JOB ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Job analysis is the process of determining and recording all the pertinent information about a specified job

Key Responsibility Area (KRA)

Job Task (Distinct work activity)

Job Analysis

Job duties (No of tasks)

Job Responsibility

It¶s a group of positions involving same duties, responsibility and skills ³A group of positions that are similar as to kind and level of work´. Job Analysis: It is a procedure by which pertinent information is obtained about a job. Job Description: It is a written record of the duties, responsibilities and requirements of a particular job. Like Title, location, working hours, duties etc. Job Specification: it is a written record of the requirements sought in an individual worker for a given job. Like Qualities .. Job Design: Process of structuring work and designating the specific activities at individual or group levels. It is the division of the total task to be performed into the manageable and efficient units. It is the process of deciding the content of job in terms of its duties and responsibilities.


Position: It implies a collection of task and duties regularly assigned to one person. Occupation: An occupation implies a group of jobs which are similar as to the type of work and which contain common characteristics. Eg. Business«««««««..

Duty: It means a related sequence of tasks Job Family: It implies jobs of a similar nature Job Classification: It means grouping of jobs into certain categories on some specified basis. Eg. White, Blue«««««««.

Information May be Gathered for job Analysis
Job Title Work performed Equipment used Tools used Materials used Reports and Records Relation of the job with other job Education required Experience required Physical, Mental efforts required Visual attention required Responsibility Discomforts Hazards Supervision required

Job analysis is the process of determining by observation and study the tasks, which comprise the job, the methods and equipment used and the skills and attitudes required for successful performance of the job. Uses of Job Analysis: 1. Organizational Design 2. HR Planning 3. Recruitment and Selection 4. Placement and Orientation 5. Training and Development 6. Performance Appraisal 7. Career Path Planning 8. Job Design 9. Job Evaluation 10. Lobour Relation 11. Employee Counselling 12. Health and Safety. 13. Succession Planning

Process of Job Analysis
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Organisational Analysis Selecting Representative jobs for Analysis Understand Job Design Collection of Data Developing a Job Description Developing the job Specification

Methods/Techniques of Job Analysis
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Observation Method Individual Interview Method Group Interview Method Questionnaire Method Technical Experts/Conference Method Job Performance Critical Incident Technique (CIT) (On the job Behaviour)-Suitable for middle and top

Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Job differ from one another by means of * Decision Making/Communication/Social Responsibility * Performing Skilled Activities * Physical/Related Environment Conditions * Equipments * Information 9. Diary Method

Job Analysis Information

Job Identification-Title & Code Significant Characteristics of a job-Location, Physical
Settings, comfort, jurisdiction

What the typical worker does? routineness What materials and equipment the worker uses How a job is performed?-Nature of operation Required personal attributes-skills . Job Relationship- opportunity for advancement

Job Description
It¶s a written record of the appropriate and authorized contents of a job. It provide both organizational and Functional Information. It Specify; what is to be done? How it is to be done Why to do?

Contents of job Description:
Job Identification Job Summary-activities, task««««.. Job Responsibility Working Conditions Social Environment Equipments Supervision Relation to other Jobs

Job Specification
Job specification translate the job description in terms of the human qualification which are required for a successful performance of a job. Job specification tells what kind of a person is required for a given job. Job specification is also called as man specification. ‡ Physical specifications ‡ Mental specifications ‡ Emotional specifications-stability, adaptability, flexibility ‡ Social specifications- working in team, lead a team interpersonal relations ‡ Behavioural Specifications-Maturity, Judgment, creativity

Specimen of job Description
Job Title: Manager, Welfare and Social Security Code No : HR/198 Department: HR Division Job summary: Responsible for .. Job duties : Planning, Supervision, developing, implementation, follow-up Working Conditions: 8 Hrs . Supervision: Report to director .. Relationships: Maintain social and official contacts with local officials ..

Specimen of job Specification
Position Title : Manager, Welfare and Social Security Department: HR Division Education and Training: MBA/PGDM/PGDBA/MHRM/M.COM/MSW (HRM), LLB/LLM/PGDIRPM«««««««.. Computer Proficiency:««««««««««««««. Experience:««««««««««.. Age: ««««««««««««. Other Attributes: Good Health, Pleasing Manner, Fluency, Analytical skill, GK,


Job Identification Job Summary Relation to other jobs Supervision Machines and Equipments Conditions of work Hazards

Education Experience Training Initiative Physical Effort Responsibility Communication Skill Other Requirements

Who must be involved in the Programme
The role of top Mgt. *Establish need * Delegate Authority * Establish time frame * Issue policy/rules«. 2. The role of Supervisory Mgt. * Implement the progm * Communicate with employee 3. The role of the job analyst * Develop data gathering method. * Gather data * Study the data * Participate in union negotiation 1.

4. The employee role: Participate in data collection participate in review committee 5. The union role: Support data collection negotiate with Mgt 6. The role of the consultant Advice Mgt Review of job analysis

It is a process of deciding on the contents of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities. It is structuring of work and designating the specific activities at individual or group levels. Job design determines the responsibility, authority, scope of decision making and productivity. Job design is an attempt to match the job requirements with the capabilities of the job holders.

Essentials of Good job design:
* Facilitates involvement and development of employees mental and physical characteristics by paying attention to Flexibility in work Rest Schedules ‡ Variety and challenge in task/job

Job Rotation

Job Simplification


Job Enlargement

Job Enrichment

*Incorporating more responsibility in the job ‡ Minimizing the controls and providing freedom of work when the employees are clearly accountable for attaining defined goals. ‡ Allowing the employees to set their own target ‡ Encouraging employee to participate in planning, decision making and innovating ‡ Introducing new, difficult and creative tasks ‡ Assigning challenging projects ‡ Making employees directly responsible for his performance

When to use job enrichment
‡ The quality of work is primary consideration ‡ The workers themselves clearly prefer less structured and less routine jobs ‡ The organization itself is organic and encourages innovations and creativity ‡ Employees have strong higher order needs for achievements ‡ The jobs are those of professionals and higher level ‡ Lower level needs of employee are fairly wellsatisfied

Flexitime Telecommuting Job Sharing-Part time V/S Full time Condensed work week 8x5=40 10x4=40 Working from home

Job Specification
Mr.Kishore is a Branch Manager of Indian bank at one of its village branches. His staff included two clerks and an attender. Very often Mr. Kishore was left alone in the bank after 5 p.m to tally accounts, day books and complete all other formalities. On 30th December Mr. Kishore was working till past 2 a.m tallying the accounts since hardly one day is left for closing the accounts for the year. On this fateful night, the Branch Manager was attacked by a band of robbers, who looted Rs.5 lakhs after brutally wounding Mr.Kishor¶s Right hand, which had to be amputated later. After his recovery, the Branch Manager applied for compensation. The Bank Management was of the opinion that Mr.Kishore violated the job specification by working beyond the stipulated hours of work. He, in their views, was not entitled to any compensation as the accident occurred during non-employment hours. They also called for an explanation as to why the amount lost cannot be recovered from his salary and provident fund
1. 2. How do you justify the Bank¶s stand in this case? What modifications do you suggest in job specification to overcome such incidents in future?

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