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AR-421 URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN

CITY ANALYSIS MUMBAI

SUBMITTED TO: FARIHA AMJAD UBAID SAEEDUDDIN AHMED RABEEA ASIM SUBMITTED BY: ANAM SHAUKAT (AR-005) ZARRAR HUSSAIN KHAN (AR-048)

N.E.D UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, KARACHI

INTRODUCTION OF THE CITY

AR-421

Mumbai , formerly called Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city of India, is the second most populous city in the world, with a population of approximately 14 million. Along with the neighboring urban areas , it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world . Mumbai lies on the west coast of India has a deep natural harbor.

MUMBAI

C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I

The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies. For centuries, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese and subsequently to the British East India Company.

AR-421

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Mumbai (formerly Bombay) originally consisted of seven discrete coastal islands. Over a span of five centuries, the seven islands were gradually physically united through land reclamation projects to form the city of Mumbai as it is today and part of the historic Old Bombay. The original archipelago was composed of the following islands: Isle of Bombay Colaba Old Woman's Island (Little Colaba) Mahim Mazagaon Parel . Worli The nearby islands of Trombay and Salsette were also merged to form the Greater Bombay. The remaining islands are: 1. Gharapuri Island/Elephanta Island 2. Butcher Island 3. Middle Ground Coastal Battery 4. Oyster Rock 5. East Ground

C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I

AR-421

‡ Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment centre of India, generating 5% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 40% of maritime trade, and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. ‡ Mumbai is home to important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. The city also houses India's Hindi film and television industry, known as Bollywood. . ‡ Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India and, in turn, make the city a potpourri of many communities and cultures

C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I

HISTORY .

10. After independence in 1947. With the growth of manufacturing units for cotton textiles. The growth of the city was steady as its manufacturing sector became more diversified with the expansion into the chemicals industry. which facilitated the supply of cotton to factories in England. The development of national and international trade and the establishment of many public sector units and educational institutions gave further impetus to the growth of the city. 3. 4. 6. it became the most important port and trading center in India. 7. Bombay was a group of seven swampy islands inhabited by fishermen when it caught the attention of European explorers and traders . the discovery off shore oil. 8. The city started growing after the cotton growing areas of the hinterland were connected to Mumbai by rail. 9.000. . . especially with the opening of the Suez Canal and the development of railroads in the Indian interior in the 19th century. the city s population had reached 817. adding further to its administrative importance.AR-421 1. the emergence of financial services. by 1888 Mumbai had emerged as the second largest commercial centre in India after Calcutta. 2. C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . created through special provincial legislation in 1888. basic metal and engineering products. 5. the growth of the port. The city gradually became more and more industrialized and attracted a massive supply of skilled and unskilled labour from all over the country. As early as 1529 the Portuguese established a naval provisioning base there. Mumbai also became the capital of the State of Maharashtra. and under the British East India Company. The city of Mumbai was the first in the country to have a municipal corporation. By 1864.

GEOGRAPHY .

The hills still standing today are: Malabar Hill the highest point in the city area Cumbala Hill Worli Hill Antop Hill Sion Hill Pali Hill PALI HILL SION HILL ANTOP HILL WORLI HILL CUMBALA HILL MALABAR HILL . Most of them were razed to fill in the shallows to connect the islands.HILLS The original seven islands of Bombay consisted of twenty-two hills.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE CITY Mumbai is surrounded by the Arabian Sea to the west. Terrain of the city: dark areas are swampy medium areas are elevated regions . Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly. Many parts of the city lie just above sea level. the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft). AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft).476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai-Kanheri ranges.[ and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1.

and Marine Drive is located along this stretch.GEOGRAPHY OF THE CITY LAKES AND BAYS There are three lakes in the city. . a 13th century Muslim saint. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . The Vihar Lake and the Tulsi Lake are present within the National Park and supply part of the city's drinking water. Mahim Bay is the second largest bay in the city. The Powai Lake is just south of these two. To the north lies Bandra and to the south. The Mithi River empties into the Mahim Creek which drains into the bay. In the centre of the bay is the tomb of Haji Ali. The bay perimeter is about two kilometres in length. The border between the city and its suburbs bisects the bay. The coastline of Backbay is an inverted C-shaped region 4 kilometers in length. Mahim. Black Bay is the largest bay in the city. North of Marine Drive is Worli Bay.

