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Ravi Jain B.Tech 2nd Year 20085063 Electronics and communication Engineering MNNIT ALLAHABAD Duration- 24/05/2010 to 19/06/2010
I am highly grateful to Proff. SATISH CHANDRA, Training and Placement Department, MNNIT ALLAHABAD, for providing this opportunity to carry out 4 weeks industrial training at NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION , BADARPUR, NEW DELHI. I would like to express a deep sense of gratitude and thanks to Mr AJEET KUMAR OJHA-DGM(HR) without the wise counsel and able guidance, it would have been impossible to complete the report in this manner. The help rendered by Mrs RACHANA SINGH BHAL, Sr. Manager, National Thermal Power Corporation for experimentation is greatly acknowledged. I would also like to express gratitude to the HOD and other faculty members of department of Electronics and communication engineering, MNNIT for their intellectual support throughout the course of this work. Finally, I would like to thanks Er. SONIA SINGH and all other technical staff of B.T.P.S. for giving helping me throughout the training period.
Ravi Jain ECE-MNNIT ALLAHABD firstname.lastname@example.org
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INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY OPERATION OF POWER PLANT VARIOUS CYCLE AT POWER STATION CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION IT DEPARTMENT REFERENCE
About The Company Vision Strategies Environmental Policy Evolution
About The Company
NTPC, the largest power Company in India, was setup in 1975 to accelerate power development in the country. It is among the world’s largest and most efficient power generation companies. In Forbes list of World’s 2000 Largest Companies for the year 2007, NTPC occupies 411th place.
A View Of Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New-Delhi NTPC has installed capacity of 29,394 MW. It has 15 coal based power stations (23,395 MW), 7 gas based power stations (3,955 MW) and 4 power stations in Joint Ventures (1,794 MW). The company has power generating facilities in all major regions of the country. It plans to be a 75,000 MW company by 2017. Types Of Power Station Coal Based Power Station Gas Based Power Station Joint Venture Number 15 7 4 Total Capacity – 29,394 MW NTPC has gone beyond the thermal power generation. It has diversified into hydro power, coal mining, power equipment manufacturing, oil & gas exploration, power trading & distribution. NTPC is now in the entire power value chain and is poised to become an Integrated Power Major. NTPC's share on 31 Mar 2008 in the total installed capacity of the country was 19.1% and it contributed 28.50% of the total power generation of the country during 2007-08. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. With its experience and expertise in the power sector, NTPC is extending consultancy services to various organizations in the power business. It provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. In November 2004, NTPC came out with its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5.25% as fresh issue and 5.25% as offer for sale by Government of India. NTPC thus became a listed company with Government holding 89.5% of the equity share capital and rest held by Institutional Investors and Public. The issue was a resounding success. NTPC is among the largest five companies in India in terms of market capitalization. Capacity(MW) 23,395 3,955 1,794
Inspired by its glorious past and vibrant present. Government of the India has identified NTPC as one of the jewels of Public Sector 'Navratnas'. powering India's growth.a potential global giant. with increasing global presence".Growth Of NTPC Generation & PLF % Recognizing its excellent performance and vast potential. NTPC is well on its way to realize its vision of being "A world class integrated power major. .
VISION Corporate vision: .” Mission :-Develop and provide reliable power related products and services at competitive prices.BCOMIT • Business ethics • Customer Focus • Organizational & Professional Pride • Mutual Respect & Trust • Innovation & Speed • Total Quality for Excellence A View Of Well Flourished Plant .“A world class integrated power major. Core Values . integrating multiple energy resources with innovative & Eco-friendly technologies and contribution to the society. powering India's growth with increasing global presence.
Launch of Energy Technology Center -A new initiative for development of technologies with focus on fundamental R&D. .5% of the profits for R&D. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. NTPC has framed Corporate Social Responsibility Guidelines committing up to 0. The company sets aside up to 0. Corporate Social Responsibility As a responsible corporate citizen NTPC has taken up number of CSR initiatives.STRATEGIES Sustainable Development Nuturing Human Resource Maintain sector Leadership STRATEGIES Technology Initiatives Exploit New Business Opportunities Further Enchance Fuel Security Technological Initiatives Introduction of steam generators (boilers) of the size of 800 MW. Roadmap developed for adopting ‘Clean Development. The welfare of project affected persons and the local population around NTPC projects are taken care of through well drawn Rehabilitation and Resettlement policies. Mechanism’ to help get / earn ‘Certified Emission Reduction.5% of net profit annually for Community Welfare Measures on perennial basis. NTPC Foundation formed to address Social issues at national level. The company has also taken up distributed generation for remote rural areas.
eco-friendly and eco-nurturing initiative . maximizing ash utilization and providing green belt all around the plant for maintaining ecological balance. maintenance of ecological balance and a pristine environment has been of utmost importance to NTPC. Environment Policy & Environment Management System Driven by its commitment for sustainable growth of power. It has been taking various measures discussed below for mitigation of environment pollution due to power generation. NTPC has also taken proactive steps for ash utilization. Harmony between man and environment is the essence of healthy life and growth. As a responsible corporate citizen. NTPC Environment Policy As early as in November 1995.USAID. optimum utilization of equipment. the company endeavors to improve the overall socio economic status Project Affected Persons. Therefore. The policy also envisages efficient utilization of resources. adoption of latest technologies and continual environment improvement.ENVIROMANTAL POLICY NTPC is committed to the environment. NTPC brought out a comprehensive document entitled "NTPC Environment Policy and Environment Management System". Through its Rehabilitation and Resettlement programmes. . NTPC is the second largest owner of trees in the country after the Forest department. NTPC is making constant efforts to improve the socio-economic status of the people affected by its projects. generating power at minimal environmental cost and preserving the ecology in the vicinity of the plants. thereby minimizing waste. NTPC has undertaken massive a forestation in the vicinity of its plants. NTPC has evolved a well defined environment management policy and sound environment practices for minimizing environmental impact arising out of setting up of power plants and preserving the natural ecology. Plantations have increased forest area and reduced barren land.a symbol of NTPC's concern towards environmental protection and continued commitment to sustainable power development in India. it set up Ash Utilization Division A "Centre for Power Efficiency and Environment Protection. Amongst the guiding principles adopted in the document are company's proactive approach to environment. CENPEEP is efficiency oriented. NTPC was among the first Public Sector Enterprises to enter into a Memorandum of UnderstandingMOU with the Government in 1987-88. The massive a forestation by NTPC in and around its Ramagundam Power station (2600 MW) have contributed reducing the temperature in the areas by about 3°c. In 1991. NTPC has been placed under the 'Excellent category' (the best category) every year since the MOU system became operative.CENPEE" has been established in NTPC with the assistance of United States Agency for International Development.
