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The 24-week Industrial Attachment (IA) program organised by the Office of Professional Attachments (OPA) Nanyang Technological University provides every student an opportunity to apply the skills and knowledge achieved during the course of study in the industrial environment and to acquire new skills in managing relationships and carrying out the jobs assigned. It is also an opportunity to improve social, communication and technical skills needed for working life and a chance to keep abreast with the dynamic changing industry. This chapter gives introduction of Leica Instruments (Singapore) Pte Ltd (LIS) and the Optics department, where the author was attached. The purpose of the report, followed by the nature and scope of the presentation to address the next chapters are also being explained in this chapter. This final report is mainly to provide a summary of the industrial practice experience.
1.1 LIS Background 1.1.1 LIS history Leica Instruments (Singapore) Pte Ltd (LIS) was established in Singapore in 1971 as a subsidiary of Wild Heerbrugg of Switzerland. It was then called Wild (Singapore) Pte Ltd. In April 1989, the company name was changed to Wild Leitz (Singapore) Pte Ltd when corporate merged with Ernst Leitz Wetzlar. In
Industrial Attachment Report
August 1990, the company was renamed as Leica Instruments (Singapore) Pte Ltd when corporate merged with Cambridge Instruments. LIS was initially located at Bukit Merah Central. In 1991, LIS moved to a new 12,000 sq metres location at Teban Gardens Crescent, which was officially opened by the late Dr Tay Eng Soon. The key milestones of the company could be found in Appendix A.
Figure 1.1 LIS at Teban Gardens Crescent 1.1.2 LIS nature of business LIS nature of business is manufacturing surveying products (automatic level, theodolite) and microscopy products (stereomicroscope).
Figure 1.2 Sample of surveying products (NA700 series, left) and microscopy products (Z16 APO)
Industrial Attachment Report
LIS manufacturing processes include: - Precision Optics - Precision Machining - Assembly Operations - Research & Development - Information Technology - International Procurement Office - Technical Service
1.1.3 LIS organization structure
CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER
MANAGERIAL ADMINISTRATION SENIOR EXECUTIVES (Administration) SENIOR EXECUTIVES (Engineering) MANUFACTURING SENIOR EXECUTIVES (Production)
ADMIN SUPPORTING STAFF
MANUFACTURING SUPPORTING STAFF
Figure 1.3 LIS organization structure The Administration includes Human Resource department, IT department, Finance department and Supply Chain department. The Manufacturing includes Assembly department, Mechanics&Facilities department, and Optics department (where the author was attached).
Introduction to Optics department
Industrial Attachment Report The Optics department of Leica Instruments (Singapore) Pte Ltd produces precision optical components for sub-assemblies and instruments. high efficiency functional coatings and direct air gap adjustment capability. Charlie Ng. stray light reduction masking. filters and mirrors. Some documentation jobs were also done and the documentation system was learnt as well. The activities include designing autocollimator holder. with Mr. Beamsplitter. 3) Optical Coatings Developing and producing optical coatings like Anti-Reflection. assisting design and outsourcing of plastic packaging. measurement and checking of optical parts. 2) Spherical Optics Doublets. Mirror and Filter coatings and also special coatings.2 Industrial Attachment During the course of the Industrial Attachment. The focus of the production is on the following area: 1) Plano Optics Plane and parallel plates of any shapes. Donald Ng Boon Yong as his main supervisor in the Optics department of Leica Instruments (Singapore) Pte Ltd. cemented prism groups and special index matched optical groups. Computer aided design software was learnt by making drawings of some optical 4 . Testing. 1. The author assisted the Optics engineering management in day-to-day operations. the author was working under Mr. Prism with tightest tolerances. triples or quadruples lenses. high precision ball lenses and special edge profile lenses with high surface accuracy.