CLIMATE .

3 °F) on 27 January 1962. specifically a tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification.146.9 in) for 1954. .4 °C (45. and 2.452 millimetres (135.AR-421 Mumbai has a tropical climate.17 in) on 26 July 2005.The average total annual rainfall is 2.51 in) for the Island City.73 in) for the suburbs. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season. and October and November form the post-monsoon season.4 °F) on 28 March 1982. with seven months of dryness and peak of rains in July . C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .457 millimetres (96. The record high is 40.6 millimetres (84. and the record low is 7.[The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 millimetres (37.The cold season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June.2 °C (104.

PHYSICAL LAND .

‡As the island became more commercialized. ‡The original seven small islands were combined. C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . the residential developments of the British and wealthy Indians moved from the southern parts of the city along the sea coast as extended suburbs. .AR-421 ‡Mumbai City is an island of 69 km2. ‡ Most of the employment centers and a few highdensity residential area are located on the island strip of 24 km2. while the housing of the working classes grew northwards. partly through silting and partly through land reclamation.

‡The second component of the city includes the suburban area of Salsette Island north of Mahim Creek. ‡ The Island City is connected to the region by northsouth rail and road arteries. administered by the Municipal Corporation of Bombay. ‡ Suburban development requires north-south movements of millions of daily commuters to workplaces in the Island City on suburban trains that are highly overcrowded.71 km2. . AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I ‡ For purposes of revenue and general administration. which began to grow at a faster rate after independence due to congestion on the main Island City. ‡These two together form the Greater Mumbai area of 437. Greater Mumbai is considered as one district. ‡ The city has been divided into seven wards and 38 sections to facilitate the administration of the Municipal Corporation. .

Parel 29. 5. Fanaswadi . 2ndNagpada AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I SECTIONS: 26. Mazagaon Bhuleshwar 23. Kamathipura 27. Fort South Dongri Fanaswadi Mahalaxmi Tadwadi Sion Prabhadevi Upper Colaba Middle and Lower Colaba Fort South Fort North 15. Love Grove . 7. Tadwadi Market 24. Girgaum Umerkhadi 19. 9. Sewri 30. Mahalaxmi Khumbarwada 22. 10. C. 6. 1st Nagpada Dhobi talao 25. Worli 37. 11. Tardeo Chaklala 18. Chaupaty Dongri 20. Katewadi Mandvi 17. F. 14. 13. Matunga 32. Dadar 34. 3. B. 1. 4. 8. Mahim 35. 12. Naigaum 31.Sion 33. D.Walkeshwar Khara Talap 21. E.WARDS: A. Chnchpokli 38. Esplande 16. G. Prabhadevi 36. 2.Byculla 28.

AR-421 After 1975. CIDCO) and the rest of the BMR (under smaller municipal councils. This is now known as Navi Mumbai (New Mumbai). The CIDCO was set up for this purpose in 1970 as a development authority on the model of British New Town Development Corporation to develop a number of nodes. In order to relieve the burden on the main city and to deflect city growth to the region.355 km2 includes Greater Mumbai. Bhiwandi(standard urban area VI). Thane Municipal Corporation. The BMR region. C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . the influence of the city was extended into the Bombay Metropolitan Region (BMR). Virar-Bhayandar. . semi-urban areas and villages). covering an area of 4. the government accepted the proposal to set up a self-contained twin city across the harbor which is more or less independent of Mumbai. Kalyan Municipal Corporation. (administered by the City Industrial Development Corporation. New Mumbai.

MONUMENTS .

.C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .

‡The population has led to densities as high as 48. (Census.215 persons per km2 in ‡Mumbai and 16. ‡ Migration from within the state and from the various parts of the country into the ‡city has played a significant role in its population growth. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . 2001).082 per km2 in suburban Mumbai . ‡The population growth has further spilled over in the BMR region and the region has been continuously growing for the last fifty years. Until 1950. the suburban district of Mumbai has become the largest district in the State of ‡Maharashtra in terms of population.DEMOGRAPHICS ‡The population of Greater Mumbai has increased more than twelve times in the last century. ‡ Since 1981. ‡Greater Mumbai is expected to accommodate 129 million people by 2011 (BMRDA. 1994). most of the growth remained within the Island City but this significantly reduced after 1971 due to congestion. both the eastern and western suburbs started growing rapidly. with the influx of refugees. ‡After independence.

