215.28 2.83 10.4 162.5 71 60.7 69.6 36 27.3 890.1 125 127 128.7 144.9 65.3 61 50.3 113.3 79.3 74 62.3 52 42.4 111.3 75 63.2 184.2 188.8 140.8 138.223 0.3 80.1 47 37.5 39 30.9 32 23.4 40 31 65 54.6 152. 2005 RF100 v2.5 75.2 81.3 172.7 142.2 688.9 219.5 #TrunksErlangs #TrunksErlangs 26 18.7 35 26.6 103.2 9.2 63 52.9 217.9 55 44.2 27 19.34 5.5 156.4 166.6 71.84 6.6 148.2 45 35.7 385.2 83.5 160.6 58 47.3 170.4 73 62 49 39.09 1.1 86 87 88 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 88 89.1 486.9 #TrunksErlangs #TrunksErlangs 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 64.1 196.8 34 25.1 29 21 54 44 30 21.9 15.8 67 56.13 .4 8.7 97.5 72 61 48 38.08 5.6 17.8 16.3 13.1 192.2 53 43.9 229.5 105.1 85.4 41 31.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6 .5 158.Erlang-B Traffic Tables Abbreviated .2 #TrunksErlangs 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 186.2 117.1 198.9 66 55.8 33 24.1 46 36.5 59 48.1 123.5 38 29.9 50 40.3 178.66 2.1 194.5 73.2 180.1 84.2 44 34.7 146.4 109.2 182.8 95.9 132.8 56 45.602 1.63 4.02 Grade of Service Only #TrunksErlangs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0.3 62 51.4 60 49.3 78.For P.6 999.3 115.9 227.4 77.4 76.9 93.9 223.9 225.1 1093 February.8 66.8 #TrunksErlangs 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 136.3 43 33.7 335.61 7.7 68.7 69 58.4 174.7 11.6 37 28.7 99.4 164.6 70.8 #TrunksErlangs 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 235.9 91.3 42 32.8 285.6 101.2 119.9 31 22.3 176.1 64 53.01 9.4 587.9 134.9 130.2 789.1 190.

.14 .The Equation behind the Erlang-B Table The Erlang-B formula is fairly simple to implement on hand-held programmable calculators. + A 1! n! max # of trunks Pn(A) = Blocking Rate (%) with n trunks as function of traffic A Number of Trunks Offered Traffic..0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6 . in spreadsheets. 2005 RF100 v2. A average # of busy channels A = Traffic (Erlangs) n = Number of Trunks time February. or popular programming languages. Offered Traffic lost due to blocking Pn(A) = An n! n 1 + A + .

15 . then Saturday. then Sunday There are seasonal and annual variations. February.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6 .Wireless Traffic Variation with Time: A Cellular Example Typical Traffic Distribution on a Cellular System 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Hour FRI SAT SUN MON TUE WED THU Actual traffic from a cellular system in the mid-south USA in summer 1992. 2005 Peak traffic on cellular systems is usually daytime businessrelated traffic. on PCS systems. followed by other weekdays in backwards order. This system had 45 cells and served an area of approximately 1.000 population. as well as long term growth trends RF100 v2. like wireline systems Friday is the busiest day. evening traffic becomes much more important and may actually contain the system busy hour Evening taper is more gradual than morning rise Wireless systems for PCS and LEC-displacement have peaks of residential traffic during early evening hours.000.

quarters. we plan the trunks needed to support the busiest hour of a normal day • Special events (disasters. etc. and years • When making decisions about number of trunks required.Busy-Hour In telephony. and to track trends over months. 2005 RF100 v2. it is customary to collect and analyze traffic in hourly blocks.) are not considered in the analysis (unless a marketingsponsored event) Which Hour should be used as the Busy-Hour? • Some planners choose one specific hour and use it every day • Some planners choose the busiest hour of each individual day (“floating busy hour”) • Most common preference is to use “floating (bouncing)” busy hour determined individually for the total system and for each cell.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6 .16 . one-of-a-kind traffic tie-ups. but to exclude special events and disasters • In the example just presented. 4 PM was the busy hour every day February.

• They know the addresses where their customers generate the traffic! Wireless systems have to guess where the customers will be next • on existing systems.Where is the Traffic? Wireline telephone systems have a big advantage in traffic planning. find overloads • for new systems or new cells.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6 . use measured traffic data by sector and cell – analyze past trends – compare subscriber forecast – trend into future. 2005 RF100 v2.17 . we must use all available clues Existing System Traffic In Erlangs 8 2 5 7 11 7 10 7 6 11 16 19 8 7 16 7 6 3 9 9 5 February.

350 subs/month Population Density new Shopping Center Vehicular Traffic 920 Land Use Databases 5110 4215 22.18 February.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter . usage forecasts Population Density • Geographic Distribution Construction Activity Vehicular Traffic Data • Vehicle counts on roads • Calculations of density on major roadways from knowledge of vehicle movement.239.Traffic Clues 27 mE/Sub in BH 103. market penetration Land Use Database: Area Profiles Aerial Photographs: Count Vehicles! 6 .550 Subscribers 1. Market Penetration: • # Subscribers/Market Population • use Sales forecasts. 2005 RF100 v2.171 Market Population adding 4. Call Attempts.100 3620 1230 6620 Subscriber Profiles: • Busy Hour Usage. spacing. etc.

5 seconds • Table and figure show capacity of 1 lane When traffic stops. MPH feet per lane 0 20 264 10 42 126 20 64 83 30 86 61 45 119 44 60 152 35 Vehicle spacing 20 ft.Traffic Density Along Roadways Vehicles per mile Vehicle Vehicle Vehicles Speed.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6 . per mile.19 . @stop Running Headway 1. 2005 RF100 v2. users generally increase calling activity Multiply number of vehicles by percentage penetration of population to estimate number of subscriber vehicles Vehicle Spacing At Common Roadway Speeds 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 feet 0 MPH 10 MPH 20 MPH 30 MPH 40 MPH 50 MPH February.5 seconds Number of lanes and speed are the main variable determining number of vehicles on major highways • Typical headway ~1. Spacing.

• obtain Erlangs per cell & sector From tables.20 Traffic Density 3.5% 27mE Land Use Cell Grid February. 2005 .Methodical Estimation of Required Trunks Modern propagation prediction tools allow experimentation and estimation of traffic levels Estimate total overall traffic from subscriber forecasts Form traffic density outlines from market knowledge. forecasts Overlay traffic density on land use data. determine number of trunks required per cell/sector Modern software tools automate major parts of this process RF100 v2. weight by land use Accumulate intercepted traffic into serving cells.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6 .

users will stop trying to call in locations where they’ve learned to expect blocking.21 . 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6 . for every nearby cell – watch out! overall traffic in the area may increase to fill the additional capacity and the new cell itself may block as soon as it goes in service February. like engineering new system.Determining Number of Trunks required for a new Growth Cell When new growth cells are added. you can estimate redistributed traffic in the area based on the new division of coverage • if blocking is severe. Users are self-programming!! – reapply basic traffic assumptions in the area. (often the case). they absorb some of the traffic formerly carried by surrounding cells Two approaches to estimating traffic on the new cell and on its older neighbors: • if blocking was not too severe.

February. When occupancy approaches this limit. they require RF awareness and understanding. the system must be divided into zones. and zone paging implemented.0 (c)2005 Scott Baxter 6 . Paging • The paging channel has a definite capacity which must not be exceeded. 2005 RF100 v2. While these functions are not necessarily performed by the RF engineer.Dimensioning System Administrative Functions System administrative functions also require traffic engineering input. • Impact of Short Message Service (and others) must be considered Autonomous Registration • Autonomous registration involves numerous parameters and the registration attempts must be monitored and controlled to avoid overloading.22 .

Course RF100 Chapter 7 Technical Technical Introduction to CDMA Introduction to CDMA February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7-1 . 2005 RF100 v2.

Course Outline Basic CDMA Principles • Coding • Forward and Reverse Channels CDMA Operational Details • Multiplexing. Spectrum Clearing February. CDMA Overlays. Forward and Reverse Power Control CDMA Handset Architecture CDMA Handoffs CDMA Network Architecture CDMA Messaging and Call Flow Optional Topics Wireless Multiple Access Technologies Overview of Current Technologies • Capacity. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7-2 .

2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7-3 .Section A How Does CDMA Work? How Does CDMA Work? Introduction to Basic Principles Introduction to Basic Principles February.

but with a uniquely recoverable code CDMA Figure of Merit: C/I (carrier/interference ratio) AMPS: +17 dB TDMA: +14 to +17 dB GSM: +7 to 9 dB.CDMA: Using A New Dimension All CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Frequency and time are not used as discriminators CDMA operates by using CODING to discriminate between users CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd -. February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7-4 . 2005 RF100 v2. CDMA: -10 to -17 dB. CDMA: Eb/No ~+6 dB.

receiver knows. applies user’s code.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7-5 . 2005 Code 1 Composite • narrowband input from a user is coded (“spread”) by a user-unique broadband code. and the receiver follows in sequence • Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) CDMA is NOT currently used in wireless systems.Two Types of CDMA Frequency Hopping CDMA User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 There are Two types of CDMA: Frequency-Hopping • Each user’s narrowband signal hops among discrete frequencies. although used by the military User 3 User 4 User 1 unused User 2 User 1 User 4 User 3 User 2 unused unused User 1 User 2 User 4 User 3 Direct Sequence Frequency Direct Sequence CDMA Time Frequency User 1 + = February. then transmitted • broadband signal is received. recovers users’ data • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) CDMA IS the method used in IS-95 commercial systems RF100 v2.

DSSS Spreading: Time-Domain View Input A: User’s Data Originating Site XOR Exclusive-OR At Originating Site: Input A: User’s Data @ 19.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .200 bits/second Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.2288 Mcps Output: Spread spectrum signal 1 Input B: Spreading Code Gate Spread Spectrum Signal via air interface Input A: Received Signal Destination Site XOR Exclusive-OR Gate At Destination Site: Input A: Received spread spectrum signal Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.200 bits/second just as originally sent February. 2005 Input B: Spreading Code Output: User’s Original Data 1 Drawn to actual scale and time alignment 7-6 RF100 v2.2288 Mcps Output: User’s Data @ 19.

Spreading from a Frequency-Domain View TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM Spread Spectrum Narrowband Slow Information Sent TX Signal Slow Information Recovered Traditional technologies try to squeeze signal into minimum required bandwidth CDMA uses larger bandwidth but uses resulting processing gain to increase capacity RX SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM Wideband Signal Slow Information Sent TX RX Slow Information Recovered Fast Spreading Sequence Fast Spreading Sequence Spread Spectrum Payoff: Processing Gain February. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7-7 .

.The CDMA Spread Spectrum Payoff: Would you like a lump-sum.roughly 21 db for an 8k vocoder. the signal-to-noise ratio becomes undesirable and the ultimate capacity of the sector is reached Practical CDMA systems restrict the number of users per sector to ensure processing gain remains at usable levels CDMA Spreading Gain Consider a user with a 9600 bps vocoder talking on a CDMA signal 1. or monthly payments? Shannon's work suggests that a certain bit rate of information deserves a certain bandwidth If one CDMA user is carried alone by a CDMA signal. The processing gain is 1.228. the processing gain is large . 2005 RF100 v2. which is 21 db. Regis.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7-8 . • Each doubling of the number of users consumes 3 db of the processing gain • Somewhere above 32 users.800 hz wide. can I just take the money I've already won. What happens if additional users are added? # Users Processing Gain 1 2 4 8 16 32 21 db 18 db 15 db 12 db 9 db 6 db 64….Uh.800/9600 = 128.228. and go home now? February.

in effect a from User’s Vocoder code channel To recover a bit.CDMA Uses Code Channels A CDMA signal uses many chips to convey just one bit of information Bits Each user has a unique chip pattern. integrate a large number of chips interpreted by the user’s known code pattern Forward Error Correction Other users’ code patterns appear random and Symbols integrate in a random self-canceling fashion. don’t disturb the bit decoding decision being made with the proper code pattern Coding and Spreading Building a CDMA Signal Chips February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7-9 . 2005 RF100 v2.

February. as we’ll see in following slides.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .10 . =0) Received energy: Correlation matches opposite 1 if 0 = if 1 = Decision: +10 -26 Σ Matches! (=0) 1 Opposite ( =1) -16 Time Integration This figure illustrates the basic technique of CDMA signal generation and recovery.CDMA: The Code “Magic” “behind the Veil” QPSK RF Users Analog Σ Summing BTS Demodulated Received CDMA Signal Despreading Sequence (Locally Generated. The actual coding process used in IS-95 CDMA includes a few additional layers. 2005 RF100 v2.

transmits spread data stream Receiver intercepts the stream. uses same spreading sequence to extract original data February.11 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . we can undo ORIGINATING SITE Spread Data Stream Input Data Recovered Data DESTINATION Spreading Sequence Spreading Sequence Sender combines data with a fast spreading sequence. 2005 RF100 v2.Spreading: What we do.

12 . 2005 RF100 v2. packaging is extremely important! Cargo is placed inside “nested” containers for protection and to allow addressing The shipper packs in a certain order.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .“Shipping and Receiving” via CDMA Shipping FedEx FedEx Receiving Data Mailer Mailer Data Whether in shipping and receiving. and the receiver unpacks in the reverse order CDMA “containers” are spreading codes February. or in CDMA.

2005 RF100 v2.13 .CDMA’s Nested Spreading Sequences ORIGINATING SITE X+A Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B DESTINATION X+A Input Data Recovered Data X Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence X A B C C B A CDMA combines three different spreading sequences to create unique. we can undo” February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . robust channels The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receiving ends of each link “What we do.

each 64 chips long Each Walsh Code is precisely Orthogonal with respect to all other Walsh Codes • it’s simple to generate the codes. or • they’re small enough to use from ROM Unique Properties: Mutual Orthogonality EXAMPLE: Correlation of Walsh Code #23 with Walsh Code #59 #23 #59 Sum 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 Correlation Results: 32 1’s.14 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.One of the CDMA Spreading Sequences: Walsh Codes WALSH CODES 64 “Magic” Sequences. 32 0’s: Orthogonal!! # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------.64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 February.

15 . Half 0’s RF100 v2. self-mutating sequence 2N-1 chips long (N=register length) • Such sequences match if compared in step (no-brainer.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Summing Shift Register Sequence repeats every 2N-1 chips. 2005 Sequence repeats every N chips. sequence = length of register Tapped shift register generates a wild. where N is number of cells in register A Tapped. Shifted: Sum: Practically Orthogonal: Half 1’s.Other Sequences: Generation & Properties An Ordinary Shift Register Other CDMA sequences are generated in shift registers Plain shift register: no fun. in sync: Sum: Complete Correlation: All 0’s Compared Shifted: Little Correlation Sequence: Self. any sequence matches itself) • Such sequences appear approximately orthogonal if compared with themselves not exactly matched in time • false correlation typically <2% February. where N is number of cells in register A Special Characteristic of Sequences Generated in Tapped Shift Registers Compared In-Step: Matches Itself Sequence: Self.

(75 repetitions in 2 sec.Another CDMA Spreading Sequence: The Short PN Code.16 QPSK Output .768 chips long 26-2/3 ms. each New CDMA2000 1x Complex Scrambling 32. used for Scrambling Original IS-95 CDMA PN Scrambling 32.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .) I-sequence Walsh user’s symbols Same information duplicated on I and Q Q-sequence Short PN Scrambling RF: cos ωt QPSKmodulated RF Output I Q Σ RF: sin ωt The short PN code consists of two PN Sequences.768 chips long RF: • Generated in similar but cos ωt differently-tapped 15-bit shift I-sequence + registers user’s Σ Walsh symbols • the two sequences scramble Σ + the information on the I and Q Σ Different phase channels + Information Q-sequence on I and Q Figures to the right show how one sin ωt user’s channel is built at the bTS RF Complex Scrambling Serial to Parallel February. I and Q. 2005 RF100 v2.

zero timing shift MASK REGISTER unique steady contents cause unique timing shift SUMMER holds dynamic modulo-2 sum of LC State and Mask registers clock Each clock cycle.Generating the PN Long Code at a desired Timing Offset LONG CODE STATE REGISTER dynamic contents.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . but shifted to the user’s unique offset February.17 . all the Summer bits are added into a single-bit modulo-2 sum The shifted Long Code emerges. 2005 RF100 v2. chip by chip! Every phone and every BTS channel element has a Long Code generator • Long Code State Register makes long code at system reference timing • A Mask Register holds a user-specific unique pattern of bits Each clock pulse drives the Long Code State Register to its next state • State register and Mask register contents are added in the Summer • Summer contents are modulo-2 added to produce just a single bit output The output bits are the Long Code.

BTS ID. 2005 RF100 v2. the mask value is produced from SSD Word B in a calculation similar to authentication Each BTS sector has an Access Channel where mobiles transmit for registration and call setup • the Access Channel Long Code Mask includes Access Channel #.18 February. and Pilot PN • The BTS transmits all of these parameters on the Paging Channel 7 . Paging Channel #.Different Masks Produce Different Long PN Offsets TRAFFIC CHANNEL – NORMAL USING THE PUBLIC LONG CODE MASK LONG CODE STATE REGISTER fixed PERMUTED ESN SUMMING REGISTER TRAFFIC CHANNEL – PRIVATE USING THE PRIVATE LONG CODE MASK LONG CODE STATE REGISTER calculated PRIVATE LONG CODE MASK SUMMING REGISTER ACCESS CHANNEL (IDLE MODE) USING THE ACCESS CHANNEL LONG CODE MASK LONG CODE STATE REGISTER fixed AC# PC# BASE_ID PILOT PN SUMMING REGISTER Ordinary mobiles use their ESNs and the Public Long Code Mask to produce their unique Long Code PN offsets • main ingredient: mobile ESN Mobiles needing greater privacy use the Private Long Code Mask • instead of 32-bit ESN.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .

19 .Putting it All Together: CDMA Channels FORWARD CHANNELS One Sector LONG CODE: Data Scrambling WALSH CODE: Individual User SHORT PN OFFSET: Sector REVERSE CHANNELS LONG CODE OFFSET: individual handset WALSH CODES: used as symbols for robustness SHORT PN: used at 0 offset for tracking BTS The three spreading codes are used in different ways to create the forward and reverse links A forward channel exists by having a specific Walsh Code assigned to the user. and a specific PN offset for the sector A reverse channel exists because the mobile uses a specific offset of the Long PN sequence February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.

20 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.Section B IS-95 CDMA Forward and IS-95 CDMA Forward and Reverse Channels Reverse Channels February.

How a BTS Builds the Forward Code Channels Switch BSC or Access Manager Pilot Sync Paging Vocoder Vocoder Vocoder Vocoder more more BTS (1 sector) Walsh #0 FEC Walsh #32 FEC Walsh #1 FEC Walsh #12 FEC Walsh #23 FEC FEC Walsh #44 FEC more a Channel Element Short PN Code PN Offset 246 I Q cos ωt x Transmitter.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .21 . + Sector X x sin ωt ΣΣ I Walsh #27 A Forward Channel is identified by: its CDMA RF carrier Frequency Q the unique Short Code PN Offset of the sector the unique Walsh Code of the user February. 2005 RF100 v2.

Functions of the CDMA Forward Channels Pilot Paging Walsh 0 Walsh 1 Walsh 6 Walsh 11 Walsh 19 Walsh 20 Sync Walsh 32 Walsh 37 Walsh 41 Walsh 42 Walsh 55 Walsh 56 Walsh 60 PILOT: WALSH CODE 0 • The Pilot is a “structural beacon” which does not contain a character stream. subject to overall capacity limited by noise February. They carry pages.22 . system parameters information. All remaining Walsh codes are available.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2. and call setup orders TRAFFIC: any remaining WALSH codes • The traffic channels are assigned to individual users to carry call traffic. It is a timing source used in system acquisition and as a measurement device during handoffs SYNC: WALSH CODE 32 • This carries a data stream of system identification and parameter information used by mobiles during system acquisition PAGING: WALSH CODES 1 up to 7 • There can be from one to seven paging channels as determined by capacity needs.

BTS (1 sector) CBSC.Code Channels in the Reverse Direction Switch BSC. Access Long Code Gen Manager Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element a Channel Element Access Channels A Reverse Channel is identified by: its CDMA RF carrier Frequency the unique Long Code PN Offset of the individual handset Long Code offset Receiver. 2005 RF100 v2.23 . Sector X Long Code offset Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder more more Channel Element more Long Code offset Long Code offset Long Code offset Long Code offset February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

page responses.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Functions of the CDMA Reverse Channels There are two types of CDMA Reverse Channels: TRAFFIC CHANNELS are used by individual users during their actual calls to transmit traffic to the BTS • a reverse traffic channel is really just a user-specific public or private Long Code mask • there are as many reverse Traffic Channels as there are CDMA phones in the world! BTS ACCESS CHANNELS are used by mobiles not yet in a call to transmit registration requests. February. call setup requests. nearly all systems today use only one paging channel per sector and only one access channel per paging channel. REG 1-800 242 4444 Although a sector can have up to seven paging channels. order responses.24 . 2005 RF100 v2. Each paging channel can have up to 32 access channels. and each paging channel can have up to 32 access channels. and other signaling information • an access channel is really just a public long code offset unique to the BTS sector • Access channels are paired to Paging Channels.

Summing Up Original IS-95 CDMA Channels FORWARD CHANNELS REVERSE CHANNELS W0: PILOT W32: SYNC ACCESS BTS W1: PAGING Wn: TRAFFIC TRAFFIC Existing IS-95A/JStd-008 CDMA uses the channels above for call setup and traffic channels – all call processing transactions use these channels • traffic channels are 9600 bps (rate set 1) or 14400 bps (rate set 2) IS-2000 CDMA is backward-compatible with IS-95.25 . but offers additional radio configurations and additional kinds of possible channels • These additional modes are called Radio Configurations • IS-95 Rate Set 1 and 2 are IS-2000 Radio Configurations 1 & 2 February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.