Low-NOX Burners: In gas based NTPC power stations.Environment Management. Flue Gas Stacks: Tall Flue Gas Stacks have been provided for wide dispersion of the gaseous emissions (SOX. As a result of pursuing these practices. NTPC integrates many environmental provisions into the plant design. NOX etc) into the atmosphere. by adopting best combustion practices. all NTPC power stations have been certified for ISO 14001 & OHSAS 18001 by reputed national and international Certifying Agencies. The ash collected in the ESP’s is disposed to Ash Ponds in slurry form. coal dust and oil are removed from the effluents emanating from the Coal Handling Plant (CHP). Electrostatic Precipitators: The ash left behind after combustion of coal is arrested in high efficiency Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP’s) and particulate emission is controlled well within the stipulated norms. Pollution Control systems: While deciding the appropriate technology for its projects. Occupational Health and Safety Systems: NTPC has actively gone for adoption of best international practices on environment. coal yard and Fuel Oil Handling areas before discharge into ETP. occupational health and safety areas. The organization has pursued the Environmental Management System (EMS) ISO 14001 and the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment System OHSAS 18001 at its different establishments. DE & DS Systems: Dust Extraction (DE) and Dust Suppression (DS) systems have been installed in all coal fired power stations in NTPC to contain and extract the fugitive dust released in the Coal Handling Plant (CHP). . Coal Settling Pits / Oil Settling Pits: In these Pits. In order to ensure that NTPC comply with all the stipulated environment norms. NOx emissions are controlled by provision of Low-NOx Burners (dry or wet type) and in coal fired stations. Neutralisation Pits: Neutralisation pits have been provided in the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) for pH correction of the effluents before discharge into Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for further treatment and use. various state-of-the-art pollution control systems / devices as discussed below have been installed to control air and water pollution.
Dry Ash Extraction System (DAES): Dry ash has much higher utilization potential in ash-based products (such as bricks. Vindhyachal. the effluents are sent to the ETP for further treatment.). Talcher Thermal. The scheme has helped stations to save huge quantity of fresh water required as make-up water for disposal of ash. Ash Dykes & Ash Disposal systems: Ash ponds have been provided at all coal based stations except Dadri where Dry Ash Disposal System has been provided. in a number of NTPC stations. Ash Water Recycling System (AWRS) has been provided.g. Simhadri. Singrauli. Ramagundam. In the AWRS. the effluent from ash pond is circulated back to the station for further ash sluicing to the ash pond. Farakka. Dadri. Water Treatment Plant (WTP). Portland pozzolana cement. Rihand. Simhadri. . The ash water recycling system has already been installed and is in operation at Ramagundam. Korba. This helps in savings of fresh water requirements for transportation of ash from the plant. This has been envisaged for the first time in Asia which has resulted in progressive development of green belt besides far less requirement of land and less water requirement as compared to the wet ash disposal system. At its Dadri Power Station. The composite liquid effluent treatment plant has been designed to treat all liquid effluents which originate within the power station e. DAES has been installed at Unchahar.Cooling Towers: Cooling Towers have been provided for cooling the hot Condenser cooling water in closed cycle Condenser Cooling Water (CCW) Systems. Ash Ponds have been divided into lagoons and provided with garlanding arrangements for changeover of the ash slurry feed points for even filling of the pond and for effective settlement of the ash particles. Ash Water Recycling System: Further. Talcher Kaniha. This helps in reduction in thermal pollution and conservation of fresh water. Kahalgaon. Kahalgaon. Korba and Vindhyachal. Talcher Thermal. Talcher Kaniha and BTPS. etc. NTPC has set up a unique system for dry ash collection and disposal facility with Ash Mound formation. aerated autoclaved concrete blocks. as a proactive measure. Liquid Waste Treatment Plants & Management System: The objective of industrial liquid effluent treatment plant (ETP) is to discharge lesser and cleaner effluent from the power plants to meet environmental regulations. The discharged effluents conform to standards specified by CPCB and the same is regularly monitored. concrete. After primary treatment at the source of their generation. Ash in slurry form is discharged into the lagoons where ash particles get settled from the slurry and clear effluent water is discharged from the ash pond. Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU) effluent.
