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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Concept of Training
The concept of training predates history; it is as old as man himself. The earliest man learnt to hunt and grow crops for his survival. One of the earliest types of training was on the job training (OJT), which is still in wide use today China began training of her workers through conceptual case studies in the 5th century BC. Confucius presented problems to his students and asked them to
contemplate possible solutions to those problems. The case study is still widely in practice even today, mostly in professional schools. It is an effective tool to encourage learners to think philosophically without about difficult to go and
personal experiences. As time went on, modern theories of psychology, training, and staff development were applied to training methods in order to keep staff skilled, knowledgeable, and motivated.
2 Definition: employees “Training basic is skills the process need, of to teaching perform new their
jobs” (Gary Dessler). Training is a learning experience which seeks a relatively improve permanent ability change to in the individual his job that will Every
organization needs to have well trained, experienced and adjusted Training employees can to perform the their of duties efficiently. knowledge,
attitudes, or behavior. It may mean changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work, or their interaction is more with their day coworkers oriented or and supervisor. focuses on
individual’s existing jobs and enhancement of abilities to perform well. Training should not focus on new employees only, but old employees in should to also keep be put through knowledge
Employees Development: “Future-oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of employees” (David Stephen), for example if an employee is promoted supervisor, his new job would require him to
3 ensure his subordinates do their duties well. This would require his grooming in advance. This is known as employees’ development, and every organization must plan/carry out employee’s development in order to keep it functioning efficiently.
Purpose of Training and Development
Reasons for emphasizing training and development of employees:
replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization.
competitive position and improves employees morale.
Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.
It has been experienced that companies can benefit a lot from training and developing of their workers. Some of the
4 advantages which an organization may enjoy from a well
trained staff are as under:
• • • •
Increased productivity. Reduced employee turnover. Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains. Decreased need for supervision.
There are two broad types of training programs in vogue—on job and off job training. On the job Training (OJT): On job training means having a person learn the job by actually doing it. Every employee from the boss to the lowest level staff gets on the job training, on joining a firm. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning. On the job training includes orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships,
internships, assistantships, and coaching. Off the job Training: In off the job training the workers after recruitment are properly trained and then allowed to perform their duties. This type of training includes
lectures, special study programs, films, discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instructions
5 and laboratory training. Most of these techniques can be used by organizations, although for some it may be too
costly. Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days.
Orientation training should emphasize the following topics:
• • •
The company's history and mission. The key members in the organization. The key members in the department, and how the
department helps fulfill the mission of the company.
Rules and regulations for employees. No matter what method is used, it is important that
employment. Cordial surroundings and cooperative coworkers encourage the new comers to feel at home and take interest in their job Lectures present training material verbally and are aimed to deliver a great deal of material to many people
simultaneously. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually.
This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training. the senior skilled workers. than The saying is that there is no trainer experience exemplified with this type of training.6 Role Playing and Simulation is a training technique that attempts to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainees. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. This is a good strategy because an employee would not feel disturbed when asked to do any other job. With the help of plays and simulations trainees learn much quickly. related This type of of training that usually allow involves the several to groups skills apprentice practice in any particular trade within the organizational setup and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for. and with. Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. which is very good from training point of view. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills. . Likely problems and possible solutions are presented better for discussion. Job Rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so that he or she can get a good idea for the tasks that are associated with different jobs.
Laboratory Training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. the instructor need not be present. It is usually conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. . they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel. They allow material already learnt to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period. Programmed learning computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common.7 Internships and Assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on the job training.
a seminar. but the word training is also used to refer to specific instruction done one on one. Training usually refers to some kind of organized (and finite it time) event -. if a manager pairs up a relatively new employee with a more experienced employee to help the new employee learns about the job. Employee development. that's employee development. If a manager coaches and employee in an ongoing way. that's really employee development. It's often a group activity. is a much bigger. inclusive "thing". For example. however.8 Is There A Difference Between Training & Development? If we want to maximize training and development results by linking them to performance management we need to understand the difference between training activites and development activities. That's because it's important that we choose the right mechanism for addressing any needs we have. workshop that has a specific beginning data and end date. Or. employees may rotate job responsibilities to learn about the jobs of their colleagues and gain experience so they might .