Backward compatible Broadcast Channel Quick Paging Channel Common Power Control Channel Common Assignment Channel Common Control Channels Forward Traffic Channels Fundamental Channel Dedicated Control Channel Supplemental Reverse Fundamental Channel (IS95B comp. Backward compatible Same coding as IS-95B. Backward compatible Same coding as IS-95B.26 February.The Channels at Phase One 1xRTT Launch FORWARD CHANNELS How many 1 Possible: 1 1 to 7 0 to 8 0 to 3 0 to 4 REVERSE CHANNELS Same coding as IS-95B.4. 7 .5 CDMA2000 1xRTT has a rich variety of traffic channels for voice and fast date There are also optional additional control channels for more effective operation See Course 332 for more details.) Dedicated Control Channel Reverse Supplemental Channel Includes Power Control Subchannel Access Channel (IS-95B compatible) Enhanced Access Channel Common Control Channel F-Pilot F-Sync PAGING F-BCH F-QPCH F-CPCCH F-CACH F-CCCH F-TRAFFIC F-FCH F-DCCH R-Pilot 1 R-ACH or R-EACH 1 R-CCCH 0 or 1 R-TRAFFIC R-FCH 1 R-DCCH 0 or 1 R-SCH 0 to 2 BTS 0 to 7 0 to 7 Users: 0 to many 1 0 or 1 0 to 7 0 to 2 F-SCH IS-95B only Channels IS-95B only F-SCH Supplemental Channels RC3. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .27 .Basic CDMA Network Architecture Switch SLM CM GPS GPSR Access Manager or (C)BSC BSM CDSU CDSU BTS GPS GPSR CDSU DISCO Ch. 2005 RF100 v2. Card ACC TFU DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP TFU1 CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 Packets CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU Σα Σβ Σχ DS0 in T1 DTCs Chips Channel Element RF Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C SBS IOC Vocoders Selectors Vocoder PSTN February.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .2 ksps Decimator Decimator M U X 1.2 2400 bps ksps Convolutional 1200 bps Encoding and or Symbol Repetition 14400 bps Puncturing 28.Forward Traffic Channel: Generation Details from IS-95 bits symbols CHANNEL ELEMENT 9600 bps 4800 bps R = 1/2 19.2 ksps 19.2288 Long PN Code Mcps Generation Q PN 800 Hz February.28 .2288 Mcps 1. 2005 RF100 v2.8 7200 bps ksps (13 kb only) 3600 bps 1800 bps (From Vocoder) User Address Mask (ESN-based) Power Control Bit chips I PN Walsh function Scrambling Block Interleaving 19.

2 ksps Orthogonal kcps Data Burst Randomizer Modulation 1.Reverse Traffic Channel: Generation Details from IS-95 I PN 9600 bps 4800 bps 2400 bps 1200 bps or 14400 bps 7200 bps 3600 bps 1800 bps R = 1/3 Convolutional Encoder & Repetition R = 1/2 User Address Mask Long PN Code Generator 28. 2005 RF100 v2.2288 Mcps 1/2 PN Chip Delay D (no offset) 1.29 .2288 Mcps Direct Sequence Spreading Q PN (no offset) February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .8 ksps Block Interleaver 28.8 307.

Multiplexing. 2005 RF100 v2.30 . Power Control Vocoding. Multiplexing.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Power Control February.Section C IS-95 Operational Details IS-95 Operational Details Vocoding.

Variable Rate Vocoding & Multiplexing DSP QCELP VOCODER 20ms Sample Vocoders compress speech. reduce bit Pitch rate. greatly increasing capacity Filter CDMA uses a superior Variable Rate Codebook Vocoder FeedCoded Result back Formant • full rate during speech Filter • low rates in speech pauses • increased capacity bits Frame Sizes • more natural sound 192/288 Full Rate Frame Voice.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . signaling. 24/36 1/8 Frame Contents: can be a mixture of Primary Signaling Secondary Traffic (System (On-Air (Voice or data) Messaging) activation. and user secondary 96/144 1/2 Rate Frame data may be mixed in CDMA frames 48/72 1/4 Rt.31 . etc) February. 2005 RF100 v2.

32 FEI Bits Eb/No Setpoint . 2005 RF100 v2. REPORT MSG “2 bad in last 4.Selecoder tor I Q Short PN Transmitter.METHOD 800 Power Control Bits per second! 1xRTT ALL SAME BSC Pilot Sync Paging User 1 User 2 User 3 BTS (1 sector) TXPO = -(RXdbm) -C + TXGA FORWARD LINK POWER ADJUSTMENT MOBILE Σ DGU Voc.How Power Control Works REVERSE LINK POWER ADJUSTMENT BSC Bad FER? Raise Setpoint BTS Stronger than setpoint? Eb/No Setpoint Reverse Link RX RF Digital Open Loop Closed Loop TX RF Digital MOBILE IS-95. Sector X Forward Link Bad Frame PMRM POWER MEAS. Help!!” Counter FEI Bits Mark Bad Frames Received POWER CONTROL BITSTREAM RIDING ON MOBILE PILOT February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter IS-95 RS1 Method IS-95 RS2 Method 1xRTT Method 7 .

Details of Reverse Link Power Control Subscriber Handset TXPO Handset Transmit Power • Actual RF power output of the handset transmitter. +23 dBm) TXPO = -(RXdbm) -C + TXGA C = +73 for 8K vocoder systems = +76 for 13K vocoder systems BTS Receiver>> LNA DUP x TXPO x PA LO ∼ LO ≈ Rake R R R S Σ Viterbi Decoder IF ~ Open Loop Closed Loop Pwr Ctrl IF x IF Mod x Q x I Long PN Orth Mod FEC Vocoder <<Transmitter Typical TXPO: +23 dBm in a coverage hole 0 dBm near middle of cell -50 dBm up close to BTS 0 dB -10 dB -20 dB Typical Transmit Gain Adjust TXGA Transmit Gain Adjust • Sum of all closed-loop power control commands from the BTS since the beginning of this call February. 2005 Time.33 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . Seconds 7 . including combined effects of open loop power control from receiver AGC and closed loop power control by BTS • can’t exceed handset’s maximum (typ.

34 .Section D A Quick Introduction to A Quick Introduction to CDMA Messages and Call Processing CDMA Messages and Call Processing February. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

2005 RF100 v2.Messages in CDMA In CDMA. they never carry user’s voice traffic • Sync Channel (a forward channel) • Paging Channel (a forward channel) • Access Channel (a reverse channel) • On these channels.35 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . most call processing events are driven by messages Some CDMA channels exist for the sole purpose of carrying messages. continuously all of the time Some CDMA channels exist just to carry user traffic • Forward Traffic Channel • Reverse Traffic Channel • On these channels. there are only messages. regardless of the channel on which they are sent February. most of the time is filled with traffic and messages are sent only when there is something to do All CDMA messages have very similar structure.

If not acknowledged.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . the sender may release the call Field data processing tools capture and display the messages for study February.How CDMA Messages are Sent CDMA messages on both forward and reverse traffic channels are normally sent via dim-and-burst Messages include many fields of binary data The first byte of each message identifies message type: this allows the recipient to parse the contents To ensure no messages are missed.36 t RF100 v2. 2005 EXAMPLE: A POWER MEASUREMENT REPORT MESSAGE Field MSG_TYPE (‘00000110’) ACK_SEQ MSG_SEQ ACK_REQ ENCRYPTION ERRORS_DETECTED POWER_MEAS_FRAMES LAST_HDM_SEQ NUM_PILOTS Length (in bits) 8 3 3 1 2 5 10 2 4 NUM_PILOTS occurrences of this field: PILOT_STRENGTH RESERVED (‘0’s) 6 0-7 7 . all CDMA messages bear serial numbers and important messages contain a bit requesting acknowledgment Messages not promptly acknowledged are retransmitted several times.

Channel Assignment Msg Feature Notification Msg Authentication Challenge Msg Status Request Msg TMSI Assignment Msg Data Burst Msg Origination Msg Page Response Msg Authentication Challenge Response Msg Status Response Msg TMSI Assignment Completion Message Data Burst Msg February. •Base Station Acknowledgment •Lock until Power-Cycled • Maintenance required many others….0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.Message Vocabulary: Acquisition & Idle States Pilot Channel No Messages Sync Channel Sync Channel Msg BTS Paging Channel Access Parameters Msg System Parameters Msg CDMA Channel List Msg Extended System Parameters Msg Extended Neighbor List Msg Global Service Redirection Msg Service Redirection Msg SSD Update Msg Null Msg General Page Msg Order Msg Access Channel Registration Msg Order Msg • Mobile Station Acknowldgment • Long Code Transition Request • SSD Update Confirmation many others….37 ...

Retrieve Parameters Msg Analog Handoff Direction Msg SSD Update Msg Mobile Station Registered Msg February.Message Vocabulary: Conversation State Forward Traffic Channel Order Msg • Base Station Acknowledgment • Base Station Challenge Confirmation • Message Encryption Mode Alert With Information Msg Service Request Msg Service Response Msg Service Connect Msg Service Option Control Msg Status Request Msg Flash With Information Msg Data Burst Msg Extended Handoff Direction Msg Neighbor List Update Msg In-Traffic System Parameters Msg Reverse Traffic Channel Service Request Msg Service Response Msg Service Connect Completion Message Service Option Control Message Status Response Msg Flash With Information Msg Data Burst Message Pilot Strength Measurement Msg Handoff Completion Msg Origination Continuation Msg Authentication Challenge Response Msg TMSI Assignment Completion Message Send Burst DTMF Msg Parameters Response Message Power Measurement Report Msg Order Message • Mobile Sta.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Acknowledgment •Long Code Transition Request • SSD Update Confirmation • Connect Authentication Challenge Msg TMSI Assignment Msg Send Burst DTMF Msg Set Parameters Msg Power Control Parameters Msg.38 . 2005 RF100 v2.

2005 RF100 v2.39 .Section E CDMA Handset Architecture CDMA Handset Architecture CDMA Handoffs CDMA Handoffs February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

40 . Messages RF100 v2.What’s In a Handset? How does it work? summing time-aligned Chips control Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Receiver RF Section IF. 2005 Transmitter Digital Section Long Code Gen. Convl. Demultiplexer Packets Messages Audio Vocoder Audio CPU Transmitter RF Section February. Detector AGC RF Duplexer RF Open Loop Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Pilot Searcher PN xxx Walsh 0 Transmit Gain Adjust bits Digital Rake Receiver Symbols Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx ∆t Σ Symbols power Viterbi Decoder. Decoder.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .The Rake Receiver Handset RF BTS BTS Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice.41 . or even on different BTSs Searcher continuously checks pilots February. handset uses combined outputs of the three traffic correlators (“rake fingers”) Each finger can independently recover a particular PN offset and Walsh code Fingers can be targeted on delayed multipath reflections. Data. Messages Pilot Ec/Io Searcher PN W=0 Every frame.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . BTS BTS Handset RF Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice. on a frame-by-frame basis! • Users are totally unaware of handoff February.). 2005 RF100 v2. Data. tells handset • Handset assigns its fingers accordingly • All messages sent by dim-and-burst.CDMA Soft Handoff Mechanics Switch BSC Sel.42 . Messages Pilot Ec/Io Searcher PN W=0 CDMA soft handoff is driven by the handset • Handset continuously checks available pilots • Handset tells system pilots it currently sees • System assigns sectors (up to 6 max. no muting! Each end of the link chooses what works best.

By Std. but not yet set up & transmitting by system • Neighbors: pilots told to mobile by system. 7 . or it may apply special manufacturer-specific screening criteria and only authorize some February. 2005 PILOT SETS Active 6 Candidate 5 Neighbor 20 Remaining HANDOFF PARAMETERS T_ADD T_TDROP T_DROP T_COMP Exercise: How does a pilot in one set migrate into another set. Members Req’d.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . and the messages involved.43 Min. as nearby sectors to check • Remaining: any pilots used by system but not already in the other sets (div.The Complete Rules of Soft Handoff The Handset considers pilots in sets • Active: pilots of sectors actually in use • Candidates: pilots mobile requested. for all cases? Identify the trigger. by PILOT_INC) Handset sends Pilot Strength Measurement Message to the system whenever: • It notices a pilot in neighbor or remaining set exceeds T_ADD • An active set pilot drops below T_DROP for T_TDROP time • A candidate pilot exceeds an active by T_COMP The System may set up all requested handoffs. RF100 v2.

Softer Handoff Handset Switch BSC Sel. this is called Softer Handoff Handset can’t tell the difference.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . but softer handoff occurs in BTS in a single channel element Handset can even use combination soft-softer handoff on multiple BTS & sectors February. BTS Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice. 2005 RF100 v2. Messages Pilot Ec/Io RF Searcher PN W=0 Each BTS sector has unique PN offset & pilot Handset will ask for whatever pilots it wants If multiple sectors of one BTS simultaneously serve a handset.44 . Data.

• Can be degraded by noise February. other PNs are ~-20 dB.45 . sectors – Imperfect orthogonality.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 -25 -15 -10 0 Ec/Io dB Ec Io Energy of desired pilot alone Total energy received RF100 v2.What is Ec/Io? Ec/Io • “cleanness” of the pilot – foretells the readability of the associated traffic channels • guides soft handoff decisions • digitally derived: ratio of good to bad energy seen by the search correlator at the desired PN offset • Never appears higher than Pilot’s percentage of serving cell’s transmitted energy • Can be degraded by strong RF from other cells.

Section F

CDMA Call Processing CDMA Call Processing

February, 2005

RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

7 - 46

Example 1

Let’s Acquire the System! Let’s Acquire the System!

February, 2005

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7 - 47

Find a Frequency with a CDMA RF Signal
Reverse Link Frequencies (Mobile Transmit)
824 MHz. 835 845 849

Forward Link Frequencies (Base Station Transmit)
870 880 890 894

800 MHz. Cellular Spectrum A
825

B
846.5

Paging, ESMR, etc.
869

A

B
891.5

1900 MHz. PCS Spectrum
A
1850MHz.

D

B

E F

C

unlic. unlic. data voice

A

D

B

E F

C
1990 MHz.

1910MHz.

1930MHz.

Mobile scans forward link frequencies: (Cellular or PCS, depending on model) History List Preferred Roaming List until a CDMA signal is found. NO CDMA?! Go to AMPS, or to a power-saving standby mode
February, 2005

FREQUENCY LISTS:
HISTORY LIST/MRU
Last-used: Freq Freq Freq Freq Freq etc.

PREFERRED ROAMING LIST/PRL
System1 System2 System3 System4 System5 etc.

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7 - 48

How Idle Mobiles Choose CDMA Carriers
At turnon, Idle mobiles use proprietary algorithms to find the initial CDMA carrier intended for them to use Within that CDMA signal, two types of paging channel messages could cause the idle mobile to choose another frequency: CDMA Channel List Message and GSRM

Start MRU
Preferred Only Bit

0

PRL
Is better SID available?

Acq Idx
Yes

Go to last Strongest Is SID frequency PN, read permitted? from MRU Sync No Signal Denied SID

No Read Paging Channel

CDMA Ch List Message Global Svc Redir Msg

HASH using IMSI my ACCOLC? redirect

F3 F2 F1

Config Messages: remain

to another CDMA frequency or system

Legend
Steps from the CDMA standards Steps from proprietary SDAs Proprietary SDA databases

to Analog Typical Mobile System Determination Algorithm

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4. Is This the Right System to Use? Scan the PRL for Anything Better
ROAMING LIST
Roaming List Type: IS-683A Preferred Only: FALSE Default Roaming Indicator: 0 Preferred List ID: 10018

SYSTEM TABLE
INDEX 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 SID 4144 4812 205 208 208 342 342 478 1038 1050 1058 1375 1385 143 143 4103 4157 312 444 444 1008 1012 1014 1688 113 113 179 179 465 2119 2094 1005 1013 NEG/ NID PREF 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref GEO NEW SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME NEW SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME ACQ ROAM PRI INDEX IND SAME 13 1 MORE 21 1 SAME 4 0 MORE 37 0 SAME 4 0 MORE 37 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 MORE 4 0 MORE 37 0 MORE 4 0 SAME 3 1 MORE 2 1 SAME 4 0 MORE 37 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 MORE 4 0 MORE 37 0 SAME 4 0 MORE 37 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 MORE 4 0 MORE 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0

ACQUISITION TABLE
INDEX ACQ TYPE 0 6 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 1 5 6 6 6 7 6 8 6 9 6 10 6 11 6 12 6 13 6 14 6 15 6 16 6 17 6 18 6 19 6 20 6 21 6 22 6 23 6 24 6 25 6 26 6 27 1 28 1 29 5 30 5 31 5 32 5 33 5 34 5 35 4 36 4 37 4 38 6 39 6 40 6 41 6 42 6 43 6 44 6 45 6 46 6 CH1 500 575 50 25 Both 450 675 250 550 75 200 425 500 500 650 25 425 200 825 350 750 325 1150 350 25 50 500 A B A B C D E F A B Both 350 25 675 850 650 450 325 150 1025 CH2 425 625 100 200 500 500 50 375 50 250 500 575 625 500 50 550 50 850 325 725 725 1175 875 1175 200 1075 CH3 825 500 75 350 350 600 175 425 175 175 575 475 350 675 375 225 175 925 375 775 350 325 825 25 850 CH4 575 425 475 375 575 575 625 250 50 25 25 50 25 350 725 375 675 750 CH5 CH6 CH7 CH8 CH9 850 325 625 825 725 650 475 850 175 250 50 475 175 250

a GEO GROUP

Climb!

It’s not enough just to find a CDMA signal • We want the CDMA signal of our own system or a favorite roaming partner Phones look in the PRL to see if there is a more preferred signal than whatever they find first • They check frequencies in the Acquisition Table until they find the best system, or look down the list level by level
February, 2005

325 675 375 75 250 750 250 25 375

650 775 575 725 425 425 50 575 175 775

1175 725 600 100 775 425 575 625

a GEO GROUP

375 1175 200 75 175 250 100 250 75 825

825 100 600

750

850 1175 775

475 350 375 1025 1050 1075 475 625 675 1050 1075

PRL: Preferred Roaming List
Programmed into each phone by the system operator; can be updated over the air.

RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

7 - 50

Find Strongest Pilot, Read Sync Channel
Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets

1. Pilot Searcher Scans the Entire Range of PNs
32K 512 SYNC CHANNEL MESSAGE
98/05/24 23:14:09.817 [SCH] MSG_LENGTH = 208 bits MSG_TYPE = Sync Channel Message P_REV = 3 MIN_P_REV = 2 SID = 179 NID = 0 PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index LC_STATE = 0x0348D60E013 SYS_TIME = 98/05/24 23:14:10.160 LP_SEC = 12 LTM_OFF = -300 minutes DAYLT = 0 PRAT = 9600 bps RESERVED = 1

-20 Chips 0 PN 0

2. Put Rake finger(s) on strongest available PN, decode Walsh 32, and read Sync Channel Message Active Pilot Handset

Rake Receiver F1 PN168 W32 F2 PN168 W32 F3 PN168 W32 Srch PN??? W0

Rake Fingers

RF
x

LO

Reference PN

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The Configuration Messages

After reading the Sync Channel, the mobile is now capable of reading the Paging Channel, which it now monitors constantly Before it is allowed to transmit or operate on this system, the mobile must collect a complete set of configuration messages Collection is a short process -- all configuration messages are repeated on the paging channel every 1.28 seconds The configuration messages contain sequence numbers so the mobile can recognize if any of the messages have been freshly updated as it continues to monitor the paging channel • Access parameters message sequence number • Configuration message sequence number • If a mobile notices a changed sequence number, or if 600 seconds passes since the last time these messages were read, the mobile reads all of them again
February, 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 - 52

Go to Paging Channel, Get Configured
Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets

-20 Chips 0 PN 0 Read the Configuration Messages
Access Parameters Msg System Parameters Msg CDMA Channel List Msg

32K 512

Keep Rake finger(s) on strongest available PN, decode Walsh 1, and monitor the Paging Channel Active Pilot Handset

Rake Receiver F1 PN168 W01 F2 PN168 W01 F3 PN168 W01 Srch PN??? W0

Extended System Parameters Msg (*opt.) (Extended*) Neighbor List Msg Global Service Redirection Msg (*opt.)

Rake Fingers

RF
x

LO

Now we’re ready to operate!! Reference PN
February, 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 - 53

0 Db T_DROP = -15.5 dB T_TDROP = 4 sec EXT_SYS_PARAMETER = 1 RESERVED = 0 GLOBAL_REDIRECT = 0 February.08 sec BASE_LAT = 00D00'00.427 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 184 bits MSG_TYPE = Access Parameters Message PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index ACC_MSG_SEQ = 27 ACC_CHAN = 1 channel NOM_PWR = 0 dB INIT_PWR = 0 dB PWR_STEP = 4 dB NUM_STEP = 5 Access Probes Maximum MAX_CAP_SZ = 4 Access Channel Frames Maximum PAM_SZ = 3 Access Channel Frames Persist Val for Acc Overload Classes 0-9 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 10 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 11 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 12 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 13 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 14 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 15 = 0 Persistance Modifier for Msg Tx = 1 Persistance Modifier for Reg = 1 Probe Randomization = 15 PN chips Acknowledgement Timeout = 320 ms Probe Backoff Range = 4 Slots Maximum Probe Sequence Backoff Range = 4 Slots Max.0 dB T_COMP = 2.54 . 2005 RF100 v2.00E REG_DIST = 0 SRCH_WIN_A = 40 PN chips SRCH_WIN_N = 80 PN chips SRCH_WIN_R = 4 PN chips NGHBR_MAX_AGE = 0 PWR_REP_THRESH = 2 frames PWR_REP_FRAMES = 56 frames PWR_THRESH_ENABLE = 1 PWR_PERIOD_ENABLE = 0 PWR_REP_DELAY = 20 frames RESCAN = 0 T_ADD = -13. Max # Probe Seq for Requests = 2 Sequences Max # Probe Seq for Responses = 2 Sequences Authentication Mode = 1 Random Challenge Value = Field Omitted Reserved Bits = 99 98/05/24 23:14:11.126 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 264 bits MSG_TYPE = System Parameters Message PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index CONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0 SID = 179 NID = 0 REG_ZONE = 0 TOTAL_ZONES = 0 ZONE_TIMER = 60 min MULT_SIDS = 0 MULT_NID = 0 BASE_ID = 8710 BASE_CLASS = Public Macrocellular PAGE_CHAN = 1 channel MAX_SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX = 0 HOME_REG = 0 FOR_SID_REG = 0 FOR_NID_REG = 1 POWER_UP_REG = 0 POWER_DOWN_REG = 0 PARAMETER_REG = 1 REG_PRD = 0.Two Very Important Configuration Messages SYSTEM PARAMETERS MESSAGE ACCESS PARAMETERS MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:10.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .00N BASE_LONG = 000D00'00.

