# Chapter 4: Moments and Couples

ENGINEERING SCIENCE

in the direction of the force. the force must act upon the body in such a manner that the body would begin to twist. In order for a moment to develop. This is different from the tendency for a body to move. A moment is due to a force not having an equal and opposite force directly along it's line of action. or translate.1 Moment of a Force about an Axis y The Moment of a force is a measure of its tendency to cause a body to rotate about a specific point or axis. This occurs every time a force is applied so that it does not pass through the centroid of the body.4. .

4.1 Moment of a Force about an Axis y Moment of a force formula:  M = Fd y Unit:  Nm .

clockwise moments = anticlockwise moments  F2d2 = F1d1 .1 Moment of a Force about an Axis y The principle of moment:   For a body in equilibrium the sum of the clockwise moments is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise moments.4.

and the forces acting upon it may be parallel or otherwise.2 Levers y A lever is simply a rod or bar capable of turning about a fixed axis called the fulcrum. .4. The lever may be straight or curved or cranked. which may be a spindle or a knife edge.

4.2 Levers .

05 N)( 0.05 N)( 0. A body having a mass of 5 kg is suspended at a point E. 180 mm to the right of C.05 N So.A uniform lever is pivoted at its mid point C.4m ! 22.0725 N ! ! 2.0725 N W FD FE FE ! mE g  ! (5kg )(9.81 .4m) ! ( 49.81m / s 2 ) ! 49. 400 mm to the left of C to maintain the lever in balance.18m) FD ! ( 49. Calculate the mass to be suspended at a point D.25kg 9.18m) 0. Mc ! D 400 mm C 180 mm 5kg E Mc FD d D ! FE d E FD( 0. mass for W : FD ! mg m! FD g 22.

If the nut have a same magnitude of moment as above to be open.Example y A force of 25 N is applied to a spanner at an effective length of 140 mm from the centre of a nut. determine the force required if we used spanner with effective length 100mm. 25N 140mm . Calculate:   the moment of the force applied to the nut.

Moment = Fd 3.1m) F = 3.5Nm = F(0.5/0.1 F = 35N So. b.Solution y A force of 25 N is applied to a spanner at an effective length of 140 mm from the centre of a nut.14m) = 3. the moment of the force applied to the nut. Calculate: a. a) Moment = Fd = (25N)(0.5Nm and spanner length is 100mm. the force used for 100mm spanner is bigger than 140mm spanner.5Nm 25N 140mm b) Since the moment to open the nut was 3. determine the force required if we used spanner with effective length 100mm. . If the nut have a same magnitude of moment as above to be open.

Determine the force that need to apply by driver to push the brake pedal if the force from the Push Rod FR=1.2kN perpendicular to Brake Pedal 50mm FR 200mm Fp .Exercise y The figure show the brake pedal assembly for a car.

Solution o 50mm FR = 1.2kN 200mm Fp .

3 Equilibrium and Resultant of Parallel Force 0.6m 80N ?N 40N 20N y Resultant of parallel force equal to zero when the system in equilibrium. .9m x 0.4.

4.9m a x 0.3 Equilibrium and Resultant of Parallel Force 0.6m c d b F1 = 80N F4 = ? N F2 = 40N F3 = 20N             .

the total clockwise moment of the force about any axis is equal to the total anticlockwise moment of the forces about the same axis.4 General Principle of Moments y If a body at rest (equilibrium) under the action of several force.4. a x F P R Q b .

Qx Pa + Px = 0 Qb Pa = 0 Qb = Pa .4. Rx P(a-x) = 0 b R=P+Q Qb + Qx (P + Q)x Pa + Px = 0 Qb + Qx Px .4General Principle of Moments x F P R Q Equ ting the clockwise nd nticlockwise moments t F. we h ve: Q(b+x) Since.

5 Reaction on a Horizontal Beam Supported at Two Points y To determine what is upward forces must act on a beam at its supports when the beam is loaded and supported at two points.4. 5kg 2m RA 1m RB .

4.5 Reaction on a Horizontal Beam Supported at Two Points 5kg  2m RA 1m RB             .

calculate the reaction of the supports. If a mass of 8kg be hung from the beam at distance of 1m from A.5 Reaction on a Horizontal Beam Supported at Two Points y A uniform horizontal beam 6m long. A being at one end of the beam. The mass of the beam is 20kg.4. 4m apart. rest on two supports A and B. RA 8kg 20kg RB .