04STATICS_LectureNotes | Force | Euclidean Vector

# Seventh Edition

CHAPTER

4

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS: STATICS
Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University

Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reser

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Contents
Introduction Free-Body Diagram Sample Problem 4.4 Equilibrium of a Two-Force Body

Seventh Edition

Reactions at Supports and Connections for a Two- of a Three-Force Body Equilibrium Dimensiona... Sample Problem 4.6 Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Two Dimensions Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Three Dim Statically Indeterminate Reactions Reactions at Supports and Connections fo Sample Problem 4.1 Dimensi... Sample Problem 4.3 Sample Problem 4.8

• The necessary and sufficient condition for the static equilibrium of a body are that the resultant force and couple from all external forces form a system equivalent to zero. All rights reserved. . the external forces and moments are balanced and will impart no translational or rotational motion to the body. ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ Fz = 0 ∑Mx = 0 ∑M y = 0 ∑Mz = 0 Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Introduction • For a rigid body in static equilibrium. Inc.     ∑ F = 0 ∑ M O = ∑ (r × F ) = 0 • Resolving each force and moment into its rectangular components leads to 6 scalar equations which also express the conditions for static equilibrium.

• Select the extent of the free-body and detach it from the ground and all other bodies. including the rigid body weight. These usually consist of reactions through which the ground and other bodies oppose the possible motion of the rigid body. magnitude. • Include the dimensions necessary to compute the moments of the forces.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Free-Body Diagram First step in the static equilibrium analysis of a rigid body is identification of all forces acting on the body with a free-body diagram. All rights reserved. . and direction of external forces. Inc. • Indicate point of application. Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Indicate point of application and assumed direction of unknown applied forces.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Reactions at Supports and Connections for a TwoDimensional Structure • Reactions equivalent to a force with known line of action. . Inc. Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Reactions at Supports and Connections for a TwoDimensional Structure • Reactions equivalent to a force of unknown direction and magnitude. Seventh Edition • Reactions equivalent to a force and a couple. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved. Inc.

Fz = 0 M x = M y = 0 M z = M O • Equations of equilibrium become ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ M A = 0 where A is any point in the plane of the structure. . • The 3 equations can be solved for no more than 3 unknowns. Inc. but they can be replaced ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ M A = 0 ∑ M B = 0 Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • The 3 equations can not be augmented with additional equations.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Two Dimensions • For all forces and moments acting on a twodimensional structure. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Statically Indeterminate Reactions Seventh Edition • More unknowns than equations • Fewer unknowns than • Equal number unknowns equations. . Inc. partially and equations but constrained improperly constrained © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

A fixed crane has a mass of 1000 kg and is used to lift a 2400 kg crate. . Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 SOLUTION: • Create a free-body diagram for the crane. • Check the values obtained for the reactions by verifying that the sum of the moments about B of all forces is zero.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4. • Determine the reactions at A by solving the equations for the sum of all horizontal force components and all vertical force components. All rights reserved. • Determine B by solving the equation for the sum of the moments of all forces about A. The center of gravity of the crane is located at G. It is held in place by a pin at A and a rocker at B. Determine the components of the reactions at A and B. Note there will be no contribution from the unknown reactions at A. Inc.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4.5 kN( 6m ) = 0 B = +107. ∑ M A = 0 : + B(1. Inc.1 • Determine B by solving the equation for the sum of the moments of all forces about A.1 kN • Determine the reactions at A by solving the equations for the sum of all horizontal forces and all vertical forces.81 kN − 23.5m ) − 9. ∑ Fx = 0 : Ax + B = 0 Ax = −107.81 kN( 2m ) − 23. Seventh Edition • Create the free-body diagram. .5 kN = 0 Ay = +33. All rights reserved.1 kN ∑ Fy = 0 : Ay − 9. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 kN • Check the values obtained.

The gross weight of the car and force components parallel to the track. and it is applied at at G. The cart is held in position by • Check the values obtained by verifying the cable. • Determine the cable tension by A loading car is at rest on an inclined solving the equation for the sum of track. Inc. • Determine the reactions at the wheels by solving equations for the sum of moments about points above each axle. its load is 5500 lb. that the sum of force components perpendicular to the track are zero.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4. All rights reserved. Determine the tension in the cable and the reaction at each pair of wheels.3 SOLUTION: • Create a free-body diagram for the car with the coordinate system aligned with the track. Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

− ( 4980 lb ) 6in.) = 0 R2 = 1758 lb ∑ M B = 0 : + ( 2320 lb ) 25in. − R1 ( 50in. Inc.) = 0 R1 = 562 lb • Create a free-body diagram W x = +( 5500 lb ) cos 25 = +4980 lb W y = −( 5500 lb ) sin 25 = −2320 lb • Determine the cable tension.3 • Determine the reactions at the wheels. − ( 4980 lb ) 6in. All rights reserved. ∑ Fx = 0 : + 4980 lb − T = 0 T = +4980 lb Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. + R2 ( 50in. . ∑ M A = 0 : − ( 2320 lb ) 25in.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4.

