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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Concept of Training
The concept of training predates history; it is as old as man himself. The earliest man learnt to hunt and grow crops for his survival. One of the earliest types of training was on the job training (OJT), which is still in wide use today China began training of her workers through conceptual case studies in the 5th century BC. Confucius presented problems to his students and asked them to
contemplate possible solutions to those problems. The case study is still widely in practice even today, mostly in professional schools. It is an effective tool to encourage learners to think philosophically without about difficult to go and
personal experiences. As time went on, modern theories of psychology, training, and staff development were applied to training methods in order to keep staff skilled, knowledgeable, and motivated.
2 Definition: employees “Training basic is skills the process need, of to teaching perform new their
jobs” (Gary Dessler). Training is a learning experience which seeks a relatively improve permanent ability change to in the individual his job that will Every
organization needs to have well trained, experienced and adjusted Training employees can to perform the their of duties efficiently. knowledge,
attitudes, or behavior. It may mean changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work, or their interaction is more with their day coworkers oriented or and supervisor. focuses on
individual’s existing jobs and enhancement of abilities to perform well. Training should not focus on new employees only, but old employees in should to also keep be put through knowledge
Employees Development: “Future-oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of employees” (David Stephen), for example if an employee is promoted supervisor, his new job would require him to
3 ensure his subordinates do their duties well. This would require his grooming in advance. This is known as employees’ development, and every organization must plan/carry out employee’s development in order to keep it functioning efficiently.
Purpose of Training and Development
Reasons for emphasizing training and development of employees:
replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization.
competitive position and improves employees morale.
Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.
It has been experienced that companies can benefit a lot from training and developing of their workers. Some of the
4 advantages which an organization may enjoy from a well
trained staff are as under:
• • • •
Increased productivity. Reduced employee turnover. Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains. Decreased need for supervision.
There are two broad types of training programs in vogue—on job and off job training. On the job Training (OJT): On job training means having a person learn the job by actually doing it. Every employee from the boss to the lowest level staff gets on the job training, on joining a firm. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning. On the job training includes orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships,
internships, assistantships, and coaching. Off the job Training: In off the job training the workers after recruitment are properly trained and then allowed to perform their duties. This type of training includes
lectures, special study programs, films, discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instructions
5 and laboratory training. Most of these techniques can be used by organizations, although for some it may be too
costly. Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days.
Orientation training should emphasize the following topics:
• • •
The company's history and mission. The key members in the organization. The key members in the department, and how the
department helps fulfill the mission of the company.
Rules and regulations for employees. No matter what method is used, it is important that
employment. Cordial surroundings and cooperative coworkers encourage the new comers to feel at home and take interest in their job Lectures present training material verbally and are aimed to deliver a great deal of material to many people
simultaneously. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually.
This is a good strategy because an employee would not feel disturbed when asked to do any other job. Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. Likely problems and possible solutions are presented better for discussion. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training. . the senior skilled workers. and with.6 Role Playing and Simulation is a training technique that attempts to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainees. With the help of plays and simulations trainees learn much quickly. which is very good from training point of view. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills. related This type of of training that usually allow involves the several to groups skills apprentice practice in any particular trade within the organizational setup and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for. Job Rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so that he or she can get a good idea for the tasks that are associated with different jobs. than The saying is that there is no trainer experience exemplified with this type of training.
the instructor need not be present.7 Internships and Assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on the job training. they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. Programmed learning computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common. Laboratory Training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. . and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel. It is usually conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. They allow material already learnt to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period.
8 Is There A Difference Between Training & Development? If we want to maximize training and development results by linking them to performance management we need to understand the difference between training activites and development activities. If a manager coaches and employee in an ongoing way. if a manager pairs up a relatively new employee with a more experienced employee to help the new employee learns about the job.a seminar. It's often a group activity. that's employee development. Employee development. but the word training is also used to refer to specific instruction done one on one. inclusive "thing". that's really employee development. is a much bigger. For example. That's because it's important that we choose the right mechanism for addressing any needs we have. employees may rotate job responsibilities to learn about the jobs of their colleagues and gain experience so they might . workshop that has a specific beginning data and end date. however. Training usually refers to some kind of organized (and finite it time) event -. Or.
in the training of its members. Operational Definition The study variables can be operationally defined as follows. The important point here is that different activities are better for the achievement of different results. by an organization. and only one of its methods for encouraging employee learning. In other words employee development is a broader term that includes training as one. let's say. job rotation. if the desire is provide an employee with a better understanding of how the department works.9 eventually have more promotion opportunities. ongoing effort on the part of an employee and the organization for which he or she works to upgrade the . Employees’ performance It is strategic investment. If the goal is to improve the employee's ability to use a computer based accounting package direct training would be more appropriate than. job rotation might work very well. Employee motivation is a joint. That's employee development. For example.
