GPS Basics

Introduction to the system
Application overview

GPS Basics
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Title
GPS Basics
Doc Type BOOK
Doc Id GPS-X-02007
Author: Jean-MarieZogg
Date: 26/03/2002
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Copyright©2002,u-bloxag

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GPS Basics
• Introductiontothesystem
• Applicationoverview

u-blox ag
Zuercherstrasse68
CH-8800Thalwil
Switzerland

Phone: +4117227444
Fax: +4117227447

Internet:www.u-blox.com
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Preface by the author

Jean-MarieZogg


My Way
In1990,IwastravellingbytrainfromChurtoBrigintheSwisscantonofValais.Inordertopassthetimeduring
thejourney,Ihadbroughtafewtradejournalswithme.WhilstthumbingthroughanAmericanpublication,I
cameacrossaspecialistarticleaboutsatellitesthatdescribedanewpositioningandnavigationalsystem.Usinga
fewUSsatellites,thisparticularsystem,knownasaGlobalPositioningSystemorGPS,wasabletodeterminea
positionanywhereintheworldtowithinanaccuracyofabout100m(*).
Asakeensportsmanandmountaintrekker,Ihadendeduponmanyanoccasioninprecarioussituationsdueto
alackoflocalknowledgeandIwasthereforefascinatedbytheprospectofbeingabletodeterminemyposition
infogoratnightbyusingarevolutionaryprocessinvolvingaGPSreceiver.AfterreadingthearticleIwassmitten
bytheGPSbug.
IthenbegantodelvedeeperintotheGlobalPositioningSystem.Iarousedalotofenthusiasmamongststudents
atmyuniversityforthisparticularuseofGPS,andasaresult,producedvariousitemsofcourseworkaswellas
degreepapersonthesubject.FeelingthatIwasatrueGPSexpert,Iconsideredmyselfqualifiedtospreadthe
‘navigationmessage’andcompiledspecialistarticlesaboutGPSforvariousmagazinesandnewspapers.Asmy
specialistknowledgegrew,sodidmyenthusiasmforthesystemandthedegreetowhichIbecamehookedon
thesubject.

Why read this book?
Basically, a GPS receiver determines just four variables: longitude, latitude, height and time. Additional
information(e.g.speed,directionetc.)canbederivedfromthesefourcomponents.Anappreciationoftheway
in which the GPS system functions is necessary, in order to develop new, fascinating applications. If one is
familiar with the technical background to the GPS system, it then becomes possible to develop and use new
positioningandnavigationalequipment.Thisbookalsodescribesthelimitationsofthesystem,sothatpeopledo
notexpecttoomuchfromit.
Beforeyoudecidetoembarkonthistext,IwouldliketowarnyouthatthereisnoknowncurefortheGPSbug
andthatyouproceedatyourownperil!

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How did this book come about?
Two years ago, I decided to reduce the amount of time I spent lecturing at the university, in order to take
another look at industry. My aim was to work for a company professionally involved with GPS and u-blox ag
received me with open arms. The company wanted me to produce a brochure that they could give to their
customers.Thispresentsynopsisisthereforetheresultofearlierarticlesandnewlycompiledchapters.

A heartfelt wish
IwishyoueverysuccesswithyourworkwithintheextensiveGPScommunityandtrustthatyouwillsuccessfully
navigateyourwaythroughthisfascinatingtechnicalfield.Enjoyyourread!

Jean-MarieZogg
October2001

(*):thatwasin1990,positionaldataisnowaccuratetowithinabout10m!

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Table of contents

1 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................9
2 GPS made simple........................................................................................................11
2.1 Theprincipleofmeasuringsignaltransittime ..................................................................................11
2.1.1 GeneratingGPSsignaltransittime ...........................................................................................12
2.1.2 Determiningapositiononaplane............................................................................................13
2.1.3 Theeffectandcorrectionoftimeerror .....................................................................................14
2.1.4 Determiningapositionin3-Dspace.........................................................................................15
3 GPS, THE TECHNOLOGY.............................................................................................16
3.1 Descriptionoftheentiresystem......................................................................................................16
3.2 Spacesegment...............................................................................................................................17
3.2.1 Satellitemovement..................................................................................................................17
3.2.2 TheGPSsatellites ....................................................................................................................19
3.2.3 Generatingthesatellitesignal ..................................................................................................20
3.3 Controlsegment ............................................................................................................................23
3.4 Usersegment.................................................................................................................................23
4 THE GPS NAVIGATION MESSAGE..............................................................................25
4.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................25
4.2 Structureofthenavigationmessage................................................................................................26
4.2.1 Informationcontainedinthesubframes ...................................................................................26
4.2.2 TLMandHOW........................................................................................................................27
4.2.3 Subdivisionofthe25pages .....................................................................................................27
4.2.4 Comparisonbetweenephemerisandalmanacdata...................................................................28
5 Calculating position ...................................................................................................29
5.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................29
5.2 Calculatingaposition.....................................................................................................................29
5.2.1 Theprincipleofmeasuringsignaltransittime(evaluationofpseudo-range) ................................29
5.2.2 Linearisationoftheequation....................................................................................................32
5.2.3 Solvingtheequation................................................................................................................33
5.2.4 Summary ................................................................................................................................34
5.2.5 Errorconsiderationandsatellitesignal ......................................................................................35
6 Co-ordinate systems...................................................................................................38
6.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................38
6.2 Geoids...........................................................................................................................................38
6.3 Ellipsoidanddatum........................................................................................................................39
6.3.1 Spheroid.................................................................................................................................39
6.3.2 Customisedlocalreferenceellipsoidsanddatum.......................................................................40
6.3.3 Nationalreferencesystems.......................................................................................................41
6.3.4 WorldwidereferenceellipsoidWGS-84.....................................................................................41
6.3.5 Transformationfromlocaltoworldwidereferenceellipsoid .......................................................42
6.3.6 Convertingco-ordinatesystems ...............................................................................................44
6.4 Planarlandsurveyco-ordinates,projection ......................................................................................45
6.4.1 ProjectionsystemforGermanyandAustria...............................................................................45
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6.4.2 Swissprojectionsystem(conformaldoubleprojection) ..............................................................46
6.4.3 Worldwideco-ordinateconversion ...........................................................................................47
7 Differential-GPS (DGPS) .............................................................................................48
7.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................48
7.2 DGPSbasedonthemeasurementofsignaltransittime....................................................................48
7.2.1 DetailedDGPSmethodofoperation.........................................................................................49
7.3 DGPSbasedoncarrierphasemeasurement .....................................................................................50
8 DATA FORMATS AND HARDWARE interfaces..........................................................52
8.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................52
8.2 Datainterfaces...............................................................................................................................52
8.2.1 TheNMEA-0183datainterface................................................................................................52
8.2.2 TheDGPScorrectiondata(RTCMSC-104) ................................................................................63
8.3 Hardwareinterfaces .......................................................................................................................66
8.3.1 Antenna .................................................................................................................................66
8.3.2 Supply ....................................................................................................................................67
8.3.3 Timepulse:1PPSandtimesystems...........................................................................................67
8.3.4 ConvertingtheTTLleveltoRS-232...........................................................................................68
9 GPS RECEIVERS ...........................................................................................................71
9.1 BasicsofGPShandheldreceivers.....................................................................................................71
9.2 GPSreceivermodules .....................................................................................................................73
9.2.1 BasicdesignofaGPSmodule ..................................................................................................73
10 GPS APPLICATIONS ....................................................................................................74
10.1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................................74
10.2 Descriptionofthevariousapplications .........................................................................................75
10.2.1 Scienceandresearch ...............................................................................................................75
10.2.2 Commerceandindustry...........................................................................................................76
10.2.3 Agricultureandforestry...........................................................................................................77
10.2.4 Communicationstechnology....................................................................................................78
10.2.5 Tourism/sport........................................................................................................................78
10.2.6 Military ...................................................................................................................................78
10.2.7 Timemeasurement..................................................................................................................78
APPENDIX..........................................................................................................................79
A.1 DGPSservices.................................................................................................................................79
A.1.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................79
A.1.2 Swipos-NAV(RDSorGSM) ......................................................................................................79
A.1.3 AMDS.....................................................................................................................................79
A.1.4 SAPOS....................................................................................................................................80
A.1.5 ALF.........................................................................................................................................80
A.1.6 dGPS ......................................................................................................................................80
A.1.7 RadioBeacons.........................................................................................................................81
A.1.8 OmnistarandLandstar ............................................................................................................81
A.1.9 EGNOS ...................................................................................................................................81
A.1.10 WAAS ....................................................................................................................................81
A.2 Proprietarydatainterfaces ..............................................................................................................82
A.2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................82
A.2.2 SiRFBinaryprotocol.................................................................................................................82
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A.2.3 Motorola:binaryformat ..........................................................................................................85
A.2.4 Trimbleproprietaryprotocol.....................................................................................................86
A.2.5 NMEAorproprietarydatasets?................................................................................................86
Resources on the World Wide Web ................................................................................88
Generaloverviewsandfurtherlinks ...........................................................................................................88
DifferentialGPS........................................................................................................................................88
GPSinstitutes ...........................................................................................................................................89
GPSantennae...........................................................................................................................................89
GPSnewsgroupsandspecialistjournals .....................................................................................................89
List of tables .....................................................................................................................90
List of illustrations............................................................................................................91
SOURCES...........................................................................................................................93

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1 INTRODUCTION

UsingtheGlobalPositioningSystem(GPS,aprocessusedtoestablishapositionatanypointontheglobe)the
followingtwovaluescanbedeterminedanywhereonEarth(Figure1):
1. One’s exact location (longitude, latitude and height co-ordinates) accurate to within a range of 20 m to
approx.1mm.
2. Theprecisetime(UniversalTimeCoordinated,UTC)accuratetowithinarangeof60nstoapprox.5ns.
Speed and direction of travel (course) can be derived from these co-ordinates as well as the time. The co-
ordinatesandtimevaluesaredeterminedby28satellitesorbitingtheEarth.
Longitude: 9°24'23,43''
Latitude: 46°48'37,20''
Altitude: 709,1m
Time: 12h33'07''

Figure 1: The basic function of GPS
GPS receivers are used for positioning, locating, navigating, surveying and determining the time and are
employedbothbyprivateindividuals(e.g.forleisureactivities,suchastrekking,balloonflightsandcross-country
skiingetc.)andcompanies(surveying,determiningthetime,navigation,vehiclemonitoringetc.).
GPS(thefulldescriptionis:NAVigationSystemwithTimingAndRangingGlobalPositioningSystem,NAVSTAR-
GPS) was developed by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and can be used both by civilians and military
personnel.ThecivilsignalSPS(Standard PositioningService)canbeusedfreelybythegeneralpublic,whilstthe
military signal PPS (Precise Positioning Service) can only be used by authorised government agencies. The first
satellitewasplacedinorbiton22
nd
February1978,andtherearecurrently28operationalsatellitesorbitingthe
Earth at a height of 20,180 km on 6 different orbital planes. Their orbits are inclined at 55° to the equator,
ensuringthata least4 satellitesareinradiocommunicationwithanypointontheplanet.Eachsatelliteorbits
theEarthinapproximately12hoursandhasfouratomicclocksonboard.
DuringthedevelopmentoftheGPSsystem,particularemphasiswasplacedonthefollowingthreeaspects:
1. Ithadtoprovideuserswiththecapabilityofdeterminingposition,speedandtime,whetherinmotion
oratrest.
2. Ithadtohaveacontinuous,global,3-dimensionalpositioningcapabilitywithahighdegreeofaccuracy,
irrespectiveoftheweather.
3. Ithadtoofferpotentialforcivilianuse.

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TheaimofthisbookistoprovideacomprehensiveoverviewofthewayinwhichtheGPSsystemfunctionsand
theapplicationstowhichitcanbeput.Thebookisstructuredinsuchawaythatthereadercangraduatefrom
simple facts to more complex theory. Important aspects of GPS such as differential GPS and equipment
interfacesaswellasdataformatarediscussedinseparatesections.Inaddition,thebookisdesignedtoactasan
aidinunderstandingthetechnologythatgoesintoGPSappliances,modulesandICs.Frommyownexperience,I
know that acquiring an understanding of the various current co-ordinate systems when using GPS equipment
canoftenbeadifficulttask.Aseparatechapteristhereforedevotedtotheintroductionofcartography.
Thisbookisaimedatusersinterestedintechnology,andspecialistsinvolvedinGPSapplications.
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2 GPS MADE SIMPLE

If you would like to . . .
o understandhowthedistanceofalightningboltisdetermined
o understandhowGPSbasicallyfunctions
o knowhowmanyatomicclocksareonboardaGPSsatellite
o knowhowapositiononaplaneisdetermined
o understandwhythereneedstobefourGPSsatellitestoestablishaposition
then this chapter is for you!

2.1 The principle of measuring signal transit time
Atsometimeorotherduringastormynightyouhavealmostcertainlyattemptedtoworkouthowfarawayyou
are from a flash of lightning. The distance can be established quite easily (Figure 2): distance = the time the
lightning flash is perceived (start time) until the thunder is heard (stop time) multiplied by the speed of sound
(approx.330m/s).Thedifferencebetweenthestartandstoptimeistermedthetransittime.

E
y
e
d
e
te
rm
in
e
s
th
e
s
ta
rt tim
e
E
a
r d
e
te
rm
in
e
s
th
e
s
to
p
tim
e
Transit time

Figure 2: Determining the distance of a lightning flash
sound of speed the me transit ti distance • =
TheGPSsystemfunctionsaccordingtoexactlythesameprinciple.Inordertocalculateone’sexactposition,all
thatneedstobemeasuredisthesignaltransittimebetweenthepointofobservationandfourdifferentsatellites
whosepositionsareknown.

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2.1.1 Generating GPS signal transit time
28 satellites inclined at 55° to the equator
orbit the Earth every 11 hours and 58
minutes at a height of 20,180 km on 6
differentorbitalplanes(Figure3).
Each one of these satellites has up to four
atomic clocks on board. Atomic clocks are
currently the most precise instruments
known, losing a maximum of one second
every30,000to1,000,000years.Inorderto
make them even more accurate, they are
regularly adjusted or synchronised from
variouscontrolpointsonEarth.Eachsatellite
transmitsitsexactpositionanditspreciseon
board clock time to Earth ata frequency of
1575.42MHz.Thesesignalsaretransmitted
at the speed of light (300,000 km/s) and
thereforerequireapprox.67.3mstoreacha
position on the Earth’s surface located
directly below the satellite. The signals
require a further 3.33 us for each excess
kilometer of travel. If you wish to establish
yourpositiononland(oratseaorintheair),
all you require is an accurate clock. By
comparing the arrival time of the satellite
signal with the on board clock time the
moment the signal was emitted, it is
possibletodeterminethetransittimeofthat
signal(Figure4).

0ms
25ms
50ms
75ms
0ms
25ms
50ms
75ms
Signal transmition (start time)
Satellite and
receiver clock
display: 0ms
Satellite and
receiver clock
display: 67,3ms
Signal reception (stop time)
Signal

Figure 4: Determining the transit time

Figure 3: GPS satellites orbit the Earth on 6 orbital planes
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ThedistanceStothesatellitecanbedeterminedbyusingtheknowntransittimeτ:

c • S
light of speed the • time travel distance
τ =
=

Measuringsignaltransittimeandknowingthedistancetoasatelliteisstillnotenoughtocalculateone’sown
position in 3-D space. To achieve this, four independent transit time measurements are required. It is for this
reasonthatsignalcommunicationwithfourdifferentsatellitesisneededtocalculateone’sexactposition.Why
thisshouldbeso,canbestbeexplainedbyinitiallydeterminingone’spositiononaplane.
2.1.2 Determining a position on a plane
Imaginethatyouarewanderingacrossavastplateauandwouldliketoknowwhereyouare.Twosatellitesare
orbitingfaraboveyoutransmittingtheirownonboardclocktimesandpositions.Byusingthesignaltransittime
tobothsatellitesyoucandrawtwocircleswiththeradiiS1andS2aroundthesatellites.Eachradiuscorresponds
tothedistancecalculatedtothesatellite.Allpossibledistancestothesatellitearelocatedonthecircumference
of the circle. If the position above the satellites is excluded, the location of the receiver is at the exact point
wherethetwocirclesintersectbeneaththesatellites(Figure5),
TwosatellitesaresufficienttodetermineapositionontheX/Yplane.

Y-co-ordinates
X-co-ordinates
Circles
S1= τ1 • c
0
0
YP
XP
S2= τ2 • c
Sat. 1
Sat. 2
the receiver
Position of
(XP, YP)

Figure 5: The position of the receiver at the intersection of the two circles
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Inreality,apositionhastobedeterminedinthree-dimensionalspace,ratherthanonaplane.Asthedifference
between a plane and three-dimensional space consists of an extra dimension (height Z), an additional third
satellite must be available to determine the true position. If the distance to the three satellites is known, all
possiblepositionsarelocatedonthesurfaceofthreesphereswhoseradiicorrespondtothedistancecalculated.
Thepositionsoughtisatthepointwhereallthreesurfacesofthespheresintersect(Figure6).
Position

Figure 6: The position is determined at the point where all three spheres intersect
Allstatementsmadesofarwillonlybevalid,iftheterrestrialclockandtheatomicclocksonboardthesatellites
aresynchronised,i.e.signaltransittimecanbecorrectlydetermined.
2.1.3 The effect and correction of time error
Wehavebeenassumingupuntilnowthatithasbeenpossibletomeasuresignaltransittimeprecisely.However,
thisisnotthecase.Forthereceivertomeasuretimepreciselyahighlyaccurate,synchronisedclockisneeded.If
the transit time is out by just 1 µs this produces a positional error of 300m. As the clocks on board all three
satellites are synchronised, the transit time in the case of all three measurements is inaccurate by the same
amount. Mathematics is the only thing that can help us now. We are reminded when producing calculations
thatifNvariablesareunknown,weneedNindependentequations.
Ifthetimemeasurementisaccompaniedbyaconstantunknownerror,wewillhavefourunknownvariablesin
3-Dspace:
• longitude(X)
• latitude(Y)
• height(Z)
• timeerror(∆t)
Itthereforefollowsthatinthree-dimensionalspacefoursatellitesareneededtodetermineaposition.

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2.1.4 Determining a position in 3-D space
In order to determine these four unknown variables, four independent equations are needed. The four transit
timesrequiredaresuppliedbythefourdifferentsatellites(sat.1tosat.4).The28GPSsatellitesaredistributed
aroundtheglobeinsuchawaythatatleast4ofthemarealways“visible”fromanypointonEarth(Figure7).
Despitereceivertimeerrors,apositiononaplanecanbecalculatedtowithinapprox.5–10m.

Sat. 2
Sat. 1
Sat. 3
Sat. 4
Signal

Figure 7: Four satellites are required to determine a position in 3-D space.

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3 GPS, THE TECHNOLOGY

If you would like to . . .
o understandwhythreedifferentGPSsegmentsareneeded
o knowwhatfunctioneachindividualsegmenthas
o knowhowaGPSsatelliteisbasicallyconstructed
o knowwhatsortofinformationisrelayedtoEarth
o understandhowasatellitesignalisgenerated
o understandhowGPSsignaltransittimeisdetermined
o understandwhatcorrelationmeans
then this chapter is for you!

3.1 Description of the entire system
TheGlobalPositioningSystem(GPS)comprisesthreesegments(Figure8):
• Thespacesegment(allfunctionalsatellites)
• The control segment(all ground stations involved in the monitoring of the system: master control station,
monitorstations,andgroundcontrolstations)
• Theusersegment(allcivilandmilitaryGPSusers)

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Space segment
Control segment User segment
- established ephemeris
- calculated almanacs
- satellite health
- time corrections
- time pulses
- ephemeris
- almanac
- health
- date, time
L1 carrier
From the ground
station

Figure 8: The three GPS segments
As can be seen in Figure 8 there is unidirectional communication between the space segment and the user
segment. The three ground control stations are equipped with ground antennae, which enable bidirectional
communication.
3.2 Space segment
3.2.1 Satellite movement
The space segment currently consists of 28 operational satellites (Figure 3) orbiting the Earth on 6 different
orbitalplanes(fourtofivesatellitesperplane).Theyorbitataheightof20,180kmabovetheEarth’ssurfaceand
areinclinedat55°totheequator.Anyonesatellitecompletesitsorbitinaround12hours.Duetotherotation
of the Earth, a satellite will be at its initial starting position (Figure 9) after approx. 24 hours (23 hours 56
minutestobeprecise).

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Longitude
60° 0° 120° 180° -60° -120° -180°
L
a
t
i
t
u
d
e

90°
90°
0h
3h
6h
9h
12h
15h
18h
21h
12h

Figure 9: Position of the 28 GPS satellites at 12.00 hrs UTC on 14th April 2001
Satellitesignalscanbereceivedanywherewithinasatellite’seffectiverange.Figure9showstheeffectiverange
(shadedarea)ofasatellitelocateddirectlyabovetheequator/zeromeridianintersection.
Thedistributionofthe28satellitesatanygiventimecanbeseeninFigure10.Itisduetothisingeniouspattern
of distribution and to the great height at which they orbit that communication with at least 4 satellites is
ensuredatalltimesanywhereintheworld.

Longitude
60° 0° 120° 180° -60° -120° -180°
L
a
t
i
t
u
d
e

90°
90°

Figure 10: Position of the 28 GPS satellites at 12.00 hrs UTC on 14th April 2001
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3.2.2 The GPS satellites
3.2.2.1 Construction of a satellite
All 28 satellites transmit time signals and data synchronised by on board atomicclocks at the same frequency
(1575.42 MHz). The minimum signal strength received on Earth is approx. -158dBW to -160dBW [i]. In
accordancewiththespecification,themaximumstrengthisapprox.-153dBW.

