How we sound when we speak does influence others and I am not just talking about accents (although those

do give out an impression) but rather the tone of your voice, its clarity, its passion and enthusiasm, its variances. Think about how you talk to someone who is ill ± gently and with compassion and understanding. Now think about how you greet an old friend across the street, or prevent a child from running out into the traffic. How do you sound when you scold someone or are short-tempered? If you talk in a monotone you will sound dull and uninteresting; you will also lack credibility. The more credible you are the more persuasive you will be. No one is going to do anything if you ask them in a boring, quiet monotone! So try varying the pitch and pace of your voice. Try enthusing it with some passion. A good way of practising this is to read aloud to young children because then you have to put in all the different voices or they very quickly get bored. If you talk in a high pitched voice (mainly women) so that you sound like a little girl, you will also be less credible. Try slowing your voice down, don¶t talk so quickly, take a few more breaths in between talking and lower your voice. As a general rule speak with clarity, talk in a strong, steady voice neither shouting nor mumbling. If talking to a group of people then let your eye contact reach the person the furthest distance from you to ensure that you project it. To build rapport with someone match the pace and tone of their voice. I don¶t mean mimic them but if they speak softly and slowly then lower your voice and slow it down. If the other person speaks quickly, try and quicken up. No matter what your message, present it in terms that are of interest to others. Think of who you are communicating with and then decide how you should pitch your voice and what sort of words to use. We are all aware of the person/people who talk jargon either to confuse us or to make us feel small, so make sure you don¶t fall into this trap and if you are on the receiving end of this then don¶t apologize, to them, for example: µI¶m sorry, I don¶t understand you¶. It is their fault they are not explaining to you correctly so simply say, µWhat do you mean?¶ pleasantly and not aggressively. Believe you are worth listening to and convey that belief to others. The more passionate you are about your subject the more powerful your communication but beware you don¶t get too carried away and forget your listener, you could be too enthusiastic and alienate them. Which brings us to our next chapter, listening.

in speech, the relative highness or lowness of a tone as perceived by the ear, which depends on the number of vibrations per second produced by the vocal cords. Pitch is the main acoustic correlate of tone and intonation. Pitch is an auditory attribute of tones, and any tone is physically characterized by a frequency (i.e., oscillations per second). As everyone knows, pitch is immediately dependent on frequency, such that pitch ascends and descends monotonically with frequency. To build a model of pitch perception one merely has to design a frequency meter for tones.

We avoid irritation. Fo is controlled by: a change in length of the vocal folds. Simply stated. produces a greater frequency of vibration and consequently a higher pitch. Among individuals of each sex there are wide variations due to difference in physical structure.That property of voice which we call pitch is determined by the rate of vibration of the vocal cords. Rather it is a measurement of sound wave's base frequency that can be quantified by an instrument such as a spectrograph. The resulting tension in the vocal cords. The voice that holds your attention conveys emotion and interest by change of pitch or inflection. by definition. Drop down one note and repeat. try the following exercises with a piano accompaniment. although there is a subtle difference. How humans control pitch What's the difference between fundamental frequency and pitch? These terms are often used interchangeably. In order to increase your pitch range. When we use our voices intelligently we do not allow ourselves to scream when angry or raise our voices to too high a pitch when we are excited. though partly determined by nature. Remember that voice control is dependent largely upon emotional control. Thus.or Fo . Naturally we do not speak on one pitch level alone. The rate of vibration. Starting with the middle C count aloud from one to eight on the pitch of middle C.is the more accurate scientific term and will be used throughout this section. The epithelium. the thin skin . We refrain from an outburst of tears because it will tighten the throat. who drones on and on in the same monotone. a change in the stress of the tissues of the vocal folds. the higher the pitch. which tightens and strains the vocal cords. If you know anyone whose voice never rises or falls. you know how soon you lose interest in what he is saying. the pitch of our voices. Normally. does not have to be sensorially perceived. is not entirely beyond our control. continuing until you have gone as low as you can without straining your throat muscles. women's voices are pitched higher than men's because women's vocal cords are shorter. Inflection Inflection is a change of pitch. This exercise will help you develop your consciousness of pitch. Fundamental frequency. If you are subject to anger and nerves and their consequent injury to your voice. The greater the number of vibrations per second. learn to control the breath and relax. counting from one to eight on eight pitches. In short. according to the science of sound. Pitch is a perceptual measure. we refrain from too harsh laughter because we know it will make us hoarse. unconsciously the muscles around your voice box or larynx are tightened. Usually an upward slide or inflection expresses a question or an uncompleted thought. we exercise self-control. Then. Tissue Composition & Characteristics To fully understand the mechanisms of pitch control. fundamental frequency . it is helpful to first review the tissue composition of the vocal folds and to recall that different tissues types have unique biomechanical properties. However. and a downward inflection expresses a completed thought. and if practiced regularly will enable you to increase your vocal range. When you are excited or frightened. The voice slides up and down the scale as we express various shades of thought and feeling. in other words. is determined by the length and thickness of the vocal cords and by the tightening or relaxation of these cords. pitch must be heard and measured by ears connected to a brain. It is an indication of lack of mental poise if you habitually speak in a voice pitched too high. starting again at middle C go up the scale. Self-control is not repression but self-expression with restraint. in turn.