These plants have helped to control quality and quantity of the effluents discharged from the stations. the company has constituted different groups at project. treated effluents of STPs are being used for horticulture purpose. Sewage Treatment Plants & Facilities: Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) sewage treatment facilities have been provided at all NTPC stations to take care of Sewage Effluent from Plant and township areas. plant hospital and the townships of projects. Vindhyachal. look after various environmental issues of the individual station. The effluent quality is monitored regularly and treated effluent conforming to the prescribed limit is discharged from the station. Faridabad. Jhanor Gandhar. Kahalgaon and Talcher Kaniha. regional and Corporate Centre level to carry out specific environment related functions. Korba. As a feedback and follow-up of these Environmental Reviews. Gas Collection Chambers etc have been provided to improve the effluent quality. At several stations. Singrauli. Rihand. Simhadri. service water drains etc. In a number of NTPC projects modern type STPs with Clarifloculators. Farakka. Waste Management Various types of wastes such as Municipal or domestic wastes. Bio-Medical wastes get generated in power plant areas. The scheme involves collection of various effluents and their appropriate treatment centrally and re-circulation of the treated effluent for various plant uses. Environment Management and Ash Utilisation Groups established at each station. The Environment Management Group. NTPC has implemented such systems in a number of its power stations such as Ramagundam. Ash Utilisation Group and Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection (CENPEEP) function from the Corporate Centre and initiate measures to mitigate the impact of power project implementation on the environment and preserve ecology in the vicinity of the projects. a number of retrofit and up-gradation measures have been undertaken at different stations. hazardous wastes. Environmental Institutional Set-up: Realizing the importance of protection of the environment with speedy development of the power sector. Mechanical Agitators. Kayamkulam. .Coal Handling Plant (CHP) effluent. grease. The wastes generated are a number of solid and hazardous wastes like used oils & waste oils. floor washings. sludge drying beds. Environmental Reviews are carried out at all operating stations and remedial measures have been taken wherever necessary. Such periodic Environmental Reviews and extensive monitoring of the facilities carried out at all stations have helped in compliance with the environmental norms and timely renewal of the Air and Water Consents. Environment Reviews: To maintain constant vigil on environmental compliance.
2003). Handling and management of these wastes in NTPC stations have been discussed below. glass wool. empty cylinders (refillable). rubber products. C&I wastes. These wastes fall either under hazardous wastes category or non-hazardous wastes category as per classification given in Government of India’s notification on Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1989 (as amended on 06. e-waste. canteen (bio-degradable) wastes. fused lamps & tubes. used resin. asbestos packing. buidling material wastes.01.05. electricial scrap. . metal scrap.2000 & 20.). used photo-chemicals. oil & clarifier sludge.lead acid batteries. paper. other lead bearing wastes (such as garkets etc. fire resistant fluids etc. silica gel.
. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 411th in the world. • National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company in India.EVOLUTION • NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government of India. Government of India granted NTPC status of “Navratna" being one of the nine jewels of India. • NTPC became a listed company with majority Government ownership of 89. enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors. 1975 1997 2004 2005 2008 • In 1997. NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India. • NTPC becomes 3rd largest by Market Capitalization of listed companies • The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing business portfolio and transforms itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility.5%. In the last 30 years.
OPERATION OF POWER PLANT INTRODUCTION BASIC PRINCIPLE ELECTRICITY FROM COAL OPERATION OF BOILER OPERATION OF TURBINE .
Capacity of BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION Sr. Shown here is a diagram of a conventional thermal power plant.09 % in 2006-07. After it passes through the turbine. Capacity(MW) 210 95 Number 2 3 Total Capacity(MW) 420 285 Overall Capacity. . In a Badarpur Thermal Power Station.INTRODUCTION BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION was established on 1973 and it was the part of Central Government.2% in 1997-98 to 89. or natural gas as fuel to boil water to produce the steam. Generator works on the principle of producing electricity. Since then operating performance of NTPC has been considerably above the national average. this is known as a Rankine cycle. steam is produced and used to spin a turbine that operates a generator. No.4% during the year 2006-07 which is the highest since the inception of NTPC. The electricity generated at the plant is sent to consumers through high-voltage power lines The Badarpur Thermal Power Plant has Steam Turbine-Driven Generators which has a collective capacity of 705MW. turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator.705 MW BASIC PRINCIPLE As per FARADAY’s Law. the steam is condensed in a condenser. water is heated in the boilers by burning the coal.03 % in 1997-98 to 90.“Whenever the amount of magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes. The availability factor for coal stations has increased from 85. which uses coal. oil. 1. 2. On 01/04/1978 is was given as No Loss No Profit Plant of NTPC. an EMF is produced in the circuit. The fuel being used is Coal which is supplied from the Jharia Coal Field in Jharkhand. The PLF has increased from 75. Water supply is given from the Agra Canal. To change the flux in the generator turbine is moved in a great speed with steam.” To produce steam. which compares favourably with international standards. Water is heated.
Steam Turbine 3.Electricity from Coal There are basically three main units of a thermal power plant: 1. Electric Generator Coupling Basic Electricity Generation Chart . Steam Generator or Boiler 2.
Electric generator (3-phase) 6. Cooling water pump 3. Condenser .Functioning of Thermal Power Plant Typical Diagram of Coal Based Power Plant Its various parts are listed below:1. Unit transformer (3-phase) 5. Transmission line (3-phase) 4. Condensate extraction pump 8. Low pressure turbine 7. Cooling tower 2.
Super heater 20. Ash hopper 19. Steam governor valve 11.9. Precipitator 26. Feed heater 14. Forced draught fan 21. Boiler drum 18. Economiser 24. DE aerator 13. Re heater 22. Air preheater 25. Coal hopper 16. Pulverised fuel mill 17. High pressure turbine 12. Air intake 23. Intermediate pressure turbine 10. Coal conveyor 15. Induced draught fan 27. Fuel Gas Stack .
The tower vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100 meters in diameter. This allows for 240 V three phase as well as three different single phase voltages( 120 V between two of the phases and neutral . or rectangular structure that can be over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. At the power station. petrochemical and chemical plants. Taking one conductor as the reference. This delay between “phases” has the effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. The primary use of large . The power may already have been split into single phase at this point or it may still be three phase. the other two current are delayed in time by one-third and two-third of one cycle of the electrical current. one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. It is a type of polyphase system mainly used to power motors and many other devices. 3. 2. all at the same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. transformers: step-up” this voltage to one more suitable for transmission. Smaller towers are normally factory built. 208 V between the third phase ( known as a wild leg) and neutral and 240 V between any two phase) to be available from the same supply. two phase. while larger ones are constructed on site.Three phase transmission line Three phase electric power is a common method of electric power transmission. Cooling towers Cooling Towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambivalent web-bulb air temperature. Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. Generators output at a voltage that ranges from hundreds of volts to 30. the output of this transformer is usually star connected with the standard mains voltage being the phase-neutral voltage. The current are sinusoidal functions of time. Cooling Water Pump It pumps the water from the cooling tower which goes to the condenser. . three circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network the power is finally transformed to the standard mains voltage (i. industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants . Another system commonly seen in North America is to have a delta connected secondary with a center tap on one of the windings supplying the ground and neutral. 4. for example.000 volts.1.e. natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities . Unit transformer (3-phase) At the power station. petroleum refineries. The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of some of the cooling water in mechanical forceddraft or induced draft towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear power plants. an electric generator converts mechanical power into a set of electric currents. power plants and building cooling. giving a phase separation of one-third one cycle. Chemical plants. the “household” voltage). Where the step-down is 3 phase. In a three phase system. In a three phase system the phases are spaced equally. or direct current system at the same voltage. A Three phase system uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single phase.