Chapter two of this report discusses the first project that the author has dealt with. measurement and checking of optical parts done using various devices and instruments. Data processing jobs and assisting staffs in the optics department were done throughout the attachment period. figures and diagrams are provided to enable ease of understanding of the content. 1.3 Report Presentation This report summarises the work carried out and the industrial training experience gained by the author during the period of the Industrial Attachment up to the time this report was documented. There were other jobs done by the author during the Industrial Attachment. Each project comes with a background discussion to provide better perspective for readers who are unfamiliar with the topic. Tables. but they are not presented in this report due to some constraints. The conclusion includes the author’s view of the work performed and the experience gained from the projects or jobs.Industrial Attachment Report parts. The discussion of the projects and jobs undertaken is divided into two main chapters in this report. Chapter three will elaborate on the testing. 5 . the results obtained and their discussions are presented. At the end of each chapter. autocollimator holder design. The last chapter of the report will give the conclusions on the work done and recommendations for improvements and possible next steps of work.
Then. Figure 2. Firstly. which led to the designing of autocollimator holder.1 Overview of the Autocollimator Collimation is the process of aligning the optical axis of the optical system to the reference axis or surface. the background of autocollimator usage in the process of inspection will be explained.1: Autocollimator used for the prisms checking 6 . the process of designing the autocollimator holder will be described.Industrial Attachment Report Chapter 2 Design of Autocollimator Holder In this chapter of the report. will be discussed. Autocollimator is an instrument used to check small angular displacements of optical part by means of its own collimated light. 2. the project of designing the autocollimator holder is elaborated. the evaluation of the final design will be explained. The problem aroused from the previous inspection method. Finally.
2. rested on the surface of the prism.2. the autocollimator is used for angle measurement of 2 types of prisms (part no: 409541 and 409542).3) 7 .1 Description of previous inspection method The previous inspection method of checking the displacement angle of the prisms could be described as follow: 1) The prism is held on the sides by the operator. Figure 2.2). 2) The autocollimator is put on the focus point of the prism (see figure 2.Industrial Attachment Report As far as this project concerned. 6’ and 8’ respectively (see figure 2. The checking of the prisms angle is one of the series of the inspection steps required in the prisms production.2: Illustration of previous inspection method 3) The prism is checked to the horizontal and vertical differences of the images observed.2 Previous prisms angle inspection method 2.
2.2.3 Product design definition The purpose of the design of autocollimator holder is to prevent the contact between the autocollimator and the prisms surface. the autocollimator holder should provide accuracy for the prisms angle measurement.3: Illustration of the image seen through the autocollimator 2. 8 . the manual operation of the inspection (both the prisms and the autocollimator) might increase this possibility of scratching the surface of prisms.Industrial Attachment Report Figure 2. The cost of producing the holder should also be a consideration for the design. The autocollimator holder should also give convenience for the operators checking the prisms. Moreover. At the same time.2 Problem aroused from previous inspection method Main problem aroused from the inspection method is the high possibility of scratches on the surface of the prisms caused by the direct contact of the prism with the autocollimator.
While on the conceptual design B. There were 2 initial design concepts based on the placement of the prisms during testing and the operators’ position (see figures 2.4: Conceptual design A (left) and conceptual design B On the conceptual design A. The conceptual design A was chosen to be further developed as a final design as it has benefit of efficiency in the prisms checking operation compare to the conceptual design B. 9 . the conceptual design B may cause inconvenience for the operators. Figure 2. Considering the long duration of the prisms checking operation. the autocollimator is positioned with certain angle (around 30-40 degrees) with respect to the horizontal surface.Industrial Attachment Report 2. the autocollimator is positioned perpendicular to the horizontal surface.4 Conceptual design of autocollimator holder There were some conceptual designs proposed at the early stage of the design process.4).