DELETE_TMSI: 0.55 . MSG_TYPE: 96.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .486 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 216 bits MSG_TYPE = Neighbor List Message PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index CONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0 PILOT_INC = 4 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 220 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 52 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 500 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 8 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 176 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 304 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 136 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 384 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 216 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 68 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 328 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 112 Offset Index RESERVED = 0 GLOBAL SERVICE REDIRECTION 98/05/17 24:21. CONFIG_MSG_SEQ: 0 Redirected access overload classes: { 0. RETURN_IF_FAIL: 0.Four Additional Configuration Messages CDMA CHANNEL LIST MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:10.946 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 104 bits MSG_TYPE = Extended System Parameters Message PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index CONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0 RESERVED = 0 PREF_MSID_TYPE = IMSI and ESN MCC = 000 IMSI_11_12 = 00 RESERVED_LEN = 8 bits RESERVED_OCTETS = 0x00 BCAST_INDEX = 0 RESERVED = 0 NEIGHBOR LIST 98/05/24 23:14:11. 1 }.566 Paging Channel: Global Service Redirection PILOT_PN: 168.786 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 72 bits MSG_TYPE = CDMA Channel List Message PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index CONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0 CDMA_FREQ = 283 RESERVED = Field Omitted EXTENDED SYSTEM PARAMETERS 98/05/24 23:14:10. 2005 RF100 v2. Redirection to an analog system: EXPECTED_SID = 0 Do not ignore CDMA Available indicator on the redirected analog system Attempt service on either System A or B with the custom system selection process February.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Example 2 Let’s do an Let’s do an Idle Mode Handoff! Idle Mode Handoff! February. 2005 RF100 v2.56 .

the mobile must switch quickly. not synchronous -.57 . 2005 RF100 v2. it isn’t possible to do soft handoff and listen to multiple sectors or base stations at the same time -.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .the paging channel information stream is different on each sector. the mobile continues on the current paging channel until the end of the current superframe. CBS. NBC. and CNN TV news programs aren’t in word-sync for simultaneous viewing • Since a mobile can’t combine signals. it re-registers on the new sector February. always enjoying the best available signal The mobile’s pilot searcher is constantly checking neighbor pilots If the searcher notices a better signal. then instantly switches to the paging channel of the new signal • The system doesn’t know the mobile did this! (Does NBC’s Tom Brokaw know you just switched your TV to CNN?) On the new paging channel.Idle Mode Handoff An idle mobile always demodulates the best available signal • In idle mode. if the mobile learns that registration is required.just like ABC.

This is called an idle mode handoff.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . track the Strongest Pilot Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 PN 0 SRCH_WIN_A Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W01 F2 PN168 W01 F3 PN168 W01 Srch PN??? W0 SRCH_WIN_N 32K 512 Active Pilot Rake Fingers The phone’s pilot searcher constantly checks the pilots listed in the Neighbor List Message Reference PN Neighbor Set If the searcher ever notices a neighbor pilot substantially stronger than the current reference pilot. 2005 RF100 v2. it becomes the new reference pilot and the phone switches over to its paging channel on the next superframe. February.Idle Mode on the Paging Channel: Meet the Neighbors.58 .

(typ. Order RV TFC FW TFC Service Connect Msg. Svc. Connect Complete Msg RV TFC FW TFC Base Sta. Order Mobile Sta. Acknlgmt. Order MS Probing ACCESS Call is Established! RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . phones are not yet under BTS closed-loop power control! Phones access the BTS by “probing” at power levels determined by receive power and an open loop formula • If “probe” not acknowledged by BTS within ACC_TMO (~400 mS. stronger by PI db. phone will wait a random time (~200 mS) then probe again. Origination. Ackngmt. TFC preamble of 000s RV TFC FW FC Base Sta. • For mobiles sending Registration. Page Responses • Base Station always listening! On the access channel. Order FW TFC TFC frames of 000s PAGING Channel Assnmt. 5) probes in a sequence and 15 max. Msg. • There can be 15 max. Acknlgmt. 2005 Origination Msg Success! BTS an Access Probe a Probe Sequence an Access Attempt PAGING Base Sta.Phone Operation on the Access Channel A Successful Access Attempt A sector’s Paging Channel announces 1 (typ) to 32 (max) Access Channels: PN Long Code offsets for mobiles to use if accessing the system. Acknlgmt. (typ.). 2) sequences in an access attempt • most attempts succeed on first probe! The Access Parameters message on the paging channel announces values of all related parameters February.59 .

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Example 3 Let’s Register! Let’s Register! February.60 . 2005 RF100 v2.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . so that incoming calls can be delivered • registration also allows the system to intelligently page the mobile only in the area where the mobile is currently located.Registration Registration is the process by which an idle mobile lets the system know it’s awake and available for incoming calls • this allows the system to inform the mobile’s home switch of the mobile’s current location.61 . thereby eliminating useless congestion on the paging channels in other areas of the system There are many different conditions that could trigger an obligation for the mobile to register • there are flags in the System Parameters Message which tell the mobile when it must register on the current system February. 2005 RF100 v2.

Reserved 38.826 [PCH] System Parameters Message Pilot_PN: 32 CONFIG_MSG_SEQ: 14 SID: 16420 NID: 0.5dB. Class_0_type: 3) [0x 02 47 8d 31 74 29 36] (302) 00-416-575-0421 Order type: Base Station Acknowledgement Order The base station confirms that the mobile’s registration message was received.00¨ Lon.0dB T_COMP: 2. IMSI: (Class: 0.. T_TDROP: 4s EXT_SYS_PARAMETER: 1 EXT_NGHBR_LIST: 1 GLOBAL_REDIRECT: 0 The System Parameters Message tells all mobiles when they should register. POWER_UP_REG: 1 POWER_DOWN_REG: 1 PARAMETER_REG: 1 Registration period (sec): 54 Base station 0°00´00. This mobile notices that it is obligated to register. 2005 RF100 v2.An Actual Registration SYSTEM PARAMETERS MESSAGE 18:26. so it transmits a Registration Message.0dB T_DROP: -16. We’re officially registered! 7 . Serial Number 69116.62 February. SRCH_WIN_R (PN chips): 130 NGHBR_MAX_AGE: 2 PWR_REP_THRESH: 2 PWR_REP_FRAMES (frames): 15 PWR_THRESH_ENABLE: 1 PWR_PERIOD_ENABLE: 0.506 Paging Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1 MSID_TYPE: 2 IMSI: (Class: 0. REG_DIST: 0 SRCH_WIN_A (PN chips): 28 SRCH_WIN_N (PN chips): 100.144 Access Channel: Registration ACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 VALID_ACK: 0 ACK_TYPE: 0 MSID_TYPE: 3. 0°00´00. ESN: [0x 01 99 0d fc] MFR 1. T_ADD: -14.00° Lat.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . REG_ZONE: 0 TOTAL_ZONES: 0 Zone timer length (min): 1 MULT_SIDS: 0 MULT_NIDS: 0 BASE_ID: 1618 BASE_CLASS: Reserved PAG_CHAN: 1 MAX_SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX: 2 HOME_REG: 1 FOR_SID_REG: 1 FOR_NID_REG: 1. Class_0_type: 1) [0x 01 8d 31 74 29 36] 00-416-575-0421 AUTH_MODE: 0 REG_TYPE: Timer-based SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX: 2 MOB_P_REV: 1 EXT_SCM: 1 SLOTTED_MODE: 1 MOB_TERM: 1 BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 16:18:27. REGISTRATION MESSAGE 16:18:27. PWR_REP_DELAY: 1 (4 frames) RESCAN: 0.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.63 .Example 4 Let’s Receive Let’s Receive an incoming Call! an incoming Call! February.

The base station and the mobile negotiate what type of call this will be -.64 .e.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . etc. the audio path is completed and the call proceeds.. The system sets up a traffic channel for the call. A mobile which has been paged sends a Page Response Message on the access channel. 13k voice. The mobile is told to ring and given a “calling line ID” to display. When the human user presses the send button.Receiving an Incoming Call All idle mobiles monitor the paging channel to receive incoming calls. February. When an incoming call appears. The mobile and the base station notice each other’s traffic channel signals and confirm their presence by exchanging acknowledgment messages. the paging channel notifies the mobile in a General Page Message.I. 2005 RF100 v2. then notifies the mobile to use it with a Channel Assignment Message.

expecting a response within 12 seconds.768 [PCH] Order Message MSG_LENGTH = 112 bits MSG_TYPE = Order Message ACK_SEQ = 2 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 0 VALID_ACK = 1 ADDR_TYPE = IMSI ADDR_LEN = 40 bits IMSI_CLASS = 0 IMSI_CLASS_0_TYPE = 0 RESERVED = 0 IMSI_S = 6153300644 ORDER = Base Station Acknowledgement Order ADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bits Order-Specific Fields = Field Omitted RESERVED = 0 The base station confirms that the mobile’s page response was received. PAGE RESPONSE MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:46. 615-330-0644. BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 98/05/24 23:14:46. 7 .425 [ACH] Page Response Message MSG_LENGTH = 216 bits MSG_TYPE = Page Response Message ACK_SEQ = 1 MSG_SEQ = 2 ACK_REQ = 1 VALID_ACK = 1 ACK_TYPE = 2 MSID_TYPE = IMSI and ESN MSID_LEN = 9 octets ESN = 0xD30E415C IMSI_CLASS = 0 IMSI_CLASS_0_TYPE = 0 RESERVED = 0 IMSI_S = 6153300644 AUTH_MODE = 1 AUTHR = 0x307B5 RANDC = 0xC6 COUNT = 0 MOB_TERM = 1 SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX = 0 MOB_P_REV = 3 SCM = 106 REQUEST_MODE = Either Wide Analog or CDMA Only SERVICE_OPTION = 32768 PM = 0 NAR_AN_CAP = 0 RESERVED = 0 The mobile responds to the page. Now the mobile is waiting for channel assignment. 2005 RF100 v2.127 [PCH] General Page Message MSG_LENGTH = 128 bits MSG_TYPE = General Page Message CONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 1 ACC_MSG_SEQ = 20 CLASS_0_DONE = 1 CLASS_1_DONE = 1 RESERVED = 0 BROADCAST_DONE = 1 RESERVED = 0 ADD_LENGTH = 0 bits ADD_PFIELD = Field Omitted PAGE_CLASS = 0 PAGE_SUBCLASS = 0 MSG_SEQ = 1 IMSI_S = 6153300644 SPECIAL_SERVICE = 1 SERVICE_OPTION = 32768 RESERVED = Field Omitted The system pages the mobile.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .65 February.An Actual Page and Page Response GENERAL PAGE MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:46.

It sends a preamble of two blank frames of its own on the reverse traffic channel.027 Paging Channel: Channel Assignment ACK_SEQ: 2 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1 MSID_TYPE: 2 IMSI: (Class: 0.581 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgement Order The mobile sees at least two good blank frames in a row on the forward channel. Class_0_type: 0) [0x 01 f8 39 6a 15] 615-330-0644 ASSIGN_MODE: Traffic Channel Assignment ADD_RECORD_LEN: 5 FREQ_INCL: 1 GRANTED_MODE: 2 CODE_CHAN: 43 FRAME_OFFSET: 2 ENCRYPT_MODE: Encryption disabled BAND_CLASS: 800 MHz cellular band CDMA_FREQ: 283 Only about 400 ms. The base station is already sending blank frames on the forward channel.598 Reverse Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 Mobile Station Acknowledgement Order The base station acknowledges receiving the mobile’s preamble. February. MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 18:14:47.Channel Assignment and Traffic Channel Confirmation CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MESSAGE 18:14:47. the mobile receives the channel assignment message. BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 18:14:47.66 RF100 v2.using the assigned Walsh code. after the base station acknowledgment order. 2005 The mobile station acknowledges the base station’s acknowledgment. Everybody is ready! 7 . and concludes this is the right traffic channel.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .

1800 bps Reverse Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400. 7200.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .835 Reverse Traffic Channel: Service Connect Completion ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 3 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 SERV_CON_SEQ: 0 ALERT WITH INFORMATION MESSAGE 18:14:47. 1800 bps Service option: (6) Voice (13k) (0x8000) Forward Traffic Channel: Primary Traffic Reverse Traffic Channel: Primary Traffic Now that both sides have arrived on the traffic channel. 3600. 2005 The mobile says it’s ringing. Now it is officially a call. the base station proposes that the requested call actually begin. 3600. SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE is a major milestone in call processing. Up until now. February. and gives it the calling party’s number to display. this was an access attempt.Service Negotiation and Mobile Alert SERVICE CONNECT MESSAGE 18:14:47. 7 . 18:14:48. 7200. 18:14:47. SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE MSG.018 Reverse Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 4 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 Mobile Station Acknowledgement Order The base station orders the mobile to ring.760 Forward Traffic Channel: Service Connect ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 SERV_CON_SEQ: 0 Service Configuration: supported Transmission: Forward Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400.961 Forward Traffic Channel: Alert With Information ACK_SEQ: 3 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 SIGNAL_TYPE = IS-54B Alerting ALERT_PITCH = Medium Pitch (Standard Alert) SIGNAL = Long RESERVED = 0 RECORD_TYPE = Calling Party Number RECORD_LEN = 96 bits NUMBER_TYPE = National Number NUMBER_PLAN = ISDN/Telephony Numbering Plan PI = Presentation Allowed SI = Network Provided CHARi = 6153000124 RESERVED = 0 RESERVED = 0 The mobile agrees and says its ready to play.67 RF100 v2.

The Human Answers! Connect Order The mobile has been ringing for several seconds.758 Reverse Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 6 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 Connect Order BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 18:14:54.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . The human user finally comes over and presses the send button to answer the call. CONNECT ORDER 18:14:54.920 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgement Order Now the switch completes the audio circuit and the two callers can talk! February.68 . 2005 RF100 v2.

Example 5 Let’s make an Outgoing Call! Let’s make an Outgoing Call! February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .69 . 2005 RF100 v2.

2005 RF100 v2. 13k voice.Placing an Outgoing Call The mobile user dials the desired digits. The system notifies the mobile in a Channel Assignment Message on the paging channel. The audio circuit is completed and the mobile caller hears ringing. The mobile and the base station notice each other’s traffic channel signals and confirm their presence by exchanging acknowledgment messages. Mobile transmits an Origination Message on the access channel.I. The system arranges the resources for the call and starts transmitting on the traffic channel.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . etc.70 . The system acknowledges receiving the origination by sending a base station acknowledgement on the paging channel.e. The base station and the mobile negotiate what type of call this will be -. and presses SEND.. February. The mobile arrives on the traffic channel.

Class_0_type: 0) [0x 03 5d b8 97 c2] 972-849-5073 AUTH_MODE: 0 MOB_TERM: 1 SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX: 2 MOB_P_REV: 1 EXT_SCM: 1 DualMode: 0 SLOTTED_MODE: 1 PowerClass: 0 REQUEST_MODE: CDMA only SPECIAL_SERVICE: 1 Service option: (6) Voice (13k) (0x8000) PM: 0 DIGIT_MODE: 0 MORE_FIELDS: 0 NUM_FIELDS: 11 Chari: 18008900829 NAR_AN_CAP: 0 BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 17:48:53. 2005 RF100 v2.144 Access Channel: Origination ACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 6 ACK_REQ: 1 VALID_ACK: 0 ACK_TYPE: 0 MSID_TYPE: 3 ESN: [0x 00 06 98 24] MFR 0 Reserved 1 Serial Number 170020 IMSI: (Class: 0.71 February. ADD_RECORD_LEN: 5 FREQ_INCL: 1 GRANTED_MODE: 2 CODE_CHAN: 12 FRAME_OFFSET: 0 ENCRYPT_MODE: Encryption disabled BAND_CLASS: 1.Origination ORIGINATION MESSAGE The mobile sends an origination message on the access channel. Class_0_type: 0) [0x 03 5d b8 97 c2] 972-849-5073 ASSIGN_MODE: Traffic Channel Assignment. 7 .8 to 2. Class_0_type: 0) [0x 03 5d b8 97 c2] 972-849-5073 Base Station Acknowledgment Order CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MESSAGE 17:48:54.367 Paging Channel: Channel Assignment ACK_SEQ: 6 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1 MSID_TYPE: 2 IMSI: (Class: 0.0 GHz PCS band CDMA_FREQ: 425 The base station confirms that the origination message was received.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .487 Paging Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 6 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1 MSID_TYPE: 2 IMSI: (Class: 0. The base station sends a Channel Assignment Message and the mobile goes to the traffic channel. 17:48:53.

Traffic Channel Confirmation The mobile sees at least two good blank frames in a row on the forward channel. Everybody is ready! February.using the assigned Walsh code.757 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgment Order The base station acknowledges receiving the mobile’s preamble.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . It sends a preamble of two blank frames of its own on the reverse traffic channel. and concludes this is the right traffic channel.72 . BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 17:48:54. The mobile station acknowledges the base station’s acknowledgment. MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 17:48:54.835 Reverse Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 Mobile Station Acknowledgment Order The base station is already sending blank frames on the forward channel. 2005 RF100 v2.

73 .098 Forward Traffic Channel: Service Connect ACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 SERV_CON_SEQ: 0 Service Configuration Supported Transmission: Forward Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400. SERV_CON_SEQ: 0 BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 17:48:55. Up until now. 17:48:55. 2005 RF100 v2. this was an access attempt. 7200.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 3600. The base station agrees. ENCRYPTION: 0.779 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgment Order The mobile agrees and says its ready to play. MSG_SEQ: 0. ACK_REQ: 1. 1800 bps Reverse Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400.Service Negotiation and Connect Complete SERVICE CONNECT MESSAGE 17:48:55.137 Reverse Traffic Channel: Service Connect Completion ACK_SEQ: 1. SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE is a major milestone in call processing. 7200. Now it is officially a call. 3600. Now the switch completes the audio circuit and the two callers can talk! February. SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE MSG. 1800 bps Service option: (6) Voice (13k) (0x8000) Forward Traffic Channel: Primary Traffic Reverse Traffic Channel: Primary Traffic Now that the traffic channel is working in both directions. the base station proposes that the requested call actually begin.

Example 6 Let’s End a Call! Let’s End a Call! February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .74 . 2005 RF100 v2.

2005 RF100 v2. and a fade timer acts • the reverse link is lost at the base station. “normal release”. • Searches for the best pilot on the present CDMA frequency • Reads the Sync Channel Message • Monitors the Paging Channel steadily Several different conditions can cause a call to end abnormally: • the forward link is lost at the mobile. At the conclusion of the call.75 . and the base station acts to tear down the link • a number of reverse link messages aren’t acknowledged. and a fade timer acts • a number of forward link messages aren’t acknowledged. “no reason given”.Ending A Call A normal call continues until one of the parties hangs up. That action sends a Release Order. • If a normal release is visible. and the mobile station acts to tear down the link February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . The other side of the call sends a Release Order. the mobile reacquires the system. the call ended normally.

517 Sync Channel MSG_TYPE: 1 Sync Channel Message P_REV: 1 MIN_P_REV: 1 SID: 4112 NID: 2 Pilot_PN: 183 LC_STATE: 0x318fe5d84a5 SYS_TIME: 0x1ae9683dc LP_SEC: 9 LTM_OFF: -10 DAYLT: 1 Paging Channel Data Rate: 9600 CDMA_FREQ: 425 The mobile left the traffic channel. USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgement Order At the end of a normal call.715 Reverse Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 Release Order (normal release) BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 17:49:21.A Beautiful End to a Normal Call MOBILE RELEASE ORDER 17:49:21. this mobile user pressed end. and read the Sync Channel Message. February.997 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 3 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Release Order (no reason given) The base station acknowledged receiving the message. 2005 RF100 v2.76 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . SYNC CHANNEL MESSAGE 17:49:22.936 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 2 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0. BASE STATION RELEASE ORDER 17:49:21. then sent a release message of its own. scanned to find the best pilot.

Example 7 Let’s receive Notification Let’s receive Notification of a Voice Message! of a Voice Message! February. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .77 .

Feature Notification FEATURE NOTIFICATION MESSAGE 98/06/30 21:16:44.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2. There are other record types to notify the mobile of other features. MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT The mobile confirms it has received the notification by sending a Mobile Station Acknowledgment Order on the access channel.368 [PCH] Feature Notification Message MSG_LENGTH = 144 bits MSG_TYPE = Feature Notification Message ACK_SEQ = 0 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 1 VALID_ACK = 0 ADDR_TYPE = IMSI ADDR_LEN = 56 bits IMSI_CLASS = 0 IMSI_CLASS_0_TYPE = 3 RESERVED = 0 MCC = 302 IMSI_11_12 = 00 IMSI_S = 9055170325 RELEASE = 0 RECORD_TYPE = Message Waiting RECORD_LEN = 8 bits MSG_COUNT = 1 RESERVED = 0 The Feature Notification Message on the Paging Channel tells a specific mobile it has voice messages waiting. February.78 .

Example 8 Let’s do a Handoff! Let’s do a Handoff! February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .79 . 2005 RF100 v2.

The Call is Already Established. 2005 RF100 v2.80 If we ever notice a neighbor with Ec/Io above T_ADD. What Next? Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 10752 14080 32002 32K PN 0 Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W61 F2 PN168 W61 F3 PN168 W61 Srch PN??? W0 168 220 500 512 Active Pilot Rake Fingers The call is already in progress. and also is our timing reference. Neighbor Set Reference PN T_ADD ! ! 7 . PN 168 is the only active signal. ask to use it! Send a Pilot Strength Measurement Message! February. Continue checking the neighbors.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .

February. This pilot strength measurement message reports PN 500 has increased above T_Add.0 dB KEEP = 1 PILOT_PN_PHASE = 14080 chips (PN220+0chips) PILOT_STRENGTH = -12.Mobile Requests the Handoff! PILOT STRENGTH MEASUREMENT MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:02.0 dB KEEP = 1 RESERVED = 0 Just prior to this message.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .5 dB KEEP = 1 PILOT_PN_PHASE = 32002 chips (PN500 + 2 chips) PILOT_STRENGTH = -11. and the mobile wants to use it too. this particular mobile already was in handoff with PN 168 and 220. BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 98/05/24 23:14:02.386 [FTC] Order Message MSG_LENGTH = 64 bits MSG_TYPE = Order Message ACK_SEQ = 0 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 0 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled USE_TIME = 0 ACTION_TIME = 0 ORDER = Base Station Acknowledgment Order ADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bits Order-Specific Fields = Field Omitted RESERVED = 0 The base station acknowledges receiving the Pilot Strength Measurement Message.81 . 2005 RF100 v2.205 [RTC] Pilot Strength Measurement Message MSG_LENGTH = 128 bits MSG_TYPE = Pilot Strength Measurement Message ACK_SEQ = 5 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 1 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled REF_PN = 168 Offset Index (the Reference PN) PILOT_STRENGTH = -6.

