This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
FOR RAILWAY ENGINEERS
LABORATORY & FIELD TESTS
WATER ABSORPTION GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS
NUCLEAR MOISTURE GAUGE
ATTERBERG LIMITS CORE CUTTER I MOISTURE CONTENT I SPECIFIC GRAVITY I PERMEABILITY
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE R D S O, LUCKNOW-226011
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
● SPECIALLY TO INDIAN RAILWAYS ● SUGGESTIONS ARE WELCOME
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE, R D S O Page 2
P R E FA C E
Simple soil tests are required for assessing quality of earthwork on Railway projects. These tests play an important role in maintaining quality of earthwork and thereby the performance of Railway formation. However, in field, while conducting stage inspections on zonal railways, it has been observed that the testing procedures vary which affects the soil testing results thereby affecting the quality of work done. Lack of knowledge and proper understanding of relevant specifications have also contributed to this situation. In order to improve the situation, regular one week course on “Quality Control on Construction Projects” have been started at Geotechnical Engineering Directorate of RDSO, where detailed procedures for various tests are explained. An abridged version of procedure of soil testing has been framed so that it is easy for the field supervisors involved in earthwork projects, to understand and appreciate the testing methods. In abridging, we have tried to prepare this compilation very brief. For details relevant IS code as referred for each test needs to be gone through. The tests in this booklet have been divided into four categories i.e. a) Tests for soil, b) Tests for Ballast, c) Test for Blanket material and d) Field tests. Testing of blanket material for use on railway formation developed by RDSO, which has been standardised, has also been included. It is hoped that the booklet will prove useful for our field supervisors in improving quality control of earthwork and ballast apart from designing slope through slope stability analysis. Suggestions for further improvement of this booklet may be sent to Geotechnical Engineering Directorate of RDSO.
RDSO Lucknow 04/11/2004
Nand Kishore Executive Director Geotechnical Engineering Directorate RDSO
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE, R D S O Page 3
Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s
Preface Table of Contents Tests for Soil : Moisture Content by Oven Dry Method Natural Moisture Content & Dry Density Test Particle Size Distribution Test Liquid limit Plastic limit Shrinkage limit Free Swell Index Consolidation Specific Gravity Compaction Relative Density Permeability Unconfined Compression Strength Direct Shear Triaxial Tests for Ballast : Impact Water Absorption Abrasion Test for Blanket Material Field Tests : Moisture content & Dry density By Calcium Carbide Method By Core Cutter Method By Sand Replacement Method By Nuclear Moisture Density Gauge 26 27 28-29 30 21 22 23 24-25 4 5 6 7 8 9-10 10 11-12 13 14 15 16-17 18 19 20 2 3
Observation & Calculation OBSERVATIONS : Container No.0 mm 4. 2. Airtight container made of non-corrodible material with lid. with lid. 4. Tongs.06 14. M2 = Mass of the container with wet soil & lid. Weighing balance. 6. Find the mass ( M3 ) of the container with lid and dry soil sample. II B III C RESULT : Average of three determinations shall be taken. using tongs. Mass of empty container (M1) Mass of container + Wet soil (M2) Mass of container + Dry soil (M3) CALCULATION : Mass of water MW = (M2 – M3) Mass of solid MS = (M3 – M1) Water content w = (5/6) x100 g g g g g % Unit I A 20. R D S O Page 4 WATER CONTENT BY OVEN DRY METHOD [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 2) . remove the container from the oven. Take the mass ( M2 ). OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION S. The wet soil specimen should be kept loosely in the container.12 41. Care should be taken to avoid over-heating of the soil specimen by maintaining the oven temperature at 105 110 ºC Dry soil specimen should not be left uncovered before weighing. with its lid removed. 2.91 Determination No. No. 2.14 21. When the soil has dried.04% of the mass of the soil taken.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE The soil specimen should be representative of the soil mass. APPARATUS 1. Take the required quantity of the wet specimen in the container and clean it with lid. 7. 3. w = [(M2 – M3) / (M3 – M1)] x100 Where M1 = Mass of empty container. dry it and weight it with lid ( M1 ).18 3. 1. 3. with accuracy of 0. 4.75 mm 10 mm 20 mm 37. Thermostatically controlled oven maintained at a temperature of 110º ± 5ºC.5 mm Minimum quantity of the soil specimen to be taken for test mass in g 25 50 200 300 500 1000 PROCEDURE 1. 3. Clean the container. 2. The quantity of the specimen taken would depend upon the gradation and the maximum size particles. 5. in the oven till its mass becomes constant ( Normally for 24 hours ). M3 = Mass of the container with dry soil & lid. Place the container.1973 ] The water content (w) of a soil sample is equal to the mass of water divided by the mass of solids. 4. . Size of particles more than 90 percent passing IS Sieve 425 µ m 2.12 44. The water content of the sample = ……… % PRECAUTIONS 1. 5. 3.
The dry weight of the specimen is taken. Use 75 mm and 50 mm height ring with sharp cutting edge at the bottom and removable dolly at the top.10 85. of container Wt. of container + oven dry soil. For quality control of compacted earth fill. roads. measurement of in-situ density is essential. of water Wt. Insert the density ring to ejected soil sample gradually by pressing with hands. of dry soil Volume of ring (W 1 – W 2 ) Moisture content = -------------. 5. Carefully removed the ring with soil specimen. All types of earthwork construction like embankments.00 181. dams. of container + wet soil Wt. 4. The wet soil specimen is kept in the oven for drying at the temperature of 105 -110 ºC for 24 hours. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE 1. A volume of soil is taken out by pushing a density ring of known volume into the undisturbed soil sample collected. Equipment for quick checking of density as well as accurate determination is listed here. . Natural dry density = W d / V g/cc Natural water content = (W – W d ) x100/ W d % Average of at least two specimen test results i. 3.x 100 (W 2 – W 3) Dry density = ( W 2 – W 3 ) / V Average Dry density = W1 W3 ( W 1 – W2 ) ( W2 – W3 ) g g g g g cc % g / cc Wt. Trim perfectly both sides of density ring. which enables him some extent to decide on the pattern of test programme. 5.64 56.e.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. W 2 Unit I Top 202. 2.54 II Bottom RESULT Average of two determinations shall be taken. The top and bottom surface should project above and below the edges of ring for final trimming. it is one of the basic parameters defining the soil condition.90 96.47 1. The spoil in the density ring should be perfectly trimmed on both sides before removing the soil specimen. As soil behaviour depends on its moisture content. as it gives an indication of the existing characteristics of the soil. Wt. 2. Container No. 6. expressed as a percentage. one from top and the other from bottom of the sample should be reported. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Determination No.56 24. 4. PROCEDURE 1. airfields and trenches need checking density for quality control. To a control engineer. Orient soil stratum to loading direction similar to applied force in field.26 20. R D S O Page 5 NATURAL DRY DENSITY AND NATURAL MOISTURE CONTENT [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 2) – 1973 ] Moisture content of soil is generally measured as a ratio of the weight of water to the weight of solids. even a rapid moisture content check is extremely useful. 3.
Hydrometer reading is taken at a time of 0.5. More water if required is added to make the soil water suspension just 1000 ml. Particles passed through 75 µ IS sieve along with water is collected and put into a 1000 ml jar for hydrometer analysis. The temperature of suspension is noted for each recording of hydrometer reading. as received from the field shall be dried in air or in sun.0. their behavior has also variation. By using the nomogram the diameter of the particles at different hydrometer reading is found out. 10 mm set of IS sieves. This oven dried material is riffled and is taken of about 200 g.75 mm IS sieve with water till substantially clean water comes out. Sample is washed through 4. APPARATUS 1. 6 hrs. 600µ. 15.0. This dried sample is sieved through 20 mm. 2. Accordingly. Brushes 8.0. 212µ. 3. 6. The dried soil sample is sieved through 2 mm.0 minutes. Mortar. Ratio of soil of different sizes are worked out from sieve analysis and hydrometer/laser particle analyzer and capacity to absorb water is worked out from liquid limit. page 30). with accuracy of 0. Soil retained on each sieve is weighed. plastic limit tests.g.120 ºC for 24 hours. 24 / 48 hours.1985 ] There is large variation in types of soils from site to site. with rubber pestle 7. The clod may be broken with wooden mallet to hasten drying . 3. Mechanical shaker 6. 180.1% of the mass of sample 4. The big clods may be broken with the help of wooden mallet. The suspension in the jar is vigorously shaken horizontally by keeping the jar in between the palms of two hands. 425µ. 4. A representative soil sample of required quantity (As per Table-3 of IS: 2720-I) is taken and dried in oven at 105 -120 ºC PROCEDURE 1.75 mm. 600 µ. their grouping has been done depending on size of soil particles and their water absorption capacity. 425 µ. Retained sample on 4. Care should be taken not to break up the individual soil particles. At different time intervals. 2. . 3. of the hydrometer is noted by seeing the depth of sinking of the stem. IS : 2720 (Part 4) –1985.75 mm IS sieve shall be oven dried for 24 hours. hydrometer method is used to analysis soil particle size. The jar is put on the table. Weighing balance. 10 mm. A typical graph of grain size distribution is shown in Figure on page 25. (Ref. 2. Set of coarse sieves 20 mm. 5.0. To make understanding of soil in easy manner. After completing mechanical analysis and hydrometer analysis the results are plotted on a semi log graph with particle size as abscissa (log scale) and the percentage smaller than the specified diameter as ordinate. like tree root and pieces of bark should be removed from the sample. Set of fine IS sieves 2 mm. Sieving is used for gravel as well as sand size particles and sedimentation procedures are used for finer soils. R D S O Page 6 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION TEST [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 4) . 3.the organic matter. 212 µ IS sieves.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. In wet weather the drying apparatus may be used in which case the temperature of the sample should not exceed 60 ºC. This sample of about 200 g is washed on 75 micron IS sieve with half litre distilled water till substantially clear water comes out. 5. Soil sample. it is usual to employ both sieving and sedimentation procedures. 4. The portion of the passing 4. (B) Hydrometer Analysis 1. 90. These test are used to classify the soils. A graduated hydrometer is carefully inserted in to the suspension with minimum disturbance. Trays PREPARATION OF SAMPLE 1. The material retained on 75 µ IS sieve is collected and dried in oven at 105 . 1. The dried sample is taken in tray and soaked with water and mixed 2 g of sodium hexametaphosphate of 2 g or sodium hydroxide of 1 g and sodium carbonate of 1 g per liter of water added as dispersive agent. Oven 5.75 mm IS sieve shall be oven dried for 24 hours. For soils containing coarse and fine soil particles both. If the soil passing 75 µ is 10% or more. 2. and 75µ 2. and 4.0. 4. 45. the density of the suspension at the c.0. The soaking of soil continued for 10 -12 hours.