10 .5: 3D model of initial design Some evaluation and suggestion for improvement of the initial design were made. 2. made using SolidWorks 2003 software. Rectangular holder base was suggested for the improved design. Figure 2. The placing from the front was not possible due to the placement of autocollimator. The design of the prisms holder should be improved. 1. The details of the parts of the initial design could be seen in the appendix. The cost of producing the design could be reduced significantly by changing the cylindrical holder base. is shown in figure 2.Industrial Attachment Report 2.5. based on the conceptual design A.5 Embodiment design of the autocollimator holder The initial design of the autocollimator holder. could be divided into 5 parts. The side placing of the prisms was suggested for the improvement. The 3D model of the assembled design.
1 Completing and improving the design The final design of the autocollimator holder consist of 5 parts: 1.Industrial Attachment Report 2.6: Autocollimator holder rod ( part1a) Figure 2. The holder base (part2) 4.7: Autocollimator placing ( part1b) 11 .6 Final design of the autocollimator holder 2. The prisms holder (part3) 5. The autocollimator placing (part1b) 3.6. The adjusting plate (part5) Figure 2. The autocollimator holder rod (part name: part1a) 2.
8: Holder base (part 2) Figure 2.10: Adjusting plate (part 5) 12 .9: Prisms holder (part 3). assembled with part 5 Figure 2.Industrial Attachment Report Figure 2.
Initially. The part 5 is connected to the par t3 with a couple of spring and screw connector.11: The prism contact with the part 5 on the prisms holder The material chosen to make the prisms holder (part3) and the adjusting plate (part5) is Delrin® (Polyoxymethylene). the material needs to be soft enough. with the minimum contact of the part5 against the surface of the prisms. Figure 2. The corrosion 13 .Industrial Attachment Report The drawing of each of the parts above can be found in Appendix B. The fifth part (part5) was added to overcome the problem of ensuring the surface of the prisms parallel to the horizontal surface. yet has reasonable mechanical strength. The spring and screw connector. the design consisted only of the first four parts mentioned above. the dimensions of the drawing are not shown. The other three parts are made from Aluminium. ensures the alignment of the prisms checked (see figure 2.11). Thus. Delrin® is chosen because the parts (part3 and part5) would be in direct contact with the prisms’ surface.7x103 kg/m3). Aluminium is chosen mainly because its light weight characteristic (density 2. Due to the some restrictions.
The 3D model and drawing.6. an order was placed to a supplier to produce the product.2 Ordering the product After completing the drawing and defining the materials for the design. During the process of ordering. The Purchase Requisition was raised and the order was made to the supplier. 2.Industrial Attachment Report resistance and tensile strength characteristics of Aluminium are also included as considerations in choosing the material. Figure 2. of each part were made using SolidWorks 2003 software. ideas were exchanged with the supplier to discuss about improvement should be made to make the design more efficient. complete with the dimensions.12: the assembled Autocollimator holder 14 .
7 Evaluation of the autocollimator holder The following part will elaborate the things learnt by the author during the design process as well as the improvement that could be made for the future design. By doing so. the cost of production is an important consideration in the decision making process. (2) The manufacturer of the product contributes to the decision making by providing insight suggestions from the manufacturing point of view. some small aluminium 15 . Figure 2. To justify this deviation. misinterpretation of the drawing could be avoided. the designer should decide the appropriate tolerances and include them in the parts drawing.13: The assembled autocollimator holder in details (4) The designer should specify clearly the threaded holes and the screws using international convention in the parts drawing. (5) There was slight deviation in terms of parallelism of the prisms holder (part3) and the autocollimator placing (part1b). (3) To achieve higher precision and efficiency in the production process. Both of the designer and manufacturer should discuss the best solution for the product design.Industrial Attachment Report 2. (1) Besides the function and the ergonomic of the design. The deviation has significant effect on the accuracy of the prisms checking.
Figure 2. The temporary solution for this is by stacking cartoon boxes to get the desired height. and thus.14: The prisms checking devices set up (6) The further improvement of the design could be made on the total height of the autocollimator holder to be more convenient for the operators.1 mm thickness) were placed between part3 and the holder base (part2) to make the part3 and part1b parallel to each other. 16 .Industrial Attachment Report sheets (0. improve the accuracy of the prisms checking.
