PREPARED BY

TAYYAB TARIQ (2008-MET-04) TOUSEEF AMIN (2008-MET-12)

DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL MATERIALS ENGINEERING.
UET, LAHORE

AND

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FERROUS METALLURGY
ORE
“Naturally Occurring substance from which a metal can be extracted at a profit”  From a single ore more than one metal can be extracted.

ORE MINERAL
“The mineral containing ore from which a metal c an be extracted at a profit “ The naturally occurring materials containing iron are known as minerals of iron and mineral deposits from which iron can be extracted at a profit (economically) are known as Iron-Ores.

GANGUE
“Impurities associated with the ores”

METHODS OF REMOVAL OF GANGUE
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Hand Picking(Sorting) Crushing, Grinding and Dressing Weathering (Removal of soluble impurities) Calcinations (Heating @ high temp to remove volatile materials) Roasting (Burning of ore in excess air) Smelting (Fusing the ore by heating it in a suitable furnace)

EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY
“It is a branch of Metallurgy which is a study of extraction of me tal, purification and recycling”

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Pyro metallurgical process

Hydro metallurgical process

The process which is used to In this process some salt or obtain metal from ore by leaching agent or solution is thermal treatment. used to obtain metal from ore

Electro metallurgical process The process of winning and refining of metal by the use of electricity

LEACHANT
“Chemical that dissolves a particular metal”

EXTRACTION OF METAL FROM ORE
 Separating the ore from gangue.  Driving away certain ingredients by heat short of fusion  Fusing the ore one or more times in the presence of certain reagents called Fluxes which combine with the non-metallic impurities and allow the metal to settle down in an impure form. A metal thus obtained is further refined to be used.

RAW MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR MAKING IRON
a) b) c) d) Iron Ore Coking coal or Coke Fluxes ( CaCO3, Dolomite: CaCO3.MgCO3 ) Air

APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES FOR MAKING 1 TONS OF IRON
Material Iron Ore Coke Fluxes Quantity 1.7-1.8 0.7-0.8 0.4-0.5

IRON
Symbol: Fe Atomic Number: 56 Commercial Forms Pig Iron Wrought Iron Steel %age of Carbon 2.5-4.5 0.12-0.25 0.25-2.5

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF IRON
Advantages Enormous deposits are present Easy to reduce than Non-Ferrous metals Cheap metal Forms series of alloys Magnetic in nature Disadvantages Poor Corrosion resistance High density Poor conductor of heat and electricity as compared to Cu and Al -

CLASSIFICATION OF IRON ORES
a) b) c) d) Geological Classification Mineralogical Classification Impurities associated with Fe ore Appearance/Texture

GEOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION
Sedimentary These mainly include SiO2 and iron ore in alternative bands.  Iron is present in the form of stone  In the form of powder (Blue Dust) Igneous These are derived from igneous material of volcanic origin & occur mainly as magnetite. Lateritic These are formed in conditions of alternating dry & wet seasons resulting in leaching away of SiO2 and alkalis from the mother-rock leaving behind mainly Fe-ore. Replacement The circulating water removes limestone (CaCO3) depositing iron carbonate in its place. Subsequently the surface weathering oxidizes part of the iron carbonate to Feoxide.

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MINERALOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF IRON ORE Minerological Classification Magnetite Limonite Heamatite Chloropal Pyrite Siderite Liminite Turgite Geothite Xanthosiderite Limonite Page 5 of 46 .

H2O 2Fe2O3. Non magnetic due to **d/c < 1.2 Moderate Easy Chloropal FeSiO3 Iron Silicate Decreases due to Dolomite* - Pyrite FeS2 Iron Sulphide 4.Black Limonite Heamatite mFe2O3.95-5 Fool`s Gold Insoluble in water.CaCO3 .5% 5% 5 Grey .Properties Formula Common name %age of Fe Contribution Specific Gravity Appearance Magnetite Fe3O4 Ferrosoferric oxide 72. Non magnet Siderite FeCO3 Iron Carbonate Decreases due to Dolomite* - Easy Detection Magnetic in nature High strength High strength Reduction Difficut to break the Moderate ore *Dolomite is self fluxing agent. Fool` Gold.31% 70% 40-60% Brown 5-6 Red Mostly in all rocks. **orbital/shell ratio Difficult Difficut to break the ore LIMONITE ORE TYPES Limonite Sub-Ore Liminite Turgite Limonite Geothite Xanthosiderite Formula Fe2O3.H2O Fe2O3.3H2O 2Fe2O3.1366. Diabasic MgCO 3.nH2O Fe2O3 Anhydrous Hydrous Ferric ferric oxide oxide 52.2H2O Page 6 of 46 .3H2O Fe2O3.

So the corroded rock particles containing Fe ore moves with water. earlier will it settle down and dense rock will travel with water. It also depends on the gradient of water. Chemical reactions take place on its surface and iron ores are separated from the rock and are deposited there.e. erosion of rocks containing iron ore by moving water.CONCENTRATION OF IRON ORE Concentration of Iron Ore Mechanical Crystallization Chemical Precipitation MECHANICAL CONCENTRATION OF IRON ORE It involves mechanical concentration i. PRECIPITATION This involves water falling on rocks or water in the form of steam blowing the rock. Hence due to this mechanical factor the concentration of Fe ore is different in different areas. More the speed of the water more will be the erosion. CHEMICAL CONCENTRATION OF IRON ORE CRYSTALLIZATION Magma inside the earth crust contains different iron ores along with other mineral composites. The solidification rate of magma is very slow hence the material having similar composition will solidify or crystallize together. Hence due to this difference the concentration of Fe ore is different in different areas. more dense the rock. The chemical reaction or precipitation of iron ore depends on  Speed of moving water  Rate of the reaction  Chemical nature of gangue Page 7 of 46 .

Carbonates Oxide.IRON ORE DEPOSITS IN PAKISTAN Dilband Nizampur Chiniot Pachinkoh Rajoa Langrial Kalah Bagh Chilgazi Dommel Nisar Name of Deposit Kalabagh (Punjab) Dilband (Balochistan) Nizampur (NWFP) Pachinkoh (Balochistan) Langrial (NWFP) Chilgazi (Balochistan) Chiniot (Punjab) Dommel Nizar (NWFP) Distance from Karachi km 1200 800 1600 1750 1600 1150 1200 1900 Reserves % of Fe Ore Mineral Methods of Mining Million Ton 300 200 100 45 30 23 16 3 30-35 35-45 30-35 35-38 30-40 10-55 10-60 Upto 60 Silicates. Carbonates Magnetite Silicates. Magnetite Silicates. Carbonates Magnetite Underground Open Cast Underground Underground Underground Underground Underground Underground Which is better? Have a look Page 8 of 46 . Heamatite Heamatite Heamatite.