Electrical generator An Electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic energy to electrical energy. As water gets cooler here it gathers into a HOTWELL placed in lower parts of Turbine. I f the liquid continues to drop (perhaps because the pump has failed. 6. As liquid lowers to the trigger point of the first stage. The water may be freshly supplied or retuning condensation of the steam produced by the boiler.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps.500. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators.5. to force the water into the boiler. In either case. Condensation Extraction Pump A Boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water into a steam boiler. These centralized stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. .000. or its discharge is blocked). the pump is activated. and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their-generators . Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) consist of 4x2 stages. Electrical power station use large stem turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 86%) of the world‟s electricity. 7. which produces the electrical energy. Construction and operation Feed water pumps range in size up to many horsepower and the electric motor is usually separated from the pump body by some form of mechanical coupling. The turbine normally consists of several stage with each stages consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade.000 hp(1. Large industrial condensate pumps may also serve as the feed water pump. caused by pressure drop. to 2.000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in „Boilers‟ or „steam generators‟ as they are sometimes called. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy into forces. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine. compressors and other shaft driven equipment . which produce electricity. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. the second stage will . the pump must generate sufficient pressure to overcome the steam pressure developed by the boiler. These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. generally using electromagnetic induction.As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system. water falling through the turbine are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0. After passing through Intermediate Pressure Turbine is is passed through LPT which is made up of two parts. Most large nuclear sets rotate at half those speeds. Some pumps contain a two-stage switch. the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems. and have a 4-pole generator rather than the more common 2-pole one. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator. The task of converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a motor. its supply has been cut off or exhausted. Low Pressure Turbine Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. Feed water pumps usually run intermittently and are controlled by a float switch or other similar level-sensing device energizing the pump when it detects a lowered liquid level in the boiler is substantially increased. This is usually accomplished through the use of a centrifugal pump. which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft.LPC REAR & LPC FRONT.
pressure.and liquid Level by fully partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compares a “set point” to a “process variable” whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. Steam Governor Valve Steam locomotives and the steam engines used on ships and stationary applications such as power plants also required feed water pumps. This line is also called as CRH – COLD REHEAT LINE. the pump was often powered using a small steam engine that ran using the steam produced by the boiler. hydraulic or pneumatic systems 11. This stage may switch off the boiler equipment (preventing the boiler from running dry and overheating). IPT has two ends named as FRONT & REAR. A means had to be provided. of course. or both.the pump was often a positive displacement pump that had steam valves and cylinders at one end and feed water cylinders at the other end. Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature. In this situation. The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical. creating near vacuum-like conditions inside the condenser chest. Condenser The steam coming out from the Low Pressure Turbine (a little above its boiling pump) is brought into thermal contact with cold water (pumped in from the cooling tower) in the condenser. By condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. 8. to put the initial charge of water into the boiler(before steam power was available to operate the steam-powered feed water pump). where it condenses rapidly back into water. the steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased. Most of the heat liberated due to condensation of the exhaust steam is carried away by the cooling medium (water or air) used by the surface condenser. In thermal plants. the primary purpose of surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. trigger an alarm. though. .be triggered. Intermediate Pressure Turbine Intermediate Pressure Turbine (IPT) consist of 11 stages. 10. Here it passes through 12 different stages due to which its temperature goes down to 329°C and pressure as 27 kg/cm2. Steam enters through front end and leaves from Rear end.flow. no crankshaft was required. which increases the amount heat available for conversion to mechanical power.High Pressure Turbine Steam coming from Boiler directly feeds into HPT at a temperature of 540°C and at a pressure of 136 kg/cm2. When the steam has been passed through HPT it gets enter into IPT. 9.
The gases will give rise to corrosion of the metal. A Steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam. 2.005 cm3/L) 13. The solids will deposit on the heating surfaces giving rise to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating.the conveyor Belt – that rotates about them. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibility‟s associated with heat transfer to the working fluid (water). If our Coal has moisture content then it dries it so that a proper combustion takes place. Under some conditions it may give to stress corrosion cracking. The pulleys are powered. most deaerator vendors will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0. If operated properly. Deaerator level and pressure must be controlled by adjusting control valves. Coal conveyor Coal conveyors are belts which are used to transfer coal from its storage place to Coal Hopper. A belt conveyor consists of two pulleys. 14. condensate. This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduces back into the steam cycle. It raises the temperature of coal so that its temperature is more near to its Ignite Temperature so that combustion is easy. A dearator typically includes a vertical domed deaeration section as the deaeration boiler feed water tank. Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversible involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. Coal Hopper Coal Hopper are the places which are used to feed coal to Fuel Mill.the level by regulating condensate flow and the pressure by regulating steam flow. with a continuous loop of material. It also has the arrangement of entering of Hoy Air at 200°C inside it which solves our two purposes:1. and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases. 15. Deaerator A Dearator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved gases (an alternate would be the use of water treatment chemicals) from boiler feed water to make it non-corrosive. ores etc. moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. 12. particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or suspended solids. feed water heaters allow the feed water to be brought up to the saturation temperature very gradually. In a steam power (usually modelled as a modified Ranking cycle). . Feed water heater A Feed water heater is a power plant component used to pre-heat water delivered to a steam generating boiler. coal. Conveyor belts are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material.It is now passed to an REHEATER where its temperature rises to 540°C and called as HRH-HOT REHEATED LINE . such as grain.