researchers have found that a rise in Fo is generally obtained by an increase in TA activity so long as CT activity is not near its maximum. The following animation demonstrates how the CT and TA muscles move in an excised human larynx.exhibit some resistance to stretching. Just as a guitar string or a rubber band can be stretched to produce a higher pitch when plucked. During soft talking or falsetto singing.the epithelium and underlying fatty tissue . only the highly pliable cover of the vocal fold . is a loose material that can't hold much tension. Recall from your background in vocal anatomy that the actions of the cricothyroid (CT) and thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles shorten or lengthen the vocal folds. Because only the properties of this superficial layer must be considered. .is vibrating. Roles of the TA and CT Muscles The tension of the vocal fold is the primary determinant of Fo control. It is also important to understand that these muscles can work independently of one another in regulating Fo. utilizing neither to its maximum potential. The CT muscles lengthen the vocal folds by pulling the thyroid cartilage forward.particularly trained vocalists . elastin and muscle . but can become quite stiff. Because of the involvement of multiple layers. A number of muscle activation studies conclude that speakers and singers . deeper vocal fold tissues collagen. However. Researchers theorize that humans naturally are inclined to use all or none of a particular muscle. However. increased stress on vocal fold fibers produces an increase in Fo. during speech at a normal loudness or chest and head singing. deeper layers of the vocal folds are set into vibration. Training can help vocalists use just part of a particular laryngeal muscle's capability. scientists can describe Fo control with a relatively simple model: the Cover Model of Fo Control.tend to balance CT and TA muscle activity. a more complicated model of the vocal folds must be used: the Body-Cover Model of Fo Control.that covers the vocal fold. It may be helpful to remember: The TA muscles shorten the vocal folds. Also.

A quantitative analysis of the cover model reveals that a positive change in TA muscle activity always causes a decrease in Fo. They hypothesize that the vocal ligament (the area between the epithelium and the TA muscle) may play a major role in absorbing stress. Cover Model of Fo control The key concept of the cover model is this: in falsetto or soft phonation when vibrational amplitudes are small. incremental increases in vocal fold length do not produce similar step-wise increases in Fo. Pluck it while holding it loosely (little tension in the rubber). In other words. stretch the rubber band a little more. if the TA isn't activated. Body-Cover Model of Fo control The body-cover model involves more means of Fo control than does the cover model (where CT does everything).6). increasing CT activity increases Fo. oscillation is primarily taking place in the cover. TA activation has a greater positive correlation with Fo. In essence. The differential action between the TA and CT muscles is also apparent in the vocal strain equation (8. using this relationship: Fo will rise only if the square root of stress increases with length more than the length itself increases. and of course. These means of controlling Fo are all found in Equation 8. Equation 8. As the depth of vibration increases.8. Next. The tension of the vocal folds is determined by length only.7 expresses this relationship quantitatively. and 2) the activation of the TA muscle. the TA and CT have opposing effects on the change of length. You should hear a significant rise in pitch. leaving the superficial layers loose for vibration at high fundamental frequencies. The elasticity of a rubber band is similar to that of vocal fold tissue. the body-cover model is no different than the cover model.The relationship between vocal fold length and Fo is non-linear. These means or variables of control are 1) the depth or amount of tissue vibrating (into the vocal fold or away from the surface). Now. Scientists continue to study how much control singers and speakers have in regulating the depth of vibration of the cover. do you hear a discernable rise in pitch? Probably not. elongate the rubber band to near its limit. Scientists can quantitatively predict the upward shift in Fo. . Conversely. You can test this phonemenon yourself. Stretch a small rubber band between your thumb and forefinger.