Dilband resources are better than all deposits of Pakistan (Fe ore deposits) and thus have a fair chance of development due to good accessibility.g. If the amount of the gangue in the Fe ore is more then we have to add fluxes to separate gangue which will as a result increase the cost of production Some compounds in gangue Oxides. Na 2O. Totally b. 2. moderate grade (% of Fe). Sulphates. Richness Location Composition of Gangue Procedure required before smelting Richness % of Fe present in the ore. 3. How much Fe is required. As2O3 They are reduced in Blast furnace a. Partially c. hence are better than many iron deposits of the world. These deposits consist of Hematite and are low in P2O5. Calcination (Volatilization) Page 9 of 46 . 4. K2O. P2O5. Non-reducible Totally Reduced in BF Phosphorous Arsenic The entire amount of P in the ore is Usually not present in Fe ore but if it is reduced and joins the pig iron. India requires 2 ton ore (55-60% Fe) to produce 1 ton Fe whereas Australia requires 1. large reserves and open cast minebility. Dilband Ore 35-45% Fe Low P2O5 Heamatite Ores from USA & Europe 5-35% Fe High P2O5 Heamatite & Limonite Dilband d VALUATION OF FE ORE 1. How much ore is required is dependent on % of Fe e.5 ton of ore (68% of Fe) Location Hilly Area Geological Deep Valleys Geographical Mode of Transportation Composition of Gangue Gangue material will affect the cost of the iron. The present then following treatments are used presence of phosphorous affects the Prior Reduction properties of iron. Carbonates.

it settles at the bottom of the furnace due to its high specific These Zinc vapours penetrate into the gravity (SG). Non-Reducible It contains the oxides the oxides like Al2O3.In general. Because increasing it would increase the fluxes requirement. compounds of manganese and sulphur are partially reduced in the blast furnace so Si. Treatments & Procedure required before Smelting Situation Treatment Comments Big Lumps Comminution Small Lumps Agglomeration Because otherwise. Roasting Zn Pb Zinc in the iron ore does not pass into the Pb is reduced during Blast Furnace pig iron but it volatilizes during reduction operation. Aluminates. the phosphorous content of an ore reduces the value of the ore. MgO and Alkalis. Magnesium Aluminate and Calcium Alkalis affect the refractory lining. refractory material (lining) and affect its properties. These entirely stay with the slag during smelting. Phosphorous in iron causes “Cold Shortness” during rolling. Al2O3 Alkali Its presence in the slag produces MgO. Amount of these depends on the nature of Fe ore and the operation of burning fuel. If present in the ore they prove to be Al2O3 should be ≤ 5% in the slag. Mn. the oxygen/air blasts will blow away the small lumps. CaO react with Al2O3. As a flux. SiO2 Silica. profitable (self fluxing). Partially Reduced in Blast Furnace S. they react with impurities o It increase melting point of slag. Mn and S join the pig iron. o Decreases the viscosity of slag. and make slag. Carbonates Calcination – Reducing to This will produce CO2 Oxides Page 10 of 46 .

6-1.018-0.5% o S↓ by 0. o Higher calorific value o Less volatile content (Higher fixed-C content) o Less moisture o Less heating requirement Coke should contain: o Volatile ≤ 2% o Ash ≤ 10% o Fixed Carbon ≥ 85% o P = 0. Page 11 of 46 .04% o S = 0. Fluxes Metallurgical coal Flux The coal which can be converted into They are added during smelting coke is called Coking coal/Metallurgical For bringing down the melting point. To reduce viscosity of slag Why not use coal? Because coke has: To reduce the activity of some of its o Strength components to make them o Permeability stable/unstable. It is formed by both gangue and flux. softening point of gangue. In the absence of air (O2).Raw Materials in Blast Furnace Fe. SLAG The molten oxide product of melting is known as Slag. Metallurgical Coal. coal.1% → Coke requirement ↓ by 2% SMELTING Any metallurgical process in which metal in pure or crude form is separated by fusion from its impurities with which it may be chemically combined or physically mixed is called smelting.

It produces and regenerates reducing gases for the reduction of Fe oxide. Nearly 0. It is a fuel Providing heat requirement for chemical reactants. 1. It provides an open permeable bed through which slag and metal passes down into the hearth and hot reducing gases pass outward. In general CaCO3 content should not be less than 95%. Ideally Coal = 7% ash Less than 1% S About 5% P COKE It is a solid coherent residue achieved by heating coal in the absence of air. 4. Page 12 of 46 . 2. FUNCTIONS OF COKE Coke serves these major functions. P Quality control Size FUEL-COKE As the rank of coking coal decreases. SiO 2 should be less than 5%.FORMULA FOR THE EVALUATION OF FLUX It indicates that the quantity of SiO 2 should be less than MgO + CaO. 3.5 ton of CaCO 3 is needed for producing 1 ton of Fe. THE BLAST FURNACE Why Coke? Strong Less Ash S. melting of slag and metal. its coking properties also diminish.

Affinity of coke to oxygen (it depends on the blending material used and the carbonization process adopted. Page 13 of 46 . Reactivity Defined as rate of reaction b/w coke and Oxygen and any other gases capable of reacting with coke e. volatile matters. So in order to achieve thermal stability. In general the rate of burning of coke is directly proportional to: i.QUALITY OF COKE It is related to the quantity of coal. The inorganic residue left after burning it usually contains refractory oxides like silica.g. alumina etc. The temperature gradient results in the contraction and expansion of coke stresses and its consequent tendency to degradation. It was found that: a) If mean size of burden = 13mm then coke size ≥ 53mm b) This corresponds to an average coke to burden ratio: Coke : Burden 4 : 1 In general it has been suggested that the optimum coke size should be 3-5 times than that of burden. high carbonization temperature and uniform coke is used. the coke gets progressively heated. Temperature and Pressure iii. Area of coke exposed ii. The size range is known to affect the distribution of material inside the furnace and consequently the gas flow which has a direct bearing on the production rate. C + O2  CO2 The rate of burning of coke controls the rate of production of the blast furnace. It also contains Sulphur & Phosphorous. Size Among all the qualities of good metallurgical coke the most important are its size and strength. when the coke gets heated beyond the temperature at which it was made in the coke oven. the balance is made up of ash contents. other impurities.) Thermal Stability During descent in the the blast furnace. In general the properties which determine the value of coke as a the blast furnace fuel are: a) b) c) d) e) Chemical composition Chemical reactivity Thermal Stability Size Abrasion resistance and Strength Quality of coke Composition Chemically the useful component of coke is fixed carbon which is the fuel as well as the reducing agent in the blast furnace. its processing and subsequent carbonization process. the process of carbonization restarts and the coke begins to contract.