Figure 11: A GPS satellite
3.2.2.2 The communication link budget analysis
Thelinkbudgetanalysis(Table1)betweenasatelliteandauserissuitableforestablishingtherequiredlevelof
satellitetransmissionpower.Inaccordancewiththespecification,theminimumamountofpowerreceivedmust
not fall below –160dBW (-130dBm). In order to ensure this level is maintained, the satellite L1 carrier
transmissionpower,modulatedwiththeC/Acode,mustbe21.9W.
Gain(+)/loss(-) Absolutevalue
Poweratthesatellitetransmitter 13.4dBW(43.4dBm=21.9W)
Satellite antenna gain (due to concentration
ofthesignalat14.3°)
+13.4dB
RadiatepowerEIRP
(EffectiveIntegratedRadiatePower)
26.8dBW(56.8dBm)
Lossduetopolarisationmismatch -3.4dB
Signalattenuationinspace -184.4dB
Signalattenuationintheatmosphere -2.0dB
Gainfromthereceptionantenna +3.0dB
Poweratreceiverinput -160dBW(-130dBm=100.0*10
-18
W)
Table 1: L1 carrier link budget analysis modulated with the C/A code
Thereceivedpowerof–160dBWisunimaginablysmall.Themaximumpowerdensityis14.9dBbelowreceiver
backgroundnoise[ii].
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3.2.2.3 Satellite signals
Thefollowinginformation(navigationmessage)istransmittedbythesatelliteatarateof50bitspersecond[iii]:
• Satellitetimeandsynchronisationsignals
• Preciseorbitaldata(ephemeris)
• Timecorrectioninformationtodeterminetheexactsatellitetime
• Approximateorbitaldataforallsatellites(almanac)
• Correctionsignalstocalculatesignaltransittime
• Dataontheionosphere
• Informationonsatellitehealth
Thetimerequiredtotransmitallthisinformationis12.5minutes.Byusingthenavigationmessagethereceiveris
abletodeterminethetransmissiontimeofeachsatellitesignalandtheexactpositionofthesatelliteatthetime
oftransmission.
Each of the 28 satellites transmits a unique signature assigned to it. This signature consists of an apparent
randomsequence(PseudoRandomNoiseCode,PRN)of1023zerosandones(Figure12).

0
1
1 ms
1 ms/1023

Figure 12: Pseudo Random Noise
Lastingamillisecond,thisuniqueidentifieriscontinuallyrepeatedandservestwopurposeswithregardtothe
receiver:
• Identification: the unique signature pattern means that the receiver knows from which satellite the signal
originated.
• Signaltransittimemeasurement
3.2.3 Generating the satellite signal
3.2.3.1 Simplified block diagram
On board the satellites are four highly accurate atomic clocks. The following time pulses and frequencies
requiredforday-to-dayoperationarederivedfromtheresonantfrequencyofoneofthefouratomicclocks(figs.
13and14):
• The50Hzdatapulse
• The C/A code pulse (Coarse/Acquisition code, PRN-Code, coarse reception code at a frequency of 1023
MHz), which modulates the data using an exclusive-or operation (this spreads the data over a 1MHz
bandwidth)
• ThefrequencyofthecivilL1carrier(1575.42MHz)
The data modulated by the C/A code modulates the L1 carrier in turn by using Bi-Phase-Shift-Keying (BPSK).
Witheverychangeinthemodulateddatathereisa180°changeintheL1carrierphase.

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Carrier frequency
generator
1575.42 MHz
PRN code
generator
1.023 MHz
Data generator
(C/A code)
50 Bit/sec
Exclusive-or
Multiplier
Transmitted
satellite signal
(BPSK)
Data
0
1
0
1
C/A code
Data
L1 carrier

Figure 13: Simplified satellite block diagram


Data,
50 bit/s
C/A code
(PRN-18)
1.023 MBit/s
Data
modulated
by C/A code
L1 carrier,
1575.42 MHz
BPSK
modulated
L1 carrier
0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
1
1
0
0

Figure 14: Data structure of a GPS satellite

GPSBasics u-bloxag
GPS-X-02007 Page22
3.2.3.2 Detailed block system
The atomic clocks on board a satellite have a stability greater than 2.10
-13
[iv]. The basic frequency of
10.23MHz is derived in a satellite from the resonant frequency of one of the four atomic clocks. In turn, the
carrier frequency, data frequency, the timing for the generation of pseudo random noise (PRN), and the C/A
code(course/acquisitioncode),arederivedfromthisbasicfrequency(Figure15).Asall28satellitestransmiton
1575.42 MHz, a process known as CDMA Multiplex (Code Division Multiple Access) is used. The data is
transmitted based on DSSS modulation (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Modulation) [v]. The C/A code
generatorhasafrequencyof1023MHzandaperiodof1,023chips,whichcorrespondstoamillisecond.The
C/Acodeused(PRNcode),whichisthesameasagoldcode,andthereforeexhibitsgoodcorrelationproperties,
isgeneratedbyafeedbackshiftregister.

Antenna
BPSK
modulator
exclusive-or
C/A code
generator
1 period = 1ms
= 1023 Chips
Carrier freq.
generator
1575.42MHz
Time pulse for
C/A generator
1.023MHz
1,023MHz
Data pulse
generator
50Hz
50Hz
1575.42MHz
Data
Atomic clock
Derived basic
frequency
10,23MHz
10,23MHz
Data
processing
1 Bit = 20ms
1,023MHz
50Hz
x 154
: 10
: 204'600
1.023MHz
1575.42MHz
0/1
C/A code
Data
L1 carrier
BPSK

Figure 15: Detailed block system of a GPS satellite
The modulation process described above is referred to as DSSS modulation (Direct Sequence Spread
Modulation), the C/A code playing an important part in this process. As all satellites transmit on the same
frequency(1575.42MHz),theC/Acodecontainstheidentificationandinformationgeneratedbyeachindividual
satellite.TheC/Acodeisanapparentrandomsequenceof1023bitsknownaspseudorandomnoise(PRN).This
signature, which lasts a millisecond and is unique to each satellite, is constantly repeated.A satellite is always
identified,therefore,byitscorrespondingC/Acode.
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3.3 Control segment
Thecontrolsegment(OperationalControlSystemOCS)consistsofaMasterControlStationlocatedinthestate
ofColorado,fivemonitorstationsequippedwithatomicclocksthatarespreadaroundtheglobeinthevicinity
oftheequator,andthreegroundcontrolstationsthattransmitinformationtothesatellites.
Themostimportanttasksofthecontrolsegmentare:
• Observingthemovementofthesatellitesandcomputingorbitaldata(ephemeris)
• Monitoringthesatelliteclocksandpredictingtheirbehaviour
• Synchronisingonboardsatellitetime
• Relayingpreciseorbitaldatareceivedfromsatellitesincommunication
• Relayingtheapproximateorbitaldataofallsatellites(almanac)
• Relayingfurtherinformation,includingsatellitehealth,clockerrorsetc.

The control segment also oversees the artificial distortion of signals (SA, Selective Availability), in order to
degradethesystem’spositionalaccuracyforciviluse.Systemaccuracyhadbeenintentionallydegradedupuntil
May2000forpoliticalandtacticalreasonsbytheU.S.DepartmentofDefense(DoD),thesatelliteoperators.It
wasshutdowninMay2000,butitcanbestartedupagain,ifnecessary,eitheronaglobalorregionalbasis.
3.4 User segment
Thesignalstransmittedbythesatellitestakeapprox.67millisecondstoreachareceiver.Asthesignalstravelat
thespeedoflight,theirtransittimedependsonthedistancebetweenthesatellitesandtheuser.
Four different signals are generated in the receiver having the same structure as those received from the 4
satellites.Bysynchronisingthesignalsgeneratedinthereceiverwiththosefromthesatellites,thefoursatellite
signal time shifts ∆t are measured as a timing mark (Figure 16). The measured time shifts ∆t of all 4 satellite
signalsareusedtodeterminesignaltransittime.

1 ms
∆t
Receiver
signal
(synchronised)
Satellite
signal
Receiver
time mark
Synchronisation

Figure 16: Measuring signal transit time
Inordertodeterminethepositionofauser,radiocommunicationwithfourdifferentsatellitesisrequired.The
relevantdistancetothesatellitesisdeterminedbythetransittimeofthesignals.Thereceiverthencalculatesthe
user’s latitude ϕ, longitude λ, height h and time t from the range and known position of the four satellites.
Expressedinmathematicalterms,thismeansthatthefourunknownvariablesϕ, λ, handtaredeterminedfrom
thedistanceandknownpositionofthesefoursatellites,althoughafairlycomplexlevelofiterationisrequired,
whichwillbedealtwithingreaterdetailatalaterstage.
As mentioned earlier, all 28 satellites transmit on the same frequency, but with a different C/A code. This
processisbasicallytermedCodeDivisionMultipleAccess(CDMA).Signalrecoveryandtheidentificationofthe
satellitestakesplacebymeansofcorrelation.AsthereceiverisabletorecogniseallC/Acodescurrentlyinuse,
by systematically shifting and comparing every code with all incoming satellite signals, a complete match will
eventually occur (that is to say that the correlation factor CF is one), and a correlation point will be attained
(Figure17).Thecorrelationpointisusedtomeasuretheactualsignaltransittimeand,aspreviouslymentioned,
toidentifythesatellite.

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GPS-X-02007 Page24
Incoming signal from PRN-18
bit 11 to 40, reference
Reference signal from PRN-18
bit 1 to 30, leading
Reference signal from PRN-18
bit 11 to 40, in phase
Reference signal from PRN-18
bit 21 to 50, trailing
Reference signal from PRN-5
Bit 11 to 40, in phase
CF = 0.07
Correlation
point:
CF = 1.00
CF = 0.00
CF = 0.33

Figure 17: Demonstration of the correction process across 30 bits

The quality of the correlation is expressed here as CF (correlation factor). The value range of CF lies between
minusoneandplusoneandisonlyplusonewhenbothsignalscompletelymatch(bitsequenceandphase).

( ) ( ) [ ]

=
− • =
N
i
N
CF
1
uB mB
1

mB: numberofallmatchedbits
uB: numberofallunmatchedbits
N: numberofobservedbits.
GPSBasics u-bloxag
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4 THE GPS NAVIGATION MESSAGE

If you would like to . . .
o knowwhatinformationistransmittedtoEarthbyGPSsatellites
o understandwhyaminimumperiodoftimeisrequiredtofortheGPSsystemtocomeonline
o knowwhatdatacanbecalledupwhere
o knowwhatframesandsubframesare
o understandwhythesamedataistransmittedwithvaryingdegreesofaccuracy
then this chapter is for you!

4.1 Introduction
The navigation message [vi] is a continuous stream of data transmitted at 50 bits per second. Each satellite
relaysthefollowinginformationtoEarth:
• Systemtimeandclockcorrectionvalues
• Itsownhighlyaccurateorbitaldata(ephemeris)
• Approximateorbitaldataforallothersatellites(almanac)
• Systemhealth,etc.
The navigation message is needed to calculate the current position of the satellites and to determine signal
transittimes.
ThedatastreamismodulatedtotheHFcarrierwaveofeachindividualsatellite.Dataistransmittedinlogically
groupedunitsknownasframesorpages.Eachframeis1500bitslongandtakes30secondstotransmit.The
framesaredividedinto5subframes.Eachsubframeis300bitslongandtakes6secondstotransmit.Inorderto
transmit a complete almanac, 25 differentframes are required (called pages). Transmission time for the entire
almanacistherefore12.5minutes.AGPSreceivermusthavecollectedthecompletealmanacatleastoncetobe
capableoffunctioning(e.g.foritsprimaryinitialisation).

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4.2 Structure of the navigation message
Aframeis1500bitslongandtakes30secondstotransmit.The1500bitsaredividedintofivesubframeseach
of300bits(durationoftransmission6seconds).Eachsubframeisinturndividedinto10wordseachcontaining
30 bits. Each subframe begins with a telemetry word and a handover word (HOW). A complete navigation
message consists of 25 frames (pages). The structure of the navigation message is illustrated in diagrammatic
formatinFigure18.
Frame
(page)
1500 bits
30s
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T
L
M
H
O
W
Data
Subpage
300 Bits
6s
Word content
Word No.
Satellite clock
and health data
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T
L
M
H
O
W
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T
L
M
H
O
W
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T
L
M
H
O
W
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T
L
M
H
O
W
Almanac
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T
L
M
H
O
W
Ephemeris Ephemeris
Partial almanac
other data
Telemetry word
(TLM)
30 bits
0.6s
Handover word
(HOW)
30 bits
0.6s
8Bits
pre-
amble
6Bits 16Bits
reserved
pa-
rity
6Bits
pa-
rity
17Bits 7Bits
Time of Week
(TOW)
div.,
ID
Sub-frame 1 Sub-frame 2 Sub-frame 3 Sub-frame 4 Sub-frame 5
Navigation
message
25 pages/frames
37500 bits
12.5 min
25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Figure 18: Structure of the entire navigation message
4.2.1 Information contained in the subframes
Aframeisdividedintofivesubframes,eachsubframetransmittingdifferentinformation.
• Subframe1containsthetimevaluesofthetransmittingsatellite,includingtheparametersforcorrecting
signaltransitdelayandonboardclocktime,aswellasinformationonsatellitehealthandanestimation
ofthepositionalaccuracyofthesatellite.Subframe1alsotransmitstheso-called10-bitweeknumber(a
rangeofvaluesfrom0to1023canberepresentedby10bits).GPStimebeganonSunday,6thJanuary
1980at00:00:00hours.Every1024weekstheweeknumberrestartsat0.
• Subframes2and3containtheephemerisdataofthetransmittingsatellite.Thisdataprovidesextremely
accurateinformationonthesatellite’sorbit.
• Subframe4containsthealmanacdataonsatellitenumbers25to32(N.B.eachsubframecantransmit
datafromonesatelliteonly),thedifferencebetweenGPSandUTCtimeandinformationregardingany
measurementerrorscausedbytheionosphere.
• Subframe5containsthealmanacdataonsatellitenumbers1to24(N.B.eachsubframecantransmit
datafromonesatellite only).All25 pagesaretransmittedtogetherwithinformation onthehealthof
satellitenumbers1to24.
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GPS-X-02007 Page27
4.2.2 TLM and HOW
Thefirstwordofeverysingleframe,thetelemetryword(TLM),containsapreamblesequence8bitsinlength
(10001011) used for synchronization purposes, followed by 16 bits reserved for authorized users. As with all
words,thefinal6bitsofthetelemetrywordareparitybits.
Thehandoverword(HOW)immediatelyfollowsthetelemetrywordineachsubframe.Thehandoverwordis17
bits in length (a range of values from 0 to 131071 can be represented using 17 bits) and contains within its
structurethestarttimeforthenextsubframe,whichistransmittedastimeoftheweek(TOW).TheTOWcount
beginswiththevalue0atthebeginningoftheGPSweek(transitionperiodfromSaturday23:59:59hoursto
Sunday 00:00:00 hours) and is increased by a value of 1 every 6 seconds. As there are 604,800 seconds in a
week, the count runs from 0 to 100,799, before returning to 0. A marker is introduced into the data stream
every6secondsandtheHOWtransmitted,inordertoallowsynchronisationwiththePcode.BitNos.20to22
areusedinthehandoverwordtoidentifythesubframejusttransmitted.
4.2.3 Subdivision of the 25 pages
Acompletenavigationmessagerequires25pagesandlasts12.5minutes.Apageoraframeisdividedintofive
subframes.Inthecaseofsubframes1to3,theinformationcontentisthesameforall25pages.Thismeansthat
areceiverhasthecompleteclockvaluesandephemerisdatafromthetransmittingsatelliteevery30seconds.
Thesoledifferenceinthecaseofsubframes4and5ishowtheinformationtransmittedisorganised.
• Inthecaseofsubframe4,pages2,3,4,5,7,8,9and10relaythealmanacdataonsatellitenumbers
25to32.Ineachcase,thealmanacdataforonesatelliteonlyistransferredperpage.Page18transmits
thevaluesforcorrectionmeasurementsasaresultofionosphericscintillation,aswellasthedifference
betweenUTCandGPStime.Page25containsinformationontheconfigurationofall32satellites(i.e.
blockaffiliation)andthehealthofsatellitenumbers25to32.
• Inthecaseofsubframe5,pages1to24relaythealmanacdataonsatellitenumbers1to24.Ineach
case,thealmanacdataforonesatelliteonlyistransferredperpage.Page25transfersinformationon
thehealthofsatellitenumbers1to24andtheoriginalalmanactime.
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GPS-X-02007 Page28
4.2.4 Comparison between ephemeris and almanac data
Usingbothephemerisandalmanacdata,thesatelliteorbitsandthereforetherelevantco-ordinatesofaspecific
satellitecanbedeterminedatadefinedpointintime.Thedifferencebetweenthevaluestransmittedliesmainly
intheaccuracyofthefigures.Inthefollowingtable(Table2),acomparisonismadebetweenthetwosetsof
figures.

Information Ephemeris
No.ofbits
Almanac
No.ofbits
Squarerootofthesemimajoraxisof
orbitalellipsea
32 16
Eccentricityoforbitalellipsee 32 16
Table 2: Comparison between ephemeris and almanac data
ForanexplanationofthetermsusedinTable2,seeFigure18.

Semimajoraxisoforbitalellipse:a

Eccentricityoftheorbitalellipse:
2
2 2
a
b a
e

=

b
a

Figure 19: Ephemeris terms

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5 CALCULATING POSITION

If you would like to . . .
o understandhowco-ordinatesandtimearedetermined
o knowwhatpseudo-rangeis
o understandwhyaGPSreceivermustproduceapositionestimateatthestartofacalculation
o understandhowanon-linearequationissolvedusingfourunknownvariables
o knowwhatdegreeofaccuracyisguaranteedbytheGPSsystemoperator
then this chapter is for you!

5.1 Introduction
Although originally intended for purely military purposes, the GPS system is used today primarily for civil
applications,suchassurveying,navigation(air,seaandland),positioning,measuringvelocity,determiningtime,
monitoringstationaryandmovingobjects,etc.Thesystemoperatorguaranteesthestandardcivilianuserofthe
servicethatthefollowingaccuracy(Table3)willbeattainedfor95%ofthetime(2drmsvalue[vii]):

Horizontalaccuracy Verticalaccuracy Timeaccuracy
≤13m ≤22m ~40ns≤
Table 3: Accuracy of the standard civilian service
Withadditionaleffortandexpenditure,e.g.severallinkedreceivers(DGPS),longermeasuringtime,andspecial
measuringtechniques(phasemeasurement)positionalaccuracycanbeincreasedtowithinacentimetre.
5.2 Calculating a position
5.2.1 The principle of measuring signal transit time (evaluation of pseudo-range)
InorderforaGPSreceivertodetermineitsposition,it hastoreceivetimesignalsfromfourdifferentsatellites
(Sat1...Sat4),toenableittocalculatesignaltransittime∆t
1
...∆t
4
(Figure20).
GPSBasics u-bloxag
GPS-X-02007 Page30
User
Sat 1
Sat 2
Sat 3
Sat 4
∆t
1
∆t
2
∆t
3
∆t
4

Figure 20: Four satellite signals must be received
Calculations are effected in a Cartesian, three-dimensional co-ordinate system with a geocentric origin (Figure
21). Therange ofthe user from the four satellites R
1
, R
2
, R
3
and R
4
can be determined withthe help of signal
transittimes∆t
1
,∆t
2
,∆t
3
and∆t
4
betweenthefoursatellitesandtheuser.AsthelocationsX
Sat,
Y
Sat
andZ
Sat
ofthe
foursatellitesareknown,theuserco-ordinatescanbecalculated.

X
Y
Z
Y
Anw
Sat 3
∆t
3
Sat 1
∆t
1
Sat 2
∆t
2 Sat 4
∆t
4
Origin
X
Anw
Z
Anw
User
X
Sat_1
, Y
Sat_1
, Z
Sat_1
X
Sat_2
, Y
Sat_2
, Z
Sat_2
X
Sat_3
, Y
Sat_3
, Z
Sat_3
X
Sat_4
, Y
Sat_4
, Z
Sat_4
Range: R4
R
a
n
g
e
:

R
3
R
a
n
g
e
:

R
2
Range: R
1

Figure 21: Three dimensional co-ordinate system
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GPS-X-02007 Page31
Due to the atomic clocks on board the satellites,the time at which the satellite signal is transmitted is known
veryprecisely.Allsatelliteclocksareadjustedorsynchronisedwitheachanotheranduniversaltimeco-ordinated.
In contrast, the receiver clock is not synchronised to UTC and is therefore slow or fast by ∆t
0
. The sign ∆t
0
is
positivewhentheuserclockisfast.Theresultanttimeerror∆t
0
causesinaccuraciesinthemeasurementofsignal
transittimeandthedistanceR.Asaresult,anincorrectdistanceismeasuredthatisknownaspseudodistance
orpseudo-rangePSR[viii].

0 t t tmeasured ∆ + ∆ = ∆ (1a)
( ) c t t c t PSR measured ⋅ ∆ + ∆ = ⋅ ∆ = 0 (2a)
c t R PSR 0 ⋅ ∆ + = (3a)

R: truerangeofthesatellitefromtheuser
c: speedoflight
∆t: signaltransittimefromthesatellitetotheuser

∆t
0
: differencebetweenthesatelliteclockandtheuserclock
PSR: pseudo-range

ThedistanceRfromthesatellitetotheusercanbecalculatedinaCartesiansystemasfollows:

( ) ( ) ( )
User Sat User Sat User Sat Z Z Y Y X X R − + − + − =
2 2 2
(4a)

thus(4)into(3)

( ) ( ) ( )
0 Sat
2
Sat
2
Sat
2
∆t c Z Z Y Y X X PSR ⋅ + − + − + − = User User User (5a)

In order to determine the four unknown variables (∆t
0
, X
Anw
, Y
Anw
and Z
Anw
), four independent equations are
necessary.