Whereas managerial employees’ development is any attempt to improve employees’ performance by imparting knowledge. Training is used to focus mostly on teaching technical skills.10 employee’s knowledge. changing attitudes. The ultimate aim is of course. to enhance the future performance of the organization itself. . How we can achieve the motivation and dedication of employees. skills and abilities. Employees Motivation requires a balance between an individual’s career needs and goals and the organization’s need to get work done. Employees are the assets of an organization and every organization makes progress and achieves its goals effectively due to the motivation and dedication of its employees. or increasing skills. is possible through providing them a specific training so that they can be refreshed from time to time and they set to work with motivational manner. Training and development programs Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. Coaching employees to help them determine what they need for to motivate them to perform well like training and development programs.
Banks. if we make a cobbler learn the computer he will have to . aim of this research paper is to measure the impact of training general and development of program on the performance located of in employees different organizations Islamabad. findings qualitative and gathered questionnaire observations. Based these this study will also provide suggestions for improvement in training programs and will be a help for professionals to improve their performance to a great extent. It is very essential for enterprises like Five Star Hotels. organizations attention to evaluate training effectiveness. Telecom companies and schools that the training opportunities provided to the employees should be focused on providing such training which enables the professionals to put in their best efforts.11 Purpose of Research Although the bottom line for most training and development programs is an improvement in often overall devote The organizational little performance. It is also designed to evaluate effectiveness of training from of managerial data staff of different through on organizations interviews. For instance.
We know that at enterprises like Five Star Hotels training programs are well organized but still the short comings in training should be eliminated. Chapter 4 consists of results and analysis. Chapter 3 consist of data and methodology. This will for sure help the employees enhance their professional and academic skills Rest of the study is organized as follows: Chapter 2 consists of literature review in which a detailed analysis of previous literature is conducted. .12 work harder. but the desired outcome will not be as if that training was provided to a professional who is already dealing or having any kind of interaction with computers. Chapter 5 consists of conclusion on the basis of the analysis done in chapter 4 and recommendations to overcome the background problems. it shows from where and how data is collected and the type of methodology used for processing that data.
Specialized skill training to the employees not only increases safety and . For little or no wages these trainees or apprentices learned the craft working for years in the shops until they became proficient in their trade. 1971). To meet growing demand for their products the owners had to employ additional non skilled workers. educators and attorneys. The apprenticeship training was not limited to the skilled workers only but it also covered the training of physicians. clothing and shoes etc. During that time small shops operated by skilled artisans produced virtually all household goods. Employees training allow organizations to achieve management objectives. Employee training and development initiatives can transform organizations. whom the shopkeepers themselves had to train. Even as late as 1920s a person apprenticing in a law office could practice law after passing a state supervised exam (Mintzberg.13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The origin of HRD can be traced back to apprenticeship training programs in the eighteenth century. resolve issues and align cultures to their mission and values. such and furniture.
Enhanced company image which increase demand for its products. Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods. So. resulting in financial gain. Training and development leads to: • • • Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees. why would an organization not welcome and seek out the value-added benefits resulting from training? Training is not always the answer to performance problems. training industry analyst for Solomon Smith . Training that is appropriate to the needs of an organization can add great value. Increased employee motivation. Increased efficiencies in processes. • • Reduced employee turnover. This is only a partial listing of the many benefits that result from training.14 productivity but it also leads to higher job satisfaction which highly improves performance of the organization. Brandt Sakakeeny. • • Increased innovation in strategies and products.