as seen by the dashed diagonal lines running at 45-degree angles through the graphs. How does yours measure up? Keep your chin level and relax your neck muscles. Effect of Lung Pressure on Fo As more air is pushed from the lungs past the vocal folds.It is probably beyond the scope of most vocologists to memorize the complexities of different. so it might be an interesting experiment to feel not only your own. but the cricothyroid space among your VERY CLOSE friends. Fo usually rises. the size of an individual's cricothyroid space. Finally. there are also some physical limitations of the system. . However. Make an 'ah' sound at a low comfortable pitch. Locate your larynx with your fingertips. Move your fingertip downward. Do you hear the sharp rise in pitch? This phenomenon is more noticeable at lower frequencies (when the vocal fold lengths are shorter) than at higher pitches. tissues vibrating according to their biomechanical characteristics. there may be limited room to rotate the cricoid cartilage toward the thyroid cartilage. This can easily be demonstrated. for example. then press with your fingertips inwardly just below the sternum. speakers and singers are interested in optimal combinations of these strategies for Fo control. Both the trained and the untrained vocalist tended to use the TA and CT muscles equally. Thus. humans have a number of strategies for controlling Fo: changes in activity of the TA muscle changes in activity of the CT muscle increasing or decreasing amounts of air from the lungs Not surprisingly. this is a relative measurement. the ability to quantify the relationship between amount of muscle in vibration with stress and vocal fold length to predict Fo is essential to scientists modeling various types of phonation. Is the crycoid cartilage close in proximity to the bottom of the thryoid cartilage? If so. Let's compare muscle activation plots (of the thyroarytenoid muscle and cricothyroid muscle) from a non-singer and a trained singer: Interestingly. but adjacent. It should be fairly easy to palplate the thyroid notch at the top of the larynx (the upper edge of the Adam's apple) at the top of larynx to locate the length of the thyroid cartilage. the graphs are quite similar. Clearly.

meaning the voice would sound higher. A change in pitch is known as inflection and humans exercise this naturally all the time. and. making the pitch higher. Normally we refer to its pitch. and the speed at which they vibrate. Presence of a sound enables us to hear it clearly and gives us the feeling that we are close to its origin The human voice is a magical tool. namely. thoughts and feelings. research has shown that pitch is associated with attractiveness amongst men and women. The pitch of someone's voice can also be affected by emotions. different from all others. how it is used and how it can be influential. making each voice different. as we express different emotions. it allows people to communicate verbally. The length and thickness of the vocal cords. pitch. while slower rates elicit deeper voices. Humans are most sensitive to midrange frequencies. women tend to have higher voices because they have shorter vocal cords. putting strain on the vocal cords. are not the only factors that affect one's pitch. as well as the tightening and relaxation of the muscles surrounding them. are dependent on the length and thickness of the vocal cords. almost like a fingerprint. or changing the pitch of our voice to mimic someone. It will explore what voice pitch is. because it tightens and strains the vocal cords. not all pitch change is done unconsciously. ‡ ‡ ‡ low (bass) . tone. Frequencies are grouped as . however. Everyone has a distinct voice. moods and inflection. When people become frightened or excited. one's voice is unique and can act as an identifier. The pitch of the voice is defined as the "rate of vibration of the vocal folds" . the muscles around the voice box (or larynx) unconsciously contract. This explains why women generally have higher voices than men do. our emotions can also affect the pitch of our voices. and rate. or lower pitches. It can be used to identify those we know and love. will discuss the pitch component of the voice.small bells and cymbals ‡ ‡ ‡ Low frequencies make the sound powerful and warm idrange frequencies give sound its energy. How are these vibrations and pitches created? The vibrations.The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency of the sound. Faster rates form higher voices. The human voice is composed of a multitude of different components. Pitch is an integral part of the human voice. Pitch is not solely an objective component of voice. for instance. to create wonderful music through singing. or higher pitches..sounds of thunder and gunshots midrange . People tend to exercise conscious control of the pitch of their voice when refraining from screaming. sliding up and down the pitch scale.a telephone ringing high (treble) . The sound of the voice changes as the rate of vibrations varies. As the number of vibrations per second increases. Interestingly. it can help in the recognition of emotions. High frequencies give a sound its "presence" and life like quality. Studies done by Collins & Missing and Feinberg et al discovered that men deemed women with higher pitched voices more . The voice tends to change. so does the pitch. Again. the first of a three part series on the voice. The human voice has many components and is created through a myriad of muscle movements. The following article.