while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the mud-drum /feed water drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the “hotter”-water/and saturated –steam into steam drum. 21. or in the UK economizer. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and. It is reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water-tube boiler. Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives in quantity from the early 20th century. Economizers Economizer. Air Intake Air is taken from the environment by an air intake tower. In .4MPa). Pulverised Fuel Mill A pulveriser is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a fossil fuel power plant. and were widely adopted. Reheater Reheater are heaters which are used to raise the temperature of air which has been fallen down due to various process. 17. power plant. injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall.16. 23. Super Heater A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. 20. Force Draught Fan External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum. or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. 22. non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam. Made from high-grade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves temperatures 390‟C and pressure well above 350psi (2. to most steam vehicles. Ash Hopper A steam drum is used in the company of a mud-drum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine. and heating. Boiler Drum Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture. So that it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom. 18. and so stationary steam engines including power stations. first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. Boiler. ventilating and air conditioning. The steam will re-enter the furnace in through a super heater. water level indicator and fuse plug. are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam. 19.
25. Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy and improving the boiler‟s efficiency. The original parallel plate-Weighted wire design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and robust) discharge electrode designs were developed. the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. usually water. ESP‟s continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions. salt cake collection from black liquor boilers in pump mills. Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing ESP‟s to stay in operation for years at a time. In this context they are turbines before it is pumped to the boilers. Induced Draught Fan The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace. At the furnace outlet. . They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used the fill it (the feed water). and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. Modern controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack.boilers. Transformer –rectifier systems apply voltages of 50-100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. 26. economizer are heat exchange devices that heat fluids . Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices. Air Preheater Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process (for example. Economizer lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation of acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion damage if care is not taken in their design and material selection. and catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic crackers from several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest coal-fired boiler application. maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. As a consequence. today focusing on rigid discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes are attached . combustion in a boiler). Precipitator An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. in turn reducing the firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output . such as those in cold fired power stations. fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution. are still fitted with economizer which is decedents of Green‟s original design. additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan. maximizing corona production. up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of the fluid. 24. A common application of economizer is steam power plants is to capture the waste hit from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer thus it to the boiler feed water thus lowering the needed energy input . The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the fuel gas. Modern day boilers. This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law. avoiding damage to the components. including smoke from electricity-generating utilities (coal and oil fired). and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan.
ovens. the steam drum. Fuel gas stack A Fuel gas stack is a type of chimney. oil.27. boiler furnace. hotels or other stacks are referred to as chimneys.1 MPa. pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. When the fuel gases exhausted from stoves. natural gas. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulates matter. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more. induced draft (ID) fan. the chemical dosing equipment. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 °F (370 °C) and 22. Fuel gases are produced when coal. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. fireplaces or other small sources within residential abodes.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2. forming a large fireball at the center. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable pointsvto avoid excessive boiler pressure. fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall. Here the steam is superheated to 1. wood or any other large combustion device. . OPERATION OF BOILER The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall.000 °F (540 °C) to prepare it for the turbine. and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the superheater coils. It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. restaurants . so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policies and regulations. a vertical pipe. carbon mono oxide. Fuel gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. air preheater (APH). The generator includes the economizer. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns. channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called fuel gases are exhausted to the outside air.
The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. rotating drum grinders.Schematic diagram of a coal-fired power plant steam generator Boiler Furnace and Steam Drum Once water inside the boiler or steam generator. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. To provide sufficient combustion temperature in the furnace before igniting the powdered coal. the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. or other types of grinders. The pulverizers may be ball mills. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. the steam/vapor once again enters the steam drum. coal is blown by hot air through the furnace coal burners at an angle which imparts a swirling motion to the powdered coal to enhance mixing of the coal powder with the incoming preheated combustion air and thus to enhance the combustion. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapour in the water walls. . the furnace temperature is raised by first burning some light fuel oil or processed natural gas (by using auxiliary burners and igniters provide for that purpose). From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming un-pumpable. Fuel Firing System and Ignite System From the pulverized coal bin. Fuel Preparation System In coal-fired power stations. The oil is usually heated to about 100°C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles.
caused by pressure drop. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site. injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. OPERATION OF TURBINE Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators. a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator. Boiler Make-up Water Treatment Plant and Storage Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler. Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal At the bottom of every boiler. The turbine normally consists of several stages with each stage consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum. which produce electricity. For this. and additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan. maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars. which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in 'Boilers' or 'Steam Generators' as they are sometimes called. the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a water demineralising treatment plant (DM). fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution. This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law. Thus.Air Path External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The . which produces the electrical energy. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and. first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan. Fly Ash Collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. At the furnace outlet. continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into forces. Generally. The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water.
After the steam has passed through the HP stage. The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine.rotational speed is 3000 rpm for Indian System (50 Hz) systems and 3600 for American (60 Hz) systems. the steam turbines are split into three separate stages. . the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage. intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam. In a typical larger power stations. the first being the High Pressure (HP). it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. where high. High-pressure oil is injected into the bearings to provide lubrication.
VARIOUS CYCLES AT POWER STATION COAL CYCLE CONDENSATE CYCLE FEED WATER CYCLE STEAM CYCLE .
COAL CYCLE Coal Stock Yard RC Bunker RC Feeder Mill Furnace .
Condensate Cycle From LP Turbine condensor Condensate Pump Ejector Gland Steam LPH1 LPH2 LPH3 Dearrator .
FFED WATER CYCLE Boiler Feed Pump Economizer Boiler Drum HPH5 Feed Water Line Down Corner HPH6 HPH7 Water .
