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the nature and social function of sacrifice. The ambitious undertaking would be if it had been prepared by the research of Tylor, Robertson Smith and the Frazer. We know what we owe them. But other studies allow us to propose a different theory of their own, which seems more comprehensive. We do not think, moreover, to the present as other than a provisional hypothesis: on a subject as vast and complex, new information can not fail to lead us in the future, to change our current thinking. But under express these reservations, we thought it might be useful to coordinate the facts we have and to give an overall design. The history of old ideas and popular gift of sacrifice, sacrifice food, sacrifice and study of contract they may have had repercussions on the ritual will not stop us, whatever may be of interest. Theories of sacrifice is as old as religion, but to find ones that have a scientific nature, we must descend until recent years. It has the anthropological school and especially its English representatives that the merit of the have developed. Under the inspiration of parallel Bastian, of Spencer and Darwin, Mr. Tylor  , comparing facts taken to races and different civilizations, imagined a genesis of forms of sacrifice. Sacrifice, according to the author, is originally a gift that has made the savage supernatural beings that he must concentrate. Then, when the gods grew up and moved away from the man, the need to continue to send them this gift gave rise to the sacrificial rites, designed to bring up these things spiritualized spiritual beings. Succeeded in giving the tribute which the faithful no longer expresses no hope of return. From there to the selflessness and sacrifice became cessation, there was only one step, the evolution did so pass the rite presents from the wild, self-sacrifice. - But if the theory accurately described the stages of moral development of the phenomenon, it does not explain the mechanism. She did in fact play in a language that defined the old popular designs. Without doubt, by itself, it had a historical truth. It is certain that the sacrifices were generally in some degree, donations  giving the faithful rights to his god. They also served to feed the gods. But it was not enough to state the fact, he was accountable. In fact, R. Smith  was the first who attempted a reasoned explanation of the sacrifice. It was inspired by the recent discovery of totemism  . Just as the totemic clan organization had explained the Arab family and Semitic  , and he wanted to see in the worship practices of the strain totem sacrifice. In totemism, the totem or god is a parent of his worshipers, and they even have the same flesh and blood, the ritual is to maintain and ensure that common life which animates them and the association between them. If necessary, it restores the unit. The "blood alliance" and the "communal meal" are the easiest ways to achieve this result. But the sacrifice does not differ from those practices in the eyes of R. Smith. To him it was a meal where the faithful, eating the totem, is assimilation, assimilated to him, allied with each other or with him. The sacrificial murder had no other purpose than to allow the consumption of a sacred animal and therefore prohibited. Of sacrifice communiel R. Smith deduces the propitiatory or expiatory sacrifice, that is to say piacula gifts and sacrifices, or fees. Atonement is, according to him, that the restoration of the broken covenant, yet the totemic sacrifice had all effects of a sacrificial rite. He found, moreover, this virtue in all sacrifices, even after the total elimination of totemism.
It remained to explain why the victim, originally shared and eaten by the faithful, were usually destroyed in whole piacula. Is that from the moment the old totems were supplanted by domestic animals in the cult of pastoral peoples, they figured more rarely in the sacrifices, and in particularly
serious circumstances. As a result, they appeared to be too sacred for the uninitiated might touch: the priests ate alone, or they did all disappear. In this case, the extreme holiness of the victim ends up turning into impurity and the ambiguous nature sacred things, that R. Smith had so admirably brought out, he could easily explain how such a transformation had occurred. On the other hand, when the parent of men and beasts had ceased to be intelligible to the Semites, human sacrifice replaced animal sacrifice, for he was now the only way to establish a direct exchange of blood between the clan and god. But then the ideas and customs in society that protected the lives of individuals by prohibiting cannibalism, did fall into disuse the sacrificial meal.
On the other hand, little by little, the sanctity of domestic animals, desecrated daily for food. the man himself went into disappearing. The deity was detached from its animal forms. The victim, the god away, approached the man, owner of the herd. It was then, to explain the offering was made, we represent it as a gift from the gods to man. Thus was born the sacrifice-gift. At the same time, the similarity of the rites of the sentence and the sacrificial rite, the bloodshed which was found in both sides gave a criminal communions piacular origin and transformed them into atonement.
In this research relate, firstly, the work of Dr. Frazer and the other, theories of Mr. Jevons. More cautiously on some points, they are, in general, the exaggeration of the theological doctrine of Smith  . As for Mr. Frazer  , it adds an important development. The explanation of the sacrifice of the god was still rudimentary at Smith. Without disregarding the naturalistic character, he made a piaculum higher order. The old idea of the totem kin of the victim survived and gods to explain the annual sacrifices, and reprints they commemorated a tragedy in which the god was the victim. Frazer acknowledged the similarity between the gods and demons sacrificed agrarian Mannhardt  . He approached the totemic sacrifice ritual murder of the geniuses of the vegetation he showed how the sacrifice and the communal meal, where we were supposed to assimilate the gods, left the land where sacrifice for the god of allied fields at the end of its annual life, he was killed, then ate. He found together, often, the old god and sacrificed appeared, perhaps because of the taboos which he was charged, carries with it sickness, death, sin and played the role of scapegoat, scapegoat . But although the idea of expulsion was marked in these sacrifices, atonement still seemed out of communion. Mr. Frazer has instead proposed to complete the theory that Smith to discuss it.
The great defect of this system is to want to return if multiple forms of sacrifice the unity of a principle arbitrarily chosen. First, the universality of Totem, the starting point of any theory is a postulate. Totemism does a pure state in a few isolated tribes of Australia and America. Make it the basis of all religions theriomorphism is to make an assumption, perhaps unnecessary, and it is in any case, impossible to verify. Above all, it is difficult to find proper totem sacrifice. Mr. Frazer himself has acknowledged that often the victim was that of a totem sacrifice land. In other cases, the alleged totems are representatives of an animal species which depend on the life of the tribe, this species is domesticated, it is the preferred game or whether, instead, particularly dreaded. At the very least, a detailed description of a number of these ceremonies would it be necessary, yet this is precisely what is missing.
But a moment accept this first assumption, however it is questionable. Walking same demonstration is subject to criticism. The delicate point of doctrine is the historic estate and the bypass logic that Smith claims to be made between the sacrifice communiel and other types of sacrifice. Nothing is more doubtful. Any attempt to comparative chronology sacrifices Arabic, Hebrew or other he studied, is fatally ruinous. The forms that appear the most simple are known only by recent texts. Yet their simplicity can it lead to insufficient documentation. In any case, it implies no priority. If we stick to the facts of history and ethnography, we find everywhere piaculum next communion. Moreover, this vague term piaculum allows Smith to describe, under the same heading and in the same terms, purifications, of atonement and expiation, and it is this confusion which prevents analysis of the Atonement . Surely, these sacrifices are usually followed by a reconciliation with God, a sacrificial meal, a spray of blood, an anointing restore the alliance. But for Smith, it is in these rituals communiels themselves lies the purifying virtue of these kinds of sacrifices, the idea of atonement is absorbed in the idea of communion. Without doubt, he noted, in some extreme forms or simplified, something he dare not relate to the communion, a kind of exorcism to evict a bad character. But according to him, these are magical processes which have nothing sacrificial and explained with great erudition and ingenuity of their late introduction into the mechanism of sacrifice. This is precisely what we can give. One purpose of this work is to show that the elimination of a sacred, pure or impure, is a cog in primitive sacrifice as primitive and as irreducible as communion. If the unit has its sacrificial system, it must be sought elsewhere.
The error of R. Smith was primarily a methodological error. Instead of analyzing the complexity originating in the system of ritual Semitic, rather he was tied genealogically to group the facts from the reports of analogy he thought seeing them. It is, moreover, a common feature of English anthropologists who are concerned above all to accumulate and classify documents. For us, we do not want our turn has an encyclopedia that would be impossible to complete and which, coming after their own, would not be useful. We will try to study well the typical facts. These facts, we borrow particularly Sanskrit texts and the Bible. We are far from the sacrifices of the Greek and Roman documents of the same value. By bringing together scattered information provided by the inscriptions and authors, there is only one disparate ritual. Instead, we have in the Bible and the texts of Hindu body of doctrines which belong to a particular time. The document is straightforward, written by the actors themselves, in their language, in the spirit in which they performed the rites, if not always very clear awareness of the origin and cause of their actions.
No. doubt, as he is able to distinguish simple shapes and primary institution, it is unfortunate to take as its starting point the search for elaborate rituals, recent commentary and probably distorted by a learned theology . But, in that order of facts, any purely historical research is futile. The ancient texts or facts reported, barbarism on the people, the apparent simplicity of the rites are misleading historical clues. It is unreasonable to search a string of verses of the Iliad an approximate picture of early Greek sacrifice, they are not even enough to give an exact idea of sacrifice in Homeric times. We perceive the oldest rituals as through literary documents, vague and incomplete, partial survivals and liars, infidels traditions. - It is also impossible to ask only the schema of Ethnography primitive institutions. Usually truncated by a hasty observation or distorted by the precision of our language, the facts recorded by ethnographers do their value if they are closer to documents more accurate and complete.
We do not have to be thinking here of the genesis and history of sacrifice and if we ever speak of anticipation, it will be logical and not prior to historical precedence. It's not that we refused the right to appeal either to classical texts, or ethnology, to inform our analysis and monitor the generality of our findings. But instead to focus our study on groups of artificially made forms, we will, in rituals that defined and complete we will investigate, given sets, natural systems of rites necessary to observation. Thus forced by law, we will be less vulnerable to omissions and arbitrary classifications. Finally, as the two religions will be the focus of our investigation are very different, because one leads to another and monotheism to pantheism, hopefully, by comparison, to arrive at conclusions sufficiently general  .
I Definition and unit of the sacrificial system
But it is important before going further, to define external facts we refer to as sacrifice.
The word sacrifice immediately suggests the idea of consecration and one might be led to believe that the two notions coincide. It is quite certain, indeed, the sacrifice always involves consecration in every sacrifice, an object passes the common domain in the religious field, he is devoted. But all the accolades are not the same kind. There are those who exhaust their effects on the blessed object, whatever it is, man or something. This, for example, if the anointing. Rite Is there a king? Only the religious personality of the king is amended, and outside it, nothing is changed. In the sacrifice, on the contrary, the dedication reaches beyond the thing consecrated, reaching between the other entity that is the cost of the ceremony. The faithful who provided the victim, the object of consecration is not, at the end of the operation, he was in the beginning. He acquired a religious character that he did not, or he got rid of a negative character which he was afflicted, it amounted to a state of grace or it is out of a state of sin . In one case as in the other, it is religiously transformed.
We call on the sacrifice that reaping the benefits of sacrifice or suffering the effects  . This topic is now an individual  and now a community  , family, clan, tribe, nation, secret society. When a community is, it happens that the group collectively meets the Office of sacrifice, that is to say, attending in a body to sacrifice  , but sometimes, it delegates any of its members acting in instead. Thus the family is usually represented by its leader  , the company by its judges  . This is a first degree in this series of images which we encounter at every step of the sacrifice.
However, there are cases where the influence of the sacrificial consecration is not directly felt on sacrificing himself, but on some things that are more or less directly to the person. In the sacrifice that takes place during the construction of a house  is the house that is affected and the quality it has gained and can survive its current owner. In other cases, the scope of the sacrifice, the river that must pass, he gives the oath, the covenant he concludes, etc.. We call objects of sacrifice such things for which the sacrifice takes place. It is important, moreover, noted that the sacrifice is reached, also because of its presence at. sacrifice and the share or interest there is. The action of radiant sacrifice
When you make . there are between these rites and sacrifice of reports on related and they must always be distinguished. which occurs through the exchange of blood. there remained intact and belonged to the priests. there is not an offering where the blessed object is interposed also between God and the offering and the latter being affected by the consecration. Greece  . they are asked not to be broken  . but that it is ready to enter  . he must not only home to receive his family. wine or other liquid  . it should call any sacrifice oblation same plant every time the gift. the subject who is sacrificed by the party of the person who is offered. Under these conditions. It can be said of the libations of milk. the rest is eaten whole or in part by the priests. and it even happens that they take place  . In other cases. because it produces a double effect. But if any sacrifice is in fact an oblation. when cut. one on the purpose for which it is offered and on which we want to act. the other on the legal person who wishes to that effect and causes . sacrificed. They are prone in Greece  the same distinctions as the sacrifices  . or made coins or consumed by fire. Thus. although its use appears to reserve the word sacrifice in the name of the only bloody sacrifices. consecration may affect the service of God. The same rites are observed. when. in a word. Sometimes the subject is devoted simply presented as an ex-voto. This is obviously the offerings of this kind that should be reserved for the name of sacrifice. The identity of these operations has been so much felt by Hindus as the items offered in these cases were self-identified. the religious energies involved are higher. we beg them not to avenge the sacrifice of evil that makes them. Hebrew is a minha offering of flour and cake  . and it accompanies some sacrifices. Sometimes. the sacrifice is different from most of the facts known as of alliance by blood. where an animal is brought to the altar. indeed. so there were sacrificial rites that did not contain animal offerings. Thereby. it crushes the grain. Indeed. It is arbitrary and restrict the meaning of the word. the consecration destroys the object presented. the mechanism of consecration is the same in all cases and there is no objective reason to distinguish them. in a solemn sacrifice enough. we implore them for they do not hurt the sacrificer and priests. or a portion of the offering. Without doubt. it is a sacrifice so the same way as they did in Leviticus indistinguishable  . We feel that the difference between these two kinds of operations is due to their seriousness and their uneven uneven effectiveness. it is useful only if it has the dual result. is destroyed. However. but it does not change its nature simply because it is passed into the religious sphere: those of beginnings which were only made to the temple. In the case of sacrifice. in direct communication with god  .here is particularly sensitive. thence their toll. They are also considered alive and treated as such. When a father sacrificed for the inauguration of his house. admitted of some gods on their altar as offerings plant  . however. But this first feature is not sufficient because it does not distinguish the sacrifice of those facts which should be well defined name offerings. Thus. The object is destroyed and the victim. We see what is the distinguishing feature of the consecration in the sacrifice that is holy that mediates between the sacrificer. a direct fusion of human life and divine life  . A portion was destroyed in the fire of the altar. We say many cases of offering of hair. When removing the cakes on the shards for cooking. or object that should receive the useful effects of sacrifice and divinity to whom the Sacrifice is usually addressed. there are offerings of different species. Relatively speaking. Man and God are not in immediate contact. here again. the goal is pursued is achieved only when he was slain.