Liquid limit is determined by plotting a ‘flow curve’ on semi-log graph between nos. and the number of blows I(N)CTre-O W E2. After the soil pat has been cut by proper grooving tool. 12. 3. 2R 0D 1S O LU KN . 7. Repeat the test.1985 ] The Liquid limit of fine-grained soil is the water content at which soil behaves practically like a liquid. 8. 2. holding the tool perpendicular to the cup. RESULT : Read water content corresponding to 25 blows from the graph. Don’t mix dry soil to change its consistency. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE 1. A portion of the paste is placed in the cup of the Liquid limit device. The Liquid limit is the water content corresponding to N=25. The Atterbergs limits consist of The Liquid limit. of blows on logarithmic scale and water content on arithmetical scale. bit has small shear strength. [ Sample graph is given on page-8. For sandy soil : The ASTM tool is used which cuts a groove of width 2 mm at bottom. 8. of blows counted till the two parts of the soil sample come into contact for about 10 mm length. 3. This index property helps in classification. The soil of the cup is transferred to the dish containing the soil paste and mixed thoroughly after adding a little more water. obtain at least 5 readings in the range of 15 . 4.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. 11.6 mm at top and 10 mm deep. 5. Take about 10 g of soil near the closed groove & find water content. Generally these points lie in a straight line. 10. 2. pieces of bark etc. 2.] .6 1 quired in each test determined. About 100 g of the specimen passing 425 micron IS sieve is mixed thoroughly with distilled water in the evaporating dish and left for 24 hours for soaking. Casagrande’s limit device Grooving tools of both standard and ASTM types Oven Evaporating dish Spatula 425 micron IS sieve Weighing balance with 0. Plastic limit and Shrinkage limit. APPARATUS 1. Remove the organic matter like tree roots. 9. Air dry the soil sample (in case drying) and break the clods.35 blows. Level the mix so as to have a maximum depth of 1 cm. 5. 11 mm at the top and 8 mm deep. 9. Water content corresponding to 25 blows is the value of Liquid limit. 4. For normal fine grained soil : The Casagrande tool is used which cuts a groove of width 2 mm at the bottom. It is one of the Atterbergs limits. 13. By altering the water content of the soil and repeating the foregoing operations.01 g accuracy Wash bottle Air-tight and non-corrodible container for determination of moisture content. 6. A semi-log plot is drawn between log N and the water content (w). It flow close the groove in just 25 blows in Casagrandes liquid limit device. 6. 7. Draw the grooving tool through the sample along the symmetrical axis of the cup. As it difficult to get exactly 25 blows in theGtest. R D S O Page 7 LIQUID LIMIT TEST [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 5) . the handle is rotated at the rate of about 2 revolutions per second and the nos. PROCEDURE 1.E C HtoI C4 L E N G I N E E R I N G EOT 3 N A D REC ORAT tests are conducted.
1985 ] The Plastic limit of a fine-grained soil is the water content of the soil below which it ceases to be plastic.38 8. If the diameter of the threads becomes less than 3 mm without cracks. Collect the pieces of crumbled soil thread in a moisture content container.15 Plastic Limit Liquid limit % Plastic limit % Plasticity Index % = ………………………… [Read at 25 blows from the Graph] LIQUID LIMIT TEST 41 40 Moisture content 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 10 Nos.33 9.71 1. 5.62 9.09 16.27 8.24 7.72 16. 4. R D S O Page 8 PLASTIC LIMIT [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 5) .25 3. APPARATUS 1.77 37. Repeat the process at least twice more with fresh samples of plastic soil each time.56 33.96 9. Spatula Container to determine moisture content Balance with 0.85 8.10 7.45 C 20 18. It is one of the Atterbergs limits. of Blow Weight of Dish + Wet Soil = W 1 Weight of Dish + Dry Soil = W 2 Weight of Dish = W 3 Weight of Water = (W 1 – W 2) Weight of Dry Soil = (W 2 – W 3) % Moisture = (W 1 – W 2) / (W 2 – W 3) x 100 g g g g g % 35 17. 3.01 3.93 1.80 11. The average of the result calculated to the nearest whole numbers shall be reported as the Plastic limit of soil. Kneed the soil to reduce the water content and roll it again to thread.30 8.07 19. mix the soil with distilled water in a evaporating dish and leave the soil mass for naturing.01 g accuracy Oven Ground glass plate 20 x 15 cm for rolling PREPARATION OF SAMPLE Take out 30 g of air dried soil from a thoroughly mixed sample of the soil passing 425 micron IS sieve.29 D 15 19.02 6.04 35.68 16.71 18. 4. Take about 8 g of the soil and roll it with fingers on a glass plate.40 16. 6. .09 39.20 16. It is the boundary between Liquid and Plastic limit.81 6.25 2.87 8. of Blow (Log scale) 100 Series1 Log. Plastic limit and Shrinkage limit. Repeat the process of alternate rolling and kneading until the thread crumbles.53 Liquid Limit B 28 17. PROCEDURE 1.26 6.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. 3. (Series1) = ………………………… = ………………………… RESULT The Plastic limit shall be determined for at least three portion of the soil passing 425 micron IS sieve.43 18.29 15.22 2.10 19. Unit A Nos. it shows that water content is more than its plastic limit. It begins to crumble when rolled in to threads of 3 mm diameter.11 14.28 1. The rate of rolling shall be between 80 to 90 strokes per minutes to form a 3 mm diameter.68 14. This period may be up to 24 hours. 5. The Atterbergs limits consist of The Liquid limit. Porcelain evaporating dish about 120 mm diameter. 2.82 21. 2. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Dish No.
6. 5. Weighing balance. 5. Press the plate with the prongs on the top of cup firmly. 8. The plate should be flush with the top of the dish. Determine the mass of the wet soil ( M1 ). Remove the excess mercury by pressing the glass plate with prong firmly over the top of the cup. Coat the inside of the shrinkage dish with a thin layer of silicon grease or Vaseline.01 g. 11. Place a glass cup in a large evaporating dish and fill it with mercury. Take care not to entrap air under the pat. accuracy 0. The volume of the shrinkage dish is equal to the mass of the mercury in grams divided by the specific gravity of the mercury. cushioned surface and allow the paste to flow to the edges. taking care not to spill any mercury from the glass cup. Wipe off all soil adhering to the out side of the shrinkage dish. Repeat the test at least 3 times. 9.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. Take about 30 g of soil sample in a large evaporating dish. and transfer it to the mercury weighing dish. Cool the dry pat in a desiccator. Glass cup. 3. Ms = Dry mass V1 = Initial volume. 7. 7. 8. Two large evaporating dishes about 120 mm diameters. 45 mm diameter and 15 mm height. Wipe of any mercury adhering to the outside of the cup. 13. 3. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Continued on page –10 ……. 12. 6. and no air should be entrapped. IS sieve 425 micron. which can be readily worked without entrapping the air bubbles. Desiccator. until the soil is thoroughly compacted. Strike out the top surface of the paste with the straight edge.01 g. Spatula 11. Tap the shrinkage dish on a firm. Determine the mass of mercury to an accuracy of 0. Oven. 10. Add more soil and continue the tapping till the shrinkage dish is completely filled. The volume of the dry pat ( V2 ) is equal to the mass of mercury divided by the specific gravity of mercury. Remove the dry pat from the desiccator after cooling and weigh the shrinkage dish with the dry pat to determine the dry mass of the soil ( Ms ) 10. 50 mm diameter and 25 mm height. Place the soil specimen in the center of the shrinkage dish. The volume of soil does not decrease when the water content is reduced below the Shrinkage limit. Remove the glass cup full of mercury and place it in another evaporating dish.1985 ] The Shrinkage limit is the water content of the soil when the water is just sufficient to fill all the pores of the soil and the soil is just saturated. Mix it with distilled water to make a creamy paste. having a flat bottom. R D S O Page 9 SHRINKAGE LIMIT TEST [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 5) . Take the shrinkage dish. V2 = Volume after drying APPARATUS 1. Remove the excess mercury by pressing the plain glass plate over the top of the shrinkage dish. approximately equal to the first portion and tap the shrinkage dish as before. Fill mercury in the shrinkage dish. with a pour out and flat bottom. 2. Shrinkage dish. Take out the dry pat of soil from the shrinkage dish and immerse it in the glass cup full of mercury. one plane and one with prongs. Two glass plates. Collect the mercury displaced by the dry pat in the evaporating dish. Dry the soil in the shrinkage dish in an air until the colour of pat turns from dark to light. Transfer the mercury of the shrinkage dish to a mercury weighing dish and determine the mass of the mercury to an accuracy of 0.01 g. Take a sample of mass about 100 g from a thoroughly mixed soil passing 425 micron IS sieve. and excess soil paste projects out about it’s edge. 9. . 60 mm diameter. One small mercury dish. 4. clean it and determine its mass. Add more soil paste. 4. Then dry the pat in the oven at 105 to 110 ºC to constant mass. 75 x 75 x 3 mm size. equal to about one third volume of shrinkage dish. 2. It can be determined from the following relation W s = (M1 – Ms) – (V1 – V2)ץw X 100 Ms Where M1 = Initial wet mass. Mercury PROCEDURE 1. Straight edge 12.
