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Control Valve Accessories

Control Valve Accessories

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Published by Zack Lee

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Zack Lee on Sep 30, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Control Valve Accessories

Sep, 30th 2010

1. The positioner is a high gin plain propotional controller which measures the valve stem position (to within 0.1 mm), compares that measurement to its set-point and if there is a difference correct the error 2. The open loop gain of positioners ranges from 10 to 200 (proportional band of 10% to 0.5%) and their periods of oscillation range between 0.3 and 10 seconds (3-0.1 Hz) 3. In the other words, the positioner is a very sensitively tuned proportional-only controller

Positioner (2)
1. The main purpose of having a positioner is to guarantee that valve does move to the position where the controller wants it to be 2. By adding positoner, one can correct for many variations, including changes in packing friction due to dirt, corrosion, or lack of lubrication 3. The dead band of a valve-actuator can be as much 5% with the addition of a positioner it can be reduced to less than 0.5%

Positioner Characteristic
‡ When the valve is in remote manual (open loop) operation, it is always benefit from the addition of a positioner, because it will reduce the valve s hysteresis and dead band when increasing its response ‡ When the valve is under automatic (closed loop) control, the positioner will be helpful when the loop response is not very fast ‡ Actuator without springs always require positioners

Positioner Characteristic (2)
‡ A controlled process can be considered slow if its period of oscillation is three times the period at which the positioned valve oscillates

Limit Switches
‡ To describe switches installed to signal when a valve is at or beyond a predetermined position ‡ These switches are used for operator information, interlock inputs, or computer feedback ‡ It s necessary to consider mounting problems, electrical classification of area, electrical characteristics of circuit, over-travel of actuating and corrosive nature of the area

Limit Switches (2)
‡ Becaused of enviromental problems, some users have been using sealed magnetically actuated or proximity switches

Regulator or Airset
‡ Is the air regulator with filter and drip out used to supply air to the positioner or other instrumeny ‡ The regulator must have an appropriate pressure range for the positioner and actuator and it should have a built-in overpressure vent ‡ Capacity is a problem only with very large valves ‡ Some piston actuators and positioners will operate with up to 150 psig (1MPa) supply and there is a trend toward eliminating the regulator but retaining the filter

Regulator or Airset (2)
‡ The risk in providing airsets for high-pressure actuators such as air cylinders is that field operator can thereby limit the supply pressure, which in turn reduces actuator stiffness (resistance to the dynamic forces of the process) ‡ Naturally, when the pressure rating of the actuator or positioner is less than the air supply pressure, an air set must be used ‡ The use of air filters is always recommended ‡ They should be installed in the air supply serving the positioner and should be designed for the pressure of the air supply ‡ Their purpose is to remove moisture, oil and all particles that are 5 microns or larger

‡ Control valve accessory is used to operate on/off pneumatic actuator or interrupt the action of modulating valves by switching air pressures ‡ Two philosophies are in common use
± The 3 to 15 Psi (0.2-1 bar) signal to the positioner is blocked and the downstream tubing either vented or connected to some other preset pressure ± Its installed in the tubing between the positioner and actuator


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