SHATTER TEST (IMPACT RESISTANCE) It consists of carefully dropping of sample of certain fixed weight of coke from a standard height on a standard quality floor. TUMBLER TEST (ABRASION RESISTANCE) A standard weight of coke sample is part into a drum and rotating it for a fixed speed.Abrasion resistance and strength During the transportation of coke in the the blast furnace different abrasion actions occur. Page 14 of 46 . A coke that breaks down under these additions will adversely affect furnace permeability. when it reaches the tuyere level. In addition to this. The abrasion index is expressed as the %age of the material retained on various sieves. coke has to withstand high temperature and nearly 20-25 meter tall burden lying over it. It is an established practice to estimate the suitability of coke used in a the blast furnace in terms of its strength and abrasion resistance by measuring its shatter and abrasion indices. The shatter index is expressed as %age retained on various sieves of certain fixed sizes.

Formed Coke Conventional Coke Cheaper Costly Lower manufacturing cost Higher manufacturing cost Continuous operation of the plant unlike Discontinuous manufacturing processes coke ovens Ferro Coke Fe + C A carbonized lump produced from a mixture of Fe bearing fines and non-metallurgical coal is known as ferro coke. It is therefore necessary to understand certain properties of coke and devise means to obtain these properties. Furnace height is to be lessened because it cannot bear the burden. Page 15 of 46 . Ferro coke and formed coke are being developed to substitute coke. Conclusion The blast furnace cannot be run without a certain amount of coke in the charge. The efficiency of the blast furnace mainly depends on quality of coke used as fuel. The %age of Fe bearing fines may vary from a few %ages to 15-20%. It has all the necessary requirements for its use in the blast furnace. The Proportion of Fe made by charcoal is practically negligible. The charcoal used should be strong and ferrous. Advantages: Non-metallurgical coal is used indirectly in the blast furnace. The total fuel requirement reduces since certain proportion of pre-reduced Fe is already inside the ferro coke. Formed Coke The solid fuel produced from non-coking lower rank coal is called formed coke. Only that formed coke that has proper physical and chemical properties can be used in the the blast furnace. Wood is converted into charcoal on heating. Coke consumption is reduced in the blast furnace and productivity is increased.ALTERNATIVE FUELS Charcoal It was used as alternative fuel to replace entirely the coke using small furnaces.

MANUFACTURING OF FORMED COKE Coking Coal Non-Coking Coal Dryer Pulverization Kneading Binder Forming Carbonization Formed Coke The formed coal is charged to the carbonization furnace where the coal passes through low temperature carbonizing zone and then it is heated @ 1000°C. The heating rate is controlled so as the coal not to be generated. collapse and break caused by bulging and shrinking. Page 16 of 46 . The carbonized coke is cooled to 100 0C or lower temperature in the cooling zone before it is discharged from the furnace.

Permeability is necessary to reduce choking (resistance to flow of gases).  Of all the reactions taking place inside the blast furnace. greater the gasses will pass through it. Otherwise choking takes place. The descending solid charge meets the current of ascending gases and reduction of Fe ore along with its progressive heating takes place during the passage. Page 17 of 46 . SHAPE AND SIZE If the charge particles are of similar size then the burden would be automatically a uniformly permeable burden irrespective of the way of charging in the furnace. coke and flux. PERMEABILITY The ability of the material to give way to the gases to pass is called permeability. Higher the permeability. Such an arrangement practically prevents the furnace exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere while charging. In this the materials are first charged in the small bell which is then lowered to allow the material to drop into the lower big bell during which the big bell remains closed. blast furnace charge consists of different sizes and shapes of coke and ore.  The blast furnace is essentially working on the counter current principle. Rate of reduction of Fe-ore II.DISTRIBUTION OF BURDEN IN BLAST FURNACE  Burden contains Fe ore. the reduction of the Fe ore is the most important and the most difficult. CHARGING MECHANISM It consists of double bell charging mechanism. Rate of heating of Burden The above two factors depend on the time of contact and exposed volume of charge to gas. In general finer the particles less will be the permeability. EFFICIENCY OF THE BLAST FURNACE (PRODUCTION RATE)  It is directly determined by 2 important factors I. The burden therefore inside the blast furnace should have uniform and good bulk permeability. However. therefore it is very difficult to distribute them inside the furnace. Then the small one is closed and the big bell is lowered to drop the charge inside the furnace.

system and sequence of charge program of revolving the distributor a) Distribution of charge on big bell b) Height of big bell from stock line i. As shown in the figure. the charge level in furnace throat c) Order and proportions of charging of various raw materials ANGLE AND SIZE OF THE BIG BELL Angle = 50-530 Normal gap between the bell and the furnace wall is usually between 800-1000 mm. The areas containing coarse particle have less segregation while the areas containing fine particles have high segregation.e. If the gap is less between big bell and the furnace wall. In general dense. size and densities that falls inside the blast furnace with various trajectories. The size and system of charging are to be selected so as to have maximum utilization of gas subject to ensure smooth performance of blast furnace. Design of the blast furnace and charging device a) Angle and side of big bell b) Speed of lowering of big bell 2. large and smooth particles roll into troughs. If the clearance between the bell and furnace wall is more. which are also called hoppers depend upon the bell clearance from the wall The more is the gap/clearance the crest is located further away from the wall and the lesser is the gap the more fines accumulate nearer the wall. building ridges while light. the crest is located further away from wall. As far as possible Fe ore should be present in area of maximum gas flow for efficient reduction.ELEMENTS OF DISTRIBUTION A mass of material consisting of shapes. FACTORS AFFECTING DISTRIBUTION The factors that affect the distribution of charge inside the blast furnace have been summarized below 1. In general the coarse particles segregate in centre of the furnace shaft and the fine particles segregate at or near the wall depending upon the clearance between the bell and the furnace wall. small and irregular particles remain subsequently where they fall. Page 18 of 46 . Size of the bell depends upon the size of the throat of the blast furnace. the fines accumulate near the wall and v-type contour is formed. Level. This results in non-uniform permeability in the bed. The V and M type contour formations at the stock-line. Inconsistency in physical properties of charging material a) Size range of various charge materials b) Angle of repose of raw material and other physical characteristics of charge c) Density of charge 3.

Too much or too narrow a gap between the bell corner and the throat wall tends to segregate the sizes and prevents normal distribution from being achieved Optimum ratio of throat to bell diameter results in optimum segregation of the burden In the figure given below. Height of fall of material from the bell on the stock line 2.type contour hopper 1) STOCK LINE LEVEL The behavior of the particles immediately after their impact on the stock line controls the nature of segregation i. This behavior depends on 1. a) is the V-type contour hopper and b) M. Page 19 of 46 . This is shown at point h1 and as the level goes up the crest moves away from the wall (at higher level say h2 and h3).e. The lowering of the stock line to the point where the trajectory of fall of material comes against the wall of the furnace results in the fine segregation near the wall. Angle of Big Bell The effect of height of the big bell above the stock line on the distribution of the charge is shown in the figure. uniformity and permeability in the burden. If the angle of inclination becomes steeper then the hopper will form in the centre but if angle of inclination becomes deeper then the crust will move away from wall.