For example. job rotation. and only one of its methods for encouraging employee learning. Employees’ performance It is strategic investment. Employee motivation is a joint. Operational Definition The study variables can be operationally defined as follows. in the training of its members. job rotation might work very well.9 eventually have more promotion opportunities. if the desire is provide an employee with a better understanding of how the department works. The important point here is that different activities are better for the achievement of different results. by an organization. If the goal is to improve the employee's ability to use a computer based accounting package direct training would be more appropriate than. In other words employee development is a broader term that includes training as one. That's employee development. ongoing effort on the part of an employee and the organization for which he or she works to upgrade the . let's say.
Training and development programs Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. Training is used to focus mostly on teaching technical skills. to enhance the future performance of the organization itself. How we can achieve the motivation and dedication of employees. Coaching employees to help them determine what they need for to motivate them to perform well like training and development programs. skills and abilities. Employees Motivation requires a balance between an individual’s career needs and goals and the organization’s need to get work done. is possible through providing them a specific training so that they can be refreshed from time to time and they set to work with motivational manner. or increasing skills.10 employee’s knowledge. . changing attitudes. The ultimate aim is of course. Employees are the assets of an organization and every organization makes progress and achieves its goals effectively due to the motivation and dedication of its employees. Whereas managerial employees’ development is any attempt to improve employees’ performance by imparting knowledge.
organizations attention to evaluate training effectiveness. findings qualitative and gathered questionnaire observations. Telecom companies and schools that the training opportunities provided to the employees should be focused on providing such training which enables the professionals to put in their best efforts. For instance. Based these this study will also provide suggestions for improvement in training programs and will be a help for professionals to improve their performance to a great extent. It is very essential for enterprises like Five Star Hotels. aim of this research paper is to measure the impact of training general and development of program on the performance located of in employees different organizations Islamabad. It is also designed to evaluate effectiveness of training from of managerial data staff of different through on organizations interviews. if we make a cobbler learn the computer he will have to .11 Purpose of Research Although the bottom line for most training and development programs is an improvement in often overall devote The organizational little performance. Banks.
This will for sure help the employees enhance their professional and academic skills Rest of the study is organized as follows: Chapter 2 consists of literature review in which a detailed analysis of previous literature is conducted. but the desired outcome will not be as if that training was provided to a professional who is already dealing or having any kind of interaction with computers. . Chapter 4 consists of results and analysis. it shows from where and how data is collected and the type of methodology used for processing that data. We know that at enterprises like Five Star Hotels training programs are well organized but still the short comings in training should be eliminated. Chapter 3 consist of data and methodology. Chapter 5 consists of conclusion on the basis of the analysis done in chapter 4 and recommendations to overcome the background problems.12 work harder.
Even as late as 1920s a person apprenticing in a law office could practice law after passing a state supervised exam (Mintzberg. such and furniture. clothing and shoes etc.13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The origin of HRD can be traced back to apprenticeship training programs in the eighteenth century. Employee training and development initiatives can transform organizations. 1971). For little or no wages these trainees or apprentices learned the craft working for years in the shops until they became proficient in their trade. To meet growing demand for their products the owners had to employ additional non skilled workers. educators and attorneys. resolve issues and align cultures to their mission and values. During that time small shops operated by skilled artisans produced virtually all household goods. Specialized skill training to the employees not only increases safety and . Employees training allow organizations to achieve management objectives. whom the shopkeepers themselves had to train. The apprenticeship training was not limited to the skilled workers only but it also covered the training of physicians.
This is only a partial listing of the many benefits that result from training. Enhanced company image which increase demand for its products. • • Increased innovation in strategies and products. Increased efficiencies in processes. Increased employee motivation. • • Reduced employee turnover. training industry analyst for Solomon Smith . So. Training that is appropriate to the needs of an organization can add great value. why would an organization not welcome and seek out the value-added benefits resulting from training? Training is not always the answer to performance problems.14 productivity but it also leads to higher job satisfaction which highly improves performance of the organization. resulting in financial gain. Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods. Brandt Sakakeeny. Training and development leads to: • • • Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees.