.DEMOGRAPHICS AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .

pp-96). 1995. religious. Muslim retailers. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . Jain traders. 46 per cent of households were migrants. These include the Gujrati merchants. while the Sindhi refugees from West Pakistan entered the commerce sector. Migrants from the southern and northern states of India generally worked either in the construction or in the service sector. 1994). the influential Parsis. continued to maintain lifestyles. ‡The mother tongue of nearly 50 per cent households wasMarathi followed by Gujrati (15 per cent). ‡ Unemployment was not aserious problem and the average number of earners ‡per household was 1. ‡The various religious and caste communities remained largely encapsulated and. in spite of being juxtaposed in Mumbai s cosmopolitan setting. ‡ The Mumbai textile workers have always been considered the leaders of the industrial working class in India. which .DEMOGRAPHICS ‡The population of Mumbai is marked by its social heterogeneity cutting across racial. regional and linguistic lines. Hindi (9 per cent) and Urdu (6 per cent). ‡ According to a sample survey of households in the BMR region in 1989. differed relatively little from those practised in their respective regions of origin (Desai.7 (BMRDA. ‡Each community initially had its niche in the occupational structure. and the native Maharashtrians who worked in offices and industries.

Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen and Toubro. 25% of industrial output.ECON0MY OF MUMBAI Mumbai is India's largest city and is considered the financial capital of the country as it generates 5% of the total GDP.5 billion). State Bank of India. contributing 10% of factory employment. which is almost three times the national average. . 128. Life Insurance Corporation of India.and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . In April 2008. Godrej and Reliance). Mumbai's GDP is Rs 200.483 crore (US$ 43. Mumbai was ranked seventh in the list of "Top Ten Cities for Billionaires" by Forbes magazine.It serves as an economic hub of India. 40% of India's foreign trade and Rs. 40 billion (US$ 870 million) in corporate taxes. 33% of income tax collections.000 (US$ 2.and first in terms of those billionaires' average wealth.and its per-capita income is Rs. 20% of central excise tax collections. 60% of customs duty collections. Tata Group.780).

TRANSPORT .

‡ Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses. . ‡ Black and Yellow metered taxis. Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008.PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI Public transport systems in Mumbai includes: ‡Mumbai Suburban Railway. ‡ Auto rickshaws ‡Ferries. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .

links the island city to the western suburbs.while the Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I Mumbai's bus services carried over 5. to Thane. along with Mahim Causeway. National Highway 4 and National Highway 8 of India's National Highways system.5 million passengers per day . ‡ The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion .ROADS ‡Mumbai is served by National Highway 3. Western Freeway and Eastern Freeway is under construction. ‡The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first expressway built in India. the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Borivali. ‡The Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge.

AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . Road Network of Mumbai .

ROADS AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . .

.ROADS AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .

‡ The Mumbai Monorail. elevated rapid transit system currently under construction. actually carrying around 4. with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1. ‡ Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6. currently under construction.500 passengers at peak hours. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .which is more than half of the Indian Railways daily carrying capacity.700 passengers.3 million passengers every day in 2007.RAILWAY ‡Mumbai is the headquarters of two of Indian Railways' zones in the north-south direction. ‡Mumbai Metro is an underground and . Trains are overcrowded during peak hours. will eventually run from Jacob Circle to Wadala.

Railway Network .RAILWAY AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .

RAILWAY AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . Railway Network .

‡The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . . targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually. ‡An upgrade plan initiated in 2006. ‡In 2007. is expected to be completed on time. ‡ By 2010. it catered to over 25 million passengers.AIRPORT ‡The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic.

‡[Jawaharlal Nehru Port. .[ ‡It handles 55 60% of the country's total containerized cargo AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . is the busiest and most modern major port in India. and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities.SEAPORT ‡Mumbai is served by two major ports. ‡Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world. Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust. which lies just across the creek in Navi Mumbai. commissioned on 26 May 1989.

GOVERNANCE .