These findings may be shocking to many as so often it is men that are deemed those who are searching for uncommitted sex while women are searching for a man offering fertility and stability. In addition. with faster rates equating higher pitches. on the other hand. so women may have chosen these men because they perceived them to be better hunters. The pitch of our voices is created through vibrations of the vocal folds. found that men with lower pitched voices tended to have more children. studying the reproductive patterns of the Hadza. an arbitrary characteristic. This could be because the Hazda women chose men with lower pitched voices because they believed them to be better providers. Studies have shown that women tend to prefer men with lower pitched voices and find these men more attractive. it has been discovered that men with lower pitched voices seem to have more children. but can also be consciously manipulated so as not to put strain on the vocal cords or to create a certain sound. intercostal muscles. A study done by Putz found that women associated low-pitched men's voices with uncommitted sex. The voice and the way it is used are unique to every individual. The effect of these muscles depends on the mechanism used. tend to find men with lower pitched voices sexy and desirable. The other parameters are controled by the larynx muscles: cricothyroid muscle. This may be because higher pitched voices are associated with youth and fertility in women. the stretching of the vocal cords. the vocal muscles stiffness. a tribe in Tanzania. researchers from Harvard University. Women. These researchers. The air pressure is controlled by all the breathing muscles: diaphragm. The rate at which these folds vibrate changes the way our voices sound.attractive. Putz also discovered that women's desire for men with lower pitched voices increased with fertility over the ovulatory cycle. lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. Florida State University and McMaster discovered that pitch predicted reproductive success of males amongst hunter-gatherers. as well as what we find attractive in the opposite sex. and to a lesser extent neck muscles. can certainly have important impacts on human sexual preference and mating. studies have shown that low pitch voices are associated with higher levels of testosterone. abdominal muscles. Understanding the voice (3/4) The control of the pitch The pitch of the voice depends on four parameters: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ the air pressure. Furthermore. Similar to the aforementioned studies. . The pitch of one's voice can help in unconsciously divulging the feelings and emotions. It seems voice pitch. thyroarytenoid muscle. making these men sexually preferred. the joining strength of the vocal cords. perhaps owing to the fact that more women are attracted to them or that these men are viewed as stronger.

it is an additional reason for not recognise his voice on a tape. it seems too highpitched. Some rooms are more attractive than others. varied in quality and shifted over time. to remember. other deafness may affect high-pitched sounds. It is rare that the hearing or the memory is concerned. In the long circuit. but the singing out of tune can generally be corrected quite well. to reproduce. The voice we produce reaches our ears using three ways: ‡ ‡ ‡ by a short path from the mouth. Singing in tune Everybody can sing. The voice is distorted: the sounds do not spread the same way in air and in the body tissues. after reflexion and modification by the external acoustic. The high-pitched sounds are poorly transmitted through the direct path. through the skull directly to the inner ear. tendons and muscles. In general. His mastery is a question of training. Buildup of wax in the ear or some ear infections will disable the hearing of lowpitched sounds. sing out of tune comes from a lack of learning. In the internal listening. so that when you listen to your recorded voice. . Singing in tune involves three steps: to hear. as in athletic training. with varying degrees of ease.The control of the pitch is therefore primarily a muscular control. The audio-phonatory loops Singing well supposes hearing well. depending on whether the voice is properly returned or is lost in the distance. All these internal and external sounds mix. The deaf have trouble controlling their voices. it is difficult to recognize it. the voice reaches the ear through vibrations of the bones. there is a feedback of the room that is variable depending on the type of materials used and its dimensions.