V type contour is formed if the speed is greater. How to overcome Angle of Repose? 1.2) SPEED OF LOWERING OF THE BIG BELL 1. on the other hand. more the material will move toward the centre and M type contour is formed. 3. The greater the speed of lowering of the big bell. 4. Since densities cannot be altered the size may be so chosen that their differential rolling tendencies are offset to some extent. more dry ore (free from fines) more the angle of repose Page 20 of 46 . it tends to form a conical heap. The base angle of this cone is called Angle of Repose. Factors affecting Angle of Repose: Particle size Surface characteristics Shape PSD (Particle Size Distribution) The smaller the Angle of Repose the more will be the homogeneity. 3) DENSITY OF CHARGED MATERIAL Ore Flux Coke 5-6 g/cc 3-3. Eliminate the fines Minimize the moisture Remove the clay Dry the ore i. 4) ANGLE OF REPOSE When a multi-particle material is allowed to gently fall on a horizontal plane.5 g/cc It means the rolling tendency of coke particles is more as compared to Fe ore. 2.e. the more the material will move toward the wall and thereby alter the contour as well as distribution. 2. In short the speed of lowering of the big bell should be maximum as far as possible because slower speed tends to segregate the fines.5 g/cc 1. the slower the speed. In general the size of the Fe ore is 3-5 times lower than that of coke.

Belt conveyer  Modern 3. Decrease in reduction rate The size ranges in order and practice. The Mckee revolving distributor and its modifications are most widely used. Decrease in burden permeability 2. More reducible Less reducible 10-37 mm 10-25 mm 6) DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGE ON THE BIG BELL Three systems are used for charging charge to furnace stock 1. Page 21 of 46 . Increase in pressure drop 3. Bucket  Old one 2. Double bell  Present (>80%) The distribution of charge on the big bell greatly affects the distribution in the furnace. For distributing the charge on the the big bell different operations have been used.5) SIZE OF CHARGE PARTICLES Increasing fines in the ore results in 1.

MCKEE TOP OPERATION FOR CHARGING THE FURNACE 1) 2) 3) 4) Both bells closed. skip discharging the charge in the small belt hopper. Small bell closed.  Homogenous mixing of charge 4 skips After 8 times Small Bell (after each skip 600) Opened THE BIG BELL (32 skips) Opened Furnace Page 22 of 46 .e. big bell opened to allow the charge to be dropped inside the furnace. Both bells closed MCKEE REVOLVING DISTRIBUTION The charging is carried out in the sequence of CCOO↓ and the hopper is rotated through 60 ° after every skip is dumped on the small bell which is lowered after every four (4) skips to dump the charge on the big bell. Advantage. The big bell closed. the big bell is lowered to allow the whole charge to fall into the furnace. Small bell opened to allow the charge to fall in the big bell hopper. After eight (8) such charges have been charged i. when 32 skips are charged.

Al2O3 etc 3) Proper overall chemistry of the burden to ensure clean slag and metal separation at minimum temperature.  Cn Om ↓ Om Cn ↓ Cn ↓Om ↓ Om ↓Cn ↓ Cn Om Cn-1 ↓ (wide range of distribution of coke) BURDEN PREPARATION-1 TREATMENT OF FE ORE BURDEN QUALITY In order to operate the blast furnace smoothly and for high production rate the burden should have following properties. 3.5% of the cases go to the credit of control of distribution of gas flow by changing the size of the charge and 85% controls due to change of system of charging.ORDER OF CHARGING Mozumdar emphasizes the role of order of charging in the furnace distribution as change in the system of the charging of raw material influences distribution and character of gas flow to an extent considerably more than changes of level of charging and size of the charge. Physical 1) A close size range with minimum of fines (PSD narrow) 2) Ability to withstand physical stresses 3) Non-decrepitating nature 4) Ability to withstand reducing conditions without breaking 5) Good bulk reducibility 6) Low swelling index during reduction 7) A high softening temperature with a narrow temperature range of fusion Chemical 1) A high %age of Iron and low gangue contents 2) A low %age of SiO2. 1. The charging sequence in relation to the level of charging and the size of the charge has to be adjusted so as to have maximum utilization of gas ensuring smooth performance of the furnace. CHARGING SYSTEMS 4 charging systems are commonly used. 2. it is therefore having all conditions similar on an average only 3. 4. Page 23 of 46 .

Size from run of mine = 100125mm We reduce it to = 40mm In any crushing process we can reduce the size to 4-6 times 1st stage 150-250mm (reduced) 2nd stage 27-55mm (reduced) BENEFICIATION TECHNIQUES “Conversion of low grade Fe ore to high grade Fe ore” 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Magnetic separation Gravity separation Froth floatation Electrostatic separation Magnetic roasting Low intensity magnetic separation Washing Calcination Page 24 of 46 . If Fe ore contains too much fine particles 1) Permeability decreases 2) Pressure drop inside the furnace increases (varying pressure of O2) 3) Reducibility decreases If too large then 1) Material remains unreduced 2) Demand of heat increases 3) The maximum ore size is based on. a) Ore chemistry b) Bulk reducibility c) Ore characteristics Max.CRUSHING AND SIZE The size of the Fe ore should not be too small or too large because.

In it the ore is washed down the spiral launder with a curved bottom. fatty acids and special oils etc are used to float iron oxide. Magnetite can be separated at 1500 orested magnetic field intensity while hematite can be separated at 12000 orested. of spirals. Page 25 of 46 . Starch tends to float silicon and depress iron oxide. as a result heavy particles move down and are reduced as concentrate. Fe mineral being heavier moves to the bottom of the curved track while the lighter tailings sling toward the outer rim. Various reagents are used according to the surface characteristics of metallic minerals or gangue. Therefore it is necessary to have no. The Fe oxide concentrate sinks and the gangue overflows as tailing. Hydrophobic minerals can be floated as froth if air is bubbled through a suspension of such minerals in water. An artificial heavy medium is prepared by having ferro-silicon sand in a suspension in water such that the density lies in between that of the Fe oxide and the gangue. Its operation cost is high and output is very small i. A series of magnetic separators are used in active beneficiation. JIGGING We use a perforated bottom on which ore particles are placed. GRAVITY SEPARATION HEAVY MEDIA The method is used when the particle size is 6-40mm.MAGNETIC SEPARATION Magnetite can be easily separated at low intensity magnetic field as it is strongly magnetic. TABLING It is suitable for sandy feeds. FROTH FLOATATION This method is based on the fact that surface property of some minerals can be temporarily altered to make it either hydrophobic (abhorrence from water) or hydrophilic (water loving). Usually ore is held on a rotating drum part of whose surface is magnetized. Even though floatation reagents are required in small amount but are costly so the overall cost of the process increases. Dry method is suitable in the particle size +6mm and wet method is suitable if the particle size is -0. The feed moves over an inclined shaking table and is washed with a cross stream of water. Petroleum sulphonates.1mm. The non-magnetic tailings fall from the drum. 1-2 tons/hour.1-1. SPIRAL This method is suitable for materials having particle size 0. the periodic impulses of water flow are subjected through the perforation. The output of individual spiral is very low.5mm.e. Weakly magnetic materials like hematite can be separated at high intensity magnetic field only.