Chairman of the US federal reserve board. productivity and quality. A 2000 survey of human resource managers in large organizations ranked training and development as the most important functional area these managers had to deal with. 1999). Training is indeed a waste of money when the desired behavior does not occur. non-training interventions are necessary (Gupta 1999). In many cases. stated that.15 Barney believes that training can be a great investment and training can be a waste of money (Rosner. Gupta acknowledges that not all performance problems can be addressed by training. It has been estimated that education and training programs accounted for as much as 26 percent of the increase in US production capacity between 1929 and 1982. . Many organizations are including employee education (training and development) as an important and effective part of their organizational strategy. This was followed in descending order by recruitment and selection. In 1995 Alan greens. “many firms have concluded that it makes more sense to invest in worker training than to build up wage scales in a zero sum competition for the existing limited pool of well qualified workers.
globalization and diversity (Allan Greenspan. but one must enter by oneself. younger employees. incentives and opportunities for . 1955). Developers say a strong training program. acknowledge employees qualities and qualifications and give them the understanding that you need their help and knowhow to run the operation effectively (Trevor. In hotel industry. Careful selection of workers willing/eager to learn new things is a prerequisite of all T&D efforts. Gerhart & Boudreau 1997). What you can do is provide the opportunities. Training and education opens the door. You can’t instill a desire in another person to learn or to strive to do better. Focus on the positive points. employees’ turnover is high. employees’ job satisfaction. because of tight time schedule and tough duties.16 succession planning. Why don’t you have a chitchat with each one and see what they really want to do in their lives (Maxey. 2002). Flatter older employees a bit regarding the amount of knowledge and know-how they’ve acquired throughout the years in the company and ask for their help in training the newer. If employees are willing they will themselves come up and learn.
It’s essential to devote resources for ongoing training. . seminars. a company can be successful in maintaining a solid work force with proper training and motivation. Despite the highly competitive nature of timeshare. management training and technical courses are available to employees. Introduce such training programs which encourage new hires to perform well and succeed. development of leadership skills and creating opportunities for advancement for candidates within an organization. We are developing future managers from within our labor force. The author says that his philosophy in terms of attracting employees is having positive results and people from outside are coming in flocks.17 internal growth are powerful tools that foster an environment that will attract and retain talented employees. A wide selection of leadership. Organizations that give special training to their employees and there are ample opportunities for promotions and good monetary benefits which encourage the employees to exert themselves and take initiatives to rise to the challenges which gives guaranteed returns to the company. (Milanese. It is our goal to be the employer of choice. 2003). It is a crucial investment and it is essential to the company (Banson.
preferring to use the word readiness to quantify is better. findings are examined as they relate to five issues in the design and the application of laboratory training. the approach that I took wasn’t to create a training group to ensure that we train these people to be successful. 2001)In Microsoft. The employees want transfer of knowledge in shortest possible time to derive benefits from it. (Dragon and Chuang. Salespeople want to know exactly what they can learn in a short time. Buchananm (2008) in this paper reviews studies published between 1964 and May 1968 on laboratory training in human relations and its use in attempts to enhance the effectiveness of organizations. giving them the tools to be successful. and ensuring that they can do the jobs set out of them (Schuler. I purposely don’t use the word training.18 2003)They approach salespeople with an attitude that lets them know training will take an hour of their time to compensate them with skills and information. After some of the difficulties in conducting such research in this area are considered. 2001). because driving readiness is about being ready to sell in the enterprise…… It’s about. These findings are also compared with findings . giving salespeople clarity within their roles.
Motivational and environmental influences of training effectiveness have received little attention. Studies of the influence of trainees’ characteristics on the training effectiveness have focused on the level of ability necessary to learn program content. Employees are of the opinion that training in career development is important for their professional success. 1986). In a survey. majority of respondents asserted that training also enhances guest and customers satisfaction. This analysis integrates important motivational and situational factors from organizational behavior theory and research into a model which describes how trainees’ attributes and attitudes may influence the effectiveness of training (Noe. In Chart’s (2000) Exploratory Benchmark Survey. Comparing the performance of their companies with that of 1999.19 from a similar review reported by the author four years ago. 75% confirmed that training increased profits and occupancy rates. 70% of respondents said training had a positive impact on their company’s ability to improve occupancy and overall profitability. 56% of companies increased their training budgets last year or planned to increase it this year a finding that is not surprising given the connection between training and retention. They realize that well- .