So have we become accustomed.a libation of milk (and all the libations are Hindu with milk or any of its products). often indistinguishable. the sacrifices and expiatory curative. as we did anticipate. it was not to establish the original diversity and irreducible sacrificial systems. there are votive sacrifices whose casual nature is even more pronounced  and finally. whether real or ideal. . the same practices are found to some degree in all. a methodical search. forms of sacrifice. We will not take any account of our classifications commonly used. the generic unit sacrifices.As for the constant sacrifices (nityâni) or. tangled. the start of the ward. the sacrifice of the new and full moon sacrifices of seasonal festivals and pastoral beginnings of year-end. etc. The occasional sacrifices are first sacrifices sacramentaries (samskârâs). independent of human will and chance circumstances. Without attempting to try a new one that would be exposed to the same objection. This definition does not define only the object of our research. when we reproached Smith to reduce the atoning sacrifice for sacrifice communiel. better. etc. Secondly. marriage. immediately receive the sacrificial action. for example. It is that their unity. sacrifice of thanksgiving (Dankopfer) of sacrifices-applications (Bittopfer). So we come finally to the following formula: Sacrifice is a religious act which.. Thus. storing the sacrifices in a number of distinct categories: one speaks. one of the classifications given by the Hindu texts. that is to say. and the multiplicity of purposes implies that means. the cow itself his successor. tonsure ritual. Others are part of the solemn ritual. it is not something inanimate that offer. with differences that include the solemnity of one and the family nature of the other.. But this first result seems in contradiction with the infinite variety that seem to at first. is not such that he was representing. especially in Germany. A number of these sacrifices are part of domestic ritual (as outlined in the Sutras Grhya): are those that occur during the birth. atonement (Sühnopfer). those accompanying solemn moments of life. the anointing of the king and the sacrifice which confers civil and religious quality is considered superior to all others  . . we'll just borrow here to get an idea of the variety of sacrifices. the boundaries of these categories are floating. it sets us on a very important point: it presupposes. in our opinion. periodicals. For brevity of exposition we call personal sacrifices of those where personality is directly affected by sacrificing the sacrifice. But in reality. in its sap in its fertility  . the desired effects quite different. Such are the daily sacrifice. Each other and are generally found in the solemn ritual and the domestic ritual. while real. as they are not. by the consecration of a victim. and sacrifice those goals where objects. they are attached to certain fixed times. The opportunities are endless sacrifice. The most instructive is perhaps the one that divides the constant sacrifices and occasional  . modifies the state of the legal person who performs or some objects it is interested  .
all the ceremonies that involve a sacrifice of cake. which is gradually diversifying to meet the different needs  . the first. these four typical forms are not. For example. which leads to similar rites. sometimes independent of the wishes and opportunities: Each spring. . yet they sacrifice for a multitude of purposes which are sometimes dependent. sacrifices of purification. is in the same manner as the goat to the gods celestial good. to escape the misfortunes that could become chronic. or at least are not real types of sacrifices. The ritual Hebrew provides examples equally striking complexity of the rituals and identity of their elements. animal sacrifice is solemn. unfortunately  . sending the offering to the deity  . Battat was the sacrifice that was used specifically to expiate sin appointed or hataah Battat. an alliance of hope. rituals in the opposite direction may have the same design: internal reasons have been the cause of the barren cow. Similarly. Indeed. Thus. Agni and Soma  . in rites for redeem person. The sacrifice for the purification of leprous comprises rites similar to those of the dedication of the priest . even these two irreducible ideas of atonement and communion. communiel sacrifice. and includes a ôla  hattât. cannot provide the base of a general and rigorous classification of the sacrifices. a sacrificial cake is the essential ceremony and seasonal festivals. but a kind of abstract elements where one of the organs of the sacrifice is highly developed and that can always enter more complex formulas. Leviticus reduces all the sacrifices to four basic forms: Ola hattât. We find isolated or combined with other. And there is not only a fireworks display. where it is likely plant. this can only be a celebration periodic  . including Leviticus gives us a very vague definition. Each of them reminds one of the special sacrifice: the second.). to become invulnerable and victorious. the presentation of the victim. the sacrifice of the ordination of the high priest  consists of a hattât. But at the same time. And also. the changing according to circumstances. Perhaps we would in vain seek examples of expiatory sacrifice where no element communiel or of sacrifices communiels slips which do not resemble by any side expiatory sacrifices . communication of a crowned nature or expulsion of a contrary nature. the first grain consumption.. shelamim. a series of votive sacrifice  . where the most diverse festivals in the journals Nature and vegetation. a sacrifice to Rudra. god of evil. they have so felt the unity they have made it the basis of their theory. and this scheme they adapt successively. during the consecration of the king to reach a higher social status. minha  . Now the sacrifice of soma  . The sacrifice for the purification of birth. Here are thus two sacrifices of which one appears to be expiatory and the other rather communiel. aspects of which are already so many and varied (sacrifices to nature. a sacrifice of thanksgiving. and occasional rites. Almost all of the solemn ritual texts have the same plan: statement of a fundamental rite. The shelamin  (LXX [Greek text]) is a communiel sacrifice. Atonement. Because the soma is fit for sacrifice in the spring. etc. but a real sense of the flexibility of the sacrificial system. by the Brahmins. As for the terms and Ola minha. Thus. The names of two of them are significant. an Ola sacrifice where the victim was burned entirely and sacrifice of the ram of consecration which is a zebah shelamim. they are purely descriptive. Thus the brahmanas and sutras crauti that comment depart from the general description of all the sacrificial rites that constitute cakes to the new and full moon. But in truth. This simplification of the sacrificial system  is probably the result of a classification too special and too arbitrary to also serve as a basis for a comprehensive study of sacrifice. The ritual has decomposed ceremonies which gave rise every opportunity to sacrifice a single or plurality of sacrifices that were considered as such.We can see how many different opportunities to serve the Brahmins were the sacrifices. during the construction of the altar.
have this character to the degree appropriate. The victim of hattât can be allotted very whole to the priests . the blood of the victim is used to rub with oil the doors and the walls. In hattât celebrated for the dedication or the purification of the temple or the furnace bridge. rather complex for all the important moments of the drama will be met. We do not know. nor sacrifice. Moreover. These examples show which affinity present practices which. and different facts is too great. grease. and quite well known for an accurate analysis can be made . Therefore we will base our study. the details should be better explained. except to gather around the analysis of other facts. However a rite of the same kind finds in the zebah shelamim ordination. an oiling of very similar blood is made on Aaron and his sons . the sacrificers communicate. certain parts of the victim (blood. It ya continuity enters the forms of the sacrifice. II The pattern of sacrifice Admission We obviously can think of drawing a pattern here of sacrifice that is abstract enough to agree to complete all known cases. we find same ambiguity. it is a rite amorphous and is not oriented in one direction. They are profane. and it is there what makes their unit. at the time of their entry and exit as well as in the course of action. nor the priest nor the place nor the tools nor the victim. in general. the rites are necessary to introduce into the sacred world and engage them more or less profoundly. some internal organs) are always reserved. The zebah shelamim  is a sacrifice communiel. destroyed or prohibited. The sacrifice that we feel best meet this condition is the Hindu Vedic animal sacrifice. not only in the complex sacrifices. indeed. For this. by the nature of their object and their results. they must change state. The first phase of the sacrifice is to give it to them. and yet. They are at the same time too varied and too similar so that it is possible to divide them into too characterized groups. but it can serve many different purposes.Because. but even in the elementary sacrifices of Pentateuque. seem to be opposite. taken either in India itself or to other religions. according to the . However. All he can do is explore specific forms of sacrifice. in the absence of sacrificing. But it is not who is better suited to research that we undertake. before the ceremony. A member is always eats by the priests. This rite communicates the dedication  to them. They are the envelopes of the same mechanism that we now will dismount and describe. All the characters are very clearly presented. Sacrifice is a religious act which can only be accomplished in a religious environment and through agents essentially religious. They have all the same core.
After he took a bath purificator  . reached the last degree of nervous excitement. which is not a ritual animal sacrifice. It remains in this state until the grand ceremony of the introduction of soma  . a series of symbolic ceremonies begin for the sacrifice. but the manner of the gods. following the various junctions  .. This initiation complex. he built a special hut. he does not answer who asks. therefore. according to the expression of Sanskrit texts  . it is covered by the skin of the sable antelope  . This is one of the diks. for the dîksita is a god and the world of the gods is separated from that of men  . which will gradually be stripped of the time he was reborn to do entirely new species. These rites are not peculiar to Hindus: the Semitic world. fasting. it is not necessary that the sacrifice is deified. A degree of kinship with the god is first required of those seeking admission to sacrifice  .As soon as the priests are chosen. he is god. speak clearly defined. Therefore.  . that is to say the preparation of sacrificing the sacrifice of soma  . Because. thereby indicating that new life will start for him. sleep. And even for these simple rites. because the embryo in its membranes has closed fist. And this life lasted for months until her body has become transparent. In this case.. bathes her. tightly closed. we cut the nails  . almost abnormal.. the interpretations given to them by their accompanying prayers and comments Brahman. But we find it. For the waters are pure. he shaves. Back to Table of Contents 1 ° sacrificing. It should not have intercourse with men impure caste. that is to say in a reverse order that men usually follow  . it is capable of sacrifice and ceremonies begin. though with less exaggeration in the preparatory rites of animal sacrifice ordinary. entry in the sacrifice. It hides its head and he made a fist  .important role they will play then. there is a linen garment brand new  . is. again. but where the common rituals are like magnified and. having sacrificed his old body as  . . So. required for ceremonies of exceptional gravity.To investigate how this change of state occurs in the sacrifice. the sacrifice has to become a god himself to be ready to act on them  . "(The sacrifice) to rinse the mouth . Then. It is the solemn moment when the new being awakened in him. or with women. It happens in the world of men in the world of the gods "  . a magnification. long-term. It becomes pure inside . Greece and Rome also provide examples. we do not touch  . Being a god. etc. or at least a saint.. We read from the beginning of Satapatha Brahmana. Anything related to the gods must be divine. Also abroad . He became a fetus. This constitutes. before that it is unfit for sacrifice . indeed. food fast. abstains from sex. But his divine nature once proclaimed  confers rights and imposes duties of a god.. he is exempt from any sacrifice. he reveals he was born in the existence of God. Then he opened his fists. We shave. .. more easily observable. but he always becomes sacred. For this. It takes only milk. one does come and go around the home as restless fetus in the womb.. immediately take an extreme case.
2 ° The priest. An intermediary or. purity is required momentary  . a guide is necessary  . the sacrifice is preceded by a purification or longer  . In addition. and sometimes the sacrifice must fast  and serve  . Sometimes even the layman is formally excluded from the sanctuary and sacrifice  . As a result of this religious. or at least the custodian of his power. He wore linen garments  he left immediately after sacrifice  . in his business. take some extra precautions. while it ruled out the bad influences. one would think that he at least can enter the sacrifice without prior initiation. It is known  . At the same time. because there are advance preparation. More familiar with the world of gods where he is hired by a half prior consecration  . The approach is formidable deity who is not pure  . All these purifications  . It is the priest. the agent of sacrifice  which shares the state and under it is the faults  . a fortiori. abstain from wine and fermented beverages  . he is on the threshold of the sacred and the profane world and it represents simultaneously.there is usually excluded  . consecrations. with the divine. consequently. for they were already by themselves a holy and formidable whose contact was dangerous to outsiders  . those of Eli  or priests Family Baithos  . It mainly consists of sprinkling holy water and washing  . the simplest operations are sufficient for them to bring a whole. eliminating the vices of his body of secularism. although the priest was ordained. The Roman ritual usually prescribed use of the veil as a sign of separation and. it is marked with a divine seal  . . except in extraordinary circumstances  . The Brahmin arrived with almost divine nature. This is indeed what is happening in India. the people must wash his clothes and remain chaste  . we do not dare approach the sacred things directly and alone. at least. lustrations. marked with a sacred character  . first. by subtracting from the common life and by introducing step by step in the sacred world gods. he gave backups. though usual. he did not need a special consecration. he is the minister. By increasing his personal holiness  . Sometimes sacrificing the completed his toilet by a shaven head and eyebrows  . when Iahwe will appear on Sinai. He is the visible agent of consecration in the sacrifice. it can look more closely and with less fear that the secular stained perhaps unknown stains. Similarly. was constantly threatened with death supernatural  who hit two son of Aaron  . they are too serious and too high. But on the other hand. He deposited them in a sacred place. preparing the profane to the sacred act. in short. . It only differs from the one we described for the secular in that it is generally less complicated. his incarnation  . Among the Hebrews. it is difficult initially facilitated the sanctuary. it avoids the sacrifice of fatal errors. he needed to be able to sacrifice. He must wear clean clothes  or even special clothes  which give a beginning of holiness. of consecration  . He had to wash before entering the sanctuary  and it was before the ceremony. They join him. The priest is. often women  . courtesans. The crown that was sacrificed on the head. As the priest is naturally closer to the sacred world. The priest himself.There are sacrifices that no other players and the sacrifice of the victim. But generally. title  or the suit  of his god. slaves  .
"Then. In Assyria. her and them. That's what was particularly noticeable at the Day of Atonement  . after which he was led into a special chamber  where it is left after making him swear not to change the rites. already devoted to Agni  . Agni is in its complete form  . for him and his family with the bull. dedicated to advance  . Fire is killer of demons. As sacrificing Hindu. it is a sign of consecration that kindle  . than in the diks we talked about earlier Seven days before the feast. too. He forgives both for him and for Israel. 14 and 21 Month  . Thus all the pontifical ritual tends toward the same goal: to give the priest a large special sanctification  which allows him to approach the god behind the mercy seat and the burden of sins that will be accumulated on his head. Under these conditions. Each could choose where he wanted to sacrifice  . It was still necessary maintain the purity and sanctity of the temple and the sanctuary: the daily sacrifices  and an annual sacrificial ceremony to meet this need  . It was after this that penetrates atonement. Depending on the nature and purpose of the ceremony. sometimes. All night. because sleep is a time during which the involuntary stains can be assumed  . It only gives him something to eat. Even one of the fires ignited by friction. is useless prior dedications. On this day. it must ensure  . The elaborate ceremonies that are designed to create a fire in which he does as pure elements. weeping. on the contrary. so it is completely new  . It's not even enough to say he is god. there was no temple.But he did not just sanctified for himself he also sanctified the person or company on whose behalf he acted. This is true of Hebrew sacrifice as regulated by the ritual of the Pentateuch. What in him divine the Hindu sacrificial fire is communicated so instead sacrificial and dedicated  . making incense. they separated  . The day before. This can take place or at any time and anywhere. spells and demons. the fire of sacrifice is nothing but the deity itself devours the victim or. Sometimes he would be offered the day  . but this place should first be devoted by a number of rites. those he was the substitute. evening and night  . Also texts which have survived only do they contain any provisions relating to the sanctification of the place of sacrifice repeated. the high priest represents the people of Israel. chosen by the deity  and deified by its presence  .It is not enough for the sacrifice and the priest are consecrated for the sacrifice itself can begin. the time of the celebration was different. it has a magical power that removes the evil spirits. For as serious duties required of all special preparations in connection with the quasi-divine role as the priest fulfilled. It would take even more precautions he exhibited at the same time as himself. behind the veil of the Holy of Holies  where he found God in the cloud. . called vihara  . it is subject to all kinds of care. the high priest isolated from his family  . the sacrifice is a murder  . . according to some Biblical legends. 3 ° place instruments. For all the times of day or year are not equally conducive to the sacrifices and it is even that exclude. was prohibited on 7. in fact. When the sacrifice is done in a temple  or in a place already sacred in itself. or at least greatly reduced. It was celebrated in a unique sanctuary. Similar rites. it is surrounded by old people who read him the section of the Bible which is exposed the ritual of Yom Kippur. the most important is that which was to draw fire  . to Israel with the two goats  . outside a holy place. to speak more exactly. This site consisted of a fairly large rectangular space. The location of the scene itself must be sacred. We do not describe in detail. it is held in the cell consort (of assessors)  . Similarly. for example. Among Hindus. proportionately.