“many firms have concluded that it makes more sense to invest in worker training than to build up wage scales in a zero sum competition for the existing limited pool of well qualified workers. This was followed in descending order by recruitment and selection. . In many cases. It has been estimated that education and training programs accounted for as much as 26 percent of the increase in US production capacity between 1929 and 1982.15 Barney believes that training can be a great investment and training can be a waste of money (Rosner. stated that. A 2000 survey of human resource managers in large organizations ranked training and development as the most important functional area these managers had to deal with. Training is indeed a waste of money when the desired behavior does not occur. Many organizations are including employee education (training and development) as an important and effective part of their organizational strategy. 1999). Gupta acknowledges that not all performance problems can be addressed by training. Chairman of the US federal reserve board. non-training interventions are necessary (Gupta 1999). In 1995 Alan greens. productivity and quality.
globalization and diversity (Allan Greenspan. Developers say a strong training program.16 succession planning. What you can do is provide the opportunities. Careful selection of workers willing/eager to learn new things is a prerequisite of all T&D efforts. employees’ turnover is high. Flatter older employees a bit regarding the amount of knowledge and know-how they’ve acquired throughout the years in the company and ask for their help in training the newer. incentives and opportunities for . If employees are willing they will themselves come up and learn. acknowledge employees qualities and qualifications and give them the understanding that you need their help and knowhow to run the operation effectively (Trevor. Training and education opens the door. Focus on the positive points. younger employees. employees’ job satisfaction. Why don’t you have a chitchat with each one and see what they really want to do in their lives (Maxey. 2002). 1955). You can’t instill a desire in another person to learn or to strive to do better. because of tight time schedule and tough duties. Gerhart & Boudreau 1997). In hotel industry. but one must enter by oneself.
a company can be successful in maintaining a solid work force with proper training and motivation.17 internal growth are powerful tools that foster an environment that will attract and retain talented employees. development of leadership skills and creating opportunities for advancement for candidates within an organization. It is a crucial investment and it is essential to the company (Banson. A wide selection of leadership. It’s essential to devote resources for ongoing training. Organizations that give special training to their employees and there are ample opportunities for promotions and good monetary benefits which encourage the employees to exert themselves and take initiatives to rise to the challenges which gives guaranteed returns to the company. Introduce such training programs which encourage new hires to perform well and succeed. It is our goal to be the employer of choice. (Milanese. seminars. The author says that his philosophy in terms of attracting employees is having positive results and people from outside are coming in flocks. . Despite the highly competitive nature of timeshare. We are developing future managers from within our labor force. 2003). management training and technical courses are available to employees.
Buchananm (2008) in this paper reviews studies published between 1964 and May 1968 on laboratory training in human relations and its use in attempts to enhance the effectiveness of organizations. findings are examined as they relate to five issues in the design and the application of laboratory training. and ensuring that they can do the jobs set out of them (Schuler. because driving readiness is about being ready to sell in the enterprise…… It’s about. giving salespeople clarity within their roles. preferring to use the word readiness to quantify is better. giving them the tools to be successful. 2001)In Microsoft. The employees want transfer of knowledge in shortest possible time to derive benefits from it. the approach that I took wasn’t to create a training group to ensure that we train these people to be successful. After some of the difficulties in conducting such research in this area are considered. I purposely don’t use the word training. Salespeople want to know exactly what they can learn in a short time. 2001).18 2003)They approach salespeople with an attitude that lets them know training will take an hour of their time to compensate them with skills and information. (Dragon and Chuang. These findings are also compared with findings .
Comparing the performance of their companies with that of 1999. Studies of the influence of trainees’ characteristics on the training effectiveness have focused on the level of ability necessary to learn program content. This analysis integrates important motivational and situational factors from organizational behavior theory and research into a model which describes how trainees’ attributes and attitudes may influence the effectiveness of training (Noe. Employees are of the opinion that training in career development is important for their professional success. They realize that well- . In Chart’s (2000) Exploratory Benchmark Survey. 75% confirmed that training increased profits and occupancy rates. majority of respondents asserted that training also enhances guest and customers satisfaction. 70% of respondents said training had a positive impact on their company’s ability to improve occupancy and overall profitability. 1986). In a survey. 56% of companies increased their training budgets last year or planned to increase it this year a finding that is not surprising given the connection between training and retention. Motivational and environmental influences of training effectiveness have received little attention.19 from a similar review reported by the author four years ago.