‡By a notification in 1995. 1971. ‡However. electricity. It is not directly involved in public housing or slum improvement. the Mumbai Metropolitan Region. slum improvement and poverty alleviation as well as other responsibilities ‡The Mumbai (earlier Bombay) Metropolitan Development Authority (BMRDA/MMRDA) is responsible for regional planning and co-ordinating and supervising development efforts in . ‡It is responsible for the Master Plan of the city and enforcement of development control regulations. ‡MMRDA and the Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA) which is the main agency supplying public housing. in a significant move towards decentralization.AR-421 ‡Statutory bodies in Mumbai include the Greater Mumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC/GMMC). ‡The Collector of Mumbai is a revenue executive responsible for land management aspects related to titles and deeds of ownership of land. C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . the Government of Maharashtra (GOM) appointed a Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) under the provisions of Maharashtra Slum Areas Act. the 74th Amendment to the Constitution of India has empowered urban local self-government by devolution of functions like urban planning. apart from other municipal services. ‡ Its range of services includes public transport.

1995. ‡There are more than 100 NGOs in Mumbai aimed at mobilizing the urban poor to press their rights to housing (Desai.AR-421 ‡As per the Maharashtra Regional and town Planning (Amendment) Act. formulating schemes for rehabilitation of slum areas and implementing the Slum Rehabilitation Scheme. ‡Established in 1974. ‡The Authority is responsible for reviewing the slum situation. ‡The NSDF has constituent federations such as the Railway Slum Dwellers Federation. pp 294). architects. Many such CBOs have aligned to form the National Slum Dwellers Federation (NSDF). the Authority has been granted a status of the Planning Authority for ‡Redevelopment Schemes. the Airport Authority Slum Dwellers Federation the Pavement Dwellers ‡Federation etc. planners and engineers involved in slum redevelopment schemes. ‡Private builders and developers play a very significant role not only in developing land and providing housing but also in slum rehabilitation. it has been responsible for organizing and mobilizing the poor for fighting demolitions and securing amenities for slum dwellers. C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . ‡Mumbai has an impressive number of high profile non-governmental organizations (NGOs) like SPARC and YUVA (Youth for Unity and Voluntary Action). 1995. ‡The Practicing Engineers. Architects and Planners Association (PEATA) a group of many . ‡The State Government encourages formal community organizations.

SLUMS IN MUMBAI .

Patra chawls (consisting mainly of semipermanentstructures. Chawls 2. . AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .TYPES OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI Housing options for poor in Mumbai are: 1. these do not fall under the legal definition of slum . Zopadpattis (squatter housing) 4. Pavement dwellings. which can be both authorised and unauthorised) 3. Although pavement dwellings and chawls have poor slum-like conditions.

SLUMS . Census 1976 AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .Map: Location of slums in Mumbai.

. Census 1976 AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .Spread of slums in Mumbai.

Census 1976 AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .Spread of slums in Mumbai. .

5 and the sex ratio is much better (842 females per thousand males) than in the rest of the city.959 slum settlements have been identified with a total population of 6. ‡The Island City houses only 17 per cent of the slum population whereas the western suburbs have high concentrations of slums specially in the inner western suburbs. detailed data on slum areas in the country have been collected in the 2001 Census (Census of India. ‡Mumbai Sewerage Disposal Project (YUVA and Montgomery Watson. 2001). central government. India. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . ‡Out of the total 47 per cent are located on private lands ‡Pavement dwellers and chawls are also included in slums. 2000-2001) gives an insight into the existing situation of availability of services in slum settlements in Mumbai. 2001). railway and municipal land (YUVA & Montgomery Watson Consultants. The findings are summarized below: ‡In Greater Mumbai 1. where there are large slums with hazy boundaries forming a continuous area . ‡Average household size is 4. containing 58 per cent of the slum population.2001).PROFILE OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI (ACC: TO CENSUS OF INDIA 2OO1) ‡For the first time.These are located on state government.25 million. which forms 54 per cent of the total population of the city (Census of India.