2005 RF100 v2.82 . MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 98/05/24 23:14:02.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . the new link on PN220 will use Walsh Code 20.0 dB T_DROP = -15.0 dB T_COMP = 2.5 dB T_TDROP = 4 sec HARD_INCLUDED = 0 FRAME_OFFSET = Field Omitted PRIVATE_LCM = Field Omitted RESET_L2 = Field Omitted RESET_FPC = Field Omitted RESERVED = Field Omitted ENCRYPT_MODE = Field Omitted RESERVED = Field Omitted NOM_PWR = Field Omitted NUM_PREAMBLE = Field Omitted BAND_CLASS = Field Omitted CDMA_FREQ = Field Omitted ADD_LENGTH = 0 PILOT_PN = 168 PWR_COMB_IND = 0 CODE_CHAN = 61 PILOT_PN = 220 PWR_COMB_IND = 1 CODE_CHAN = 20 PILOT_PN = 500 PWR_COMB_IND = 0 CODE_CHAN = 50 RESERVED = 0 The base station sends a Handof Direction Message authorizing the mobile to begin soft handoff with all three requested PNs.945 [RTC] Order Message MSG_LENGTH = 56 bits MSG_TYPE = Order Message ACK_SEQ = 6 MSG_SEQ = 6 ACK_REQ = 0 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled ORDER = Mobile Station Acknowledgment Order ADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bits Order-Specific Fields = Field Omitted RESERVED = 0 The mobile acknowledges it has received the Handoff Direction Message. The pre-existing link on PN 168 will continue to use Walsh code 61.System Authorizes the Handoff! HANDOFF DIRECTION MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:02. and the new link on PN500 will use Walsh code 50.926 [FTC] Extended Handoff Direction Message MSG_LENGTH = 136 bits MSG_TYPE = Extended Handoff Direction Message ACK_SEQ = 0 MSG_SEQ = 6 ACK_REQ = 1 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled USE_TIME = 0 ACTION_TIME = 0 HDM_SEQ = 0 SEARCH_INCLUDED = 1 SRCH_WIN_A = 40 PN chips T_ADD = -13. February.

Mobile Implements the Handoff! HANDOFF COMPLETION MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:02.985 [RTC] Handoff Completion Message MSG_LENGTH = 72 bits MSG_TYPE = Handoff Completion Message ACK_SEQ = 6 MSG_SEQ = 1 ACK_REQ = 1 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled LAST_HDM_SEQ = 0 PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index PILOT_PN = 220 Offset Index PILOT_PN = 500 Offset Index RESERVED = 0 The mobile searcher quickly re-checks all three PNs. It still hears their pilots! The mobile sends a Handoff Completion Message. February. BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 98/05/24 23:14:03.085 [FTC] Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgement Order The base station confirms it has received the mobile’s Handoff Completion message.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . and will continue with all of the links active. confirming it still wants to go ahead with the handoff.83 . 2005 RF100 v2.

MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT The mobile confirms receiving the Neighbor List Update Message. This is necessary since the mobile could be traveling toward any one of these pilots and may need to request soft handoff with any of them soon. It is already checking the neighbor list and will do so continuously from now on. 2005 98/05/24 23:14:03.166 [FTC] Neighbor List Update Message MSG_LENGTH = 192 bits MSG_TYPE = Neighbor List Update Message ACK_SEQ = 1 MSG_SEQ = 7 ACK_REQ = 1 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled PILOT_INC = 4 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 164 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 68 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 52 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 176 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 304 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 136 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 112 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 372 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 36 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 8 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 384 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 216 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 328 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 332 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 400 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 96 Offset Index RESERVED = 0 In response to the mobile’s Handoff Completion Message. The handoff is fully established.84 . the base station assembles a new composite neighbor list including all the neighbors of each of the three active pilots. February.Neighbor List Updated. Handoff is Complete! NEIGHBOR LIST UPDATE MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:03.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .245 [RTC] Order Message MSG_LENGTH = 56 bits MSG_TYPE = Order Message ACK_SEQ = 7 MSG_SEQ = 7 ACK_REQ = 0 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled ORDER = Mobile Station Acknowledgement Order ADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bits Order-Specific Fields = Field Omitted RESERVED = 0 RF100 v2.

If any are less than T_DROP and remain so for T_TDROP time. send Pilot Strength Measurement Message. DROP IT!! Continue looking at each NEIGHBOR pilot. 2005 RF100 v2. send Pilot Strength Measurement Message.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . but still check Pilots! Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 10752 14080 32002 32K PN 0 Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W61 F2 PN500 W50 F3 PN220 W20 Srch PN??? W0 168 220 500 512 Active Set Rake Fingers T_DROP Reference PN T_ADD Neighbor Set Continue checking each ACTIVE pilot. ADD IT! February.Handoff Now In Effect.85 . If any ever rises above T_ADD.

or Neighbor sets SRCH_WIN_R February.86 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2. Candidate.The Complete Picture of Handoff & Pilot Sets Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 PN 0 SRCH_WIN_A Rake Fingers SRCH_WIN_A Active Set Pilots of sectors now used for communication 32K 512 Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W61 F2 PN500 W50 F3 PN220 W20 Srch PN??? W0 T_DROP T_DROP Reference PN Candidate Set SRCH_WIN_N Pilots requested by mobile but not set up by system Neighbor Set Pilots suggested by system for more checking T_ADD Remaining Set T_ADD All other pilots divisible by PILOT_INC but not presently in Active.

2005 RF100 v2.87 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Section G Deeper Handoff Details: Deeper Handoff Details: Search Windows & Timing Search Windows & Timing February.

Remaining is slowest.The Pilot Searcher’s Measurement Process CURRENT PILOT SET CONTENTS 3 A A A 1 C 12 N N N N N N N N N N N N 112 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R The searcher checks pilots in nested loops.88 February. Actives and candidates N N occupy the fastestspinning wheel.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . N A Neighbors are next. 2005 . revolution. N N advancing one pilot each time the Neighbors revolve. much like meshed gears. advancing N A A one pilot for each N Act+Cand. R R N R R R R N R PILOT SEARCHER VIEWED IN SEQUENCE: Typical Elapsed Time = 4 seconds A A N N C C A A A A N N A A A A A A C C A A A A N N C C A A A A N N C C A A A A N N A A A A A R C C A A A N N C C A A A N N C A A A A N A A A A A C C A A A N N C C A A A N N C A A A R N A A A A A C C A A A N N C A A A A N C C A A A N N A A A A A C C A A A N N C A A A R N C C A A A N N A A A A A C A A A A N C C A A A N N C C A A A N N A A A A A C A A A A N C C A A Only 3 of 112 remaining set pilots have been checked thus far! RF100 v2.

A Quick Primer on Pilot Search Windows The phone chooses one strong sector and “locks” to it. system gives to handset a neighbor list of nearby sectors’ PNs Propagation delay “skews” the apparent PN offsets of all other sectors.6 chips. making them seem earlier or later than expected To overcome skew. One chip is 801 feet or 244. the signal from BTS B will seem 29 chips earlier than expected. If the phone is locked to BTS B. 1 km.89 RF100 v2.14 m 1 mile=6. when the phone searches for a particular pilot. 2005 PROPAGATION DELAY SKEWS APPARENT PN OFFSETS 33 4 Chips Chips A BTS B BTS If the phone is locked to BTS A. accepting its offset at “face value” and interpreting all other offsets by comparison to it In messages.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . the signal from BTS A will seem 29 chips later than expected.1 chips 7 .= 4. it scans an extra wide “delta” of chips centered on the expected offset (called a “search window”) Search window values can be datafilled individually for each Pilot set: There are pitfalls if the window sizes are improperly set • too large: search time increases • too small: overlook pilots from far away • too large: might misinterpret identity of a distant BTS’ signal February.

71 2. 14 (±7) 20 (±10) 28 (±14) 40 (±20) 60 (±30) 80 (±40) 100 (±50) 130 (±65) 160 (±80) 226 (±113) 320 (±160) 452 (±226) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1.42 4.1 24. No windows are used in this process.55 6.R Delta Distance Size (Chips) Value Miles KM.90 . On the paging channel.6 39. These statistics literally show us how wide the SRCH_WIN_A should be set. 2005 SEARCH WINDOW SETTINGS AND PROPAGATION DISTANCES Window Datafill N.1 55.2 15.3 1.88 7. it does an exhaustive search for the best pilot. R and uses them when looking for neighbors both in idle mode and during calls. the handset learns the window sizes SRCH_WIN_A. N. Window size for actives and candidates can be small.77 12. since their exact position is known.07 7.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .3 34.5 27. Neighbor and Remaining search windows should be set to accommodate the maximum intercell distances which a mobile might experience February.Setting Pilot Search Window Sizes When the handset first powers up. Only search wide enough to include multipath energy! • This greatly speeds up overall searching! Most post-processing tools deliver statistics on the spread (in chips) between fingers locked to the same pilot. the former neighbor pilot is now a candidate.12 3. Its offset is precisely remembered and frequently rechecked and tracked by the phone.06 1.52 2.2 RF100 v2.86 12.03 4.1 17.9 19. When a strong neighbor is requested in a PSMM.44 3.32 9.59 9.

1 mi. BTS B appears (7-80) chips 7 Chips early due to its closer distance. l This is outside the 65-chip window.Handoff Problems: “Window” Dropped Calls Calls often drop when strong neighbors suddenly appear outside the neighbor search window and cannot be used to establish soft handoff.Tra Mobile can’t see BTS B’s pilot.91 Locked to nearby mo site. can’t see un distant one tai ns B RF100 v2. vel This is outside the 65-chip window. can’t see un one nearby tai ns B BTS SRCH_WIN_N = 130 BTS A is reference. 7 . but its strong signal blinds us and the call drops. 1 mi. SITUATION 2 A BTS 12 80 mile Ch s ips SRCH_WIN_N = 130 BTS BTS B is reference. BTS A appears (80-7) chips 7 Chips late due to its farther distance. Trave Mobile can’t see BTS A’s pilot.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . Neighbor Search Window SRCH_WIN_N should be set to a width at least twice the propagation delay between any site and its most distant neighbor site Remaining Search Window SRCH_WIN_R should be set to a width at least twice the propagation delay between any site and another site which might deliver occasional RF into the service area February. 2005 SITUATION 1 A BTS 12 80 mile Ch s ips Locked to distant mo site.

92 . and so are unable to do soft-handoff at boundaries between BSCs. • frame timing must be same on all BTS/sectors If any of the above are not possible. 2005 RF100 v2. Some manufacturers do not presently support this. handoff still can occur but can only be “hard” break-make protocol like AMPS/TDMA/GSM • intersystem handoff: hard • change-of-frequency handoff: hard • CDMA-to-AMPS handoff: hard.Overall Handoff Perspective Soft & Softer Handoffs are preferred.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . but not always possible • a handset can receive BTS/sectors simultaneously only on one frequency • all involved BTS/sectors must connect to a networked BSCs. no handback – auxiliary trigger mechanisms available (RTD) February.

Section H CDMA Network Architecture CDMA Network Architecture February. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .93 .

Structure of a Typical Wireless System HLR Home Location Register (subscriber database) HLR SUPPORT FUNCTIONS BASE STATIONS Voice Mail System SWITCH BASE STATION CONTROLLER PSTN Local Carriers Long Distance Carriers Mobile Telephone Switching Office ATM Link to other CDMA Networks (Future) February.94 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.

2005 RF100 v2.Signal Flow: Two-Stage Metamorphosis MTX SLM CM GPS GPSR BSC-BSM BSM BTS GPS GPSR CDSU CDSU CDSU DISCO Ch. Card ACC TFU DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP TFU1 CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 Packets CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU Σα Σβ Σχ DS0 in T1 DTCs Chips Channel Element RF Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C SBS IOC Vocoders Selectors Vocoder PSTN February.95 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Nortel CDMA Network Nortel CDMA Network Architecture Architecture www.nortel. 2005 RF100 v2.96 .com February.

NORTEL CDMA System Architecture MTX SLM CM GPS GPSR BSC-BSM BSM BTS GPS GPSR CDSU CDSU CDSU DISCO Ch.97 . 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Card ACC TFU DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP TFU1 CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 CDSU CDSU CDSU Σα Σβ Σχ DTCs CDSU Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C SBS IOC Vocoders Selectors PSTN & Billing Other MTXs February.

VDUs PSTN & Other MTXs Primary functions • Call Processing • Mobility Management – HLR-VLR access – Intersystem call delivery (IS-41C) – Inter-MTX handover (IS-41C) • Billing Data Capture • Calling Features & Services • Collecting System OMs. redundancy 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .98 February. T1 Ch.Switch: The Nortel MTX MTX SLM CM DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP CDMA BSC Unch.T1 CDMA DTCs IOC SBS CCS7 Ch T1 Billing MAP. Pegs High reliability.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .99 RF100 v2.The Nortel BSC GPS GPSR TFU1 BSC BSM CDSU CDSU MTX LPP CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU BTSs MTX (voice trunks) SBS Vocoders Selectors T1 channelized (24 DS0) T1 unchannelized BCN link (HDLC) February. 2005 Primary functions • vocoding • soft handoff management • FER-based power control • routing of all traffic and control packets Scaleable architecture • expand SBS to keep pace with traffic growth • expandable DISCO 7 .

100 .: indoor • 1900 MHz. 2005 RF100 v2.: self-contained outdoor. 2. receive CDMA RF signal IS-95/J. or 3 sectors • 800 MHz. Card ACC Σα Σβ Σχ Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C February. 800 MHz. remotable RFFEs • new 1900 MHz. & 1900 MHz. indoor.Std. multi-carrier options BTS GPS GPSR CDSU DISCO TFU BSC Ch.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . radiate.The Nortel BTS Base Transceiver Station Primary function: Air link • generate. 8 • high-efficiency T1 backhaul • test capabilities Configurations • 1.

The Nortel BSM NORTEL CDMA BSM BSM Ethernet LAN X-Windows terminals GNP TELCO WORKSERVER SHELF --------HIGH AVAILABILITY BSM Workstation BCN Links GPS GPSR CDSU TFU1 CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU Ch.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . BTS configuration and parameters • Fault management – Alarm Reporting • Performance management – interface for CDMA statistics and peg counts collection • Security management • Unix-based SBS Vocoders Selectors February. 2005 RF100 v2.101 . Card ACC BSC BTS CDSU DISCO TFU GPS GPSR Σα Σβ Σχ Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C Base Station Manager Primary functions: OA&M for CDMA components • Configuration management – BSC.

Reverse RF Capacity: links cause noise floor rise. Card ACC TFU1 CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 CDSU CDSU CDSU LPP ENET LPP CDSU Txcvr RFFE Σα64 Walsh Codes/sector A A Txcvr RFFE Σβ64 Walsh Codes/sector B B Txcvr RFFE Σχ64 Walsh Codes/sector C C Forward RF Capacity: links use available BTS TX power DTCs DTC & ENET: One port per Vocoder plus one port per outgoing trunk. 2. 20 CE per Channel Card CDSU CDSU CDSU DISCO Ch.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . CDSU SBS IOC Vocoders Selectors Sufficient vocoders/selectors required in BSC SBS.Summary of CDMA Capacity Considerations MTX Typical CM processor capacity considerations CDMA LPP: CM One pair SLM CIUs and One pair CAUs per approx. Link 2. 2005 RF100 v2. February. use mobile power PSTN PSTN trunk groups must be dimensioned to support erlang load. LPP CIU 1. Ctrl. one per simultaneous call on the system. Each GPS BTS uses 1. GPSR BSM 4. 8 Vocoders per SBS card.102 . special consideration required if daisy-chaining BTS GPS GPSR TFU Sufficient channel elements required for traffic of all sectors: one CE per link. 4 shelves per SBS cabinet. 600 DMS-BUS erlangs DISCO has 192 ports max. SBS shelf 1. BSC-BSM BSM One T-1 can carry all traffic originated by a one-carrier BTS. 12 cards per shelf.

lucent.103 . 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Lucent CDMA Network Lucent CDMA Network Architecture Architecture www.com February.

2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .104 .Lucent CDMA System Architecture PSTN & Other MTXs ECP Executive Cellular Processor Complex (ECPC) 5ESS-2000 DCS Circuit Switch Platform BTS CDMA Speech Handling Equipment Channel ACU Unit Cluster Σ α Baseband Combiner & Radio Baseband Combiner & Radio Baseband Combiner & Radio Σβ Packet Switch Platform Σχ February.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .The Lucent ECP Executive Cellular Processor Primary functions • Call Processing • Mobility Management – HLR-VLR access – Intersystem call delivery (IS-41C) – Inter-MTX handover (IS-41C) • Billing Data Capture • Calling Features & Services • Collecting System OMs. 2005 RF100 v2. Pegs High reliability. redundancy ECP Executive Cellular Processor Complex (ECPC) February.105 .

2005 RF100 v2.106 .The Lucent #5ESS and Access Manager PSTN & Other MTXs 5ESS-2000 DCS Circuit Switch Platform CDMA Speech Handling Equipment Primary functions • vocoding • soft handoff management • FER-based power control • routing of all traffic and control packets Scaleable architecture • expand speech handlers • expandable packet switch Packet Switch Platform February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

8 • high-efficiency T1 backhaul • test capabilities Channel ACU Unit Cluster Σ α BTS Baseband Combiner & Radio Baseband Combiner & Radio Baseband Combiner & Radio Σβ Σχ February.The Lucent BTS Primary function: Air link • generate. receive CDMA RF signal IS-95/J. radiate.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Std. 2005 RF100 v2.107 .

Motorola CDMA Network Motorola CDMA Network Architecture Architecture www. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .108 .motorola.com February.

109 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.Motorola CDMA System Architecture OMC-R PCSC Personal Communications Switching Center OMC-R Processor Application Processor (or SC-UNO) BTS (SC614T/611) Motorola Advanced Wideband Interface (MAWI) CBSC DSC EMX-2500 or EMX-5000 Mobility Manager BTS (SC9600/4800/2400) Group Line Interface (GLI) Multichannel CDMA Card (MCC) Local Maintenance Facility PSTN Transcoder PC February.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .110 .The Motorola PCSC EMX-2500 EMX-5000 DSC EMX-2500 or EMX-5000 Personal Communications Switching Center Primary functions • Call Processing • HLR-VLR access • Intersystem call delivery (IS-41C) • Billing Data Capture • Calling Features & Services PSTN February. 2005 RF100 v2.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.111 .The Motorola CBSC Centralized Base Station Controller Mobility Manager • allocation of BTS resources • handoff management • Call management & supervision Transcoder • vocoding • soft handoff management • FER-based power control • routing of all traffic and control packets CBSC Mobility Manager Transcoder February.

receive CDMA RF signal IS95/J. radiate. 8 • high-efficiency T1 backhaul • test capabilities SC611 Microcell BTS (SC9600/4800/2400) Group Line Interface (GLI) Multichannel CDMA Card (MCC) Local Maintenance Facility PC SC614T February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter SC4852 7 .Std.112 .The Motorola BTS Family BTS (SC614T/611) Motorola Advanced Wideband Interface (MAWI) Primary function: Air link • generate. 2005 RF100 v2.

Section I Introduction to Optimization Introduction to Optimization February. 2005 RF100 v2.113 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

What is Performance Optimization? The words “performance optimization” mean different things to different people.) • “cluster testing” and “cell integration” to ensure that new base station hardware works and that call processing is normal • “fine-tuning” system parameters to wring out the best possible call performance • identifying causes of specific problems and customer complaints. and fixing them • carefully watching system traffic growth and the problems it causes . too much overlap/soft handoff.implementing short-term fixes to ease “hot spots”. etc. 2005 RF100 v2.114 . coverage holes.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . and recognizing problems before they become critical February. viewed from the perspective of their own jobs System Performance Optimization includes many different smaller processes at many points during a system’s life • recognizing and resolving system-design-related issues (can’t build a crucial site.

avoid integration impact Traffic analysis and trending tools. Access Failures. all call events and scenarios Detect. customer reports System statistics Smart optimization of parameters. carried traffic levels Sectors are expanded soon after first signs of congestion. fix them! Ensure present ‘plant’ is giving best possible performance Manage congested areas for most effective performance Activities Plan cells to effectively cover as needed and divide traffic load appropriately Drive-test: coverage. identify problem areas. identify/fix hot spots Watch capacity indicators. Models. have capacity for anticipated traffic Ensure cells properly constructed and configured to give normal performance Identify problems from complaints or statistics. tune parameters & configuration Main Tools Prop. all test cases verified Identified problems are resolved Acceptable levels and good trends for all indicators Stats-Derived indicators. Investigate.115 . models for cell spliiting. Blocks. planning tools Drive-test tools. competition for capital during tight times Predict sector and area exhaustion: plan and validate effective growth plan. prop. Resolve performance problems Watch stats: Drops. system stats. cell diagnostics and hardware test Drive-test tools. capital budget remains within comfortable bounds hello Overall traffic increases and congestion. 2005 RF100 v2. carrier additions February.Performance Optimization Phases/Activities Phase RF Design and Cell Planning New Cluster Testing and Cell Integration Solve Specific Performance Problems Well-System Performance Management Capacity Optimization Growth Management: Optimizing both Performance and Capital Effectiveness Drivers/Objectives Cover desired area. system statistics Success Indicators Model results All handoffs occur. all handoff boundaries.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Test Transmitters.

116 . or Three good signals in handoff • Composite Ec/Io > -10 db Enough capacity • No resource problems – I’ve got what I need BTS BTS BTS Ec/Io BTS A BTS B BTS C -10 FORWARD LINK available power Traffic Channels In use Paging Sync Pilot February.Good Performance is so Simple!! One. Two. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

117 BTS Sector Transmitter February. 7 .Bad Performance Has Many Causes +41 +8 360 A BTS 360+33c B BTS No Available Power! Traffic Channels In Use BTS Rx Pwr Overload CEs Vocoders Selectors Paging Sync Pilot x BTS B PN 99 BTS A PN 100 ACTIVE SEARCH WINDOW 1 mile 11 miles Weak Signal / Coverage Hole Pilot Pollution • Excessive Soft Handoff Handoff Failures. Slow Handoffs PN Plan errors Slow Data Problems: RF or IP congestion Improper cell or reradiator configuration Hardware and software failures But on analysis. all of these problems’ bad effects happen because the simple few-signal ideal CDMA environment isn’t possible. “Rogue” mobiles • Missing Neighbors • Search Windows Too Small • BTS Resource Overload / No Resources – No Forward Power. Channel Elements – No available Walsh Codes – No space in Packet Pipes Pilot “Surprise” ambush.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . 2005 RF100 v2.

we try to recover the Flight Data Recorder and the Cockpit Voice Recorder. To study the cause of a CDMA call processing accident.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .for the same reasons.50 118. we review data from the Temporal Analyzer and the Layer 3 Message Files -.75 11500 Aeronautical Investigations Flight Data Recorder Cockpit Voice Recorder CDMA Investigations BTS Temporal Analyzer Data Layer 3 Message Files To study the cause of an aeronautical accident.Aeronautical Analogy: Tools for Problem Investigation Control & Parameters 11500 Messaging 114.25 125. 2005 RF100 v2.118 . February.