This study was conducted by engaging in comprehensive review and critique of the existing literature on training and development models (Manu. to selectively assess what business skills are most essential for career success. The purpose of the study was to describe selected successful models of training and development as they may apply to firms. their performance enhancement and performance recovery initiatives. Most banks see education and training as a key part of their employment equity initiatives. Fourth. the results of this study suggest recommendations for developing a comprehensive plan (model) for the creation of effective employee training and development program in Ghana. to describe selected methods of needs assessment for training and development programs for employers and employees. Second. to identify selected managerial techniques that contributes to lost productivity and morale.20 trained employees are happier with their jobs and more likely to stay (Berta. Fifth. Manu (2004) conducted a study on training and development of firms in Ghana. . 2001). and their strategic human resources provision. 2004). Third.
productivity.21 There are following five key priority areas: Using the workplace skills plans • • • • • Information technology-related skills development. The general aim of this study is to determine the impact of managers' reinforcement on participants' job attitude. Management and leadership skills development Customer interface-related skills development Specialist financial skill development Back-office processes and support skills development. The findings obtained are discussed and evaluated . Using experimental and control groups. effectiveness and satisfaction in the process of the transfer of knowledge. Studies focusing specifically on the role of managers in the process have. however. The study involves a group of sales representatives participating in the Basic Sales Training Program for Sales Representatives and their supervisors in the Coca-Cola Bottlers of Turkey. effectiveness and satisfaction. been limited in number. the study are based on Kirkpatrick's four–stage evaluation model. skill and attitude to be acquired through a training programmed into the workplace. The process of the transfer of training has a great impact on job productivity.
energy. present day competition is based on knowledge possessing and efficient knowledge management. In the economy where uncertainty is the only certainty. These activities determine the company as a learning organization with constant innovation being its sole business. 2007) . These are organizations which realize that learning and new knowledge are becoming the key of success. Modern organizations therefore use their resources (money. (Vemic.22 with respect to the roles of managers in the transfer of training (Gumuseli & Ergin. knowledge is becoming a reliable source of sustained competitive advantage. extending it through the entire organization and implementing it quickly inside the new technologies. etc. Knowledge is becoming basic capital and the trigger of development. and that education is crucial for abundance. information. develop good products and excellent services. Previously built on foundations of possessing specific resources and low costs. Organizations which are constantly creating new knowledge. as well as the swiftness and ways of knowledge gaining of that capital. 2002).) for permanent training and advancement of their employees. The global competition and swiftness of changes emphasize the importance of human capital within organizations. time.
23 Ojo and Olaniyan (2008) examined the impact of training and development programs on the performance of home economics teachers in Nigeria. The findings of the study revealed that training and development has a positive impact on the performance of home economic teachers. . We have followed the methodology of Ojo et al and made it as our base thesis. We will apply this methodology to different organizations like banks. • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees. • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. five star hotels and telecom companies operating in Pakistani market. On the basis of literature review done above we intend to test the following hypotheses • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees.
. • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees.24 • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees.
Research instrument Data was also and collected books. researcher different distribute of questionnaires to T&D know the organizations employees Islamabad different response of towards programs. Questionnaire . The study is based upon the primary data. sources primary like data internet some Whereas source i-e. First of all we identified the objective behind this research. Then we collected data with the help of questionnaire to identify issues relevant to the research. Questionnaire will be consisted of 14 questions (Appendix A). After that it would be recommended how training and development programs affect the performance of employees at work place. questionnaire was used to collect data from existing employees of selected organizations.25 CHAPTER 3 DATA AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The major objective of this research is to know the impact of training and development programs in different age groups. The main objective is to answer this important question or in 70 whether the performance after of the and employees’ development will increases programs decreases an training The in organization. designations and gender. using secondary mainly.
Thus the respondents of the study have been drawn from the population of banks. Bahria college. IMCG F-10/2. . National bank of Pakistan.26 consisting of 7+7 questions is distributed (questionnaire is given in appendices). Bank Alfalah Limited.P. City Bank. Interview of a relationship manager will be taken to verify the results. Some data has been collected through interviews with the existing employees. companies and schools in Islamabad. senior managers of different banks.C Zong telecom. 5 star hotels. Total number of 70 questionnaires was distributed in these organizations. 7 questions are related to the training and development programs that are carried out in different organizations. Sample design Respondents of the Study were the existing bank employees of different banks of Islamabad e. the remaining 7 questions are to investigate the effect of that training and development on the performance of the employees. Population The population of the study consists of existing employees.telecom companies and schools in Islamabad.g. Marriot hotel.
