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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Concept of Training
The concept of training predates history; it is as old as man himself. The earliest man learnt to hunt and grow crops for his survival. One of the earliest types of training was on the job training (OJT), which is still in wide use today China began training of her workers through conceptual case studies in the 5th century BC. Confucius presented problems to his students and asked them to
contemplate possible solutions to those problems. The case study is still widely in practice even today, mostly in professional schools. It is an effective tool to encourage learners to think philosophically without about difficult to go and
personal experiences. As time went on, modern theories of psychology, training, and staff development were applied to training methods in order to keep staff skilled, knowledgeable, and motivated.
2 Definition: employees “Training basic is skills the process need, of to teaching perform new their
jobs” (Gary Dessler). Training is a learning experience which seeks a relatively improve permanent ability change to in the individual his job that will Every
organization needs to have well trained, experienced and adjusted Training employees can to perform the their of duties efficiently. knowledge,
attitudes, or behavior. It may mean changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work, or their interaction is more with their day coworkers oriented or and supervisor. focuses on
individual’s existing jobs and enhancement of abilities to perform well. Training should not focus on new employees only, but old employees in should to also keep be put through knowledge
Employees Development: “Future-oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of employees” (David Stephen), for example if an employee is promoted supervisor, his new job would require him to
3 ensure his subordinates do their duties well. This would require his grooming in advance. This is known as employees’ development, and every organization must plan/carry out employee’s development in order to keep it functioning efficiently.
Purpose of Training and Development
Reasons for emphasizing training and development of employees:
replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization.
competitive position and improves employees morale.
Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.
It has been experienced that companies can benefit a lot from training and developing of their workers. Some of the
4 advantages which an organization may enjoy from a well
trained staff are as under:
• • • •
Increased productivity. Reduced employee turnover. Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains. Decreased need for supervision.
There are two broad types of training programs in vogue—on job and off job training. On the job Training (OJT): On job training means having a person learn the job by actually doing it. Every employee from the boss to the lowest level staff gets on the job training, on joining a firm. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning. On the job training includes orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships,
internships, assistantships, and coaching. Off the job Training: In off the job training the workers after recruitment are properly trained and then allowed to perform their duties. This type of training includes
lectures, special study programs, films, discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instructions
5 and laboratory training. Most of these techniques can be used by organizations, although for some it may be too
costly. Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days.
Orientation training should emphasize the following topics:
• • •
The company's history and mission. The key members in the organization. The key members in the department, and how the
department helps fulfill the mission of the company.
Rules and regulations for employees. No matter what method is used, it is important that
employment. Cordial surroundings and cooperative coworkers encourage the new comers to feel at home and take interest in their job Lectures present training material verbally and are aimed to deliver a great deal of material to many people
simultaneously. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually.
Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. This is a good strategy because an employee would not feel disturbed when asked to do any other job. Likely problems and possible solutions are presented better for discussion. the senior skilled workers. than The saying is that there is no trainer experience exemplified with this type of training. related This type of of training that usually allow involves the several to groups skills apprentice practice in any particular trade within the organizational setup and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. and with. Job Rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so that he or she can get a good idea for the tasks that are associated with different jobs. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training. which is very good from training point of view. . With the help of plays and simulations trainees learn much quickly.6 Role Playing and Simulation is a training technique that attempts to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainees. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills.
they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace.7 Internships and Assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on the job training. Laboratory Training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel. the instructor need not be present. They allow material already learnt to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. Programmed learning computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common. and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. After the introductory period. It is usually conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. .
if a manager pairs up a relatively new employee with a more experienced employee to help the new employee learns about the job. however. is a much bigger.8 Is There A Difference Between Training & Development? If we want to maximize training and development results by linking them to performance management we need to understand the difference between training activites and development activities. that's employee development. that's really employee development. Training usually refers to some kind of organized (and finite it time) event -. For example. Or. employees may rotate job responsibilities to learn about the jobs of their colleagues and gain experience so they might . That's because it's important that we choose the right mechanism for addressing any needs we have.a seminar. It's often a group activity. If a manager coaches and employee in an ongoing way. but the word training is also used to refer to specific instruction done one on one. workshop that has a specific beginning data and end date. inclusive "thing". Employee development.