When the anointed. but the surrounding  . and then just turn the priest. The players are ready. indeed. But at the same time. Within the limits thus marked. This is not a raw material. the magic circle is drawn. We need all the operations which it is composed succeed and complete and are in their place. We see how. In reality. the altar and the pole. the things of the atmosphere. But before introducing it. in other cases. it is to perform a religious act in religious thought. But there is one that deserves our attention because it is. By its slender stem. the post which will be linked beast. that's where. The forces are in action. called vedi. anointed one sacrifice. which will become even more complete in the victim  . we need the attitude to match internal external attitude  . After a lustration was both expiatory and purificator. because that is where will the most important of all visible characters who take part in the ceremony  The victim. indeed. the magical wooden sword) and touches the earth lightly. The staging is now set. a more marked than in the priest. and when it strengthens. invisible and present. from the beginning. This continuity of external rites is not even sufficient  . The vedi occupies an even more central than the fires.Within this space it is another. we take a shovel (or. too. The entrance to the victim will start the play. It is on this lawn that come sit the gods to whom the sacrifice is for. magic. They are tracing as a series of concentric circles. we dig the ground and is leveled: the hole thus formed constitutes the altar. It is still a kind of constancy in the same state of mind where the sacrificer and the priest about the gods. He held. On the outer circle is the sacrifice. in the layman's interest in which the sacrifice takes . by its lower part. but the tree with which it has been done already by itself a divine nature  That anointing and libations were further strengthened  . they attend the ceremony  . the sacrifice demanded a creed (credo Sraddha equals. the victim. it covers the bottom of the hole of different kinds of lawns. The contours of the vedi are carefully drawn on the ground  And for this. if they do not run exactly along the lines prescribed outside the sacrificer and the priest and turn against them. the vow which sought to be enforced  . even phonetically). the place is consecrated. These. In sum. we have noted an essential character of the sacrifice: it is the perfect continuity that is required to have. which determines its size  . all the operations we have just reviewed the same purpose. Es must have the automatic result of the sacrifice trust that nothing crazy. Also the Brahmanas do they represent a point where just converge and concentrate all the religious forces at play in the sacrifice. At the periphery. part of the altar  And is the Yupa. whose sacred character is even more marked: it is equivalent to the altar. By its upper part. an eminent position. it is the sacrifice that strengthens  . In it occurs. are not on the altar itself. the merger of the gods and sacrifices. those of the earth  . Any impurity is thus destroyed. this paper. he recalled how the gods ascended to heaven  . contrary to what happens in most other religions. for its middle part. terrible  . it gives power over the heavenly things. From the time he starts  . sacred space interiors. The victim We said earlier that construction of the altar in the Hindu ritual is to describe a circle on the floor magic. We will not dwell on the various instruments  which are deposited on the altar  after being made or during the session or carefully purified. how the act has resulted in its wake faith  . saying: "The villain is killed  . it must be to follow through without interruption and in the ritual order. it represents the sacrifice and is the size of the sacrifice.
everything converges to the victim who will now appear. The half-consecration that we gave him and could also be obtained in another way. In Mexico  . Sometimes it was sacred because of its birth the species to which it belonged was united to the divinity by special ties  . He then addresses the speech by multiplying the laudatory epithets and begging her to calm down  . The explanation is forthcoming. We must therefore reconcile the spirit that might otherwise. A priest takes fire from the gods. calling it an excellent thing. the rump and the two horns. as we said. without sickness. After it was washed  . everywhere  . Rhodes  . three sets of rituals are necessary. after these lustrations and the anointing comes. he did three times around the beast. we introduced various libations while we do  . the sacred character that is being purchased is already such as Brahman can not touch it with your hands. Thus having a divine character congenital. it invokes the god. asking him to consent to what we would use his property as a victim  . he had to submit to a variety of ceremonies. decoration strips  . lord of cattle. It is increasing as the space in which it develops. The divine spirit already invaded the victim. we find everywhere libations similar to those discussed above. She must be without blemish. It makes drinking water to the beast  Because the water is divine is the chandelier above.place. it seems the  . rites determined were necessary to bring in the religious state which demanded the role it was intended. it is painted. At the same time. In some cases. They were intended to produce an accumulation of holiness on the victim's head. narrower and more divine than others. And yet. But the Hindu ritual will enable us to better track the entire sequence of operations in which the victim is gradually deified. It was the god Agni. But mostly. become dangerous. These precautions. or sex. He is taken. Then it binds the victim to the post. the [Greek text] or barley as assistants. in the Vedic ritual. But more generally. These uses. these ceremonies took place before it was brought to the place of sacrifice  . All life is organized as sacrificial middle and focuses around a single home. That intoxication was a sign of possession. a firebrand. and the firebrand in his hand. such atonement. they accuse the sanctity of the victim. He gilded the horns  . First. that the beast is always sacrificed a former totemic animal. In some countries. she did not need to acquire it specially for the occasion. not to take revenge once dead. these marks of honor have a dual purpose. as bos cretatus Roman sacrifices. below. Greece. such an age. he placed a crown. She was only required to meet certain conditions which makes it able to receive consecration. Sometimes. and that the priest himself is reluctant to approach them. It needs to be invited and encouraged by a special formula that gives him a priest  . which are infinitely frequent  Does not mean. it intoxicated the victim. These junctions correspond to those made with oil in sacrifice Hebrew at the ceremony of the mola salsa in Rome. which surrounded the beast on all . Similarly. Everything is ready to receive it. There are a victim in mind that the sacrifice is specifically intended to liberate. to bring to these limits. it makes such. it was still nothing sacred at this time. . religiosity is low minimums. She must have a certain color  . a final ceremony which has the effect of locking the victim herself in a last magic circle. threw on the animal  . These ornaments communicating a religious character. But to take action this general ability to raise the required degree of religiosity. with or without fire. thence these blandishments and apology beforehand. where it had been designated in advance. it is whitened. But often. this religiosity already so high. will itself is narrowing.Finally. as the effects we had to produce  . without weakness  . it's the induced to leave peacefully sacrifice for the good of mankind. This tour was done in Linda about all the victims. the costume you put him closer to the god who presided over the sacrifice that was the purpose of the disguises used in the sacrifices we have more land than survivals  . Then the anointed with butter on his head on the shoulders and withers. At this point. once free. ownership of the gods.
by the principles of sympathetic magic and religion. etc.  . or rather blind. they threw the blame on each other and finally. we rush the transition from earthly life of the victim and his divine life. the priests returned. they prescribe certain rituals and libations of atonement  . the future destiny of the victim. This is what used rites. is represented as the sacrifice. making the final and irrevocable consecration. It is the solemn moment. Even the identification becomes so. Following this approximation. was hit  or it is banished. In Athens. Because. in Greece and state witness in the ritual celebrations of some  . The means used to ensure that communication is provided in the religions that we study here. But every religion required them to be scrupulously observed. now. by the laying on of hands. by murder. In general. The victim died. separated  . we have seen continue gradually through the various elements of sacrifice. It was therefore necessary to limit the direct and tame. We heard more than a simple voice commands given by the priest to priest. throwing his ax. once the animal is placed in the prescribed position and oriented in the direction specified by rites  Everyone is silent. This contact is achieved. "As the euphemism used. Sometimes there is direct representation. a more or less complete  . Also. by rites equivalents  . The ritual resolves the difficulty by a compromise. The change was usually a fatal heresy. The victim is already highly sacred. But the Supreme transaction remains to be done  . Hence results for the latter an ambiguous situation. Under the influence of the same ideas  . in the Semitic ritual. We have reached the climax of the ceremony. the victim was neck and neck sliced  . They could not wrap too many precautions as serious an operation. she merges with it. The spirit is gone. in order not to let the evil influences time to . Death will remove it. He needs to touch the animal to remain united with him and yet he is afraid to touch him. But in other cases. In India. The stoning was an ancient rite which no longer appears in Judea. But while moving and in the world of gods. it is crying like a parent. All elements of sacrifice are given. we groaned from the death of the animal  . moreover. the priest of the sacrifice of the Bouphonia fled. as a large family clan that we begged him not to avenge the damage that would be caused to the person of one of its members  . The rites of the murder were extremely variable. and the sacrifice and the officiant returns  murmuring mantras propitiatory  . who already represented the gods. the divine principle that it now contains. purifications that was scheduled after the sacrifice the priest also resembled the expiation of crime  . This emissions when the link around the throat of the animal  "Soothes his breath  . Also. the association of the victim and the sacrifice is done by physical contact between sacrificing (sometimes the priest) and the victim. at least in the Hindu sacrifice that. because he exposes himself and share his fate. But the spirit that is in it. Most commonly. natural: a father is represented by his son he sacrifices. We apologized for the act that was done. Elsewhere. in some cases to criminal enforcement. the sacred.. The two personalities merge. the victim was knocked down  or hanging  . The sacrifice is touching the victim through one of the instruments of sacrifice  . It is not enough to say she is. there is. ends in the victim. they wanted that death was swift. It was for the rest of the species to which it belonged. is still engaged in his body and attached by the last link to the world of profane things. for that very reason. while they brought the victim instead of the murder. Most often. her impending death have a kind of feedback effect on the sacrifice. the victim. which was thrown the sea  . it condemned the knife. Thus. punishable by excommunication and death  . it gave off a force ambiguous. a sacrifice is still required to personally pay the costs. they have just been the last time in contact.sides. the victim was to remain in relationships with men. this combination of sacred and profane. awesome simply because it was a force. and all those who took part in the sacrifice were cited in Prytaneion. It is a crime that begins a kind of sacrilege. He apologized before the strike. it happened that the murderer was punished.
the killed victim was presented as one had presented before the dedication .But the phenomenon was happening at that time had a different face. raised offering. What survived of the animal was or allotted entire to the world crowned. In the ritual of the shelamim. the essential act of sacrifice was accomplished. was carried out by various processes. or. the rite commanded to tear apart the victim  . by the fact of the dedication. tenouphâ. Isis and Thetis in the fire consumed their humanity  . on the veil. the rituals were ingenious in finding a mitigating circumstances. it also happened that these precautions were regarded as indifferent. in the interior of the sanctuary . if it had passed completely behind the veil . the sacrificed victim resembled deaths whose heart resided. The murder thus left behind him a crowned matter. the sacrificer soaks its finger in the blood which is presented to him. and it is it which. Methydrion A. in the sacrifices with the watery divinities. In Greece. at the same time. One of them consisted in putting materially in contact certain left the body of the animal and the furnace bridge of the god or some objects who were especially devoted to him. The oblation was thrown whole or in part in the fire. One subjected it for that to a double series of operations. In ordinary the priest hattât put blood on the horns of the furnace bridge of the òlâ . bring them with the head to the priest officiating who puts them on the furnace bridge . When the god intervened in the sacrifice. The victim was finally separated from the secular world. You could even have an interest in prolonging the agony  . The rites were simpler when. All in all. In Hebraic day of Kippour hattât. Also its remainders were surrounded by a religious respect : honors were returned to them. If. she was sacrificed. and puts a little blood on the horns of the furnace bridge of the perfumes. protective divinities or evil demons. one could cover to his skin the idol . However. it was versed with the sea . such as it is described in the first verses of the chap. and he also. the body of the animal remained visible and tangible. By this destruction. In any case. Often. it sought to regulate the shedding of blood spent  . In the òlâ. If the cries of the animal to be bad omens. the assistances. was useful has to develop the useful effects of the sacrifice. was filled of a crowned force which excluded it from the profane world. one smeared of it the crowned stone or the figure of the god . of another dimensioned. after having cut the victim of pieces. after collectbeing collected in a cut. The slow death as sudden death. on the one hand. The blood of the victims of the òlâ and the shelamin was simply versed at the bottom of the furnace bridge . when Demeter. as Demophon. trying to stifle or to avert  . turned offering . like Achilles. the parts presented received significant names: teroumâ. The incineration was another means. just as blood was entirely allotted by way of sprinkling or of overflowing  grease and the internal organs were burned with the fire of the furnace bridge . it was dedicated. moreover. in the other world and the corpse. could diminish the responsibility of the priest.e. in Arcadia. or allotted entire to the world profane. it makes sprinkling seven times in front of Iahwe. the form given to the idol . Attribution in the crowned world. one made run blood in water . In all the Hebrew sacrifices. IV of Lévitique . The portions thus devoted to the god who personified the dedication arrived him in pleasant smoke of odor . the spirit were released. . and various languages called sanctifying the act that put her in that state. in the world of the gods. His death was one of the Phoenix  : it revived sacred.vitiate the sacrificial act. for the reasons that we say. The remainder was versed at the bottom of the furnace bridge of the òlâ which was at the entry. whatever was. or divided between one and the other. When the victim had been stripped. This rite was particularly observed in the ceremonies where a crowned animal was sacrificed. in the etymological sense of the word. Elsewhere. as the son of the King of Byblos. instead of an animal is not sacrificed as flour or cakes. i. it was supposed to eat really and . as we will see it now. It changed in nature. to avoid possible deviations of the consecration unleashed. We saw to it that would fall only good place  Or else we made do in order to do not spill a single drop  .
several times.e. on the parts of the victims and the oblations reserved for the sacrificers . thus. one makes money of the skin of the victims and the taking away end up resembling accidental. by that. was going oneself from there to join the world of the evil powers.substantially the sacrificed flesh. The shares reserved to the priests could be eaten only by them and their families. the victim very whole being burned on the furnace bridge or in the crowned place. they. however. in the Roman expiatory sacrifices. the priests ate the flesh . place to believe that the priests were. The Homeric poems show us the gods sitting down with the sacrificial banquets . Undoubtedly. Responsible for bad influences. In the Hebraic òlâ and the Greek holocaust . Sometimes the sacrifice was called Kalil. it was provided that the victim escaped. The incineration. One represented oneself vaguely that the heart of the victim. of cutting off them from reality. it of it is a certain number which have a special aspect. without nothing out of inattentive barrel. In the zebah shelamim. In the same way. and in a crowned place . though it is not towards the same areas of the religious world that it moves in both cases. Of the two shares. It was to consume it. The Greek texts contain number of information. These kinds of sacrifices were very generally addressed to the infernal divinities or to the evil geniuses. one carried out ipso facto the brutal separation which was the sign of the dedication . reserved to the god. Undoubtedly. in this case still. according to Lévitique . the representatives. any idea of attribution was not absent from operation. But essence was to eliminate it. . the shoulder and the chest . The priest took his share . Thus the mystes of Bacchus tore and devoured the victims when they were had . was presented to him and placed in front of him. In spite of the difference of the rites. were even directed towards the crowned world. Also it happened that expulsion took place without it putting there at death. the priests carry their share on their premises. The cooked flesh . the agents. There were cases where the destruction and the elimination which resulted from it related to the entire body and not only on some of its parts. One did not start by killing it to incinerate his remainders then: all occurred at the same time. That one threw the animal in an abyss. thus the goat of Large-Forgiveness was devoted to Azazel . that it was precipitated tower of a city or from the top of a temple . it was its meat  . divine fire spouts out and makes disappear the flesh with which the furnace bridge is charged . the tenouphâ and the teroumâ. the rites appear sometimes rather not very demanding. The two rites thus had obviously the same direction . lieutenants of the god. placed them on fire where they were consumed . Such were the sacrifices by precipitation. in dissension on this point. i. complete . it occurs here the same phenomenon as on the furnace bridge from the olâ to Jerusalem when the victim goes up very whole in smoke in front of the face of lahwe. As the heart which the immolation had released before. it is separated. not less precise. to expel it. other taking away were made. are sacrificed in this manner. with all the evil powers which were in it. One must perhaps regard as sacerdotal shares various taking away made by the kings  or crowned families . The priest. The bird released with the fields in the sacrifice of the purification of leprous in Judaea . after having washed the entrails and the members of the animal. Moïse and the sons of Aharon were. it disappears completely. Among the cases of destruction supplements. In the Bible. However the share of the priest was still a divine share. it was especially a question of moving away them. On the flesh which remained after this preliminary destruction. and town of Athens. it [in Greek in the text]  driven out houses. consumption by the priest had the aim of completely eliminating from the temporal medium the parts of the animal which were thus destroyed or consumed. the priests kept the parts especially presented to Iahwe. The immolation of the victim and the destruction of its body took place at a stretch. The writers of Pentateuque were worry to know if the victim of hattât were to be burned or eaten by the priests. but it was exiled . It ya. In Leucade.