64 38.01 g.97 114.35 18. 4.10 RESULT Shrinkage Limit ( average of three determinations ).96 37. 3.04 32.78 24. Allow attainment of equilibrium state of volume of suspension (for not less than 24 hours).6 4. Pour each soil specimen in 100 ml capacity graduate glass cylinder.55 13. W S = 13.98 32.87 25.Vk Free swell index = ———— x 100 Vk Where Vd = volume of soil specimen read from the graduate cylinder containing distilled water. Pour distilled water in one and kerosene oil in other cylinder upto 100 ml mark.39 25. 5.88 38.69 113. is the increase in volume of soil with out any external constraint when subjected to submergence in water.42 24. D FS (% ) < 20 20 –35 35 –50 >50 DEGREE OF EXPANSIVENESS LOW MODERATE HIGH VERY HIGH PROCEDURE 1. Free swell or differential free swell also termed as free swell index. 2.6 4.38 13.14 12. R D S O Page 10 FREE SWELL INDEX TEST [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 40) .51 8.78 % .97 8. Remove entrapped air by gentle shaking or stirring with glass rod.43 25. 2.6 4. Take two specimens of 10 g each of pulverised soil passing 425 micron IS sieve and oven dried.41 6.W 1 W3 . APPARATUS 1. Wt of container Wt of container + wet soil pat Wt of container + dry soil pat wet weight of soil wt of oven dry soil pat Wt of water Moisture content of soil in (%) Volume of wet soil pat Wt of mercury displaced by dry soil pat Volume of dry soil pat Density of mercury Difference in volume Shrinkage Limit Unit W1 W2 W3 W2 .31 14. each of 100 ml capacity.21 13.99 24. Sieve : 425 micron IS sieve Oven Balance : weighing accuracy of 0.85 12.39 6. OBSERVATION Date Time start Time elapsed ( in hours ) 0 6 12 18 24 Volume of soil in cylinder containing Kerosene ( Vk ) in cc Volume of soil in cylinder containing distilled water ( Vd ) in cc CALCULATION Vd .01 6. 6.42 13.37 31.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. Final volume of soil in each of the cylinder shall be read out.05 17.96 III 5 7.02 8.89 18. 3. Vk = volume of soil specimen read from the graduate cylinder containing kerosene.31 13. Graduate glass cylinder : two nos. 4.20 12.52 113.W 3 g g g g g g % cc g cc g/c c cc % I 3 7. …… Continued from page-9 Determination No Container No.27 II 4 7.W 1 W2 .1977 ] The clay and specially the black cotton soils have a tendency to swell in small or more proportion when submerged in water.
361.0.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE.25. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE UNDISTURBED SOIL SPECIMEN :. REMOULDED SOIL SPECIMEN :. 6. 1. Take the mass of the empty ring. Place the consolidation ring on glass plate with cutting edge upward. 3. Consolidometer with loading device 2. Take the dial gauge reading after 24 hours. 196. 5. accuracy 0.0. PROCEDURE Clean and dry the metal ring. Co-efficient of compressibility = av Co-efficient of volume change = mv Compression index = Cc Co-efficient of consolidation = Cv APPARATUS 1. Position the loading block centrally on the top porous stone.25. 12. 4. Connect the mould assembly to the water reservoir having the water level at about the same level as the soil specimen. A structure (railway formation) constructed over compressible soft saturated marshy soil settles with expulsion of water. 49. After the last load increment had been applied and the reading taken. 2. 8. 10. 64. 400. bottom filter paper. 16. R D S O Page 11 CONSOLIDATION TEST [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 15) . sustained load. Pressure pad. 225. Any voids in the specimen due to the removal of large particles should be filled back by pressing the soil lightly. 1. Trim the specimen flush with the top and bottom of the ring. 100. Set the dial gauge in the position. Soil trimming tool. and finally 1440 minutes. 169.25. Saturate the porous stones by boiling them in distilled water for about 15 minutes. 324. Measure its diameter and height.0 kg /cm2 and take the dial gauge reading after application of each load at a time sequence of 0. 121. 9. this test is required. one by one. Centre it such that the load applied is axial in the lever-loading system.0. likewise further reduce the load to ¼ of the previous and repeat the procedure. φ φ φ .05 kg/cm2 to the assembly so that there is no swelling and allow the setting load to stand till there is no change in the dial gauge reading or for 24 hours. Specimen ring. Alternatively.0 and 16. Finally reduce the load to the initial setting load and keep out for 24 hours and take the final dial gauge reading.50.002 mm 7. Allow the water flow into the specimen till it is fully saturated. Mount the mould assembly on the loading frame. The ring is to be pressed with hands.Clean dry and then lubricate the consolidation ring from inside with silicon grease. 11. 2. Press the remoulded soil into the ring by suitable means. The consolidation characteristics of soil are required to predict the magnitude and the rate of settlement. 1. accuracy 0. specimen. 25. Press the ring into the soil sample at the desired density and the water content. Further reduce the load to ¼ of the previous load and repeat the above procedure. 9. 144.0. 6. Water reservoir to saturate the sample. Apply an initial setting load to give a pressure of 0. Flush the soil specimen with the top end of the ring and weigh. made of a non-corroding material 3. 8. Weighing balance. 4. Assemble the consolidometer. spatula 6. Take the initial reading of the dial gauge. 2. Place the bottom porous stone. 7. 8. The following characteristics are obtained from the consolidation test. 81. Ball. 36. 12. 289. 20.25. to work out total settlement and rate of settlement of structure. Allow sufficient margin for the swelling of the soil. Oven 10.Prepare the soil sample by compaction method at the OMC and MDD.0.25. like knife. Dial gauge.1986 ] Consolidation of a saturated soil occurs due to expulsion of water under static. Normal sequence of pressure to be applied is 0. Take the final gauge reading under the initial setting load. 4. top filter paper and the top porous stone. During this process.01g. decrease the load to ¼ of the last load and allow it stand for 24 hours. 4. continue trimming the specimen care fully from outside the consolidation ring to reduce friction. Porous stones 5. Trim and flush the soil sample with the ends of the consolidation ring. 0. Push the sample directly into the consolidation ring and hold the ring firmly about 5 mm above the sample tube keeping the cutting face down ward and eject the sample gently and steadily out of the tube by means of hydraulic jack so that it intrudes into the ring. the soil specimen may be intruded into the consolidation ring.
1440 0.50 1.Final dial gauge ing reading Change in height Height H=Hi+ ∆H [ in cm ] Height of voids (H-Hs) [ in cm ] e = H-Hs H Average height [ in cm ] Remarks (b) CO-EFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION : DIAL GAUGE READING σ ( kg / cm ) T (Minutes) 0. Take weight of the ring with specimen. Hs = Water content after test = (a) CO-EFFICIENT OF COMPRESSIBILTY : Initial dial gauge read.00 0. A Height of ring Volume of ring Initial height .25 1.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. S = Height of solid. Dismantle the assembly.0 2.0 8. 15..0 4.0 2 For each load increment plot time ( t ) as abscissa and the dial gauge reading ( R ) as ordinate. Wipe out the excess surface water using bloating paper and remove the filter paper both side the specimen.00 2. Now. Take out the ring with the specimen. t90 (in minutes) . Determine the specific gravity of soil from the dried specimen. R D S O Page 12 13.25 .25 (R) 0. Hi Water content before test = = = = = = = Mass of ring = Mass of ring + wet soil = Mass of dry soil = Mass of water = Degree of saturation.. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Specific gravity of solid. . 14. Cv = 0. G Diameter of ring Area of ring. 16. Determine the value of t90 from the plot. Dry the specimen in oven for 24 hours and determine the dry weight of the specimen.848 d² / t90 dial gauge reading 4760 4740 4720 4700 4680 4660 4640 4620 4600 4580 4560 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 sqrt.