Thefollowingisvalidforthefoursatellites(i=1...4):

( ) ( ) ( )
0 Sat_i
2
Sat_i
2
Sat_i
2
i ∆t c Z Z Y Y X X PSR ⋅ + − + − + − = User User User (6a)

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GPS-X-02007 Page32
5.2.2 Linearisation of the equation
Thefourequationsunder6aproduceanon-linearsetofequations.Inordertosolvetheset,therootfunctionis
firstlinearisedaccordingtotheTaylormodel,thefirstpartonlybeingused(Figure22).
function
f'(x
0
) f(X)
X
x
0
x
f(x
0
)
f(x)
∆x

Figure 22: Conversion of the Taylor series
Generally(with 0 x x x − = ∆ ): ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . . . x x
! 3
' ' ' f
x x
! 2
' ' f
x x
! 1
' f
x f x f
3
0
2
0 0 0 + ∆ ⋅ + ∆ ⋅ + ∆ ⋅ + =
Simplified(1stpartonly): ( ) ( ) ( ) x x ' f x f x f 0 0 ∆ ⋅ + = (7a)
Inordertolinearisethefourequations(6a),anarbitrarilyestimatedvaluex
0
mustthereforebeincorporatedin
thevicinityofx.
FortheGPSsystem,thismeansthatinsteadofcalculatingX
Anw
,Y
Anw
andZ
Anw
directly,anestimatedpositionX
Ges

,Y
Ges
andZ
Ges
isinitiallyused(Figure23).

X
Y
Z
Sat 3
Sat 1
Sat 2
Sat 4
Z
Ges
user
X
Sat_1
, Y
Sat_1
, Z
Sat_1
X
Sat_2
, Y
Sat_2
, Z
Sat_2
X
Sat_3
, Y
Sat_3
, Z
Sat_3
X
Sat_4
, Y
Sat_4
, Z
Sat_4
∆x
∆y
∆z
R
Ges_1
R
Ges_2
R
Ges_3
R
Ges_4
estimated position
Y
Ges
X
Ges
estimated position
user
error considerations

Figure 23: Estimating a position
GPSBasics u-bloxag
GPS-X-02007 Page33
Theestimatedpositionincludesanerrorproducedbytheunknownvariables∆x,∆yand∆z.

X
Anw
=X
Ges
+∆x
Y
Anw
=Y
Ges
+∆y
Z
Anw
=Z
Ges
+∆z (8a)

ThedistanceR
Ges
fromthefoursatellitestotheestimatedpositioncanbecalculatedinasimilarwaytoequation
(4a):

( ) ( ) ( )
Ges i _ Sat
2
Ges i _ Sat
2
Ges i _ Sat
2
i _ Ges Z Z Y Y X X R − + − + − = (9a)

Equation(9a)combinedwithequations(6a)and(7a)produces:

( ) ( ) ( )
0
i _ Ges i _ Ges i _ Ges
i _ Ges i t c z
z
R
y
y
R
x
x
R
R PSR ∆ ⋅ + ∆ ⋅


+ ∆ ⋅


+ ∆ ⋅


+ = (10a)

Aftercarryingoutpartialdifferentiation,thisgivesthefollowing:

0
i _ Ges
i _ Sat Ges
i _ Ges
i _ Sat Ges
i _ Ges
i _ Sat Ges
i _ Ges i t c z
R
Z Z
y
R
Y Y
x
R
X X
R PSR ∆ ⋅ + ∆ ⋅

+ ∆ ⋅

+ ∆ ⋅

+ = (11a)

5.2.3 Solving the equation
After transposing the four equations (11a) (for i = 1 ... 4) the four variables (∆x, ∆y, ∆z and ∆t
0
) can now be
solvedaccordingtotherulesoflinearalgebra:

















4 _ Ges 4
3 _ Ges 3
2 _ Ges 2
1 _ Ges 1
R PSR
R PSR
R PSR
R PSR
=






















− − −
− − −
− − −
− − −
c
R
Z Z
R
Y Y
R
X X
c
R
Z Z
R
Y Y
R
X X
c
R
Z Z
R
Y Y
R
X X
c
R
Z Z
R
Y Y
R
X X
4 _ Ges
4 _ Sat Ges
4 _ Ges
4 _ Sat Ges
4 _ Ges
4 _ Sat Ges
3 _ Ges
3 _ Sat Ges
3 _ Ges
3 _ Sat Ges
3 _ Ges
3 _ Sat Ges
2 _ Ges
2 _ Sat Ges
2 _ Ges
2 _ Sat Ges
2 _ Ges
2 _ Sat Ges
1 _ Ges
1 _ Sat Ges
1 _ Ges
1 _ Sat Ges
1 _ Ges
1 _ Sat Ges













0 ∆t
∆z
∆y
∆x
(12a)













0 ∆t
∆z
∆y
∆x
=
1 −






















− − −
− − −
− − −
− − −
c
R
Z Z
R
Y Y
R
X X
c
R
Z Z
R
Y Y
R
X X
c
R
Z Z
R
Y Y
R
X X
c
R
Z Z
R
Y Y
R
X X
Ges_4
Sat_4 Ges
Ges_4
Sat_4 Ges
Ges_4
Sat_4 Ges
Ges_3
Sat_3 Ges
Ges_3
Sat_3 Ges
Ges_3
Sat_3 Ges
Ges_2
Sat_2 Ges
Ges_2
Sat_2 Ges
Ges_2
Sat_2 Ges
Ges_1
Sat_1 Ges
Ges_1
Sat_1 Ges
Ges_1
Sat_1 Ges

















Ges_4 4
Ges_3 3
Ges_2 2
Ges_1 1
R PSR
R PSR
R PSR
R PSR
(13a)

Thesolutionof∆x,∆yand∆zisusedtorecalculatetheestimatedpositionX
Ges
,Y
Ges
andZ
Ges
inaccordancewith
equation(8a).

GPSBasics u-bloxag
GPS-X-02007 Page34
X
Ges_Neu
=X
Ges_Alt
+∆x

Y
Ges_Neu
=Y
Ges_Alt
+∆y

Z
Ges_Neu
=Z
Ges_Alt
+∆z (14a)

The estimated values X
Ges_Neu
, Y
Ges_Neu
and Z
Ges_Neu
can now be entered into the set of equations (13a) using the
normaliterativeprocess,untilerrorcomponents∆x,∆yand∆zaresmallerthanthedesirederror(e.g.0.1m).
Dependingontheinitialestimation,threetofiveiterativecalculationsaregenerallyrequiredtoproduceanerror
componentoflessthan1cm.
5.2.4 Summary
Inordertodetermineaposition,theuser(orhisreceiversoftware)willeitherusethelastmeasurementvalue,or
estimateanewpositionandcalculateerrorcomponents(∆x,∆yand∆z)downtozerobyrepeatediteration.This
thengives:

X
Anw
=X
Ges_Neu

Y
Anw
=Y
Ges_Neu

Z
Anw
=Z
Ges_Neu
(15a)

Thecalculatedvalueof∆t
0
correspondstoreceivertimeerrorandcanbeusedtoadjustthereceiverclock.

GPSBasics u-bloxag
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5.2.5 Error consideration and satellite signal
5.2.5.1 Error consideration
Errorcomponentsincalculationshavesofarnotbeentakenintoaccount.InthecaseoftheGPSsystem,several
causesmaycontributetotheoverallerror:
• Satellite clocks: although each satellite has four atomic clocks on board, a time error of just 10 ns
createsanerrorintheorderof3m.
• Satelliteorbits:Thepositionofasatelliteisgenerallyknownonlytowithinapprox.1to5m.
• Speed of light: the signals from the satellite to the user travel at the speed of light. This slows down
whentraversingtheionosphereandtroposphereandcanthereforenolongerbetakenasaconstant.
• Measuring signal transit time: The user can only determine the point in time at which an incoming
satellitesignalisreceivedtowithinaperiodofapprox.10-20ns,whichcorrespondstoapositionalerror
of3-6m.Theerrorcomponentisincreasedfurtherstillasaresultofterrestrialreflection(multipath).
• Satellite geometry: The ability to determine a position deteriorates if the four satellites used to take
measurements are close together. The effect of satellite geometry on accuracy of measurement (see
5.2.5.2)isreferredtoasGDOP(GeometricDilutionOfPrecision).

TheerrorsarecausedbyvariousfactorsthataredetailedinTable4,whichincludesinformationon horizontal
errors. 1 sigma (68.3%) and 2 sigma (95.5%) are also given. Accuracy is, for the most part, better than
specified,thevaluesapplyingtoanaveragesatelliteconstellation(DOPvalue)[ix].

Cause of error Error
Effectsoftheionosphere 4m
Satelliteclocks 2.1m
Receivermeasurements 0.5m
Ephemerisdata 2.1
Effectsofthetroposphere 0.7
Multipath 1.4m
TotalRMSvalue(unfiltered) 5.3m
TotalRMSvalue(filtered) 5.1
Verticalerror(1sigma(68.3%)VDOP=2.5) 12.8m
Vertical error (2 sigma (95.5.3%) VDOP=2.5) 25.6m
Horizontalerror(1sigma(68.3%)HDOP=2.0) 10.2m
Horizontal error (2 sigma (95.5%) HDOP=2.0) 20.4m
Table 4: Cause of errors
MeasurementsundertakenbytheUSFederalAviationAdministrationoveralongperiodoftimeindicatethatin
the case of 95% of all measurements, horizontal error is under 7.4 m and vertical error is under 9.0 m. In all
cases,measurementswereconductedoveraperiodof24hours[iv].
Inmanyinstances,thenumberoferrorsourcescanbeeliminatedorreduced(typicallyto1...2m,2sigma)by
takingappropriatemeasures(DifferentialGPS,DGPS).
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5.2.5.2 DOP (dilution of precision)
TheaccuracywithwhichapositioncanbedeterminedusingGPSinnavigationmodedepends,ontheonehand,
on the accuracy of the individual pseudo-range measurements, and on the other, on the geometrical
configurationofthesatellitesused.Thisisexpressedinascalarquantity,whichinnavigationliteratureistermed
DOP(DilutionofPrecision).

ThereareseveralDOPdesignationsincurrentuse:
• GDOP:GeometricalDOP(positionin3-Dspace,incl.timedeviationinthesolution)
• PDOP:PositionalDOP(positionin3-Dspace)
• HDOP:HorizontalDOP(positiononaplane)
• VDOP:VerticalDOP(heightonly)

TheaccuracyofanymeasurementisproportionatelydependentontheDOPvalue.ThismeansthatiftheDOP
valuedoubles,theerrorindeterminingapositionincreasesbyafactoroftwo.
PDOP: low (1,5)
PDOP: high (5,7)

Figure 24: Satellite geometry and PDOP
PDOP can be interpreted as a reciprocal value of thevolume of a tetrahedron,formed by the positions of the
satellites and user, as shown in Figure 24. The best geometrical situation occurs when the volume is at a
maximumandPDOPataminimum.
PDOPplayedanimportantpartintheplanningofmeasurementprojectsduringtheearlyyearsofGPS,asthe
limiteddeploymentofsatellitesfrequentlyproducedphaseswhensatelliteconstellationsweregeometricallyvery
unfavourable.SatellitedeploymenttodayissogoodthatPDOPandGDOPvaluesrarelyexceed3(Figure1).
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Figure 25: GDOP values and the number of satellites expressed as a time function
ItisthereforeunnecessarytoplanmeasurementsbasedonPDOPvalues,ortoevaluatethedegreeofaccuracy
attainableasaresult,particularlyasdifferentPDOPvaluescanariseoverthecourseofafewminutes.Inthecase
ofkinematicapplicationsandrapidrecordingprocesses,unfavourablegeometricalsituationsthatareshortlived
in nature can occur in isolated cases. The relevant PDOP values should therefore be included as evaluation
criteriawhenassessingcriticalresults.PDOPvaluescanbeshownwithallplanningandevaluationprogrammes
suppliedbyleadingequipmentmanufacturers(Figure26).

HDOP = 1,2 DOP = 1,3 PDOP = 1,8 HDOP = 2,2 DOP = 6,4 PDOP = 6,8

Figure 26: Effect of satellite constellations on the DOP value
Local time
V
i
s
i
b
l
e

s
a
t
e
l
l
i
t
e
s

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6 CO-ORDINATE SYSTEMS

If you would like to . . .
o knowwhatageoidis
o understandwhytheEarthisdepictedprimarilyasanellipsoid
o understandwhyover200differentmapreferencesystemsareusedworldwide
o knowwhatWGS-84means
o understandhowitispossibletoconvertonedatumintoanother
o knowwhatCartesianandellipsoidalco-ordinatesare
o understandhowmapsofcountriesaremade
o knowhowcountryco-ordinatesarecalculatedfromtheWGS-84co-ordinates
then this chapter is for you!

6.1 Introduction
A significant problem when using the GPS system is that there are very many different co-ordinate systems
worldwide.Asaresult,thepositionmeasuredandcalculatedbytheGPSsystemdoesnotalwayscoincidewith
one’ssupposedposition.
InordertounderstandhowtheGPSsystemfunctions,itisnecessarytotakealookatthebasicsofthescience
thatdealswiththesurveyingandmappingoftheEarth’ssurface,geodesy.Withoutthisbasicknowledge,itis
difficult to understand why with a good portable GPS receiver the right combination has to be selected from
morethan100differentmapreferencesystems(datum)andapprox.10differentgrids.Ifanincorrectchoiceis
made,apositioncanbeoutbyseveralhundredmeters.
6.2 Geoids
WehaveknownthattheEarthisroundsinceColumbus.Buthowroundisitreally?Describingtheshapeofthe
blueplanetexactlyhasalwaysbeenanimprecisescience.Severaldifferentmethodshavebeenattemptedover
thecourseofthecenturiestodescribeasexactlyaspossiblethetrueshapeoftheEarth.Ageoidrepresentsan
approximationofthisshape.
In an ideal situation, the smoothed, average sea surface forms part of a level surface, which in a geometrical
sense is the “surface” of the Earth. By analogy with the Greek word for Earth, this surface is described as a
geoid(Figure27).
Ageoidcanonlybedefinedasamathematicalfigurewithalimiteddegreeofaccuracyandnotwithoutafew
arbitrary assumptions. This is because the distribution of the mass of the Earth is uneven and, as aresult, the
level surface of the oceans and seas do not lie on the surface of a geometrically definable shape; instead
approximationshavetobeused.
Differing from the actual shape of the Earth, a geoid is a theoretical body whose surface intersects the
gravitationalfieldlineseverywhereatrightangles.
A geoid is often used as a reference surface for measuring height. The reference point in Switzerland for
measuring height is the “Repère Pierre du Niton (RPN, 373.600 m) in the Geneva harbour basin. This height
originatesfrompointtopointmeasurementswiththeportofMarseilles(meanheightabovesealevel0.00m).

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Geoid
Sea
Land
h
Earth Macro image of the earth Geoid (exaggerated form)

Figure 27: A geoid is an approximation of the Earth’s surface
6.3 Ellipsoid and datum
6.3.1 Spheroid
A geoid, however, is a difficult shape to manipulate when conducting calculations. A simpler, more definable
shapeisthereforeneededwhencarryingoutdailysurveyingoperations.Suchasubstitutesurfaceisknownasa
spheroid.Ifthesurfaceofanellipseisrotatedaboutitssymmetricalnorth-southpoleaxis,aspheroidisobtained
asaresult.(Figure28).
Aspheroidisdefinedbytwoparameters:
• Semimajoraxisa(ontheequatorialplane)
• Semiminoraxisb(onthenorth-southpoleaxis)
Theamountbywhichtheshapedeviatesfromtheidealsphereisreferredtoasflattening(f).

a
b a
f

= (16a)

North pole
South pole
Equatorial plane
a
b
Rotation

Figure 28: Producing a spheroid

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6.3.2 Customised local reference ellipsoids and datum
6.3.2.1 Local reference ellipsoids
Whendealingwithaspheroid,caremustbetakentoensurethatthenaturalperpendiculardoesnotintersect
vertically at a point with the ellipsoid, but the geoid. Normal ellipsoidal and natural perpendiculars do not
thereforecoincide,theyaredistinguished by“verticaldeflection“(Figure30),i.e.pointsontheEarth’ssurface
are incorrectly projected. In order to keep this deviation to a minimum, each country has developed its own
customisednon-geocentricspheroidasareferencesurfaceforcarryingoutsurveyingoperations(Figure29).The
semiaxes a and b and the mid-point are selected in such a way that the geoid and ellipsoid match national
territoriesasaccuratelyaspossible.
6.3.2.2 Datum, map reference systems
National or international map reference systems based on certain types of ellipsoids are called datums.
Depending on the map used when navigating with GPS receivers, care should be taken to ensure that the
relevantmapreferencesystemhasbeenenteredintothereceiver.
Some examples of these map reference systems from a selection of over 120 are CH-1903 for Switzerland,
WGS-84astheglobalstandard,andNAD83forNorthAmerica.

C
o
u
n
t
r
y

A
C
o
u
n
t
r
y

B
Geoid (exaggerated shape)
Customized
ellipsoid
for country B
Customized
ellipsoid
for country A

Figure 29: Customised local reference ellipsoid
A spheroid is well suited for describing the positional co-ordinates of a point in degrees of longitude and
latitude.Informationonheightiseitherbasedonthegeoidorthereferenceellipsoid.Thedifferencebetween
themeasuredorthometricheightH,i.e.basedonthegeoid,andtheellipsoidalheighth,basedonthereference
ellipsoid,isknownasgeoidondulationN(Figure30)

P
H
h
Ellipsoid
Geoid
Earth
N
Vertical deviation

Figure 30: Difference between geoid and ellipsoid
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6.3.3 National reference systems
Different reference systems are used throughout Europe, and each reference system employed for technical
applicationsduringsurveyinghas itsownname.Thenon-geocentricellipsoidsthatformthe basisoftheseare
summarisedinthefollowingtable(Table5).Ifthesameellipsoidsareused,theyaredistinguishedfromcountry
tocountryinrespectoftheirlocalreferences.
Country Name Reference
ellipsoid
Local reference Semi major axis
a (m)
Flattening
(1: ...)
Germany Potsdam Bessel1841 Rauenberg 6377397.155 299.1528128
France NTF Clarke1880 Pantheon,Paris 6378249.145 293.465
Italy SI1940 Hayford1928 MonteMario,Rome 6378388.0 297.0
Netherlands RD/NAP Bessel1841 Amersfoort 6377397.155 299.1528128
Austria MGI Bessel1841 Hermannskogel 6377397.155 299.1528128
Switzerland CH1903 Bessel1841 OldObservatoryBern 6377397.155 299.1528128
International Hayford Hayford Countryindependent 6378388.000 297.000
Table 5: National reference systems
6.3.4 Worldwide reference ellipsoid WGS-84
The details displayed and calculations made by a GPS receiver primarily involve the WGS-84 (World Geodetic
System1984)referencesystem.TheWGS-84co-ordinatesystemisgeocentricallypositionedwithrespecttothe
centreoftheEarth.SuchasystemiscalledECEF(EarthCentered,EarthFixed).TheWGS-84co-ordinatesystem
is a three-dimensional, right-handed, Cartesian co-ordinate system with its original co-ordinate point at the
centreofmass(=geocentric)ofanellipsoid,whichapproximatesthetotalmassoftheEarth.
The positive X-axis of the ellispoid (Figure 31) lies on the equatorial plane (that imaginary surface which is
encompassedbytheequator)andextendsfromthecentreofmassthroughthepointatwhichtheequatorand
theGreenwichmeridianintersect(the0meridian).TheY-axisalsoliesontheequatorialplaneandisoffset90°
totheeastoftheX-axis.TheZ-axisliesperpendiculartotheXandY-axisandextendsthroughthegeographical
northpole.

X
Y
Z
North pole
Equatorial plane
Equator
Ellipsoid
Greenwich
Meridian
a
b
Origin
P
x
y
z

Figure 31: Illustration of the Cartesian co-ordinates
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ParametersoftheWGS-84referenceellipsoid
Semimajoraxisa(m) Semiminoraxisb(m) Flattening(1:....)
6,378,137.00 6,356,’752.31 298,257223563
Table 6: The WGS-84 ellipsoid
Ellipsoidal co-ordinates (ϕ, λ, h), rather than Cartesian co-ordinates (X, Y, Z) are generally used for further
processing(Figure32).ϕ correspondstolatitude,λ tolongitudeandhtotheellipsoidalheight,i.e.thelengthof
theverticalPlinetotheellipsoid.

X
Y
Z
North pole
Equator
Ellipsoid
Greenwich
Meridian
P
Equatorial plane
h
λ
ϕ

Figure 32: Illustration of the ellipsoidal co-ordinates
6.3.5 Transformation from local to worldwide reference ellipsoid
6.3.5.1 Geodetic datum
Asarule,referencesystemsaregenerallylocalratherthangeocentricellipsoids.Therelationshipbetweenalocal
(e.g.CH-1903)andaglobal,geocentricsystem(e.g.WGS-84)isreferredtoasthegeodeticdatum.Intheevent
thattheaxesofthelocalandglobalellipsoidareparallel,orcanberegardedasbeingparallelforapplications
withinalocalarea,allthatisrequiredfordatumtransitionarethreeshiftparameters,knownasthedatumshift
constants∆X,∆Y,∆Z.
Afurtherthreeanglesofrotationϕx,ϕy,ϕz andascalingfactorm(Figure33)mayhavetobeaddedsothatthe
complete transformation formula contains 7 parameters. The geodetic datum specifies the location of a local
three-dimensionalCartesianco-ordinatesystemwithregardtotheglobalsystem.

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X-WGS
Y-WGS
Z-WGS
Y-CH
Z-CH
X-CH
∆Y
∆X
∆Z
ϕz ϕy
ϕx
Elongation by factor m

Figure 33: Geodetic datum

Thefollowingtable(Table7)showsexamplesofthevariousdatumparameters.Additionalvaluescanbefound
under[x].