STEAM CYCLE From Boiler Drum LT Super Heater Main Steam Line Final Heater HP Turbine Cold Reheat Line Hot Reheat Line Reheater Low pressure Line To Condensor .
CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION INTRODUCTION C&I LABS CONTROL & MONITORING MECHENISM PRESSURE MONITORING TEMPERATURE MONITORING FLOW MEASUREMENT CONTROL VALVES .
4. 5. 6.INTRODUCTION This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. all fall under this. 2. “Instrumentation can be well defined as a technology of using instruments to measure and control the physical and chemical properties of a material. 3.” C&I LABS Control and Instrumentation Department has following labs: 1. Unit Control Board Main Control Board Analog & Digital Signal Control Current Signal Control This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry. 2. A View of Control Room at BTPS . 4. Manometry Lab Protection and Interlocks Lab Automation Lab Electronics Lab Water Treatment Plant Furnaces Safety Supervisory System Lab OPERATION AND MAINTAINANCE Control and Instrumentation Department has following Control Units: 1. 3.
While selecting Pressure Gauge these parameters should keep in mind1. It’s one end is fixed. in U shape.1. 4. Accuracy Safety Utility Price ACCURACY Higher Accuracy implies Larger Dial Size for accuracy of small and readable pressure scale increments. For liquid or steam measurement transmitters is mounted below main process piping and for gas measurement transmitter is placed above pipe. UTILITY It should keep it mind that range of the Gauge should be according to our need else Overpressure Failure may occur resulting in damage of Gauge. MANOMETER It’s a tube which is bent. Manometry Lab TRANSMITTERS It is used for pressure measurements of gases and liquids. (b) Helical Type: for High pressure measurement. It is provided with a pointer to indicate the pressure on a calibrated scale. its working principle is that the input pressure is converted into electrostatic capacitance and from there it is conditioned and amplified. 2. It can be mounted on a pipe or a wall. . PRICE Lager the Gauge’s Dial size larger would be our price. It gives an output of 4-20 ma DC. This device corresponds to a difference in pressure across the two limbs. It is filled with a liquid. 3. BOURDEN PRESSURE GAUGE It’s an oval section tube. SAFETY While selecting Pressure Gauge it should consider that Gauge Construction Material should be chemically compatible with the environment either inside or outside it. Better Gauge’s Construction material also increses the cost. So they must be chosen according to our need. It is of 2 types: (a) Spiral type: for Low pressure measurement.
2. Because if even a single condition is not true then system will not start.2.C supply. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE. Some of the instrument uses for protection are:. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small. RELAY It is a protective device. b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time. which melts when heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For low tension system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0. There are three types of trips I. When a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them. HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT for high tension system the control system are excited by separate D. one movable and other fixed. It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions. Miniature Circuit BreakerThey are used with combination of the control circuits to. c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat. THERMAL TRIP III. The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping. For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the equipment to energize it. MANUAL TRIP II. .415 KV A. current. Hence the tripping coil is provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails. In consists of current carrying contacts. For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments.C supply. 2. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. Protection and Interlock System1. b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. Protection and Interlock Lab INTERLOCKING It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipment fails other one can perform the tasks. The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP. FUSES It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit. phase angle and velocity. which trips the circuit.
The modern technology or the secondary systems are coupled with (MIS) Management Information System. RTD (RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR) – It performs the function of thermocouple basically but the difference is of a resistance. also the measuring devices can be calibrated in the oil bath or just boiling water (for low range devices) and in small furnace (for high range devices). It comprises of two junctions at different temperature. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace. which threatens to blast it. Earlier. For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed. to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace. 3. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. . AUTOMATION LAB This lab deals in automating the existing equipment and feeding routes. the old technology dealt with only (DAS) Data Acquisition System and came to be known as primary systems. ULTRA VIOLET CENSORThis device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100°C and its heights 18 to 40 m.3. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from three feeders but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. the relays are also provided but they are used only for protection and interlocks. Then the emf is induced in the circuit due to the flow of electrons. PYROMETRY LAB LIQUID IN GLASS THERMOMETER – Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340° C which limits the range of temperature that can be measured. 1. 2. It is made up of mild steel. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and pre-heater air along each of the feeder-mills. The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. In this lab. The furnace can operate on the minimum feed from three feeders but under no circumstances should anyone be left out under operation. This is an important part in the plant. 5. THERMOCOUPLES – This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. In this due to the change in the resistance the temperature difference is measured. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places. FURNACE SAFETY AND SUPERVISORY SYSTEM LAB This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. However. But this lab universally applies the pressure measuring instruments as the controlling force. 4.
Auto analyzer purifies the sample before it is sent to electrodes. ANNUNCIATIN CARDS They are used to keep any parameter like temperature etc. Monitoring of all the parameters is necessary for the safety of both: 1. Temperature 3. Machines So the Parameters to be monitored are: 1. It extracts the magnetic portion.6. Level . It gets a signal if parameter goes beyond limit. Flow of Gases 8. integrated circuits. Voltage 5. cards auto analyzers etc. Valves 10. within limits. Employees 2. Current 4. Metallurgical Problem can be view as the max Inlet Temperature for Turbine is 1060° C so temperature should be below the limit. CONTROL & MONITORING MECHANISMS There are basically two types of Problems faced in a Power Plant 1. Metallurgical 2. Various processes undertaken in this lab are: 1. 2. It has a switching transistor connected to relay that helps in alerting the UCB. Vacuum Pressure 9. Transmitter converts mV to mA. Pressure 6. Eccentricity 7. It houses various types of analytical instruments like oscilloscopes. Speed 2. Mechanical Mechanical Problem can be related to Turbines that is the max speed permissible for a turbine is 3000 rpm so speed should be monitored and maintained at that level. ELECTRONICS LAB This lab undertakes the calibration and testing of various cards.