0 35. Take at least two such observations for the same soil.000373 0.0 27. Clean the bottle with distilled water.0 20. 50 ml density bottle with stopper Oven Constant temperature water bath (27 ºC) Vacuum desiccator Weighing balance of accuracy 0.0 17.000849 0. 2. 8.5 33. Add water to fill the bottle to about half.000688 0.59 PROCEDURE 1. OBSERVATION & CALCULATION 0.57 10 28. wipe and weigh.002165 -0. 6.5 14. Bottle no.0 31.001428 -0.003144 -0.003936 -0.001364 -0.5 27. Repeat the process till no more air bubbles are observed in the soil water mixture. Unit Determination No.5 35. Take pulverized soil passed through 2 mm IS sieve.5 22.000232 -0.003778 -0. Observe the temperature of the constant ( ºC ) in the bottle and record. The specific gravity of solid particles is the ratio of the mass density of solids to that of water.003857 -0.004173 23.000520 -0.002910 -0.5 13. Insert the stopper in the density bottle.001 g Spatula.000800 -0. cool in desiccator and weigh it with stopper.002077 III C 31 The reported result is based on water at 27 ºC Specific gravity of water at ( Tt ) G ( at 27 ºC) = G ( at Tt ) x ——————————————— Specific gravity of water at (27 ºC) APPARATUS 1.0 13.003542 -0.002691 -0.002881 -0.001011 0.001675 0.001584 where M1 = mass of empty bottle M3 = mass of bottle + soil + water only M2 = mass of the bottle + dry soil M4 = mass of bottle filled with water 11. 3. Disturbed soil sample is enough for this test. wash off carefully adhering particles from the rod with some drops of distilled water and see that no more soil particles are lost. wipe dry from the out side and weigh.0 21.5 20. 4.001825 0.004095 23.003060 -0.000066 0. Entrapped air can be removed by heating the density bottle on a water bath or a sand bath.003228 -0.88 84. 2. Now make the bottle empty.0 -0. . 7.995369 Specific gravity of water at ( Tt ) G ( at 27 ºC) = G ( at Tt ) x ———————————————– = 2. The equipment mentioned below can be used to test a wide range of materials from clay to sand and gravel smaller than 10 mm.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE.0 34.003306 -0.5 25.57 90.5 19.M1 ) 10. Temperature Weight of bottle Weight of oven dry soil Weight bottle + soil Weight of bottle + soil + water Weight of bottle + water CALCULATION Specific gravity = ( M2 – M1 ) ____ (M2 –M1) – (M3 – M4 ) - 2.996542 RESULT : Average of three determinations shall be taken .0 -0. clean thoroughly till the density bottle with distilled water at the same temperature. dry it in oven.0 29.001700 (M2 –M1) – (M3 – M4 ) 11.0 14.0 -0.5 -0.0 30. Keep about 10-15 g of this soil in the bottle.0 22.0 -0.001413 0.0 25.0 33.002271 -0. Temperature Correction Temperature Correction ( M2 .0 29.5 17.5 31.5 34.5 26.001941 II B 31 24.5 12.003385 -0. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE 1. Insert the stopper in the bottle.0 32.003620 -0.5 21.59 x ————– = 2.5 32.0 16. 3.0 -0. Cover the soil with air free distilled water from the glass wash bottle and leave for a period of 2 to 3 hours for soaking.5 18.0 18.001127 0.002057 -0. 2.587 Specific gravity of water at ( 27 ºC ) 0.001071 -0.002786 -0. 4.5 30. 11. Gently stir the soil in the density bottle by a clean glass rod.0 12. R D S O Page 13 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOLIDS BY THE DENSITY BOTTLE METHOD [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 3 / Sec-2) – 1980 ] Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight in air of a given volume of a material at a standard temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of distilled water at the same stated temperature. 2.0 19.004015 24. 9.001216 -0.5 15.002590 -0.5 I A ( M1 ) ( M2 ) ( M3 ) ( M4 ) ºC g g g g g 31 18.003463 -0.001825 G = —————————– 10.5 16. It is determined in the laboratory using the relation. Keep the bottle without stopper in vacuum desiccator for about 1 to 2 hours until there is no further loss of air.5 36.5 -0.5 28.002385 -0.0 26. 5.000212 0.000660 -0.000530 0.0 15.000080 0.002490 -0. 1.001343 0.74 -0.000935 -0. 10.003699 -0.
1 mm Collar : 60 mm high Detachable base plate Rammer Mass : for light compaction = 2.800 1. 6. 3.75 mm IS sieve and % passing 4. 4.75 mm Oven : Thermostatically controlled to maintain a temperature of 105 0 to 110 0C Weighing Balance : sensitivity . 4.( for soil is not susceptible to crushing during compaction) 15 kg . Dry density = M / V 1+ ω where M = total mass of soil V = volume of soil ω = water content APPARATUS 1. 9.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. Take about 6 kg . corri layer being given 25 blows from 4. R D S O LUCKNOW-226011 Dry Density in gm/cc 1.75 mm sieve in the proportion determined.900 1. The amount of soil taken for compaction should be in such a way that after compacting the last layer. The blows should be distributed uniformly over the surface of each layer. The degree of compaction of a given soil is measured in terms of its dry density. 7. remove the organic matter like free roots . 5. 2. Attach the collar to the mould and place on a solid base. φ φ φ PROCEDURE 1. R D S O Page 14 COMPACTION TEST [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 8) – 1983 ] Compaction is the process of densification of soil by reducing air voids. . 4. If % passing retained on 4.6 kg heavy compaction = 4. 8.1 2250 cc with dia 150 mm + 0. PRECAUTION 1.75 mm IS sieve.1 150 mm + 0.00 10.1 g for capacity 10 kg 0.00 5. A representative portion of air dried soil sample ( in case of oven drying temp. Remove the collar and trim off the excess soil projecting above the mould by using straight edge. < 60 0C) break the clods.00 20. 2.1 Internal effective height of mould : 127. φ φ φ φ φ PREPARATION OF SAMPLE 1. piece of bark etc.01g for capacity 200 g Steel straight edge of about 300 mm in length with one edge levelled. Store the soil sample in a sealed container for minimum period of 16 hours.00 %age of Moisture content 2. Cylindrical metal compaction mould Capacity : 1000 cc with dia 100 mm + 0.9 kg Dia : 50 mm IS sieve : 19 mm & 4. 3. Mix the soil sample retained on 4. Clean and dry the mould and base plate. 2.700 0. Do not use the soil retained on 20 mm sieve. Gradation jar Large mixing pan Spatula GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERIN G DIRECTORATE. Compact the moist soil in to the mould in five layers of approximately equal mass.75 mm sieve. 7. Sieve above material through 19 mm IS sieve and 4. 6. Take the weight of mould with compacted soil in it. Weighing should be done accurately.00 15. use the larger mould of 150 mm diameter. Add water in increment of 1 to 2 % for sandy and gravely soils and 2 to 4 % for cohesive soils. A curve is drawn between the water content and dry density to obtain the maximum dry density and optimum water content. Ramming should be done continuously taking of height of 450 mm free fall accurately. 5.( for soil is susceptible to crushing during compaction) 3. 5.3 + 0. the soil surface is not more than 5 mm above the top rim of the mould.1 Internal diameter : 100 mm + 0. Weigh the mould to the nearest 1 gram. The dry density is maximum at the optimum water content. And apply a thin layer of grease on inside the mould. 6. The total number of determination shall be at least four and moisture content should be such that the OMC at which MDD occurs . Determine the ratio of fraction retained and that passing 4. Thoroughly mix water in a) Sandy and gravely soil : 3 to 5 % b) Cohesive soil : 12 to 16 % approx. is within that range. 3.9 kg rammer dropped from the height of 450 mm above the soil.75 mm sieve and that passing 4. Remove the 100 g compacted soil specimen for the water content determination. Above procedure will be repeated for each increment of water added.75 mm IS sieve is greater than 20 mm IS sieve.
The degree of compaction of cohesion-less soil can be stated in terms of Relative density. 10. 2. B) The maximum density may determined by either dry or wet method. Metal straight edge : about 40 cm long PREPARATION OF SAMPLE A representative sample of soil should be taken.γmin ) 0-15 Very loose Density Index = ——————— x 100 = ————— x 100 15-35 Loose ( emax – emin ) γd ( γmax . The height of free fall of soil is always 25 mm. It is also known as Density Index. Soil containing particles smaller than 9.1983 ] Relative density relates the dry density of cohesion-less soil to the maximum and minimum densities. Calibration bar : for computing the initial dial gauge reading calculating the volume of specimen. 6.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. 4. 2. 7. 5. Pouring devices : consisting of funnels 12 mm and 25 mm dia. The soil sample should be pulverized with out breaking the individual soil particles and through required sieve. Maximum size of soil particles in mm 75 37. Remove the surcharge weight and the guide sleeve. 5. 8. Tighten the lock nuts with two set screws. Two guide sleeves. The mould and soil should be weighed and mass recorded. 3. Weigh the mould and record its weight. DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM DENSITY 1. 9. 8. Weigh the mould with soil and record these weight. Assemble the guide sleeve on the top of the mould and tighten the clamp assemblies so that the inner surface of the walls of the mould and sleeve are in the line.γmin ) 35-65 Medium dense Dense Very dense APPARATUS 1. The test is used to determine the Relative density of cohesion less free draining soils containing upto 5 % present by weight of the soil particles passing a 75 micron IS-sieve.5 4. Loosen the third clamp. The vibrator shall have frequency of 3600 vibrations per minute. . Select pouring device and mould according to the maximum size of the particles.5 19 9.5 mm should placed as loosely as possible in the mould by pouring the soil through spout in a steady stream. Obtain dial gauge readings on two opposite side of the mould and record their average. Relative Density Consistency Term ( emax — e ) γmax ( γd . 3. Dial gauge : 50 mm travel with 0.75 Mass of soil sample required in kg 45 12 12 12 12 Size of mould in cm3 15000 3000 3000 3000 3000 The soil sample should be dried in oven at temperature of 105 to 110 ºC. R D S O Page 15 RELATIVE DENSITY TEST [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 14) . Oven dry soil should be used. 4. 65-85 85-100 Vibratory table : a steel table with cushioned steel vibrating deck about 75 x 75 cm. Mould : Two cylindrical metal unit mass mould of 3000 cc and 15000 cc capacity. PROCEDURE A) DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM DENSITY 1. Fix the mould to the vibrator deck and loaded soil sample should be vibrated for 8 minutes. Surcharge weight should then be lowered on the base plate. 7. remove the guide sleeve. and 15 cm long with cylindrical spouts. Attach the guide sleeve to the mould and place surcharge base plate on soil surface. weight the empty mould and record its weight. 2. Mixing pans : suitable size are 65 x 90 x 10 cm. 3.025 mm graduation ( IS: 2092-1962) 6. The mass of soil sample to be taken depends upon the maximum size particle in the soil. Surcharges masses : as per IS: 10837-1984 5. 100 kg capacity. Fill the mould with thoroughly mixed oven dry soil by the procedure explained for minimum test. Weighing scale : portable platform weighing scale. 4. The mould should be filled approximately 25 mm above the top and leveled with top by making one continuous pass with steel straight edge.