. Seventh Edition The frame supports part of the roof of a small building. Inc.4 SOLUTION: • Create a free-body diagram for the frame and cable. • Solve 3 equilibrium equations for the reaction force components and couple at E. Determine the reaction at the fixed end E.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4. The tension in the cable is 150 kN. All rights reserved. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

5 Seventh Edition M E = 180.5 (150 kN ) = 0 Fx = 0 : E x + ∑ 7.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4.0 kN ∑ Fy = 0 : E y − 4( 20 kN ) − E y = +200 kN • Create a free-body diagram for the frame and cable. . 4.5 E x = −90. All rights reserved.4 m ) + 20 kN( 3.8 m ) − 6 (150 kN ) 4.6 m ) + 20 kN(1.5 6 (150 kN ) = 0 7.0 kN ⋅ m © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 • Solve 3 equilibrium equations for the reaction force components and couple. ∑ M E = 0 : + 20 kN( 7.5 m + M E = 0 7. Inc.2 m ) + 20 kN( 5.

The moment of F2 must be zero. It follows that the line of action of F2 must pass through A. Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. the line of action of F1 must pass through B for the sum of moments about B to be zero. the sum of moments about A must be zero. • Requiring that the sum of forces in any direction be zero leads to the conclusion that F1 and F2 must have equal magnitude but opposite sense. • Similarly. Inc. . All rights reserved.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Equilibrium of a Two-Force Body • Consider a plate subjected to two forces F1 and F2 • For static equilibrium.

Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. the moment of F1 and F2 about the point of intersection represented by D is zero. • The lines of action of the three forces must be concurrent or parallel.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Equilibrium of a Three-Force Body • Consider a rigid body subjected to forces acting at only 3 points. All rights reserved. the sum of the moments of F1. F2. and F3 about any axis must be zero. • Assuming that their lines of action intersect. . • Since the rigid body is in equilibrium. Inc. It follows that the moment of F3 about D must be zero as well and that the line of action of F3 must pass through D.

and the reaction at A. Inc.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4. Seventh Edition A man raises a 10 kg joist. the reaction R must pass through the intersection of the lines of action of the weight and rope forces. Therefore.6 SOLUTION: • Create a free-body diagram of the joist. All rights reserved. Note that the joist is a 3 force body acted upon by the rope. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. of length 4 m. by pulling on a rope. • The three forces must be concurrent for static equilibrium. . • Utilize a force triangle to determine the magnitude of the reaction force R. Find the tension in the rope and the reaction at A. Determine the direction of the reaction force R. its weight.

6  © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4. • Determine the direction of the reaction force R.515) m = 2.636 AE 1. . All rights reserved.828 m CD = AE = 1 AF = 1. Inc.313 = = 1.414 Seventh Edition α = 58.828 − 0.414 m 2 BD = CD cot(45 + 20) = (1.6 • Create a free-body diagram of the joist.515 m CE = BF − BD = ( 2.414 m ) tan 20 = 0. AF = AB cos 45 = ( 4 m ) cos 45 = 2.313 m tanα = CE 2.

T sin 31. Inc.6  Seventh Edition T = 81.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4.9 N R = 147. All rights reserved.6 • Determine the magnitude of the reaction force R. .8 N © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 = R sin 110 = 98.1 N sin 38.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Three Dimensions • Six scalar equations are required to express the conditions for the equilibrium of a rigid body in the general three dimensional case. . Inc. All rights reserved.     ∑ F = 0 ∑ M O = ∑ (r × F ) = 0 Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ Fz = 0 ∑Mx = 0 ∑M y = 0 ∑Mz = 0 • These equations can be solved for no more than 6 unknowns which generally represent reactions at supports or connections. • The scalar equations are conveniently obtained by applying the vector forms of the conditions for equilibrium.

All rights reserved. . Inc.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Reactions at Supports and Connections for a ThreeDimensional Structure Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Reactions at Supports and Connections for a ThreeDimensional Structure Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Inc. .

All rights reserved. .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4. • Apply the conditions for static equilibrium to develop equations for the unknown reactions. Determine the tension in each cable and the reaction at A. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Seventh Edition A sign of uniform density weighs 270 lb and is supported by a ball-andsocket joint at A and by two cables. Inc.8 SOLUTION: • Create a free-body diagram for the sign.

8    rD − rB TBD = TBD   rD − rB    − 8i + 4 j − 8k = TBD 12    2i +1 j − 2k = TBD − 3 3 3    rC − rE TEC = TEC   rC − rE    − 6i + 3 j + 2k = TEC 7    6i + 3 j + 2k = TEC − 7 7 7 Seventh Edition ( ) • Create a free-body diagram for the sign. ( ) © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is. Inc. the sign is partially constrain. It is free to rotate about the x axis. however. . Since there are only 5 unknowns.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4. in equilibrium for the given loading. All rights reserved.

.8  ∑F =  i:  j:  k:  ∑MA  j:  k:     A + TBD + TEC − ( 270 lb ) j = 0 6 Ax − 2 TBD − 7 TEC = 0 3 3 Ay + 1 TBD + 7 TEC − 270 lb = 0 3 2 Az − 2 TBD + 7 TEC = 0 3       = rB × TBD + rE × TEC + ( 4 ft ) i × ( − 270 lb ) j = 0 Seventh Edition 5. Inc.571TEC − 1080 lb = 0 • Apply the conditions for static equilibrium to develop equations for the unknown reactions.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 4.714 TEC = 0 2.5 lb ) k © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.333TBD − 1. TBD = 101.667 TBD + 2.2 lb ) j − ( 22. Solve the 5 equations for the 5 unknowns.3 lb TEC = 315 lb     A = ( 338 lb ) i + (101.