Now. it is the victim or what remains about it which will pass to sacrificing new qualities that it acquired by the sacrification. just as there were cases where all was burns by the god. in Myonia in Phocide . Immediately after the smothering of the victim. blood runs. However. The study of the Hindu animal sacrifice. the religious virtues that there had caused the sacrificial dedication. for example. One quickly removes it with all kinds of precautions and propitiations. they was. One found in Greece of the similar restrictions. the contact of the residues of the cremation . sacrificing it always holding the priest who carries it . The ceremony comes then which has the aim of allotting to the god the essential part of the victim: it is the vapâ. the sacrificial meal could take place only within the boundary of sanctuary . they disappeared with long and this is why consumption was to be done within a given time. One makes it cooked near crowned fire and one lays out the things so that grease. The operations which we will describe correspond to those which we met at the beginning of the ceremony. the sprinkling of blood . to pass to the victim something of its personality. while melting. They were deposited in special places protected by religious prohibitions . of all these practices. one made use of it to communicate or to sacrificing. sacrificing it was allowed to touch there and to eat some. were tightened and were not supervised . it is that the dedication by sanctifying it. or with the demons. had put it in a position to do it without danger. there were of them others where sacrificing it received the totality of the oblation . As of the first stab. But. for example. seldom carried out. if they were not destroyed. runs drop by drop on fire. and those which relate to attribution with the gods. Unutilized. The religion defended the holiness of the objects crowned at the same time as it protected the vulgar one against their malignity. its rights on the part of the victim which was abandoned for him were limited by the ritual . You are the share of shaved . the victim must be eaten the very same day sacrifice . though layman. It was assimilated the characters of the whole when it ate a piece of them. It was to very often consume it in a given time. the animal was cut into two and sacrificing it passed to through . in the sacrifices [in Greek in the text]. Levitique makes it possible to eat the shortly after the ceremony the remainder of the victim of the sacrifice of the wish (neder) and of the sacrifice indicates by the name of nedabâ (voluntary offering). But if still the third day ago of it. This communication can be obtained by a simple blessing . presents a unit. they were to be flaring. Sometimes. in general. did not come into contact with the profane things. and. the remainders were to be at least. These precautions were intended to prevent that the remainders of the victim. one ensures of it by a special rite the sacrificial purity. it makes drink with each opening of the animal water of purification . the cutting-up starts. It is the share intended for the evil geniuses. That made. and of those which look at the communication with sacrificing. But the effects of its dedication lasted only a time. being crowned. by the laying on of hands. one resorted to more material rites. that which ate some sinned seriously . If. gods chthoniens. Even the residues of the cremation which could be neither destroyed nor used were not thrown randomly. Moreover. Generally. One processionnellement brings it like a victim. Moreover. of which we stopped description. in medical term the greater omentum . one lets it escape. or with the objects of the sacrifice. A priest leads near the wide body the woman of sacrificing who attended the ceremony .But when the remainders of the victim very whole were not allotted either to the gods. nothing must remain in the morning: it is the case of the sacrifice of Passover . One says that it falls on the skin from . the application of the skin . We saw then sacrificing it. when it takes place the evening. of oilings of grease . during various washings. But the means of carrying out the most perfect communication was to give up with sacrificing a share of the victim which it consumed .
What one destroys thus formally represents once again the very whole victim . as one had made near the victim at the time of the immolation. scum  which survives  in the pot where this cooking takes place. the bubble. etc Thus. one skins it and. The Victim is the intermediary by which the current is . those of the sun. in his flesh. This name is also that of the goddess who personifies the cattle and who exempts fortune and fruitfulness . and here how takes place this incarnation. it is that the object continued on both sides is not itself not without analogy. it is a question of making communicate the religious force that the successive dedications accumulated in the sacrificed object. the communion food. one throws it to fire . which one makes cook together. one distributes their shares to the priests. there on sacrificing or the objects of the sacrifice. other with the profane field to which belongs sacrificing it. but a mixture of the two substances which absorb one in the other at the point to become indistinguishable. And everyone remains sitted in silence until sacrificing the mouth  rinsed. It is here about an invocation to the clean and technical direction of the word (vocare in. . Then . the atmosphere. the wind. it is a first share allotted to the gods . being one of the most remarkable characters of the sacrifice. one exhausts on the idâ (sacrificial share) all that it ya of good in the sacrifice and the world . of Agni and. the application of the skin are obviously only different manners to establish a contact which the food communion carries to its more high degree of intimacy. On the call which is sent to him. The two systems of rites contribute. because it not produces a simple external bringing together. sacrificing it makes some as much . the contact. thus one excuses oneself near the vapâ. on the eighteen pieces which were used to make this bubble.e. the goddess comes and pleasing with it all kinds of mythical forces.Once the cooked vapâ. or with the people or the things which must benefit from the sacrifice. It is a true transsubstantiation which takes place. the ground. is for the god or the couple of gods to which this sacrifice is addressed: one sacrifices all that in fire. who represent each one a god . one calls upon the goddess . each one in their direction. This second attribution itself is treated like a kind of complete sacrifice . At the bottom even. But seven of these shares are useful has very an other object : it is by them that will be communicated to sacrificing the crowned virtue of the victim . And if these two rites are at this point similar. All and sundry are made same practices. They constitute what one names the idâ.That made. cut out. one returns to the animal. then. it is important to notice their analogy. rubbed with oil beforehand .fire  . it is a new complete abolition of the animal which is carried out EC manner. the sky.Lastly. In both cases. cattle. to call inside). like known as a text. fictitious and mythical for what looks at the gods. While they are in this position. i. the application of the skin. Then. Grease. one cuts out eighteen pieces . It is a question of putting in contact the victim once immolated either with floods crowned. after this analysis. these various operations all are substantially identical. It is that the goddess comes to incarnate herself there with the course even of the ceremony. In the hands of a priest. as Agni is charged to transmit to the gods the offerings. . The same word thus designates this divinity and the sacrificial share . of reverences and after the invocations necessary were made. the priest who held it in his hands eats his share  and. in the middle of blessings. After having distinguished in the various ritual ones which has just been compared the rites of attribution to the gods and the rites of use by the men. . real concerning the men. one places the idâ. the other priests and sacrificing it surround it and touch it . Sprinkling. It is a new share for the gods. a certain number are taken which is still allotted to various divinities or mythical personalities . on a side with the field of the monk. here on the furnace bridge or the idol. with establishes this continuity which appears to us. imply same the operations. but to go down in the offering. We found on the two sides the sprinkling of blood. The divinity is not only invited to attend and take part the sacrifice.
all the beings which meet with the sacrifice. and from where it goes down again then gradually. it is supposed to purify ritual faults. the others towards the beings of the profane world. raised above its ordinary and normal nature. all is not finished. however. One pours water of lustration which was not employed. one carries it at the house. still it is necessary that it dissolves slowly and without clashes and. then. indeed. like. only. The first are the condition of the seconds. So that the victim can be used by the men. if many. Once thus that the spirit left. without it anything being allotted by it to the gods. It was thus necessary to be begun again there has new to still eliminate. it is those where the entire animal is used by sacrificing. One destroys by fire all that can remain offerings. then energies which this dedication caused and concentrated on it. in their essential features. it is necessary that the gods received their share. partly. Sometimes. One starts by devoting it. Moreover. But. then. it is in the spirit that this religiosity was most eminently concentrated. In the Hindu animal sacrifice. Thus the rites. can give in freedom the elements of which it is made up. as in fact rites created it. moreover. in charge of such a holiness that the layman. the stick of reciting. which had remained there of too frightening. The bonds which linked with the victim the priests and sacrificing it were not broken by the immolation. One sacrifices what remains of butter and scattered grease on the grass . this first operation was not enough to discharge the victim as much as it was necessary. one cleans the ustensils and one gains them after having . cannot touch there without danger. of the faults could be made that it is necessary to erase before taking again the common life. this last phase of the sacrifice is very clearly marked. link themselves there. which are practical on the victim. had reached this result. one makes on him a drinking. the grass of the sacrifice . It is necessary that they can there return. the small planks which surrounded the vedi . or one burns it like the grass . during ceremonies. in spite of the preliminary dedications which have it. all those which took share with the sacrifice there acquired a crowned character which isolates them from the profane world. Thanks to it. it was necessary. Indeed. There were even sacrifices where any danger had consequently disappeared. to remake a kind of new sacrifice . The rites by which this exit of the sacrifice takes place are exactly the hanging ones of those which we observed at the time of the entry . the victim becomes more accessible. One could handle it with less precautions. The series of states by which it master key could thus be appeared by a curve: it rises with a maximum degree of religiosity where it remains only one moment. in fact rites also. the ones towards the beings of the world crowned. but narrow solidarity between these two kinds of practices of attribution. in all the sacrifices of the same ritual. All the forces which contribute to it confuse. The exit The useful effects of the sacrifice are produced. We will see that sacrificing it passes by homologous phases . can be. after having revered the post . summarized in a very simple diagram. It is. to a certain extent. towards the areas of the sacring. like says it the Hindu ritual. The group of people and things which was formed for the circumstance around the victim does not have any more a raison d'être. Few degrees thus should be lowered this religiosity which is in it and which makes it unusable for simple mortals. in other cases. one makes them escape.established. It is necessary for them to leave the magic circle where they are still locked up. Already the immolation. one destroys in sacrificial fire a certain number of instruments . It ya more: there are not only resemblance.
initially the back. gave of other clothing. the mass is finished. one with the other . After the instruments were demountings. They are ceremonies opposite. which besides abstained from touching as much as possible the victim. after having driven out the goat of Azazel. They are enough important to have remained in the Christian mass. That which burned the remainders of hattât made in the same way . they make counterweight with the first. We are unaware of if the other sacrifices were accompanied by similar practices . after the communion. the high priest. the sacrificial religiosity is given up. entry at the exit. two clothing of the sacrifice. the black skin of the antelope. it is naturally that which the victim describes which arrives at the highest point. it reaches a culminating point thus from where it goes down again then towards the layman. The man who had led the goat bathed and washed his clothing before returning . washes the chalice. each being and of the objects which play a part in the sacrifice. and it immerses the whole. But if the curves thus followed have the same general configuration. washes the hands. is involved as by a continuous motion which. for the turban. The rite has a double object: one purifies initially faults which one could make in the sacrifice and also of those that the purpose of the sacrifice was to erase. and which is the opposite of the dîksâ. sacrificing it takes a bath in a quiet handle formed by a running water . In Greece. particular case of the rite in virtue of which the instrument of the crime or the pain must be hidden . Thus. after which. a symmetrical curve of that which the victim traverses. Sacrificing unties then the sacrificial belt which it had covered at the time of the dîksâ. Actually. as well as the crime which one committed by killing the god Soma. Here now what occurs for the people. they do not have all the same height. left and sacrificed the òlâ . his wife meet and gloss themselves by washing the hands . washed their clothing in a river or a source before returning in the city or on their premises . missa is. However if the rite is more complex than that about which we spoke first of all. so that it did not propagate the dedication . take their bath while requesting and while washing herself. then the members. he washed himself. Only. sacrificing it. The ustensils which had been used for the sacrifice were washed carefully when they were not destroyed . The biblical texts are unfortunately less complete and less clear. the cycle is closed and the officiant pronounces the final formula and liberator: Ite.washed them . returned to the sanctuary and withdrew his crowned costume. it makes some as much for the bond which tightened certain parts of the costume of the woman. it is of comparable nature: the facts and the theory assign the same function to him. the sacrificers. all the branches pressed of summoned . All thus be passed to water so as to lose any dangerous character or even simply religious. One plunges in water all the remainders of the sacrifice. I become again man I go down again of the world of the gods in the world of the men . These ceremonies correspond to those which marked the entry in the sacrifice. as they had been prepared at the beginning of the ceremony. In the Day of Atonement. continues on two opposite slopes. they leave the bath and cover new clothing . The priests. after the expiatory sacrifices. one however finds there some allusions to the same practices. These practices limited the action of the dedication. The priest. him also. That made. The religious state of sacrificing thus described. An exaggerated form of the same rite will make from there the direction apparent: it is the bath of transport  which finishes the sacrifice of summoned. the ritual faults which could be made are expiated. It is what the rite of the abandonment of the wish  expresses: O Agni. I made my wish. in water to the neck. The faithful one and the priest is released. I equalized myself with my wish. . Then him and his wife. the pin which was used to make brown the heart is hidden. It starts by rising gradually in the sphere of the monk.
according to the function to be met. The first characteristic is secured to another. Hence arises the diversity of sacrifices. The Pentateuch does not indicate when he describes the rites of ordination of priests and Levites. retains something of what he acquired during the sacrifice. The changes produced by these sacrifices. having sacrificed to Pelops. They may even disappear altogether. For that. some even may be totally default. they survive only in the form of further purifications. in the sacred world. That's what we'll try to see about some basic types. indeed. a scheme built. we can predict a priori that the general lines of our design should vary what this state at the beginning of the ceremony. Conversely. That even for this reason that these sacrifices are found in the rites of initiation. he acquires the desired character. in the above. then the sacrifice function for him to acquire . ate the flesh of the victim had no right to sacrifice to Zeus  . The ceremonies of introduction are necessarily highly developed. In the Christian Mass. for it is through force that the consecration has amassed in her. But this scheme is nothing but a mere abstraction. the man who. We need the sacrifice. In any case. it was realized in concrete in the case of Hindu animal sacrifice more about this ritual. Because the sacrifice was meant to affect the status of religious sacrifice or the object of sacrifice. we were able to group a set of sacrificial rites prescribed by the ritual and rituals Semitic Greek and Latin. no sanctity. it is the common material of which are made more special forms of sacrifice. This happens especially in the sacrifices of initiation and ordination. even returned to secular life. with care. III How the pattern varies according to the general duties of sacrifice We did. in Olympia. as the consecration is then more desired than feared. Suppose first that it was neutral. It was alleged that the man who touched the flesh of human victims sacrificed to Zeus Lycaios (wolf) on the school was changed into a wolf as Lycaon had been sacrificed after a child  . We saw. that is to say. Release practices are reduced to their simplest expression. The sacrifice (and what we say could be repeated sacrifice of the object in the case of sacrifice objective) is invested before the sacrifice. Thus. This character could even be incompatible with others of the same kind. After the end pursued. It is what we will show in what will follow. one may assume greater importance over others. They may involve a constitutional and fundamental transformation. The end of the entire rite is increasing religiosity of the sacrificer. We can say that in this case. the . but there may be between various combinations of specific differences. He entered step by step. It is always the same items grouped differently or unequally developed. the was sacrificed at the end of the ceremony. indeed. the fear of diminishing by limiting and circumscribing the too closely. a longer or shorter. it is clear that the respective importance of these phases of rise and descent can vary infinitely according to the circumstances. In reality. marked with a sacred character.Moreover. moreover. In these cases. the parties that compose it can be positioned as different proportions and in a different order. it had to involve the victim as closely as possible. in rituals that are intended to introduce a soul in a body  . which sometimes resulted in special prohibitions. the distance is great between the point from where the sacrifice and when it must happen.