Country Name ∆X (m) ∆Y (m) ∆Z (m) ϕx (´´) ϕx (´´) ϕx (´´) m (ppm)
Germany Potsdam 586 87 409 -0.52 -0.15 2.82 9
France NTF -168 -60 320 0 0 0 1
Italy SI1940 -225 -65 9 - - - -
Netherlands RD/NAP 565.04 49.91 465.84 0.4094
-0.3597
1.8685 4.0772
Austria MGI -577.326 -577.326 -463.919 5.1366
1.4742
5.2970 -2.4232
Switzerland CH1903 660.077 13.551 369.344 0.8065 0.5789 0.9542 5.66
Table 7: Datum parameters
6.3.5.2 Datum conversion
Converting a datum means by definition converting one three-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system (e.g.
WGS-84)intoanother(e.g.CH-1903)bymeansofthree-dimensionalshift,rotationandextension.Thegeodetic
datummustbeknown,inordertoeffecttheconversion.Comprehensiveconversionformulaecanbefoundin
specialistliterature[xi],orconversioncanbecarriedoutdirectviatheInternet[xii].Onceconversionhastaken
place,Cartesianco-ordinatescanbetransformedintoellipsoidalco-ordinates.

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6.3.6 Converting co-ordinate systems
6.3.6.1 Converting Cartesian to ellipsoidal co-ordinates
Cartesian and ellipsoidal co-ordinates can be converted from one representation to the other. Conversion is,
however,dependentonthequandrantinwhichoneislocated.TheconversionforcentralEuropeisgivenhere
asanexample.Thismeansthatthex,yandzvaluesarepositive.[xiii]

( )
( )
( )

⋅ +

⋅ ⋅

.

'
´ −
− +

⋅ +

⋅ ⋅

.

'
´ −
+
= ϕ



3
2 2
1
2
2 2
2 2
3
2 2
1
2
2 2
1
b y x
a z
tan cos a
a
b a
y x
b y x
a z
tan sin b
b
b a
z
tan
(17a)







=

x
y
tan λ
1
(18a)

( )
( ) [ ]
2
2
2 2
2 2
sin
a
b a
1
a
cos
y x
h
ϕ ⋅







 −


ϕ
+
= (19a)
6.3.6.2 Converting ellipsoidal to Cartesian co-ordinates
Ellipsoidalco-ordinatescanbeconvertedintoCartesianco-ordinates.

( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) λ cos cos h
sin
a
b a
1
a
x
2
2
2 2
⋅ ϕ ⋅

+
ϕ ⋅

.

'
´ −

= (20a)
( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) λ sin cos h
sin
a
b a
1
a
y
2
2
2 2
⋅ ϕ ⋅

+
ϕ ⋅

.

'
´ −

= (21a)
( ) [ ]
( ) ϕ ⋅

+

.

'
´ −
− ⋅
ϕ ⋅

.

'
´ −

= sin h
a
b a
1
sin
a
b a
1
a
z
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
(22a)
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6.4 Planar land survey co-ordinates, projection
Normally,whencarryingoutordnancesurveys,thepositionofapointPontheEarth’ssurfaceisdescribedby
the ellipsoidal co-ordinates of latitude ϕ and longitude λ (based on the reference ellipsoid) as well as height
(basedonanellipsoidorgeoid)(Figure32).
Asgeodeticcalculations(e.g.thedistancebetweentwobuildings)onanellipsoidarenumericallyinconvenient,
ellipsoidal projections onto a mathematical plane are used in technical surveying operations. This produces
smooth,right-angledXandYlandsurveyco-ordinates.Mostmapscontainagridenablingapointtobeeasily
located anywhere in a terrain. In ordnance surveying, planar co-ordinates are projections of reference ellipsoid
co-ordinatesontoamathematicalplane.Projectinganellipsoidontoaplaneisnotpossiblewithoutdistortingit,
but it is possible to opt for a method of projection that keeps distortion to a minimum. Standard types of
projectionincludecylindricalorMercatorprojection,Gauss-Krügerprojection,UTMprojectionandLambertconic
projection. If positional data is used in conjunction with maps, special attention must be paid to the type of
referencesystemandprojectionusedinproducingthemaps.
6.4.1 Projection system for Germany and Austria
Atpresent,GermanyandAustriaprimarilyuseGauss-Krügerprojection,butbothcountriesareeitherplanning
to extend this to include UTM projection (Universal Transversal Mercator Projection) or havealreadymade the
switch.
6.4.1.1 Gauss-Krüger projection (Transverse Mercator Projection)
Gauss-Krüger projection is a tangential, conformal, transverse Mercator projection. An elliptical cylinder is
positioned around the spheroid, the cylinder casing coming into contact with the ellipsoid along its entire
Greenwich Meridian and in the vicinity of the poles. In order to keep longitudinal and surface distortion to a
minimum, three zones 3° in width are taken from the Bessel ellipsoid. The width of the zone is positioned
around the prime meridian. The cylinder is situated at a transverse angle to the ellipsoid, i.e. rotated by 90°
(Figure34).

Local
spheroid
(Bessel ellipsoid)
1st step:
projection
onto cylinder
Processing the cylinder:
map with country
co-ordinates
Greenwich meridian
Equator Mapping of the equator
Mapping of the Greenwich meridians
Cylinder
S
N
N
S

Figure 34: Gauss-Krüger projection

Inorderthattheco-ordinatesarenotnegative,particularlythosetothewestoftheprimemeridian,eastingis
appliedasacorrectiveprocess(e.g.500km).
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6.4.1.2 UTM projection
UTM projection (Universal Transverse Mercator Projection) is virtually identical to Gauss-Krüger projection. The
onlydifferenceisthattheGreenwichmeridianisnotaccurateintermsoflongitude,butprojectedataconstant
scaleof0.9996,andthezonesare6°inwidth.
6.4.2 Swiss projection system (conformal double projection)
The conformal projection of a Bessel ellipsoid onto a plane takes place in two stages. The ellipsoid is initially
projectedontoasphere,andthenthesphereisprojectedontoaplaneviaacylindersetatanobliqueangle.This
process is known as double projection (Figure 35). A main point on the ellipsoid (Old Observatory in Bern) is
positionedontheplanewhenmappingtheoriginalco-ordinatesystem(withoffset:Y
Ost
=600,000mandX
Nord
=
200,000m).
Twodifferentsetsofco-ordinatesaremarkedonthemapofSwitzerland(e.g.scale1:25000):
• Landco-ordinates(XandYinkilometers)projectedontotheplanewithanaccompanyinggridand
• thegeographicalco-ordinates(longitudeandlatitudeindegreesandseconds)basedontheBesselellipsoid

200'000
600'000
BERN
Local
reference ellipsoid
(Bessel ellipsoid)
1st step:
projection
onto sphere
2nd step:
projection
onto sphere
Processing the cylinder:
map with country
co-ordinates

Figure 35: The principle of double projection

Thesignaltransittimefrom4satellitesmustbeknownbythetimethepositionalco-ordinatesareissued.Only
then,afterconsiderablecalculationandconversion,isthepositionissuedinSwisslandsurveyco-ordinates).
Thesignaltransittimefrom4satellitesmustbeknownbythetimethepositionalco-ordinatesareissued.Only
then, after considerable calculation and conversion, is the position issued in Swiss land survey co-ordinates
(Figure36).
Known signal
transit time
from
4 satellites
Calculation
of WGS-84
Cartesian
co-ordinaten
Conversion
into CH-1903
Cartesian
co-ordinaten
Projection
onto sphere
Projection
onto
oblique-angled
cylinder

Figure 36: From satellite to position
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6.4.3 Worldwide co-ordinate conversion
ThereareseveralpossibilitiesontheInternetforconvertingoneco-ordinatesystemintoanother.[xiv].
6.4.3.1 Converting WGS-84 co-ordinates into CH-1903 co-ordinates, as an example
(Takenfrom“BezugssystemeinderPraxis“(practicalreferencesystems)byUrsMartiandDieterEgger,Federal
OfficeforNationalTopography)
Notethattheaccuracyisintheorderof1 meter!

1. Converting longitude and latitude:
LongitudeandlatitudeinWGS-84datahavetobeconvertedintosexagesimalseconds[´´].
Example:
1. Whenconverted,latitude46°2´38.87´´(WGS-84)becomes165758.87´´.Thisquantityisdesignated
asB:B=165758.87´´.
2. When converted, longitude 8° 43´ 49.79´´ (WGS-84) becomes 31429.79´´. This quantity is
designatedasL:L=31429.79´´.

2. Calculating auxiliary quantities:
10000
6 6 . 169028 ′ ′ −
= Φ
B

10000
5 . 26782 ′ ′ −
= Λ
L

Example:
Φ = − 0.326979
Λ = 0.464729

3. Calculating the abscissa (W---E): y
) 54 . 44 ( ) 36 . 0 ( ) 51 . 10938 ( ) 93 . 211455 ( 37 . 600072 ] [
3 2
Λ ∗ − Φ ∗ Λ ∗ − Φ ∗ Λ ∗ − Λ ∗ + = m y
Example: y=700000.0m

4. Calculating the ordinate (S---N): x
) 79 . 119 ( ) 56 . 194 ( ) 63 . 76 ( ) 25 . 3745 ( ) 95 . 308807 ( 07 . 200147 ] [
3 2 2 2
Φ ∗ + Φ ∗ Λ ∗ − Φ ∗ + Λ ∗ + Φ ∗ + = m x
Example: x=100000.0m

5. Calculating the height H:
) 94 . 6 ( ) 73 . 2 ( ) 55 . 49 ( ] [
84
Φ ∗ + Λ ∗ + − =
− WGS
Height m H
Example:
Afterconversion,height
WGS-84
=650.60mproduces:H=600m

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7 DIFFERENTIAL-GPS (DGPS)

If you would like to . . .
o knowwhatDGPSmeans
o knowhowcorrectionvaluesaredeterminedandrelayed
o understandhowtheD-signalcorrectserroneouspositionalmeasurements
o knowwhatDGPSservicesareavailableinCentralEurope
o knowwhatEGNOSandWAASmean
then this chapter is for you!

7.1 Introduction
A horizontal accuracy of approx. 20 m is probably notsufficient for every situation. In orderto determine the
movement of concrete dams down to the nearest millimetre, for example, a greater degree of accuracy is
required. In principle, a reference receiver is always used in addition to the user receiver.This is located at an
accurately measured reference point (i.e. the co-ordinates are known). By continually comparing the user
receiver with the reference receiver, many errors (evenSA ones, if it is switched on) can be eliminated. This is
because a difference in measurement arises, which is known as Differential GPS (DGPS). The process involves
twodifferentprinciples:
• DGPSbasedonthemeasurementofsignaltransittime(achievableaccuracyapprox.1m)
• DGPSbasedonthephasemeasurementofthecarriersignal(achievableaccuracyapprox.1cm)

Inthecaseofdifferentialprocessesinusetoday,ageneraldistinctionisdrawnbetweenthefollowing:
• LocalareadifferentialGPS
• RegionalareadifferentialGPS
• WideareadifferentialGPS

SeveralDGPSservicesareintroducedinsectionA.1.
7.2 DGPS based on the measurement of signal transit time
In theory, the achievable level of accuracy based on the processes currently described is approx. 15-20 m. For
surveyingoperationsrequiringanaccuracyofapprox.1cmandfordemandingfeatsofnavigation,accuracyhas
tobeincreased.Industryhasdiscoveredastraightforwardandreliablesolutiontothisproblem:differentialGPS
(DGPS).TheprincipleofDGPSisverysimple.AGPSreferencestationissetupataknown,accuratelysurveyed
point.TheGPSreferencestationdeterminesaperson’spositionbymeansoffoursatellites.Astheexactposition
ofthereferencestationisknown,itispossibletocalculateanydeviationfromtheactualpositionmeasured.This
deviation (differential position) also holds good for any GPS receivers within a 200 km radius of the reference
station. The differential position can therefore be used to correct positions measured by other GPS receivers
(Figure37).Anydeviationinpositioncaneitherberelayeddirectlybyradio,orcorrectionscansubsequentlybe
madeafterthemeasurementshavebeenmade.Basedonthisprinciple,accuracytowithinafewmillimeterscan
beachieved.
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GPS receiver
Berne
Geneva
Zurich
Basel
Chur GPS reference station

Figure 37: Principle operation of GPS with a GPS reference station
7.2.1 Detailed DGPS method of operation
Theeffectsoftheionospherearedirectlyresponsibleforinaccuratedata.InDGPS,atechnologyisnowavailable
thatcancompensateformostoftheerrors.Compensationtakesplaceinthreephases:
1. Determiningthecorrectionvaluesatthereferencestation
2. RelayingthecorrectionvaluesfromthereferencestationtotheGPSuser
3. Correctingthepseudo-rangemeasuredbytheGPSuser
7.2.1.1 Determining the correction values
A reference station whose co-ordinates are precisely known measures signal transit time to all visible GPS
satellites(Figure38)anddeterminesthepseudo-rangefromthisvariable(actualvalue).Becausethepositionof
the reference station is known precisely, it is possible to calculate the true distance(target value) toeach GPS
satellite.Thedifferencebetweenthetruevalueandthepseudo-rangecanbeascertainedbysimplesubtraction
and will give the correction value (difference between the actual and target value). The correction value is
different for every GPS satellite and will hold good for every GPS user within a radius of a few hundred
kilometers.

9°24'26"
46°48'41"
GPS
Decoder
RF
RTCM SC-104
RF receiving
antenna
GPS user
Reference station
RF transmit
antenna
RF
Satellite
antenna
GPS satellite

Figure 38: Determining the correction values
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7.2.1.2 Relaying the correction values
As the correction values can be used within a wide area to correct measured pseudo-range, they are relayed
withoutdelayviaasuitablemedium(transmitter,telephone,radio,etc.)tootherGPSusers(Figure39).

9°24'26"
46°48'41"
GPS
Decoder
RF
RTCM SC-104
RF receiving
antenna
GPS user
Reference station
RF transmitting
antenna
RF
Satellite
antenna
GPS satellite

Figure 39: Relaying the corrction values
7.2.1.3 Correcting measured pseudo-range
Afterreceivingthecorrectionvalues,aGPSusercandeterminethetruedistanceusingthepseudo-rangehehas
measured(Figure40).Theexactuserpositioncannowbecalculatedfromthetruedistance.Allcausesoferror
canthereforebeeliminatedwiththeexceptionofthoseemanatingfromreceivernoiseandmutlipath.

9°24'26"
46°48'41"
GPS
Decoder
RF
RTCM SC-104
RF receiving
antenna
GPS user
Reference station
RF transmitting
antenna
RF
Satellite
antenna
GPS satellite

Figure 40: Correcting measured pseudo-range
7.3 DGPS based on carrier phase measurement
When measuring pseudo-range an achievable accuracy of 1 meter is still not adequate for solving problems
during surveying operations. In order to be able to carry out measurements to within a few millimeters, the
satellite signal carrier phase must be evaluated. The carrier wavelength λ is approx. 19 cm. The range to a
satellitecanbedeterminedusingthefollowingmethod(Figure41).

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t
Wave length
λ
Phase
ϕ
Number of complete cycles N
Distance D
D = (N . λ) + (ϕ . λ)
User Satellite

Figure 41: The principle of phase measurement
Phase measurement is an uncertain process, becauseNis unknown. By observing several satellites at different
times and by continually comparing the user receiver with the reference receiver (during or after the
measurement) a position can be determined to within a few millimeters after having solved numerous sets of
equations.

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8 DATA FORMATS AND HARDWARE INTERFACES

If you would like to . . .
o knowwhatNMEAandRTCMmean
o knowwhataproprietarydatasetis
o knowwhatdatasetisavailableinthecaseofallGPSreceivers
o knowwhatanactiveantennais
o knowwhetherGPSreceivershaveasynchronisedtimingpulse
then this chapter is for you!

8.1 Introduction
GPS receivers require different signals in order to function (Figure 42). These variables are broadcast after
position and time have been successfully calculated and determined. To ensure that the different types of
appliances are portable there are either international standards for data exchange (NMEA and RTCM), or the
manufacturerprovidesdefined(proprietary)formatsandprotocols.

Antenna
Power supply
DGPS signal
(RTCM SC-104)
Data interface
(NMEA-Format)
Data interface
(Proprietary format)
Timing mark
(1PPS)
GPS
receiver

Figure 42: Block diagram of a GPS receiver with interfaces
8.2 Data interfaces
8.2.1 The NMEA-0183 data interface
InordertorelaycomputedGPSvariablessuchasposition,velocity,courseetc.toaperipheral(e.g.computer,
screen,transceiver),GPSmoduleshaveaserialinterface(TTLorRS-232level).Themostimportantelementsof
receiverinformationarebroadcastviathisinterfaceinaspecialdataformat.Thisformatisstandardisedbythe
NationalMarineElectronicsAssociation(NMEA)toensurethatdataexchangetakesplacewithoutanyproblems.
Nowadays,dataisrelayedaccordingtotheNMEA-0183specification.NMEAhasspecifieddatasetsforvarious
applications e.g. GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), GPS, Loran, Omega, Transit and also for various
manufacturers.ThefollowingsevendatasetsarewidelyusedwithGPSmodulestorelayGPSinformation[xv]:
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1. GGA(GPSFixData,fixeddatafortheGlobalPositioningSystem)
2. GLL(GeographicPosition–Latitude/Longitude)
3. GSA (GNSS DOP and Active Satellites, degradation of accuracy and the number of active satellites in the
GlobalSatelliteNavigationSystem)
4. GSV(GNSSSatellitesinView,satellitesinviewintheGlobalSatelliteNavigationSystem)
5. RMC(RecommendedMinimumSpecificGNSSData)
6. VTG(CourseoverGroundandGroundSpeed,horizontalcourseandhorizontalvelocity)
7. ZDA(Time&Date)
8.2.1.1 Structure of the NMEA protocol
InthecaseofNMEA,therateatwhichdataistransmittedis4800Baudusingprintable8-bitASCIIcharacters.
Transmissionbeginswithastartbit(logicalzero),followedbyeightdatabitsandastopbit(logicalone)added
attheend.Noparitybitsareused.

D0
Data bits
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D1
Start
bit
Stop
bit
D0
Data bits
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D1
Start
bit
Stop
bit
1 ( ca. Vcc)
0 ( ca. 0V)
TTL
level
0 ( U>0V)
1 ( U<0V)
RS-232
level

Figure 43: NMEA format (TTL and RS-232 level)

ThedifferentlevelsmustbetakenintoconsiderationdependingonwhethertheGPSreceiverusedhasaTTLor
RS-232interface(Figure43):
• InthecaseofaTTLlevelinterface,alogicalzerocorrespondstoapprox.0Vandalogicaloneroughlyto
theoperatingvoltageofthesystem(+3.3V...+5V)
• InthecaseofanRS-232interfacealogicalzerocorrespondstoapositivevoltage(+3V...+15V)anda
logicaloneanegativevoltage(-3V...–15V).
If a GPS module with a TTL level interface is connected to an appliance with an RS-232 interface, a level
conversionmustbeeffected(see8.3.4).
AfewGPSmodulesallowthebaudratetobeincreased(upto38400bitspersecond).

EachGPSdatasetisformedinthesamewayandhasthefollowingstructure:
$GPDTS,Inf_1,Inf_2,Inf_3,Inf_4,Inf_5,Inf_6,Inf_n*CS<CR><LF>
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ThefunctionoftheindividualcharactersorcharactersetsisexplainedinTable8.
Field Description
$ Startofthedataset
GP InformationoriginatingfromaGPSappliance
DTS Datasetidentifier(e.g.RMC)
Inf_1bisInf_n Informationwithnumber1...n(e.g.175.4forcoursedata)
, Commausedasaseparatorfordifferentitemsofinformation
* Asteriskusedasaseparatorforthechecksum
CS Checksum(controlword)forcheckingtheentiredataset
<CR><LF> Endofthedataset:carriagereturn(<CR>)andlinefeed,(<LF>)
Table 8: Description of the individual NMEA DATA SET blocks
Themaximumnumberofcharactersusedmustnotexceed79.Forthepurposesofdeterminingthisnumber,the
startsign$andendsigns<CR><LF>arenotcounted.
ThefollowingNMEAprotocolwasrecordedusingaGPSreceiver(Table9):

$GPRMC,130303.0,A,4717.115,N,00833.912,E,000.03,043.4,200601,01.3,W*7D<CR><LF>
$GPZDA,130304.2,20,06,2001,,*56<CR><LF>
$GPGGA,130304.0,4717.115,N,00833.912,E,1,08,0.94,00499,M,047,M,,*59<CR><LF>
$GPGLL,4717.115,N,00833.912,E,130304.0,A*33<CR><LF>
$GPVTG,205.5,T,206.8,M,000.04,N,000.08,K*4C<CR><LF>
$GPGSA,A,3,13,20,11,29,01,25,07,04,,,,,1.63,0.94,1.33*04<CR><LF>
$GPGSV,2,1,8,13,15,208,36,20,80,358,39,11,52,139,43,29,13,044,36*42<CR><LF>
$GPGSV,2,2,8,01,52,187,43,25,25,074,39,07,37,286,40,04,09,306,33*44<CR><LF>
$GPRMC,130304.0,A,4717.115,N,00833.912,E,000.04,205.5,200601,01.3,W*7C<CR><LF>
$GPZDA,130305.2,20,06,2001,,*57<CR><LF>
$GPGGA,130305.0,4717.115,N,00833.912,E,1,08,0.94,00499,M,047,M,,*58<CR><LF>
$GPGLL,4717.115,N,00833.912,E,130305.0,A*32<CR><LF>
$GPVTG,014.2,T,015.4,M,000.03,N,000.05,K*4F<CR><LF>
$GPGSA,A,3,13,20,11,29,01,25,07,04,,,,,1.63,0.94,1.33*04<CR><LF>
$GPGSV,2,1,8,13,15,208,36,20,80,358,39,11,52,139,43,29,13,044,36*42<CR><LF>
$GPGSV,2,2,8,01,52,187,43,25,25,074,39,07,37,286,40,04,09,306,33*44<CR><LF>
Table 9: Recording of an NMEA protocol

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8.2.1.2 GGA data set
TheGGAdataset(GPSFixData)containsinformationontime,longitudeandlatitude,thequalityofthesystem,
thenumberofsatellitesusedandtheheight.