Measure the internal dimensions of the mould. B) UNDISTURBED SOIL SAMPLE For testing the undisturbed soil sample. Put the filter paper at the both the end of the specimen and place it centrally over the bottom saturated porous stone of the drainage base fixed to the mould. Repeat this thrice. = 8. 2. 7. dia. 9. the head causing flow through the specimen remain constant throughout the test. R D S O Page 16 PERMEABILITY TEST ( by constant head parameter) [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 17) . using a suitable compacting device. 10. Measure the difference of head ( h ) in levels between the constant head reservoir and the outlet in the base. Constant head collecting chamber. Attached this mould with the drainage base and cap having saturated porous stone. Compact the soil at the required dry density. Stop watch Weighing balance Thermometer PREPARATION OF SAMPLE A) DISTURBED SOIL SAMPLE 1. 8. Start the stop watch. After the compaction. 60 mm high. Take about 2. 2R 0D 1St O time period water. 6. 5. effective height = 127.5 kg of soil sample. 4.6 1 = U L = length of specimen. Fill the annular space between mould and soil specimen with an impervious material to avoid any leakage from the sides. Stop the flow of water and disconnect all the part of assembly.R A T . Disconnect the reservoir from the bottom out let. Connect the constant head reservoir to the drainage cap inlet. remove the collar and base plate. Permeameter mould : internal diameter =100 mm. Clamp the mould between the base plate and the extension collar and place the assembly on a solid base.54 cm² Height of reservoir above the out let of the bottom plate (h) = 150 cm Temperature of water (T) = °C . 6. 5. Close the stop cock and allow the water to flow through the soil till a steady state is attained. Open the stop cock and allow the water to flow downward so that all the air is removed. from a thoroughly mixed wet soil in the mould. Detachable collar : 100 mm diameter. having porous disc.5 cm Area of the soil specimen (A) = 78. 7. Check that quantity of water collected is approximately the same each time. Compaction equipment Drainage base. Record the temperature of the water used in the test.00 cm (It is remoulded specimen) For undrained sample. 4. and collect the water flowing out of the base in a measuring flask for some convenient time interval. trim off the undisturbed specimen in the shape of a cylinder of about 85 mm in dia and height equal to that of mould.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. K =ql /Ah = QL /Ah t GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERIN G Where q = discharge h = head causing flow. 5.1986 ] The co-efficient of permeability is equal to the rate of flow of water through a unit cross sectional area under a unit hydraulic gradient. In the constant head parameter. 2. 3. capacity = 1000 cc.73 cm Diameter of the soil sample (d) = 10. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Length of soil sample (L) = 12. 6. The impervious material may be cement slurry or a mixture of 10 % bentonite and 90 % fine sand by weight. 4. Weight the mould to the nearest gram. keeping the interval the same. 8. 3. Apply a little grease on the inside to the mould. A = cross sectional area APPARATUS 1. 9. Fix the drainage cap over the top the mould. Repeat the test for at least two more different interval. having a porous disc with a spring attached to the top. 2. Place the filter paper at both the end of the soil specimen in the mould.3 mm . D O Q = total volume ofI RLE CCTK N O W E2. Constant head water supply reservoir. The coefficient of permeability ( K ) is obtained from the relation. Saturate the stones. PROCEDURE 1. 3. trim off the surplus soil mass by means of straight edge and weigh the mould with a compacted soil. Drainage cap .
II III 5 6 Permeability ( K ) =QL / A h t Mass of soil ( 2-1 ) = 1890 g. R D S O Page 17 S.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. ω = Dry density. ρ = Mass / Volume Water content . e = ρ ω G / ρd RESULT Average of three determinations shall be taken. Permeability Values (cm/s) 10-6 clays silts 10-3 sands 100 gravels Fines Coarse . Bulk density. ρd = ρ / 1+ω Void ratio. No. 1 2 3 4 Observation Mass of empty mould Mass of mould + soil Hydraulic head ( h ) Time interval ( t ) Quality of flow ( Q ) a) First time in period ( t ) b) Second time in period ( t ) c) Third time in period ( t ) Average Calculation Unit I g g mm minutes ml ml ml ml mm³ cm/sec 5110 7000 150 300 1210 1205 1210 1215 = 1210 x 10³ Determination No.
Remove the specimen from the split mould by splitting the mould into two part and use the coning tool to form cones on two ends of the specimen. Sampling tube 6. The rate strain of 1. PROCEDURE 1.5 mm / minute is applied to soil specimen. Sample extractor 4. Adjust the upper plate to make contact with the specimen. A = corrected area = A o / ( 1. 5. Unconfined compression apparatus comprising hydraulic loading device with proving ring and deformation dial gauge. Continue the test until failure surfaces have clearly developed or until an axial strain of 20 % is reached. P = axial load at failure. R D S O Page 18 UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF A COHESIVE SOI L [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 10) – 1973 ] The unconfined compressive strength ( qu ) is the load per unit area at which the cylindrical specimen of a cohesive soil fails in compression. 2. s = qu / 2 APPARATUS 1. 7. 8. 2. Place the specimen on the bottom plate of the compression machine. Take the sample from the failure zone of the specimen for water content determination. Adjust dial gauge and proving ring gauge to zero. 6. Coning tool 5. Vernier caliper 3. P qu = —— A Where. Spatula 7. Split mould. Coat the split mould lightly with a thin layer of grease. 9.ε ) Ao = initial area of the specimen ε = axial strain = change in length / original length. 3.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. 4. Push the sample out of the sampling tube into the split mould using the sample extractor with negligible disturbance of the specimen. Measure the length and diameter of the specimen and weigh it. . The undrained shear strength (s) of the soil is equal to one half of the unconfined compressive strength.
18. Check the contact by giving slight movement. Note reading of vertical displacement dial gauge. in the undisturbed soil sample. Loading yoke. 5. Bring the upper half of the box in contact with the proving ring. Base plate having cross grooves on its top surface. the vertical displacement dial gauge. Place the grid plate in the shear box keeping the serration’s of the grid at right angle to the direction of shear. (b) cohesion less soil :. At the end of the test. The specimen. Shear strength of the soil is its maximum resistance to shearing stress. 17. Weight the shear box with base plate.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. 11. Measure the internal dimension of the shear box and average thickness of the grid plates Fix the upper part of the box to the lower part using the locking screw. Record reading of the proving ring. Place inside the box container and the loading pad on the box.4 cm is then cut from circular specimen. The shear force and the normal load are measured directly. Adjust all dial gauges to read zero. 8. The rate of strain is adjusted by the speed of the horizontal force applied. 2.soil may be tamped in the shear box itself with base plate and grid plate or porous stone as required in place at the bottom of the box. till the specimen fails or till a strain of 20 % is reached. loading pad. The load yoke with direct and through level system for applying normal load upto 8 Kg/cm2 capacity. 3. spatula. Shear box. raise the upper part slightly above the lower part such as that gap is slightly larger than the maximum particle size. 3. This force causes a shear failure along the juncture between the box sections. Apply the horizontal shear load at constant rate of strain. Remove the spacing screws. Repeat the test on identical specimens under the normal stress. Fixtures for proving ring. 12. B) DISTURBED SAMPLE : (a) cohesive soil :. Box container to hold the shear box. grid plate and porous stone. Mount one dial gauge on the loading yoke to record the vertical displacement and another dial gauge on the container to record the horizontal displacement.the soil may be compacted to required density and moisture content directly into the shear box after fixing the two halves of the shear box together by mean of the fixing screw. The proving ring also read zero. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE A) UNDISTURBED SAMPLE : Specimen is prepared by pushing a cutting ring of size 10 cm dia and 3 cm high . 16. 7. Continue the test. Place the weight on loading yoke to apply a normal stress. loading frame. 2. 13.01 mm – 2 mm Static compaction device. 9. 4. The square specimen of size 6 cm x 6 cm x 2. Using the spacing screws. Remove the locking screws. 14. brackets for holding consolidation and strain dial gauges are provided. The pre-calibrated load yoke helps counter balance the loading system. 4. Place soil specimen in the box and weight the box. 15. The lead screw connected to the shear box housing helps application of shear stress. Place a porous stone over the grid plate. 6. remove the specimen from the box.) Porous stones 6 mm thick (2 nos. Fill the container with water and mount the loading yoke on the ball placed on loading pad. 10. PROCEDURE 1. contained in the box. The shear strength is expressed as s = c’ + σ’ tan ø’ Where c’ = effective cohesion σ’ = effective stress Ø’ = effective angle APPARATUS 1. R D S O Page 19 DIRECT SHEAR TEST [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 13) . Mount the box container on the loading pad. divided into two halves by a horizontal plane and fitted with locking and spacing screw.) Proving ring Dial gauge accuracy 0.1986 ] The Direct Shear test is carried out with an apparatus consisting of a square or circular box divided into two halves. Attach the base to the lower part . 6. Grid plates perforated (2 nos. 7. 9. . is subjected to a constant normal load while an increasing horizontal force is applied to one of the sections of the shear box. Allow the sample to consolidate under the applied normal stress. The loading unit has V-Strips on which the shear box housing rests. 8. 5.