As the hymn says magic is when that "jaundice" is "in the yellow birds"  . Let a man carrying a curse.Go beyond this point a little too much material of the rite. on the situation of the offender. But note an important fact: illness. Oh. destroy you here. after various hattât. Most mistakes are sanctioned by the ritual misery or physical harm  . his future in the other world.character whose communication is the very purpose of sacrifice is the sacrifice of the victim (or object). even that of our contemporaries never quite separate the offense to the divine rules and their consequences on the physical body. is a sacred being  . and in any case. Hattât The present disposal as clear in cases where the victim's remains were brought outside the camp and burned completely  . And. it is secondary. the sacrifice is intended. . but the others are close to the sacrifice. The same name is also suitable for those that have the effect not of creating from scratch a sacredness in the sacrifice. So it is after the immolation they are contacted. To cure jaundice  . is that the "bull pin  "propitiation to the god Rudra. Without doubt. The tare of sacrifice was fixed on the bird and disappeared with him. The most essential is that which occurs when the mind is gone. then sent him to the desert. whether it be destroyed. But there is one case where one sees clearly that the character is eliminated primarily religious. death and sin. The patient had only to make an ablution. but sometimes (eg in the zebah shlamim). But it is not unusual that the man who will sacrifice is already marked with a sacred character. Staining  he contracts by failing to observe religious laws or by contact with impure things.The sacrifices-Hindu medicine are similar cases  . or at least one of the purposes of sacrifice is then gently remove the dirt. that's when the only place in contact the most important. it lacks completely. like the criminal. with which a spray was made on the leper. which result from the ritual prohibitions that may be contrary to his intentions. we gloss it so that water falls on the birds began to chatter. it binds the yellow birds. but simply to increase an existing character. either because it falls on the enemy  . or at least. Each other and are intended to convey. . The sinner. He cut the throat of one of them over an earthen vessel containing flowing water. Rudra is the lord of animals. Might be called sacred sacrifice the sacrifices of this kind. crochet a cake and it is said in releasing the bird  : "Fly away. The high priest. The other was soaked in the bloody water. one that can destroy them . It was then that practice communion food  . and the bird in the sacrifice of purification of the leper. This is the atonement. below the patient's bed. The sparrow was alive and then released leprosy he carried with him. are the religious point of view. they are supposed to be caused by mistakes committed knowingly or unknowingly. through the continuity sacrificial victim on the impurity of religious sacrifice and eliminate her. the priest took two sparrows (?). two goats were chosen. The Day of Atonement. He carried with him the sins that were communicated by the imposition of hands  . In the sacrifice of the purification of lepers  . If sacrifice. It employs a series of rituals which are purely symbolic one  . sometimes a laying on of hands to establish a link between the sacrificer and the victim before it is destroyed. is a kind of consecration  . and he was cleansed and healed. bad luck  . identical. we'll Lions  . with that iron hook. The religious consciousness. Of this kind. put both hands on the head of one of them confessed to him the sins of Israel. So the most basic form of atonement is it the outright elimination. It binds to the left leg "of a black cock  "a hook. fly away also the one who hates us. is the expulsion of the Azazel goat. So we can deal with both curative and sacrifices merely expiatory sacrifice. conversely.
sin. Things. through two successive phases of desecration. Instead. then he brings a lamb as Ola. is the student. the character whose sacrifice operates the transmission will not sacrifice the victim  but. others are released  . He had to guard against contamination. impurity. Then the text says. can find themselves in such a state of holiness that they become unusable and unsafe. cereals and other whole is sacred. For this reason. is the sacrifice to the victim. in particular. Therefore the sacrifice of atonement itself is a particular variety of a more general type. but these elements are oriented in opposite directions and their relative importance is reversed. On it he gets rid. the nazir may drink wine. he takes a bath of purification  . We find ourselves in the presence of another type in which the same elements that enter into the sacrifice of sanctification. The upward movement that we found in the complete sacrifice is rudimentary or lacking. like people. products of the soil. that is to say. by plague or fever. has not eliminated the prohibition that the guard  . The nazir  in Jerusalem. it focuses primarily on the premises throughout the . However. So although the expulsion of a divine element that the sacrifice was intended. The sacrifice was already invested with a religious character does not have to buy it. he tends. we assumed that the sanctity of which was marked at the beginning of the sacrifice of sacrifice for him was a defect. at least that is really essential. he could not identify it as a sacrifice. Religiosity which is marked progressively lowered since the beginning of the ceremony. To deviate from. as a ritual. forbidden. in the woods  . Rudra The animals went to join the timber Rudra fields and crossroads. which is independent of favorable or unfavorable to the state affected by religious sacrifice. he pays tribute  . She passed one hand over her hair cut and offered on the altar. So is it before and not after the sacrifice that takes place them in contact. instead of sacrificing on the victim. the coronation itself. the parties spent. One thing and another are eliminated. This applies. When the priest makes zebah shelamim. It could be called sacrifice of desecration. Once it was unloaded on her. who represents him. concentrated on the best bulls of the herd. After the first sacrifice that was purified. In all these cases.. He is the god dangerous  . was a perfectly pure. the rites of output are developed. the god of cattle in the herd there. the leper must complete its purification by ablution and even added a new sacrifice  . Then. and he devoted himself to a vow Jahwa after which he abstained from wine and does not cut his hair. to flee and that the whole environment where did the ceremony. In the above. the other on the victim. whatever the high religious value. Or. and a cake of the same offering  . this way. Sacrifices of this kind are needed. The sacred character. After which these offerings are presented Jahwa. But once at the end of his vow  . For this. Each species of fruits. he puts on the hands of the nazir Terumah. often sacrificial. a ewe and a ram hattât zebah shelamim. Can we sacrifice this part. instead. This bull is Rudra himself. But there are cases where the mechanism is exactly the same and yet where the initial state is sacrificing for a source of superiority. The process is the same as in the atonement.and men. a religious cause of inferiority. He shaves his hair and throw on the fire which cooked the meat shelamim  . etc. the tenouphâ. and this alone. For this purpose. the rites of entry are limited or lacking. at least in some schools. they sacrifice outside the village at midnight. he is released from the consecration. that is to say. Rudra is eliminated  . while it surrounds and threatens him. is a state of purity. The rites of this kind that we reported in the Hebrew ritual we were not presented for expiatory sacrifices. concentrated on a portion of the species under all the fruit that contain the other.
The donations hattât and other sacrifices. everyone rose to their passage. above  . sometimes a state of impurity is treated. Conversely. two ways to eliminate overlap of the first fruits of holiness: the temple dedication. Since it is done in both cases. The religious forces are characterized by their . in which elements are not only identical. between the case of the first fruits and the other things you need to get rid of a religious nature more really bad. and yet they are used for purification of those who contracted certain stains  . And it is remarkable that the award of more blood is complete. the sacrifice could serve two purposes as otherwise than to acquire a state of holiness and remove a state of sin. it is necessary that there not between these two states. Behind the flute player. brings us to an important point . as Robertson Smith has shown. the victim was treated as impure. which are assembled in a clean place. consecration of the victim accomplished the same way as in hattât and Ola. That we have reached and basic mechanisms. more exclusion atonement is perfect. could be an opportunity to carry the same sacrifice. we have seen only two states. The force that holds the victim is complex and in the Hebrew ritual. is on the skin of the victim or the key. The approximation that we have just made. then. in this case. the victim was eaten by the priests as devoted portions of shelamim. in general. elimination is complicated by absorption. and is burned outside the camp  . we have the opportunity to speak. but arranged in the same order and oriented in the same direction. in the city. She takes care of consecration is not always different from what it takes in the sacrifices of consecration. Thus. personifications of the virtues that were supposed to reside. The Cohens came in front of the arrivals. In sum. and what we had in hand was given to the priest. As well. there were many award of blood to the altar. But again. under certain conditions. almost abstract types. Otherwise. before being completely purified. The blood was poured hattât below the blood of the Holocaust. When blood was brought into the sanctuary. Moreover. Arriving at the holy mountain. the sacrifice. The same order of certain facts belong communications established between the sacrificer and the victim as a result of sacrificial murder: there are expiatory sacrifice where the victim was stripped. Sacrifices in more complex. The fact is that. but the altar was divided by a red line. What difference was there between the impurity of the first victim bayât and the sanctity of the second victim? None. This beef. "even Agrippa you in person. It is not quite accurate to represent the atonement as a mere removal of the victim would play the role of a passive or a receptacle. will we see the sacred rites and rituals included in the same expiatory sacrifice. which may bore the fruit or dragged the car. took her basket and went up to the courts  . it drags the skin of the victim in the place for which is the atonement  . as the opposite state. Leading the procession marched a flute player. one of perfect purity. and. which in reality are often interdependent. everyone. it is these premises themselves a victim is removed. if the contribution of the first fruits to Jerusalem  . the opposition decided that it usually sees. was later sacrificed  . sacrifice and beef sacrifice doves. This happen. make impure by contact a man who is in normal condition. moreover. making the honors due to sacred things that were there. The doves that were raised above served as burnt  . the pure and the impure are not mutually exclusive opposites: they are two aspects of religious reality. in many consider the Hebrew sacrifice. the residue of the cremation of the red heifer.consecration. the other impurities. there was an ox. or rather there was a theological difference between atonement and sacrifice of sanctification. The ritual of award of blood is simply more complete in the first sacrifice. the same elements. The inhabitants of a district  brought their baskets into the body. There were two religiosity whose distinction was not very deep. for example. the horns golden olive wreath. It was already a remarkable fact that. The victim of the Atonement is the most sacred sacrifice. between the individual and atonement Nazir.
But in reality. Apparently. in all these kinds of sacrifice. We called the personal sacrifices that relate directly to the person of the sacrificer.intensity. it is true that the atonement would not have the same effects. It is a cycle closed on the sacrifice. Without doubt. which occurs hello  . it is easy to foresee that the sacrifice can not be the same when it is made in contemplation of sacrificing himself or thing to which it bears interest. As in the case of sacralization. death has been eliminated. That is what constitutes them. that it is directed. But we are not concerned to know what this creature itself. IV How the scheme varies the special functions of sacrifice We have shown how our scheme varies to suit different religious states in which there is being. has improved his fate. regenerates it. or where he has rehabilitated through or he has acquired a divine force. affected by the sacrifice. but the direction in which they operate is not necessarily predetermined by nature. This explains how the same sacrificial mechanism can satisfy the religious needs of which the difference is extreme. The functions it performs then have to specialize. or that attracts and absorbs or expels it and removes it. the sacrifice. that the act done by sacrificing himself in an immediate advantage." This is when those outside the sin by the sacrifice are inscribed "the book of life  . Secondly. seem opposed. through appropriate procedures. From this definition it follows that they all have a first common characteristic: since the sacrifice is the beginning and the end of the rite. It remains. however. It is capable of good and evil is the victim's death as well as life. are sometimes almost indistinguishable. rites employees. whatever it is. There is even a very large number of rituals in which a special form. their dignity because they are separated. . the way the sacrifice is transported into the world of life  . It carries the same ambiguity that religious forces themselves. after the ceremony. By this single sin. etc. she embodies. the sin that deserves the falsehood as truth. these two forms of religiosity can be transformed into each other and rituals that in some cases. either at the outlet was at the solemn moment of the priest expresses the change. whether he has removed the evil from which he suffered. we know there are always at least award the spirit of the thing sacrificed to the god or religious power that acts in the sacrifice. the act begins and ends with him. It even happens that determines the communion as an alienation of personality. the day "Forgiveness" is also the "day of God. she wears it. By acting on it that acts on it. It depends on the circumstances. Let's see what differentiations occur under this head. By eating the sacred where the god is supposed to reside. the sacrificing absorbs and is possessed of him [in the text in Greek]  as the priestess of Apollo's temple on the Acropolis of Argos when she drank the blood of the sacrificial lamb. positive powers come into play for the good of the sacrificer. gives it new strength. They can be exercised for good or for evil. their importance. disease as health. However. It is the average concentration of religious and she expresses it. but only whether he had a sacred character before the ceremony. We explained in the same way that. the resulting current through the victim between the sacred and sacrifice..
it remains vague. intimately linked to the personality of the wearer: it contains something of its soul  . an object other than the sacrifice. In some cases. moreover. But most often. The number. we must content ourselves with general indications of how these sacrifices are related to our general scheme.  . We saw the symbols that make dîksita a fetus. The characteristic feature of the sacrifices objectives is that the main effect of the rite is. we must not. It is "not dead" (amrtam) of the soul that provides the sacrifice. sacrifice is not to its point of departure but the things he seeks to change are outside the sacrificing. It is therefore natural to think that name change and Atonement were part of the same complexus ritual. Jevons and the Greek mysteries Nutt  .. Avestan and Hindu theologies in the Christian dogma itself. the soma. MM. Indeed. become rudimentary. this change is reduced to an addition of an epithet. We know that the name is. Important as these facts. As a result. Often. The effect on the latter is secondary. Another is the relationship that unites the Christian communion to eternal salvation  . and we know that Atonement. even today. But sometimes the name is changed completely. it spread to the afterlife. who tends to take more space. by definition. the same rite is used when life is at risk  .That regeneration by the personal sacrifice gave birth to a number of important religious beliefs. in fact. which have particularly in mind the sacrifice. We have nothing to say on this matter to the theories of Rohde. But the notion of personal immortality not emerged from the previous and following a philosophical development and. whether we create it to be attributed to real or imagined that the sacrifice is concerned. In Jewish practice. Even today. the Iranian haoma etc. However. expressing the profound change that is produced at that time in the person of the sacrificer. borrowed from the doctrines of the Brahmanas  and those Bergaigne Darmesteter and had emerged from the Vedic texts  and Avestan  . Osiris cults. then a Brahmin and a god. Under this invigorating sacrifice is not confined to life in this world. the notion of sacrifice has joined the notions concerning the immortality of the soul. in India it bears the title of dîksita  . We know what was the importance of the doctrines of rebirth in the Greek mysteries. the rites of entry and exit. it is likely that once surrounded a sacrifice. In the old church was on Easter Sunday we baptized neophytes after they exorcise: but. these doctrines are clearly linked to the achievement of certain sacrificial rituals: eating the cake of Eleusis. as indeed in all religions on which we are sufficiently shown  . to release something . the conception of another life does not originate from the institution of sacrifice [ 17] . Levi. that is. This is the central phase. be exaggerated. As the belief in immortality is not of theology déggée crude sacrifice. when the agony was there among the Jews  . Except for the sacrifice land whose study is now far advanced. in religious beliefs. which must reconcile the facts cited by S. Scandinavian and Celtic mythology. It's all about creating the spirit  . communion and we made them they imposed their new name  . after his baptism. a change of name brand this recreation of the individual. It guarantees against annihilation in the other life like it. But the sacrifice often accompanied a change of name. We must first relate to the theory of rebirth through sacrifice. variety and complexity of the sacrifices objectives are such that we can deal with relatively briefly. the priest. During the evolution of religion.
an expiatory character  . Finally. proposes to make a mind that is the guardian of the house. the ritual acts. that is to say the total allocation. it was incorporated. the holocaust. and he has them. there is no allocation to sacrificers . and their products are considered eminently alive. if made to untie the bonds of religious and moral bond hanging over him. the importance of the victim varies. becomes the mind. for example.under some sacred made it unaffordable. or the shelamim. and this is their holy possession. the cock. if they propitiate the genius of the earth. In the sacrifice and demand. there is the very life of the field. the door to the gods. they appear to be dead and skinned. Here.. the special characters of the victim depends on the nature of the desired thing: if you want rain. they nevertheless have important effects on the sacrificer. we think of this principle as a spirit that stands guard over land and fruit. to some degree. On the other side. white if you want to create a sympathetic  . they are a means to fertilize the fields that they cultivate and preserve their lives when. that is to say that the sacrifice First is the sacrifice may be the norm. Also award rites they grow. We have only indicated how the theme of sacrifice varies with the different effects it produces. See how the various mechanisms we have distinguished can gather in one sacrifice. The sacrifices are specifically agrarian excellent examples from this point of view. These sacrifices have a dual purpose. If the sacrifice is the fulfillment of a promise already made. as in the magical act with which these rites are confused in some ways. Sometimes. therefore. whether we continue with the aim both at once. Secondly. It is in them a religious principle that lies dormant during the winter. The victim was mold on the votive formula. the anime. or the altar or city that you built or you want to build and which makes the force  . we want to invoke the deity by a contract. the victim. If On the contrary. If this is to thank the deity of a particular grace  . is manifested in the harvest and makes. consequently. the fill. the importance of the victim is in direct relation to the seriousness of the vow. lifting the bans that protect them. they sacrifice black cows  or it involves the sacrifice a black horse on which it pays water  . reappearing in the spring. depending on whether a temple or a city or a simple house. In the sacrifice of construction  for example. But at the same time. this virtue is transformed into pure spirit. But. The color of the victim varies by this same: she is black. after harvest. The force generated is effective. or it will be a propitiation engineering soil that construction will harm  . etc. . the sacrifice will aim to create the spirit or the guardian deity. The rituals of destruction themselves are not identical in both cases. basically by himself same. They are designed primarily to enable and work the land and use its products. We can give this general principle a very plausible reason. a first difficult to mortals. Because basically objectives. according to the nature of construction. in fact. It Emmure the skull of the human victim. again. the head of an owl. we look primarily to produce some special effects that defines the rite. It is therefore necessary to eliminate the harvest or use of fruit is possible. Depending on whether the building is already constructed or under construction. the sacrifice was rather the form of a distribution  : the do ut des is the principle and. The fields. "the vehicle  . On the other hand. the particular nature of the object of interest by the sacrifice amend it.