AnexampleofaGGAdataset:
$GPGGA,130305.0,4717.115,N,00833.912,E,1,08,0.94,00499,M,047,M,,*58<CR><LF>

ThefunctionoftheindividualcharactersorcharactersetsisexplainedinTable10.
Field Description
$ Startofthedataset
GP InformationoriginatingfromaGPSappliance
GGA Datasetidentifier
130305.0 UTCpositionaltime:13h03min05.0sec
4717.115 Latitude:47°17.115min
N Northerlylatitude(N=north,S=south)
00833.912 Latitude:8°33.912min
E Easterlylongitude(E=east,W=west)
1 GPSqualitydetails(0=noGPS,1=GPS,2=DGPS)
08 Numberofsatellitesusedinthecalculation
0.94 HorizontalDilutionofPrecision(HDOP)
00499 Antennaheightdata(geoidheight)
M Unitofheight(M=meter)
047 Heightdifferentialbetweenanellipsoidandgeoid
M Unitofdifferentialheight(M=meter)
,, AgeoftheDGPSdata(inthiscasenoDGPSisused)
0000 IdentificationoftheDGPSreferencestation
* Separatorforthechecksum
58 Checksumforverifyingtheentiredataset
<CR><LF> Endofthedataset
Table 10: Description of the individual GGA data set blocks

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8.2.1.3 GLL data set
TheGLLdataset(geographicposition–latitude/longitude)containsinformationonlatitudeandlongitude,time
andhealth.

ExampleofaGLLdataset:
$GPGLL,4717.115,N,00833.912,E,130305.0,A*32<CR><LF>

ThefunctionoftheindividualcharactersorcharactersetsisexplainedinTable11.
Field Description
$ Startofthedataset
GP InformationoriginatingfromaGPSappliance
GLL Datasetidentifier
4717.115 Latitude:47°17.115min
N Northerlylatitude(N=north,S=south)
00833.912 Longitude:8°33.912min
E Easterlylongitude(E=east,W=west)
130305.0 UTCpositionaltime:13h03min05.0sec
A Datasetquality:Ameansvalid(V=invalid)
* Separatorforthechecksum
32 Checksumforverifyingtheentiredataset
<CR><LF> Endofthedataset
Table 11: Description of the individual GGL data set blocks
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8.2.1.4 GSA data set
TheGSAdataset(GNSSDOPandActiveSatellites)containsinformationonthemeasuringmode(2Dor3D),the
number of satellites used to determine the position and the accuracy of the measurements (DOP: Dilution of
Precision).

AnexampleofaGSAdataset:
$GPGSA,A,3,13,20,11,29,01,25,07,04,,,,,1.63,0.94,1.33*04<CR><LF>

ThefunctionoftheindividualcharactersorsetsofcharactersisdecribedinTable12.
Field Description
$ Startofthedataset
GP InformationoriginatingfromaGPSappliance
GSA Datasetidentifier
A Calculatingmode(A=automaticselectionbetween2D/3Dmode,M=manualselection
between2D/3Dmode)
3 Calculatingmode(1=none,2=2D,3=3D)
13 IDnumberofthesatellitesusedtocalculateposition
20 IDnumberofthesatellitesusedtocalculateposition
11 IDnumberofthesatellitesusedtocalculateposition
29 IDnumberofthesatellitesusedtocalculateposition
01 IDnumberofthesatellitesusedtocalculateposition
25 IDnumberofthesatellitesusedtocalculateposition
07 IDnumberofthesatellitesusedtocalculateposition
04 IDnumberofthesatellitesusedtocalculateposition
,,,,, DummyforadditionalIDnumbers(currentlynotused)
1.63 PDOP(PositionDilutionofPrecision)
0.94 HDOP(HorizontalDilutionofPrecision)
1.33 VDOP(VerticalDilutionofPrecision)
* Separatorforthechecksum
04 Checksumforverifyingtheentiredataset
<CR><LF> Endofthedataset
Table 12: Description of the individual GSA data set blocks

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8.2.1.5 GSV data set
The GSV data set (GNSS Satellites in View) contains information on the number of satellites in view, their
identification,theirelevationandazimuth,andthesignal-to-noiseratio.

AnexampleofaGSVdataset:
$GPGSV,2,2,8,01,52,187,43,25,25,074,39,07,37,286,40,04,09,306,33*44<CR><LF>

ThefunctionoftheindividualcharactersorcharactersetsisexplainedinTable13.
Field Description
$ Startofthedataset
GP InformationoriginatingfromaGPSappliance
GSV Datasetidentifier
2 TotalnumberofGVSdatasetstransmitted(upto1...9)
2 CurrentnumberofthisGVSdataset(1...9)
09 Totalnumberofsatellitesinview
01 Identificationnumberofthefirstsatellite
52 Elevation(0°....90°)
187 Azimuth(0°...360°)
43

Signal-to-noiseratioindb-Hz(1...99,nullwhennottracking)
25 Identificationnumberofthesecondsatellite
25 Elevation(0°....90°)
074 Azimuth(0°...360°)
39

Signal-to-noiseratioindB-Hz(1...99,nullwhennottracking)
07 Identificationnumberofthethirdsatellite
37 Elevation(0°....90°)
286 Azimuth(0°...360°)
40

Signal-to-noiseratioindb-Hz(1...99,nullwhennottracking)
04 Identificationnumberofthefourthsatellite
09 Elevation(0°....90°)
306 Azimuth(0°...360°)
33

Signal-to-noiseratioindb-Hz(1...99,nullwhennottracking)
* Separatorforthechecksum
44 Checksumforverifyingtheentiredataset
<CR><LF> Endofthedataset
Table 13: Description of the individual GSV data set blocks

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8.2.1.6 RMC data set
The RMC data set (Recommended Minimum Specific GNSS) contains information on time, latitude, longitude
andheight,systemstatus,speed,courseanddate.ThisdatasetisrelayedbyallGPSreceivers.

AnexampleofanRMCdataset:
$GPRMC,130304.0,A,4717.115,N,00833.912,E,000.04,205.5,200601,01.3,W*7C<CR><LF>

ThefunctionoftheindividualcharactersorcharactersetsisexplainedinTable14.
Field Description
$ Startofthedataset
GP InformationoriginatingfromaGPSappliance
RMC Datasetidentifier
130304.0 Timeofreception(worldtimeUTC):13h03min04.0sec
A Datasetquality:Asignifiesvalid(V=invalid)
4717.115 Latitude:47°17.115min
N Northerlylatitude(N=north,S=south)
00833.912 Longitude:8°33.912min
E Easterlylongitude(E=east,W=west)
000.04 Speed:0.04knots
205.5 Course:205.5°
200601 Date:20thJune2001
01.3 Adjusteddeclination:1.3°
W Westerlydirectionofdeclination(E=east)
* Separatorforthechecksum
7C Checksumforverifyingtheentiredataset
<CR><LF> Endofthedataset
Table 14: Description of the individual RMC data set blocks

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8.2.1.7 VTG data set
TheVGTdataset(CourseoverGroundandGroundSpeed)containsinformationoncourseandspeed.

AnexampleofaVTGdataset:
$GPVTG,014.2,T,015.4,M,000.03,N,000.05,K*4F<CR><LF>

ThefunctionoftheindividualcharactersorcharactersetsisexplainedinTable15.
Field Description
$ Startofthedataset
GP InformationoriginatingfromaGPSappliance
VTG Datasetidentifier
014.2 Course14.2°(T)withregardtothehorizontalplane
T Angularcoursedatarelativetothemap
015.4 Course15.4°(M)withregardtothehorizontalplane
M Angularcoursedatarelativetomagneticnorth
000.03 Horizontalspeed(N)
N Speedinknots
000.05 Horizontalspeed(Km/h)
K Speedinkm/h
* Separatorforthechecksum
4F Checksumforverifyingtheentiredataset
<CR><LF> Endofthedataset
Table 15: Description of the individual VTG data set blocks

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8.2.1.8 ZDA data set
TheZDAdataset(timeanddate)containsinformationonUTCtime,thedateandlocaltime.

AnexampleofaZDAdataset:
$GPZDA,130305.2,20,06,2001,,*57<CR><LF>

ThefunctionoftheindividualcharactersorcharactersetsisexplainedinTable16.
Field Description
$ Startofthedataset
GP InformationoriginatingfromaGPSappliance
ZDA Datasetidentifier
130305.2 UTCtime:13h03min05.2sec
20 Day(00…31)
06 Month(1…12)
2001 Year
Reservedfordataonlocaltime(h),notspecifiedhere
Reservedfordataonlocaltime(min),notspecifiedhere
* Separatorforthechecksum
57 Checksumforverifyingtheentiredataset
<CR><LF> Endofthedataset
Table 16: Description of the individual ZDA data set blocks
8.2.1.9 Calculating the checksum
Thechecksumisdeterminedbyanexclusive-oroperationinvolvingall8databits(excludingstartandstopbits)
fromalltransmittedcharacters,includingseparators.Theexclusive-oroperationcommencesafterthestartofthe
dataset($sign)andendsbeforethechecksumseparator(asterisk:*).
The 8-bit result is divided into 2 sets of 4 bits (nibbles) and each nibble is converted into the appropriate
hexadecimalvalue(0...9,A...F).ThechecksumconsistsofthetwohexadecimalvaluesconvertedintoASCII
characters.

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Theprincipleofchecksumcalculationcanbeexplainedwiththehelpofabriefexample:
ThefollowingNMEAdatasethasbeenreceivedandthechecksum(CS)mustbeverifiedforitscorrectness.
$GPRTE,1,1,c,0*07 (07 isthechecksum)

Procedure:
1. Onlythecharactersbetween$and*areincludedintheanalysis:GPRTE,1,1,c,0
2. These13ASCIIcharactersareconvertedinto8bitvalues(seeTable17)
3. Eachindividualbitofthe13ASCIIcharactersislinkedtoanexclusive-oroperation(N.B.Ifthenumberof
onesisuneven,theexclusive-orvalueisone)
4. Theresultisdividedintotwonibbles
5. Thehexadecimalvalueofeachnibbleisdetermined
6. BothhexadecimalcharactersaretransmittedasASCIIcharacterstoformthechecksum

Character ASCII (8 bit value)
G 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
P 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
R 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
T 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
E 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
, 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
, 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
, 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
C 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1
, 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
Exclusive-or value 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
Nibble 0000 0111
Hexadecimalvalue 0 7
ASCIICScharacters
(meetsrequirements!)
0 7
Table 17: Determining the checksum in the case of NMEA data sets
Directionto
proceed
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8.2.2 The DGPS correction data (RTCM SC-104)
The RTCM SC-104 standard is used to transmit correction values. RTCM SC-104 stands for “Radio Technical
CommissionforMaritimeServicesSpecialCommittee104“andiscurrentlyrecognisedaroundtheworldasthe
industrystandard[xvi].TherearetwoversionsoftheRTCMRecommendedStandardsforDifferentialNAVSTAR
GPSService
• Version2.0(issuedinJanuary1990)
• Version2.1(issuedinJanuary1994)
Version2.1isareworkedversionof2.0andisdistinguished,inparticular,bythefactthatitprovidesadditional
informationforrealtimenavigation(RealTimeKinematic,RTK).
Both versions are divided into 63 message types, numbers 1, 2, 3 and 9 being used primarily for corrections
basedoncodemeasurements.
8.2.2.1 The RTCM message header
Each message type is divided into words of 30 bits and, in each instance, begins with a uniform header
comprising two words (WORD 1 and WORD 2). From the information contained in the header it is apparent
which message type follows [xvii] and which reference station has determined the correction data (Figure 44
from[xviii]).

Figure 44: Construction of the RTCM message header
Contents Name Description
PREAMBLE Preamble Preamble
MESSAGETYPE: Messagetype Messagetypeidentifier
STATIONID ReferencestationIDNo. Referencestationidentification
PARITY Errorcorrectioncode Parity
MODIFIEDZ-COUNT ModifiedZ-count Modified Z-Count, incremental
timecounter
SEQUENCENO. FramesequenceNo. Sequentialnumber
LENGTHOFFRAME Framelength Lengthofframe
STATIONHEALTH Referencestationhealth Technicalstatusofthereference
station
Table 18: Contents of the RTCM message header
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Thespecificdatacontentforthemessagetype(WORD3...WORDn)followstheheader,ineachcase.
8.2.2.2 RTCM message type 1
Message type 1 transmits pseudo-range correction data (PSR correction data, range correction) for all GPS
satellites visible to the reference station, based on the most up-to-date orbital data (ephemeris). Type 1
additionallycontainstherate-of-changecorrectionvalue(Figure45,extractfrom[xix],onlyWORD3toWORD6
isshown).

Figure 45: Construction of RTCM message type 1

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Contents Name Description
SCALEFACTOR Pseudo-rangecorrectionvaluescalefactor PSRscalefactor
UDRE Userdifferentialrangeerrorindex Userdifferentialrangeerror
index
SATELLITEID SatelliteIDNo. Satelliteidentification
PSEUDORANGE
CORRECTION
Pseudo-rangecorrectionvalue Effectiverangecorrection
RANGE-RATE
CORRECTION
Pseudo-rangerate-of-changecorrectionvalue Rate-of-changeofthe
correctiondata
ISSUEOFDATA DataissueNo. Issueofdata
PARITY Errorcorrectioncode Checkbits
Table 19: Contents of RTCM message type 1
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8.2.2.3 RTCM message type 2 to 9
Messagetypes2to9aredistinguishedprimarilybytheirdatacontent:
• Message type 2 transmits delta PSR correction data, based on previous orbital data. This information is
requiredwhenevertheGPSuserhasbeenunabletoupdatehissatelliteorbitalinformation.Inmessagetype
2,thedifferencebetweencorrectionvaluesbasedonthepreviousandupdatedephemerisistransmitted.
• Message type 3 transmitsthethreedimensionalco-ordinatesofthereferencestation.
• Message type 9relaysthesameinformationasmessagetype1,butonlyforalimitednumberofsatellites
(max.3).Dataisonlytransmittedfromthosesatelliteswhosecorrectionvalueschangerapidly.
In order for there to be a noticeable improvement in accuracy using DGPS, thecorrection data relayed should
notbeolderthanapprox.10to60seconds(differentvaluesaresupplieddependingontheserviceoperator,the
exactvaluealsodependsontheaccuracyrequired,seealso[xx]).Accuracydecreasesasthedistancebetween
the reference and user station increases. Trial measurements using the correction signals broadcast by theLW
transmitterinMainflingen,Germany,(seesectionA1.3)producedanerrorrateof0.5–1.5mwithinaradiusof
250km,and1–3mwithinaradiusof600km[xxi].
8.3 Hardware interfaces
8.3.1 Antenna
GPS modules can either be operated with a passive or active antenna. Active antennae, i.e. with a built-in
preamplifier(LNA:LowNoiseAmplifier)arepoweredfromtheGPSmodule,thecurrentbeingprovidedbythe
HFsignalline.Formobilenavigationalpurposescombinedantennae(e.g.GSM/FMandGPS)aresupplied.GPS
antennaereceiveright-handedcircularpolarisedwaves.
Two types of antenna are obtainable on the market, Patch antennae and Helix antennae. Patch antennae are
flat,generallyhaveaceramicandmetallisedbodyandaremountedonametalbaseplate.Inordertoensurea
sufficiently high degree of selectivity, the base to Patch surface ratio has to be adjusted. Patch antennae are
oftencastinahousing(Figure46),[xxii]).
Helixantennaearecylindricalinshape(Figure47,[xxiii])andhaveahighergainthanthePatchantennae.

Figure 46: Open and cast Patch antennae

Figure 47: Basic structural shape of a Helix antennae

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8.3.2 Supply
GPSmodulesmustbepoweredfromanexternalvoltagesourceof3.3Vto6Volts.Ineachcase,thepowerdraw
isverydifferent.
8.3.3 Time pulse: 1PPS and time systems
Most GPS modules generate a time pulse every second, referred to as 1 PPS (1 pulse per second), which is
synchronisedtoUTC.ThissignalusuallyhasaTTLlevel(Figure48).

1s±40ns ca. 200ms

Figure 48: 1PPS signal
Thetimepulsecanbeusedtosynchronisecommunicationnetworks(PrecisionTiming).
As time can play a fundamental part when GPS is used to determine a position, a distinction is drawn here
betweenfiveimportantGPStimesystems:
8.3.3.1 Atomic time (TAI)
The International Atomic Time Scale (Temps Atomique International) was introduced in order to provide a
universal 'absolute' time scale that would meet various practical demands and at the same time also be of
significanceforGPSpositioning.Since1967,thesecondhasbeendefinedbyanatomicconstantinphysics,the
non-radioactive element Caesium
133
Cs being selected as a reference. The resonant frequency between the
selected energy states of this atom has been determined at 9 192 631 770 Hz. Time defined in this way is
therefore part of the SI system (Système International). The start of atomic time took place on 01.01.1958 at
00.00hours.
8.3.3.2 Universal time co-ordinated (UTC)
UTC (Universal Time Coordinated) was introduced, in order to have a practical time scale that was oriented
towardsuniversalatomictimeand,atthesametime,adjustedtouniversalco-ordinatedtime.Itisdistinguished
from TAI in the way the seconds are counted, i.e. UTC = TAI - n, where n = complete seconds that can be
alteredon1
st
Januaryor1
st
Juneofanygivenyear(leapseconds).
8.3.3.3 GPS time
GeneralGPSsystemtimeisspecifiedbyaweeknumberandthenumberofsecondswithinthatweek.Thestart
date wasSunday, 6thJanuary 1980 at 0.00 hours (UTC). Each GPS week starts in the night from Saturday to
Sunday,thecontinuoustimescalebeingsetbythemainclockattheMasterControlStation.Thetimedifference
thatarisesbetweenGPSandUTCtimeisconstantlybeingcalculatedandappendedtothenavigationmessage.
8.3.3.4 Satellite time
Because of constant, irregular frequency errors in the atomic clocks on board the GPS satellites, individual
satellitetimeisatvariancewithGPSsystemtime.Thesatelliteclocksaremonitoredbythecontrolstationand
any apparent time difference relayed to Earth. Any time differences must be taken into account when
conductinglocalGPSmeasurements.
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8.3.3.5 Local time
Local time is the time referred to within a certain area. The relationship between local time and UTC time is
determinedbythetimezoneandregulationsgoverningthechangeoverfromnormaltimetosummertime.
Exampleofatimeframe(Table20)on21stJune2001(Zurich)
Timebasis Timedisplayed(hh:min:sec) DifferencentoUTC(sec)
Localtime 08:31:26 7200(=2h)
UTC 06:31:26 0
GPS 06:31:39 +13
TAI 06:31:58 +32
Table 20: Time systems

The interrelationship of time systems (valid for 2001):

TAI–UTC=+32sec
GPS–UTC=+13sec
TAI–GPS=+19sec

8.3.4 Converting the TTL level to RS-232
8.3.4.1 Basics of serial communication
ThepurposeoftheRS-232interfaceismainly
• tolinkcomputerstoeachother(mostlybidirectional)
• tocontrolserialprinters
• toconnectPCstoexternalequipment,suchasGSMmodems,GPSreceivers,etc.
The serial ports in PCs are designed for asynchronous transfer. Persons engaged in transmitting and receiving
operationsmustadheretoacompatibletransferprotocol,i.e.anagreementonhowdataistobetransferred.
Bothpartnersmustworkwiththesameinterfaceconfiguration,andthiswillaffecttherateoftransfermeasured
inbaud.Thebaudrateisthenumberofbitspersecondtobetransferred.Typicalbaudratesare110,150,300,
600,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200and38400baud,i.e.bitspersecond.Theseparametersarelaiddownin
the transfer protocol. In addition, agreement must be reached by both sides on what checks should be
implementedregardingthereadytotransmitandreceivestatus.
During transmission, 7 to 8 data bits are condensed into a data word in order to relay the ASCII codes. The
lengthofadatawordislaiddowninthetransferprotocol.
The beginning of a data word is identified by a start bit, and at the end of every word 1 or 2 stop bits are
appended.
Acheckcanbecarriedoutusingaparitybit.Inthecaseofevenparity,theparitybitisselectedinsuchaway
thatthetotalnumberoftransferreddataword»1bits«iseven(inthecaseofunevenparitythereisanuneven
number).Checkingparityisimportant,becauseinterferenceinthelinkcancausetransmissionerrors.Evenifone
bitofadatawordisaltered,theerrorcanbeidentifiedusingtheparitybit.
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8.3.4.2 Determining the level and its logical allocation
DataistransmittedininvertedlogicontheTxDandRxDlines.TstandsfortransmitterandRforreceiver.
Inaccordancewithstandards,thelevelsare:
• Logical0=positivevoltage,transmitmode:+5..+15V,receivemode:+3..+15V
• Logical1=negativevoltage,transmitmode:-5..-15V,receivemode-3..-15V
The difference between the minimum permissible voltage during transmission and reception means that line
interferencedoesnotaffectthefunctionoftheinterface,providedthenoiseamplitudeisbelow2V.
Converting the TTL level of the interface controller (UART, universal asynchronous receiver/ transmitter) to the
requiredRS-232levelandviceversaiscarriedoutbyalevelconverter(e.g.MAX3221andmanymorebesides).
The following figure (Figure 49) illustrates the difference between TTL and RS-232 levels. Level inversion can
clearlybeseen.
D0
Data bits
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D1
Start
bit
Stop
bit
D0
Data bits
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D1
Start
bit
Stop
bit
1: ( ca. Vcc)
0: ( ca. 0V)
TTL
level
0: ( U>0V)
1: ( U<0V)
RS-232
level

Figure 49: Difference between TTL and RS-232 levels
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8.3.4.3 Converting the TTL level to RS-232
Many GPS receivers and GPS modules only make serial NMEA and proprietary data available using TTL levels
(approx.0Vorapprox.Vcc=+3.3Vor+5V).ItisnotalwayspossibletoevaluatethisdatadirectlythroughaPC,
asaPCinputrequiresRS232levelvalues.
Asacircuitisneededtocarryoutthenecessaryleveladjustment,theindustryhasdevelopedintegratedcircuits
specificallydesignedtodealwithconversionbetweenthetwolevelranges,toundertakesignalinversion,andto
accommodate the necessary equipment to generate negative supply voltage (by means of built-in charge
pumps).
A complete bidirectional level converter that uses a "Maxim MAX3221" [xxiv] is illustrated on the following
circuitdiagram(Figure50).Thecircuithasanoperationalvoltageof3V...5Vandisprotectedagainstvoltage
peaks(ESD)of±15kV.ThefunctionoftheC1...C4capacitorsistoincreaseorinvertthevoltage.