Though there were a lot of jobs of testing and measurement during the Industrial Attachment period. In the following parts. each of the 3 groups will be described. with 25 and 40 samples were checked at the first and second stage.Industrial Attachment Report Chapter 3 Measurement and Testing In this chapter of the report. several jobs of optical parts measurement and testing are presented.1 Measurements of Prisms Angle (part no: 19001464) 3. A device called goniometer was used to complete the 17 . The job was done in two stages.1. they could be categorized in 3 groups.1: Samples of the prism In this job. 3. respectively. the angles of 65 samples of prisms (part no: 19001464) were measured. the testing/measurement method as well as the evaluation and the learning process obtained in finishing the jobs.1 Overview Figure 3. The description includes the devices used.
2 Description of the angle measurement The method of angle measurement of the prisms could be described step by step as follow: 1) The goniometer was aligned so that the white light coincided with the zero reference in the eyepiece. The reflected and converted rays through the prisms were used to measure the accuracy of the prisms angle.2).Industrial Attachment Report measurement (see figure 3. The white light was the total ray (direct ray) goes into the goniometer. This was the 0o 0’ 0” reference (zero degree. zero minute and zero second) which was defined by zeroing the digital reading (see figure 3. Figure 3.1.3 Position of goniometer during zero alignment (left) and the white light seen through the eyepiece 18 .2: Complete setup of goniometer 3.3) Figure 3.
4) The next step done was finding the parallelism of the surface of the parts with respect to the goniometer. using the fine-tuning. 5) The angle of the prism using the total ray path (white light) as reference was found out. The parallelism of the table was found by observing the red light (the reflection ray) inside the eyepiece. 19 . This was done manually by rotating and tilting the parts slowly until the red light (the reflection ray) appeared inside of the eyepiece. 6) The angle of the prism using the reflection ray path (red light) as reference was found out. using the fine-tuning. and the table was adjusted by turning the panels on the sides of the table. This step was experienced as the most difficult step throughout the process of the angle prisms measurement. This was done by setting the goniometer around 30o (the ideal dimension). Then. The reading of the prism angle was taken from the digital reading. This was done by setting the goniometer around 30o (the ideal dimension). the goniometer was adjusted so that the red light coincided with the zero reference inside of the eyepiece. Then. Firstly the goniometer was moved to 90o 0’ 0”. the goniometer was adjusted so that the white light coincided with the zero reference inside of the eyepiece.Industrial Attachment Report 2) Adjusting the measurement table to be parallel to the horizontal plane. 3) The goniometer was set to the 180o 0’ 0”. The reading of the prism angle was taken from the digital reading. The result of the measurement could be found in Appendix D. the setting up of the goniometer was done.
10721160 and 703510) 3. During the process of completing the job. At the following parts.Industrial Attachment Report 3. The reflected and converted ray is used to build the method of prisms angle measurement using goniometer.2 Dimension checking of samples (part no: 10721601.3 Evaluation and Learning Experience They are several learning experiences gained throughout completing the job of prism angle measurement. The checking of 7 samples of condenser_mirror (part 20 . One of the ways to make the process more efficient was by marking the table of goniometer once the first sample had been parallel to the goniometer. the ray path through the prisms was learnt and observed. Finding the parallelism of the prism surface with respect to the goniometer manually was time consuming and difficult (step number 4). 1. Another action done was by regularly adjusting the table after 3-4 samples were checked (repeating step 1 until 3). the dimensions of 5 samples of Diffuser to Fresn Lens WDG29 (part no: 10721601). 2.1 Overview In this job. the inspection steps taken should be done carefully. the understanding about the reflected ray and converted ray of the prism was deepened. 3. With the tight tolerance of the parts to get high accuracy. The importance of the tolerance in the designing and producing high precision optical parts was appreciated. By this observation. 7 samples of condenser_mirror (part no: 10721160) and 5 samples of mirror (703510) were checked.2.1. 3. the learning experience and the problems encountered will be elaborated.