BLENDING This involves mixing two or more types of material from two or more sources to obtain a uniform material of desired qualities over an extended period. atm “It is better than high intensity magnetic separation” It is very easy to reduce hematite to magnetite under slightly reducing conditions at 600-800°C and the ore is then easily separated by using low intensity magnetic field. DRYING Wet ores were initially being used by many operators from an economical point of view as the hot gases of the blast furnace have the capacity to wet the charge. Washing improves screening ability by removing the fine particles. CALCINING Fe is ultimately produced by reducing Fe oxide present in the ore. MAGNETIC ROASTING Reduction Hematite 600-8000C. Magnetite WASHING Washing means separation of particles based on their sizes by using such fluids in which finer particles get suspended and hence washed away while the large particles completely fail to get suspended and hence separated from the fines. Page 26 of 46 . The use of OH. The use of electrostatic separation in the final stages improves the purity of the product and overall concentration.ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION This involves the selective sorting of solid species by means of utilizing forces acting on the charged bodies in an electric field. The Fe ore blend may be made up of ore from different sources or it may also include materials such as coke breeze and CaCO3. The difference in the electrical conductivities between iron minerals and the gangue is made use of in separating the two with magnetic separation. CO3–2 or sulphite type ores can be used for Fe making after calcining. But the problem which was faced was that the wet raw material cannot be screened efficiently so it is generally winded.

2. 4. NODULISING Fine ore concentrate and some carbonesous material like tar are passed through a rotary kiln which is slightly inclined to the horizontal. press into blocks and harden in a tunnel kiln heated to about 13500C. The techniques used are as: 1.AGGLOMERATION OF IRON ORE The fines in the iron ores need to be agglomerated into lumps of suitable physical characteristics size/shape so it can be used in blast furnace. the charge takes 1-2 hour in the kiln. This technique is replaced by sintering and pelletising. diameter is 2m and diameter of sinter zone is 4m. There are two types of briqwetting  Cold briqwetting  Hot briqwetting COLD BRIQWETTING It is produced by adding 10% cement and hardening them for several days like cement concrete. Production is 1000t/day from a single plant. 3. In this process moist ore with or without binder is fed into a chamber and then extruded from that chamber. HOT BRIQWETTING It is done by pressing ore fines at 800-10500C under normal or slightly reducing conditions. The temperature in the rotary kiln softens the ore. The product obtained is cylindrical and is cut into a desired small size. the speed of rotary kiln is 1-2rpm. length is 30-60m. 5. Briqwetting Nodulising Extrusion Sintering Pelletising BRIQWETTING It essentially consists of pressing of ore fines with or without the binder into a block or briqwet of some suitable size and shape and then subjected it to a hardening process. Page 27 of 46 . The product is dried and fired before being used in blast furnace. Cement briqwetting is done with 1-5% cement as binder. EXTRUSION It was used in 1950 on a small scale level.

The narrow combustion zone developed initially at the top layer that travels through the bed raising the temperature of the bed. The sintered coke is then removed from the grate in hot condition or after partial cooling. SINTERING It is a process of heating of mass of fine particles to the temperature little below the melting point for the purpose of agglomeration of fines into lumps. The undersized is recycled and oversized is fully cooled and send to the Blast Furnace. Coke breeze is normally used as fuel.SINTERING It is a process of heating of mass of fine particles to the temperature little below the melting point for the purpose of agglomeration of fines into lumps. Ignition source Charge hopper Permeable grate Bed Page 28 of 46 . PELLLETISING The process consists of rolling of moist ore fines of less than 100 mesh size with or without a binder into pellets usually 7-20mm in size. The heat contained in blast is utilized in drawing and preheating the lower layers in the bed. The top layer of this bed is heated to a sintering temperature by a gas or an oil burner and air is drawn downward to the permeable grate with the help of exhaust blowers. The process is over when the combustion has reached the lowest layer of the bed. The cold blast drawn through the bed that cools the already sintered layer and thereby gets itself heated. These green pellets are dried and fired before charging to blast furnace. It is broken. screen and cool to produce desired fraction. In other words the sintering means “Casting without melting” PRINCIPLE OF SINTERING Iron ore sintering is carried out by putting a mixture of iron ore mixed with solid fuel on a permeable grate. In the combustion zone the bonding takes place between the grains and the strong and porous aggregate is formed.

More permeable bed however leads to loss of the strength in the resulting sinter. Super fluxed sinter Page 29 of 46 .e to obtain a faster rate of heat exchange the heat capacity of the blast drawn through the bed should be maximum. These two factors oppose each other and hence should be adjusted at the optimum. Amount and quality of fuel added in the charge 6. it means that the volume of the air drawn through bed during sintering should be maximum. In order to carry out both the heating and cooling functions of gas phase affectively i. shape of the mixture and thickness of the bed.QUALITY OF SINTERING The main objective of sintering is to agglomerate of fines particles. Any non-uniformity in the bed composition or in the process of sintering During sintering heat exchange takes place between the solid charge and air blast that is drawn through the bed. Total volume of air blast drawn through the bed during sintering 4. More permeable the bed. Bed permeability as decided by the particle size. Acid sinter 2. Strong agglomeration with good bulk reduction that depends on nature of ore and sintering process 3. To remove the volatile like CO2. Size of ore (specific size is required in order to do sintering) 2. Nature of ore fines 8. Flux incorporation in the burden PROCESS VARIABLES OF SINTERING There are certain variables that affect the process of sintering which are as 1. At any time during sintering the air blast initially gets heated that is it cools the combustion zone and in turns heats the lower layer of the bed. Fluxed sinter 3. Rate of blast drawn through the bed during sintering 5. Thickness of the bed 3. The others are 1. It is therefore essentially a phenomenon of gas solid heat exchange. H2O. TYPES OF SINTER There are three types of sinter 1. the more will be air blast drawn through it. 2. SO2 etc 4. Amount and quality of moisture added in the charge 7.