9 eventually have more promotion opportunities. job rotation. if the desire is provide an employee with a better understanding of how the department works. Operational Definition The study variables can be operationally defined as follows. job rotation might work very well. In other words employee development is a broader term that includes training as one. ongoing effort on the part of an employee and the organization for which he or she works to upgrade the . in the training of its members. Employees’ performance It is strategic investment. That's employee development. For example. Employee motivation is a joint. by an organization. If the goal is to improve the employee's ability to use a computer based accounting package direct training would be more appropriate than. let's say. The important point here is that different activities are better for the achievement of different results. and only one of its methods for encouraging employee learning.
to enhance the future performance of the organization itself. Whereas managerial employees’ development is any attempt to improve employees’ performance by imparting knowledge. or increasing skills. Training is used to focus mostly on teaching technical skills. skills and abilities.10 employee’s knowledge. How we can achieve the motivation and dedication of employees. Employees Motivation requires a balance between an individual’s career needs and goals and the organization’s need to get work done. Training and development programs Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. Coaching employees to help them determine what they need for to motivate them to perform well like training and development programs. is possible through providing them a specific training so that they can be refreshed from time to time and they set to work with motivational manner. The ultimate aim is of course. changing attitudes. . Employees are the assets of an organization and every organization makes progress and achieves its goals effectively due to the motivation and dedication of its employees.
For instance. organizations attention to evaluate training effectiveness. findings qualitative and gathered questionnaire observations. Telecom companies and schools that the training opportunities provided to the employees should be focused on providing such training which enables the professionals to put in their best efforts. It is also designed to evaluate effectiveness of training from of managerial data staff of different through on organizations interviews. It is very essential for enterprises like Five Star Hotels. Banks. aim of this research paper is to measure the impact of training general and development of program on the performance located of in employees different organizations Islamabad. if we make a cobbler learn the computer he will have to . Based these this study will also provide suggestions for improvement in training programs and will be a help for professionals to improve their performance to a great extent.11 Purpose of Research Although the bottom line for most training and development programs is an improvement in often overall devote The organizational little performance.
Chapter 4 consists of results and analysis. . Chapter 5 consists of conclusion on the basis of the analysis done in chapter 4 and recommendations to overcome the background problems. but the desired outcome will not be as if that training was provided to a professional who is already dealing or having any kind of interaction with computers.12 work harder. it shows from where and how data is collected and the type of methodology used for processing that data. We know that at enterprises like Five Star Hotels training programs are well organized but still the short comings in training should be eliminated. Chapter 3 consist of data and methodology. This will for sure help the employees enhance their professional and academic skills Rest of the study is organized as follows: Chapter 2 consists of literature review in which a detailed analysis of previous literature is conducted.
whom the shopkeepers themselves had to train. educators and attorneys. 1971). Employee training and development initiatives can transform organizations.13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The origin of HRD can be traced back to apprenticeship training programs in the eighteenth century. The apprenticeship training was not limited to the skilled workers only but it also covered the training of physicians. clothing and shoes etc. To meet growing demand for their products the owners had to employ additional non skilled workers. During that time small shops operated by skilled artisans produced virtually all household goods. resolve issues and align cultures to their mission and values. Employees training allow organizations to achieve management objectives. Even as late as 1920s a person apprenticing in a law office could practice law after passing a state supervised exam (Mintzberg. Specialized skill training to the employees not only increases safety and . such and furniture. For little or no wages these trainees or apprentices learned the craft working for years in the shops until they became proficient in their trade.
Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods. So. Increased efficiencies in processes. training industry analyst for Solomon Smith . Brandt Sakakeeny. why would an organization not welcome and seek out the value-added benefits resulting from training? Training is not always the answer to performance problems. resulting in financial gain. Training that is appropriate to the needs of an organization can add great value. • • Increased innovation in strategies and products.14 productivity but it also leads to higher job satisfaction which highly improves performance of the organization. Training and development leads to: • • • Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees. • • Reduced employee turnover. Enhanced company image which increase demand for its products. Increased employee motivation. This is only a partial listing of the many benefits that result from training.
. “many firms have concluded that it makes more sense to invest in worker training than to build up wage scales in a zero sum competition for the existing limited pool of well qualified workers. 1999). In 1995 Alan greens. Many organizations are including employee education (training and development) as an important and effective part of their organizational strategy. This was followed in descending order by recruitment and selection. Chairman of the US federal reserve board. Training is indeed a waste of money when the desired behavior does not occur. A 2000 survey of human resource managers in large organizations ranked training and development as the most important functional area these managers had to deal with. productivity and quality. stated that. non-training interventions are necessary (Gupta 1999).15 Barney believes that training can be a great investment and training can be a waste of money (Rosner. In many cases. It has been estimated that education and training programs accounted for as much as 26 percent of the increase in US production capacity between 1929 and 1982. Gupta acknowledges that not all performance problems can be addressed by training.