The picture and sketch drawing of all the parts could be found in Appendix E. 21 . various operation functions of the devices were learnt and practiced. Having known the coordinates. The readings of the profile projector show the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the projector with respect to the reference point. Any point on the surface of the parts could be defined as the reference point. Before starting the dimensions checking. Videoscope 3. 2. the reference point needs to be defined. yet the corner of the part is usually chosen as the reference point.2. respectively. with 5 and 2 samples were checked at the first and second stage. the checking process could be presented together as the principals behind the checking of the parts are similar. 3. Though there were 3 different parts checked.Industrial Attachment Report no: 10721160) was done in two stages.2 Description of the Devices Used There were 3 devices used to check the dimensions of the samples in this job: 1. Profile projector Profile projector is used to measure linear length or distance of the parts with the accuracy 1/1000 millimeter. the length/distance of the points of the parts could be obtained. The basic principles of each device could be described as follow: 1. The checking results were compared to the nominal value (including the tolerance) stated in the drawing. Profile projector. Vernier Throughout the process of completion the checking.
5: Videoscope setup 22 . Figure 3. The videoscope has 1/1000-millimeter accuracy. and based on these coordinates the system of the videoscope calculated the required dimensions.Industrial Attachment Report Figure 3. linear distance/length measuring. used for checking condenser_mirror (part no: 10721160). videoscope has several functions in its program. In addition to that. One of them. The calculation was done by taking coordinates of the points along the curvature.4: Profile projector 2. was to calculate the radius of curvature of the concave mirror and also to calculate the distance of the centre of the curvature to the side of the mirror. Videoscope The videoscope has similar function with the profile projector.
3 Description of the samples checking The method of the checking of the samples could be described step by step as follow: 1) For measuring linear dimensions. 4) After the vertical and horizontal reference had been aligned. Vernier The manual vernier was used to measure the thickness of the parts (10721601 and 10721160). Figure 3. 23 . 3. The vernier was still widely used for dimensions checking due to its efficiency for large number of samples checking. the top right hand side of the surface was taken as the reference (i. the profile projector was used.2. 3) The sample was aligned so that its position was parallel to the reference of the profile projector. 10721160 and 703510). the zero vertical and horizontal coordinates). For all three parts (10721601. In this case. the reference point of the checking was defined. the sample was put on the profile projector table with the surface being checked facing the profile projector lens.e. both vertical and horizontal reference.6: The part was put on the profile projector table 2) The focal distance of the profile projector lens was adjusted to get the best image of the surface of the samples. The accuracy of the vernier is 1/100 millimeter.Industrial Attachment Report 3.
7) The thickness of all the three parts was measured using the vernier. At each point. the calculation of the linear dimensions was done.7: The alignment of the part 5) The profile projector was moved to the required points along the surface of the samples.Industrial Attachment Report Figure 3. 24 . 6) After all the coordinates of the required points were recorded. The sample (part 10721160) was put on the videoscope table with the surface checked facing the profile projector lens. the coordinate of the point (with respect to the reference) was recorded. the videoscope was used. 8) For measuring the radial dimensions (only part no: 10721160).
the reference point of the checking was defined. 25 .8: Placing of the part on videoscope (left) and its various functions 9) The sample was aligned so that its position was parallel to the reference of the videoscope both vertical and horizontal reference. The checking results were compared to the nominal value (including the tolerance) stated in the drawing. 11) Several points (6 to 8 points) along the curvature of the mirror were taken and their coordinates were recorded. using the functions of the videoscope system. the required dimensions were calculated. Thus. 12) All the dimensions required of the parts were recorded in the ‘Detail Inspection Report’.Industrial Attachment Report Figure 3. 10) After the vertical and horizontal reference had been aligned.