1= strongly agree 2= agree 3= neither agreed nor disagree/ Neutral 4= disagree 5= strongly disagree Negative questions were translated into positive questions so that the concept flows in the same direction.27 Sample size As population size is 70.A t-test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic has a student’s . Test used in the study In this research t-test for equality of means is used as a statistical hypothesis test. Measuring level of Employee’s Performance Instrument/ Questionnaire used to determine employee performance after undergoing a T&D program consist of five responses on Linkert scale. Type of study The study is of descriptive nature and it is carried out to find the reasons how and in which way T&D programs affect the performance of an organization employee. It is estimated that there would be approximately 70 respondents in the selected organizations.
The correlation . variables for the purpose of predicting future In other words by it predicts one the or behavior of a dependent variables. be It is applied the population normally distributed but the sample sizes are small enough that the statistic on which inference is based is not normally distributed because it relies on an uncertain estimate of standard deviation rather than on a precisely known value.28 T distribution when if the null-hypothesis is assumed is to true. Correlation Analysis It is a statistical analysis used to determine the extent to which changes in value of an attribute are associated with changes r in is a other attributes. variable analyzing more independent Independent variables in this study are training and development programs and dependent variable is performance of employees. Regression Analysis It is a statistical technique used to find relationships between values. of the The correlation relationship coefficient measure linear between two attributes or columns of data.
Hypotheses Hoa: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. indicates a a A likely increase in the value of the second coefficient of less is. Data analytical techniques used We applied the test of mean equality on the basis of grouping under age. That attribute shows an increase in value. marital status and gender. the other attribute tends to show a decrease. A value of r near 0 indicates little correlation between attributes. indicates attribute.29 coefficient is also known as the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The value of r can range from -1 to +1 and is independent of the units of measurement. than when 0 one correlation negative correlation. When two attributes an increase have in a the positive value of correlation one attribute coefficient. . a value near +1 or -1 indicates a high level of correlation. Ha: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees.
30 Hob: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. Hof: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. Hb: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. Hod: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. . He: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees. Hf: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. Hoc: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees. Hoe: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees. Hd: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. Hc: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees.
Above 30 results In this group we will test the following hypotheses: H0a: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. age below 30 years was taken. age and marital status to test the hypotheses.31 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS The test of mean equality was applied on the basis of grouping under the headings of gender. employees who are above 30 years of age whereas in junior group. Age based results Age group was divided into two categories. Ha: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. . in senior group.
0. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig. which means that an increase in training and .679 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4.1. N 30 30 Correlation is significant at the 0.1. (2-tailed) ** Performance 1 .705(**) .2 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.e.383 .000 t Sig.259 . Table 4.705 shows a high level of significance.000 30 1 .1. So our results justify the theoretical background.01 level (2-tailed). The value of beta i.1 shows that H0a is rejected.129 Standardized Coefficients Beta 2.705 5. In simple words it means that there is a considerable positive impact of training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the employees who are above the age of 30 years. 30 .32 Table 4.1 Regression Coefficients(a) Model 1 a (Constant) TD Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Table 4.505 . B Error 1.000 TD .705(**) .011 .1.739 . .2 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.
362 . B Error 3.384 2.e.000 . Following hypotheses are formulated for employees who are below the age of 30 years.940 . .014 t Sig. Hb: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees.236 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4.384 shows a high level of significance but surprisingly it is lower than that of senior employees.241 .092 Standardized Coefficients Beta 8.3 Regression Coefficients(a) Model 1 a (Constant) TD Unstandardized Coefficients Std. .3 shows that H0b is rejected. It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of employees who are below the age of 30 years.1. 0.566 . Below 30 results In this group we will test the following hypotheses: Hob: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. The value of beta i.33 development programs will result in a proportionate increase in the performance of senior employees. Table 4.1.
which means that an increase in the training and development programs will result in a proportionate increase in the performance of senior employees.014 TD . Table 4.4 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.384(*) .384(*) . (2-tailed) N Performance 1 . 40 .05 level (2-tailed).4 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.014 40 1 . 40 40 Correlation is significant at the 0.1. The test of mean equality was applied to test the following hypotheses.34 Table 4. Marital status based results This group was divided into two categories which are married and unmarried employees. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig. Married results The following hypotheses are formulated in this group of employees: .1.