the sample is to be placed for consolidation and B parameter has to be checked. On account of consolidation the length and diameter of specimen changed. Changed length. Put rubber membrane around the soil specimen with the help of stretcher. 6. Clean base of triaxial cell. 2.. LOADING OF SAMPLE 1. Four soil specimen of a sample are tested at 0. Saturate the soil sample from 24 to 48 hours. Insert sample cutter tube in the soil with the help of hydraulic jack. The test helps to determine load supporting capacity of a particular soil under fully saturated condition. 1. Place sample cutter tube (38 mm inner dia ) on field sample tube. 1. 25.. c’ _ τ [ Shear stress (kg/cm2)] σ [ Effective Normal stress (kg/cm2) ] .GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. Place O ring around top and bottom pedestal in the grooves. 2. R D S O Page 20 TRIAXIAL TEST [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 11)-1971 ] Different types of soils show different characteristics on being subjected to loading. 5. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERIN G DIRECTORATE. Apply calculated rate of strain on consolidated specimen and note down the Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion deformation and corresponding load on specimen un till the failure of specimen. Transfer soil sample from sample cutter tube to split mould of proper length (76 mm). 3. Water level in burette is kept little more than the top of specimen. 4. Place the triaxial cell and tight the nut to the base plate. Failure Envelope 8. Take out the sample cutter tube from field sample tube by pushing soil with hydraulic jack. Take out soil specimen from split mould. 2. which is connected with burette filled with water.minutes up to 24 hrs . 5. by opening drainage valve. The pore water pressure is measured the sample is saturated until it satisfies B parameter of 1 ( not less than 90% of σ3 ). and 2.0 kg / cm2 of lateral pressure ( σ3 ). 36. R D S O LUCKNOW-226011 1. Place about 8 filter paper strips vertically around soil specimen extending from top porous stone to bottom porous stone to facilitate uniform and quick saturation. Now from above reading plot Mohr’s circle and get the shear parameter C’ and Ø’. 7. After saturation triaxial cell is filled with water and all around cell pressure ( σ3 ) is applied by mercury controlled device.0. 1.5. cross sectional area and rate of strain on consolidated specimen have to be calculated. 4. 6.. Put porous stone over bottom pedestal and a filter paper of 38 mm dia over this porous stone. 4.5. 4. This test is required for design of foundation for structure and analysis of slope stability. The drainage reading during consolidation in the burette is to be recorded in time interval of 1. 1. The test is used to determine the shear strength parameter ( C’ and Ø’ ) of soil by consolidated undrained triaxial test. Four specimen has been tested at four confining pressure ( 0. 9.5 and 2 φ’ Kg / cm2 ) as explained above.5. Remove wax sealing from field sample tube. 5. TESTING OF SPECIMEN 1. 3. 3.. 7. Place soil specimen over filter paper and put another filter paper then porous stone on the top of the soil specimen. 6. 16. For consolidated un-drained test ( CU ).
36 mm IS sieve after impact (C) ( in g ) 252 253 Impact value B — x 100 % A 18 18. The 13. 2. No. Two tests shall be made. 5. 6. If the total weight ( B&C ) is less than the initial weight ( weight A ) by more than one gram the result shall be discarded and a fresh test made. Test results indicate suitability or otherwise of the ballast. PROCEDURE 1. The fraction retained on the sieve shall also be weighed ( weight C ).38 Remark 1 2 RESULT Average value of two results = %. The measure shall be filled about one third full with the prepared aggregate and tamped with 25 strokes of the tamping rod. 2. The cup shall be fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of test sample placed in it and compacted by a single tamping of 25 strokes of the tamping rod.36 mm IS sieve. The fraction passing through shall be weighed ( weight B ). Ballast particles are subjected to high level of impact from sleepers and abrasion among each other due to vibrations. A further similar quantity of aggregate shall be added and further tamping of 25 strokes given.36 mm IS Sieve after impact (B) ( in g ) 56 57 Weight of sample retained on 2. CALCULATION B Aggregate impact value = — x 100 A OBSERVATION S. The measure shall finally be filled to over flowing tamped 25 times and the surplus aggregate stuck off. Take ballast sample which passes 12. R D S O Page 21 Ballast (stone broken in specified range of size) transfers load from sleeper to formation soil. using the tamping rod as straight edge. 4. . The sample shall be oven dried for 4VALUE OF COARSE AGGREGATE [ As per IS: 2386 (Part 4) – 1963 ] 3. The test sample shall be subjected to total of 15 such blows each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second. IMPACT hours at a temperature of 100-110 ºC and cooled. ( weight A ).5 -14 kg hammer shall be raised until its lower face is 380 mm above the upper surface of the aggregate in the cup and allowed to fall freely on to the aggregate. The crushed sample shall then be removed from the cup and the whole of it sieved on the 2. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE 1. Weight of sample taken before impact (A) ( in g ) 308 310 Weight of sample passing 2.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE.5 mm IS sieve and is retained on a 10 mm IS sieve. 4. 3. The net weight of the aggregate in the measure shall be determined to the nearest gm.
transferring it to second dry cloth when the first will remove no further moisture. (A-B) ———– x 100 B Two such tests shall be made and individual and mean results shall be reported. Air-tight container of capacity similar to basket 6. 2. The stone aggregate shall be spread on the second cloth and exposed to atmosphere until it appears to be completely surface dry. 3. cooled and weighed ( weight B ). The basket and aggregate shall then be removed from the water. Wire basket.201 RESULT Average value of I. Test sample 8. Water-tight container for suspending the basket. The basket and sample shall remain immersed for a period of 24+½ hours afterwards. PROCEDURE 1. 4. After immersion the entrapped air shall be removed by lifting the basket and allowing it to drop 25 seconds.1963 ] APPARATUS 1.207 II 2380 2375 5/2375 = 0. The sample shall be thoroughly washed to remove finer particle and dust. & III = 0. Dry soft absorbent cloth 75 x 45 cm size (2 nos. The aggregate then shall be weighed ( weight A ). perforated. Shallow tray of minimum 650 square cm area 5. It shall then be removed from oven.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. LUCKNOW-226011 2. II.210 III 2491 2486 5/ 2486 = 0. Water absorption = OBSERVATION & CALCULATION Determination No.x 100 B Unit g g % I 2409 2404 5/2404 =0. . R D S O Page 22 WATER ABSORPTION OF AGGEREGATE [ As per IS: 2386 (Part 3) . with G E O T or N I C A L DIRECTORATE. electroplated E C HplasticE N G I N E E R I N G wire hangers for suspending it from the coated. allowed to drain for few minutes. Weight of saturated surface dry sample in air (A) Weight of oven dry sample in air (B) A-B Absorption % = ——–.206 %. drained and then placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22-32 ºC. 3.) 4. The aggregate shall then be placed in an oven at a temperature of 100 – 110 ºC for 24 hours. A sample of not less than 2000 g shall be used. Drying oven 7. after which the aggregate shall be gently emptied from the basket on to one of dry clothes and gently surface dried with the cloth. R D S O balance.
OBSERVATION & CALCULATION S Sample pass. IS sieves : 50. of cast iron or steel sphere approx. 2. PROCEDURE 1. 2. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE 1. APPARATUS 1. 4.7 mm IS sieves having square hole. 3. 2. the material shall be discharged and sieved through 1.7 mm sion value [(A .Weight of sample No ing IS sieve in tained on IS taken in g mm sieve in mm (A) 1 50 40 50 40 50 40 40 25 40 25 40 25 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 Category No of charges Weight of sample Calculation of abraretained on 1. 2 5. 48 mm dia and each weighing between 395 to 445 g ensuring total weight of charge as 5000 ± 25 g.B)/ A] IS sieve after test x 100 (B) in g % 8650 13. 1.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. The abrasive charge shall consist of 12 nos.5 Remarks f 12 2 f 12 3 f 12 RESULT Average value of 1. The sample shall be dried in oven at 100 -110 ºC to a constant weight and weighed (A). 3.7 mm IS Sieve shall be washed. The material coarser than 1. 40. Abrasion charge : Abrasion charge of 12 spheres weighing 5000 ± 25 g shall be used. & 3 = %. R D S O Page 23 ABRASION VALUE OF COARSE AGGREGATE [ As per IS: 2386 (Part 4) – 1963 ] This test covers the determining the abrasion value of coarse aggregate. having an inside diameter 700 mm and inside length of 500 mm.7 mm IS Sieve. dried in oven at 100-110 ºC to a constant weight and weighed (B). . B = final weight of the sample. The sample shall be consist of ballast : Passing 50 mm IS Sieve and retained on 40 mm square IS Sieve = 5000 g Passing 40 mm retained on 25 mm square IS Sieve = 5000 g Total = 10000 g 2. At the completion of test . A-B Aggregate Abrasion Value = ——– x 100 A where A = original weight of the sample.Sample re. This value shall be reported as. The test sample and the abrasive charge shall be placed in the Los Angles Abrasion testing machine and the machine started at a speed of 20 to 33 revolution / minute. Los Angele’s Abrasion testing machine: Machine shall consist of hallow steel cylinder closed at both ends. The difference between the original weight and the final weight of the test sample shall be expressed as a percentage of the original weight of the test sample.