sound waves. 3.3 Using Interferometer for Radius and Irregularity Checking 3. Since the results of the dimension checking would be used in decision making of the outsourcing (which includes costing). ocean waves. 1.4 Evaluation and Learning Experience They are several learning experiences gained throughout completing the job of dimension checking of samples. 2. or seismic waves from earthquakes. At the following parts. The importance of the tolerance in the outsourcing of the optical parts was appreciated. It could be any kind of waves. the learning experience and the problems encountered will be elaborated.Industrial Attachment Report 3. Interference can be visualized as the resultant of the two waves. 26 . light waves. there were some of the samples not qualified based on the nominal value of the dimensions stated in the drawing of the parts. they will either add together or cancel each other.1 Overview The device named ‘interferometer’ is derived from the word interference.2. Interference is a phenomenon that occurs when two waves take place at the same time. Depending on amplitude and the degree to which the waves are in or out of step with each other (phase difference). The results of the dimension checking would be used in decision making of the outsourcing of the parts in the future. Due to the inhomogeneity of the samples produced by the suppliers. the inspection steps taken should be done carefully.3.
Though there are many different types and designs of interferometers in the market. the two will add together to form a single wave.9: Illustration of constructive and destructive interference Hence. two dimmer light beams will add together to form a brighter beam. This combined wave will have larger amplitude In the case of light waves. Figure 3. most of them operate on the same basic principle. when waves are added together. the amount of interference that occurs depends on both the amplitudes of the two waves and the degree to which their respective peaks and troughs are in phase with each other. On the other hand. they actually cancel each other out.Industrial Attachment Report If both waves are in step or in phase. An interferometer is an optical device making use of the interference phenomena to obtain information about the optical parts concerned. destructive interference occurs when the two waves are out of phase with each other. Here. called constructive interference. 27 .
10: Interferogram illustration 3. manual and automatic interferometer. In this job.. In the optical industry. The interference observed in this job was in the form of alternating bands of light and dark. This pattern.3. whereas the dark fringes show the destructive interference. There were two types of the interferometer used in the completion of the job. Figure 3. These beams are then combined so as to interfere with each other. they only differ in the moving mechanism. two or more flat mirrors are used to split off different light beams. the interference phenomenon was used to check the radius and irregularity of test glass.g. etc.2 Description of devices used There were 21 test glasses with various radiuses to be tested on their radius and irregularities in this job. Both of the types work with the same principles. lamp. the interference of two or more light waves is widely used for various applications. called fringes. created by interference. 28 .Industrial Attachment Report From a beam of light coming from the light wave source e. laser. is known as Interferogram. Bright fringes show the constructive interference.
043 mm Table 3. -163. The details of the test glass with its respective transmission sphere could be shown in the table below. +40.Industrial Attachment Report Figure 3. -35.940 mm.335 mm.40.940 mm +163. +113.335 mm.11: Automatic (left) and manual interferometer There were some tools to assist the checking that need to be selected according to the size of the test glass: 1) Transmission sphere There were 3 different transmission spheres used. The size of the ring diameter also depends on the radius of the test glass.1: Transmissioin sphere and respective test glass radius 29 . Test glass radius . -113. 150 mm and 330 mm focal length.480 mm.043 mm. -96. Transmission sphere focal length 75 mm 150 mm 330 mm 2) Ring diameter The ring diameter was used to hold the test glass on the Abbe holder.992 mm.480 mm +96. respectively. They were 75 mm. Different radius of the test glass needs different focal length of the transmission sphere.