” Basicity of fluxed sinter= Basicity of slag in Blast Furnace SUPER FLUXED SINTER In this process the percentage of fluxes is added more than in fluxed sinter. Slag or glass bonding Page 30 of 46 . The basicity of super fluxed sinter should be greater than the basicity of slag in the blast furnace.” FLUXED SINTER “In this process the fluxes are added to make the basicity of the sinter equal to the basicity of slag in the blast furnace. There are two types of bonding exist between the particles which are 1. MECHANISM OF SINTERING COMBUSTION CALCINING DRY WET ORE BED TYPES OF BOND IN PARTICLES OR FINES The particles or fines during sintering form a bond between them. Fluxes are added separately during reduction of iron ore in the blast furnace. Solid state bonding 2.ACID SINTER “In this process there is no addition of flux during agglomeration of fines of sintering.

(Spinal) MgAl2O4 . spinal. The physical change occurs in the particles when they combined to form a bond. No chemical change but change physically 3. So sintering process will be improper. SLAG OR GLASS BONDING In this slag fuses and acts as binder between the fines and developed a bond. If we have less than 3mm fractions then above 6mm fractions along with are used. There are following raw materials specifications which are as  Charge size  Fuel content  Moisture CHARGE SIZE If the particle size of the charge is fine then the contact area will increase and on the other hand permeability will decrease. FUEL CONTENT Fuel content is used uniformly 6-8%. During chemical change iron ore fines convert into ferrite. so that gasses can pass through the bed. The chemical composition changes during formation of bond. In order to do better sintering the particle size of the charge should be coarse. Page 31 of 46 .SOLID STATE BONDING In solid state bonding the particles either diffuse or recrystallize. Jacabsite (MnFe2O4)  Physical change occurs when time is large and temperature is low  Chemical change occurs when time is short and temperature is high During bonding the probability may be 1. The percentage of fuel in the top layer of the bed should be greater as compared to the lower layer because the heating is started from the bottom of the bed and going upward. Both chemical and physical change RAW MATERIALS There raw materials specification should be proper in order to do better sintering process. Hercynite (FeAl2O4). No chemical change no physical change 2. For example calcium carbonate heated at high temperature and pressure is converted into marble. silicate.

” PURPOSE The purpose of blast furnace is to reduce iron oxide into molten iron called as hot metal. Hot 3. Iron ore 2. When moisture evaporates it produces porosity. CONTROL OF SINTERING PROCESS Sintering process is controlled by the following factors      Input heat Ignition input source Moisture content (permeability control) Speed of grate/bed machine Bed height BLAST FURNACE “It is a steel tank lined with a refractory material (bricks).MOISTURE Moisture controls the permeability of the bed. Coke blast of air DIAGRAM Page 32 of 46 . Limestone (fluxes) 4. RAW MATERIALS The raw materials required for the production of iron are: 1.

BOSH The bosh is the inverted conical section. BUSTLE PIPES It encircles the blast furnace and delivers the hot blast air from the blast line to furnace. SKIP CAR (CONVEYOR ) The skip cars and in some cases conveyors are used to deliver blast furnace charge to the top of the furnace. Page 33 of 46 . All the molten metal and slag collect in the hearth before being drain. The rotating distributor helps in assuming the uniform distribution of charge in furnace stack. The hopper prevents the gas escaping from the furnace while it is being charge. HEARTH It is a crucible like vessel upon which the vertical shaft portion of the furnace sets. RECEIVING HOPPER The blast furnace charge is loaded into the receiving hoppers which in turn deliver the charge to the rotating distributor.EQUIPMENTS/PARTS OF BLAST FURNACE The blast furnace consists of the following parts Foundation Stack column Hearth Bosh Charging facilities available FOUNDATION It is a massive steep reinforce concrete mass partially embedded below the ground level. It has the maximum diameter. It is sufficiently strong to stand the loaded furnace weight. BELLS (LARGE AND SMALL) The large and small bells are conical shaped devices that form a gas tight lock hopper.

COMBUSTION OF COKE Coke present in the charge burns in the hot air producing CO 2. STACK COLUMN The stack is the upper portion of furnace where the charge is preheated. INTRODUCTION OF HOT BLAST Simultaneously hot blast of air is introduced in the furnace through tuyeres. CO2 + C 2CO REDUCTION OF HEMATITE (Fe2O3) CO formed is a powerful reducing agent. Fe2O3 Fe2O3 + + 3CO CO 2Fe + 3CO2 Fe3O4 + CO2 Page 34 of 46 .TUYERES The hot blast air is delivered to the furnace through water cooled opening called tuyeres. while the slag may be transferred through the slag pot. C + O2 CO2 PRODUCTION OF CO (REDUCING AGENT) The CO2 forms rise up reacts with C and produces CO. The metal is placed into the transfer ladles. It reduces hematite to iron. PROCESSES The production of iron in the blast furnace consists of the following steps which are as INTRODUCTION OF THE CHARGE The charge is introduced in the blast furnace through cup and cone arrangement. The tuyeres are located at the top of hearth. METAL AND SLAG NOTCHES The molten metal is removed from the hearth through the metal notch.

g.” E. fire clay. Alumina. CLASSIFICATIONS OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS Refractory materials are classified on the basis of the following groups  Based on refractory material  Based on refractoriness  Based on method manufacturing CLASSIFICATIONS ON THE BASIS OF REFRACTORY MATERIAL REFRACTORY MATERIALS ACIDIC BASIC NEUTRAL Page 35 of 46 . The iron obtained from this method is called pig iron. magnesia etc These materials withstand at high temperature without fusing. The iron formed is collected at the bottom of the furnace and a slag formed a layer on it. REFRACTORY MATERIALS “Materials that retain their shape and chemical identity at a very high temperature are called refractory materials. It contains carbon as major impurity. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 FORMATION OF SLAG Calcium oxide reacts with silica and formed calcium silicate which is called as slag.Fe3O4 FeO + + CO CO FeO Fe + CO2 + CO2 DECOMPOSITION OF LIMESTONE Due to high-temperature limestone decomposes into lime and carbon dioxide.

Page 36 of 46 .until completely melted. chromite. resulting in a fused cast refractory. tile refractory etc. REFRACTORY MATERIALS LOW HEAT DUTY MODERATE HEAT DUTY (1630-16700C) HIGH HEAT DUTY (1670-17300C) SUPER HEAT DUTY (Greater than 17360C) (1520-16300C) CLASSIFICATIONS ON THE BASIS OF METHOD MANUFACTURING REFRACTROY MATERIALS DRY PROCESS FUSED CAST HAND MOULDING DRY PROCESS: This process includes crushing the materials and presses it in a die and produces the required shape. dolomite refractroies. E. E.Acidic refractries consist of acidic materials. They are not attacked by both acidic and basic materials. Neutral refractories are made from weakly acidic and basic materials.g.g. They are not attacked by acidic materials but easily attacked by basic materials E. FUSED CAST: The refined raw materials are heated at 1900-2500°C in a electric arc furnace. CLASSIFICATIONS ON THE BASIS OF REFRACTORINESS According to the refractoriness. Alumina mullite.g. E. quartz.g.g. zirconia etc. refractories are classified into four types. fire clay Basic refractries consist of basic materials. Graphite. E. bricks refractory. Magnesite. They are not attacked by basic materials but easily attacked by acidic materials. The melted substance is poured into specific molds and left to solidify gradually. Silica. zirconia refractories.