2 % of the test load whichever is greater. coefficient of curvature CC to the specified values as per guidelines of earthwork in railway formation.75 0.4 . 4. 3.5 g for coarse fraction or to 0. REFERENCES 1. 2. This test procedure also covers determination of percentage of fraction ( finer than 75 micron ) by washing or wet sieving with the objective of accurate determination of fines present in the material. 4. A oven dried sample of known weight is separated through a set of IS sieves of progressively smaller opening for obtaining the percentage of the material passed through each sieve and determination of particle size distribution. 10 mm. which is governed the maximum size of particles present in the material in substantial quantity. APPARATUS 1.5 0.5 10 6. grain size analysis IS: 2720 (part 1) . from quarry dust or manufactured through stone crusher plant using graded screens. 3. R D S O Page 24 RDSO STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR BLANKET MATERIAL [ IRS: GE-3 ] RDSO standard test procedure of blanket material has been evolved for the purpose to address to specific need of the blanket material and to ascertain its suitability for use on Railway formation over sub-grade soil. Test procedure covers for the different type blanket materials either obtained from natural sources such as river bed. 6. 75 micron.5 4. preparation of soil sample IS: 460 . Usually the percent fines through wet sieving is slightly greater than through dry sieving. The weight of field sample should normally be four times approximately weight required for lab test. Therefore for accurate determination of fines particles. Tray : two or more of size approximately 30 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm.1983. 425 micron. The results are to determine compliance of the particle size distribution and other parameters such as coefficient of uniformity CU. 2 mm.75 mm. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE 1.75 Minimum mass of field sample (in Kg) 75 50 25 15 10 6 5 Mass to be taken for test (in Kg) 25 13 6.1 g for fines particles and to 0. Brushes : Wire brushes / sieve brushes.36 mm. 1. IS: 2720 (part 4) . Note :. This method is used primarily to determine the grading of material proposed for use as blanket material on railway formation. If it is large. Sieves : IS sieves conforming to the requirement of IS: 460 (Part 1) . 40 mm. In case of crusher / manufacturing plants.5 3.5 1. Balance : A balance readable and accurate to 0.1985. Mechanical sieve shaker. Following quantities are required for grain size analysis as per table below. hill sides. A oven dried sample of known weight is washed in prescribed manner and the decanted wash water containing suspended and dissolved is passed through 75 micron IS sieve. Quantity of soil required for laboratory test Max.The sieves should be periodically checked for aperture sizes and other defects such as clogging / torn wire cloth or presence of one or big opening especially in case of 425 micron & 75 micron sieves. wet sieving through 75 micron is used on the samples prior to dry sieving of blanket material. efficiency of washing operation should be checked. It could also be an indication of degradation of material in presence of water. 2.1978 of following sizes 75 mm. specifications for wire cloth sieves. the particle size distribution and other parameters of the material will be helpful to control the production / manufacturing process viz screen opening crusher & etc. adjustable amount of shaking to obtain final product as per specification and will be useful for identification. 20 mm. This method covers the determination of the particle size distribution of blanket material. SUMMARY OF METHOD 1. 5. size of material present in substantial quantities (in mm) 40 25 19 12. 2.1978.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. The percentage reduction in weight of the original material by washing is then reported as percentage fines in the blanket material. Material finer than 75 micron can be separated from larger particles much efficiently and completely by wet sieving than through the use of dry sieving only. 2. Oven : thermostatically controlled oven of appropriate size to maintain temperature inside between 105 to 110 ºC with interior of non-corroding material.
Care should be taken not to break-up the individual coarse size particles. total percentages retained or percentages in versus size fraction to the nearest 0.75 mm IS sieve and 75 micron IS sieve with water till substantially clean water comes out. The representative sample shall be thoroughly mixed and spread on a flat surface. C = dry weight of sample after washing g. R D S O Page 25 3. place the test sample in the container and soak it with water.75 mm IS sieve.C ) / B ] x 100 Where A = percentage of material finer than a 75 micron IS sieve by washing. No dispersing agent or other substance shall be added to the water.75 mm is present that may be separated to avoid over loading of individual sieves by sieving during 4. Percentage of soil passing on each sieve is worked out and grain size distribution curve is drawn. and bring the fine material into suspension.1% on the basis of the total weight of the initial dry sample. CALCULATION 1. 2. 5. Further pulverization if required may be done in pestle and mortar. 2. Dry the test sample to constant weight in thermostatically controlled oven at temperature 105 to 110 °C and weigh it to the nearest 0. Retained material on 4.75 mm IS sieve is kept separately.1 % of the weight of the sample. After drying and weighting. If large quantity of particle size greater than 4. 4. Sample is washed through 4. The spread sample shall be divided into four quadrant and diagonally opposite quadrants are mixed. This process shall be repeated till the desired quantity of sample is obtained. Calculate percentages passing. may be broken with the help of wooden mallet. REPORT Report the percentage of material finer than the 75 micron IS sieve by washing to the nearest 0. PROCEDURE 1. . 3. The soaking of soil continued for 10 -12 hours. B = original dry weight of sample g. Calculate the amount of material passing a 75 micron IS sieve by working as follows A = [ ( B .1%. Soil gleaned as each sieves is weighed to the nearest 0. The retained sample on sieves shall be oven dried at 105 to 110 °C for 24 hours. Agitate the sample with sufficient vigour to result in complete separation of all particles finer than the 75 micron IS sieve from the coarser particles.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. The big clods if present.1% of the original weight of the sample. 4.
Steel Balls : Three steel balls of about 12. The percentage of the water on total (wet) mass of soil is obtained and the same is converted to water content on dry mass of soil. . 11.m ) ] x 100 Percent PRECAUTION The absorbent shall not be exposed to atmosphere. if the sample is bulky. 5. put the sample in the chamber and the absorbent in the cup. APPARATUS GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERIN G DIRECTORATE. Counter poised balance : for weighing sample. (Usually the take 4 to 8 min. Metallic pressure vessel : with clamp for sealing cup and a gauge calibrated in percentage water content. 8. Holding the unit horizontal. This test requires about 6 gm of soil sample. 10. Repeat the above cycle until the gauge reading is constant & note the reading. One bottle of the absorbent (Calcium carbide) PREPARATION OF SAMPLE Sand : No special preparation. 3. rotate it for ten second so that the balls rolled round the in side circumference of the body. 2. CALCULATION From the water content (m) obtained the wet mass basis.) 12. Cohesive and Plastic soil : Material are tested with addition of steel ball in the pressure vessels. place the sample in the pan till the mark on the balance arm mass lines up with the index mark. Hold the body horizontal and gently deposit are leveled scoop full of absorbent (Calcium carbide) inside the chamber. Holding cup and chamber horizontal. 6. In case of clayey soils place the 3 smaller and one bigger steel balls in the body along with the absorbent. R D S O Page 26 WATER CONTENT BY CALCIUM CARBIDE METHOD [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 2) . Finally release the pressure slowly by opening the clamp screw and taking the cup out. Coarse : It may be ground and pulverized. U . PROCEDURE 1. The water content (w) on the dry mass basis shall be calculated as follows:W = [ m / ( 100 .GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. 5. Rest for 20 seconds. 9.1973 ] An apparatus based on the principle that a gas is released when calcium carbide reacts with soil water from the calibrated scale of the pressure gauge. Scoop : for measuring absorbent (Calcium carbide) 4. Shake the unit up and down vigorously in this position for about 15 seconds.clamp sound & clamp the cup tightly into place. reverse the above placement that is. Set up the balance. The reading on the rapid moisture meter. Check that cup and body are clean. 4.5 mm dia and one steel ball of 25 mm diameter. R D S O LUCKNOW-226011 1. empty the contents and clean the instrument with brush. bring them together without disturbing sample & absorbent. 3. 2. 7. Transfer the soil weighed out from the pan to the cup.