463(**) .2.01 level (2-tailed).003 t Sig. In simple words it means that there is a relatively smaller impact of training and development programs on the performance of married employees.000 . .463 7. Table 4.138 .e.35 Hoc: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees.1 shows that H0c is rejected. Table 4. It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the employees who are married.102 a Dependent Variable: Performance Model Standardized Coefficients Beta . (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 .2 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.463 shows a moderate level of significance.398 TD . Table 4. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig. 38 . B Error 1 (Constant) 2.150 3.2.320 . 38 38 Correlation is significant at the 0. Hc: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees.003 TD .003 38 1 .463(**) .848 . The value of beta i.2.1 Regression Coefficients (a) Unstandardized Coefficients Std. 0.
which means that a change in one variable will be accounted by an appropriate change in other variable.2.632 3.514 TD . Single results The following hypotheses are tested by applying the test of mean equality for group of unmarried employees: Hod: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees.582 . Hd: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. which means that an increase in T&D programs will enhance the performance of married employees.3 Regression Coefficients(a) Unstandardized Coefficients Std.576 4.838 .000 t Sig.2. B Error 1 (Constant) 1.36 Table 4.130 a Dependent Variable: Performance Model Standardized Coefficients Beta .001 .467 .2 shows that both the variables are positively correlated. . Table 4.
. 32 .3 shows that H0 is rejected. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.2.632(**) .000 32 1 . (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 .632 shows a very high level of significance.e.4 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.37 Table 4. 32 32 Correlation is significant at the 0.000 TD .01 level (2-tailed).2. It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the unmarried employees.2.632(**) . The value of beta i. Table 4. Table 4.4 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig. which means that an increase in the training and development programs will result in an increase in the performance of unmarried employees. In simple words it means that there is a greater impact of training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. 0.
In simple words it means that the training .391 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4.002 Model 1 a (Constant) TD Unstandardized Coefficients Std.464 . .38 Gender based results Gender base group was divided into two groups which are male and female employees.3. Table 4.580 . Female results Hypotheses formulated in this group are stated as under: Hoe: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees.449 .588 . He: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees.3.515 3.113 t Sig.000 .1 Regression Coefficients(a) Standardize d Coefficient s Beta 5.e.1 shows that H0e is not rejected. It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the female employees. 0.515 shows a high level of significance. B Error 2. The value of beta i.
002 TD .2 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.002 35 1 .515(**) . 35 .01 level (2-tailed). which means that an increase in the training and development programs will result in an increase in the performance of female employees. Hf: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.39 and development programs will enhance the performance of female employees considerably.2 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig. Table 4.3. Hof: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. 35 35 Correlation is significant at the 0. . Table 4.515(**) . (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 . Males results Following are the hypotheses formed to figure out the impact of T&D programs on the performance of male employees in different organizations.3.
520 3. 35 35 Correlation is significant at the 0.3.001 t Sig.520(**) .3 Regression Coefficients (a) Model 1 a (Constant) Unstandardized Coefficients Std.520 shows a high level of significance.001 TD . (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.3.3 shows that H0f is not rejected.000 .e.001 35 1 . 35 .051 . It means that the training and development programs do have a positive impact on the performance of the male employees.520(**) .386 . The value of beta i.3. TD .01 level (2-tailed).40 Table 4. B Error 2.472 .440 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4.4 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig. . In simple words it means that the training and development programs considerably increase the performance of male employees. (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 .498 . Table 4. 0.126 Standardized Coefficients Beta 5.
41 Table 4. .3.4 shows that both the variables are positively correlated. which means that the greater the training and development programs provided to male employees. greater will be their performance.
