RECTANGULAR NOTCH

OBJECTIVE To calibrate the given rectangular notch and to plot the following characteristic curves 1 Qa Vs H 2 Cd Vs H 3 Log(Qa) Vs log H THEORY In open channel flows, weirs are commonly used to either regulate or to measure the volumetric flow rate. A rectangular notch consists of a thin metallic plate placed across a channel so that water flows over it with a free surface. The rectangular notch is the most commonly used thin plate weir. The flow pattern over a notch or weir is complex and there is no analytical solution to the relationship between discharge and head so that a semi-empirical approach has to be used. The coefficient of discharge Cd is defined as the ratio of actual discharge obtained experimentally to the theoretical discharge. i.e, Cd = Qac/Qth Calibration is the validation of specific measurement techniques and equipment. It is the comparison between measurements of known magnitude made with one device and another measurement made in an as similar way as possible with a second device. In order to use any device for measurement it is necessary to empirically calibrate them. That is, here in this case pass a known discharge through the notch and note the reading in order to provide a standard for measuring other quantities in a different location. Provided, the standard mechanics of construction are followed and no further calibration is required for a similar second device with same geometry. The calibration equation is stated as, Qac = K x hn Where, h is the head above crest, K and n are constants depending on the geometry of the notch.

Taking logarithm on both sides we get, log Qa = log K + n log h which is the equation of a straight line, where log k is the y intercept and n is its slope. The graph log Qac Vs. log h is to be plotted to find k and n. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The given notch fitted on an open channel of the experiment setup, pointer gauge to measure the water level over the crest of the notch and measuring tank. Using the stop watch and measuring tank the actual discharge is calculated. PROCEDURE 1. Note the sill level (initial water level) using the pointer gauge when there is no discharge. 2.The inlet valve is gradually opened and water is allowed to flow through the open channel. Allow the flow to become steady and uniform. 3. Under steady flow condition, adjust the pointer gauge to touch the new water level and note down the reading. 4. Note the time taken for a predetermined rise in level of water in the collecting tank. 5. Repeat the above procedure for different flow rates by adjusting the inlet valve opening and tabulate the readings.

RESULT

INFERENCE

SAMPLE CALCULATION 1 Head (H) = sill level reading-final reading = h1 – h 2 = = m of water
Sill level reading (h1)= Final reading (h2) =

2 Actual Discharge (Qa) Qa = AR/t = = = m3/s
Cross sectional area of tank(A)= Rise in level(R)= Time for rise(t)=

3 Theoretical Discharge Qt = 2/3 B √(2g)x H3/2
Width of notch (B)= acceleration due to gravity(g)= Head(H)=

= = m3/s

4 Coefficient of discharge Cd = Qa/Qt =
Actual Discharge (Qa) =

Theoretical Discharge (Qt) =

5 From graph Slope n= log K =

K=

Cd =

E $

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