the results of this study suggest recommendations for developing a comprehensive plan (model) for the creation of effective employee training and development program in Ghana. Most banks see education and training as a key part of their employment equity initiatives. 2004). . to identify selected managerial techniques that contributes to lost productivity and morale. to describe selected methods of needs assessment for training and development programs for employers and employees. Manu (2004) conducted a study on training and development of firms in Ghana. The purpose of the study was to describe selected successful models of training and development as they may apply to firms. to selectively assess what business skills are most essential for career success. This study was conducted by engaging in comprehensive review and critique of the existing literature on training and development models (Manu. their performance enhancement and performance recovery initiatives. and their strategic human resources provision. Third. Fifth. 2001). Second. Fourth.20 trained employees are happier with their jobs and more likely to stay (Berta.
the study are based on Kirkpatrick's four–stage evaluation model. effectiveness and satisfaction in the process of the transfer of knowledge. The general aim of this study is to determine the impact of managers' reinforcement on participants' job attitude. skill and attitude to be acquired through a training programmed into the workplace. The findings obtained are discussed and evaluated . however. been limited in number. Using experimental and control groups. The process of the transfer of training has a great impact on job productivity. Studies focusing specifically on the role of managers in the process have. productivity. effectiveness and satisfaction. Management and leadership skills development Customer interface-related skills development Specialist financial skill development Back-office processes and support skills development.21 There are following five key priority areas: Using the workplace skills plans • • • • • Information technology-related skills development. The study involves a group of sales representatives participating in the Basic Sales Training Program for Sales Representatives and their supervisors in the Coca-Cola Bottlers of Turkey.
2002). Previously built on foundations of possessing specific resources and low costs. The global competition and swiftness of changes emphasize the importance of human capital within organizations.) for permanent training and advancement of their employees. etc. information. These activities determine the company as a learning organization with constant innovation being its sole business. develop good products and excellent services. energy. Modern organizations therefore use their resources (money. Knowledge is becoming basic capital and the trigger of development. time.22 with respect to the roles of managers in the transfer of training (Gumuseli & Ergin. These are organizations which realize that learning and new knowledge are becoming the key of success. Organizations which are constantly creating new knowledge. as well as the swiftness and ways of knowledge gaining of that capital. 2007) . present day competition is based on knowledge possessing and efficient knowledge management. knowledge is becoming a reliable source of sustained competitive advantage. extending it through the entire organization and implementing it quickly inside the new technologies. and that education is crucial for abundance. In the economy where uncertainty is the only certainty. (Vemic.
We have followed the methodology of Ojo et al and made it as our base thesis. The findings of the study revealed that training and development has a positive impact on the performance of home economic teachers. On the basis of literature review done above we intend to test the following hypotheses • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. We will apply this methodology to different organizations like banks.23 Ojo and Olaniyan (2008) examined the impact of training and development programs on the performance of home economics teachers in Nigeria. . • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees. five star hotels and telecom companies operating in Pakistani market.
24 • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees. . • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees.
The study is based upon the primary data. Questionnaire . Then we collected data with the help of questionnaire to identify issues relevant to the research. The main objective is to answer this important question or in 70 whether the performance after of the and employees’ development will increases programs decreases an training The in organization. sources primary like data internet some Whereas source i-e. Research instrument Data was also and collected books.25 CHAPTER 3 DATA AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The major objective of this research is to know the impact of training and development programs in different age groups. questionnaire was used to collect data from existing employees of selected organizations. After that it would be recommended how training and development programs affect the performance of employees at work place. Questionnaire will be consisted of 14 questions (Appendix A). using secondary mainly. First of all we identified the objective behind this research. designations and gender. researcher different distribute of questionnaires to T&D know the organizations employees Islamabad different response of towards programs.
C Zong telecom. Interview of a relationship manager will be taken to verify the results. Marriot hotel.g. Sample design Respondents of the Study were the existing bank employees of different banks of Islamabad e.26 consisting of 7+7 questions is distributed (questionnaire is given in appendices). IMCG F-10/2. National bank of Pakistan. Thus the respondents of the study have been drawn from the population of banks. 5 star hotels. Bahria college. Bank Alfalah Limited. senior managers of different banks.P. . 7 questions are related to the training and development programs that are carried out in different organizations. Some data has been collected through interviews with the existing employees.telecom companies and schools in Islamabad. Population The population of the study consists of existing employees. the remaining 7 questions are to investigate the effect of that training and development on the performance of the employees. companies and schools in Islamabad. Total number of 70 questionnaires was distributed in these organizations. City Bank.