_R • especially optimize SRCH_WIN_A per sector using collected finger separation data. Dropped Call Analysis • finally. avoiding gross spillover into other sectors • tools: PN Plots.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . February. Mobile TX plots Search Window Settings • find best settings for SRCH_WIN_A. 2005 RF100 v2.119 . system logs Access Failures. _N. has major impact on pilot search speed Neighbor List Tuning • try to groom each sector’s neighbors to only those necessary but be alert to special needs due to topography and traffic • tools: diagnostic data. iterative corrections until within numerical goals Getting these items into shape provides a solid baseline and foundation from which future performance issues can be addressed. Handoff State Plots.Starting Optimization on a New System RF Coverage Control • try to contain each sector’s coverage.

where. external interferences • dragged handoffs. 2005 RF100 v2.120 . and why February. and correct many common problems • co-channel.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . frequency plan problems CDMA impairments have one audible symptom: Dropped Call • voice quality remains excellent with perhaps just a hint of garbling even as the call approaches dropping in a hostile RF environment Successful CDMA Optimization requires: • recognition and understanding of common reasons for call failure • capture of RF and digital parameters of the call prior to drop • analysis of call flow.Solving Problems on Existing Systems CDMA optimization is very different from optimization in analog technologies such as AMPS AMPS: a skilled engineer with a handset or simple equipment can hear. diagnose. adjacent channel. checking messages on both forward and reverse links to establish “what happened”.

to manage soft handoff levels (~<50%) Grooming Neighbor Lists • “if you need it. use it!” Software Bugs. 2005 RF100 v2.121 . Protocol Violations • Neither system software.CDMA Problems Attacked in Optimization Excessive Access Failures • typical objectives: <2% (IS-95B will bring improvements) Excessive Dropped Calls • typical objective: ~1%. nor mobile software.dig in and find out what’s happening! February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Don’t humbly accept problems -. <2% Forward Link Interference • typical objective: eliminate situations which prevent handoff! Slow Handoff • typical objective: eliminate situations which delay handoff! Handoff Pilot Search Window Issues • avoid handoff drops! Excessive Soft Handoff • control coverage. nor the CDMA standard is perfect. not T_Add/T_Drop.

122 . 2005 RF100 v2.Sources of CDMA Data and Tools for Processing CDMA NETWORK EQUIPMENT Switch SLM CM HANDSET BTS GPSR CBSC GPSR TFU1 CDSU CDSU BSM Switch Data LPP ENET LPP pegs. logs DMS-BUS DTCs IOC DISCO 1 DISCO 2 System SBS Vocoders Selectors CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU Ch. Card DISCO ACC TFU1 IS-95/J-STD-8 Messages RFFE A RFFE B Σα Txcvr A Internal Messages B Txcvr Σβ Σχ Txcvr C RFFE C Handset Messages Various External Analysis Tools IS-95/J-STD-008 Messages Unix-based. PC-based Data Analysis Post-Processing Tools PC-based Mobile Data Capture Tools PC-based Mobile Data Post-Processing Tools CDMA optimization data flows from three places: • Switch • CDMA peripherals (CBSC & BTS) • Handset Each stream of data has a family of software and hardware tools for collection and analysis February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

Bottoms-Up L Ta osses xe s Management Profits Dis trib utio n Capital e nc ra su In Lea s es ce ervi S on ecti Sel Test Shopper Complex!!! Co sts Simpler Con ven ienc Price e ng Stocking Su isi rt pp ve Labor Relations lie d A rs System are Administration oftw S TransProvisioning mission Switch CBSC Complex!!! Acces s ce eren s Phone rf Inte all ed C pp Dro Simpler Cov erag e Failur es Data C apture PSTN TrunkingData Analys is BTS Neighbor Lists Configuration Field Tools Some things are easier to measure from the customer side! February.123 .Department Store Analogy: Tops-Down. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

Aeronautical Analogy: Tools for Problem Investigation Control & Parameters 11500 Messaging 114. To study the cause of a CDMA call processing accident.75 11500 Aeronautical Case Flight Data Recorder Cockpit Voice Recorder CDMA Case BTS Temporal Analyzer Data Layer 3 Message Files To study the cause of an aeronautical accident. we review data from the Temporal Analyzer and the Layer 3 Message Files -.50 118.for the same reasons.124 . 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . we try to recover the Flight Data Recorder and the Cockpit Voice Recorder.25 130. February.

125 IP Data Environment CDMA RF Environment .So S L O W ! ! IP Data Environment Internet VPNs T PDSN/Foreign Agent Backbone Network SECURE TUNNELS Authentication Authorization Accounting Where’s My Data?!! T PDSN Home Agent AAA R-P Interface BTS PSTN t1 Switch t1 v SEL t1 CE (C)BSC/Access Manager Traditional Telephony CDMA IOS PPP •Coverage Holes •Pilot Pollution •Missing Neighbors •Fwd Pwr Ovld •Rev Pwr Ovld •Search Windows Wireless •Island Cells Mobile Device •Slow Handoff Some sessions are tormented by long latency and slow throughput Where is the problem? Anywhere between user and distant host: • Is the mobile user’s data device mis-configured and/or congested? • Is the BTS congested.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . with no power available to produce an SCH? • Poor RF environment. PDSN FA)? • Congestion in the wireless operator’s backbone (‘OSSN’) network? • Congestion in the PDSN HA? • Congestion in the outside-world internet or Private IP network? • Is the distant host congested. R-P. 2005 RF100 v2. with long response times? February. causing low rates and packet retransmission? • Congestion in the local IP network (PCU.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . SCH blocking? • if the RF is clean. problems accessing test server at PDSN-HA? • problem is narrowed to backbone network. or PDSN-HA Results OK even through test server at PDSN-HA • then the problem is in the public layers beyond. investigate BSC/PCU/R-P/PDSN-FA Local results OK.Finding Causes of Latency and Low Throughput Test Server Test Server IP Data Environment T Test Server PDSN/Foreign Agent Internet VPNs Backbone Network SECURE TUNNELS Authentication Authorization Accounting T PDSN Home Agent AAA R-P Interface BTS PSTN t1 Switch t1 v SEL t1 CE (C)BSC/Access Manager Traditional Telephony CDMA IOS PPP •Coverage Holes •Pilot Pollution •Missing Neighbors •Fwd Pwr Ovld •Rev Pwr Ovld •Search Windows Wireless •Island Cells Mobile Device •Slow Handoff IP network performance can be measured using test servers Problems between mobile a local test server? The problem is local • check RF conditions.126 IP Data Environment CDMA RF Environment . 2005 RF100 v2. stats: poor environment. February.

127 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Autonomous Data Collection Autonomous Data Collection By Subscriber Handsets By Subscriber Handsets February. 2005 RF100 v2.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Autonomous Collection: A New Way to See Network Performance Collection Server •software download •collected data upload •data management. 2005 RF100 v2.128 . analysis PDSN/Foreign Agent BTS Internet VPNs T Backbone Network SECURE TUNNELS Authentication Authorization Accounting BTS T PDSN Home Agent AAA R-P Interface BTS PSTN t1 Switch t1 v SEL t1 BTS (C)BSC/Access Manager An exciting new trend in network RF performance is to embed data collection software on mobile platforms Offers big advantages for RF optimization cost/effectiveness February.

provides filtering and reporting Performance optimizers use terminals and post-processing software February. analysis BTS PDSN/Foreign Agent BTS Backbone Internet Network T SECURE TUNNELS T VPNs PDSN Authentication Authorization R-P Interface Home Agent Accounting AAA BTS PSTN t1 Switch t1 v SEL t1 (C)BSC/Access Manager BTS A Server downloads software to a large population of subscriber mobiles Mobiles collect on custom profiles • all or groups of mobiles can be enabled/disabled • new triggers can be rapidly developed and downloaded when desired Mobiles upload compacted packets to server driven by custom triggers • may be immediately if needed.129 . or at low-traffic pre-programmed times • collected data can include location/GPS/call event/L3 messaging/timestamps/etc. 2005 RF100 v2.Using Autonomous Collection Collection Server •software download •collected data upload •data management.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Server manages data.

2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Advantages of Autonomous Collection Mobile-reported data can be location-binned • post-processing provides visual identification of problem areas Collection can be rapidly enabled per cell or area for immediate investigation of problem reports Requires less employee drive time for collection Customer mobiles cover area more densely than drivetesters Customer mobiles include inbuilding populations Individual mobile identification can be included with customer permission for direct customer service interaction February.130 .

2005 RF100 v2.131 .Conventional Field Tools Conventional Field Tools February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

features. easy to use in vehicles or even on foot A few considerations when selecting test tools: • does it allow integration of network and mobile data? • Cost. messaging.132 . convenience.investigate! February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . and maps • store data in formats readable for post-processing analysis • small and portable. availability. 2005 RF100 v2.CDMA Field Test Tools Field Collection Tools using Handset Data Motorola Grayson Agilent (HP + SAFCO) Comarco Qualcomm MDM. graphs. and support • new tools are introduced every few months . CAIT PN Scanners Agilent (HP + SAFCO) Grayson Berkeley Varitronics Qualcomm Willtech Willtech Ericsson TEMS DTI There are many commercial CDMA field test tools Characteristics of many test tools: • capture data from data ports on commercial handsets • log data onto PCs using proprietary software • can display call parameters.

133 . 2005 RF100 v2.Qualcomm’s MDM: Mobile Diagnostic Monitor The Qualcomm Mobile Diagnostic Monitor was the industry’s first field diagnostic tool • used industry-wide in the early deployment of CDMA • pictures at right from Sprint’s first 1996-7 CDMA trials in Kansas City Qualcomm’s Mobile Diagnostic Monitor • CDMA handset (customer provided) • Proprietary connecting cable • PC software for collection and field preanalysis – Temporal analyzer display mode – Messaging February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .134 .Grayson’s Invex3G Tool 100 MB ethernet connection to PC the eight card slots can hold receivers or dual-phone cards there’s also room for two internal PN scanners Multiple Invex units can be cascaded for multi-phone loadtest applications Cards are field-swappable Users can reconfigure the unit in the field for different tasks without factory assistance February. 2005 RF100 v2.

2005 RF100 v2.Grayson Invex 1x Data Example 153. February. Notice walsh code #3.135 .6 kb/s This mobile is in a 2-way soft handoff (two green FCH walsh codes assigned) in the middle of a downlink SCH burst. and the downlink data speed is 153.6kb/s. is assigned as an SCH but only on one sector. 4 chips long.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

0 136 .©1997 Scott Baxter .6 kbps.V0.8kbps CDMA Status PN Scanner Data Current Data Task Status Layer-3 Messages RF100 v2. R-SCH 76.0 February.Grayson Invex 1xData Example F-SCH rates 153. 2005 (c) 2005 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.

137 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .WillTech Tools Blue Rose platform can manage multiple phones and collect data • Internal processor manages test operations independently for standalone operation • Internal PCMCIA flash card provides storage • An external PC can display collected data during or after data collection February. 2005 RF100 v2.

etc. Bands Base-Station Over-Air Tester (BOAT) • Can display all walsh channel activity on a specific sector • Useful for identifying hardware problems. monitoring instantaneous traffic levels. GPS-locked.Agilent Drive-Test Tools Agilent offers Drive-Test tools • Serial interfaces for up to four CDMA phones • A very flexible digital receiver with several modes PN Scanner • Fast. Post-Processing tool: OPAS32 February. 2005 RF100 v2. can scan two carrier frequencies Spectrum Analyzer • Can scan entire 800 or 1900 mHz.138 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

139 .Comarco Mobile Tools X-Series Units for more dataintensive collection activities • Multiple handsets can be collected • Data is displayed and collected on PC LT-Series provides integrated display and logging "Workbench" Post-Processing tool analyzes drive-test files February. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . GPS-locked – full-PN scan speed 1. 2005 RF100 v2.2 sec. • Integrated with spectrum analyzer and phone call-processing tool Grayson Wireless • New digital receiver provides CDMA PN searcher and and sector walsh domain displays February. GPS-locked – full-PN scan speed 26-2/3 ms. • 2048 parallel processors for very fast detection of transient interferors Agilent (formerly Hewlett-Packard) • high resolution. miss transient interfering signals Berkeley Varitronics • high-resolution.PN Scanners Why PN scanners? Because phones can’t scan remaining set fast enough.140 .

Faster. and Invex3G Agilent OPAS32 • Imports/analyzes a variety of data Nortel RF Optimizer • Can merge/analyze drive-test and Nortel CDMA system data Wavelink Comarco "Workbench" Tool Verizon/Airtouch internal tool “DataPro” February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter OPAS32 COMARCO 7 .141 .Post-Processing Tools Post-Processing tools display drive-test files for detailed analysis . 2005 RF100 v2. more effective than studying data playback with collection tools alone Actix Analyzer • Imports/analyzes data from almost every brand of drive-test collection tool Grayson Interpreter • Imports/analyzes data from Grayson Wireless Inspector. Illuminator.

2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Drive-Tests: Phones Maintenance Features of Maintenance Features of CDMA Handsets CDMA Handsets February.142 .

forward link interference.143 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . etc. 2005 RF100 v2.Handsets as Tools: Simple but always Available! Most CDMA handsets provide some form of maintenance display (“Debug Mode”) as well as instrumentation access • all CDMA drive-test tools use handsets as their “front-ends” Using the handset as a manual tool without Commercial Test Tools: Enter the maintenance mode by special sequence of keystrokes Displayed Parameters • PN Offset. no access to messages or call details. Handset Mode.) Handset Limitations during manual observation • no memory: real-time observations only. serving PN offset not updated during voice calls February. Transmit Gain Adjust Maintenance Display Applications • best serving cell/sector • simple call debugging (symptoms of weak RF. Received RF Level .

144 . 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter See following legend for maintenance display values 7 .Older Qualcomm/Sony Maintenance Displays Press This: Menu D See This: continue: D See This: MAIN MENU 1:Volume 2:Call Info 3:Security 4 * D DEBUG 0 1:Screen 2:Test Calls 3:CDMA Only D FEATURES 4 1:AutoAnswer 2:AutoRetry 3:Scratch 0 D DEBUG 0 4:Errors 5:Clr Errors 6:13K Voice 1 D 318 2 9D X A 7F ENTER FIELD SERVICE CODE ****** 0 0 0 0 0 0 * (* or correct code. if different) February.

Qualcomm & Sony Phones with Jog Dials Enter 111111 Press dial in for OPTIONS Dial to FIELD DEBUG.145 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . press enter Field Debug Security Code press Screen February. 2005 RF100 v2.

Sync Channel Acquisition Substate 2 .TXADJdb (1900 MHz) 7 .Traffic Channel State QCP.QCP1900 800 FF -67 F5 -70 E6 -75 D7 -80 C8 -85 B9 -90 AA -95 9B -100 8C -105 80 -109 -64 -67 -72 -77 -82 -87 -92 -97 -102 -106 Receive State D PN Offset 318 2 94 X A 7F Unsupported Transmit Adjust 80 -109 A = active pilots 80 -109 X = exit reason 00 0A 14 1E 28 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 Receive Power Receive Power Conversion: RXdbm=XXDEC / 3 .146 February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .25 (800 MHz) RXdbm=XXDEC / 3 .63.System Access State 4 . use XX = XXDEC-256) Transmit Gain Adjust Conversion: TXADJdb=XXDEC / 2 Transmit Power Output Conversion: TXdbm= -73 -RXDBM .66.Interpreting the QCP Maintenance Display 0 .Pilot Channel Acquisition Substate 1 .25 (1900 MHz) (if XX>7F. 2005 RF100 v2.MS Idle State 3 .TXADJdb (800 MHz) TXdbm= -76 -RXDBM .

Kyocera 2035 Maintenance Mode Steps to enter maintenance mode: 111111 Enter Options: Debug Enter Enter Field Debug Code • 000000 Field Debug Debug Screen Enter Basic Enter February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .147 . 2005 RF100 v2.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.Kyocera 6035 Maintenance Mode 111111 Jog > Options Jog > Debug Open flip to continue Enter Code • 000000 OK SCREEN February.148 .

2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . if different) February.149 0 0 0 0 0 0 * (* or correct code.Early Samsung Maintenance Display Press This: See This: continue: See This: Menu Main Menu ↑ 1:Call Logs 2:Phone Book * Setup ↑ 1:Auto Retry 2:Anykey Ans 1 SVC SVC Debug Menu ↑ 1:Screen 2:Test Calls SVC SVC 8 Debug Menu ↑ 3:Errors 4:Erase Error 0 SVC SVC Service Code ?????? S04379 SI0 1 T-63 D105-06 P016 CH0600 See following legend for maintenance display values 7 .

February.150 . 2005 RF100 v2.Samsung SCH-3500 Maintenance Display Here are the steps to enter maintenance mode: MENU SETUP 0 (undocumented “trap door”) 000000 (operator’s code) Screen See the Samsung idle and in-call maintenance screens at the end of the Samsung phones.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

Samsung SCH-8500 Maintenance Display Here are the steps to enter maintenance mode: [Menu] [down][down][down][down] [down][down][down] Setup/Tool [OK] [0] Service Code ?????? [0] [4] [0] [7] [9] [3] Screen [OK] See the Samsung idle and incall maintenance screens at the end of the Samsung phones.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . February.151 . 2005 RF100 v2.

2005 RF100 v2.152 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Samsung SCH-A500 Maintenance Display Here are the steps to enter maintenance mode: Select settings select display select enter 0 enter 040793 See the Samsung idle and incall maintenance screens at the end of the Samsung phones. February.

153 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Samsung SCH-A460 Maintenance Display Enter the following to enter maintenance mode: ##DEBUG [OK] [OK] See the Samsung idle and incall maintenance screens at the end of the Samsung pages. 2005 RF100 v2. February.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .154 . Then press and hold the * key until the field service code screen appears. Press 9 on the keypad. February. If you’re still enjoying one. 3.the ultimate consumer device. 2005 RF100 v2. 2. 4.Samsung “Uproar” Maintenance Display The “uproar” is no longer in production but included an MP3 player -. Then type in the field service code 040793 1. here are the steps to enter the maintenance display: Press the MENU button.

various call service options Display toggles between: System Identifier (SID) Network Identifier (NID) Slot Cycle Index svc Transmit Gain Adjust. 2005 RF100 v2.Sync Channel Acquisition Substate 2 .MS Idle State 3 .Traffic Channel State 5. and Access States 0 . db (primary PN only) Frequency (channel #) PN Offset Transmit Power Output Calculation: TXdbm= -73 -RXDBM . db S04379 SI0 1 T-63 D085-06 P016 CH0600 Processing State Receive Power. Idle.Interpreting Samsung Maintenance Display: Acquisition.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . dbm Ec/Io.TXADJdb (1900 MHz) February.TXADJdb (800 MHz) TXdbm= -76 -RXDBM .6.7 .System Access State 4 .155 .Pilot Channel Acquisition Substate 1 .

156 .TXADJdb (1900 MHz) February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .System Access State 4 .Traffic Channel State 5. 2005 RF100 v2. dbm Ec/Io.various call service options Walsh code assigned Processing State svc TV1 RV8 08 7 T-63 D085-06 P016 CH0600 Receive Power.TXADJdb (800 MHz) TXdbm= -76 -RXDBM .7 . db Receive Vocoder Rate 0 .MS Idle State 3 .Pilot Channel Acquisition Substate 1 . db (primary PN only) Frequency (channel #) PN Offset Transmit Power Output Calculation: TXdbm= -73 -RXDBM .Sync Channel Acquisition Substate 2 .6.Interpreting Samsung Maintenance Display: Traffic Channel State Transmit Vocoder Rate 1 = 1/8 2 = 1/4 4 = 1/2 8 = Full Transmit Gain Adjust.

157 February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . dial the digits and press OK while in idle mode D CBV: 3957 ABU: 3954 ABT: 031 ARF: 0000 CCL: 01 SID: 04157 NID: 00001 CH: 0100 RSSI: 093 DPN: 084 TX:-46 BFRM:0000000968 TFRM:0000135712 FER:% 000. 2005 RF100 v2.71 LT: 036:06:36 LG: -086:45:36 EC: -16 -63 -63 PN: 084 084 084 FNGLK: Y Y N WLSH: 01 01 01 ACT: 084 484 096 -01 -01 200 CND: 220 332 200 200 332 NGH: 076 080 340 068 196 O56 320 220 316 344 488 196 200 392 124 128 084 224 008 084 7 .Entering Denso Debug Mode Enter ##DEBUG (##33284) Scroll down to SAVE Press OK Highlight SERVICE SCREEN Press OK If you want to make a test call.

Denso Maintenance Display Charging Battery Voltage Average Battery Voltage System ID Network ID RF Channel Frequency Digital PN Offset Number of Bad Frames Number of Good Frames Base Station coordinates Current status of Rake Fingers Active Pilot Set Candidate Pilot Set D CBV: 3957 ABV: 3954 ABT: 031 ARF: 0000 CCL: 01 SID: 04157 NID: 00001 CH: 0100 RSSI: 093 DPN: 084 TX:-46 BFRM:0000000968 TFRM:0000135712 FER:% 000.71 LT: 036:06:36 LG: -086:45:36 EC: -16 -63 -63 PN: 084 084 084 FNGLK: Y Y N WLSH: 01 01 01 ACT: 084 484 096 -01 -01 200 CND: 220 332 200 200 332 NGH: 076 080 340 068 196 O56 320 220 316 344 488 196 200 392 124 128 084 224 008 084 RF100 v2.158 . 2005 7 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Average Battery Temperature Received Signal Strength Estimated Transmitter Power Output Frame Erasure Rate. Percent Neighbor Pilot Set February.

2005 RF100 v2. 0 enter in DEBUGM (332846) screens are similar to QCP phones 7 D 0 318 2 94 X A 7F 3 3 2 8 4 6 February.Early Sanyo Dual-Band Phones Press This: Menu press menu 7.159 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

Sanyo SPC-4500 Maintenance Display Choose the following: DISPLAY OK 0 OK Enter Code: 0 0 0 0 0 0 Debug Menu SCREEN OK February.160 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.

161 . 2005 RF100 v2. State ## 040793 select MENU/OK button scroll to save Phone # select PN offset Receive Power Io Channel Frequency February.Sanyo SPC-4900 Maintenance Display Call Proc.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

162 .) Now press STO to accept the entry and exit back to the ' prompt. You should now be in test mode! February. enter it and press STO. Don’t delay continue quickly and enter: FCN 0 0 * * T E S T M O D E STO • The display will briefly show US then just '. Press 55#. 2005 RF100 v2. • Step 1 will appear with its current setting displayed. Power off and back on. Enter 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (The leftmost bit now set to '1' is what enables test mode. Press * to accept and move on to the next step.Entering Maintenance Mode: Motorola StarTac Contact your service provider to obtain your phone’s Master Subscriber entity Lock (MSL).0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Step 9 (Option byte 2) is the only step requiring manual changes. • New prompts will appear. Then enter the following: FCN 000000 000000 0 RCL You'll be prompted for your MSL. Press STO in response to each prompt until no more appear. Repeat for steps 2-8.