Figure 50: Block diagram pin assignment of the MAX32121 level converter
Thefollowingtestcircuit(Figure51)clearlyillustratesthewayinwhichthemodulesfunction.Inthecaseofthis
configuration,aTTLsignal(0V...3.3V)isappliedtolineT_IN.Theinversionandvoltageincreaseto±5Vcanbe
seenonlinesT_OUTandR_INoftheRS-232output.

Figure 51: Functional test on the MAX3221 level converter

RS-232 level
TTL
level
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9 GPS RECEIVERS

If you would like to . . .
o knowhowaGPSreceiverisconstructed
o understandwhyseveralstagesarenecessarytoreconstructGPSsignals
o knowhowanHFstagefunctions
o knowhowthesignalprocessorfunctions
o understandhowbothstagesinteract
o knowhowareceivermodulefunctions
then this chapter is for you!

9.1 Basics of GPS handheld receivers
AGPSreceivercanbedividedintothefollowingmainstages(Figure52).

Antenna
1575.42MHz
LNA Mixer AGC
IF filter
2 bit
ADC
Local
Oscillator
Timing
Reference
Oszillator
HF-Stufe
Cristal
Correlator
1
Spread
signal
processor
(SSP)
C/A-Code
generator
2
3
.
.
n
DGPS
(RTCM)
Kontroller
Power Supply
Data
Control
Micro
controller
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 0 . +
-
*
# =
Keyboard
Lat.: 12°14'15''
Long.: 07°32'28''
Altitude: 655,00m
Display
Synchronisation
AGC
Control
LNA1
RF filter
Digital IF
Signalprozessor
Time base
(RTC)
Cristal
Memory
(RAM/ROM)
Interface
Control

Figure 52: Simplified block diagram of a GPS receiver
• Antenna: The antenna receives extremely weak satellite signals on a frequency of 1572.42MHz. Signal
outputisaround–163dBW.Some(passive)antennaehavea3dBgain.
• LNA 1:Thislownoiseamplifier(LNA)amplifiesthesignalbyapprox.15...20dB.
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• HF filter: TheGPSsignalbandwithisapprox.2MHZ.TheHFfilterreducestheaffectsofsignalinterference.
TheHFstageandsignalprocessoractuallyrepresentthespecialcircuitsinaGPSreceiverandareadjustedto
eachother.
• HF stage:TheamplifiedGPSsignalismixedwiththefrequencyofthelocaloscillator.ThefilteredIFsignalis
maintainedataconstantlevelinrespectofitsamplitudeanddigitalisedviaAmplitudeGainControl(AGC)
• IF filter: The intermediate frequency is filtered out using a bandwidth of 2MHz. The image frequencies
arisingatthemixingstagearereducedtoapermissiblelevel.
• Signal processor: Up to 16 different satellite signals can be correlated and decoded at the same time.
Correlation takes place byconstant comparison withthe C/A code. The HF stageand signal processor are
simultaneously switched to synchronise with the signal. The signal processor has its own time base (Real
Time Clock, RTC). All the data ascertained is broadcast (particularly signal transit time to the relevant
satellites determined by the correlator),and this is referred to as source data. The signal processor can be
offsetbythecontrollerviathecontrollinetofunctioninvariousoperatingmodes.
• Controller: Usingthesourcedata,thecontrollercalculatesposition,time,speedandcourseetc.Itcontrols
the signal processor and relays the calculated values to the display. Important information (such as
ephemeris,themostrecentpositionetc.)aredecodedandsavedinRAM.Theprogramandthecalculation
algorithmsaresavedinROM.
• Keyboard:Usingthekeyboard,theusercanselect,whichco-ordinatesystemhewishestouseandwhich
parameters(e.g.numberofvisiblesatellites)shouldbedisplayed.
• Display: The position calculated (longitude, latitude and height) must be made available to the user. This
can either be displayed using a 7-segment display or shown on a screen using a projected map. The
positionsdeterminedcanbesaved,wholeroutesbeingrecorded.
• Current supply: The power supply delivers the necessary operational voltage to all levels of electronic
componentry.

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9.2 GPS receiver modules
9.2.1 Basic design of a GPS module
GPSmoduleshavetoevaluateweakantennasignalsfromatleastfoursatellites,inordertodetermineacorrect
three-dimensionalposition.Atimesignalisalsooftenemittedinadditiontolongitude,latitudeandheight.This
timesignalissynchronisedwithUTC(UniversalTimeCoordinated).Fromthepositiondeterminedandtheexact
time,additionalphysicalvariables,suchasspeedandaccelerationcanalsobecalculated.TheGPSmoduleissues
informationontheconstellation,satellitehealth,andthenumberofvisiblesatellitesetc.
Figure53showsatypicalblockdiagramofaGPSmodule.
Thesignalsreceived(1575.42MHz)arepre-amplifiedandtransformedtoalowerintermediatefrequency.The
referenceoscillatorprovidesthenecessarycarrierwaveforfrequencyconversion,alongwiththenecessaryclock
frequency for the processor and correlator. The analogue intermediate frequency is converted into a digital
signalbymeansofa2-bitADC.
SignaltransittimefromthesatellitestotheGPSreceiverisascertainedbycorrelatingPRNpulsesequences.The
satellitePRNsequencemustbeusedtodeterminethistime,otherwisethereisnocorrelationmaximum.Datais
recoveredbymixingitwiththecorrectPRNsequence.Atthesametime,theusefulsignalisamplifiedabovethe
interferencelevel[xxv].Upto16satellitesignalsareprocessedsimultaneously.Thecontrolandgeneration of
PRNsequencesandtherecoveryofdataiscarriedoutbyasignalprocessor.Calculatingandsavingtheposition,
includingthevariablesderivedfromthis,iscarriedoutbyaprocessorwithamemoryfacility.

Passive
antenna
Active
antenna
LNA
Signal
Supply
Reference
Oszillator
Processor
RAM
ROM
Interface
NMEA Proprietary
DGPS Input
RTCM
Correlators
Signal processor
PRN generator
Time mark
1 PPS
RF amplifier
Mixer
A/D converter
Power supply
(3,3V ... 5V)

Figure 53: Typical block diagram of a GPS module

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10 GPS APPLICATIONS

If you would like to . . .
o knowwhatvariablescanbedeterminedusingGPS
o knowwhatapplicationsarepossiblewithGPS
o knowhowtimeisdeterminedtoprecisevalues
then this chapter is for you!

10.1 Introduction
UsingtheGlobalPositioningSystem(GPS,aprocessusedtoestablishapositionatanypointontheglobe)the
followingtwovaluescanbedeterminedanywhereonEarth:
• One’s exact location (longitude, latitude and height co-ordinates) accurate to within a range of 20 m to
approx.1mm
• The precise time (world time, Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) accurate to within a range of 60ns to
approx.1ns.

Variousadditionalvariablescanbederivedfromthethree-dimensionalpositionandtheexacttime,suchas:
• speed
• acceleration
• course
• localtime
• rangemeasurements

The traditional fields of application for GPS are surveying, shipping and aviation. However, the market is
currentlyenjoyingasurgeindemandforelectroniccarnavigationsystems.Thereasonforthisenormousgrowth
indemandisthemotorindustry,whichishopingtomakebetteruseoftheroadtrafficnetworkbyutilisingthis
equipment.Applications,suchasAutomaticVehicleLocation(AVL)andthemanagementofvehiclefleetsalso
appeartobeontherise.GPSisalsobeingincreasinglyutilisedincommunicationtechnology.Forexample,the
preciseGPStimesignalisusedtosynchronisetelecommunicationsnetworksaroundtheworld.From2001,the
USFederalCommunicationsCommission(FCC)isdemandingthat,whenAmericansring911inanemergency,
theirpositioncanautomaticallybelocatedtowithinapprox.125m.Thislaw,knownasE-911(Enhanced911),
meansthatmobiletelephoneswillhavetobeupgradedwiththisnewtechnology.
Intheleisureindustrytoo,theuseofGPSisbecomingincreasinglyestablished.Whetheronahike,outhunting,
touringonone’sMountainBike,orsurfingacrossLakeConstanceinSouthernGermany,aGPSreceiverprovides
goodserviceinanylocation.
Basically,GPScanbeusedanywherewheresatellitesignalreceptionispossible.

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10.2 Description of the various applications
GPSaidednavigationandpositioningisusedinmanysectorsoftheeconomy,aswellasinscience,technology,
tourism,researchandsurveying.The(D)GPSprocesscanbeemployedwhereverthree-dimensionalgeodatahas
asignificantroletoplay.Afewimportantsectorsaredetailedbelow.
10.2.1 Science and research
GPS has readily found itself a place in archaeology ever since this branch of science began to use aerial and
satelliteimaging.BycombiningGIS(GeographicInformationSystems)withsatelliteandaerialphotography,as
wellasGPSand3Dmodelling,ithasbeenpossibletoanswersomeofthefollowingquestions.
• Whatconclusionsregardingthedistributionofculturescanbemadebasedonfinds?
• Isthereacorrelationbetweenareasfavouringthegrowthofcertainarableplantsandthespreadofcertain
cultures?
• What sort of blending and intermingling of attributes enable conclusions to be drawn regarding the
probablefurthestmostextentofaculture?
• Whatdidthelandscapelooklikeinthisvicinity2000yearsago?
Geometricians use (D)GPS, in order to carry out surveys (satellite geodesy) quickly and efficiently to within an
accuracyofamillimeter.Forgeometricians,theintroductionofsatellite-basedsurveyingrepresentsaquantum
leap comparable to that between the abacus and the computer. The applications are endless, ranging from
surveying properties, streets, railway lines and rivers to even charting the ocean depths, conducting Land
Registersurveys,carryingoutdeformationmeasurementsandmonitoringlandslidesetc.
In land surveying, GPS has virtually become an exclusive method for pinpointing sites in basic networks.
Everywherearoundtheworld,continentalandnationalGPSnetworksareemergingthat,inconjunctionwiththe
global ITRF, provide homogenous and highly accurate networks of points for density and point to point
measurements.Ataregionallevel,thenumberoftenderstosetupGPSnetworksasabasisforgeo-information
systemsandcadastrallandsurveysisgrowing.
Already today, GPS has an established place in photogrammetry. Apart from determining co-ordinates for
groundreferencepoints,GPSisregularlyusedtodetermineaerialsurveynavigationandcameraco-ordinatesin
aero-triangulation.Usingthismethod,over90%orsoofgroundreferencepointscanbedispensedwith.Future
remotereconnaissancesatelliteswillalsohaveGPSreceivers,sothattheevaluationofdatafortheproduction
andupdatingofmapsinunderdevelopedcountries,ismadeeasier.
In hydrography, GPS can be used to determine the exact height of the survey boat, in order to facilitate the
arrangement of vertical measurements on a clearly defined height reference surface. The expectation is that
operationalmethodsinthisfieldwillbeavailableinthenearfuture.

OtherpossibleareasofapplicationforGPSare:
• Archaeology
• Seismology(geophysics)
• Glaciology(geophysics)
• Geology(mapping)
• Surveyingdeposits(mineralogy,geology)
• Physics(flowmeasurements,timestandardisationmeasurement)
• Scientificexpeditions
• Engineeringsciences(e.g.shipbuilding,generalconstructionindustry)
• Cartography
• Geography
• Geo-informationtechnology
• Forestryandagriculturalsciences
• Landscapeecology
• Geodesy
• Aerospacesciences
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10.2.2 Commerce and industry
ItisclearthatroadtrafficwillcontinuetobethebiggestmarketforGPS.Outofatotalmarketvalueestimated
at 60 billion US-$ by 2005, 21.6 billion alone will be allocated to road traffic and 10.6 billion to
telecommunicationstechnology[xxvi].Avehiclewillhaveacomputerwithascreen,sothatanappropriatemap
showing your position will be displayed no matterwhere you are. Youwill be ableto select the best route to
yourdestination.Whentherearetrafficjamsyouwillbeabletofindalternativerouteswithoutdifficultyandthe
computerwillcalculateyourjourneytimeandtheamountoffuelneededtogetthere.
Vehicle navigation systems will direct the driver to his or her destination with visually displayed directions and
spokenrecommendations.UsingtherequisitemapsstoredonCD-ROM,andpositionestimatesbasedonGPS,
thesystemwillsearchforpossibleitinerariestakingintoaccountthemostfavourableroutes,
GPS is already used as a matter of course in conventional navigation (aviation and shipping). Many trains are
equippedwithGPSreceiversthatrelaythetrain’spositiontostationsdowntheline.Thisenablesstafftoinform
passengersofthearrivaltimeofatrain.
GPS can be used both for locating cars and as an anti-theft device. Security vans, limousines and lorries with
valuable or hazardous loads etc. will be fitted with GPS, an alarm automatically being set off, if the vehicle
deviatesfromitsprescribedroute.Thealarmcan,ofcourse,beoperatedbythedriveratthepressofabutton.
Anti-theftdeviceswillbefittedwithGPSreceivers,allowinganelectronicvehicleimmobilisertobeactivatedas
soonasthemonitoringcentrereceivesasignal(e.g.whenasubscriber’scarsendsasignaltothecentre).
AnadditionalfunctionthatcanbeperformedbyGPSisintheareaofemergencies.Thisideahasalreadybeen
developedasfarasthemarketingstage.AGPSreceiverisconnectedtoacrashsensorandinanemergencya
signalissenttoanemergencycallcentrethatknowspreciselyinwhichdirectionthevehiclewastravellingand
itscurrentwhereabouts.Asaresult,theconsequencesofanaccidentcanbemadelesssevereandotherroad
userscanbegivengreateradvancewarning.

Aswithallsafetycriticalapplications,wherehumanlifeisdependentontechnologyfunctioningcorrectly,orbital
operationstoorepresentanareawhereprecautionsneedtobetakenagainstsystemfailure.Back-upnormally
comes from equipment made redundant by new technology. In ideal situations, information for systems
performingthesametaskcomesfromindependentsources.Particularlysuccessfulsolutionsnotonlyprovidean
errormessage,butalsoadisplaywarningtheuserthatthedatashownmaynolongerbesufficientlyreliable.At
thesametime,thesystemswitchestoanothersensorasadatasource.Thesesystemsmonitorthemselves,asit
were. All this has been made possible by the miniturisation of electronic components, by their enormously
increasedperformanceandbyhardwarepricesplummeting.

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OtherpossibleusesforGPSinclude:
• Explorationofgeologicaldeposits
• Remediationoflandfillsites
• Developmentofopen-castmining
• Positioningofdrillplatforms
• Layingpipelines(geodesyingeneral)
• Extensivestoragesites
• Automaticcontainermovements
• Transportcompanies,logisticsingeneral(aircraft,water-bornecraftandroadvehicles)
• Railways
• Geographicaltachographs
• Fleetmanagement
• Navigationsystems
10.2.3 Agriculture and forestry
Fortheforestrysectortoo,therearemanyconceivableGPSapplications.TheUSDA(UnitedStatesDepartment
ofAgriculture)ForestServiceGPSSteeringCommittee1992,hasidentifiedover130possibleapplicationsinthis
field.
Examplesofsometheseapplicationsarebrieflydetailedbelow:
• Optimisation of round timber transportation: By equipping commercial vehicle fleets with on-board
computers,aswellasGPS,andremotedatatransferfacilities,thevehiclescanbedirectedefficientlyfroma
centraloperationsunit.
• Useininventorymanagement:Manualidentificationpriortoharvestingthewoodismaderedundantbythe
navigation system. For the foresters and workers on site, GPS can be used as a tool for carrying out
processinginstructions.
• Use in the field of soil conservation: By using GPS, the frequencywith which remote tracks are used (dirt
tracksforremovingtheharvestedwood)canbeidentified.Also,areliablesearchcanbeconductedtofind
suchtracks.
• Managementofsmallprivatewoods:Inwoodlandareasdividedupintosmallparcelsofland,cost-effective,
highlymechanisedharvestingprocessescanbeemployedusingGPS,allowingadditionalquantitiesofwood
tobetransported.
GPSmakesacontributiontoprecisionfarmingintheformofareaadministration,andthemappingofsitesin
termsofyieldandapplicationpotential.Inaprecisionfarmingsystem,combineharvesteryieldsarerecordedby
GPSandprocessedinitiallyintospecificpartialplotsondigitalmaps.Soilsamplesarealsolocatedwiththehelp
ofGPSandaddedtothesystem.Analysisoftheseentriesthenservestoestablishtheamountofmanurethat
needstobeappliedtoeachpointintheplot.Theapplicationmapsareconvertedintoaformthattheon-board
computer can process and are then transferred to this computer by means of memory boards. In this way,
optimaloperationalpractisescanbedevisedoveralongperiodoftimethatcanofferahighsavingspotential
andprovideaninitialattemptatnatureconservation.

OtherpossibleusesforGPSinclude:
• Useandplanningofareas
• Monitoringoffallowland
• Planningandmanagingofplantations
• Useofharvestingequipment
• Scatteringseedsandspreadingfertiliser
• Optimisingwood-fellingoperations
• Pestcontrol
• Mappingblightedareas
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10.2.4 Communications technology
Synchronising computer clocks to a uniform time in a distributed computer environment is vital. A highly
accuratereferenceclockusedtoreceiveGPSsatellitesignalsalongwithNetworkTimeProtocol(NTP),specified
inRFC1305,formsthebasisforthissynchronisation

OtherpossibleusesforGPSinclude:
• Synchronisationofsystemtime-staggeredmessagetransfer
• Synchronisationincommonfrequencyradionetworks
10.2.5 Tourism / sport
GPSreceiversareoftenusedatcompetitiveglidingandhang-glidingeventsasaninfalliblemethodofrecording
times.
People who have got into difficulties at sea or in the mountains can be located using GPS (SAR: Save and
Rescue).