In hotel industry. younger employees. Training and education opens the door. Flatter older employees a bit regarding the amount of knowledge and know-how they’ve acquired throughout the years in the company and ask for their help in training the newer. Focus on the positive points. incentives and opportunities for . What you can do is provide the opportunities.16 succession planning. acknowledge employees qualities and qualifications and give them the understanding that you need their help and knowhow to run the operation effectively (Trevor. but one must enter by oneself. 2002). Why don’t you have a chitchat with each one and see what they really want to do in their lives (Maxey. 1955). employees’ turnover is high. Developers say a strong training program. Gerhart & Boudreau 1997). because of tight time schedule and tough duties. Careful selection of workers willing/eager to learn new things is a prerequisite of all T&D efforts. If employees are willing they will themselves come up and learn. You can’t instill a desire in another person to learn or to strive to do better. employees’ job satisfaction. globalization and diversity (Allan Greenspan.
a company can be successful in maintaining a solid work force with proper training and motivation. Organizations that give special training to their employees and there are ample opportunities for promotions and good monetary benefits which encourage the employees to exert themselves and take initiatives to rise to the challenges which gives guaranteed returns to the company. The author says that his philosophy in terms of attracting employees is having positive results and people from outside are coming in flocks. seminars. Despite the highly competitive nature of timeshare. (Milanese. A wide selection of leadership. It’s essential to devote resources for ongoing training. development of leadership skills and creating opportunities for advancement for candidates within an organization. Introduce such training programs which encourage new hires to perform well and succeed. management training and technical courses are available to employees. 2003). It is a crucial investment and it is essential to the company (Banson.17 internal growth are powerful tools that foster an environment that will attract and retain talented employees. . We are developing future managers from within our labor force. It is our goal to be the employer of choice.
After some of the difficulties in conducting such research in this area are considered. The employees want transfer of knowledge in shortest possible time to derive benefits from it. 2001). Salespeople want to know exactly what they can learn in a short time. Buchananm (2008) in this paper reviews studies published between 1964 and May 1968 on laboratory training in human relations and its use in attempts to enhance the effectiveness of organizations. giving them the tools to be successful. 2001)In Microsoft. giving salespeople clarity within their roles.18 2003)They approach salespeople with an attitude that lets them know training will take an hour of their time to compensate them with skills and information. findings are examined as they relate to five issues in the design and the application of laboratory training. (Dragon and Chuang. the approach that I took wasn’t to create a training group to ensure that we train these people to be successful. because driving readiness is about being ready to sell in the enterprise…… It’s about. and ensuring that they can do the jobs set out of them (Schuler. I purposely don’t use the word training. These findings are also compared with findings . preferring to use the word readiness to quantify is better.
They realize that well- . Comparing the performance of their companies with that of 1999. Studies of the influence of trainees’ characteristics on the training effectiveness have focused on the level of ability necessary to learn program content.19 from a similar review reported by the author four years ago. majority of respondents asserted that training also enhances guest and customers satisfaction. In Chart’s (2000) Exploratory Benchmark Survey. Employees are of the opinion that training in career development is important for their professional success. Motivational and environmental influences of training effectiveness have received little attention. 56% of companies increased their training budgets last year or planned to increase it this year a finding that is not surprising given the connection between training and retention. In a survey. 70% of respondents said training had a positive impact on their company’s ability to improve occupancy and overall profitability. 75% confirmed that training increased profits and occupancy rates. This analysis integrates important motivational and situational factors from organizational behavior theory and research into a model which describes how trainees’ attributes and attitudes may influence the effectiveness of training (Noe. 1986).
2004). Fifth. the results of this study suggest recommendations for developing a comprehensive plan (model) for the creation of effective employee training and development program in Ghana. their performance enhancement and performance recovery initiatives. Second. to identify selected managerial techniques that contributes to lost productivity and morale. This study was conducted by engaging in comprehensive review and critique of the existing literature on training and development models (Manu. Fourth. Most banks see education and training as a key part of their employment equity initiatives. and their strategic human resources provision. Manu (2004) conducted a study on training and development of firms in Ghana. to selectively assess what business skills are most essential for career success. . 2001). to describe selected methods of needs assessment for training and development programs for employers and employees. Third.20 trained employees are happier with their jobs and more likely to stay (Berta. The purpose of the study was to describe selected successful models of training and development as they may apply to firms.