3.3 Description of the test glass checking The process of checking the radius and irregularity of the test glass could be described step by step as follow: 1. The pattern was found by moving the test glass (manually or automatically) closer or further away from the transmission sphere.12: Abbe holder (left) and a test glass placed on ring diameter 3. The appropriate size of the ring diameter was chosen in accordance with the test glass radius. Then. The respective transmission sphere was selected and set on the interferometer accordingly. 3. the test glass was put on the ring diameter on the Abbe holder. 30 . Figure 3. 2. Define the reference for the checking by firstly finding the interference pattern (interferogram) of the test glass.Industrial Attachment Report 3) Abbe holder The holder was used to place the test glass (together with the ring diameter) on the interferometer.
the learning experience and the problems encountered will be elaborated. From the last position of the test glass.Industrial Attachment Report Figure 3. 31 . From the reference. the test glass was moved further away or closer by approximate distance of the defined radius. Some interferogram samples could be found in Appendix F. 1) The accuracy in precision optics outsourcing or production was greatly appreciated.3. 3. The actual radius and the surface irregularity were recorded and printed for the respective test glass. 6.13: Appropriate transmission sphere was set on the interferometer 4. which is according to the standard of the test glass. 5. the transmission sphere focal length was adjusted until a ‘cat eyes’ image of the interference pattern found.4 Evaluation and learning experience They are several learning experiences gained throughout completing the job of the radius and irregularity checking of the test glass. The irregularity recorded was the peak and valley value (PV value). At the following parts.
thus approximate approach was done to complete the job. 4) Finding the ‘cat eyes’ interference pattern was difficult due to the absence of the standard. the automatic interferometer was used. interference phenomenon and the radius checking was appreciated and understood. To overcome this problem. 32 .Industrial Attachment Report 2) The relationship among the focal length of the test glass. 3) There was problem encountered in finding the interference due to the limitation of the height of the manual interferometer.
The 33 . The appreciation of all the aspects of design was achieved and gained. dimensions checking of optical parts. The author was given the opportunity to deal with the supplier and exchange ideas for more effective design of the autocollimator holder. There were adequate opportunities to put theories and principles learnt in the undergraduate course at NTU. Measurement of prisms angle. The programme required interaction with a wide range of people in the engineering profession as well as other related fields.Industrial Attachment Report Chapter 4 Conclusions The period of attachment with Leica Instruments (S) Pte Ltd has helped the author gain enormous technical knowledge and insightful experiences in a real working environment. The most rewarding experience is to be part of the company culture.g. Various testing and measurement of optical parts were done using various devices and methods. appreciation about the accuracy of the optical parts was gained. This exposure of the design process has helped to advance the author’s designing and management skills. supplier). including administrative staff and outside parties (e. A great hands-on experience of designing autocollimator holder was gone through by the author. thus allowing for valuable human relations skills to be developed. Throughout the process of completing the jobs. as well as radius and irregularity test glass testing were completed.
The 24-week Industrial Attachment in Leica Instruments (S) Pte Ltd Optics department has indeed been a fruitful and pleasant experience. data processing jobs and assisting the engineers in day-to-day operation. the author was able to complete the testing and measurement effectively. 34 . These jobs include the documentation of the optics department data. the author has learnt to adopt a systematic approach to an engineering problem and explore the numerous ways for the best solution and have been successfully applied to those projects undertaken. There were several other jobs completed during the period of the Industrial Attachment that are not presented in this report. producing the drawings using the computer aided design software. These various projects and jobs undertaken by the author have allowed the author to gain a deeper insight into the technical and practical aspects of precision optics engineering. With the help and guidance from the supervisor and the engineers.Industrial Attachment Report importance of the careful inspection of the optical parts was appreciated. As inculcated by the culture of the company.
Heinz. Karow. Inc. David. 35 . Chapman&Hall. John Wiley & Sons.merckmedicus.Industrial Attachment Report References and Readings Frey. 1993. USA. Schott Guide to Glass. United Kingdom.leica.com/helpers/glossary. 1999. USA.com www. Hank. AUTOCAD 2000 No Experience Required. Sybex. 1996.kentek-laser.com Leica Instruments (S) Pte Ltd leaflets and brochures. Fabrication Methods For Precision Optics. Pfaender. www.htm www.
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