Canta responds to this research by showing exactly how to correct our voice. The regular repetition of these exercices with Canta will develop the internal representation of the right notes and also the efficiency of the command circuits of the muscles involved in the pitch control. The pitch deviation is around one quarter to a half-ton. the repetition of these gestures will help you develop these muscles with maximum efficiency. It is produced when . It should not be confused with the trill.Generally. when we sing out of tune. with a frequency of 5 to 7 Hz. we can hear that something is wrong and we search at random how to correct that. Canta creates a feedback loop which replaces the deficient audio-phonatory loop and allows to gradually strengthen it. The vibrato is involuntary. nor with the trillo which is the chopped repetition the same note. The vibrato The vibrato is a variation of frequency and amplitude of the voice around the note the singer aim at. Vibrato and trills by Whitney Houston The whispered voice does not have vibrato nor a forced voice produced without comfort and with muscle tension. It's like a bodybuilding equipment which would force you to make the right gesture to develop certain muscles. which is rapid alternation between two adjacent notes.

excitement. Relaxation and breathing exercises can help with this (see below). leaving the audience grasping to hear the final few words. The vibrato is a natural phenomenon. When you adjust your tone to match the ideas and emotions in your presentation. or nervous? You've heard the word "monotone. To remove the vibrato of a voice is possible but requires energy and lowers the efficiency of the voice. It also gives them a break from your voice. This is the same reflex mechanism that shook the knees of some sitting when they put their feet on the edge. A pause can be used to emphasize a point." Varying your pitch is a way to add color. Make sure to punch the beginnings and endings of sentences so they don't . Back home Previous: (2) The voice mechanisms Next: (4) The voice timbre Pointer 1: Vary your pitch. The vibrato is significantly amplified by a resonance effect of the laryngeal skeleton whose frequency is around 5 Hz. Use silence and pauses to maximize your message and to create drama. happy. angry. Use varying volume for emphasis. One more thing to mention about volume: keep your sentences strong from start to finish. your audience receives a deeper level of understanding as well as a deeper connection with you. Nervous speakers sometimes have tension in their vocal chords. Silence gives you and your audience a nice break . because it's hard for our brains to hold too much information at one time.it allows them to process what you've been saying. One way to really grab your audience's attention is to drop the volume when you want to make an important point. Volume is the loudness of your voice. tone. It can not be taught but is revealed when the rest of the vocal gesture is made under optimum conditions. Lowering your volume forces the audience to give extra concentration to what you're saying. to really let something sink in. and remember to adjust your volume to the size of the venue you're speaking in. and emphasis to your speech. resulting in an unintentionally higher pitch. neurologycally programmed." right? That's what you sound like when you don't vary the tone of your voice. volume and pace The pitch of your voice is its "highness" or "lowness. Some people's voices fade out at the end of a sentence or idea.there is a position of balance between two antagonistic muscles of the larynx thanks to a reflex loop. Does your voice sound warm or cold? Does it sound conversational or formal? Do you sound friendly. The tone or quality of your voice says a lot to your audience that words can never convey.

which can compress your lungs and make your voice sound weak from lack of breath support. and leaving the audience out of breath and lost.you don't want to race through your critical points. because they missed half of what was said. the pitch of the speaker plays a vital role in making a speech a successful one. repeat back your audience's questions. Pointer 3: Repeat back questions so your audience can also be heard In a large room. rather than building tension around the shoulders and chest. you deliver to your audience deeper understanding of and connection with your message. Pitch can be defined as an attribute of sound that changes with alterations in the frequency of vibration. Sometimes nervous speakers will race through their talk.and the audience doesn't even notice. When your voice matches the emotion and concepts in your presentation. This is what we will discuss in this article. chest. neck. Take some deep breaths before your presentation." Do some warm-ups and stretches beforehand. especially stretches that involve your face. you know you're doing it right when your stomach puffs out but your shoulders do not rise. Your voice is your most powerful public speaking tool. and this will allow you to try out all of the tips mentioned above.disappear and leave your audience in confusion. . finishing too early. Practice breathing deeply using your diaphragm. it's likely that some people in the audience won't hear the questions posed to you. Pace is the speed at which you speak. Even better: read aloud from a children's book! Children's books are meant to be read with a variety of vocal inflections. Repeating back the questions keeps everyone on the same page and keeps the audience from feeling left out. Unless there is someone in the auditorium delivering a microphone to audience members. When it comes to public speaking. Search the Web for articles and books about "diaphragmatic breathing" or "belly breathing. You can speed up or slow down for emphasis. Breathing and relaxation can help you control and moderate your pace. jaw. One way to practice the tips in this article is to read aloud from a book or newspaper. Pointer 2: Practice relaxation and breathing Have I mentioned relaxation and breathing enough times? Relaxation and proper breathing allow oxygen to circulate and your muscles to relax. Pausing to breathe while you're speaking keeps you from speeding through the presentation . Slow down your pace when you have something particularly important to say . And don't forget to breathe during the presentation. and upper body.