OtherpossibleusesforGPSinclude:
• Route planning and selecting points of particular significance (natural monuments, culturally historic
monuments)
• Orientieringingeneral(trainingroutes)
• Outdooractivitiesandtrekking
• Sportingactivities
10.2.6 Military
GPS is used anywhere where combatants, vehicles, aircraft and guided missiles are deployed in unfamiliar
terrain. GPS is also suitable for marking the position of minefields and underground depots, as it enables a
locationtobedeterminedandfoundagainwithoutanygreatdifficulty.Asarule,themoreaccurate,encrypted
GPSsignal(PPS)isusedformilitaryapplications,andcanonlybeusedbyauthorisedagencies.
10.2.7 Time measurement
GPS provides us with the opportunity of measuring time exactly on a global basis. Right around the world
“time” (UTC Universal Time Coordinated)can be accurately determined to within 1 ... 60 ns. Measuring time
with GPS is a lot more accurate than with so-called radio clocks, which are unable to compensate for signal
transittimebetweenthetransmitterandthereceiver.If,forexample,thereceiveris300kmfromtheradioclock
transmitter, signal transit time already accounts for 1ms, which is 10,000 times "more inaccurate" than time
measured by a GPS receiver. Globally precise time measurements are necessary for synchronising control and
communicationsfacilities,forexample.
The most usual method today of making precision time comparisons between clocks in different places is
“common-view“comparisonwiththehelpofGlobalPositioningSystem(GPS)satellites.Institutesthatwishto
compare clocks measure the same GPS satellite signals at the same time in different places and calculate the
timedifferencebetweenthelocalclocksandGPSsystemtime.Asaresultofthedifferenceinmeasurementat
two different places, the difference between the clocks at the two institutes can be determined. Because this
involves a differential process, GPS clock status is irrelevant. Time comparisons between the PTB and time
institutesaremadeinthiswaythroughouttheworld.ThePTBatomicclockstatus,determinedwiththehelpof
GPS, is also relayed to the International Bureau for Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Paris for calculating the
internationalatomictimescalesTAIandUTC.
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APPENDIX
A.1 DGPS services
A.1.1 Introduction
The reference receiver receives satellite signals and can immediately calculate the difference between the
measured and actual distance. This difference is relayed to all surrounding user receivers via an appropriate
communications link (LW, SW,VHF, radio, GSM, satellite communication ...).When the user receiver uses the
correcteddata,itcancorrectthemeasuredrangetoallsatellitesbytheamountofthedifference.Inthisway,
theeffectsofSA(SAwasswitchedoffon1stMay2000)andtheionosphereandtropospherecanbemassively
reduced.TheSwissNationalTopographicalInstituteofferssuchaDGPSservice.Thecorrectiondataisbroadcast
overtheVHForGSMnetwork.InGermany,thereisaDGPSservicethatbroadcaststhecorrectiondataonLW
viatheMainflingentransmitter(nearFrankfurt-am-Main).Inbothinstances,accuracytowithinafewmetersis
achieved.
InEurope,correctionsignalsarereceivedbyvariouspublicDGPSservices.Someoftheseserviceshavealready
been introduced, others are about to be launched. One thing all these services have in common is that, in
contrasttoGPS,theymakeacharge.Eitheranannuallicencefeeisleviedoraone-offchargeismadewhenthe
DGPSreceiverispurchased.
A.1.2 Swipos-NAV (RDS or GSM)
There is a service that operates under the name of Swipos-NAV (Swiss Positioning Service) that distributes the
correction data via RDS or GSM. The Radio Data System (RDS) is a European standard for the distribution of
digital data over the VHF broadcasting network (FM, 87-108 MHz). RDS was developed to provide road users
withtrafficinformationviaVHF[xxvii].TheRDSdataismodulatedtotheFMcarrierwaveatafrequencyof57
kHz,theuserneedinganRDSdecodertoextracttheDGPScorrectionvalues.TheRDS-GPSserviceisofferedby
the Federal Office for National Topography [xxviii] in conjunction with SRG. At present, FM transmitters, in
particular,areactivefromLakeGeneva,acrossthe’Mittelland’regiontoLakeConstance,butfurtherexpansion
throughoutSwitzerlandisplannedforthesummerof1999.Inordertoensuregoodreception,thereneedsto
bevisiblecontactwithaVHFtransmitter.Usersofthisservicecaneitherpayanannualsubscriptionoraone-off
fee.Theserviceisofferedattwolevelsofaccuracy.
• 1-2mprecision(for95%ofallmeasurements)
• 2-5mprecision(for95%ofallmeasurements)
A.1.3 AMDS
AMDS (Amplituden Moduliertes Daten System – amplitude modulated data system) is used to transmit digital
data on medium and long-wave using existing broadcasting transmitters. The data is phase modulated. In the
’Mittelland’ region of Switzerland at present signals can be received, in particular, from the Beromünster
transmitter (MW, 531 kHz) and the German Rohrdorf transmitter (MW, 666 kHz).An extension of the Ceneri
transmitteriscurrentlybeingplanned.Dataisbroadcastoveranareaof600–1000km.Theserviceisoperated
inSwitzerlandbyTerraVermessungenAG[xxix].Afterextensivetrials,aregularservicecameonlineinJanuary
1999withplanstochargeaone-offfee.
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A.1.4 SAPOS
SAPOS [xxx] (Satellitenpositionierungsdienst der deutschen Landesvermessung – Satellite Positioning Service
supplied by the German National Survey Office) is a permanently operated, multi-functional DGPS service. It is
highly reliable and available throughout Germany. A network of GPSreference stations forms the basis of the
system.TheARDpublicbroadcastingorganisation,long-wave(Telekom),GSMandSAPOS’sown2-Meterband
areofferedasastandardforrealtimemeasurements.VHFmediabroadcastingandlong-wavehavelongbeen
available nationally for the EPS service sector, and in the 2-Meter band a total of 9 frequencies have been
available to AdV [xxxi] (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen der Länder der Bundesrepublik
Deutschland–aworkinggroupresponsiblefortheadministrationofsurveyscarriedoutintheregionalstatesof
theFederalRepublicofGermany)onanationwidebasis.
SAPOScomprisesfourareasofservicewithdifferingcharacteristicsandprecision:
• SAPOSEPS–realtimepositioningservice
• SAPOSHEPS–ultra-preciserealtimepositioningservice
• SAPOSGPPS–Geodeticprecisionpositioningservice
• SAPOSGHPS–Geodetichighprecisionpositioningservice
BothEPSandHEPSareusableinrealtime.
In VHF broadcasts the signals are transmitted in a format known as RASANT (Radio Aided Satellite Navigation
Technique). The RASANTcorrection data format is a conversion of RTCM 2.0 correction data for transmission
overtheRadioDataSystem(RDS)ofVHFradiobroadcasting.
A.1.5 ALF
ALF (Accurate Positioning by Low Frequency) broadcasts the correction values with an output of 50 kW von
Mainflingen (Frankfurt-am-Main). The long-wave transmitter DCF42 (LW, 122.5 kHz) broadcasts its correction
valuesoveranareaof600–1000kmandcanthereforebereceivedinthe’Mittelland’regionofSwitzerland.
The upper side band (OSB) is phase modulated (Bi-Phase-Shift-Keying, BPSK). The service is offered by the
FederalOfficeforCartographyandGeodesy[xxxii]inco-operationwithDeutscheTelekomAG(DTAG)[xxxiii].
Theuserpaysaone-offfeewhenpurchasingthedecoder.Duetothepropagationcharacteristicsoflong-wave,
thecorrectiondatacanbereceiveddespiteshadowing.
A.1.6 dGPS
Austria has beencovered nationally since the summer of 1998 with a positional accuracy betterthan 1 Meter
[xxxiv].Theservicecomprises8referencestationsandisstill beingexpanded.Ithasevenbeenpossiblesince
thesummerof2000toachieveanaccuracyofafewcentimetersthroughoutAustria.
DatafromthestationsisrelayedbyAustrianBroadcastingvia18maintransmittercomplexesandmorethan250
converters. Correction data is broadcast by the data transmission system DARC (Data Radio Channel) over the
Ö1 network. DARC is a data transmission system that relays digital data packets (e.g. images) as a VHF radio
signalusingtheexistingORFinfrastructure(transmitter,lines).
Duetothedifferentdemandsmadebythevariousindividualapplications,threedifferentlevelsofaccuracyare
offered:
• guaranteedaccuracyoflessthan10cm
• guaranteedaccuracyoflessthan1m
• guaranteedaccuracyoflessthan10m
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A.1.7 Radio Beacons
Radiobeaconsareinstalledrightaroundtheworld,principallyalongthecoasts,relayingDGPScorrectionsignals
onafrequencyofapprox.300kHz.Thesignalbitratevariesbetween100and200bitsperseconddependingon
thetransmitter.
A.1.8 Omnistar and Landstar
Several geo-stationary satellites transmit correction data to Europe continuously. Two different services are
availableunderthenamesofOmnistarandLandstar.OmnistarbelongstotheFugroGroup[xxxv]andLandstar
toRacalSurvey[xxxvi].OmnistarandLandstartransmittheirinformationtoEarthintheL-band(1-2GHz).The
correspondingreferencestationsaredistributedthroughoutEurope.FromtheperspectiveofSwitzerland,these
geo-stationarysatellitesarelocatedtothesouthapprox.35-38°abovethehorizon,andtheymustbevisible,in
ordertoestablishradiocontact.Thesystemoperatorsgenerallychargeanannualfee.
A.1.9 EGNOS
EGNOS[xxxvii](EuropeanGeo-stationaryNavigationOverlaySystem)isasatellite-basedaugmentationsystem
for existing GPS and Glonass satellite navigation systems. A European network of GPS/Glonass receivers has
been built up to receive the corresponding satellite signals and relay these tocentral data processing stations.
The signals received at these data processing stations are evaluated taking into account the exact known
positionofthereceivingstations.Inthisway,correctiondatacanbedeterminedthatisultimatelybroadcastto
users via geo-stationary communications satellites. With the help of these corrections positional accuracy of
around 7 m can initially be achieved. In addition, a level of data integrity is attained that enables instrument
approachestobemadeinaviation.
Three such systems are currently under construction around the world: the American WAAS (Wide Area
Augmentation System), the Japanese MSAS (MTSAT based Augmentation System) and the European EGNOS
system.Thethreesystemsshouldbecompatiblewitheachother.
According to current planning, it is anticipated that the system will enter service in its initial stage of
developmentby2002/2003.
A.1.10 WAAS
The North-American WAAS system (Wide Area Augmentation System) is a network of approx. 25 ground
reference stations (WRS, Wide Area Ground Reference Station) that receive GPS signals. They have been
surveyed exactly in terms of their position. Each reference station determines actual and target pseudo-range
deviation. The error signals are relayed to a master station WMS (Wide Area Master Station). The WMS’s
calculate the differential signals and monitor the integrity of the GPS system. The precisely processed DGPS
correction values are transmitted to two geo-stationary satellites (Inmarsat) and beamed back to Earth on the
GPS L1 frequency (1575.42MHz). The WAAS signals are received by GPS receivers equipped for this task and
furtherprocessed.
WAAS was developed for the American FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) to provide a high degree of
accuracyduringlandingapproaches.TheWAASsignalcanbeaccessedforciviluseandoffersfargreaterland,
seaandaircoveragethanwaspreviouslypossiblethroughland-basedDGPSsystems.WAAScorrectionsignals
arevalidexclusivelyinNorthAmerica.

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A.2 Proprietary data interfaces
A.2.1 Introduction
Mostmanufacturersdefinetheirowncontrolcommandsanddatasets.Forexample,specificinformation,such
asposition,speed,height,andstatusetc.canallbecommunicated,eachmanufacturerhavingdevelopedtheir
ownformat.TheproprietarybinaryprotocoldevelopedbySiRF,whichservesasamodelforotherprotocols,is
explainedindetail,andafewotherprotocolsbrieflyintroduced.
A.2.2 SiRF Binary protocol
GPSreceiversfittedwithintegratedcircuitssuppliedbySiRFinCaliforniarelayGPSinformationintwodifferent
protocols:
1. thestandardisedNMEAprotocol
2. theproprietarySiRFbinaryprotocol.(SiRFisfamiliarwithmorethan15differentproprietarydatasets)

ThevariousSiRFdatasetsaredescribedinTable21.
SiRF-
Data set No.
Name Description
2 MeasuredNavigationData Position,speedandtime
4 MeasuredTrackingData Signal-to-noiseratio,elevationandazimuth
5 RawTrackData Rawdistancemeasurementdata
6 SWVersion Receiversoftware
7 ClockStatus Timemeasurementstatus
8 50BPSSubframeData Receiverinformation(ICDformat)
9 Throughput CPUthroughput
11 CommandAcknowledgment Receptionconfirmation
12 CommandNAcknowledgment Failedinquiry
13 VisibleList Numberofvisiblesatellites
14 AlmanacData Almanacdata
15 EphemerisData Ephemerisdata
18 OkToSend CPUOn/Offstatus(tricklepower)
19 NavigationParameters ReplytothePOLLcommand
255 DevelopmentData Variousinternalitemsofinformation
Table 21: SiRF output data sets
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Detailed description of SiRF data set No. 2
The SiRF proprietary data set No. 2 is presented as follows (Table 22). This particular data set (Measured
Navigation Data Out)contains the position and speed calculated by the receiver. It also contains the date and
time,andtheidentificationnumberofthesatellitesusedtoperformthepositioncalculation.

SiRFdatasetNo.2hasthefollowingformat:
Name Bytes Unit Remarks
MessageID 1 Always2
X-Position
4 m
Y-Position 4 m
Y-Position 4 m

Positioncalculatedbyreceiver
X-velocity 2 m/8s
Y-velocity 2 m/8s
Z-velocity 2 m/8s

Speedcalculatedbyreceiver
Mode1 1 [Bitmap]
Containsamongstotherthingsalgorithmicdetailsfordeterminingposition(ex.2satellite
solution)
DOP 1 1/5 “Dilution of Precision“ contains PDOP or HDOP values, depending on
thealgorithm.
Mode2 1 [Bitmap] Containsadditionalinformationfordifferentialdata
GPSWeek 2 Weeknumbersince6thJanuary1980,on22ndAugust1999theclock
wasresettozero.
GPSTOW 4 s/100 Secondssincethebeginningofthepreviousweek
SV’sinFix 1 Numberofsatellitesusedtocalculatetheposition
CH1 1
CH2 1
CH3 1
CH4 1
CH5 1
CH6 1
CH7 1
CH8 1
CH9 1
CH10 1
CH11 1
CH12 1

Identificationnumbersofthesatellitesusedtocalculateposition
Table 22: Structure of proprietary SiRF data set No. 2
A practical example
AnexamplemakesclearthestructureofdatasetNo.2:
• Receivedbinarydata(Hex.code)witharepetitionrateof1Hz
A0A2002902FFD6F78CFFBE536E003AC00400030104A00036B039780E30612190E160F04000000000000
09BBB0B3
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• Startsequence:
A0A2
• Lengthoftheinformationinbytes
0029
• Information:
02FFD6F78CFFBE536E003AC00400030104A00036B039780E30612190E160F04000000000000
• Checksum:
09BB
• Endsequence
B0B3

The41bytesofinformationaredividedupasfollows:
Name Bytes Scaling Value (Hex) Unit Scaling Value
(Decimal)
MessageID 1 02 2
X-position 4 FFD6F78C m

-2689140
Y-position 4 FFBE536E M -4304018
Z-position 4

003AC004 m 3850244
X-velocity 2 *8 0000 m/s Vx/8 0
Y-velocity 2 *8 0003 m/s Vy/8 0.375
Z-velocity 2 *8 0001 m/s Vz/8 0.125
Mode1 1 04 Bitmap 4
DOP 1
*5
A /5 2.0
Mode2 1 00 Bitmap 0
GPSWeek 2 036B 875
GPSTOW 4 *100 039780E3 S /100 602605.79
SVsinFix 1 06 6
CH1 1 12 18
CH2 1

19 25
CH3 1 0E 14
CH4 1 16 22
CH5 1

0F 15
CH6 1 04 4
CH7 1 00 0
CH8 1 00 0
CH9 1 00 0
CH11 1 00 0
CH11 1 00 0
CH12 1 00 0
Table 23: Division and meaning of the binary information
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A.2.3 Motorola: binary format
GPSreceiversandmodulessuppliedbyMotorolatransmittheGPSinformationintwodifferentprotocols:
1. thestandardisedNMEAprotocol
2. the proprietary Motorola binary format. (Motorola is familiar with up to 35 different proprietary data
sets)

AselectionofimportantMotoroladatasetsislistedinTable24:
Motorola-
Data set No.
Name Description
@@Aa TimeofDay Time
@@Ab GMTOffset GMToffset
@@Ac Date Date
@@Ad Latitude Latitude
@@Ae Longitude Longitude
@@Af Height Height
@@AO RTCMPortMode DGPSmode
@@Ay 1PPSOffset 1PPSoffset
@@Az 1PPSCableDelay Cabledelay
@@Bb VisibleSatelliteStatusMessage Healthofthevisiblesatellites
@@Be AlmanacDataOutput Almanacdataoutput
@@Bo UTCOffsetStatusMessage OffsetUTCtoGPStime
@@Ea ReceiverID Identificationofthereceiver
Table 24: A selection of proprietary Motorola data sets

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A.2.4 Trimble proprietary protocol
GPSreceiversandmodulessuppliedbyTrimbletransmittheGPSinformationintwodifferentprotocols:
3. thestandardisedNMEAprotocol
4. the proprietary TSIP binary protocol (Trimble Standard Interface Protocol, Trimble is familiar with as
manyas30differentproprietarydatasets)

AselectionofimportantTrimbledatasetsislistedinTable25.
Trimble
Data set No.
Name Description
0x41 GPStime GPStime
0x42 Single-precisionXYZposition SingleprecisionXYZposition
0x45 Softwareversioninformation Softwareversion
0x46 HealthofReceiver Technicalstatusofreceiver
0x47 Signallevelforallsatellites Signalstrengthforallsatellites
0x48 GPSsystemmessage GPSsystemmessage
0x4A Single-precisionLLAposition SingleprecisionLLAposition
0x4D Oscillatoroffset Oscillatorfrequencyoffset
0x55 I/Ooptions I/Ooptions
0x83 Double-precisionXYZ DoubleprecisionXYZposition
0x84 Double-precisionLLA DoubleprecisionLLAposition
0x85 Differentialcorrectionstatus Differentialcorrectionstatus
0x8F-25 Lowpowermode Lowpowermode
0x8F-27 Lowpowerconfiguration Lowpowerconfiguration
Table 25: A selection of proprietary Trimble data sets
A.2.5 NMEA or proprietary data sets?
GPS modules and appliances generate the standardised NMEA data format and their own proprietary data
format.Developersandusersofnewproductsarecontinuallyconfrontedwiththefollowingissue:whichdata
formatisthebestandwhichformatisgoingtobeusedinnewappliances?
NMEAisastandardiseddataformatthatisacceptedworldwideandthatrecognisesvariousdatasets.Themost
importantinformationrelayedbyNMEAinterfacesis:
• Geographicalposition(latitude/longitude/height)
• DOPvalues
• Elevationandazimuthofthesatellitesinview
• Courseandspeed
• Timeanddate
• Signal-to-noiseratiooftheantennasignal
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If,forexample,aGPSapplianceormoduleisbeingusedwiththeNMEAdatasetaspartofasystem,andthat
appliance or module has to be replaced, another make can confidently be used. All that the replacement
applianceormoduleneedstofunctionistheRMCNMEAdataset.
Proprietary data sets are very flexible. They use data line bandwidth extremely efficiently and, as a result, can
generallyoffermuchmoreinformationandpotentialthanNMEAdatasets.Proprietaryinterfaces,forexample,
relaythefollowingadditionalinformationoverandaboveNMEAdatasets:
• XYZpositionandpseudo-ranges
• Rawdata
• Ephemerisandalmanacdata
• Variousinternalitemsofinformation(e.g.softwareinformationandreceiverID.)
• UTCoffsetstatusmessage
• Oscillatoroffset
• Differentialcorrectionstatus

Proprietary data interfaces are therefore manufacturer-specific items, which when used, prevent consumers
migratingfromoneproducttoanother.

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GPS-X-02007 Page88
RESOURCES ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB

If you would like to . . .
o knowwhereyoucanlearnmoreaboutGPS
o knowwheretheGPSsystemisdocumented
o becomeaGPSexpertyourself
then you yourself should explore alltheInternetlinksonthesubject!

General overviews and further links
GlobalPositioningSystemOverviewbyPeterH.Dana,UniversityofColorado
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html
GlobalPositioningSystem(GPS)ResourcesbySamWormley,IowaStateUniversity
http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/staff/swormley/gps/gps.html
GlobalPositioningSystemData&Information:UnitedStatesNavalObservatory
http://192.5.41.239/gps_datafiles.html
NMEA-0183andGPSInformationbyPeterBennett,
http://vancouver-webpages.com/peter/
JoeMehaffeyandJackYeazel'sGPSInformation
http://joe.mehaffey.com/
TheGlobalPositioningSystems(GPS)ResourceLibrary
http://www.gpsy.com/gpsinfo/
ABOUTGPS:SatelliteNavigation&Positioning(SNAP),UniversityofNewSouthWales
http://www.gmat.unsw.edu.au/snap/gps/about_gps.htm
GPSSPSSignalSpecification,2ndEdition(June2,1995),USCGNavigationCenter
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/gps/sigspec/default.htm
Differential GPS
DifferentialGPS(DGPS)bySamWormley,IowaStateUniversity
http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/staff/swormley/gps/dgps.html
DGPScorrectionsovertheInternet
http://www.wsrcc.com/wolfgang/gps/dgps-ip.html
WideAreaDifferentialGPS(WADGPS),StanfordUniversity
http://waas.stanford.edu/

GPSBasics u-bloxag
GPS-X-02007 Page89
GPS institutes
InstitutfürAngewandteGeodäsie:GPS-Informations-undBeobachtungssystem
http://gibs.leipzig.ifag.de/cgi-bin/Info_hom.cgi?de
GPSPRIMER:AerospaceCorporation
http://www.aero.org/publications/GPSPRIMER/index.html
U.S.CoastGuard(USCG)NavigationCenter
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/
U.S.NavalObservatory
http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/gps.html
RoyalInstituteofNavigation,London
http://www.rin.org.uk/
TheInstituteofNavigation
http://www.ion.org/
UniversityNAVSTARConsortium(UNAVCO)
http://www.unavco.ucar.edu/
GPS antennae
WISI,WILHELMSIHNJR.KG
http://www.wisi.de/
MatsushitaElectricWorks(Europe)AG
http://www.mac-europe.com/
KyoceraIndustrialCeramicCorporation
http://www.kyocera.com/kicc/industrial/products/dielectric.htm
M/A-COM
http://www.macom.com/
EMTACTechnologyCorp.
http://www.emtac.com.tw/
AllisCommunicationsCompany,Ltd.
http://www.alliscom.com.tw/

GPS newsgroups and specialist journals
Newsgroup:sci.geo.satellite-nav
http://groups.google.com/groups?oi=djq&as_ugroup=sci.geo.satellite-nav
Specialistjournal:GPSWorld(appearsmonthly)
http://www.gpsworld.com

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GPS-X-02007 Page90
LIST OF TABLES
Table1:L1carrierlinkbudgetanalysismodulatedwiththeC/Acode............................................................. 19
Table2:Comparisonbetweenephemerisandalmanacdata.......................................................................... 28
Table3:Accuracyofthestandardcivilianservice........................................................................................... 29
Table4:Causeoferrors............................................................................................................................... 35
Table5:Nationalreferencesystems.............................................................................................................. 41
Table6:TheWGS-84ellipsoid ..................................................................................................................... 42
Table7:Datumparameters.......................................................................................................................... 43
Table8:DescriptionoftheindividualNMEADATASETblocks ....................................................................... 54
Table9:RecordingofanNMEAprotocol ...................................................................................................... 54
Table10:DescriptionoftheindividualGGAdatasetblocks .......................................................................... 55
Table11:DescriptionoftheindividualGGLdatasetblocks ........................................................................... 56
Table12:DescriptionoftheindividualGSAdatasetblocks ........................................................................... 57
Table13:DescriptionoftheindividualGSVdatasetblocks ........................................................................... 58
Table14:DescriptionoftheindividualRMCdatasetblocks .......................................................................... 59
Table15:DescriptionoftheindividualVTGdatasetblocks ........................................................................... 60
Table16:DescriptionoftheindividualZDAdatasetblocks ........................................................................... 61
Table17:DeterminingthechecksuminthecaseofNMEAdatasets .............................................................. 62
Table18:ContentsoftheRTCMmessageheader......................................................................................... 63
Table19:ContentsofRTCMmessagetype1................................................................................................ 65
Table20:Timesystems................................................................................................................................ 68
Table21:SiRFoutputdatasets .................................................................................................................... 82
Table22:StructureofproprietarySiRFdatasetNo.2.................................................................................... 83
Table23:Divisionandmeaningofthebinaryinformation ............................................................................. 84
Table24:AselectionofproprietaryMotoroladatasets ................................................................................. 85
Table25:AselectionofproprietaryTrimbledatasets.................................................................................... 86