Gun type refractory. Porosity is an important property of refractory materials because it affects many other characteristics like chemical stability. OBJECTIVE OF PCE TEST 1. Gases and slag attack more easily Page 37 of 46 . 2. 4. Spray type refractory.These refractroies have Poor spalling resistance Sudden expansion and contraction High erosion and abrasion strength HAND MOULDING: These refractroies are made from slurry materials. PYROMETRIC CONE EQUIVALENT (PCE) Pyrometric cone equivalent is the number which represents the softening temperature of a refractory specimen of standard dimension and composition.” HOW TO MEASURE REFRACTORINESS Since most of the refractories are mixtures of several metallic oxides. To determine the softening temperature of a test refractory material To classify the refractoies To determine the purity of refractories To check whether the refractory can be used at a particular serving temperature 2-POROSITY Porosity is defined as the ratio of its pore volume to bulk volume.g. 3. This is due to presence of more air voids. E. abrasion resistance and thermal conductivity. strength. which act as insulators.     It reduces the strength It reduces the resistance to abrasion It reduces the resistance to corrosion Highly porous refractory possess the thermal conductivity. PROPERTIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS 1-REFRACTORINESS “It is the ability of a material to withstand very high temperature without softening or deformation under particular service condition.  High porous refractory reduces the thermal spalling. and hence it is used in furnace lining. they don‟t have sharp melting points. So the refractoriness of a refractory is generally measured as the softening temperature and is expressed in terms of pyrometric cone equivalent (PCE).

low co-efficient of expansion and good thermal conductivity refractory. Rapid change in temperature 2. Descending charge material result in abrasion or wearing off refractory lining material 6-ERROSION RESISTANCE It damages due to mechanical action occurs when metal or gas carrying dust and slag particles hit against the refractory lining resulting in chipping off of particles from the refractory Page 38 of 46 . breaking. Rate of slag attacks is accelerated because of following reason  Defective joints and cracks in refractory material  Rough and extra porous surface  The movement of slag The rate of slag attack is reduced if refractory is dense and smooth surface.3-THERMAL SPALLING Thermal spalling is the property of cracking. peeling off a refractory material under high temperature. It is due to the following factors 1. 4-SLAG RESISTANCE Slag attacks the refractory at high temperature and alters its composition by forming of certain compounds with the refractory material. A basic slag attacks acidic refractory and vice versa. Thermal spalling can be decreased by using high porosity. Slag penetration RAPID CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE This causes uneven expansion and contraction within the mass of a refractory material and leads to development of uneven stresses and strains. SLAG PENETRATION This causes the variation in the co-efficient of thermal expansion and leads to spalling. 5-ABRASION RESISTANCE A refractory is subjected to wear when it comes in contact with the moving charge as in case of blast furnace.

The term fire bricks are referred to fire clay bricks. As the general rule the refractoriness increases with increasing alumina content of alumina silicate refractory compare to fire clay refractory. 2. Area of application Working temperature Extent of abrasion and impact Structural load of furnace Stress due to temperature gradient Chemical composition/furnace environment Heat transfer Cost concentration SOME IMPORTANT CLASS OF REFRACTORY FIRE CLAY It is hydrated alumina silicate Al2O3. ganister.2SiO2. Porosity varies from 8-24% depending on the temperature on which it is fired. There crushing strength decreases with increasing temperature.SELECTION OF REFRACTORIES The refractories are selected on the basis of the following factors 1. Higher the porosity less will be the slag penetration and less will be the effect of sudden changes in temperature. sand. One of the great difficulties of SiO 2 refractory is that SiO2 occurs at different allotropic forms which are stable at different temperature. SILICA REFRACTORY Raw material SiO2 refractory are the various forms of natural deposits of SiO 2. sandstone. Sudden changes in temperature causes fire crack in silica bricks and this causes disintegration or spalling. 4.2H2O containing about 25-45% Al2O3 and 50-80% SiO2. 6. 3. It contains 45-95% alumina. 7. 5. High alumina refractory gives better service under severe condition due to High abrasion and erosion resistance High spalling resistance/slag Good volume stability High refractoriness Page 39 of 46 . HIGH ALUMINA REFRACTORY They are not used extensively because they are very costly. 8. For example quartz. It is used in the upper part of Blast Furnace.

sliding gates Page 40 of 46 . Due to the presence of reducing atomoshpere in Blast Furnace the life of carbon refractory is prolong 4. Graphite is crystalline form of carbon. Graphite is less prone to oxidation compare to other amorphous form of carbon. It is not attack by slag and is resistant to thermal shock. Carbon bricks find more extensive use in lining bosh/hearth of Blast Furnace. In graphite carbon atoms are arranged in hexagonal structure. 2. High thermal conductivity of carbon lining helps in easy temperature control in the lower part of Blast Furnace 5. They are also used in furnaces where temperature is high and atomosphere is non oxidize 3. Iron and slag runner are also lined with carbon CERAMIC GRAPHITE REFRACTORY They are used in steel making process due to their high resistance of spalling and inactive nature. MgO graphite refractory is used in ladle lining Alumina graphite refractory is used in nozzle.CARBON /GRAPHITE REFRACTORY Carbon occurs in nature both in amorphous and crystalline form. Graphite is infusible and stable at about 36000C. USES 1.

Lightening DRYING The new lining of the furnace contains significant portion of moisture which must be completely removed before the temperature of the blast furnace raised. Drying 2.” In general the operation involves the following main steps 1. attack of molten acidic and basic slag. One or more factors can affect at one area. The operation is called drying in which the furnace is slowly heated. For example in the stack. liquid and gases Action of molten metals Condition of operation Blowing in procedure All these factors do not affect all the areas of blast furnace. The slowly temperature is about 200 0C which is slowly increased to about 4250C. Filling 3. Page 41 of 46 . But furnace drying can be accomplished by  Hot blast from stove  Use of coke oven to generate and supply hot gasses  Use of coke fire in the hearth In this process care must be taken to heat up and dry the furnace slowly to avoid cracks in the newly built or required parts. while in bosh region lining has to stand high temperature. erosion.MAJOR CAUSES OF FAILURE OF BLAST FURNACE REFRACTORY There are following factors that cause the failure of blast furnace refractory Attacking of carbon mono oxide (CO) gas on the refractory Action of alkali vapours Action of other volatile matters Action of acidic and basic slag Abrasion of refractory by solid. BLOWING IN “The process of starting a newly lined blast furnace is called blowing in. the lining has to stand with abrasion with solid burden and CO attack. Similarly the hearth has to withstand the attack of molten metal and slag without breaking.

