5. 3. 2. 4.THE KINDS OF LISTENING SKILLS 1. Informational Listening Relationship Listening Sympathetic Listening Appreciative listening Critical Listening .

and the listener·s goal should be to understand that message as completely as possible. The speaker intends to get a message across. . straightforward listening.INFORMATION LISTENING -This is simple.

-In this type of listening. This kind of listening skill is most often known in a romantic relationship. and the listeners job is to process the information before responding.RELATIONSHIP LISTENING -The purpose of this type of listening is to improve the relationship between two or more people. but it·s also a big part of friendships and family relationships. the speaker expresses her feelings. .

it·s best for the listener to refrain from offering suggestions or clouding up the speaker·s thoughts. .SYMPATHETIC LISTENING -This could be the most challenging type of listening because the listener·s role is often not to respond at all. The speaker who seeks sympathetic listening might have suffered a tragedy or needs someone to listen to a series of complex thoughts. -The case.

APPRECIATIVE LISTENING -This is one of the most enjoyable types of listening. -Appreciative listening is most often used when people listen to music. . There aren·t a lot responses necessary in appreciative listening. concerts or other performances. and it comes naturally for many people. plays. though groups of listeners might often talk among themselves to process the experience.

-These skills are developed at a young age in most children. .CRITICAL LISTENING -To comment upon a conversation or a piece of audio work in a critical way. -Critical listening is a complex process that can involve paying carefully attention to the speakers·tones . who are instructed to listen to teachers· instruction and follow them carefully. listeners need to use their critical-listening skills. inflections and word choices.

6. 7.EIGHT BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING 1. 5. Knowing the answer Trying to be helpful Treating Discussion as competition Trying to influence or impress Reacting to red flag words Believing in language Mixing up the forest and the trees Over-splitting or over-lumping . 4. 2. 3. 8.

rather than reinforcing existing points of view. He looks for opportunities to sketch his mind when listening and acquire new ideas or insights.KNOWING THE ANSWER -µKnowing the answerµ means that you already know what the speaker wants to say. before she actually finishes saying it. -A good listener tries to keep an open. receptive mind. You might then impatiently cut her off or try to complete the sentence for her. .

-An old Zen proverb says. walk. give your whole attention to whatever you·re doing. . eat. When eating.·· in other words. you·re more capable of seeing the solution than the speaker is.TRYING TO BE HELPFUL -If you as a listener step in and heroically offer your solution. Its worth emphasizing that the goal of good listening is simply to listen. ¶·When walk.

TREATING DISCUSSION AS COMPETITION ti g isc ssi sc titi is ft st s ri s rri rs t g list i g. -Tr . v if i r ly gr . It gr tly i i its t list r fr str tc i g s i g iff r t i t f vi . T yf lc ll t c ll g v ry i t t s r s. It c ls fr str ti g f r r. isc ssi c s c t st. it sc r i g t t f r i st st i ts y rg i g. t s l f l t t gr i g it t s r -S ri g t isc ssi is sig f ss.

TRYING TO INFLUENCE OR IMPRESS -Because good listening depends on listening just for the sake o listening. . Examples of ulterior motives are trying to impress or to influence the speaker. any ulterior motive will diminish the effectiveness of the listener. such as to influence or impress the speaker. A listener with an ulterior motive. will probably use the spare capacity to think about his ¶·next move·· in the conversationhis rebuttal or what he will say next when the speaker is finished-instead of focusing on understanding the speaker.

often because of the listener·s private beliefs or experiences. sometimes they just cause slight disagreement or misunderstandings.REACTING TO RED FLAG WORDS -Red flag words or expressions trigger an unexpectedly strong association in the listener·s mind. . Whenever a listener finds himself disagreeing or reacting. he should be on the lookout for red flag words or expressions. Red flag words don·t always provoke emotional reactions.

Meaning must always be actively negotiated.BELIEVING IN LANGUAGE -One of the trickiest barriers is ´believing in language··³a misplaced trust in the precision of words. peaker and listener use language to predict what each other is thinking. . Language is a guessing game.

the speaker needs to accurately shift between forest and trees in order to show how the details fit into the big picture. However. . which can cause confusion or misunderstanding for listener.MIXING UP THE FOREST AND TREES -When trying to communicate complex information. speakers often forget to use ¶·turn indicators·· to signal that they are shifting from one to another.

. Other speakers. Perhaps this is matter of temperament. tend to pay more attention to how things are different.peakers have the styles of organizing thoughts when explaining complex situations. ¶·splitters··. ome speakers. tend to look for how things are alike.OVER-SPLITTING OR OVER-LUMPING . ¶·lumpers··.

-If the speaker and listener are on opposite sides of the splitter-lumper spectrum. the different mental styles can cause confusion or lack of understanding. Even more important is for the listener to recognize when the speaker is splitting and when she is lumping. -Its important to achieve a good balance between splitting (critical thinking) and lumping (metaphorical thinking). .

6. 3. 2. Knowing the answer Trying to be helpful Treating Discussion as competition Trying to influence or impress Reacting to red flag words Believing in language Mixing up the forest and the trees Over-splitting or over-lumping . 4. 7. 5. 8.EIGHT BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING 1.


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