The findings obtained are discussed and evaluated . Studies focusing specifically on the role of managers in the process have. The study involves a group of sales representatives participating in the Basic Sales Training Program for Sales Representatives and their supervisors in the Coca-Cola Bottlers of Turkey. Using experimental and control groups. skill and attitude to be acquired through a training programmed into the workplace. effectiveness and satisfaction. The process of the transfer of training has a great impact on job productivity. The general aim of this study is to determine the impact of managers' reinforcement on participants' job attitude.21 There are following five key priority areas: Using the workplace skills plans • • • • • Information technology-related skills development. the study are based on Kirkpatrick's four–stage evaluation model. Management and leadership skills development Customer interface-related skills development Specialist financial skill development Back-office processes and support skills development. productivity. been limited in number. effectiveness and satisfaction in the process of the transfer of knowledge. however.
Organizations which are constantly creating new knowledge. as well as the swiftness and ways of knowledge gaining of that capital. These are organizations which realize that learning and new knowledge are becoming the key of success. present day competition is based on knowledge possessing and efficient knowledge management. (Vemic.22 with respect to the roles of managers in the transfer of training (Gumuseli & Ergin. etc. Knowledge is becoming basic capital and the trigger of development. energy. information. Modern organizations therefore use their resources (money. and that education is crucial for abundance. Previously built on foundations of possessing specific resources and low costs. time.) for permanent training and advancement of their employees. The global competition and swiftness of changes emphasize the importance of human capital within organizations. extending it through the entire organization and implementing it quickly inside the new technologies. 2002). In the economy where uncertainty is the only certainty. knowledge is becoming a reliable source of sustained competitive advantage. develop good products and excellent services. 2007) . These activities determine the company as a learning organization with constant innovation being its sole business.
The findings of the study revealed that training and development has a positive impact on the performance of home economic teachers.23 Ojo and Olaniyan (2008) examined the impact of training and development programs on the performance of home economics teachers in Nigeria. We have followed the methodology of Ojo et al and made it as our base thesis. On the basis of literature review done above we intend to test the following hypotheses • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. five star hotels and telecom companies operating in Pakistani market. We will apply this methodology to different organizations like banks. . • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees. • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees.
• There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees.24 • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. • There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. .
The main objective is to answer this important question or in 70 whether the performance after of the and employees’ development will increases programs decreases an training The in organization. The study is based upon the primary data. First of all we identified the objective behind this research. designations and gender. After that it would be recommended how training and development programs affect the performance of employees at work place. Questionnaire will be consisted of 14 questions (Appendix A). using secondary mainly. researcher different distribute of questionnaires to T&D know the organizations employees Islamabad different response of towards programs. sources primary like data internet some Whereas source i-e. Research instrument Data was also and collected books.25 CHAPTER 3 DATA AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The major objective of this research is to know the impact of training and development programs in different age groups. Questionnaire . Then we collected data with the help of questionnaire to identify issues relevant to the research. questionnaire was used to collect data from existing employees of selected organizations.
Population The population of the study consists of existing employees.telecom companies and schools in Islamabad. IMCG F-10/2. senior managers of different banks.P. Bahria college.C Zong telecom. Interview of a relationship manager will be taken to verify the results. 5 star hotels. National bank of Pakistan. Bank Alfalah Limited. Thus the respondents of the study have been drawn from the population of banks. City Bank. Marriot hotel. the remaining 7 questions are to investigate the effect of that training and development on the performance of the employees. Some data has been collected through interviews with the existing employees.g. Sample design Respondents of the Study were the existing bank employees of different banks of Islamabad e. companies and schools in Islamabad. 7 questions are related to the training and development programs that are carried out in different organizations.26 consisting of 7+7 questions is distributed (questionnaire is given in appendices). . Total number of 70 questionnaires was distributed in these organizations.