All the monitored data is converted to either Current or Voltage parameter. Gauges 3. A typical Bourdon tube contains a curved tube that is open to external pressure input on one end and is coupled mechanically to an indicating needle on the other end. as shown schematically below. The Plant standard for current and voltage are as under • Voltage : 0 – 10 Volts range • Current : 4 – 20 milli-Amperes . It is widely used in applications where inexpensive static pressure measurements are needed.11. Vibration PRESSURE MONITORING Pressure can be monitored by three types of basic mechanisms 1. The Bourdon Tube is a non-liquid pressure measurement device. Switches 2. Typical Bourdon Tube Pressure Gages For Switches pressure switches are used and they can be used for digital means of monitoring as switch being ON is referred as high and being OFF is as low. Transmitter type For gauges we use Bourdon tubes.
RTDs are also used but not in protection systems due to vibrational errors. So that if R changes then the Voltage also changes RTDs used in Industries are Pt100 and Pt1000 Pt100 : 0°C – 100 Ω ( 1 Ω = 2. It is inexpensive and. Thermocouple selection depends upon two factors: 1.1 % Programmable Logic Circuits (PLCs) are used in the process as they are the heart of Instrumentation. The gauges used for Temperature measurements are mercury filled Temperature gauges. Accuracy of such systems is very high.We use 4mA as the lower value so as to check for disturbances and wire breaks. owing to its popularity. We pass a constant current through the RTD. . This is the most commonly used general purpose thermocouple.5 0C ) Pt1000 : 0°C . ACCURACY : ± 0. Sensitivity is approximately 41 μV/°C. TEMPERATURE MONITORING We can use Thermocouples or RTDs for temperature monitoring. available in a wide variety of probes. Accuracy Required Normally used Thermocouple is K Type Thermocouple: In this we use Chromel (Nickel-Chromium Alloy) / Alumel (Nickel-Aluminium Alloy) as two metals. They are available in the−200°C to +1200°C range. Normally RTDs are used for low temperatures. For Analog medium thermocouples are used and for Digital medium Switches are used which are basically mercury switches. Temperature Range 2.1000Ω Pt1000 is used for higher accuracy.
which measure flow rate by allowing the cross sectional area the fluid travels through to vary. causing some measurable effect. with a float inside that is pushed up by flow and pulled down by gravity. accuracy and liquid to be measured so different types of meters used . . A rotameter consists of a tapered tube. Floats are made in many different shapes. Magnetic Flow meter ( water level ) Selection of flow meter depends upon the purpose. Ultrasonic Flow meters 6. Turbines 4. For Digital measurements Flap system is used. TURBINE TYPE: They are simplest of all. For Analog measurements we can use the following methods : 1. It belongs to a class of meters called variable area meters. typically made of glass. with spheres and spherical ellipses being the most common. At a higher flow rate more area (between the float and the tube) is needed to accommodate the flow. This allows you to tell if the float is stuck since it will only rotate if it is not. They work on the principle that on each rotation of the turbine a pulse is generated and that pulse is counted to get the flow rate. Venturimeters / Orifice meters 3. It isoccasionally misspelled as 'Rotometer'.FLOW MEASUREMENT Flow measurement does not signify much and is measured just for metering purposes and for monitoring the processes ROTAMETERS: A Rotameter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube. Flow meters 2. Mass flow meters ( oil level ) 5. The float is shaped so that it rotates axially as the fluid passes. so the float rises.
closing. like in Otto cycle engines driven by a camshaft. the valve is called a quarter-turn valve. but usually are discussed separately. pneumatic actuators which are controlled by air pressure. slurries. the theoretical pressure drop at the constriction would be given by (ρ/2)(v22 . residential. Valves can also be controlled by devices called actuators attached to the stem. where they play a major role in engine cycle control.v12). but many more are used. fluidized solids. Some valves are driven by pressure only. transportation. And we know that rate of flow is given by: Flow = k √ (D. ball valves.VENTURIMETERS : Referring to the diagram. they are mainly used for safety purposes in steam engines and domestic heating or cooking appliances. and plug valves are often quarter-turn valves. or hydraulic actuators which are controlled by the pressure of a liquid such as oil or water. CONTROL VALVES A valve is a device that regulates the flow of substances (either gases. or liquids) by opening. military. Many valves are controlled manually with a handle attached to the valve stem. Butterfly valves. commercial. They are : · PNEUMATIC VALVES – They are air or gas controlled which is compressed to turn or move them · HYDRAULIC VALVES – They utilize oil in place of Air as oil has better compression . or partially obstructing various passageways. They can be electromechanical actuators such as an electric motor or solenoid. So there are basically three types of valves that are used in power industries besides the handle valves. using Bernoulli's equation in the special case of incompressible fluids (such as the approximation of a water jet).P) Where DP is Differential Presure or the Pressure Drop. Plumbing valves are the most obvious in everyday life. Valves are technically pipe fittings. Others are used in a controlled way. Valves are used in a variety of applications including industrial. If the handle is turned a quarter of a full turn (90°) between operating positions.
Examples of pressure valves: 1. It is a microprocessor based programmable logic controller of proven design incorporating all protection facilities required for such system. Pneumatic valve (actuator) _ works due to pressure of compressed air 4. Manual valves (tap) 2. Thus it is also known as corner type boiler. There is a 5 minute delay cycle before igniting. the switch under the switch gets pressed which is attached to a relay that makes or break the circuit. Main objective of FSSS is to ensure safety of the boiler. Motorized valves (actuator) – works on motor action 3. IGNITER SYSTEM Igniter system is an automatic system. The 210 MW boilers are direct type boilers (which means that HSD is in direct contact with coal) firing takes place from the corner. which spray aerated HSD on the coal for coal combustion. This method is known as PURGING. this is to evacuate or burn the HSD.· MOTORISED VALVES – These valves are controlled by electric motors FURNACE SAFEGUARD SUPERVISORY SYSTEM FSSS is also called as Burner Management System (BMS). Hydraulic valve . Time delay can also be included in sensing the pressure with the help of pressure valves. PRESSURE SWITCH Pressure switches are the devices that make or break a circuit. it takes the charge from 110kv and this spark is brought in front of the oil guns. Fire takes place in front and in rear side. That’s why it’s called front and rear type boiler. When pressure is applied. The 95 MW boilers are indirect type boilers.