163 .February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Voice PAG Paging February.Call Proc Last Call Exit Reason PN Ec/Io idates State Rx Power Tx Power Last Call FER% # Drops dbm dbm (Io) Current # Calls Last Call Indicator NI No Indication yet MR Mobile Release BR Base Sta. Release TC Traffic Channel Lost L2 Layer 2 Ack Fail NC No Channel Assn Msg N5 N5M failure BS BS Ack failure WO L3 WFO State Timeout MP Max Probe Failure PC Paging Channel loss RR Reorder or Release on PCH ?? Unknown Condition SID CP CP Exit RST CP Restart RTC Restricted 8V 8K voice original 13S 13K SMS PLT Pilot Acquisition IL 8K loopback 8MO 8K Markov Old SYN Sync Acquisition TIM Timing Change 8EV 8K EVRC DAT Data 8S 8K SMS 8M 8K Markov New BKS Background Sch 13L 13K loopback 13M 13K Markov New IDL Idle OVD Overhead 13V 13KRF100 v2.Service Option Battery Local Time Condition RX Power Strongest Active # # Channel PN Ec/Io Actives Neighbors Number Strongest Neighbor # Cand. 2005 Call Processing States ORG Call Origination SMS ORD REG TCI WFO WFA CON REL NON NID Current Service Option Short Message Svc Order Response Registration Tfc Ch Initialization Waiting for Order Waiting for Answer Conversation state Release 7No State164 .

2005 RF100 v2. Scroll down to Test Mode. Enter subscriber entity lock code if required by your phone Same maintenance display as shown for Startac February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .165 .Motorola V120C Series MENU 073887* Enter 000000 for security code.

Motorola V60C MENU 073887* Enter 000000 for security code. Enter subscriber entity lock code if required by your phone Same maintenance display as shown for Startac February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Scroll down to Test Mode. 2005 RF100 v2.166 .

NID.167 . mode (13K. etc) Ec/Io.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . RX Level. February. 9155 Press ##27732726 [End] Select the Debug screen. EVRC. You cannot make a call while in any of the maintenance screens. SID. 2005 RF100 v2. PN. channel#. TX Level.Audiovox 8100.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2001. there are still some NeoPoint handsets in general use Press the M (menu) key Select Preferences (using the up-arrow key) Enter 040793 Choose Debug Screen [Select] Now you’re in maintenance mode! February.168 . 2005 RF100 v2.NeoPoint Phones Although NeoPoint went out of business in June.

GoldStar TouchPoint To enter maintenance mode.169 . just key in: # # D E B U G SAVE February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.

2005 RF100 v2.170 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Nokia 6185 Maintenance Display Enter *3001#12345# MENU Scroll down to Field test Press Select Scroll up to Enabled Press OK Power the phone off and on You should now be in Field test mode February.

2005 RF100 v2.Older Nokia Models Maintenance Display Enter *3001#12345# MENU Scroll down to Field test Press Select Scroll up to Enabled Press OK Power the phone off and on You should now be in Field test mode and the following screens will be available: February.171 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .

Info. Level BASE# BASE_ID (sys par msg) P_REV P_REV (sync msg) MIN_P_REV MIN_P_REV (sync msg. FER RSSI dBm Paging Channel # RX power.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter . dbm TX power. Screen 8: Time Information CSST CS State MMDDYY Date from System Time HHMMSS System Time 7 . 2=CDMA A February. dbm Screen 5: NAM Info PPCA Primary Channel A SPCA Secondary Channel A PPCB Primary Channel B SPCB Secondary Channel B L Local Use A Access Overload Class Screen 6: BS & Access. 2005 Operator Selected (1=A.Maintenance Display Screens of Nokia Handsets The following screens appear in field test mode on Nokia HD881 series of Handsets: CSST XXXXX RSSI CCCC RX TX Screen 1: General CS State Idle: PN Offset TFC: #Actv. SID Current SID NID Current NID DBUS DBUS (Handsfree?) Screen 7: BS Protocol Rev. 3=both RF100 v2. 2=B.172 Screen 2: Paging CH Info CSST CS State PGCH Paging Channel # CURSO Current Service Option FER Frame Error Rate Screen 4: NAM Info OwnNumber Mobile MIN ESN Mobile Station ESN Preferred Sys P 1=AMPS.

173 . 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Nokia Maintenance Display Screens (continued) Screen 9: Acquisition Information TA TADD TD TDROP TC TCOMP TT TTDROP WW1 Active Window WW2 Neighbor Window WW3 Remaining Window Screen 10: Active Set (#1-3) PPN Pilot PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units K Keep? 1 PPN Pilot PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units K Keep? 1 PPN Pilot PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units K Keep? 1 Screen 11: Active Set (#4-6) PPN Pilot PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units K Keep? 1 PPN Pilot PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units K Keep? 1 PPN Pilot PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units K Keep? 1 February.

2005 Screen 14: Neighbor Set (#11-15) PPN NBR 11 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 12 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 13 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 14 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 15 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units Screen 15: Neighbor Set (#16-20) PPN NBR 16 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 17 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 18 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 19 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 20 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units 7 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .174 RF100 v2.Nokia Maintenance Display Screens (continued) Screen 12: Neighbor Set (#1-5) PPN NBR 1 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 2 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 3 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 4 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 5 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units Screen 13: Neighbor Set (#6-10) PPN NBR 6 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 7 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 8 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 9 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN NBR 10 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units February.

Nokia Maintenance Display Screens (continued) Screen 16: Candidate Set (#1-5) PPN CAND 1 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN CAND 2 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN CAND 3 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN CAND 4 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units PPN CAND 5 PN Offset EC Ec/Io in 1/2 db units Screen 17-22: Task Stack Ck Info TASKN Task Name FREE Worst-Cs Stack Free Sp Screen 23: Stack Status Info. by shift Sys Stack 2=sys stack overflow Screen 24: Codec Registers February. Task Stack Overflow ind. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .175 .

Novatel Merlin C201 Card Enter # # D E B U G to enter maintenance mode. just click “OK” box in the Debug window. To exit.176 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2. February.

2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .177 .Audiovox Thera Maintenance Mode Screens How to enter Debug Mode: [ctrl] [D] [enter] Advanced Usr Pwd: ##DEBUG [enter] Protocol Statistics February.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .The Future is Here! CDMA2000 What’s New in CDMA2000? What’s New in CDMA2000? February.178 . 2005 RF100 v2.

What’s New in CDMA2000? CDMA2000 is the next-generation family of CDMA standards CDMA2000 Phase I: 1xRTT Independent I and Q modulation almost doubles capacity. circuit-switched • new “supplemental” channels can carry fast data (153K. Data Only (IS-856) Qualcomm & Lucent • Fast data up to 2.2 MHz.4 Mbps on a dedicated 1. even 307Kbps).0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . carrier still supporting a mix of fast data and voice traffic February. but better coded so they require less air-interface capacity. 230K. and 3xRTT 3xRTT: Faster data on a bundle of 3 1x carriers. CDMA Carrier 1xEV DV: 1x Evolution. compared to old IS-95 modulation with I and Q duplication New types of channels are provided • “fundamental” channels like IS-95 traffic channels. as well as old IS-95 traffic channels simultaneously! CDMA2000 Phase II: 1xEV DO.2 MHz. 1xEV DV. not continuously • also optional new administrative channels for smoother operations • a sector can carry a dynamic “mix” of both new channel types.179 . 2005 RF100 v2. Data and Voice “1Xtreme” Motorola & Nokia • Fast data up to 5 Mbps on a 1. assigned for packet bursts. probably won’t be used 1xEV DO: 1x Evolution.

1 Mb/s DL 1. 1250 kHz. Quality •Improve d Access •Smarter Handoffs Faster data rates on shared 3-carrier bundle High data rates on data-only CDMA carrier High data rates on Data-Voice shared CDMA carrier February. 0 Rev.4 Mb/s DL 1. F: 3x 1250k 30 kHz.4K by modem Features: Incremental Progress First System.4K 64K 153K 307K 230K •Enhanced Access •Channel Structure 1250 kHz. Data Capabilities 2.8 Mb/s UL Higher data rates on dataonly CDMA carrier 5 Mb/s None.0 Mb/s 153 Kb/s UL First CDMA. 1250 kHz. #Users 1G AMPS RL FL CDMA2000 / IS-2000 2.5G? 3G 3G 3G IS-2000: IS-2000: 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV Rev. 59 active Many packet users users 3. R: 3687k 50-80 voice 120-210 per 1 20-35 25-40 3 carriers and data 14. Capacity.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 59 active users 1250 kHz.The CDMA Migration Path to 3G CDMAone Generation Technology Spectrum Signal Bandwidth. A 1xRTT 3xRTT 1xTreme IS-856 IS-856 RL FL RL FL RL FL RL FL RL FL 2G 2G IS-95A/ IS-95B J-Std008 RL FL RL FL 1250 kHz. 1250 kHz. 2005 RF100 v2.180 . Capacity & Handoffs 2.

• Up to 2. • Max throughput of 5 Mbps forward.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Data Only”. and lower rates of 1xEV-DO. and does not support circuit-switched voice • Commercially available in 2003 1xEV DV means “1x Evolution.181 . “1x Evolution”. DV 16QAM 1xEV-DO at highest rates 64QAM 1xEV-DV at highest rates February. 153. originally proposed by Qualcomm as “High Data Rates” (HDR). 2005 RF100 v2. work continues All versions of 1xEV use advanced modulation techniques to achieve high throughputs.Modulation Techniques of 1xEV Technologies 1xEV. Data and Voice”.2k reverse • Backward compatible with IS-95/1xRTT voice calls on the same carrier as the data • Not yet commercially available. 307.4576 Mbps forward.6 kbps reverse • A 1xEV DO carrier holds only packet data. QPSK CDMA IS-95. 1xEV DO means “1x Evolution. IS-2000 1xRTT. is a family of alternative fast-data schemes that can be implemented on a 1x CDMA carrier.

182 . each with steady forward and reverse traffic channels • transmissions arranged. each receives fair share of available sector time • instant preference given to user with ideal receiving conditions. 1xRTT CHANNEL STRUCTURE IS-95 and 1xRTT • many simultaneous users. to maximize average throughput • transmissions arranged and requested via steady MAC-layer walsh streams – very immediate! February. requested. 2005 IS-95 AND 1xRTT Many users’ simultaneous forward and reverse traffic channels PILOT SYNC PAGING F-FCH1 F-FCH2 F-FCH3 F-SCH W0 W32 W1 W17 W25 W41 W3 BTS F-FCH4 W53 ATs 1xEV-DO AP (Access Terminals) (Access Point) 1xEV-DO Forward Link AP RF100 v2.Channel Structure of 1xEV-DO vs.Very Different: • Forward Link goes to one user at a time – like TDMA! • users are rapidly time-multiplexed.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . confirmed by layer-3 messages – with some delay…… 1xEV-DO -.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . with only one user served at any instant • The transmission data rate is set to the maximum speed the user can receive at that moment February. 1xRTT IS-95: VARIABLE POWER POWER MANAGEMENT IS-95 and 1xRTT: • sectors adjust each user’s channel power to maintain a preset target FER 1xEV-DO IS-856: • sectors always operate at maximum power • sector output is timemultiplexed. 2005 TO MAINTAIN USER FER Maximum Sector Transmit Power 8 7 6 power 5 5 4 2 5 3 User 1 PAGING SYNC PILOT time 1xEV-DO: MAX POWER ALWAYS. DATA RATE OPTIMIZED power time RF100 v2.Power Management of 1xEV-DO vs.183 .

CDMA Network for Circuit-Switched Voice Calls (C)BSC/Access Manager Switch PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS The first commercial IS-95 CDMA systems provided only circuitswitched voice calls February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . 2005 RF100 v2.184 .

2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .185 .CDMA 1xRTT Voice and Data Network PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network Authentication Authorization Accounting Internet VPNs PDSN Home Agent AAA Switch (C)BSC/Access Manager PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS CDMA2000 1xRTT networks added two new capabilities: • channel elements able to generate and carry independent streams of symbols on the I and Q channels of the QPSK RF signal – this roughly doubles capacity compared to IS-95 • a separate IP network implementing packet connections from the mobile through to the outside internet – including Packet Data Serving Nodes (PDSNs) and a dedicated direct data connection (the Packet-Radio Interface) to the heart of the BSC The overall connection speed was still limited by the 1xRTT air interface February.

and Nortel’s specific solutions February.1xEV-DO Overlaid On Existing 1xRTT Network PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network Authentication Authorization Accounting Internet VPNs PDSN Home Agent DO Radio Network Controller (C)BSC/Access Manager DO-OMC AAA Switch CE PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS 1xEV-DO requires faster resource management than 1x BSCs can give • this is provided by the new Data Only Radio Network Controller (DO-RNC) A new controller and packet controller software are needed in the BTS to manage the radio resources for EV sessions • in some cases dedicated channel elements and even dedicated backhaul is used for the EV-DO traffic The new DO-OMC administers the DO-RNC and BTS PCF addition Existing PDSNs and backbone network are used with minor upgrading The following sections show Lucent. Motorola. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .186 .

187 .3G Information Resources 3G Information Resources Bibliography -.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .Web Links Bibliography Articles Web Links February.Articles -. 2005 RF100 v2.

Excellent technical tutorial and reference. CDMA system design and optimization. RF Environment & Design.how everything relates in the big picture. The most complete and comprehensive technical detail seen in a single text on all these technologies: IS-95 2G CDMA. CDMA2000. Mobile Internet. 764pp. 2002 McGraw-Hill. The most complete and definitive work on UMTS (excellent CDMA2000. Inc. Basic IP Principles. Includes good foundation information on CDMA air interface traffic capacity. CDMA principles. Heirarchical Cell Structures. Network Planning. WILAN). Standardization. Air Interface. Future Directions. $60.Bibliography.5G and 3G enhancements. Garg. Richard Levine. $80. but this book will give you what you won’t find elsewhere -. Paperback. b. WCDMA FDD standard. ISBN 0-07-136381-5. Implementation. For both non-technical and technical readers. 2001 Artech House. $100. Performance. Network Architectures. and general operational details. too!). Paperback. UMTS/WCDMA. You will still want to read books at a deeper technical level in your chosen technology. Good treatment of both CDMA2000 and UMTS/WCDMA systems. An excellent overview of all 3G technologies coupled with good detail of network architectures. complete. This is a MUST HAVE for a one-book library! February. CDMA2000 3G CDMA. "Wireless Network Evolution 2G to 3G" by Vijay K. 476pp. and probably everything you care to know about technologies other than your own. ISSBN 1-58053-180-6. and Roman Kitka 488pp. and wireless IP operations.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .188 .11a. Excellent level of operational detail for IS95 systems operating today as well as thorough explanations of 2. 2001 McGraw Hill. 2005 RF100 v2. 2002 Prentice-Hall. “WCDMA: Towards IP Mobility and Mobile Internet” by Tero Ojanpera and Ramjee Prasad. WCDMA TDD. "3G Wireless Networks" by Clint Smith and Daniel Collins. ISBN 013-028077-1. channel structures. Comfortable plain-language explanations of all the 2G and 3G air interfaces. ISSBN 0-07-136301-7 $50. An excellent starting point for understanding all the major technologies and the whole 3G movement. 3G Air Interface Technologies “3G Wireless Demystified” by Lawrence Harte. Bluetooth. yet including very succinct. and may sometimes turn to the applicable standards for finer details. and rigorously correct technical details. WLAN standards (802. 622pp.

An excellent. 322 pp. EDGE (10pp). ISBN 0 471 49816 5. and understandable exploration of UMTS. Excellent introduction to 3G and summary of standardization activities. Includes radio interface. every level of UMTS/UTRA. channel explanations. Readable but not overwhelming introduction to GSM in all its aspects (140pp). link budgets. 2005 RF100 v2. well-organized. ISBN 0 471 81375 3. Castro. $60. DECT (11pp). 2001 Wiley. UMTS (7pp). ip network considerations. 2001 John Wiley. Jonathan P. 354 pp. February. too! “The GSM Network .GPRS Evolution: One Step Towards UMTS” 2nd Edition by Joachim Tisal. WAP (25pp). GPRS (6pp).0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . ISBN 0 471 72051 8. $120. network architecture. 2000 Wiley. paperback.189 . 3G Air Interface Technologies “The UMTS Network and Radio Access Technology” by Dr. $60. too! “WCDMA for UMTS” by Harri Holma and Antti Toskala. Very good overall treatment of UMTS. a masterful tour de force through the entire subject area. Very readable. 227pp. service types.More Bibliography. Good overview of CDMA-2000.

518pp.. Excellent real-world understanding of TCP/IP. ISBN 1-55558-166-8. IPv6. $60. Bluetooth & IrDA summaries. In-depth understanding of the Internet protocol suite.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . Principles and Practices” by Charles E.Bibliography. “Cisco Networking Academy Program: Engineering Journal and Workbook. routing. The IP Aspect of 3G “Mobile IP: Design. and will lead you step by step through the sister textbook.190 . future prospects. Volume I” edited by Vito Amato. 2005 RF100 v2. subnetting. “Cisco Networking Academy Program: First-Year Companion Guide” edited by Vito Amato. ISBN 1-57870-126-x. Mbusiness. DHCP. ISSBN 158053-301-9. 200. addressing. Mobile IP. ISBN 0-201-63469-4. as well as the nuts-and-bolts of everything from physical components to protocols to actual devices such as routers. 1998 AddisonWesley. ISBN 1-57870-126-0. Routing. switches. 1999 Cisco Press. If you want some external structure in your self-study. 438pp. error reporting/recovery. Tour-de-force of mobile IP techniques. name/address resolution. tunneling. 291pp. $50. handoffs. network management. IPv6. encapsulation. you’ll need this to fully master Mobile IP. 1999 Cisco Press. network access and link layers. $67. etc. “TCP/IP Explained” by Phillip Miller. 1997 Digital Press. datagrams. February. The workbook for the First Year Companion Guide above. Textbook supporting a year-long course on networking technologies for aspiring LAN/WAN (and 3G) technicians and engineers. firewalls. 275 pp. advertisement. discovery. IPv4. “Mobile IP Technology for M-Business” by Mark Norris. 2001 Artech House. You might even want to take the evening courses at a local community college near you. Perkins. GPRS overview and background. this workbook will hold your hand as you climb every step of the ladder. Comprehensive view of Mobile IP including home and foreign agents. route optimization. 291 pp. It covers every popular networking technology (including all its elements and devices) in deep and practical detail. ensuring you absorb everything you need to know. registration.. IF you’re not already strong in TCP/IP. Addressing.

comparison w/ WCDMA. 2000 Prentice Hall. Yang. call processing. cell and system design principles. Viterbi. 616 pp. “CDMA Systems Engineering Handbook” by Jhong Sam Lee and Leonard E. Mobility Management. 1998 Artech House. $65. signaling. DSSS. Excellent treatment of CDMA basics and deeper theory. “CDMA Internetworking: Deploying the Open A-Interface” by Low and Schneider. ISBN 0-201-63374-4. 2000 Prentice Hall. 245 p. February. $75. One-of-a-kind work! "CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication" by Andrew J.191 . Prestige collector’s item. power control. CDMA2000 layers. planning. Chapters on SS7.General CDMA “IS-95 CDMA and CDMA2000: Cellular/PCS Systems Implementation” by Vijay K.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . capacity issues. “CDMA RF System Engineering” by Samuel C. coding. AddisonWesley 1995. Very deep CDMA Theory. 422 pp. data. ISBN 0-13-088922-9. Miller. Resource Management (both radio and terrestrial). $90. including messaging and protocols of IS-634. Good general treatment of CDMA capacity considerations from mathematical viewpoint. and mobile. capacity. A tour-de-force exposition of the networking between the CDMA BSC. Authentication. Supplementary Services. BTS. 1998 Artech House. ISBN 0-13-087112-5. IS-95 and CDMA2000 Access technologies. Recommended. channels. ISBN 0-89006-990-5. Garg. netw. Call Processing.Bibliography . system performance optimization. IS-95 air interface. ISBN 0-89006-991-3. 3G A-Interface details. soft handoff. channels. 2005 RF100 v2.

PACS. PDC. numbers and identities.192 . AMPS. iDEN. 2000 IEEE Press. GSM. GSM. Very thorough coverage. ISBN 0-07-037103-2 Lee’s latest/greatest reference work on all of wireless. Edition by William C. PHS. 334 pp. WATM. an excellent reference for new technical people or anyone wishing for clear explanations of wireless terms. mobile IP. lucid explanations of telecom terms in both wireless and landline technologies. Includes cellular architecture. UPT. Lee. ISBN 0-07-134102-1.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 . "Mobile Communications Engineering" 2nd. 689 pp. Succint. Y. TDMA. global mobile satellite systems. wireless LANs. NTT. 2001 McGraw Hill. “Wireless Telecom FAQs” by Clint Smith. ISBN 0-7803-4708-0. February. IEEE order #PC5395. 2005 RF100 v2. TACS< NMT. IMT2000 initiatives by region. McGraw Hill 1998 $65. IS-95. CT2.General Wireless “Mobile and Personal Communication Services and Systems” by Raj Pandya. well done.Bibliography . DECT. mobile data. Good technical overview of AMPS. IS-136. CDMA. performance benchmarks. $60.

hertz 3G . business. marketing news.telecom .193 .org (check out the digivents multimedia viewable sessions) The IS-95 and IS-2000 CDMA trade marketing webside.com Wireless Industry trade publication .Web Links and Downloadable Resources Scott Baxter: http://www.allen Agilent .com Latest versions of all courses are downloadable. 2005 RF100 v2.com/ and http://www. Worldwide GSM marketing cheerleaders but also includes some excellent GSM and GPRS technical overview whitepapers and documents.com Wireless Industry trade publication .3Gonline. Subscribers can access text archives of past articles. latest user figures. business.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .com The GSM Association website.(none required) RF/CDMA/Performance . GSM: http://www.generation . UWCC: http://www.regulatory.cdg.third Grayson .cdmaonline.com The IS-136 TDMA trade marketing website. RCR News: http://www.gsmworld.(none required) .regulatory. marketing news.rcrnews.com/ CDG: http://www. TDMA cheerleaders. technical. technical.wirelessweek. very handy in researching events. Ernest Simo’s Space2000: http://www. February.nitro .viper Dr. Wireless Week: http://www. Category . CDMA cheerleaders.Password Intro .uwcc.Username .shannon .howcdmaworks.

org/ The operators’ harmonization group concerned mainly with ETSI-related standards 3GPP2: http://www.ttc.etri.3gpp2.3gpp.kr/ RAST: http://www.org/ T1: http://www.etsi.kr/ ETRI: http://www.or.arib.re.etsi.194 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter 7 .itu.org/ The operators’ harmonization group concerned mainly with IS-95-derived CDMA standards ITU: http://www.More Web Links 3GPP: http://www.rast.html TTC: http://www.jp/arib/english/index.umts-forum.tiaonline.t1.int/imt/ ETSI: http://www.org/ ARIB: http://www.or.fi/ February. 2005 RF100 v2.or.gsmworld.fr/ UMTS forum: http://www.jp/ TTA: http://www.tta.com/ TIA: http://www.org/ GSM MoU: http://www.