Measuring level of Employee’s Performance Instrument/ Questionnaire used to determine employee performance after undergoing a T&D program consist of five responses on Linkert scale.27 Sample size As population size is 70. Type of study The study is of descriptive nature and it is carried out to find the reasons how and in which way T&D programs affect the performance of an organization employee. It is estimated that there would be approximately 70 respondents in the selected organizations. Test used in the study In this research t-test for equality of means is used as a statistical hypothesis test.A t-test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic has a student’s . 1= strongly agree 2= agree 3= neither agreed nor disagree/ Neutral 4= disagree 5= strongly disagree Negative questions were translated into positive questions so that the concept flows in the same direction.
be It is applied the population normally distributed but the sample sizes are small enough that the statistic on which inference is based is not normally distributed because it relies on an uncertain estimate of standard deviation rather than on a precisely known value. variable analyzing more independent Independent variables in this study are training and development programs and dependent variable is performance of employees. variables for the purpose of predicting future In other words by it predicts one the or behavior of a dependent variables. Correlation Analysis It is a statistical analysis used to determine the extent to which changes in value of an attribute are associated with changes r in is a other attributes. The correlation . of the The correlation relationship coefficient measure linear between two attributes or columns of data.28 T distribution when if the null-hypothesis is assumed is to true. Regression Analysis It is a statistical technique used to find relationships between values.
The value of r can range from -1 to +1 and is independent of the units of measurement. Hypotheses Hoa: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees.29 coefficient is also known as the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Data analytical techniques used We applied the test of mean equality on the basis of grouping under age. indicates a a A likely increase in the value of the second coefficient of less is. marital status and gender. . A value of r near 0 indicates little correlation between attributes. indicates attribute. a value near +1 or -1 indicates a high level of correlation. That attribute shows an increase in value. the other attribute tends to show a decrease. than when 0 one correlation negative correlation. Ha: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. When two attributes an increase have in a the positive value of correlation one attribute coefficient.
Hod: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. . Hb: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees.30 Hob: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. Hd: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees. Hf: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. He: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees. Hoe: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees. Hoc: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees. Hof: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. Hc: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees.
Above 30 results In this group we will test the following hypotheses: H0a: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. in senior group. Ha: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of senior employees. . employees who are above 30 years of age whereas in junior group. Age based results Age group was divided into two categories. age below 30 years was taken. age and marital status to test the hypotheses.31 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS The test of mean equality was applied on the basis of grouping under the headings of gender.
.000 TD .e.1 Regression Coefficients(a) Model 1 a (Constant) TD Unstandardized Coefficients Std. So our results justify the theoretical background.000 t Sig. which means that an increase in training and . Table 4.2 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig. B Error 1.705(**) . In simple words it means that there is a considerable positive impact of training and development programs on the performance of senior employees.000 30 1 .505 .01 level (2-tailed).1. (2-tailed) ** Performance 1 . It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the employees who are above the age of 30 years. Table 4.705 5. N 30 30 Correlation is significant at the 0. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.2 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.259 .705 shows a high level of significance.1.679 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4.1.739 .011 . The value of beta i. 30 .129 Standardized Coefficients Beta 2. 0.1.383 .32 Table 4.705(**) .1 shows that H0a is rejected.
B Error 3. .000 . It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of employees who are below the age of 30 years.362 .241 . The value of beta i.236 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4. Following hypotheses are formulated for employees who are below the age of 30 years.3 shows that H0b is rejected.014 t Sig.566 .092 Standardized Coefficients Beta 8.3 Regression Coefficients(a) Model 1 a (Constant) TD Unstandardized Coefficients Std.384 2. Hb: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees.940 . 0.e. . Below 30 results In this group we will test the following hypotheses: Hob: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of junior employees.1.384 shows a high level of significance but surprisingly it is lower than that of senior employees. Table 4.33 development programs will result in a proportionate increase in the performance of senior employees.1.
1.384(*) .014 40 1 . (2-tailed) N Performance 1 .1. 40 40 Correlation is significant at the 0.4 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.4 shows that both the variables are positively correlated. Marital status based results This group was divided into two categories which are married and unmarried employees. The test of mean equality was applied to test the following hypotheses. Table 4.384(*) . which means that an increase in the training and development programs will result in a proportionate increase in the performance of senior employees. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.014 TD .05 level (2-tailed). Married results The following hypotheses are formulated in this group of employees: .34 Table 4. 40 .
Table 4. 38 38 Correlation is significant at the 0.848 .003 TD . 0. .463 shows a moderate level of significance. (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 .2.003 38 1 . Table 4. 38 .35 Hoc: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees. Table 4.463(**) .1 shows that H0c is rejected.2.463 7. It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the employees who are married. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.463(**) . In simple words it means that there is a relatively smaller impact of training and development programs on the performance of married employees. The value of beta i.398 TD . B Error 1 (Constant) 2.01 level (2-tailed).e.000 .150 3.320 .2 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.138 .102 a Dependent Variable: Performance Model Standardized Coefficients Beta . Hc: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of married employees.2.1 Regression Coefficients (a) Unstandardized Coefficients Std.003 t Sig.