A t-test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic has a student’s . Test used in the study In this research t-test for equality of means is used as a statistical hypothesis test. Type of study The study is of descriptive nature and it is carried out to find the reasons how and in which way T&D programs affect the performance of an organization employee.27 Sample size As population size is 70. 1= strongly agree 2= agree 3= neither agreed nor disagree/ Neutral 4= disagree 5= strongly disagree Negative questions were translated into positive questions so that the concept flows in the same direction. It is estimated that there would be approximately 70 respondents in the selected organizations. Measuring level of Employee’s Performance Instrument/ Questionnaire used to determine employee performance after undergoing a T&D program consist of five responses on Linkert scale.
Correlation Analysis It is a statistical analysis used to determine the extent to which changes in value of an attribute are associated with changes r in is a other attributes. of the The correlation relationship coefficient measure linear between two attributes or columns of data. Regression Analysis It is a statistical technique used to find relationships between values. The correlation . variable analyzing more independent Independent variables in this study are training and development programs and dependent variable is performance of employees. variables for the purpose of predicting future In other words by it predicts one the or behavior of a dependent variables. be It is applied the population normally distributed but the sample sizes are small enough that the statistic on which inference is based is not normally distributed because it relies on an uncertain estimate of standard deviation rather than on a precisely known value.28 T distribution when if the null-hypothesis is assumed is to true.
indicates attribute. The value of r can range from -1 to +1 and is independent of the units of measurement. the other attribute tends to show a decrease. Ha: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. Data analytical techniques used We applied the test of mean equality on the basis of grouping under age. A value of r near 0 indicates little correlation between attributes. indicates a a A likely increase in the value of the second coefficient of less is.29 coefficient is also known as the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. a value near +1 or -1 indicates a high level of correlation. That attribute shows an increase in value. Hypotheses Hoa: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. . than when 0 one correlation negative correlation. marital status and gender. When two attributes an increase have in a the positive value of correlation one attribute coefficient.
Hf: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. Hof: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. Hoc: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees.30 Hob: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. . Hc: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees. Hd: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. Hod: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. Hb: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. Hoe: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees. He: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees.
age and marital status to test the hypotheses. . Age based results Age group was divided into two categories. employees who are above 30 years of age whereas in junior group.31 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS The test of mean equality was applied on the basis of grouping under the headings of gender. Above 30 results In this group we will test the following hypotheses: H0a: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. age below 30 years was taken. Ha: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. in senior group.
Table 4.1.32 Table 4. . The value of beta i.705(**) . B Error 1. It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the employees who are above the age of 30 years. 30 .1. which means that an increase in training and .129 Standardized Coefficients Beta 2. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.000 TD .679 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4. Table 4.259 . N 30 30 Correlation is significant at the 0.1.1 Regression Coefficients(a) Model 1 a (Constant) TD Unstandardized Coefficients Std.e.1 shows that H0a is rejected.000 30 1 .1.01 level (2-tailed).000 t Sig.705 shows a high level of significance.505 .705(**) .2 shows that both the variables are positively correlated. So our results justify the theoretical background.739 .383 . (2-tailed) ** Performance 1 .011 . In simple words it means that there is a considerable positive impact of training and development programs on the performance of senior employees.2 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.705 5. 0.
.000 . 0.3 shows that H0b is rejected.384 2.3 Regression Coefficients(a) Model 1 a (Constant) TD Unstandardized Coefficients Std.e. Following hypotheses are formulated for employees who are below the age of 30 years.241 . B Error 3.33 development programs will result in a proportionate increase in the performance of senior employees. Below 30 results In this group we will test the following hypotheses: Hob: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. Table 4. Hb: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. The value of beta i.362 .940 . .236 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4. It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of employees who are below the age of 30 years.566 .1.092 Standardized Coefficients Beta 8.384 shows a high level of significance but surprisingly it is lower than that of senior employees.1.014 t Sig.