Speech in that same pitch should be developed for larger audiences. or partials. portamento.Speaking voices are high. Your voice must rise and fall. leading to growls and gruffness. The most disagreeable violations of required inflections are raising the voice where it should fall-as at the completion of an idea. Proper pitching of your voice is an ideal way to reflect your emphasis. never deliver a connected group of words in a monotonous manner. leading to strain and unpleasantness. and as determinate or indeterminate. While the actual fundamental frequency can be determined through physical measurement. Lowering the voice can result in a better pitch for the speaker. in the sound. pitch that changes with time (chirping) and the manner in which this change with time occurs: gliding. medium. and letting it drop where it should remain up-as before the completion of an idea. the pitch of your voice should also match with the desired emphasis of your words. you should consider raising it a little bit. Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a musical note or sound. If your natural pitch is too low for clearness. Pitches may be described in various ways. including high or low. If you want to be a good public speaker. However. Such variations are called inflections. product reviews and expert reviews. The human auditory perception system may also have trouble distinguishing pitch differences between notes under certain circumstances. less accurately called perfect pitch. Finally. These changes must match intelligently with the meaning of your spoken words. or vibrato. To secure a good pitch for the speaking voice. This will definitely make you an effective public speaker. Never neglect the 'pitch factor' while delivering a public speech. whereas others may pitch their voices too low. You may want to emphasize some points in your speech. People with a sense of these relationships are said to have relative pitch while people who have a sense of the actual frequencies independent of other pitches are said to have absolute pitch. Some people may pitch their voices too high. or low. the normal natural pitch of usual conversation should be found. don't amplify it to a great extent. it may differ from the perceived pitch because of overtones. Musically the frequency of specific pitches is not as important as their relationships to other frequencies . as discrete or indiscrete. Visit and subscribe to Successful Public Speaking and get twenty public speaking tips.the difference between two pitches can be expressed by a ratio or measured in cents. . all written by Christopher Carlin. At Successful Speaking you can also read more articles.

Your public speaking coach will advise you if you are doing this. Rapid or slow speech should be used sparingly but there will be speeds that vary in between the very fast and the very slow. timing or pitch. Always be wary that if you go too fast your words may become slurred and unintelligible and your listeners will not understand what you are saying. There are also many of us that develop a bad habit of raising the pitch at the beginning of a sentence and then gradually tapering downwards until the next one or those that end every sentence on a higher pitch. Pace The pace or timing at which you speak also needs to be varied. Speaking at a good pace and varying the pace does require practice and you will need feedback from your coach to help you master it.Modulation. If you naturally speak fast even if the words are clearly spoken a constant fast speed will wear out your audience mentally so learn to slow down and speed up when necessary in short bursts. People who speak on one level come across to an audience as quiet boring and so varying the pitch is essential. Modulation makes music or speech interesting to listen to. It can also help if you record your presentations and listen to them later and try and put yourself in the place of your audience. Pitch The pitch is how high or low we speak just as there are higher or lower notes in music represented by the notes on the stave when written down. other times for it to be slowed more than normal. Power . By varying the level of our voice in pitch we can create variety in our voice as well as use it to make certain words stand out. Likewise a naturally very slow speaker causes people to lose concentration as their minds want to go faster than the speaker. Modulation is made up of three elements. With speech it is modulation that makes the words and phrases stand out and to be more readily understood and remembered. Let me explain each one in order. You might for example use a higher pitch for excitement and a lower pitch for something serious. What is it? The easy explanation is to say that the word when connected with speaking or indeed music means a changing in the volume. It is important therefore that a public speaker masters the art of modulation. There are occasions when quite rapid speech is called for.