IT DEPARTMENT IT BTPS VISION IT ROLE & RESPONSIBLITIES @BTPS IT APPLICATION @BTPS BENEFITS OF IT INNOVATION @ BTPS VARIOUS E-SERVICES @BTPS SMS ALERT @ BTPS REWARDS & RECOGNITION .
Auxiliary power consumption monitored and controlled. Coal Monitoring & Accounting System 7. Operations & ABT Monitoring System 6.Based on failure analysis and equipment history.BTPS IT VISION INTEGRATED IT ENABLEMENT OF BUSINESS PROCESSES FOR EFFICIENT PLANT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION ANYTIME ANYWHERE IT ROLE & RESPONSIBILITIES @ BTPS 1. Maintenance Management System 2. IT APPLICATION @ BTPS At BTPS. E-Samadhan complaints monitoring system Benefits of IT Innovations @ BTPS 1. Information Technology has been used extensively to manage following business processes1. Implementation & Support for Local Applications 2. Printers. 4. modified maintenance strategy of Preventive. Support to users for ERP & modules to supplement ERP. 2. Office Automation & Communication System 10. Contracts Management System 5. HR. T/S & Training Management System 9. Servers & Network LAN. OPERATIONS Important & critical parameters of Power Plant operation are monitored online to enable effective control on operation of various equipments and reduce down time. Customization & Implementation support for BTPS Applications to other projects.WAN etc) 3. Hospital Management System 8. Procurement & Maintenance of IT Infrastructure ( PCs. Equipment spares planning are streamlined by way of Annual . Financial Accounting System 4. Development. Meritorial operation practicing enabled. Materials Management System 3. Predictive and Risk Based maintenance is implemented. Online load analysis & Generation values are monitored to have optimum load balance of various units. MAINTENANCE Better control over maintenance cost by way of online information available through the system.
Ordering on actual need basis (just in time). Information captured once at source.U. reduction in demurrages paid to railways. Single Login screen. auto mail and BTPS website. procurement on Annual Rate Contract basis enabled through the system. resulting in overall system improvement and functionalities. Detection of duplicate and obsolete items. G. Vendor wise. 4. resulting in tremendous reduction in paper communication and cost. OFFICE AUTOMATION AND COMMUNICATION With implementation of e-Desk/e-broadcast. 3. MATERIALS Material Planning and Procurement system streamlined. Cleaning and Weeding of redundant data. BTPS IT Applications Highlights 1. Pass Word & Role based secured access . standardization of material description and specification. Interface. linked to Equipment. Further. Availability of coal stock status online. Automation of routine activities. for future analysis. Standardization of defects and repair codes for easy filling of Work Order Card. 4. e-alerts. 2. Easy information retrieval/search facility. This further reduces lead time and Inventory carrying. resulting in reduction in Administrative lead Time. information is available instantly to all and all time. 3. A View of BTPS Login Page .requirement.
6. HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (HMS) 1.FI Materials Management. 4.ERP/SAP MODULES IMPLEMENTED (ERP-ENTERPRISE RESOURCES PLANNING) Maintenance Management. Initiation and approval of Contract Proposal. Analysis of repeated equipment failure for corrective action. Medicines issues/availability . Coal and Rail Freight bill payments accounting & reconciliation.OPN Employee Self Service. 7. Equipment history with detailed feedback available. Daily Plant Meeting minutes generated online. Online patient registration 2. Online uploading of Wagon wise Weight from Wagon Tipplers. and Earning Card available online. Permit to Work Issue with detailed feedback. Preparation of Tender Documents and approvals.PM Finance Management. 2. Standardization of defects & repair codes. 2. 3. 3. Interface with Materials Management System & CMS for WOC cost MATERIAL & CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS) 1. 3. Coal Accounting System (CAS) 1. Status of Income Tax Details. Doctor’s prescription 3. Anurakshan @ BTPS 1. Leave.ESS Maintenance Management system. Tariff Summary. Preparation and processing of Bills. 2. 3.HR Operations Management. Accrued Interest. FINANANCIAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM (FAS) 1. PF slips. Trends of defects priority wise /department wise for a period. coal accounting and MIS reports generated from the system. 5. Fund Flow Statements & other Reports for day to day functioning. Bank Reconciliation. 2.MM Human Resource Management.
3. Annual check-ups. 2. Investigation reports 5. Employee database to record/ update information of employees Township/Quarter management system.4. patient history . . 4. referrals etc. Performance Management analysis & evaluation system. Computerized Attendance recording system. A View of Hospital Management System HR/TRAINING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 1.
A View of Tanning Management System VARIOUS E-SERVICES @ BTPS E-Desk . 3. 4. . 2. E-Broadcast. SMS to groups or individual numbers. E-SERVICES OFFICE AUTOMATION & COMMUNICATION KEY FOCUS AREA TOWAREDS PAPERLESS OFFICE SMS ALERT @ BTPS 1. SMS & E-Mail as Primary Communication & Document Delivery System. Send SMS instantly or scheduled date/time. One more IT initiative for fast & convenient way to information sharing thru SMS Automatic SMS alert is already in use for plant load & unit Trip.
First site in NTPC. REFERENCE TRAINING REPORTS OF PAST YEARS AT NALANDA LIBRARY INTERNET DOCUMENTS OF IT DEPARTMENT .Plant Load & Unit Trip SMS Alert REWARDS & RECOGNITION Badarpur has achieved unique distinction of being. with in house effort. with independent initiative of Development & Implementation of new Oracle based integrated online Applications. This has been appreciated by NTPC higher management. BTPS Received Golden Peacock award for IT Innovation in 2004.
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