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# 1.

INTRODUCTION

With the rapid growth in capacity and operation speed of personal computers, an increase is noted in the development of various software programs devoted to thermal drying (Baker and Lababidi, 2000, 2001; Baker et al., 2004; Kemp et al., 1887; Marinos Kouris et al., 1996; Maroulis et al., 2007; Menshutina and Kudra, 2001). Kemp (2007) provided an excellent overview of the state-of-the art on drying softwares. He not only described available software packages but also discussed issues of general matter such as the strategy for the development of drying softwares, barriers in software design and implementation, limitations and challenges on the progress, and future developments. Despite considerable efforts on RD&D, few commercial software packages specifically intended for drying, dryers, and drying systems have been commercialized. These are Simprosys for design and simulation of drying and evaporation systems (Gong and Mujumdar, 2008), dryPak for dryer design calculations for various gas-solvent systems (Pakowski, 1994), and DrySel for dryer selection marketed by Aspen Technology. Other drying softwares are suitable for process analysis and simulation. Examples are the DrySPECC2 and DrySim designed by NIZO Food Research (The Netherlands) for modeling and simulation of spray dryers, and process simulators such as Aspen Plus. Also, several algorithms were developed for dryer selection, troubleshooting, and information search (Maroulis et al., 2007; Kemp and Gardiner, 2001; Baker et al., 2004; Baker and Lababidi, 2000; Menshutina and Kudra, 2001). Interestingly, the existing software and calculation tools do not consider energy aspects even though the drying is recognized as a particularly energy -intensive unit operation. To fill this gap, an attempt was made to develop a computer -based tool allowing the calculation of energy use in industrial dryers, evaluate the potential for energy savings, and analyze options for reducing energy consumption.

**2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE CALCULATION TOOL
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The software is built as a modular system depicted in Figure 1.

Essentially.net platform. The tool was developed in Excel -VBA. sorption isotherms). However. the tool allows calculation of needed parameters or. Block diagram of the energy calculation and analysis tool. 3. a more detailed description of the tool will be presented in the paper published in a special edition of Drying Technology.g. CALCULATIONS OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE The energy efficiency ( ) relates the energy used for moisture evaporation at the feed temperature (E ev) to the total energy supplied to the dryer (E t) . the calculation of drying energy consumption is based on the drying gas parameters. the use of properties of the materials most similar to the drying material. but after thorough verification. As such properties are not readily available. it will migrated to a VB.. determination of the attainable top-line dryer for indices such as specific energy consumption and energy efficiency. as well as an analysis of options for reducing energy consumption are based on material properties (e. Because of the page format constraints. An example is the equilibrium moisture content tabulated for representative materials.Figure 1. specific heat. at least.

Equation 1 can be rewritten as The specific air consumption (W*) is given by mass of air required to evaporate 1 kg of water A theoretical dryer is defined as a dryer with no heat spent for heating the material and transportation equipment. the energy efficiency of a real dryer can be determined from the following relation: or expressed in terms of the theoretical dryer For low humidity and low temperature convective drying. Thus. max) .Regarding only the energy used to heat drying air which enters a single -pass theoretical convective dryer. and inlet material temperature is equal to 0°C. the energy efficiency can be approximated by thermal efficiency ( T) The thermal (energy) efficiency does not indicate how good the dryer is unless it is compared to the maximum thermal efficiency ( T. heat is not l ost to the ambient atmosphere. heat is not supplied to the internal heater.

The departure of a thermal efficiency of a real dryer from the maximum one is quantified by the efficiency ratio For a given evaporation rate. l The parameter defined as in Equation 12 is called the thermal loss factor of the dryer. Because for convective dryers the heat input is given as power supplied to the heater then Baker and McKenzie (2005) derived the following expression for the specific energy consumption of a theoretical dryer. for such materials the maximum energy efficiency is restricted not by saturation but by the equilibrium humidity (Y 2 sat) determined from sorption isotherms An alternative measure of dryer efficiency is the specific energy consumption defined as the heat input to the dryer per unit mass of evaporated water. which indicates that the specific energy consumption of an unspecified indirectly -heated convective dryer depends on the temperature and humidity of the outlet air and the heat loss where Href is the latent heat of evaporation at 0°C. and . the relative humidity of the air stream at any point in the dryer should be lower than the equilibrium relative humidity at this point. saturation of the exhaust air (Y 2 sat) can be attained when the air flow is minimal. When drying hygroscopic materials. yet securing both heat and hydrody namic requirements. Thus. Thus. taken as the reference temperature.