514 TD . which means that an increase in T&D programs will enhance the performance of married employees. Hd: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees.2.000 t Sig. Single results The following hypotheses are tested by applying the test of mean equality for group of unmarried employees: Hod: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees.632 3. .576 4. Table 4.3 Regression Coefficients(a) Unstandardized Coefficients Std.001 . B Error 1 (Constant) 1.2.130 a Dependent Variable: Performance Model Standardized Coefficients Beta .467 .582 .36 Table 4.838 .2 shows that both the variables are positively correlated. which means that a change in one variable will be accounted by an appropriate change in other variable.
It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the unmarried employees.01 level (2-tailed).37 Table 4. (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 .e. The value of beta i.632(**) . (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.000 32 1 .4 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig. Table 4. Table 4.3 shows that H0 is rejected.632 shows a very high level of significance.4 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.2. In simple words it means that there is a greater impact of training and development programs on the performance of unmarried employees.000 TD . which means that an increase in the training and development programs will result in an increase in the performance of unmarried employees.632(**) .2.2. 32 . . 0. 32 32 Correlation is significant at the 0.
449 . Table 4.113 t Sig.1 shows that H0e is not rejected. The value of beta i.3. Female results Hypotheses formulated in this group are stated as under: Hoe: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees.e. It means that the training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of the female employees.515 3.002 Model 1 a (Constant) TD Unstandardized Coefficients Std. He: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of female employees.464 . .588 .000 . B Error 2.391 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4.515 shows a high level of significance. In simple words it means that the training . 0.580 .3.1 Regression Coefficients(a) Standardize d Coefficient s Beta 5.38 Gender based results Gender base group was divided into two groups which are male and female employees.
(2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 .515(**) .002 35 1 . . Males results Following are the hypotheses formed to figure out the impact of T&D programs on the performance of male employees in different organizations.515(**) .2 shows that both the variables are positively correlated.39 and development programs will enhance the performance of female employees considerably.3. 35 35 Correlation is significant at the 0. Hof: There is no impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees.01 level (2-tailed).2 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.3. (2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig. Hf: There is a positive impact of Training and development programs on the performance of male employees. Table 4. which means that an increase in the training and development programs will result in an increase in the performance of female employees. 35 . Table 4.002 TD .
(2-tailed) N TD Pearson Correlation Sig.3.001 t Sig.000 .440 Dependent Variable: Performance Table 4.3 shows that H0f is not rejected.3. (2-tailed) N ** Performance 1 . B Error 2.520 3. 35 .051 . .3.520(**) . It means that the training and development programs do have a positive impact on the performance of the male employees. In simple words it means that the training and development programs considerably increase the performance of male employees.520(**) .001 35 1 .4 Correlations Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.001 TD . Table 4.520 shows a high level of significance.e.126 Standardized Coefficients Beta 5. The value of beta i.498 .472 .01 level (2-tailed).40 Table 4.3 Regression Coefficients (a) Model 1 a (Constant) Unstandardized Coefficients Std.386 . 35 35 Correlation is significant at the 0. TD . 0.
greater will be their performance. .41 Table 4.4 shows that both the variables are positively correlated. which means that the greater the training and development programs provided to male employees.3.
According to our age based results training and development programs affect the performance of senior as well as junior employees positively. According to our gender based results training and development programs have a positive impact on the performance of both the male and female employees. The possible reason for this can be that the senior employees have more experience and knowledge about their job and the internal and external environment. . But the value of beta shows that it has a greater impact on the performance of male employee’s group. It shows that the productivity of senior employees is almost twice as compared to juniors after the same opportunities of training and development offered. This can be due to the reason that mostly female employees bear additional responsibilities from their families. 2. But the value of beta shows a huge difference in the results of senior and junior employees.42 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusion 1.