The test of mean equality was applied to test the following hypotheses. 40 . Table 4. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.34 Table 4.014 TD .05 level (2-tailed).1. 40 40 Correlation is significant at the 0.4 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Performance 1 .384(*) . Marital status based results This group was divided into two categories which are married and unmarried employees. which means that an increase in the training and development programs will result in a proportionate increase in the performance of senior employees.384(*) . Married results The following hypotheses are formulated in this group of employees: .1.4 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.014 40 1 .
2 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig. Table 4. Hc: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees.2.003 TD . (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.003 t Sig. 38 .463(**) .e.1 Regression Coefficients (a) Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Table 4.848 . . 38 38 Correlation is significant at the 0.463 shows a moderate level of significance. (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 .463(**) . It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the employees who are married. B Error 1 (Constant) 2.01 level (2-tailed).35 Hoc: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees.398 TD . The value of beta i.138 .003 38 1 .463 7.1 shows that H0c is rejected. 0.320 .2. In simple words it means that there is a relatively smaller impact of training and development programs on the performance of married employees.000 .150 3. Table 4.2.102 a Dependent Variable: Performance Model Standardized Coefficients Beta .
which means that an increase in T&D programs will enhance the performance of married employees. Hd: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees.582 .36 Table 4.576 4. B Error 1 (Constant) 1.838 .2 shows that both the variables are positively correlated. .001 .130 a Dependent Variable: Performance Model Standardized Coefficients Beta . which means that a change in one variable will be accounted by an appropriate change in other variable.3 Regression Coefficients(a) Unstandardized Coefficients Std.514 TD . Single results The following hypotheses are tested by applying the test of mean equality for group of unmarried employees: Hod: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees.632 3.2. Table 4.2.467 .000 t Sig.
(2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig. Table 4.2.e.01 level (2-tailed). 32 32 Correlation is significant at the 0. .2. (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 . The value of beta i. Table 4. 0.3 shows that H0 is rejected.37 Table 4.000 TD .4 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.4 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.632 shows a very high level of significance. 32 .632(**) . which means that an increase in the training and development programs will result in an increase in the performance of unmarried employees.2. It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the unmarried employees. In simple words it means that there is a greater impact of training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees.000 32 1 .632(**) .
588 .449 . It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the female employees.002 Model 1 a (Constant) TD Unstandardized Coefficients Std. The value of beta i.391 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4.e.515 shows a high level of significance.3. B Error 2.515 3. He: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees. In simple words it means that the training .113 t Sig.3.464 . 0.1 shows that H0e is not rejected.1 Regression Coefficients(a) Standardize d Coefficient s Beta 5. .000 . Female results Hypotheses formulated in this group are stated as under: Hoe: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees. Table 4.580 .38 Gender based results Gender base group was divided into two groups which are male and female employees.
.01 level (2-tailed). Hf: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. which means that an increase in the training and development programs will result in an increase in the performance of female employees.515(**) . (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig. Table 4. 35 35 Correlation is significant at the 0.39 and development programs will enhance the performance of female employees considerably.3.3. Hof: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees.002 35 1 .2 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.2 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.002 TD . Table 4.515(**) . 35 . (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 . Males results Following are the hypotheses formed to figure out the impact of T&D programs on the performance of male employees in different organizations.
520 3. The value of beta i.520(**) . It means that the training and development programs do have a positive impact on the performance of the male employees.520 shows a high level of significance. . 35 .472 .3 shows that H0f is not rejected.520(**) . (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 .001 t Sig.4 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.001 35 1 .40 Table 4.001 TD .498 .3.3. 35 35 Correlation is significant at the 0. 0.440 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4.051 . TD . B Error 2.386 .3 Regression Coefficients (a) Model 1 a (Constant) Unstandardized Coefficients Std. In simple words it means that the training and development programs considerably increase the performance of male employees.000 .01 level (2-tailed). (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.3.e. Table 4.126 Standardized Coefficients Beta 5.
41 Table 4. which means that the greater the training and development programs provided to male employees.4 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.3. greater will be their performance. .