the range within which you have the greatest amount of resonance. presentation. Roland Millward If you have any comments or suggestions please enter them in the box below Posted in Public Speaking. you know what I mean. Screaming will not lower your voice. and variation in both rate and pitch. speeches.you may not have a problem at all! . All voices are beautiful when properly played. presentations. And some voices are just naturally higher than others. You will find with good coaching and practice that good modulation will become second nature to you. screaming or yelling for prolonged periods of time can actually injure your vocal chords. variation in pitch but not in rate. listeners were tested on the information in the presentation. training The effects of variations in speaker rate and pitch on listener recall were studied. Additionally. Public Speaking. It is good as with most things in public speaking to try and use modulation in our everyday speech. And if this is the case. One hundred and twenty participants listened to an audiotape of one of two individuals speaking in one of four different styles--low variation in both rate and pitch. but significantly decreased attributions of speaker benevolence First. you may be habitually speaking above your optimal pitch. they also completed questionnaires rating the speaker's benevolence and competence. variation in rate but not in pitch. speaking techniques. After hearing the audiotape. But all of us have an optimal pitch. This is perhaps the simplest area of modulation to master for many people. Here are the steps to take (from Chapter 6 of my book: "Speak To Influence: How To Unlock The Hidden Power Of Your Voice" available at your favorite bookstore or at our website. If you feel your voice is too high. If you've ever yelled a lot at a sporting event and experienced a sore throat the next day. pitch variety and combined pitch and rate variety significantly increased attributions of speaker competence over no variety or rate variety alone. Your optimal pitch is the speaking range that's healthiest for your particular voice. Results indicated that the combined effect of pitch and rate variety significantly increased listener recall over no variety or pitch variety increased attributions of speaker competence over no variety or rate variety or rate variety alone. Do not try this! In fact. skills.The third and final element of modulation is the power and volume that we use when speaking. comfort and vocal flexibility. training | Tags: coaching. you can definitely change it. Vary not just the loudness (volume) but also the power or intensity that we use in our voice. Get a reality check . Practice To be able to use good modulation will take practice and more practice.

If your friends agree that your voice is too high. Like body image. Morton Cooper. A tape recorder will make it easier to compare the two. In public. a Hollywood voice coach. tape record your voice speaking normally to a friend or business associate. Then give the tape to a trusted friend or colleague. Compare your speaking voice to your humming voice Both should match in pitch. Muscles tighten and voices can become shrill. A head voice sounds thinner. a chest voice deeper and more resonant. breathe deeply and exhale stress Speak from your body. Practice speaking at your humming pitch In private. Relax! Tension tends to make the voice rise. hum discreetly by saying"um hum" as if agreeing with the other person you are talking to. alternate humming and speaking until you get the hang of it. not your head! While speaking visualize that your voice is emanating from your chest or your belly instead of your head. Now reverse the process and see if you can notice the difference. Ask them to give you balanced feedback -positive and negative. It should vibrate slightly when you speak. To test that your voice is properly placed. For a better voice. Find your natural pitch In order to appreciate your natural pitch. This will keep you speaking at your optimal pitch throughout the day. put your hand on your breast bone. you must first learn where it is." The pitch at which you naturally hum is the same pitch at which you should speak. voice is one of those things where it's difficult to be objective. To find out if others share your opinion.Unless you are frequently mistaken for a child your voice may not be as high as you think. says the best way to find your natural pitch is to hum a few bars of a simple song like "Happy Birthday. Dr. The muscles of the larynx adjust the length and tension of the vocal folds to fine tune pitch and tone . proceed to step two.

which is common enough. The less the fundamental tone is disturbed by overtones. thorax. hence the voice is said to crack. For "singing well. on the tension of the cords: the tighter the vocal cords are drawn by the crico-thyroid muscles.unconcern. Secondly. whose vocal organs undergo rapid growth at puberty. and mouth must all be educated to an extraordinarily high degree. and the well-known singer Garcia believed he observed with the laryngoscope the vocal processes so tightly pressed together as to impede the vibration of the posterior part of the cords. The muscles of the larynx. and by this means they could be voluntarily shortened. the clearer and better is the voice. This difference in quality of the human voice depends upon the perfectness of the elasticity.surprise Change emotions with inflections In the voice we can recognize the properties noted in other kinds of sound. much more is necessary than good quality of tone. and people with tenor voices have shorter cords than basses or baritones. The vocal cords of women have been found by measurement to be about one-third shorter than those of men. 2. and the exactitude with which the muscles can adapt the surfaces. and other physical conditions of the cords themselves.no strain on vocal cord Variation of speech Flexible speaking voice Enhance ability to communicate More interesting to hear Avoids monotony For emphasis use inflections Oh can communicate sympathy.first. This varies with age. 1. and of the overtones that accompany it. The pitch of the notes produced in the larynx depends upon . surface smoothness. the higher the notes produced. pitch and intensity. particularly in males. the absolute length of the vocal cords. as is shown by the vocal capabilities of different individuals.Habitual pitch. . the relation of thickness to length. These are quality. The quality of vocal sound is almost endless in variety.best functioning speech for u Optimal pitch-easily prodused . The quality of any musical sound depends upon the relative power of the fundamental tone. when vocalization is uncertain from the rapid changes going on in the part.