He embodied the divine spirit housed in the premises he has eaten. robbed others. the ox eats the cake of the first fruits. All the holiness of wheat to beat was concentrated in cakes  . cakes and grains are deposited on the altar. It is the sacrifice to Zeus Polieus the Athenians celebrated the feast known as the Dipolia or Bouphonia  . 3 ° the resurrection of the victim  . The beef will key the suddenness of the blow that strikes shows that the consecration has passed over him. profane himself. he went into exile. At the beginning of the ceremony. So we let go of oxen one of them approached the altar. There are gathered from various forms of sacrifice. at the altar of Zeus Polieus. elsewhere it is paraded through the fields. This offering is similar to all those that enable lay use of crops. communion 2 °. This festival  took place in June at the end of the harvest and the beginning of threshing wheat. ate some of the offerings and trampled on the rest  . after having expelled. When he was shot dead. Cakes were placed on a bronze tablet. mostly multiple effects. . the third Thaulon  . They were not kept  . or the victim is killed with agricultural or buried to the waist. So do not pretend we not make these pages a general theory of agrarian sacrifice. The main ceremony took place on the acropolis. Consulted the Pythia answered that the Athenians exiled could save them. In all three versions. crushing. the flesh of the beef was divided among the assistants. the priest has filed an offering on the altar a bull occurs. we should punish the murderer. It is also linking with them before the final conservation. In this case. so that his murder is a sacrilege. revive the victim at a sacrifice like the one where she died and eat his flesh. the other Sopatros. Following the ruling in Prytaneion we talked. Still. the skin was stitched. he makes his rights it offers to sacrifice and celebrates the feast as we have described. but not the second. one of the priests struck with his hatchet. Immediately. the sacrificial victim agrarian symbolically represents the fields and their products. Those are the facts: what do they mean? There are three acts to distinguish in this festival: 1 death of the victim. Polieus priest of Zeus. It brings back Sopatros. It is this spirit. The sacrifices of desecration may be sufficient simply the first of these requirements. We dare not predict all the apparent exceptions and we can not unravel the tangle of historical developments. recreate it and fix it in the ground which it is fertility. These are probably the first fruits of corn beaten  . Drought and famine are the consequence of his crime. Three different versions attributed it to three different people .we must. The longest of these versions is the one whose hero is Sopatros. and the animal was stuffed and yoked to a plow. The sacrifices were therefore agrarian. another in the finished cutting his throat with a knife. that is already the subject of a number of studies.one in Diomos. stuffed with straw. These practices were open to the singular legend. remove the priest strikes the sacrilege and furious. while he who had struck first took flight. This is a case where there best this fundamental complexity of the sacrifice which we jumped overemphasized. which appeared well be the mythical ancestors of the priests of the sacrifice. We will limit ourselves to the analysis of a sacrifice well known.
The sacrifice establishes a level between sanctity of the object to be used and that of sacrificing. the farmer is given a share in the flesh of the victim  . it removes those who eat the barley "link" that would throw at them. And then we eat the rest solemnly. Communion of Easter had the same results  . in the first moment of the rite  . The sacrifice was to correct this condition. sometimes the communion has been sufficient to achieve the desired effect. the other on the ram. But in general. purify and redeem. So there. the victim may also represent the faithful who will desecrate harvest using it  . That is what is very significant in the Hindu ritual of Varunapraghâsas. they ate and became hydropic. indeed. Here's what it is. fruits and vegetables. Then there is the sacrifice one hand is attributed to Varuna and other offerings of barley. The shots appear to sanctify. The Khonds sacrificed human victims to . that is to say of him infusing divine life or make life more active it may have. Not only products of the earth spreading the sacrifice. with grains of barley. two figures who have the shape of a ram and a ewe. In some cases. in such large quantities as possible  . the sacrifice himself realized this sort of expiation. Through this communion. The king puts a bit in the mouth of every man and this holy communion for the whole year  . In this case and in similar cases. Other times. practices purificators sat in the ceremony. Must be set in the ground that the fertile mind. secondly. It might be closer to these facts the struggles that sacrificial practice amongst themselves in certain agricultural festivals  . it is feared that without doubt the desecration had been incomplete and that. For Dipolia. He could stand as a true redemption. Communion is superimposed so much to desecration. had advised the Pythia  . Many sacrifices land are followed by a similar communion  . The creatures formerly said the myth. which already produces a first desecration. sacrificing Dipolia attending the sacred nature of the victim. it is true. the flesh of a victim is cooked with grains. we absorb the spirit of barley. but still every Hebrew freed from danger. But after it happens and is done by a communal meal  constitutes a new phase of the ceremony. Barley is dedicated to Varuna  and it is his food  . Among other offerings  . Invested with the same sanctity as the things they wanted to use. because it was divided and a portion of beef remained intact. the documents do not refer to a communication between the sacrificer and the victim before the consecration. a double operation: 1 desecration of the wheat crop and beaten by the victim who is 2 ° redemption harvesters and laborers by the immolation of this victim representing them. Thus a confession joined the sacrifice  . After the priests were absolved of their sacrilegious communion assistants can dare. the sacrifice has received only half consecration. "Through sacrifice. It's a rite of this kind that Kafre of Natal and Zululand to allow the early use of new fruits. it spreads  Varuna. it follows a desecration. not only being redeemed life of the firstborn  of men by the blood of the paschal lamb  .But the facts must be considered from another side. it is no longer as previously. It seems that there is duplication  and it is possible. but the sacrifice might be in a state where he should stay away. They received a consecration attenuated. may seem unnecessary since the pre-sacrifice has already had the effect of desecrating the land and grain. tufts of wool representing breasts and testicles. The methods of direct or indirect communication are necessarily involved in these kinds of operations. Thus the Passover has become a rite of redemption General on the occasion of the consumption of beginnings. Very often. But in the sacrifices whose purpose is to fertilize the earth  . This communion. in the sacrifices performed before plowing. two are priests. It is through the ritual of which we speak they escaped this danger  . it is eliminated. Then. The sacrificer and his wife are the first on the sheep. to eliminate a sacred and it must communicate. At the same time that the field. by eating the remaining figures. they could approach them  . We remember that according to myth.
When the resurrection was not represented by a special ceremony. remove the shirt of the dummy representing him and the door is immediately on the tree May  . concentrated primarily in the premises. its spirit survives . it remains fixed where the ritual directs. robbed the victim is dead and one was of her skin which was to succeed him next year  . the whole victim was not employed in this manner and. and that the sacrifice was. and even. What is most striking in this sacrifice is the unbroken continuity of this life which he is the duration and transmission. which rises and rises and  . killing the ox had killed the spirit of the wheat and had not grown back. So the victim himself reborn. but. to entrust to his care the forces he assimilated and that in other cases was fixed in the field . They allowed to enter. but also the ultimate goal of fertilizing the earth. and is spreading through the earth life that had once been withdrawn. Moreover. Moreover. These relics were used as body to the spirit generated by the sacrifice. Therefore it stuffs the ox beef stuffed  is raised beef. the flesh was shared between the different groups and buried in fields  . but it kept her blood to Palilies  . In the Bouphonia. In Rome. could. too This dual purpose: to allow the consumption of new grains. the retention of part of the victim or the offering attested persistence and presence of the soul that resided in it. But continuing analysis of our data. This fundamental correspondence between the rites of desecration of the premises and those of fertilizing fields between the two victims. in some cases lead to a true fusion of the two ceremonies. So the principle of germination and fertility. Under the terms of the oracle. This is what happened to the Bouphonia. as in the Bouphonia. in times when the earth is stripped. We saw. ensured the continuity of life naturally. was transported to the beast. it carries the spirit. we just did not keep the horse's head in October. the spring festival we are buried "dead". Now the victim is the very soul of the vegetation. But it should be noted that the existence of individual beef. the second sacrifice must resurrect the dead. In a Mexican holiday. This spirit. in fact. In Lusatia. purified and rejuvenated. first. a new incarnation of Agrarian Engineering. which is the same one that was removed from the harvest cut. then practiced on the same victim. giving citizens a special blessing for their future business land. to locate and secure the sanctity that there was interest to keep and which. It was a way to involve the farmer in the profits of the consecration. But often. the festival was established to end a famine and a drought. sacrificing them in receiving their share  . One could even say that communion made using the flesh of the beef. perhaps. and the dissemination of his holiness. that is to say. Sometimes she was awarded their whole. It splint to the plow and the sham that he is making plowing through the field corresponds to the dispersion of the victim in Khonds. that's life fields. as they began with an offering of first fruits. later we sowed the relics of the meal. Sopatros. it was the land that had borrowed  . to keep it. and consumption of his flesh.ensure the fertility of land. The periodic return of sacrifice. the old god of vegetation. Antoine  . the blood of the human victim was shed on earth  . This trait is not peculiar to Bouphonia. Europe is deposited in the field of ashes of St. when plowed or sowed  . In Athens. with the garment. again. to represent the rebirth of Agrarian Engineering. John of blessed bread on St. The ashes of the sacrifice of Forcidiciae were also retained until that date  . bones of animals killed at Easter or other holidays  . year after reappeared in new products from the ground to incarnate again in a new victim. They are an offering to double face: they are a sacrifice of hype. according to legend. use it. We touch the third time in our rite. is found there in the skin sewn up and filled with straw. Or else they shared another victim. we shut the remains of pigs sacrificed to Thesmophoria  . it is the beef stuffed dummy. What is going to land. . Once the mind is cleared by the sacrificial murder.
one sacrifice of land. Soon became the victim mind. the nature of needs. contained in the sacrifice itself. the expansive force of the dedication was so great that it was impossible to limit arbitrarily efficiency. apart from the regular return of agricultural work. myths which told the institution of these festivities represented as atonement for crimes original periodical. and much distorted by interpretation that may have been receiving this or that its practices. The myth of Osiris. Frazer. the ceremonial sacrifices land. the condition of periodicity. it must gather periodically. even the sacrifice goal in general. witness the story of Pelops shoulder ivory). Mannhardt and Frazer  had already seen that there were close links between the sacrifice of the god and sacrifices . as well as the personal sacrifice the life of the insured person. it is stipulated by the legend that relates the institution of these sacrifices. Pythia prescribed the endless repetition of Bouphonia and other similar ceremonies. It usually mingled magical rites of rain and sunshine we drown the victim or one pours water on it. Moreover. The Agrarian party became a celebration of forgiveness. The spirit of the field coming out of the victim was of the species of scapegoat  . The value of the victim was such a solemn sacrifice. people or objects. Often in Greece. In conclusion. This is the case Bouphonia  . a whole body effects can emerge. whose members were scattered together by Isis is an image of this rhythm and this alternation. In a word. the whole ritual could take. But in general. We'll see how the sacrifices land could provide a starting point for this development. For this life is not lost (and we may still lose a little. in the sacrifice of a divine person that the notion of sacrifice reaches its highest expression.Following sacrifice agrarian thus presents a consecutive series of concentrations and broadcasts. the effects might differ. The victim is a center of attraction and radiation. Things that could touch the sacrifice received their share of influence. was overloaded rites accessories. it is dispersed to plant life with her. we have analyzed a type. genius. According to the state. It is. indeed. the fire of sacrifice or special lights represent the Sun fire  . V The sacrifice of the god This singular value of the victim is clear in one of the highest forms of the historical evolution of the sacrificial system: it is the sacrifice of the god. there have been rites of desecration (the object of sacrifice) taking pride of place. and especially the sacrifice agrarian provide real life and healthy things. So it is this form that it has entered religions the more recent and there gave rise to beliefs and practices that are still alive. the character of a true sacrifice atonement  . The interruption was inconceivable. On the other hand. it is shared. as shown by Mr. Thus.
They have the privilege to different causes. The constellation Virgo is another qu'Erigone. these sacrifices. a rooster. Objectives in the sacrifices. mother of the gods. But we will try. But differentiation is especially marked when the role is assumed by a man  who carries his own autonomy. it is true. the report argues that with what it embodies is so distant that it is sometimes difficult to perceive. For a god to descend and the role of victim. Do not confuse the sacred things that are of religious figures with those defined.land. in the sacrifices of construction. But God is a victim not a victim God  . which becomes cow. as a result of this homogeneity and the resulting fusion. was also . For his personality deepens. The sacrifice shall determine. because the victim is always something that releases the divine sacrifice. Toci goddess. This independence increases even when the jet is replaced by an animal victim. Mexico reported a myth that the sun and moon were created by a sacrifice  . Then genius becomes a legal entity that has a name that begins to exist in the legend outside of festivals and sacrifices. we have already seen the release of the victim beings whose face was more accurate simply because they were attached to an object and a function determined. Once it is sacrificed. Especially in agrarian sacrifices they arrive at their utmost determination. Thus. Then. it is necessary that the links that unite the fields are relaxed and. It is therefore anticipated that. like her. something essentially agrarian  . A first step has been taken in this direction when. another was added. these mythic figures are usually vague and indecisive. using some additional facts to show how this form of sacrifice is connected with the substance of the sacrificial mechanism. However. As long as it is simply the first sheaf of the harvest or the first fruits of the harvest. For him to come to submit to the sacrificial destruction. by contrast. as often happens. the soul of country life becomes external fields  and individualized. a goddess who had hanged land  . filled with all the sacrifices. engineering detaches from its support. an exaltation of the victims who deified directly. and are called gods. little by little. Similarly. Only. Many legends are told of apotheosis. the comparison has been discovered that the bull and the goat to Dionysus. it diffuses back across species which makes agricultural life and becomes so vague and impersonal. The victim loses part of its agrarian character and the same extent. It therefore falls outside the field that to go soon: he did not materialize at the precise moment when it is concentrated in the victim. there must be some affinity between nature and the victims. by itself. as if to make the transition more sensitive. We will not dwell on the points they have treated the issue. The spirit of a house is something other than the home it protects. The spirit of the wheat. the victim may contact her individuality in mind. Sometimes. it contains [ 4] a living animal. the wreath dedicated receives the name or even the shape of an animal or a man. for this it is necessary that the victim herself takes less close to things it represents. the god and the sacrificial victim is particularly homogeneous. it must have its origin in the sacrifice itself. sometimes the mind set is almost a god. In god we barley made offers victims of barley in which it resides. is almost indistinguishable from wheat that embodies it. goat. which are the subject of myths and rituals also defined. a goat. the spirit remains. This seems in some ways. the horse or pig Demeter were incarnations of the life of wheat and vines. First. Attis  and Eshmoun  were inspired after death of a divine life. Our main effort will tend to be determined mainly by the considerable mythology has taken this development. for example. rooster harvest. Hercules was admitted to Olympus after his suicide on Oeta. a cow. But this one cause.