1 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . 2005 RF100 v2.Course RF100 Supplement Course RF100 Supplement February.

Supplemental Topics Link Budgets Hard Handoff Strategies Reradiators Some Operational Measurements and Capacity Considerations 3G Systems February.2 . 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .

2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .3 .Section A Link Budgets Link Budgets February.

05 3.60% 314. and the building penetration loss Step 1.1 178.31 Suburban 15 8 8 75.0% 11.0% 11. Enter building penetration loss and standard deviations from measurements.118.0 2.74 February.7 3.949.63 7.00 Fade Margin.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .0% 11.31 Highway 8 6 8 75.497.31 Rural 10 8 8 75.31 Urban 15 8 8 75. dB.076. Std.05 20.0% 11.781 0.000 1 3.012.646. 7.750 0.725. 2005 RF100 v2. Dev.700 3 4. Cell Edge.0% 10.2 This section outlines the number of subscribers and amount of traffic by year This section shows the variability of outdoor and indoor signals.4 5. Basic Business Plan Details Year Population Penetration.6 9.4 .0 7.941 0.85% 72.886.350 2 4.63 6. Standard Desired Reliability at ("morphology") Loss.139.Link Budget Example: Usage Model and Service Assumptions Interactive Initial System Design Example fill in GREEN fields YELLOW fields calculate automatically v1.63 7.72% 149.360 0.05% 1. % Deviation Dense Urban 20 8 8 75.202. % #Customers BH Erl/Cust Total BH erl Launch 3.05 15.05 11.933 0. Composite Probability Of Service & Required Fade Margin Environment Building Building Outdoor Composite Type Median Std.045 6.453 0.722.64% 229.400 5 4.63 7.57% 402.451 0. Dev. dB dB dB.050 4 4.1 1.

5 .4 140.4 135. 2005 RF100 v2.3 The Reverse Link Budget describes how the energy from the phone is distributed to the base station.00 -7.00 17 -3 A B C D E F G H I J H+I+J Dense Urb.0 23.5 5. (dB) (-) Soft Handoff Gain (dB) (+) Receiver Interf.Reverse Link Budget Example 3.4 135.00 17 -3 23.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .63 4 -3 -20. Margin (dB) (-) Building Penetration Loss (dB) (-) BTS RX antenna gain (dBi) (+) BTS cable loss (dB) (-) kTB (dBm/14.74 4 -3 -8.63 4 -3 -15.9 -120. Urban Suburban Rural Highway Formula Survivable Uplink Path Loss (dB) (+) 130.0 -120. Construct Link Budgets Reverse Link Budget Term or Factor MS TX Power (dbm) (+) MS antenna gain and body loss (+/-) MS EIRP (dBm) (+) Fade Margin.4 KHz.) BTS noise figure (dB) Eb/Nt (dB) BTS RX sensitivity (dBm) (-) Given 23 0 23.4 6.00 -7.00 -6.0 -120.00 17 -3 23. including the major components of loss and gain within the system February.63 4 -3 -15.4 A+B+C+D+E +F+G(H+I+J) 143.00 -7.63 4 -3 -10.0 -120.0 -120.00 17 -3 -132.00 17 -3 23.00 -7.

9 B -6.6 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .0% 19 -3 17 A 44.4 KHz.0 0 Suburban 45 31.63 -3 -10.4 10.2 Rural Reverse 0.0% 19 -3 17 44.9 -7.2 Highway Reverse 0.62 74.0 0 Rural 45 31.63 -3 -15.2 135.Forward Link Budget Example Forward Link Budget Term or Factor BTS TX power (dBm) (+) BTS TX power (watts) % Power for traffic channels Number of Traffic Channels in use BTS cable loss (dB) (-) BTS TX antenna gain (dBi) (+) BTS EIRP/traffic channel (dBm) (+.9 -7.62 74.2 135.62 74.62 74.9 F A+B+C+D +E-F 130.0 0 Highway Formula 45 31.) Subscriber RX noise figure (dB) Eb/Nt (dB) Subscriber RX sensitivity (dBm) (-) Survivable Downlink Path Loss.63 -3 -20.0 0 Urban 45 31.9 -115.62 74.0% 19 -3 17 44.9 -7. dB? Dense Urban Reverse 0.9 -115. and compares the relative balance of the forward and reverse links February.9 -7.0 0 E -132.9 -115.9 -115. 2005 RF100 v2. dB (+) Forward/Reverse Link Balance Which link is dominant? What advantage.1 This section shows the forward link power distribution.5 6 -115.63 -3 -15.2 Given Dense Urb.-) kTB (dBm/14. 45 31.-) Fade margin (dB) (-) Receiver interference margin (db) (-) Building Penetration Loss (dB) (-) MS antenna gain & body loss (dB) (+.2 Suburban Reverse 0.0% 19 -3 17 44.0% 19 -3 17 44.2 140.74 -3 C D -8.2 143.2 Urban Reverse 0.

30 0. MHz.78 This section uses the Okumura-Hata/Cost-231 model to describe the frequency. M 870 1. Miles -2 Base Station Antenna Height.81 2. Frequency.27 20. M Urban Suburban 20 30 Rural 50 Highway 50 Urban -5 Suburban -10 Rural Highway -17 -17 1.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . antenna heights. Explore propagation model to figure coverage radius of cell. kM Coverage Radius. dB Coverage Radius.17 1.7 .5 Dense Urban 20 Dense Urban Environmental Correction. 2005 RF100 v2.Link Budgets: What is the Radius of a Cell? 4. and their relationship on the cell’s coverage distance February. and environmental factors. Subscriber Antenna Height.96 25.86 12.87 4.35 6.40 15.

9 5 20.5 0.7 1 55.8 . ignoring traffic considerations.8 206.6 11.5 44.0 450 44.7 9.5 Total Rural Highway # Cells 3400 1400 Required 1367. Step 4 estimates the number of cells required to serve each distinct environment within the system Steps 5.3 2 90 3 90 4 450 5 450 7. What is the total busy-hour erlang traffic on your system? How many BTS are required? Year Total System Busy-Hour Erlangs Capacity of One BTS.34 2026. Examine your market. erlangs # BTS required to handle all the traffic Launch 178.46 30.6 450 34.8 206. kM^2 # Cells required to cover zone Dense Urban 55 5.5 127.725. 2005 Covered Area of this type.646.5 9. What is the traffic capacity (in erlangs) of your chosen BTS configuration.3 9. kM^2 One cell's coverage in this zone.7 1 3.8 206.7 3 11.3 1 18.0 90 127. year-by-year? Year Erlangs which one BTS can carry Launch 18.3 206.7 55. 8. 6. and the number of cells required February.Link Budgets: Putting It All Together 5.9 5 55. #BTS required for coverage and capacity.4 90 74. estimate total number of BTS required.3 199.7 56.118.7 4 15.497.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .7 4 55.8 RF100 v2.722.73 148.3 2 55.1 18.7 18. and 7 estimate the RF coverage from each cell.8 206.5 74.5 34.5 6. Year #BTS req'd just to achieve coverage #BTS required just to carry traffic Estimated total #BTS required Launch 55.35 10. Calculate number of cells required for coverage.3 2 6.7 3 55.3 Urban Suburban 450 1700 14.72 for System 2.5 199.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . 2005 RF100 v2.Section B Hard Handoff Strategies Hard Handoff Strategies February.9 .

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . 2005 RF100 v2.10 . all will be poor in border area February. not both • “dragging” mobiles cause severe interference in border cells • capacity. so only hard handoff is possible between them. the handoff will be hard and mobiles can use only one system or the other. “dragged” handoffs become a big problem Handoff Performance Results: • Mobiles CAN see pilots from adjoining system. so mobile-directed handoff is possible • However.Co-Channel CDMA Intersystem Handoff Issues Cochannel Hard Handoff Border Interference Problems Fort Worth Frequency 1 Dallas BSC1 SW1 Interference SW2 BSC2 Consider two adjacent CDMA systems: • Same frequency • Not yet equipped for intersystem soft handoff. dropped calls. access failures.

2005 RF100 v2.11 . so simultaneous power control is possible for mobiles in border area • Border RF environment is the same as internal RF environment. so mobile-directed handoff is possible • Intersystem soft handoff is possible. no special problems February.Use Intersystem Soft Handoff: Avoid Border Area Interference Problems Fort Worth Frequency 1 Dallas BSC1 SW1 no problems SW2 BSC2 Intersystem Soft Handoff ATM link Consider two adjacent CDMA systems: • Same frequency • ATM connection between BSCs allows soft handoff Handoff Performance Results: • Mobiles CAN see pilots from adjoining system.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .

RTD.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . This definitely avoids interference in the border area. the mobiles will never request trans-border handoff • Some method must be employed to force unsuspecting mobiles into transborder handoffs • Common solutions: 1) implement intersystem soft handoff. 2005 RF100 v2. but causes other complications Handoff Logistical Problems: • Mobiles on one system can’t see the pilots of adjoining cells on the other system! So. etc.Avoid Interference.) February.12 . 2) Pilot beacon cells. Use Different Frequencies? Hard Handoff Logistical Problems F2 Mobiles can’t see F1 pilots! Fort Worth Frequency 2 Frequency 1 SW2 BSC2 BSC1 SW1 Dallas F1 Mobiles can’t see F2 pilots! Consider two adjacent CDMA systems: • Suppose intersystem soft handoff is not available • Systems are deliberately on different frequencies. 3) auxiliary trigger mechanisms (Ec/Io.

• Therefore. rather than a real cell. but also a sync channel and a paging channel with global service redirection February. 2005 RF100 v2.a signal which can be seen by arriving mobiles from the other system on their own frequency. it’s possible for mobiles of one system to “wake up” looking at the pilot of a beacon cell in the border area.One Solution to the Multi-Frequency Problem 2-Frequency Trigger Method: Beacon Cells F2 Mobiles can see F2 beacon Fort Worth Frequency 2 Frequency 1 SW2 BSC2 BSC1 SW1 F1 Mobiles can see F1 beacon Dallas The Beacon Solution • A pilot beacon cell is a “mannequin” -.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . the old system steps in and instructs the mobiles to do intersystem hard handoff to the real cell which the mobiles are approaching on the other system Special Logistical Concerns with Beacons • Of course.13 . a beacon cell must transmit not only its pilot. inducing them to request handoff as soon as it is appropriate • When mobiles request soft handoff with the beacon.

one set operating on each system. Whenever a mobile is served exclusively by a boundary sector.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . a one-cell-thick “transition zone” is created. • The outlooking sector of each bridge cell is tagged in the site database as a “boundary sector”. • When the mobile’s RTD passes upward through a datafilled threshold. the system continuously monitors that mobile’s round trip delay (RTD).14 . the system steps in and orders a hard handoff to the matching sector of the bridge cell on the other system – this ensures the handoffs happen in clean environments with high probability of success – disadvantage: more BTS hardware needed than otherwise February. The “bridge” cells in this zone are equipped with dual equipment.Another Solution for Multi-Frequency Handoffs Bridge Cells. RTD Trigger in Boundary Sectors Fort Worth Frequency 2 Frequency 1 SW2 BSC2 Dallas BSC1 SW1 Boundary Sector Boundary Sector All along the intersystem border. 2005 RF100 v2.

the system immediately commands a hard handoff to a previously defined sector on the other system. Everyone hopes (prays?) that sector is able to hear the mobile for a successful handoff. 2005 RF100 v2. – The Ec/Io trigger threshold is sometimes a fixed value (usually 11 db above the T_Drop in the serving sector. the system frequently interrogates the mobile with pilot measurement request messages • When the mobile’s reports the boundary sector’s Ec/Io is below a preset threshold.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . although some networks’ later software allows an arbitrary trigger level to be set February.Another Solution for Multi-Frequency Handoffs Arbitrary Ec/Io Trigger Mechanisms Fort Worth Frequency 2 Frequency 1 SW2 BSC2 Dallas BSC1 SW1 Boundary Sector Boundary Sector Outlooking sectors of border cells are tagged as “boundary sectors” in the system database • Whenever a mobile is served exclusively by a boundary sector.15 .

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .16 . it cannot be handed back up during the same call (due to long CDMA acquisition time) February.CDMA/AMPS Overlay Systems: Handdown CDMA Overlay AMPS Existing System CDMA mobiles approaching the edge of CDMA coverage must hand down to AMPS • however. CDMA mobiles cannot see AMPS signals during CDMA calls. 2005 RF100 v2. and therefore will not request handoff Methods for triggering CDMA-to-AMPS Handdown: the same ones we considered for CDMA-CDMA intersystem handoff • beacon cells • bridge cells with RTD trigger • arbitrary Ec/Io thresholds on boundary sectors Once a CDMA phone hands down to analog.

CDMA/AMPS Overlays: CDMA Acquisition CDMA Overlay AMPS Existing System System acquisition is primarily controlled by the mobile • dual-mode mobiles look for CDMA first.17 . 2005 RF100 v2. still possible to soft-handoff into outer sectors Many operators request handset manufacturers to add feature of periodic rechecking by idle handsets seeking to acquire CDMA February. then AMPS if needed Distant mobiles may find unreliable CDMA signals beyond the edge of CDMA coverage. originate calls likely to drop • most systems transmit Global Service Redirection Messages on all out-looking sectors to immediately force any distant mobiles to reacquire on AMPS – hence no CDMA originations on outermost CDMA sectors! – However.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .

Section C Reradiators Reradiators February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . 2005 RF100 v2.18 .

2005 RF100 v2. uplink and downlink • The system does not control reradiators and has no knowledge of anything they do to the signals they amplify.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Cell RR Reradiators are a ‘“crutch” with definite application restrictions. reradiators are a cost-effective solution for some problems. “repeaters”. on either uplink or downlink Careful attention is required when using reradiators to solve coverage problems • to achieve the desired coverage improvement • to avoid creating interference • to ensure the active search window is large enough to accommodate both donor signal and reradiator signal as seen by mobiles February. “cell enhancers”) are amplifying devices intended to add coverage to a cell site Reradiators are transparent to the host Wireless system • A reradiator amplifies RF signals in both directions. However. Supplement .Wireless Reradiators Reradiators (also called “boosters”.19 . Many operators prefer not to use re-radiators at all.

convention centers. CDMA) • expanding the service area of a cell to large areas beyond its natural coverage area – High-Power.Wireless Reradiators Two types of Reradiators commonly are applied to solve two types of situations: • “filling in” holes within the coverage area of a cell site -.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . channelized frequency-translating reradiators are used for this purpose – Only used in AMPS. not currently feasible for CDMA February. GSM. TDMA.valleys and other obstructed locations. 2005 Cell RR RR Cell RF100 v2. – Low-Power broadband reradiators are used for this purpose (AMPS. TDMA. etc.20 .

Wireless Reradiators
Propagation Path Loss Considerations
To solve a coverage problem using a reradiator, path loss and link budget must be considered • how much reradiator gain is required? • how much reradiator output power is required? • what type of antennas would be best? • how much antenna isolation is needed? • how big will the reradiator footprint be? • how far can the reradiator be from the cell? • will the reradiator interfere with the cell in other areas? • What is the propagation delay through the reradiator, in chips? • Will search windows need to be adjusted for compensation?
Path Loss Cell Gain RR Gain Path Loss (free space??) Signal Level in target area
Supplement - 21

(free space ERP usually applies) Line Loss RR Gain

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RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

Wireless Reradiators
Search Window Considerations
A reradiator introduces additional PN delay • typically 5 to 30 chips • the energy seen by the mobile and by the base station is spread out over a wider range of delays Reference PN DON’T FORGET THE WINDOWS!
Search Windows must be widened by Donor Energy approximately 2 x reradiator delay to ensure capture of both donor and rerad energy by mobile and base station. •Srch_Win_A, Srch_Win_R, Srch_Win_N •Base station Acquisition & Demodulation search windows Donor Cell RR Delay = ? chips Reradiator Signal
Supplement - 22 Reradiator Energy

Direct Signal from Donor Cell

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RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

Passive Wireless Reradiators

Typical Link Budget
In a few special cases, it is possible to reradiate useful Wireless coverage without any amplifiers involved! Link budget is marginal • donor cell must be nearby • high-gain antenna required toward donor cell • distance from RR to user must be small – ≅100 feet feasible w/omni antenna – ≅500 feet w/directional antenna
Donor Cell Path Loss (2.1 miles, ERP free space) Line Loss -6 db Basement Auditorium, etc. Path Loss (250 ft., free space)
Passive Reradiator Link Budget Example Donor cell EIRP +52 Path Loss Donor<>RR -102 RR Donor Ant. Gain +22 Signal Level into Line -28 RR Line Loss -6 RR Serving Ant. Gain +12 Path Loss RR<>User -69 Signal Level @ User -91

dBm dB dBi dBm dB dBi dB dBm

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RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

Supplement - 23

Broadband Low-Power Wireless Reradiators
Used mainly for filling small “holes” in coverage area of a cell Input and output on same frequency • usable gain: must be less than isolation between antennas, or oscillation occurs • this gain restriction seriously limits available coverage • Typically achievable isolations: 70-95 dB • Good point: every channel in donor cell is re-radiated
February, 2005

Broadband Reradiator Cell Unavoidable Coupling
C o m b i n e r

BPF: Uplink BPF: Downlink

C o m b i n e r

Wireless Spectrum

Frequency

RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

Supplement - 24

Broadband Low-Power Wireless Reradiators

Typical Link Budget
Broadband low-power reradiators can deliver useful signal levels over footprints up to roughly 1 mile using nearby donor cells Link budget is usually very “tight” • paths can’t be seriously obstructed • antenna isolation must be at least 10 db more than desired RR gain • can’t overdrive reradiator 3rd. order IM
Donor Cell ERP Path Loss (6 miles, free space) Gain Line Loss RR Gain RR Gain Path Loss (1/2 mile, free space) Signal Level in target area
Supplement - 25 Broadband Reradiator Link Budget Example Donor cell EIRP +52 Path Loss Donor<>RR -111 RR Donor Ant. Gain +12 RR Line Loss -3 Signal Level into RR -50 RR Gain +50 RR Power Output +0 RR Line Loss -3 RR Serving Ant. Gain +12 Path Loss RR<>User -89.4 Signal Level @ User -80.4 dBm dB dBi dB dBm dB dBm dB dBi dB dBm

February, 2005

RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

Other Reradiator Issues
Amplification of Undesired Signals • The reradiator is a broadband device capable of amplifying other signals near the intended CDMA carrier, both on uplink and downlink. Will these signals capture unwanted traffic, cause unwanted interference, or overdrive CDMA handsets or the base station? Linearity • CDMA reradiators must be carefully adjusted to ensure they are not overdriven. Overdriving would produce clipping or other nonlinearities, resulting in code interference Traffic Capacity • Re-radiators may introduce enough new traffic to create overloads in the donor cell Alarms • Separate arrangements must be made for integrating alarms and surveillance reports from reradiators into the system
February, 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement - 26

Section D

Operational Measurements Operational Measurements Some Capacity Consideration Some Capacity Consideration

February, 2005

RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

Supplement - 27

Total Blocked Call Percentage Example
Percent

Total Block Call Percentage
8.0% 7.5% 7.0% 6.5% 6.0% 5.5% 5.0% 4.5% 4.0% 3.5% 3.0% 2.5% 2.0% 1.5% 1.0% Blkd

Date

This is an example of a cumulative system-wide total blocked call percentage chart maintained by one PCS customer

February, 2005

RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter

Supplement - 28

Dropped Call Percentage Tracking Example Percent Total Drop Call Percentage 5. February.5% 0.0% 3.5% 4.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .0% 0.0% 1.0% %Drops Date Dropped call percentage tracking by a PCS customer.0% 2. 2005 RF100 v2.29 .5% 1.0% 4.5% 2.5% 3.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .30 .Total System Daily MOU Example 300000 MOU Daily Total System MOU Daily Total System MOU 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Date Total system daily MOU plotted by a PCS customer February. 2005 RF100 v2.

7 91.2 43.7 4.“Top Ten” Performance Tracking Example Call Attempts Eng Site 6. 2005 RF100 v2.5 4.6 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Calls 0 108.1 2.5 4.3 2.2 102.0 6.2 89.6 1.0 0.0 2.3 3.6 92.1 3.0 4.1 5.3 6.6 93.0 % 108. 1997 %Acc Drop %Drop Fail Calls Calls 7.2 85.5 87.2 108.2 1.2 108.9 2.3 91.8 2.5 91.8 0.3 91.0 1.4 6.1 4.3 63.2 63.1 64.6 3.3 3.0 4.0 1.2 81.3 % Blocked Calls Many operators use scripts or spreadsheet macros to produce ranked lists of sites with heavy traffic.3 Acc Fail 130 101 83 136 45 31 49 18 27 4 %Acc Drop %Drop Fail Calls Calls 5.2 64.1 1.2 64.3 MSC Site 93Z 13X 57Z 2X 1Y 57Y 93X 35Z 30Y 1Z Call %Call Block %Blck Call Att Succ Succ Calls Calls 1833 2561 1282 2244 1922 1623 1027 855 1740 1630 1549 2234 1098 2017 1743 1486 926 698 1589 1495 84.5 4.3 3.1 43.0 5.9 110 145 90 93 66 66 58 112 83 81 6.1 4.7 91.1 26.0 7.7 137 130 65 101 83 49 30 24 46 31 7.0 4.5 2.1 26.1 5.1 1.7 13.3 6. February.9 90.1 4.7 84.8 5.3 7.9 3.1 94.3 63.3 6.1 4.3 108.31 .3 145 93 66 110 83 81 66 70 54 53 5.2 64.7 89. performance problems.2 1.0 1.7 7. etc.0 2.6 1.1 3.3 7.3 Call Attempts Sector % Blocked Calls Eng Site 64.3 108.1 1.3 63.1 1.1 2.5 4.0 2.6 1.0 3.6 1.1 1.0 4.9 2.1 4.9 3.1 63.2 102.1 2.8 2.2 1.5 5.2 Sector 1.4 4.9 Acc Fail 136 130 65 101 83 49 30 24 45 31 September 5.8 0.2 64.1 1.4 2.0 8.8 5.4 5.8 130 101 83 137 46 31 49 18 27 4 5.6 91.0 5.3 MSC Site 13X 2X 1Y 93Z 30Y 1Z 57Y 4Y 30X 42Z Call %Call Block %Blck Call Att Succ Succ Calls Calls 2561 2244 1922 1833 1740 1630 1623 1615 1490 1488 2234 2017 1743 1549 1589 1495 1486 1495 1387 1410 87.6 90.1 4.9 90.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .3 63.1 5.