LIGHTENING The most common method to light the blast furnace is by using the low volume hot blast of approximately 5500-6500C to ignite the coke in front of tuyers. So the fuel ratio is much larger than the furnace operation. the burden or proportion of ore is gradually increased as the furnace is operated until about two weeks it starts carrying the normal burden.FILLING The blast furnace is then filled with the start of charge with generally consist of coke and fluxes in the lower part and coke. The blast volume is increased every few hours and after about 24hour 40-50% of full blast is achieved. Flux and fuel are continued until all metal and slag are tapped out and flux is then discontinued. Within a few tapes however the furnace is usually brought up to the production of desired grade. It is so because we have to raise the temperature up to smelting temperature before the ore reaches to the bottom of the furnace. for relining is called blowing out. Once the smelting temperature is reached.” When a furnace is to be shut down or blown out the ore charge is gradually reduced and stopped. flux and an increasing amount of ore in the upper part. The first iron tape off is not of proper grade as it is at this time impossible to have such temperature and composition of slag as to produce iron of given grade.e. As soon as the slag reaches about the level tuyers it is drawn off at the sinter notch and the operation continuous until sufficient iron has accumulated to tape. The furnace must be allow to cool gradually before being emptied Page 42 of 46 . It is increased until the full blast is achieved that is 100% OPERATION UNTIL REGULAR PRODUCTION Soon after the furnace is lighted the slag begins to accumulate in the hearth and a little later the iron as well. BLOWING OUT “The process of shutting down the blast furnace i. The fuel is gradually reduced and finally shut off and fired slowly burns out.

and it adds to the cost of steel making. manganese.2% 0. These can therefore be varied within certain limits by adjusting the burden chemistry. fuel rate and those conditions will affect the temperature of the blast furnace. of the Page 43 of 46 .5-1. the whole of it is reduced and finally joins with molten metal.5% 0.5-2. sulphur and phosphorus.  S. P are not completely reduced in the blast furnace they should have the minimum percentage in the pig iron in order to make steel. Whereas the presence of phosphorus in pig iron is detrimental. These impurities in the pig iron have the maximum range and depend on the burden chemistry of the charge.5-4. Si.BLAST FURNACE PRODUCTS The blast furnace products contain  Pig iron  Slag  gasses COMPOSITION OF PIG IRON Pig iron is major product of blast furnace that contains the impurities carbon. Elements Carbon Silicon Manganese Phosphorus Sulphur Percentage impurities 3. The presence of carbon in the pig iron is beneficial during its conversion to steel. This is because at high temperature sulphur reacts with iron and forms iron sulphide (FeS) that produces cracks.5% 0. The contents of ‘Si’ and ‘S’ depends on the volume of slag its basicity and operating temperature furnace and burden chemistry of charge. forging.04-2% 0.  Whatever is the phosphorus content in the burden. silicon.15%  If the sulphur contents are very high in the pig iron then it will create hot shortness during rolling.04-0.

The coke use as a fuel in the blast furnace should low in sulphur. For economical reason therefore every efforts must be made to eliminate „S‟ and produce required quality of hot metal before putting it in the steel making furnace. The process of steel making is capable of reducing the „S‟ contents up to 40% in the hot metal charge. if the „S‟ in the ore is around 1% then it is difficult to meet hot metal specification with respect to „S‟ contents. The cost of fuel is in inverse proportion to its „S‟ content.025% „S‟ for continuous casting to operate smoothly. HOW TO CONTROL SULPHUR Desulphurization inside the blast furnace can be affected in three different ways  By having higher basicity  By increasing the volume of slag  By increasing the hearth temperature FeS + CaO + C CaS + FeO + CO When the pig iron is tapped off from the blast furnace and is going to the steel making unit then during its rout the following process are run to remove either silicon or sulphur  Basic burdening and desiliconization  Acidic burdening and desulphurization Page 44 of 46 .SULPHUR PROBLEM It is difficult for steel maker to control the sulphur specification and „S‟ content of steel.025-0. The sulphur problem is more severe when the continuous casting of steel is adopted.6% S.06%. Its mean in order to achieve the required percentage of „S‟ the hot metal should not contain more than maximum 0. This can be achieved by using coke having maximum 0.04. The finished molten steel should have no more than 0. „S‟ content of steel should not be more than 0.

So decarburization takes place which we don‟t want. This external treatment for elimination of silicon from molten iron is known as external disiliconisartion REMOVAL OF SILICON Silicon is removed externally by lancing the oxygen in the hot metal before carrying it in the steel unit. The furnace is often operated with basicity less than 1 that is the slag produced is acidic and for which the burden chemistry is adjusted with more acidic and less basic oxides. The pig iron is treated externally to remove silicon and produce hot metal of the specification required for steel making. P. This can be fully used in obtaining pig iron containing less than 0. So we use mill scale (iron oxide) and lime as reagent to maintain temperature of molten iron in order to remove silicon. Since silicon reduction is favored at high temperature. These conditions are more favorable for disiliconisation of metal inside the furnace. This often leads to high silicon contents of pig iron. The temperature is maintained around 1400-14500C by adding iron oxide (Fe2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO) because at this temperature silicon reacts with oxygen and forms silica (SiO2) and go to the slag.04% sulphur. The slag basicity is also reduced since high basicity is no longer necessary. The basicity has also to be raised to obtain proper slag in this case. Mn. The net result is that the silicon content of the metal is low which is advantageous for subsequent basic process of steel making. When oxygen is lanced then temperature of the hot metal increases due to the exothermic reaction. REMOVAL OF SULPHUR A lance of oxygen is lowered into molten iron ladle and several kilogram powder of magnesium is added. For dephosphorisation and desiliconisation of molten pig iron we have to provide sufficient amount of oxygen in order to oxidize all the amount of Si. ACIDIC BURDENING OF BLAST FURNACE The acidic burdening of blast furnace can be readily practiced if the total gangue in the ore and coke are salacious in nature. Sulphur is reduced to magnesium sulphide in violent exothermic reaction Page 45 of 46 .BASIC BURDENING OF BLAST FURNACE If the alumina (Al2O3) content in the burden is high the furnace hearth temperature has to be on the high side to keep the slag thick and free flowing. If the temperature is very high means above 1450 0C then carbon has high tendency with oxygen.06% or preferably 0.

CONCLUSION The main product of blast furnace is molten iron along with slag. The waste product that is slag is also being put to some use. Alternatively the slag granules are produced in a granulation plant where molten slag is poured in turbulent water. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Page 46 of 46 .DISPOSAL OF METAL Major portion of molten iron is sent to steel making plant for its conversion to steel DISPOSAL OF SLAG Slag is carried in ladle to the slag dumping yard where it is tipped as waste material. The chemistry of slag is adjusted to obtain efficiency operation of blast furnace. The chemistry of metal is important and is adjusted as per the overall economy of steel production from ore. These granules are increasingly being used as construction material.

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