He was born in the same sacrifice  . by the location. the great festival of Dorian Karneia. However. where the role of genius animal vegetation was kept by a man whose office lasted a year and started on St. if the mythology developed the representation of the divine. it gave first a civil. the god of the heart. we pretended to throw the future Green Wolf in the flames of fire. In the same country. the victim of a normal agricultural or pastoral sacrifice. The ceremony did not result simply embody the spirit land. But this form is little evidence in the sacrifices which. And this is not an accidental and meaningless. Apollo Karnéios n ' Another is that the diviner Karnos whose sacrifice and atonement is accomplished as that of Dipolia. concentration. and Karnos himself "the horned  . you can follow the myth in the various phases of this progressive deification. he then became the image of god. "[Greek in text]  . However. the creation of the deity is the work of past sacrifices. history and thus a more continuous life personality intermittent. However. But to become a reality. a very significant phrase he was dedicated. which arose from the periodicity of sacrifices. which is precisely here. celebrated in honor of Apollo Karnéios had been established. it did not work on arbitrary data. to atone for the murder of the diviner Karnos killed by Heraclides Hippotas  . John. where they killed and robbed of captives. a priest wore the skin of one of them. In these legends remain obscure awareness of the virtue of sacrifice. on the feast of the god Totec. In the Cretan legend of Dionysus. the mythology had made the murder of a hero and then she turned the last great national god. Besides that. Thus. Philo of Byblos employs to express the state of Oceanos. the personification of where it has resulted to become sustainable and necessary. the victim is entrusted with a maximum of holiness that organizes and sacrifice personified. For example. these facts are precisely examples of what we said about the consecration and its direct effects. it made it more divine. the same victim reappeared at regular intervals. This indissoluble association between beings or species of beings and supernatural virtue is the result of the periodicity of sacrifice. That is. wearing his vestments and his suit. it's not enough that the god came out of the victim: he must have still all his divine nature when he returns to the sacrifice to become a victim himself. The sacrifice keeping its side effects. coincides with the hero Krios 'ram'  . The trace also persists in the rites.presented as a woman would sacrifice a deified  . hypostasis of the animal victim primitive. releasing it from its earthly dross. in Jumièges. The sacrifice has provided the symbolic elements of the divine. The sacrificial apotheosis is nothing but the rebirth of the victim. that is to say God. But it is the imagination of the creators of myths that has completed the development of the sacrifice of the god. Deification is a special case and a higher form of sanctification and separation. has persisted and is still used today to designate Christ. since in a religion as abstract as Christianity. dull and passive. in which. mutilated by his son Kronos. since there is no need to distinguish between victims of agrarian demons. which had been slain by the Titans was placed in a xoanon or he should be worshiped  . Indeed. That is the necessary condition for the sacrifice of God is possible. we told. his predecessor handed him his insignia  . sat on a throne and received instead of the god firstfruits images of  . the accumulation of a sacred character. after this feigned execution. the figure of the paschal lamb. The repetition of these ceremonies. as a result of habit or for any other reason. The sacrifice of the ram. Sometimes. Myths keep track of their origin: a sacrifice more or less distorted forms the central episode and as the . has created a kind of personality continues.
This is the case of Attis and Eshmoun who. according to tradition. stoned in a sedition  . Hecate. MS Levi explained the role of sacrificial rites in the Brahmanic mythology  . had blown themselves. some are stories. Foreign goddesses are abroad. Adonis has left legends Syrian descendants who share his fate  . to our knowledge. sometimes it dies. a simple wound of God is equivalent to its annual death. was celebrated in his honor. Melkarth death was commemorated with a festival each summer. Often. So it is resurrected. A Troezen in peribolus temple of Hippolytus. had gone to ask you to share the latest distribution. Greek mythology knows goddesses who bore the title of [Greek text] is to say goddesses "hanged" like Artemis. it is true. But the theme of the sacrifice of God is a cause whose imagination mythological use freely. The proof is given by the fact qu'lshtar. etc. To show this. processions  . the goddess was Erigone hanged. Melkarth Tyre  . hero of the grape  . we will group some types of Greek and Semitic legends. When the spirit of the field is dead or was killed. was commemorated by an annual celebration of the [Greek text]. beaten and chased by him. death goddesses Damia and Auxesia. It began with a distribution of wheat and then manufactured an image of Charila is beaten. Here is the water poured over the body and the resurrection that we determine to equate the victim to a dead god agrarian in the myth of Osiris is the dispersion of the body and the tree that grows on coffin  . or that a maypole stands on his grave. also dark. set up. incomplete circumstances that allow to determine its true nature.nucleus of the legendary life of the gods who came out of a sacrifice. Hercules on Oeta. the tombs are perhaps divine monuments of the cult of the dead. they say. was mutilated with a hatchet. Charila. coming from Crete. on the order of the Pythia. the God whose self-inflicted mutilation. wants to resurrect  by making its body of water from the source of life she will look into hell. was a harvest festival. the history of agrarian gods is woven on a background of agrarian rites. asleep in the ball of the foot Blumenthal Guebwiller. the commemorative rites that correspond to these legends (sacred dramas. which are all strains of the theme of sacrifice of the god. In some cases. stoning is a rite of sacrifice. In Athens. the god Sandon Sands or to Tarsus  . . poorly supplied. the death of Pan  . close to that of Attis and Adonis. mother of Staphylos.. But most often. so I wear the clothes of mourning. blank. none of the characters of sacrifice. which were. The death of God is often a suicide. Belen. Dido in Carthage. In other legends. See how. what are these two gods? These are Du-mu-zu-zi and Gish-da. it is hung and buried.) have. every drop of blood from his wound grew a flower  . during a famine. Helen  . We read in the Assyrian tablet of the legend of Adapa  : "From the earth two gods are gone. his mother and his wife. Some are myths that explain the institution of certain ceremonies. was wounded in the foot by a boar. she was called Charila  . said the story was a little girl who. pursued by astronomers. his corpse is thrown into the water and sprinkles it with water. as it imitates that the rites of certain agricultural festivals. Now an annual event. foreign. from which often plays a part in harvest festivals. specifically. Often. she hanged herself in a valley spreads. and is surrounded by legend. usually from myths like the first  . At Delphi. the mythical god of death recalls the ritual sacrifice. in our opinion. that of Adonis are well known for it is enough to mention. like Adonis. "The death of Du-mu-zu is a mythic sacrifice. The tomb of Zeus in Crete  . life is reborn.
repeating his victory against Tiamat  . in Babylonian mythology. Castor. it is true. he lay lifeless: it was resurrected by Iolaus with the help of a quail  . 60). The Isthmian Games. We know. or commemorate the death of Melicerte or victory of Theseus Sinis on. celebrated in spring. having fallen asleep after his fight with the dragon is killed. The origin of myths of this kind has generally been forgotten and are presented as the fighting between the weather gods of light and those of darkness or the abyss  . was also a priestess of Athena. the bride exposed to the monster and the hero is issued by another. These. The defeat of the monster is followed by the marriage of the god. it was the spring that Attis died. . The Nemean games or celebrate the death of Archemoros or victory of Hercules over the Nemean lion. after killing Lync. Perseus killing the Gorgon or dragon Joppa. the sacred marriage following the death and resurrection of the god. indeed. To complete the proof of the equivalence of these themes. a version of Genesis showed Assyrian Bel cutting himself in half to give birth to the world. for in these fights. This is a differentiation of another kind that are due myths whose central episode is the fight of a god with a monster or another god. as well as the victim. But in the cult of Attis. Hercules with Hesione. the god seems to escape death. Hesione in the legend of Hercules was swallowed by a whale. . These equivalents and these vibrations are easily explained if we consider that the opponents brought together by the theme of the fight are the product of duplication of a single genius. The feast of St. Thus. was himself killed by Idas  . a kind of mythological duplication of the divine being and the victim  . cons of Bellerophon fighting the Chimera. moreover. equivalent to the death of one god. However. This episode is one of the forms of mythological god of sacrifice. The Feast of Marduk. With this split. Marduk fighting Tiamat with it to say Chaos  . the loser is as divine as the winner. Iodama on the tomb which burned a sacred fire. the priest and the god are one and the same being. Their . The legend of Hercules has the same adventure: after killing Typhon. It is also the case of the Labours of Hercules and finally all théomachies. But this is a first differentiation. that is to say the defeat of the dragon. that the legends Maibraut pursued by the German Spirits of the Wild Hunt.They are sometimes accompanied by the same incidents. They occur in similar circumstances and have the same object. between the gods of heaven and of hell . In reality. the Suicide Bel replaces his duel with Chaos  . which were supposed to atone Pluntéries death. saying that often the god dies after his victory. The victory of a young god against an ancient monster is a rite of spring. In Grimm (Maerchen. These fights divine.Often it was a founder of the cult or the first priest of the god whose myth recounted death. that the priest may be. an incarnation of the god. stifled by the breath of the monster. They are creatures of the same nature which differentiation. George. as reported by Berosus. But it is extremely difficult to distinguish with clarity the nature of each of the combatants. Iton. in fact. the hero. Perseus with Andromache. was celebrated on April 23  . accidental and unstable part of the religious imagination. They alternate in the same festivals  . Similarly Aglauros in Athens. the two episodes occur concurrently in the legend of the god. the first day of Nisan. the animals that accompany the recall to life  . was a priestess of Athena Itonia  . SaintGeorges Dajjaal winner  .Finally. and often it is disguised in his image.
There. Dionysus is designed murdered a second time by Semele  . the fight occurred between an uncle and nephew. This [Greek text] is the Saturn of Saturnalia.relationship appears fully in the Assyrian pantheon. or even between a father and son  . the Assyrian tablets saying that Marduk governs the abyss  . often twins  . even the statue of the god. But it is precisely the introduction of this episode in the legend of a god who has determined the formation of the ritual sacrifice of the god. In Crete. the seven gods of the abyss  . Attis and Cybele Iolaus Hercules  . Thus the sacrifice had produced in the mythology of an infinite offspring. it became one of the fundamental themes of divine legends. divided between the faithful and eaten. rival gods were brothers. "real presence" as in the Catholic mass. . Long before the Greco-Roman syncretism that made the sun the master of Hades  and closer Mithra of Pluto and Typhoon  . a Kronos (Greek text). From abstraction to abstraction. The crab. as we have noticed In sacrifice. Cyril  reported that in some gladiatorial rituals and periodicals. which in other rituals. Astarte revived Adonis. Osiris. demiurges are in the same way  . another relationship drama unites the players and shows their fundamental identity. the high priest of Attis. Mithraic bas-reliefs show Mithras the bull riding he will sacrifice. But we know that the sacrifice is repeated periodically because the rhythm of nature requires this frequency. the two gods fighting or hunting are legendary collaborators. hidden underground. says Porphyry. The myth is thus the living god out of the race than for them to resubmit and thus made his life an unbroken chain of passion and resurrection. Mithras and the bull. adults or aged. Elsewhere. like the scorpion. Thus Perseus rode Pegasus. was put to death  . Ishtar. who also played the role of victim. that Gibil the fire  . The seven gods of the abyss. Priest or victim. Nergal is called sometimes Gibil. But the crab in the legend of Serifos. St. Without this relation. For this reason. was put into pieces. Isis. is also the name of a vicious monster. bore the name of his god and mythical predecessor  . at least initially. are forms of the same god. already formed a god who acts and suffers in both the sacrifice. sometimes the enemy of the sun god. is still the god who undergoes the sacrifice is not a simple set  . Whatever became of the personality of the god in the syncretism of paganism. was the enemy of the octopus. Sometimes. But the divinity of the victim is not limited to the mythological sacrifice. the sun gods. Especially at the feast of Huitzilopochtli  . it is difficult. born from the blood of the Gorgon. [Greek text]  . and Marduk himself is the son of the abyss  . which is an octopus to fight Hercules. is sometimes the best. but she also appears in the real sacrifice that goes with it. Ashshur and Marduk. Tammuz. the kings of the Annunaki. priest and victim. especially in myths that followed the Assyrian mythology. once formed. the Titans put to death were his parents Dionysus  . mingled with human blood. received the cleansing blood flowing from wounds. Thus the sacrifice of God is not just about a beautiful mythological tale. god of fire. The name given to the representative of God tends to identify the god. made of beet pulp. the victim has something of the god. In sum. to distinguish the seven planetary gods. But here it is the god himself and it is this identification which characterizes the sacrifice of the god. in total. The Mexican religion provides well known examples of the identity of the victim and the god. reacts on the rite where he came out and it carries. The myth. joins the Hydra of Lerna. The animal sacred to Perseus Seriphos was the crab. The monster or animal sacrificed to the god used to mount victorious before or after sacrifice. executors of wills celestial  . Without doubt.
Also the sacrifice he was . etc. now lives outside of sacrifice. we find it closer and it revives its tracks. an oracle prescribes expiatory sacrifice which reproduces the death of this god  . then pressing it and kill it. however. the demon who holds the treasure of immortality and Indra kills  . it has multiple qualities and powers. and in any case. she could separate the god of the victim. are. So. Soma. succeeding his death. the birth of the god. a horse was sacrificed  . barley. There is no interruption in his personality. So the original purpose of sacrifice is overshadowed. A legend tells that usually adds some circumstance that ensures the perpetuity. So the consecration. But the virtual deity of the victim has not always developed. it perpetuates the memory of his victory by the institution of a cult  . God never leaves the sacrifice to go in and vice versa. The God who comes as a victim is in itself. they are the ones we described above.. as in the duplication of the resultant théomachies where the animal sacrificed was considered an enemy of God  . The notion of sacrifice to the god developed in parallel to that of the sacrifice of the god. or at least something that recalls the origin of sacrifice. and to spell the god of the envelope that bad restrained her. It's like being fed by the same and the victim is the food of the gods. it is always a sacred animal sacrificing. Wear it on a shield. one of them appears as the priest of his sacrifice that succumbs predecessor. If it was sacrificed to atone for a wrong committed against the God by his species . was born the god could give another aspect to the same practices. the two opponents are equally divine. it often kills Vrtra Soma. takes the form of a grant to a divine person. It should be noted here that the abstraction that. Often she remained on earth. In Virbius Nemi. However. Vrtra. By a process analogous to the duplication that produced the théomachies. even in this case. the warrior god. Sometimes. they go so far as to represent the type of celestial priests. By then. We can not explain here how god Soma is identified with the soma plant. we love it. a gift. But on the other hand. how it is actually present or describe the ceremonies amid which it is brought and is received at the place of sacrifice. We have seen between the victim and the god there is always some affinity: Apollo has Karneios rams are offered to Varuna. it is he who gives strength to Indra. Thence to the suicide of god the distance was not great. As for purely mythical forms has paved the sacrifice. these branches squeezed. released once the victim. It can see first what the ritual sacrifice of a true god. Even in some texts. one is represented in the guise of a demon is the demon is killed. killed by horses. In the myths discussed above. which puts the victim in the world coronation. emerges gasoline excellent. So when a god dies a death more or less natural. the ritual forms of myth. and consequently. When a god is another winner. It follows that the sacrifice appears as a repetition and a commemoration of the sacrifice of the original god  . somehow. it is not a sacrifice or a sacrifice pastoral land. the god emerges and spreads in the world. the god created. who is his own priest.We're already far from the apotheosis of which we spoke earlier in this chapter. For to explain how a god could be killed. they have highlighted an important point of the theory of sacrifice. a series of distinct responsibilities to communicate the different kingdoms of nature. If it is torn to pieces. destroyer of demons. they offered to the god himself: Dionysus Dionysus became Kriophage ram  . The types of sacrifice of the god we just review are made in concrete and attached together about a single Hindu rite of sacrifice soma  . This is the first identification of Soma with the enemy god of gods. This real presence. as Osiris and Pelops. in sacrifice. In sum. the Brahmins have taken.