According to our age based results training and development programs affect the performance of senior as well as junior employees positively. 2. But the value of beta shows that it has a greater impact on the performance of male employee’s group.42 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusion 1. . The possible reason for this can be that the senior employees have more experience and knowledge about their job and the internal and external environment. It shows that the productivity of senior employees is almost twice as compared to juniors after the same opportunities of training and development offered. According to our gender based results training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of both the male and female employees. But the value of beta shows a huge difference in the results of senior and junior employees. This can be due to the reason that mostly female employees bear additional responsibilities from their families.
effectiveness upgrading their . The the and finding trainee training of providing behaviors opportunity to their changing their and contributes skills. By looking at the values of beta for both the groups it is evident that the impact of training and development on the performance of unmarried employees is relatively greater. The reason for greater impact in case of unmarried employees can be that they are more ambitious and energetic and after getting married some additional responsibilities rest on one’s shoulders which directly or indirectly affect their attitude. The finding of the study shows that training and development boost the moral of employees upgrade skills. Results based on marital status again show that the training and development has a positive impact on the performance of both married and unmarried employees.43 3. behavior and performance. improve their performance and gives them the opportunity to get lucrative shows the jobs that and the excel in their aimed jobs at also.
training and development has a positive impact on the performance of employees of different organizations. 3. lateness. enhance the use of tools and machine. absenteeism and other overhead costs etc. knowledge. turnover. 4. 2. skills. There should be frequent job rotation so that banks and other organizations get aware of the skills and interests of the employees and cater the training and development programs accordingly. Employees should be encouraged to go for in-service training. thus. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. There should not be a communication gap between junior and inexperienced employees and their immediate bosses. so that . This will brighten up their ideas and will enable them to know more about the recent developments in their subject areas. Different organizations should always determine the training need that would be most suitable for the achievement of organizational goals.44 Training and development might not necessarily lead to job satisfaction productivity. of employees the but it leads of to increase improves improves quality work. understanding and attitude. reduce waste accident.
Companies should pay handsome salary to all employees so that junior and newly appointed employees get motivated and more dedicated to their work. This will help in increasing the impact of training and development programs on the performance of junior employees.45 they can communicate with each other and managers can get proper feedback from all employees to carry out the training and development activities. 6. 5. Organizations should help out female employees to have a balance between their responsibilities on the job and off the job so as to bring their performance equal to male employees. Different organizations should provide equal advancement to male and female employees. . experienced and opportunities inexperienced employees and junior and senior employees 7.
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Age: Years 4. Total number of years that you have been employed by Years Current Place? 6. Marital status  Married  Single 3. Designation : __________________ 5.50 APPENDIX A Questionnaire for Impact of Training and Development on Employees Performance Respondent profile: 1. Total working experience? Years . Gender  Male  Female 2.
o To know that needs of employees with respect to enhancing the knowledge and skill.51 Objectives: o To ensure that the effective training is provided to the employees. o To asses the training standards which are provided to the employees. o To analyze that whether the organization is providing incentives to trained employees or not. o To improve the training standards as per the employees requirements. “Your right clicks are appreciated and your little bit cooperation will help me to reach on the best solution” Keys: Strongly Disagree 1 Disagree 2 Indifference 3 Agree 4 Strongly Agree 5 . o To know about the support to training and development.
1 4. 1 6.52 1. 1 8. 1 3. 1 5. 2 3 4 5 2. 2 3 4 5 Leadership and decision making training is provided to the employees. 2 3 4 5 Trained employees are more efficient and effective as compare to untrained. 1 Employees are motivated towards training programs. Training programs are job oriented. 2 3 4 5 Organizational culture facilitates the Training and Development programs. 1 2 3 4 5 7. 2 3 4 5 Training is provided in accordance to the international standards. 1 2 3 4 5 . Trained employees get more incentives. 2 3 4 5 Working condition support the Training programs.
Training programs help you to stay up-to-date with new process or procedures related to your job. 1 2 3 4 5 . T&D plans and policies respond quickly and effectively to changing business needs.53 9. 1 2 3 4 5 11. 1 2 3 4 5 12. which I want to Pursue. Do you require further training for the motivation towards the improvement of the performance to help you to increase overall productivity of the organization? 1 2 3 4 5 10. Training and Development program will give me better idea of the career path. Trained employees understand the problems and get the solution quickly? 1 2 3 4 5 13.
Trained employees make less number of mistakes as compared to the untrained.54 14. 1 2 3 4 5 .
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