The reason for greater impact in case of unmarried employees can be that they are more ambitious and energetic and after getting married some additional responsibilities rest on one’s shoulders which directly or indirectly affect their attitude.43 3. effectiveness upgrading their . By looking at the values of beta for both the groups it is evident that the impact of training and development on the performance of unmarried employees is relatively greater. The finding of the study shows that training and development boost the moral of employees upgrade skills. Results based on marital status again show that the training and development has a positive impact on the performance of both married and unmarried employees. The the and finding trainee training of providing behaviors opportunity to their changing their and contributes skills. improve their performance and gives them the opportunity to get lucrative shows the jobs that and the excel in their aimed jobs at also. behavior and performance.
understanding and attitude. 2. knowledge. training and development has a positive impact on the performance of employees of different organizations. This will brighten up their ideas and will enable them to know more about the recent developments in their subject areas. thus. 4. of employees the but it leads of to increase improves improves quality work. Different organizations should always determine the training need that would be most suitable for the achievement of organizational goals. 3. skills. There should be frequent job rotation so that banks and other organizations get aware of the skills and interests of the employees and cater the training and development programs accordingly. lateness. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. absenteeism and other overhead costs etc. so that . reduce waste accident. enhance the use of tools and machine. There should not be a communication gap between junior and inexperienced employees and their immediate bosses. turnover.44 Training and development might not necessarily lead to job satisfaction productivity. Employees should be encouraged to go for in-service training.
6. experienced and opportunities inexperienced employees and junior and senior employees 7. Organizations should help out female employees to have a balance between their responsibilities on the job and off the job so as to bring their performance equal to male employees. Companies should pay handsome salary to all employees so that junior and newly appointed employees get motivated and more dedicated to their work.45 they can communicate with each other and managers can get proper feedback from all employees to carry out the training and development activities. This will help in increasing the impact of training and development programs on the performance of junior employees. 5. . Different organizations should provide equal advancement to male and female employees.
466-480. Berta Dina.46 References Banson George. Chuang Tsai-Hua (2004): “The impact of leadership styles on job stress and turnover intention. Taiwan City. . pp. 2008.604624 Buchanan Paul C. Taiwan ROC. Occupational stress: A case study of the New Zeland reserve bank”..466-480 Dragon Hsien-Che. 14(3).. pp. Buchanan Paul C. pp. Rd. Issues for Policy: SME’s. ChungShan. 14(3). “Laboratory Training and Organization Development” Journal of Administrative Science Quarterly. 2008. N. 2001. Other Constituencies. and the Contested Definitions” of Human Resource Development. “Laboratory Training and organization development” journal of administrative science quarterly.Taiwan Insurance Industry as an example” Tatung University. “Dual perceptions of HRD. 2003. 5(75).
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Gender  Male  Female 2. Age: Years 4.50 APPENDIX A Questionnaire for Impact of Training and Development on Employees Performance Respondent profile: 1. Marital status  Married  Single 3. Designation : __________________ 5. Total working experience? Years . Total number of years that you have been employed by Years Current Place? 6.
o To know about the support to training and development. o To analyze that whether the organization is providing incentives to trained employees or not. “Your right clicks are appreciated and your little bit cooperation will help me to reach on the best solution” Keys: Strongly Disagree 1 Disagree 2 Indifference 3 Agree 4 Strongly Agree 5 . o To know that needs of employees with respect to enhancing the knowledge and skill. o To asses the training standards which are provided to the employees.51 Objectives: o To ensure that the effective training is provided to the employees. o To improve the training standards as per the employees requirements.
2 3 4 5 Working condition support the Training programs. Training programs are job oriented. 1 2 3 4 5 7. 2 3 4 5 Trained employees are more efficient and effective as compare to untrained. Trained employees get more incentives. 1 Employees are motivated towards training programs. 1 5. 2 3 4 5 2. 1 2 3 4 5 . 1 8. 2 3 4 5 Leadership and decision making training is provided to the employees. 2 3 4 5 Training is provided in accordance to the international standards.52 1. 1 3. 1 4. 2 3 4 5 Organizational culture facilitates the Training and Development programs. 1 6.
1 2 3 4 5 11. 1 2 3 4 5 12. Trained employees understand the problems and get the solution quickly? 1 2 3 4 5 13. Do you require further training for the motivation towards the improvement of the performance to help you to increase overall productivity of the organization? 1 2 3 4 5 10. which I want to Pursue. 1 2 3 4 5 . Training programs help you to stay up-to-date with new process or procedures related to your job. T&D plans and policies respond quickly and effectively to changing business needs. Training and Development program will give me better idea of the career path.53 9.
1 2 3 4 5 .54 14. Trained employees make less number of mistakes as compared to the untrained.
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