87 per cent of the total) have no water supply and have to depend on adjoining settlements. ‡ Remaining slums get their water from tube wells or community standpipes. ‡Higher housing consolidation is also visible from the fact that almost 45 per cent of houses have two or more stories. ‡ Twenty-seven per cent slums have predominantly semi-permanent structures(brick walls and tin or asbestos cement sheet roof). AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I ACCESS TO SERVICES: 1. ‡Only 5 per cent of slums have individual taps whereas 17 slums with approximately 0. ‡ Houses are very small with 42 per cent dwellings having an area of less ‡than 10m2 and 38 per cent having an area between 15 to 20 m2.PROFILE OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI (ACC: TO CENSUS OF INDIA 2OO1) ‡Sixty-two per cent of slums predominantly have dwellings made of permanent materials like brick walls and reinforced cement roofs. ‡Significant improvement in structures due to higher investment by slum dwellers is a result of higher perceived security. WATER SUPPLY ‡ About 49 per cent of slums have access to watersupply from shared standpipes.3 per cent have a supply from more than one source. and only 9 per cent had area more than 20m2. . ‡ Only 115 slums have predominantly temporary structures. ‡ 38.1 million ‡Inhabitants (0.

7 per cent slums have pay to use toilets managed by NGOs and only 1 per cent of slums have individual toilets. ‡The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai is responsible for collection and removal of solid waste in Mumbai. ‡Only in 36 slums is there an organised system of collection and clearance. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . ‡Others have mixed provisions or use toilets in other slums or mobile toilets. 0. including ‡lanes and railway tracks.PROFILE OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI (ACC: TO CENSUS OF INDIA 2OO1) 2. ‡The prevalent system in slums is limited to placing portable refuse receptacles or constructing garbage bins in or near the slums. ‡28 per cent defecate in the open. accessible to the municipal vehicles for clearance. ‡There is no organised system of solid waste collection and slum residents generally dump garbage in any open place. SANITATION: ‡Sanitation in slums is very poor as 73 per cent of slums depend on community toilets provided by the government.

PROFILE OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI (ACC: TO CENSUS OF INDIA 2OO1) AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .

DRAINAGE ‡Most of the settlements (98. ‡Poor sanitation is due to low levels of awareness among slum dwellers about its impact on their health.PROFILE OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI (ACC: TO CENSUS OF INDIA 2OO1) AR-421 3. ‡ Dumping of garbage in drains is the main cause for blocking. However many drains get blocked and become non-functional. C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .6 per cent) have some form of drainage system. ‡Slums located in low-lying areas or in the tidal range face serious problem of flooding during the monsoon.

TENURE OPTIONS: ‡Tenure arrangements and tenure security in slums vary considerably. ‡ According to a recent report in a local daily (Ramaswamy. ‡ Slums on central government land are not entitled to tenure security as these ‡are excluded from the Slum Redevelopment Scheme . level of infrastructure and the condition of the house. have poor access and face acute ‡water shortages. ‡ Rents vary according to location. and squatter settlements built after 1995. un-notified slums. filthy. ‡Attempts to evict areas unfit for human habitation and dangerous to health were made by the Municipal Corporation under the provisions of municipal acts as early as 1954. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I 5. RENTALS: ‡The rental market in slums is very buoyant. ‡ The most insecure group are the pavement dwellers. 2002). rents are as high as US$40 for an average room in South Mumbai and as low as US$10 in slums that are more cramped. as renting or buying a room in Mumbai slum is an expensive proposition.PROFILE OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI (ACC: TO CENSUS OF INDIA 2OO1) 4. .

‡The overall literacy rate as founding base line surveys in slums is 60 per cent (MMRDA. 1995). which can range from vegetable shops to illicit liquor shops. whilst the middle aged slum dwellers had completed primary school education and the majority of slum dwellers children ‡attended the nearest Municipal Corporation school that ‡offered free schooling. ‡9 percent of structures had commercial establishments. Average monthly household incomes were Rs. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I 7. ‡ Post-schooling education however. ‡The majority of the older generation over the age of 50 had no formal education. OCCUPATION AND INCOMES: ‡The base-line surveys of 16. 30 per cent of workers were selfemployed. EDUCATION: ‡Educational levels of slum dwellers are marked by diversity. . was afforded only by richer households in the slums (Desai.PROFILE OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI (ACC: TO CENSUS OF INDIA 2OO1) 6.978 (US$61) and 40 per cent of households were considered to be below poverty line. 2002) which is lower than the city average.46 workers per household. with an average of 1. 44 per cent were working in private establishments. 2. ‡Home-based economic activity is also common as a secondary source of income.000 households for (MMRDA. 2002) Mumbai Urban Transport Project showed that ‡33 per cent of the population is working. 9 per cent were in government service and only 17 per cent were casual workers.