Thus transformed and. lightning and rain in the atmosphere. All these forces are concentrated. sublimated. already its tail ends in an ear bouquet. author of immortality of some and the short life of others. moon. rituals. "That's where the material that immortal gods live. that the god made the existence of the things. That it is enough for us here to recall the astonishing similarity simply and to indicate of it how the development of rites. created and distributed again by the sacrifice. He ended up appearing as their essence. This is "the master of being". Spreading and bringing in turn the deity. It is at the same time. that the same design was found in the popular beliefs of the Hebrews. nor how it is attached to the former rites. He is the custodian of all the nutrients and rich nature. We however believed. plants. Gunkel  proved. we believe. of the Buddhist renouncement. however. the periodicity remained. Offensive chaos and evil require ever more sacrifices. sun. For this. Moral Its effectiveness was simply transported from the physical world to the world. could give small channel to the concept of sacrifice and redemptive communiel. We edge assumes that this dismantles of glorification of sacrifice. by a sacrifice. the sacrifice has been preserved by Christian theology . the food of gods and men of intoxicating liquor. Prajapati. power during this work. It explained creation as the popular imagination explained the annual life of nature. It is by its suicide. Its effectiveness was simply transported physical world in the moral world. It appears in the mythology of North. The separation of the elements of chaos was conceived like the sacrifice or the suicide of the demiurge. of the single and transcendent god. model. she turned to God the sacrifice of the origin of the world  . so to speak. to sometimes bring closer the ceremonies to the Christian sacrifice of those which we studied. sublimated. but it is by the sacrifice that all maintain their existence. We C not claims to look up how did the Christian ritual of sacrifice. All theologies have assigned this creative power. their origin. In death he draws life. the sacrifice was preserved by Christian theology . could give rise to the design of the sacrifice. At the beginning nothing was. later. We believe. Soma is both sun and moon in the sky.quickly regarded as the condition for the existence of God. The renewed attacks of chaos and the evil unceasingly require new sacrifices. The . God' S redemptive sacrifice is perpetuated in the farmhouse daily. men. the only god and transcends. Mr. livestock and will be the Brahmin of India classic. if similar to those of the agrarian sacrifice. It is the Purusa  of the famous hymn X. whitebait in this work. Also borrowed theology does its cosmogonies sacrificial myths. It is also the creator of things in him because that is the source of all life. gold how it report to the previous rites. In Assyrian cosmogony. by the abandonment of oneself. creative Returns and redemptive. so to speak. creation continues things by means of the rite ends even up becoming an absolute creation. so similar to those of agrarian sacrifice. the renouncement of its body. Suffice it young stag simply to recall the astonishing similarity and indicate how the development of rites. creator  . We do not claim to seek how the Christian ritual of the sacrifice was constituted. sometimes closer to the ceremonies of Christian sacrifice of those we studied. the king of plants on earth. he spreads things like Jason and Cadmus sowing the dragon's teeth which are born warriors. yet in the soma victim. The low-reliefs want to show the life which leaves the sacrificed bull. 90 of which are born the Rg Veda gods. finally. It is also has the base of the mithriaque worship. swarms of bees fly away from the body of a lion killed by Samson and the bull of Aristeas. caste. creators and redeemers. Flowers and plants growing on the body of Adonis. So not only is the sacrifice that some gods are born. all these forms of Soma are met. and ex nihilo. redeemer and communiel. the blood of defeated Tiamat had given rise to the beings. In India. The sacrifice redeemer of the god remains in the mass day laborer. Purusa wished. And thus transformed. cloud.
Finally it is a sacrifice of redemption. eat it in silence. through the same ritual procedures. a desecration is necessarily involved. so pure it may be.Christian sacrifice is. wishes to. or. The mechanism of the dedication of the Catholic Farmhouse is. it is in the making of the deity and he buys by substituting the victim. any sacrifice of sanctification. as the Soma sacrifice. VI Conclusion Now we see better what is in our unity of the sacrificial system. for the sacrifice is consecrated. In the Hindu animal sacrifice. to reach one. any sacrifice of desecration. A fortiori is this the case of a rite. We have seen the sacrifices of desecration and even proper expiatory sacrifices communiels be complicated. It present custom with has clarity that leaves nothing to Be desired. The Christian sacrifice is. the shares enjoyed communion with sacrifice. the same ace that of Hindu sacrifices. to a huge extent. as . one of most instructive than one can meet in the history. there is no particular rite that is complex in itself. In one aspect. Our priests seek. this complexity is even more pronounced. Conversely. the same one as that of the Hindu sacrifices. even the characteristic. Our priests are seeking. All killing takes place in circumstances and for specified purposes. there is no religion where those terms do not coexist in more or fewer. in general lines. gather a herd of black cattle. by the same ritual processes. the alternative rhythm of the atonement and the communion. because the sacrifice which laid the lights can not eat meat after making such a sacrifice. in this respect. in the general lines. the less rich in elements that we have achieved are those of sacralization and secularization. The Christian imagination has built one old plane. besides all the above. In a word. as consumed units priestly priests. divine reserved shares. all sacrificial rituals that we know are already very complex. these two kinds of sacrifices are still only abstract types. In addition. a case made of sacrifice of the god. and then burn the bones out of the village that makes three different themes in the same operation  . kill one. as believed by Smith. Christian imagination built on ancient levels. that all possible kinds of sacrifices are out of a primitive and simple. the diversity of purposes that may be born and continuing various ways in which we have provided a few examples. The mechanism of the dedication of the catholic mass is. it sets in motion various forces. The victim is also a curse against the enemy. but it could give many other examples of complications. the alternating rhythm of atonement and communion. for. But first. the sacrifice falls theriomorphism to religion because it sends the soul of the beast in heaven join the archetypes of animals and to maintain the perpetuity of the species. It does not. has most instructive that we edge meet in history. about the same effects as our more remote ancestors. This is no sacrifice. The Amazulu to have rain. But again. in this glance. We found expiatory shares allocated to evil spirits. where we. divination. It presents to us. butt the same effect distant ace our most ancestors. But in reality. because otherwise the remains of the victim could not be used. Everything is mixed and confounded in a single organization that. we always find a sacralization of the victim. It is also a rite of consumption. or he has several goals at once. despite this diversity does not cease to be harmonic. All processes sacrificial most general. These two elements are so closely interrelated that one can not exist without the other. with a clearness which does not leave something to be desired anything.
he has some need. it inserts intermediaries whose main victim. Especially when they reach a certain level of intensity. and make it suitable to serve as the most varied. either in different rites either during the same ritual. But if the sacrifice is so complex. as well as prayer. That is why. But this first explanation is not general enough. it. completed and defined. goals closer than most theologies Elementary assign him. From the beginning of this work. a propitiation. An animal is sacrificed to redeem a dîksita. where he can bring his unit? It's basically. There is no sacrifice which intervenes some idea of redemption. whatever you do. the victim does not necessarily sacrifice a religious nature. as the diversity of forms it takes. therefore. We may. But . a vow. to atone for the wrath of God by the gods their units. The sacrifice is immune. There is no need to explain why the length between secular and relations with the divine that he sees the source of life itself. even though it is not destructive. withdraws from the secular sphere. It can give the most diverse and virtues. the sacrifice has emerged as an offshoot of the system of special consecration. once it is made. it is indifferent to the direction of current flowing through it. at the same time. to use it to divine the future. If religious forces are the very principle of the vital forces. and yet there is no destruction. they are such that contact is terrible to the vulgar. and is there to succumb. Committing to the end in the rite. The method includes establishing communication between the sacred world and the secular world through a victim. she succumbs. She bought it. of course. The ritual starts moving all the sacred things which it is addressed. But where does it comes close to that by staying away? Where does it communicate with the sacred than through an intermediary? The destructive effects of the rite partly explain this strange process. for that very reason. the sacrifice may serve concurrently a variety of functions. The sacrifice. Is that it does not consist only of a series of individual actions. it is the sacrifice itself which confers on him. It can also transmit a sanctity of the religious world to the profane world or vice versa. Contrary to what Smith believed. More a being is imbued with religiosity. they can not focus on an object layman without destroying it. for in the case of the offering. between them and him. The sanctity of Nazir paralyzes him. Sacrifice over and. an immediate blow-cons. that is to say a thing destroyed during the ceremony. It only gets dangerous in the sphere of sacrifice. the liberated soul leaves feed the eternal life of the species. On the other side. Moses died when his wife suddenly violently the child's foreskin and threw it at the feet of lahw saying: "thou art a bloody husband. the more it is charged with prohibitions that isolate. anything too intimate contacts with sacred things take their sacred nature and becomes like them. he would find death and not life. Anything that is too deeply involved in religion is. It was too strong a consecration serious drawbacks. On the other hand. which can serve both as a thanksgiving. Moses had not circumcised his son came Iahwe "fight" with him at an inn. and finally enjoy the sacred flesh remaining. can not deal with extreme caution. it is always the same process that can be used for purposes the most different. a certain autonomy and is a hotbed of energy they reveal effects beyond the narrow view that the sacrifice assigned to the rite. the communication is also done through an intermediary.the magical ceremony. the gods take it instead of taking it." The destruction of the foreskin has met the god who destroyed more Moses bought . The victim replaces. He has every incentive to get closer because that is where are the very conditions of its existence. in themselves. load the mind that emerged from her vow to wear to the heavenly powers.
the soma is that men give drink to their gods their strength against the demons. it reserves prudently. But there may be genuine realities that it is possible to link the institution in its entirety. the presence of the intermediary. This is what is the middleman. Because the sacrifice is not always optional. However. they come closer. The god. without any intermediary. there is no sacrifice. that is to say indirectly. In every sacrifice there is an act of selflessness. but alone. Even this sacrifice he is often imposed as a duty. But just as the sacrifice of God is not out of the imaginary sphere of religion. and we know that. this character of intimate penetration and separation of . Rites of output used in part for this purpose. in part to receive. the gods require. But such confusion is possible only for mythical beings. For the sacred remains. as says the Hebrew ritual. the highest expression and as the ideal limit of self-denial without sharing. . If nothing was reserved for the harvest. The two parties exchange their services and each finds its account. That is how the design of a god sacrificing himself to the world was able to produce and has become. Basically. that is to say ideals. Then you have these things to be near him so he can get in touch with them. and they exist objectively.the sacrifice is made by a layperson. Is that this time everything has gone through. . are. because they are raw. as the sacrificing himself and gives private. there can be no sacrifice that has something contractual. It is. This explains a very special character of religious sacrifice. that he must do its part and it is on the part of laymen is that this levy. but without giving any integer from one to another. So that the sacrifice is well founded. It must first be there outside of sacrificing things that do come out of himself and that he should sacrifice it. Yet there is a case where any selfish calculation is absent. Sacred things.But this sacrifice and this submission does not come without a return selfish. They must worship service. and this is sufficient to explain the sacrifice. too. who is also the sacrifice. Religious notions. Is that it provides. sees in these rites of fruitless and costly illusions and was surprised that all mankind is keen to dispel his strength for gods ghostly. two conditions are necessary. must. it is not given. indeed. it separates them while uniting them. Who does not believe. That's why he has so often been conceived as a contract. as the Hindus say. This is a useful and it's an obligation. It is the sacrifice of the god as the god who gives without sacrificing return. against which operates the sacrifice are social things. Each other and can therefore be useful in the sacrifice unless they can get out. The action it has on people and things is for the state to fulfill their role in the temporal life. in the harvest. the two worlds can penetrate presence while remaining distinct. The powers which addressed the faithful who sacrifices her most precious possessions seem to be anything positive. For the gods. Thanks to him. Because the victim was separate from god and sacrificing. as social facts. but one with the victim and sometimes even the priest. find the strength and confidence they need and remove them from contacting the profit he expects its rites. It is therefore important that the sacrifice or the object of sacrifice does receive significant losses. even for the most civilized people. This ambiguity is inherent in the nature of sacrifice. All the various elements that go into the regular sacrifices here fall into each other and merge. the goat was sacrificed to Dionysus. If the sacrifice is giving something of oneself. They reduce the consecration. need the profane. Relief mingled with interest. the god of wheat would die to be reborn as Dionysos can. as one might think that the whole system is a set of images.The sacrifice is thus in a double aspect. they must share. they could reduce it enough if it had been too intense.
that good character. These general atonement and these purifications. they are entitled to enjoy. They give to them and the things they care closely. They surround him. And as society is composed not only of men but of things and events. donation. without doubt. the personal renunciation of individuals or groups to their property feeds the social forces. their marriages. like a circle of holiness that protects them. individuals are at that same act their advantage. At the same time they are in the sacrifice means to restore the disturbed balance: by atonement. redemption. specifically enjoys their ideal existence. and fall within the community by levies on things they do which the company has reserved the use. which are not strictly religious. ideas concerning the soul and immortality are still the basis of common morality. they plowed the fields. We are simply given the task of trying to build it. . And the social function of sacrifice is completed. No. both for individuals and the community. the whole social force. we can see how sacrifice can follow and reproduce both the pace of human life and that of nature and how he could become periodic the use of natural phenomena.Secondly. their oaths. We can now understand what may be the function of sacrifice. we did not follow its development through all its ramifications. represented by his gods. sorrow. distinctive social things. and that mental and moral energy is about. They are a social authority their vows. which is an essential feature any social personality. that the company may need things that are the subject of sacrifice everything happens here in the world of ideas. They also exist at a time. . But in this work. terrible. finally folding a thousand functions. strong. But the act of selflessness that is involved in every sacrifice. these creations of geniuses cities provide or renew periodically to the community. Besides.immanence and transcendence is at the highest level. It is a social function because the sacrifice is related to social things. the sacralization of groups. This shows how important is for sociology the notion of sacrifice. the houses they have built. depending on the point of view one is placed inside and outside the individual. such as occasional momentary needs of men. pointing to individual minds frequently the presence of collective forces. The social norm is kept safe for them. these communions. are in relation to the sacrifice. serious. how beliefs and social practices. On the one hand. dedication. we could see along the way. they redeem themselves from the curse social consequence of the misconduct. apart from the symbols by which the believer expresses himself. He was successively contract issue. with no reduction for the group.
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