No. various strength. 6. Clean and level the ground where field density of soil is required. 4. 3. 5. 2. Determine the weight of cutter with soil and then without soil. II. Epermeability and EOTECHNICAL NGINEERIN G D I R C T O entails S O AT consolidation parameters can be estimated.Gdeformation. 5. 3. Lift the cutter up carefully with the help of trowel and trim the top and bottom surface of soil in cutter carefully.05 17. ThisLEalsoRO W E2.66 Determination No. 4. 7. 6. Cylindrical core cutter Steel rammer Balance : with an accuracy of 1 g Straight edge Square metal tray 300 mm x 300 mm x 40 mm Trowel φ PROCEDURE 1. Put the cylindrical cutter into the soil its full depth by gently ramming it.75 1130 3120 1990 1019. Measure the inner dimension of the cutter and calculate its volume.6 11 composition of soil. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION 1. R D S O Page 27 DRY DENSITY BY CORE CUTTER METHED [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 29) – 1975 ] The method is widely used for the determination of the field density of fine-grained natural or compacted soil free from aggregates. 2. 2. 3. RESULT Average value of I. 4. 2R 0Dknowing the UCKN . φ APPARATUS 1. II III φ φ φ φ φ S. 6. 5. Weight of cutter + soil = W1 g Weight of cutter = W2 g Weight of soil = (W 1 – W 2) g Volume of soil / volume of cutter = V cm³ Bulk density of soil ץb = ( W 1 – W 2 )/ V g / cm³ Moisture content = ω Dry density of soil ץd = 100 ץb g / cm³ 100+ ω Observation Unit I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Internal diameter Internal height Weight of cutter Weight of cutter + soil Weight of soil Volume of soil / volume of cutter Moisture content Dry density mm mm g g g cm³ % g / cm³ 100 129. By measuring unit weight and moisture content and using empirical relations. . Take a small specimen from the centre portion of the soil and determine its water content. & III = %.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE.75 1.
When the volume of the sand let out is equal to the volume of the calibrating container. Remove the cylinder from the filled hole. Remove the metal tray from the excavated hole. 7. Determine the dry density of soil. Trim the surface down to a level surface. Open the shutter. Desiccator.I CALIBRATION 1. V = volume of the hole and ω = water content. Determine the mass of the cylinder ( M4 ). R D S O LUC NO The dry density of the excavated soil is determinedKas W . Place the cylinder directly over the excavated hole. 6. Open the shutter to allow the sand to run out from the cylinder into the calibrating container till it fills the cone of the cylinder and the calibrating container when there is no further movement of the sand in the cylinder.I N E E R I N G by T E H N C A L E N G DIRECTORATE. R D S O Page 28 IN-SITU DRY DENSITY BY SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD [ As per IS: 2720 (Part 28) . close the shutter. The mass of water in gram is approximately equal to the volume in ml. Close the shutter when the hole is completely filled and no further movement of the sand is observed. Again fill the pouring cylinder with sand within 10 mm of its top. Take a representative sample of the excavated soil. bent spoon Glass plate 450 mm square and 9 mm thick Metal container to collect excavated soil Metal tray. 8. 4. Place the cylinder over a plane surface such as a glass plate. . The mass of the excavated soil is determined. 100 mm dia and 150 mm height Soil cutting and excavating tools such as a scraper tool. DRY DENSITY Expose an area of about 450 mm2 on the surface of the soil mass. 4. uniform sand passing 1 mm IS sieve and retained on 600 micron IS sieve in sufficient quantity φ ρs ± PROCEDURE PART. using a scraper tool. 5. Lift the pouring cylinder from the calibrating container and weigh it to the nearest gram ( M3 ). 3. 8. Remove the cylinder. Clean. Close the shutter when no further movement of sand takes place. 9. Determine the mass of the cylinder ( M1 ) to the nearest gram. 10. 6.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. APPARATUS 1. The depth of excavated hole should be about 150 mm. Place the metal tray on the levelled surface . Determine its mass ( M1 ). 5. 11. The volume of the hole is determined by filling it with clean. Collect all the excavated soil in a metal container and determine the mass of soil ( M ). Determine the internal volume of the calibrating container by filling it with water and determining the mass of water required. uniform sand whose dry density ( ρs ) is determined separately by calibration. 2. Weighing balance 8. The volume of the hole is equal to the mass of the sand filled in the hole divided G E Oits CdryI density. 3. 300 mm square and 40 mm deep with a hole of 100 mm dia at the center 7. Fill the sand pouring cylinder with sand within about 10 mm of its top. as shown in the data sheet part-2.2 2 6 0 1 1 = M/V 1+ ω where M = mass of the excavated soil. Open the shutter and allow the sand run out of the cylinder. Determine the density of sand. as shown in the data sheet part-1 PART-II 1. Place the sand pouring cylinder vertically on the calibrating container. Oven 10. 7. the sand fills the cone of the cylinder. Determine its water content. φ 2. 3. Collect the sand left on the glass plate. 9. 6. using the hole in the tray as a pattern. Fill the sand pouring cylinder within 10 mm of its top. Allow the sand to run out of the cylinder by opening the shutter. Moisture content cans 9. Excavate the soil through the central hole of the tray. The volume may also be determined from the measured dimension of the container. 5. Sand pouring cylinder Calibrating container. 4.1974 ] A hole of specified dimension is excavated in the ground. Determine the mass of the sand ( M2 ) that had filled the cone by weighing the collected sand. 2. close the shutter.
8.72 1. 7. II III Part.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE.98 15 1. 5. 3.67 1. R D S O Page 29 Data sheet for sand replacement method Part-I Calibration for dry density of sand S. 2. 6. 2. 4.(3) .II Dry density of soil S. No. No.(4) Dry density of sand (ρs ) = Mc / Vc ml g g g g g/ml 980 11040 9120 450 1470 1. 3. Mass of excavated soil ( M ) Mass of pouring cylinder ( M1 ) filled with sand Mass of pouring cylinder after pouring into the hole and cone ( M4 ) Mass of sand in the hole Ms = M1 -M4 -M2 Volume of sand in the hole V = Ms / ρs Bulk density ρ = M / V Water content ( ω ) Dry density = ρ / 1+ω = M / V 1+ω g g g g g g/ml % g/ml Average Dry density = RESULT Average of three determinations shall be taken. 4. 6.5 Determination No. Observation and calculation Unit I Determination No. . Volume of calibrating cone ( Vc ) Mass of pouring cylinder ( M1 ) filled with sand Mass of pouring cylinder after pouring sand into the vibrating container and cone ( M3 ) Mass of sand in the cone ( M2 ) Mass of sand in the calibrating container Mc = (2) . Observation and calculations Unit I 1. 5. II III 2310 11040 8840 1750 1166.
Depth PR Tim xxx sec. Remove the drill rod by pulling & rotating up straight.20 % PROCEDURE SITE PREPARATION 1. 5. Pickup the scraper plate. Conventional method is very cumbersome and output is not commensurate with the progress of earthwork. density and degree of compaction in the field. ? Project Number Input Number and Press ENTER % PR xxx DD xxx WD xxx M = xxx % M = For selecting a Project Number. 3. Index trigger 4. Handle 5. 5. Drill rod extraction tool 5. Scrapper plate 3. For moisture ± 0. Put the drill rod through the extraction tool and then through one of the guide holes on the plate. 6. 7. 4. It is an excellent equipment to conduct quality check of railway formation including bituminous layers on highway projects. Large number of tests with data acquisition and storage facilities can be done in short time with lesser manpower as compare to the conventional method. e Current Proj. Press ‘ON’ the gauge Let for self-test for 300 seconds. 2. Transportation case FEATURES 1.2 kg. 6. 2. Reference block 2. Source Rod 2. Lower the source rod into the hole. Place the scraper plate on the surface to be tested. Put gauge exactly on the hole and press the source rod into the hole upto desired depth. 1. Drill rod 4. No. Display screen ACCESSORIES 1. APPARATUS Model : TROXLER 3440 Case : Polycarbonate top shell with aluminium cast base Weight : 13. Press SHIFT and PROJECT for the display. xxx Date : mm/dd/yy New Project No.20 % 2. 4. Hammer the drill rod upto the desired depth. Mark the outline around the scraper plate. Press START / ENTER. R D S O Page 30 NUCLEAR MOISTURE DENSITY GAUGE Nuclear moisture density gauge is a non-destructive testing apparatus which gives values of moisture content. density and degree of compaction very quickly (1 to 2 minutes) and accurately. 8. Index Rod 3. For density ± 0. [Shipping weight 40. It is a simple equipment with computer backup to assess moisture content. Shift the gauge to next location for further testing.] MAIN PARTS 1. Dry density and Moisture content. Put up the gauge on marked area. Press YES to enter new project number.8 kg. say 200 mm. 7. 200 locations can be tested in a day STANDARD ACCURACY 1. Results are faster and better quality controlled 3. Standardized the gauge before go for testing. . Note the Degree of compaction. Display shows – Input the new project number with the numeric keys and press ENTER.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. Memory and storage facility upto 300 locations 2. Display shows after 60 seconds the result . 3. The surface should be plane free from all vegetation. Feed MDD value of the embankment soil.
226011 Geotechnical Engineering Directorate Research Designs & Standards Organisation Manak Nagar. R D S O Page 31 THIS BOOKLET IS PREPARED UNDER GUIDANCE OF SHRI S. EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR PREPARED BY : CHECKED BY : DRAWINGS BY : KAUSHAL KISHORE S. Lucknow . LUCKNOW .GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE. TIRPUDE DIRECTOR ARE CRA / GE LAB CDA CONTRIBUTIONS BY : SHIV KUMAR GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE RDSO. AWASTHI Y.226011 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE RDSO.in kaushal1565@sancharnet. K.226011 Uttar Pradesh (INDIA) Phone: 0522-2450395 Fax: 0522-2450395 Email: edge@railnet. K. LUCKNOW .gov.com . RAINA. R.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.