This can be due to the reason that mostly female employees bear additional responsibilities from their families. According to our age based results training and development programs affect the performance of senior as well as junior employees positively. 2. According to our gender based results training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of both the male and female employees. .42 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusion 1. But the value of beta shows that it has a greater impact on the performance of male employee’s group. The possible reason for this can be that the senior employees have more experience and knowledge about their job and the internal and external environment. But the value of beta shows a huge difference in the results of senior and junior employees. It shows that the productivity of senior employees is almost twice as compared to juniors after the same opportunities of training and development offered.
The the and finding trainee training of providing behaviors opportunity to their changing their and contributes skills. Results based on marital status again show that the training and development has a positive impact on the performance of both married and unmarried employees. The finding of the study shows that training and development boost the moral of employees upgrade skills. improve their performance and gives them the opportunity to get lucrative shows the jobs that and the excel in their aimed jobs at also.43 3. effectiveness upgrading their . The reason for greater impact in case of unmarried employees can be that they are more ambitious and energetic and after getting married some additional responsibilities rest on one’s shoulders which directly or indirectly affect their attitude. behavior and performance. By looking at the values of beta for both the groups it is evident that the impact of training and development on the performance of unmarried employees is relatively greater.
of employees the but it leads of to increase improves improves quality work. reduce waste accident. understanding and attitude. knowledge. Different organizations should always determine the training need that would be most suitable for the achievement of organizational goals. 3. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. There should not be a communication gap between junior and inexperienced employees and their immediate bosses. skills. absenteeism and other overhead costs etc. so that . lateness. This will brighten up their ideas and will enable them to know more about the recent developments in their subject areas. enhance the use of tools and machine. 4.44 Training and development might not necessarily lead to job satisfaction productivity. turnover. Employees should be encouraged to go for in-service training. 2. There should be frequent job rotation so that banks and other organizations get aware of the skills and interests of the employees and cater the training and development programs accordingly. training and development has a positive impact on the performance of employees of different organizations. thus.
This will help in increasing the impact of training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. Different organizations should provide equal advancement to male and female employees. . Organizations should help out female employees to have a balance between their responsibilities on the job and off the job so as to bring their performance equal to male employees. experienced and opportunities inexperienced employees and junior and senior employees 7. Companies should pay handsome salary to all employees so that junior and newly appointed employees get motivated and more dedicated to their work.45 they can communicate with each other and managers can get proper feedback from all employees to carry out the training and development activities. 5. 6.
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Age: Years 4.50 APPENDIX A Questionnaire for Impact of Training and Development on Employees Performance Respondent profile: 1. Total working experience? Years . Gender  Male  Female 2. Total number of years that you have been employed by Years Current Place? 6. Designation : __________________ 5. Marital status  Married  Single 3.
o To analyze that whether the organization is providing incentives to trained employees or not. o To asses the training standards which are provided to the employees. o To know that needs of employees with respect to enhancing the knowledge and skill. o To improve the training standards as per the employees requirements. “Your right clicks are appreciated and your little bit cooperation will help me to reach on the best solution” Keys: Strongly Disagree 1 Disagree 2 Indifference 3 Agree 4 Strongly Agree 5 .51 Objectives: o To ensure that the effective training is provided to the employees. o To know about the support to training and development.
1 Employees are motivated towards training programs. 2 3 4 5 Organizational culture facilitates the Training and Development programs. Training programs are job oriented. 2 3 4 5 Training is provided in accordance to the international standards. 2 3 4 5 2.52 1. 2 3 4 5 Leadership and decision making training is provided to the employees. 1 2 3 4 5 7. 1 2 3 4 5 . 1 6. 1 4. 2 3 4 5 Trained employees are more efficient and effective as compare to untrained. Trained employees get more incentives. 1 3. 1 8. 1 5. 2 3 4 5 Working condition support the Training programs.
which I want to Pursue. 1 2 3 4 5 11. 1 2 3 4 5 12. 1 2 3 4 5 . T&D plans and policies respond quickly and effectively to changing business needs. Do you require further training for the motivation towards the improvement of the performance to help you to increase overall productivity of the organization? 1 2 3 4 5 10. Training programs help you to stay up-to-date with new process or procedures related to your job. Trained employees understand the problems and get the solution quickly? 1 2 3 4 5 13. Training and Development program will give me better idea of the career path.53 9.
1 2 3 4 5 . Trained employees make less number of mistakes as compared to the untrained.54 14.
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