2000). ‡As a detailed study of a slum shows. ‡Crimes like brewing illicit liquor. the most significant impact of the riots was the eviction of families and the spatial segregation and ghettoisation of a community (YUVA. 1995). ‡ Rioting in Mumbai after the demolition of the Babri mosque in 1992 led to conflicts and polarization between the Hindu and Muslim communities. ‡Radio and television are the main sources of recreation ‡and information (Desai. ‡During occasions like marriages and funerals social support is provided mutually. 1996 p 75). ‡Regular religious ceremonies and festivals are the main focus of slum life and a source of much interest and excitement combined with fun and partying.PROFILE OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI (ACC: TO CENSUS OF INDIA 2OO1) 8. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I . smuggling and petty crimes grew and flourished in some slums but the criminal history of Dharavi illustrates how an area s criminal profile is linked to larger issues of crime and politics in cities rather than particularly with the slum (Sharma. ‡ The other main social centre in slums has been the welfare centre or the office of the CBO. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL LIFE: ‡In large slums people identified themselves as part of smaller enclaves each with distinct identities based on ethnic homogeneity.

women.PROFILE OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI (ACC: TO CENSUS OF INDIA 2OO1) Hence. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I This shows that slums in Mumbai are clear indication of Urban Poverty in the mega city. lack of skills. low ownership of productive assets. poor quality shelter. lack of access to individual services and unsanitary living conditions ‡Economic Vulnerability: Irregular or casual employment. v) Growing sense of hopelessness(Government of India. ‡Social vulnerability: low levels of education. legal constraints to self employment. low social status. lack of access to health services. low pay. inadequate access to food security programmes. lack of access to formal safety net programmes. it can be concluded that the slums in Mumabi are prone to: ‡Housing Vulnerability: Lack of access to tenure. lack of information and lack of access to justice. ‡The National Commission on Urbanisation recognized the most visible forms of urban poverty are i) Proliferation of slums. ‡ Personal vulnerability: Proneness to violence or intimidation. exclusion from local institutions. children and elderly. 1988). . disabled and destitute. iv) High rates of educational and health contingencies and under utilisation of social services. ii) Growth of the informal sector. iii) Crushing pressure on civic amenities. lack of access to credit.

low-rise settlement pattern limits any significant improvement of ‡living improvement approaches in Mumbai had always focused on physical ‡Slum conditions. ‡ The city of Mumbai offers opportunities for upward economic mobility to the urban poor.LESSONS LEARNED: ‡The colossal size of the squatting problem. land scarcity and increasing pressure on land in Mumbai will continue to affect policies towards slums. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I improvements. ‡ The role of NGOs is being formally recognised by the government in its recent projects of MUTP and the Slum Sanitation Project. intervention by civil society in last two decades has helped in improving awareness amongst slum dwellers. . ‡The high density. ‡Lack of access to secure legal tenure prevents access to services and formal housing finance. ‡ NGOs have also sensitised policy makers on the role of women in organising and managing improvements for the community. ‡However. organising them and has successfully influenced policy implementation. ‡Continuous growth of squatter settlements by densification has resulted in inadequate living spaces and a deterioration of the environment. ‡ Pavement dwelling has been recognised as slum housing but squatting still remains the most common housing option for the urban poor.

‡Continuity of policies and political commitment is essential ‡to achieve wider impacts. ‡The Mumbai experiment offers possible options for regularising tenure for squatters located on high value public and private land in large metro cities of India. ‡A few factors. which have facilitated this ‡are the higher land prices in Mumbai. ‡ acceptance of slum dwellers of apartment living and ‡Adoption of very high-density high-rise development by authorities.LESSONS LEARNED: ‡Slum Redevelopment in Mumbai seems to have created sustainable improvements in many slums in Mumbai. AR-421 C I T Y A N A L Y S I S M U M B A I .

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