by the internal thyroarytenoid muscle. spoken of as chest notes. and is probably dependent upon some muscular action in immediate relation to the cords.. mouth. The average pitch for a male voice is 120Hz. Defines a medium frequency (the value depend on the voice family) Defines a high frequency (the value depend on the voice family) . etc. the less is the amount of air and the weaker is the blast required to set them vibrating. and bass forming a descending series. since their production is not accompanied by any vibration of the chest wall. Hence it is that an intense vibration or loud note can be produced much more easily with notes of a high pitch than with very low notes. the air. Such tones are. can vibrate. ceases to act as a resonator. the anterior. both in the resonating tubes above the larynx and in the windpipe coming from below. (2) The cords are said to be wider apart in falsetto than in chest notes. and hence the trachea. while with chest tones a greater surface of the cord is brought into play. when a distinct vibration is communicated from the chest wall. it's 210Hz Property Values Value frequency x-low low medium high Description The average pitch of the speaking voice is specified in hertz Defines an extra low frequency (the value depend on the voice family) Defines a low frequency (the value depend on the voice family) Default. and we find singers choosing for their telling crescendo some note high up in the range of their voice.3. tenor. which are called head notes. therefore. -Of this wide range a single individual can seldom sing more than two octaves. and vice versa. (3) Or the cords may be arranged so that only one part of them. so that the trachea and bronchi act as resonators as well as the pharynx. etc. the greater the volume and the force of the air current necessary for their complete vibration. including every kind. During the ordinary vocal sounds. The human voice. extends over about three and a half octaves. is set vibrating. The narrower the chink of the glottis. and hence the greater the sound produced. Intensity or loudness of the voice depends on the strength of the current of air. The following are the more probable views: (i) It has been suggested that in falsetto only the thin edges of the cord vibrate. the looser the cords and the wider apart they are. and the tighter the parallel cords are stretched. as well as with changes that take place in the conformation of the mouth and other resonating tubes. Besides the chest tones of the ordinary voice. a "stop" being placed on the point where the vibrations cease. alto. we can produce notes of a higher pitch and a different quality. The physical contrivance by means of which this falsetto voice is brought about is not very clearly made out. The average pitch depends on the voice family. and for a female voice. This may be recognized by placing the hand on the thorax. the range of each one of which considerably overlaps the next in the scale. the internal thyro-arytenoid muscles keeping the base of the cord fixed. for it is always associated with a sensation of muscular exertion in the larynx. and thus they act as shortened cords. The soprano. The more powerful the air blast the greater the amplitude of the vibrations. The production of a falsetto voice is distinctly voluntary.

Bill Clinton has a relatively light voice. Every speaker has a range of notes from which they can draw. your words . while Morgan Freeman has a very deep base voice.x-high Defines an extra high frequency (the value depend on the voice family) Vocal Pitch: How high or low an individual's resting voice is. Contrary to some beliefs.further upward into falsetto? Modern microphones make it unnecessary to sound as if you're conducting a Transatlantic conversation entirely without the aid of technology. If anything. The key to finding your best voice is to make the pitch compatible with the emotion being expressed and use tonal range to colour the words that need to be stressed . Some image advisers counsel their clients to drop their voice. Males are particular offenders in forcing the voice deeper into the throat and chest. Many speakers automatically raise the pitch of their voice when they confront a microphone or begin speaking in front of an audience. but this is not the answer to adding authority to the voice. or colour. If you begin speaking at a higher pitch. where are you going to go when you need to emphasise. Even a light voice can be powerful if it resonates. faked deep voices do not necessarily advertise high sperm counts and sexual prowess. Other speakers drop their pitch and speak from the bottom end of their range in the mistaken belief that they will deliver multiple 'eargasms' to their audiences. they communicate sexual insecurity or gender ambivalence. Meryl Streep has a middle pitch. This habit is often ingrained and may be caused by a combination of fear (stage fright) and the mistaken belief that the voice must be raised when you speak to an audience.