A fuzzy expert system for the selection of spray-drying equipment. Baker. J. 2005. Development of a fu zzy expert system for selection of batch dryers for foodstuffs.. and K. EXAMPLES OF INPUT AND OUTPUT DATA Figures 2 and 3 provide examples of the input data and results of calculations.For an adiabatic dryer l = 0 so Equation 12 reduces to A difference between specific energy consumption of the real and theoretical dryers operated at the same exhaust air temperature and humidity gives the excess specific energy consumption. M. C. C.A. Proc. This concept also holds for gas-fired dryers. and spray dryer with integrated fluidized bed. if the combustion air is accounted for. C. J. REFERENCES Baker. 2005) The concept of using specific energy consumption to evaluate the performance of indirectly-heated spray dryers presented by Baker and McKenzie (2005) and extended to fluidized bed dryers (Baker. (1999). 19(8). which is a measure of the wasted energy due to heat losses and other inefficiencies (Baker and McKenzie. Baker. S. . (2005). Drying Technology. Paper XIV -1. Developments in computer -aided dryer selection. C. 17(7&8). H. 117 -141. G.. Lababidi (2001). 2005. 3rd Inter-American Drying Conference (IADC2005). Drying Technology. J. G.. and H. Masters (2004). Baker et al. Montreal. Baker. 1852 -1874. Canada. Baker. Lababidi (2000). S. G. Predicting the energy consumption of continuous well -mixed fluidized bed dryers from drying kinetic data. G. Lababidi and K. Drying Technology 19. and H. Drying Technology. M. S. Baker and Al-Adwani. and various combined dryers including filtermat dryer. M. 1533 -1555. 365 -386. G. 5. 2006. J. J. Drying Technology. Energy consumption of industrial spray dryers. 21-23 Aug. C. 4. G. J. Baker. 18. 2007) was successfully validated by the authors of this paper for other single-stage convective dryers such as pneumatic and rotary dryers. 23 (1&2). McKenzie (2005). Detailed presentation of the tool will be given at the IADC confe rence. C. An evaluation of factors influencing the energy -efficient operation of well-mixed fluidized bed dryers. 1851 -1873.

14 (5). S. I. 26 (7). G. P. Mujumdar (2008). C. Khan. Program for psychrometric and drying computation. S. J. NOTATION c d. Z. An outline method for troubleshooting and problem-solving in dryers. Y. C. 884 -894.Computer aided drying technologies.. 311-318.1. Drying Technology. I. Saravacos and A. E. 19.Baker. ECCE-1. Proc. H. Spreadsheet -aided dryer design. Drying Technology.. kJ/kg Enthalpy. A. Software for design and analysis of drying systems. Baker. 1765 -1768. Ali and K. C. Damyar (2006). I. (1994). Drying Technology. J Specific energy consumption. Mujumdar (2007). dryPAk v1. 1875 -1890. B. 19 (8). Computer simulation of industrial dryers. Z-X. Maroulis and C. J. Hallas and D. Kemp. Drying Technology. S. kJ/kg H 2O . 6. 2071-2087. Developments in Aspen Technology drying software. I. Simulation of plug flow fluidized bed dryers.. Vol.. C. Pakowski. E. G. Drying software: past. Kemp. 45. Menshutina. An evaluation of factors influencing the energy-efficient operation of well-mixed fluidized bed dryers. N. Boca Raton. Sao Paulo. x F H I Ql Heat capacity. Kemp. Kiranoudis (1996). D. CRC Press. Baker. J. Gardiner (2001). C. Drying Technology. Snowball and R. 12 (7). 971 -1010. Mujumdar (Ed)). Z. Drying Symposium (IDS¶2004). kJ/kg H2O Excess specific energy consumption. Kudra (2001). Maroulis. G. FL. A. 1825 -1850. Oakley (2004). Z. 641 -651. (2007). B. (2005). Energy-efficient dryer operation-an update on developments. 22 -25 Aug. Al -Adwani (2007). 2 175-182. kJ/kg H2O Specific energy consumption of adiabatic dryer. B. and S. C. 14 th Int. rying Technology. 767 -774. Vol. Drying Technology. Kemp. Bahu (1997). Drying Technology. and A. 25 (7). 25(2). V. Gong. E Es E s. I. Marinos-Kouris. kg/s Latent heat of vaporization. In: Handbook of Industrial Drying. D. I. (A. An expert system for dryer selection. Chemical Engineering and Processing. Proc. 23(9 -11). T. kJ/kg Heat losses. 2004. b. R. and H. N. kJ/(kg K) Dry basis Energy. G. and T. 1249-1263. a E s. present and future. J. G. 121 -134. C. kJ/kg H2O Feed rate (dry basis).

s Temperature. X Efficiency ratio Subscripts a AS ev g h l max ref t T WB 1 2 Ambient Adiabatic saturation Evaporation Gas (air) Heater Losses Maximum Reference Total Thermal Wet bulb Inlet Outlet Superscripts eq t sat Equilibrium Theoretical Saturation . kg air/kg H 2O Flow rate. K (°C) Specific air consumption. kJ/s Time. kg H 2O/kg dry X material Y Air humidity. kg/s Material moisture content (d.Q t T W* W Heat rate.). kg H 2O/kg dry air Efficiency. b.

Fig. . 2. Input data sheet.

3.Fig. Results of calculations. .