00 6.760.00 30.494.689.00 2.00 3.68 71.00 0.93 44.00 1.00 281.756.00 1.00 0.00 27.00 2.00 13.113.00 15.45 63.00 0.58 94.21 98.73 94.44 1.00 4.219.00 581.22 48.00 0.00 0.71 917.41 35.00 141.016.00 0.535.168.00 18.67 94.00 0.00 3.68 5.00 0.123.00 67.47 1.00 6.72 53.00 This figure shows various operating statistics available through AutoPace from Lucent systems • forward power control status • origination failures and dropped calls February.00 108.18 94.00 3.00 11.00 0.771.00 143.73 57.00 19.78 7.788.17 1.00 12.00 4.00 28.00 4.00 0.00 143.00 41. ) Me a n: 96.856.89 2.37 115.965.00 0.580 62.069.64 5.00 15.00 10.195.00 0.722.00 0.235.00 563.55 93.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .00 0.00 95.00 0.00 2.506 2.754.02 43.00 27.0.00 3.00 2.731.00 2.22 Sys/ ECP/ Ce ll/ N a me / La be l % CD MA R e Acquir CCE Est Ca lls e d_Ca lls e rla ngs Sort by % CD MA E st Ca lls CD MA_CE U sa ge P rim_CS CE _U se % P rim_CS CE _U se S e c_CS CE_U se % CD MA % CD MA CD MA % CD MA T otCD MA CD MAT otl SoftH O U se SU Fa il Lost_Ca ll Lost Ca lls Fa ilure s Origins TOTALS 179 2 67 MARSHALL 179 2 10 TIGER 179 2 28 LEATHERWOOD 179 2 30 SHEPHERDS 179 2 121 PENTAGON 179 2 1 COLLEGE 179 2 45 MARYLAND 179 2 16 AVONDALE 96.00 5.313.00 10.760.073.300.00 35.0.125.98 1.00 0.00 13.00 13.00 11.795.00 339.07 55.00 20.36 94.00 0.00 4.00 305.157.00 11.529.68 4.257.200.00 61.00 35.00 0.766.18 0. ) Me a n: 28.00 5.00 208.00 0.00 H ighlight by % CD MA Est Ca lls (2.00 46.00 1.99 6.06 2.00 91.98 0.155.00 178.00 0.088.00 5.00 77.54 36.00 130.187.809.466 6.535.816 9.00 0.00 64.00 6.00 10.323.00 0.90 2.00 2.59 64.00 563.722.26 2.89 5.78 51.00 2.14 5.368.00 38.10 41.00 55.00 23.00 1.448.143 13.60 128.00 26.00 20.264.38 5.18 1.16 76.00 0.059.00 65.959 22.32 .00 25.00 140.016.28 41.00 6.921. 2005 RF100 v2.79 6.984 3.451.00 3.00 4.00 0.90 58.00 15.00 0.00 8.00 47.00 0.00 0.00 15.83 S ys/ ECP / Ce ll/ N a me / Ante nna ID / Ant_N a me CD MA_Acs CD MA_Avg Chn_Oc Sq_D G Sort by S ys/E CP / Ce ll/ N a me / Ante nna ID / Ant_N a me CD MA_Fwd CD MA_Fwd CD MA CD MA_P g CD MA_Pk CD MA_Pk CD MA_R e v CD MA_R e v PCOLdur P COLcnt Intcpt_Msg Ch_Ocpn Acs_ChOc P g_ChOc P COLdur P COLcnt TOTALS 179 2 1 JACKSON 1 Antenna:1 179 2 1 JACKSON 2 Antenna:2 179 2 1 JACKSON 3 Antenna:3 179 2 2 WILDER 1 Antenna:1 179 2 2 WILDER 2 Antenna:2 179 2 2 WILDER 3 Antenna:3 179 2 3 MARKET 1 Antenna:1 179 2 3 MARKET 2 Antenna:2 179 2 3 MARKET 3 Antenna:3 5.00 0.00 206.00 73.62 3.00 422.67 2.00 3.22 2.818.98 56.00 2.00 6.00 0.100.00 6.28 46.27 42.476.00 2.00 0.61 3.00 0.65 2.033.00 0.00 12.1.04 4.00 845.44 94.00 42.391.00 102.989 985.84 3.197.26 2.2 S td D e v: 27.00 555.00 13.00 422.00 0.372.763.00 4.00 41.00 0.568.00 6.00 0.873.00 0.00 3.71 Std D e v: 1.00 3.83 93.00 489.120.00 3.44 3.00 22.00 0.72 58.00 0.Lucent Reports H ighlight by CD MA_Acs Chn_Oc (2.29 2.00 281.140.580.1.00 89.

Attribute Name BlockedOriginationsNoTCE Data Type word16 Seq. Access. 2005 word16 word16 word16 word16 word16 RF100 v2. Number Range 0x0002A 42 0x0002B 43 0x0002C 44 0x0002D 45 0x0002E 46 0x0002F 47 0x00030 48 0x00031 49 P full P full P full P full P full P full P full P full Description Number of originations blocked because no idle channel elements were available Number of originations blocked due to lack of BTS forward link excess capacity Number of originations blocked due to lack of reverse link capacity Number of handoffs blocked because no idle channel elements were available Number of handoffs blocked due to lack of BTS forward link excess capacity Number of handoffs blocked due to lack of reverse link capaicty Number of successful originations Number of successful handoffs Supplement .BTSC MO Attributes Each attribute is a periodic counter maintained during the 15-minute automatic logging period.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter .33 BlockedOriginationsNoFwdCap word16 BlockedOriginationsNoRevCap word16 BlockedHandoffsNoTCE BlockedHandoffsNoFwdCap BlockedHandoffsNoRevCap SuccessfulOriginations SuccessfulHandoffs February.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . FA MO Sequence Number 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C OM name TCEUtilMaximum NumOfTCsConfigured soft1softer1Alpha soft1softer1Beta soft1softer1Gamma soft1softer2AlphaBeta soft1softer2BetaGamma soft1softer2GammaAlpha soft1softer3 soft2softer1Alpha soft2softer1Beta soft2softer1Gamma soft2softer2AlphaBeta soft2softer2BetaGamma soft2softer2GammaAlpha soft2softer3 soft3softer1Alpha soft3softer1Beta soft3softer1Gamma soft3softer2AlphaBeta soft3softer2BetaGamma soft3softer2GammaAlpha soft3softer3 FA MO Sequence Number 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 3B 3C 3D OM name soft4softer1Alpha soft4softer1Beta soft4softer1Gamma soft4softer2AlphaBeta soft4softer2BetaGamma soft4softer2GammaAlpha soft4softer3 soft5softer1Alpha soft5softer1Beta soft5softer1Gamma soft5softer2AlphaBeta soft5softer2BetaGamma soft5softer2GammaAlpha soft6softer1Alpha soft6softer1Beta soft6softer1Gamma TimeNotInUse February.Nortel FA MO Attributes Each attribute is a periodic counter maintained during the 15-minute automatic logging period. 2005 RF100 v2.34 .

Nortel BTSC MO Events Each event counter is maintained during the 15-minute automatic logging period.35 . Number Description Includes as parameters all attributes with P access documented in the attribute table for this MO. FAPerformanceData 0x000? PerformanceData 0? February. 2005 RF100 v2. Event Report Name Type Event Report Seq. Number Description Includes as parameters all attributes with P access documented in the attribute table for this MO. 0x000? BTSCPerformanceData PerformanceData 0? FA MO Events Each event counter is maintained during the 15-minute automatic logging period.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . Event Report Name Type Event Report Seq.

Nortel BTSC MO Report Example XYZ 19971120 BTSC MO Report +----+----------------------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+ |BTS | Start Date/Time |OBlock|OBlock|OBlock|HBlock|HBlock|HBlock| Succ | Succ | | | End Date/Time |No TCE|No Fwd|No Rev|No TCE|No Fwd|No Rev| Origs|Handof| +----+----------------------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+ | 1|1997/11/20 01:30:00-02:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 3| 5| | 1|1997/11/20 12:00:00-12:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 46| 314| | 1|1997/11/20 12:30:00-13:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 76| 470| | 1|1997/11/20 13:00:00-13:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 45| 414| | 1|1997/11/20 13:30:00-14:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 55| 375| | 1|1997/11/20 14:00:00-14:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 50| 525| | 1|1997/11/20 14:30:00-15:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 72| 433| | 1|1997/11/20 15:00:00-15:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 66| 412| | 1|1997/11/20 15:30:00-16:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 53| 323| | 1|1997/11/20 16:00:00-16:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 63| 342| | 1|1997/11/20 16:30:00-17:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 51| 331| | 1|1997/11/20 17:00:00-17:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 39| 323| | 1|1997/11/20 17:30:00-18:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 51| 310| | 1|1997/11/20 18:00:00-18:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 45| 237| | 1|1997/11/20 18:30:00-19:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 31| 299| | 1|1997/11/20 19:00:00-19:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 37| 282| | 1|1997/11/20 19:30:00-20:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 19| 143| | 1|1997/11/20 20:00:00-20:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 18| 96| | 1|1997/11/20 20:30:00-21:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 33| 192| | 1|1997/11/20 21:00:00-21:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 25| 226| | 1|1997/11/20 21:30:00-22:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 15| 235| | 1|1997/11/20 22:00:00-22:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 15| 216| | 1|1997/11/20 22:30:00-23:00:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 9| 162| | 1|1997/11/20 23:00:00-23:30:00| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 3| 40| | |Totals for BTS 1 | 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 1235| 8895| February. 2005 RF100 v2.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .36 .

86| 1.93| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 14:30:00-15:00:00| 153.58| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 18:30:00-19:00:00| 124.62| 1.78| 20.61| 644.29| 30.83| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 12:30:00-13:00:00| 165.61| 39.65| 35.91| 60.59| 84.25| 73.39|36.35| 1.72| 1.80|32.88| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 10:00:00-10:30:00| 153.88| 8.56| 52.14| 29.35| 9.53| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 16:00:00-16:30:00| 172.55|33.48| 74.84| 44.80| 37.72| 12.71| 41.85| 14.52| 22.14| 1.07| 20.37| 30.50| 5.76| 1.97|35.08| 1.20| 15.16| 1.95| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 12:00:00-12:30:00| 156.72| 14.25|40.52| 1.52| 114.66| 1.80| 81.36| 1.56| 1.83| 105.00| 29.49| 53.99|29.60| 27.45| 28.10| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 17:30:00-18:00:00| 134.21| 15| February.53| 19.67|45.58| 59.64| 1.49| 20.43| 30.61|44.50| 24.77|39.19| 1.42| 47.60| 28.80| 15.60| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 10:30:00-11:00:00| 181.99| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 21:30:00-22:00:00| 109.15|31.33|41.47| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 11:30:00-12:00:00| 143.28| 26.75| 25.19|41.52| 1.37| 6.73| 20.88| 24.62| 1.72|37.79| 89.49| 1.79|41.50| 41.61| 121.09| 15. 2005 RF100 v2.04| 28.80| 655.58| 21.57| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 11:00:00-11:30:00| 152.89| 22.65| 108.10|42.96| 63.33|40.22|38.51| 21.06|39.36| 18.58| 89.51| 28.61| 18.68| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 22:00:00-22:30:00| 86.21| 21.73| 1.26| 10.31|37.27| 94.99| 38.65| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 13:00:00-13:30:00| 170.05| 1.77| 43.65| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 15:00:00-15:30:00| 165.90|33.71| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 20:30:00-21:00:00| 102.73|36.83| 18.92| 68.78| 24.81| 1.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .04| 15| | |Totals for BTS 1 | 3690.60| 26.85| 32.62| 980.39| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 15:30:00-16:00:00| 159.32| 17.58| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 07:00:00-07:30:00| 73.03| 14.76| 1.62| 16.81| 24.46| 26.77| 4.11| 18.26| 29.72| 5.48| 1.96|20.19| 1.15| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 23:00:00-23:30:00| 28.91| 42.68| 42.06|35.75| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 19:00:00-19:30:00| 75.55| 49.69| 22.22| 1.77|35.49| 1.27|30.06| 46.58| 23.55|26.22| 22.56| 31.05| 27.50| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 19:30:00-20:00:00| 40.09| 102.69| 27.45| 55.87| 66.95| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 20:00:00-20:30:00| 51.36| 99.76| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 17:00:00-17:30:00| 129.37 .58| 37.45| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 22:30:00-23:00:00| 94.51| 56.50| 27.46| 1.06| 8.54| 89.08| 106.90| 2280.66| 24.77|41.14| 3.50| 29.80| 30.75| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 08:00:00-08:30:00| 109.75|37.26| 11.38|43.22| 30.24|45.13| 82.38| 21.81| 1.57| 28.Nortel FAMO Report Example XYZ 19971120 FA MO Report +----+----------------------------+---------+---------+-----+-------+-------+-------+-----+---+ |BTS | Start Date/Time | MOU | MOU | CE/ | MOU | MOU | MOU |%Soft|Max| | | End Date/Time | CE | Traffic | User| Alpha | Beta | Gamma | HO |TCE| +----+----------------------------+---------+---------+-----+-------+-------+-------+-----+---+ | 1|1997/11/20 07:00:00-07:30:00| 41.10| 14.93| 20.71| 1.85| 16.66| 24.43| 24.50| 1.72| 52.97| 1.53| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 14:00:00-14:30:00| 189.38| 17.99| 33.34| 93.19| 15.56| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 16:30:00-17:00:00| 156.78| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 13:30:00-14:00:00| 145.35| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 18:00:00-18:30:00| 96.70| 89.72| 13.41|46.58| 17.26| 1.55| 41.07| 15| | 1|1997/11/20 21:00:00-21:30:00| 108.41| 22.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .Section E Basics of Interference. Noise and CDMA Capacity Noise and CDMA Capacity February. Basics of Interference.38 . 2005 RF100 v2.

0 -108.1 5. 2005 RF100 v2. 1. and “Background Noise” Thermal Noise Floor. Bandwidth. deg K 290 290 290 THERMAL NOISE Nt = kTB where: Nt = thermal noise power K = Boltzmann’s Constant = 1. see equation at right What this means for a CDMA receiver: • There is an unavoidable noise of -113. and Receiver Sensitivity BW.The Noise Floor Even when no interference.0 -105. See the spreadsheet “Noise.800 -113.800 -113.xls” below T.1 dbm in the bandwidth of a CDMA signal. dbm RX NF RX Sens.1 8.0 0.228.3806 x 10-23 T = Temperature (Kelvin) = 290ºK room temperature B = bandwidth This noise is sometimes called “Johnson Noise”. Hz Noise.0 Theoretical Baseline 1. producing “thermal noise” in every electronic circuit The noise power is proportional to absolute temperature and the receiving bandwidth.1 Typical CDMA Uplink at BTS receiver 1. a received signal must compete with the always-present noise in the receiver itself Ambient heat causes electrons everywhere to move around. “White Noise”.2288 MHz.1 Typical CDMA Downlink at Mobile Receiver February.39 .228.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .0 -174. Remarks 1 -174.

this is the “Pole Capacity” of the sector V = Voice Activity Factor W = Spreading Bandwidth No= P. of Thermal Noise Pt = Mobile Tx R = Vocoder Rate February.Reverse Link Noise Floor Rise Due To Traffic The first user on a sector must satisfy: • User’s signal + CDMA processing gain must equal BTS thermal noise + BTS noise figure + desired Eb/No The second user on a sector must satisfy • all the above PLUS first user’s energy • and the first user must also slightly increase to match.40 . etc.S.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .. For given starting conditions. maintaining its quality Each additional user faces more interfering power from existing users. 2005 RF100 v2. etc.D. there is a number of users that drives the situation out of control – users must transmit more power than a CDMA mobile can produce • This number of users is the “Pole Point”.

41 B R dB TS X .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . BTS noise figure.9 18.800 9.50 0. the spreadsheet shows the calculated pole point capacity and the intended operating limit at 50% of pole capacity The graph shows the calculated receive power at a BTS for zero to 42 users under typical conditions • notice a 10 db rise occurs with just 12 users • a 15 db rise occurs with just 15 users • this cell’s capacity needs optimization! Explore the Noise Floor Rise spreadsheet to see the effects of target Eb/No.60 4.Loading and the Noise Floor Operating Limit: 50% Pole 100% Pole Point #Users Processing Gain #Sectors Sectorization Gain Voice Activity Factor Adjacent Cell Interference Target Eb/No. db 3-Sector BTS 6-Sector BTS Pole Capacity Pole Capacity Per Sector Per Sector 20.40 0.17 4.800 1. 2005 RF100 v2. ratio Radio Configuration Vocoder Chip Rate Data Rate Required Eb/No.228.228.00 128.60 0. and other parameters on the results February.600 6.0 128.00 3 6 2.8 37.55 4.40 0.600 9.20 6.17 RC1 RC1 EVRC EVRC 1.5 41.20 Noise Floor Rise Due To Loading 0 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 N umber of U ers s 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 For two standard cell configurations.

What’s So Important About Noise Floor? In theory. 2005 RF100 v2. unable to keep acceptable FER The noise floor at the BTS receiver is the point in the CDMA system most vulnerable to external interference February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .42 . unable to achieve high data rates. the capacity of a sector isn’t affected by the noise floor • as long as they’re strong enough. the usable range of the cell shrinks proportionally • users at the cell edge may be unable to access. the desired number of mobiles can use the sector simultaneously But the range of the sector is directly determined by the noise floor • when the noise floor is elevated by interference. unable to keep a call from dropping.

43 .0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . drops worse than expected even in heavy traffic areas • clusters of several sectors with over 10% blocking • customer complaints of severe impairments. access failures.Recognizing Interference: Do I have it?!! Clues that you might have an interference problem: • Bad Stats: increased blocking. TCCFs. usually localized • increased noise floor in BTS statistics – both peak and average • depressed data throughput compared to healthy sectors Field Observations • Visible non-CDMA signals on a spectrum analyzer • pockets in good-coverage areas where Ec/Io is poor due to interference February. 2005 RF100 v2.

How can you identify the source of the interference. and do something about it? For Reverse Link Interference: Identify the affected sectors to recognize affected area Field Investigation Normally Will Be Required • look into BTS multicoupler outputs to identify interferer • spectrum analyzer and yagi antenna – direction toward interferer from surrounding high sites – remember to use BP filter if needed to suppress strong fundamental so you can see true interference only – triangulate to locate interferer – locate the source February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .Interference? Track It Down! OK. so you’ve got some solid evidence that interference is going on.44 . 2005 RF100 v2.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .Identifying and Handling Interference Sources Source will usually be a communications-related or power-related device. 2005 RF100 v2.45 . ask if anyone is doing communications activities in that building Use company procedures for dealing with the interferer owner to obtain short-term resolution Long-term resolution • is signal unauthorized or unintended? – repair equipment if defective – does suppression meet required specs? add filter if needed February. at building entry.

2005 RF100 v2. just from “friendly fire” • Rogue Mobiles – a mobile needing handoff into the victim site but unable to get it and transmitting high levels as it approaches • In-channel Narrowband Interferers – military. land mobile. dirty LANs • Oscillating or noisy in-building amplifiers. parasitic. utility transformers and power lines with arcing insulators. arcing signs and bulbs. law enforcement. repeaters. but near the BTS Forward Link • symptom: localized interference.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . transmitters • In-band strong mobile signals of other operators on adjacent blocks • Broadband: welding shops. usually on one carrier (not all) • sources usually stronger than in reverse link case.46 . easier to find February. and television master antenna systems with booster amplifiers • sources can be very small.Major Sources of Interference Reverse Link • INTERNAL: maximum traffic loading is maximum acceptable interference. industrial • In-channel Unstable.

Triangulation Triangulation is the process of locating a transmitting source by measuring radial distance or direction of the received signal from several different points Triangulation can be used to pinpoint the geographic position of a user or interferer The drawing shows the basic principle of triangulation.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . • The emitter’s location is found by measuring the relative direction of the signal from three different locations. 2005 RF100 v2. • The area where the radials overlap becomes search area for the emitter’s exact location.47 . 1 February.

2005 RF100 v2. the search area may still be impractically large. Another round of triangulation from closer points surrounding the search area may be required. 1 February.Triangulation – Rounds Two and Up The first round of triangulation will identify the vicinity of the emitter.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . However.48 . This method can also be used to find interferers inside a large building. When completed you should have 3 new intersecting lines which reveal the approximate location of the interferer within a triangle of uncertainty.

based on intermod considerations of their own and their neighbors’ frequency bands and signal characteristics February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . Antenna Isolation • Vertical separation highly effective vs other operators but not desirable among our own antennas due to F/R imbalance • Horizontal Isolation Estimating Isolation • assume free space loss and published antenna patterns for “worst-case” maximum coupling scenario Each operator should set minimum separation guidelines for general construction.49 . 2005 Isolation RF100 v2.Site Configuration Principles A widely-accepted general principle is to do whatever is required to achieve 40 db or better isolation between all antennas.

0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .Observed Isolations between PCS Antennas Typical observed isolations between commonly-used PCS antennas at various horizontal and vertical separations • thanks to Don Button and EMS Wireless February.50 . 2005 RF100 v2.

2005 RF100 v2.Section F Intermodulation Intermodulation February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement .51 .

2005 RF100 v2. But on your living room carpet. Intermodulation When two signals are intentionally combined in a nonlinear device we call the effect modulation • Amplitude modulator.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . IM signals increase system noise. or cause distinctive recognizable interference signals February.Modulation and Mixing vs.52 . we call the effect intermodulation (a pejorative term) An analogy: Botanists use soil to grow plants. or quad phase modulator • Mixer. soil is just dirt. down or up converter in superheterodyne When two (or more) signals are unintentionally combined in a non-linear device.

allowing each signal Predicted Third order to alter the waveshape of the others power intercept • the frequencies of the intermod point products are sums and differences of multiples of the Output original signal frequencies. 2005 RF100 v2.53 .Intermod Basics Definition: Intermodulation (“IM”) is Non-linear device Input Output the unintended mixing of legitimate RF signals. and can be predicted with good accuracy using Input power (dBm) measured “intercept” levels February.0 (c) 2005 Scott Baxter Supplement . producing undesired signals (‘intermodulation products’) on f f unrelated frequencies possibly f1 f2 3f1-2f2 f1 f2 3f2-2f1 already being used for other services 2f2-f1 2f1-f2 • IM can devastate reception on certain frequencies at base stations and other communication facilities Power transfer characteristics Intermodulation occurs because of typical amplifier or other device signals are passing through a nonlinear device. and power Third order can be calculated exactly (dBm) intermodulation • the strength of the intermod products products depends on the degree Noise floor of nonlinearity of the circuits involved.

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