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure1:ThebasicfunctionofGPS................................................................................................................ 9
Figure2:Determiningthedistanceofalightningflash.................................................................................. 11
Figure3:GPSsatellitesorbittheEarthon6orbitalplanes.............................................................................. 12
Figure4:Determiningthetransittime.......................................................................................................... 12
Figure5:Thepositionofthereceiverattheintersectionofthetwocircles ..................................................... 13
Figure6:Thepositionisdeterminedatthepointwhereallthreespheresintersect.......................................... 14
Figure7:Foursatellitesarerequiredtodetermineapositionin3-Dspace. ..................................................... 15
Figure8:ThethreeGPSsegments................................................................................................................ 17
Figure9:Positionofthe28GPSsatellitesat12.00hrsUTCon14thApril2001.............................................. 18
Figure10:Positionofthe28GPSsatellitesat12.00hrsUTCon14thApril2001............................................ 18
Figure11:AGPSsatellite............................................................................................................................. 19
Figure12:PseudoRandomNoise................................................................................................................. 20
Figure13:Simplifiedsatelliteblockdiagram ................................................................................................. 21
Figure14:DatastructureofaGPSsatellite ................................................................................................... 21
Figure15:DetailedblocksystemofaGPSsatellite ........................................................................................ 22
Figure16:Measuringsignaltransittime ....................................................................................................... 23
Figure17:Demonstrationofthecorrectionprocessacross30bits ................................................................. 24
Figure18:Structureoftheentirenavigationmessage ................................................................................... 26
Figure19:Ephemeristerms.......................................................................................................................... 28
Figure20:Foursatellitesignalsmustbereceived........................................................................................... 30
Figure21:Threedimensionalco-ordinatesystem.......................................................................................... 30
Figure22:ConversionoftheTaylorseries..................................................................................................... 32
Figure23:Estimatingaposition ................................................................................................................... 32
Figure24:SatellitegeometryandPDOP........................................................................................................ 36
Figure25:GDOPvaluesandthenumberofsatellitesexpressedasatimefunction.......................................... 37
Figure26:EffectofsatelliteconstellationsontheDOPvalue.......................................................................... 37
Figure27:AgeoidisanapproximationoftheEarth’ssurface........................................................................ 39
Figure28:Producingaspheroid................................................................................................................... 39
Figure29:Customisedlocalreferenceellipsoid ............................................................................................. 40
Figure30:Differencebetweengeoidandellipsoid ........................................................................................ 40
Figure31:IllustrationoftheCartesianco-ordinates....................................................................................... 41
Figure32:Illustrationoftheellipsoidalco-ordinates ...................................................................................... 42
Figure33:Geodeticdatum.......................................................................................................................... 43
Figure34:Gauss-Krügerprojection .............................................................................................................. 45
Figure35:Theprincipleofdoubleprojection................................................................................................ 46
Figure36:Fromsatellitetoposition.............................................................................................................. 46
Figure37:PrincipleoperationofGPSwithaGPSreferencestation ................................................................ 49
Figure38:Determiningthecorrectionvalues ................................................................................................ 49
Figure39:Relayingthecorrctionvalues........................................................................................................ 50
Figure40:Correctingmeasuredpseudo-range.............................................................................................. 50
Figure41:Theprincipleofphasemeasurement ............................................................................................ 51
Figure42:BlockdiagramofaGPSreceiverwithinterfaces ............................................................................ 52
Figure43:NMEAformat(TTLandRS-232level) ............................................................................................ 53
Figure44:ConstructionoftheRTCMmessageheader .................................................................................. 63
Figure45:ConstructionofRTCMmessagetype1......................................................................................... 64
Figure46:OpenandcastPatchantennae..................................................................................................... 66
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GPS-X-02007 Page92
Figure47:BasicstructuralshapeofaHelixantennae..................................................................................... 66
Figure48:1PPSsignal ................................................................................................................................. 67
Figure49:DifferencebetweenTTLandRS-232levels.................................................................................... 69
Figure50:BlockdiagrampinassignmentoftheMAX32121levelconverter ................................................... 70
Figure51:FunctionaltestontheMAX3221levelconverter ........................................................................... 70
Figure52:SimplifiedblockdiagramofaGPSreceiver.................................................................................... 71
Figure53:TypicalblockdiagramofaGPSmodule ........................................................................................ 73

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SOURCES

[i] GlobalPositioningSystem,StandardPositioningSystemService,
SignalSpecification,2
nd
Edition,1995,page18,
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/gps/sigspec/gpssps1.pdf
[ii] ParkinsonB.,SpilkerJ.:GlobalPositioningSystem,Volume1,AIAA-Inc.page89
[iii] NAVCEN:GPSSPSSignalSpecifications,2
nd
Edition,1995,
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/gps/sigspec/gpssps1.pdf
[iv] ParkinsonB.,SpilkerJ.:GlobalPositioningSystem,Volume1,AIAA-Inc.
[v] LemmeH.: SchnellesSpread-Spectrum-ModemaufeinemChip,Elektronik1996,
H.15p.38top.45
[vi] GPSStandardPositioningServiceSignalSpecification,2ndEdition,June2,1995
[vi] http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/staff/swormley/gps/gps_accuracy.html
[vi] ManfredBauer:VermessungundOrtungmitSatelliten,Wichman-Verlag,Heidelberg,1997,
ISBN3-87907-309-0
[vi] http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/staff/swormley/gps/gps_accuracy.html
[vi] http://www.geocities.com/mapref/mapref.html
[vi] B.Hofmann-Wellenhof:GPSinderPraxis,Springer-Verlag,Wien1994,ISBN3-211-82609-2
[vi] BundesamtfürLandestopographie:http://www.swisstopo.ch
[vi] ElliottD.Kaplan:UnderstandingGPS,ArtechHouse,Boston1996,
[vii] http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/staff/swormley/gps/gps_accuracy.html
[viii] ManfredBauer:VermessungundOrtungmitSatelliten,Wichman-Verlag,Heidelberg,1997,
ISBN3-87907-309-0
[ix] http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/staff/swormley/gps/gps_accuracy.html
[x] http://www.geocities.com/mapref/mapref.html
[xi] B.Hofmann-Wellenhof:GPSinderPraxis,Springer-Verlag,Wien1994,ISBN3-211-82609-2
[xii] BundesamtfürLandestopographie:http://www.swisstopo.ch
[xiii] ElliottD.Kaplan:UnderstandingGPS,ArtechHouse,Boston1996,
ISBN0-89006-793-7
[xiv] http://www.tandt.be/wis
[xv] NMEA0183,StandardForInterfacingMarineElectronicsDevices,Version2.30
[xvi] http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/dgps/rctm104/Default.htm
[xvii] GlobalPositioningSystem:TheoryandApplications,VolumeII,BradfordW.Parkinson,Seite31
[xviii] UserManual:SonyGXB100016-channelGPSreceivermodule
[xix] UserManual:SonyGXB100016-channelGPSreceivermodule
[xx] swipos,PositionierungsdiensteaufderBasisvonDGPS,Seite6,BundesamtfürLandestopographie
[xxi] http://www.potsdam.ifag.de/potsdam/dgps/dgps_2.html
[xxii] http://www.emtac.com.tw/
[xxiii] http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~VQ3H-NKMR/satellite/helical.jpg
[xxiv] http://www.maxim-ic.com
[xxv] SatellitenortungundNavigation,WernerMansfield,Seite157,ViewegVerlag
[xxvi] http://www.alliedworld.com
[xxvii] http://www.rds.org.uk
GPSBasics u-bloxag
GPS-X-02007 Page94

[xxviii] http://www.swisstopo.ch
[xxix] http://www.allnav.ch/t_welcom.htm
[xxx] http://www.sapos.de
[xxxi] http://www.adv-online.de/produkte/sapos.htm
[xxxii] http://gibs.leipzig.ifag.de/cgi-bin/Info_hom.cgi?de
[xxxiii] http://www.potsdam.ifag.de/alf/
[xxxiv] http://www.dgps.at
[xxxv] http://www.omnistar.com/
[xxxvi] http://www.racal-survey.com
[xxxvii] http://www.esa.int/navigation

GPS Basics

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GPS Basics
BOOK GPS-X-02007 Jean-Marie Zogg 26/03/2002

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GPS Basics

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) can be derived from these four components. I aroused a lot of enthusiasm amongst students at my university for this particular use of GPS. so did my enthusiasm for the system and the degree to which I became hooked on the subject. I came across a specialist article about satellites that described a new positioning and navigational system. Using a few US satellites. produced various items of course work as well as degree papers on the subject. was able to determine a position anywhere in the world to within an accuracy of about 100m (*). and as a result. fascinating applications. height and time. known as a Global Positioning System or GPS. After reading the article I was smitten by the GPS bug. This book also describes the limitations of the system. If one is familiar with the technical background to the GPS system. latitude. Feeling that I was a true GPS expert. Additional information (e. In order to pass the time during the journey. it then becomes possible to develop and use new positioning and navigational equipment. in order to develop new. I then began to delve deeper into the Global Positioning System. I would like to warn you that there is no known cure for the GPS bug and that you proceed at your own peril! GPS-X-02007 Page 4 . Why read this book? Basically.g. As a keen sportsman and mountain trekker. speed. I had brought a few trade journals with me.GPS Basics u-blox ag Preface by the author Jean-Marie Zogg My Way In 1990. Whilst thumbing through an American publication. I had ended up on many an occasion in precarious situations due to a lack of local knowledge and I was therefore fascinated by the prospect of being able to determine my position in fog or at night by using a revolutionary process involving a GPS receiver. so that people do not expect too much from it. I was travelling by train from Chur to Brig in the Swiss canton of Valais. this particular system. a GPS receiver determines just four variables: longitude. Before you decide to embark on this text. An appreciation of the way in which the GPS system functions is necessary. direction etc. As my specialist knowledge grew. I considered myself qualified to spread the ‘navigation message’ and compiled specialist articles about GPS for various magazines and newspapers.

Enjoy your read! Jean-Marie Zogg October 2001 (*): that was in 1990. The company wanted me to produce a brochure that they could give to their customers.GPS Basics u-blox ag How did this book come about? Two years ago. This present synopsis is therefore the result of earlier articles and newly compiled chapters. in order to take another look at industry. My aim was to work for a company professionally involved with GPS and u-blox ag received me with open arms. I decided to reduce the amount of time I spent lecturing at the university. positional data is now accurate to within about 10m! GPS-X-02007 Page 5 . A heartfelt wish I wish you every success with your work within the extensive GPS community and trust that you will successfully navigate your way through this fascinating technical field.

.....................1...................................................................45 GPS-X-02007 Page 6 ...................................................................2 Linearisation of the equation.....1 The principle of measuring signal transit time (evaluation of pseudo-range)..............................................................17 3.....................................1 Information contained in the subframes ...............................5 Transformation from local to worldwide reference ellipsoid ........................................4 Worldwide reference ellipsoid WGS-84.......................................2......................23 4 THE GPS NAVIGATION MESSAGE ..........16 3..4 Comparison between ephemeris and almanac data..................12 2......................5 Error consideration and satellite signal..............................................3...................................17 3........................................................................................................GPS Basics u-blox ag Table of contents 1 2 INTRODUCTION..................26 4.........................................................................2.................................44 6................2.........................................................3 Generating the satellite signal ........................................................................................................................................................................3.............2....................................................1........................15 3 GPS..26 4..............................................35 6 Co-ordinate systems...............................................................................................2 Structure of the navigation message...................................42 6.................................................... projection ..............................................................2...................................................................................................................3.........................................................................................................................................................................................................29 5...........38 6.............................2 Geoids......................1....................................................................................................32 5.................................................................................................23 3..........................41 6........................3 Subdivision of the 25 pages ..............................25 4......34 5........29 5...........45 6.............2.............................................3..............................................................................................................................................................................2 Customised local reference ellipsoids and datum..........38 6..............................38 6...................................................3......................3 The effect and correction of time error .............................................3 Ellipsoid and datum....40 6...............3......................................................................11 2...............................................13 2.................................29 5........................................................27 4.28 5 Calculating position ...................2 Space segment..1 Satellite movement..............19 3...14 2.........................................9 GPS made simple........................4 Summary .....3 Control segment ..........................................................20 3..............6 Converting co-ordinate systems ...........................................39 6..........................................................................................................................................39 6.................1 Introduction..................................................................11 2...........................................................................1 Introduction...........................................................................1......4 User segment.4..........3 Solving the equation........................................................................2.........................25 4................................. THE TECHNOLOGY ...............29 5.....................................................2.........................................................................................................2 TLM and HOW .........1 Projection system for Germany and Austria....................................1 Spheroid ........................................................................................................................4 Determining a position in 3-D space...2.................................2 Calculating a position ........................................................................1 Generating GPS signal transit time ...........................1 Description of the entire system .................................................................2 The GPS satellites ..........41 6.......3 National reference systems.27 4.............1 The principle of measuring signal transit time .......33 5..2 Determining a position on a plane.................................................2...............................................2.......................................................2....................................................................4 Planar land survey co-ordinates.........16 3.........................................................1 Introduction................

.......................................................................2...........................................................................................2 Description of the various applications .......................................49 7............81 A.........2..................................................82 GPS-X-02007 Page 7 ..................................80 A................................71 9............................................................................71 9..2........................52 8.....79 A...1 Basic design of a GPS module ..............................................................................................................................................................10 WAAS .....2 Commerce and industry.........................1 DGPS services.......................78 10....1........................................81 A.1................................................................................................................4 Converting the TTL level to RS-232...............4 SAPOS .........................................................67 8.......................................1......................81 A.....................................................................6 Military .....................................4...................77 10........4.............67 8.....................................52 8...............................2 Data interfaces..................................4 Communications technology...........................1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................48 7..............................................................................................................................................................1 Basics of GPS handheld receivers......................................80 A....50 8 DATA FORMATS AND HARDWARE interfaces ........................................................1 Introduction ...............................5 Tourism / sport.....................................................................79 A.....................................................................................................................GPS Basics 6............................................1 Antenna ...........................................................3 DGPS based on carrier phase measurement .........................74 10..............................1 The NMEA-0183 data interface.................................................................................................................................2..........9 EGNOS ...........................................................2..............................................75 10.....2.2............3 Hardware interfaces ..................3 u-blox ag Swiss projection system (conformal double projection) ........80 A.................................................68 9 GPS RECEIVERS ..............................8 Omnistar and Landstar ......................................................76 10...............................................1............................................................................................................................3 AMDS....................................................................................................................................................74 10....................................3...................................1 Science and research ..........52 8..............................7 Radio Beacons.......................................................46 Worldwide co-ordinate conversion ..............................................................................................................................................................78 10...........81 A.................................................73 10 GPS APPLICATIONS ........1............79 A..................................................................1 Introduction........1...................................................3.......3 Time pulse: 1PPS and time systems.................................................................2 Swipos-NAV (RDS or GSM) ........2.............................................................................7 Time measurement..........2 Proprietary data interfaces ..............................................................2 GPS receiver modules ....................75 10......66 8......................................................................2 SiRF Binary protocol..1 Detailed DGPS method of operation............................48 7..............................................................................................................2........63 8.......................................................................73 9..............................................................2...................................................................................................................................................................82 A....................52 8..........................2.............................................47 7 Differential-GPS (DGPS) ..1.......................................................................................................................2.......2.........................1 Introduction..........................................................................................2 DGPS based on the measurement of signal transit time.79 A.............................48 7...........78 APPENDIX.6 dGPS ..............79 A....................................................3 Agriculture and forestry...............................................2 6.......5 ALF..1............................1.......................................................................................................3.........2 Supply ........78 10..............3...........................................66 8...........................................................................................................................................1......................................1 Introduction ...............................................2 The DGPS correction data (RTCM SC-104) ...........................82 A.........................

....................................................................................................................................................88 General overviews and further links ...........................................................................GPS Basics A...................................86 Resources on the World Wide Web ..........................................................88 GPS institutes ...................................88 Differential GPS ..............91 SOURCES ...................................................................89 GPS antennae.............................................................................................86 NMEA or proprietary data sets?.........................................................................................................................................90 List of illustrations..........................4 A.................................2......................................................................................................................................................................................2.........................89 GPS newsgroups and specialist journals ..............5 u-blox ag Motorola: binary format ...........................................................85 Trimble proprietary protocol..............................................................................................................................................................................2..........................89 List of tables ........................3 A...93 GPS-X-02007 Page 8 ....................................................................................................................................

g. 3-dimensional positioning capability with a high degree of accuracy. global. such as trekking. for leisure activities. locating. 3. Speed and direction of travel (course) can be derived from these co-ordinates as well as the time. particular emphasis was placed on the following three aspects: 1. 1 mm. GPS (the full description is: NAVigation System with Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System. The coordinates and time values are determined by 28 satellites orbiting the Earth. One’s exact location (longitude.). latitude and height co-ordinates) accurate to within a range of 20 m to approx.1m Time: 12h33'07'' Figure 1: The basic function of GPS GPS receivers are used for positioning.) and companies (surveying. ensuring that a least 4 satellites are in radio communication with any point on the planet. and there are currently 28 operational satellites orbiting the Earth at a height of 20. Longitude: 9°24'23. GPS-X-02007 Page 9 . vehicle monitoring etc. The first nd satellite was placed in orbit on 22 February 1978. UTC) accurate to within a range of 60ns to approx. determining the time. navigating.S. 2. Their orbits are inclined at 55° to the equator. The civil signal SPS (Standard Positioning Service) can be used freely by the general public. navigation.GPS Basics u-blox ag 1 INTRODUCTION Using the Global Positioning System (GPS. 2. Department of Defense (DoD) and can be used both by civilians and military personnel. irrespective of the weather. Each satellite orbits the Earth in approximately 12 hours and has four atomic clocks on board.43'' Latitude: 46°48'37. speed and time.180 km on 6 different orbital planes. whether in motion or at rest. It had to have a continuous. The precise time (Universal Time Coordinated. During the development of the GPS system. whilst the military signal PPS (Precise Positioning Service) can only be used by authorised government agencies. surveying and determining the time and are employed both by private individuals (e. balloon flights and cross-country skiing etc. a process used to establish a position at any point on the globe) the following two values can be determined anywhere on Earth (Figure 1): 1. It had to offer potential for civilian use. 5ns.20'' Altitude: 709. It had to provide users with the capability of determining position. NAVSTARGPS) was developed by the U.

In addition. modules and ICs. and specialists involved in GPS applications. The book is structured in such a way that the reader can graduate from simple facts to more complex theory. GPS-X-02007 Page 10 . A separate chapter is therefore devoted to the introduction of cartography. I know that acquiring an understanding of the various current co-ordinate systems when using GPS equipment can often be a difficult task.GPS Basics u-blox ag The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of the way in which the GPS system functions and the applications to which it can be put. Important aspects of GPS such as differential GPS and equipment interfaces as well as data format are discussed in separate sections. This book is aimed at users interested in technology. From my own experience. the book is designed to act as an aid in understanding the technology that goes into GPS appliances.

1 The principle of measuring signal transit time At some time or other during a stormy night you have almost certainly attempted to work out how far away you are from a flash of lightning. In order to calculate one’s exact position.GPS Basics u-blox ag 2 GPS MADE SIMPLE If you would like to . The distance can be established quite easily (Figure 2): distance = the time the lightning flash is perceived (start time) until the thunder is heard (stop time) multiplied by the speed of sound (approx. o understand how the distance of a lightning bolt is determined o understand how GPS basically functions o know how many atomic clocks are on board a GPS satellite o know how a position on a plane is determined o understand why there needs to be four GPS satellites to establish a position then this chapter is for you! 2. Eye d eterm i Transit time nes th e star t time e top tim the s es termin ar de E Figure 2: Determining the distance of a lightning flash distance = transit ti me • the speed of sound The GPS system functions according to exactly the same principle. The difference between the start and stop time is termed the transit time. . 330 m/s). all that needs to be measured is the signal transit time between the point of observation and four different satellites whose positions are known. . GPS-X-02007 Page 11 .

000 to 1.180 km on 6 different orbital planes (Figure 3).GPS Basics u-blox ag 2. Each one of these satellites has up to four atomic clocks on board. These signals are transmitted at the speed of light (300. it is possible to determine the transit time of that signal (Figure 4). Atomic clocks are currently the most precise instruments known.42 MHz.3 ms to reach a position on the Earth’s surface located directly below the satellite. they are regularly adjusted or synchronised from various control points on Earth. Figure 3: GPS satellites orbit the Earth on 6 orbital planes Satellite and receiver clock display: 0ms 0ms 75ms 50ms 25ms Satellite and receiver clock display: 67.000 km/s) and therefore require approx. losing a maximum of one second every 30.000. If you wish to establish your position on land (or at sea or in the air).1.3ms 0ms 75ms 50ms 25ms Signal Signal transmition (start time) Signal reception (stop time) Figure 4: Determining the transit time GPS-X-02007 Page 12 .000 years. The signals require a further 3. 67. By comparing the arrival time of the satellite signal with the on board clock time the moment the signal was emitted. Each satellite transmits its exact position and its precise on board clock time to Earth at a frequency of 1575.33 us for each excess kilometer of travel.1 Generating GPS signal transit time 28 satellites inclined at 55° to the equator orbit the Earth every 11 hours and 58 minutes at a height of 20. all you require is an accurate clock. In order to make them even more accurate.

It is for this reason that signal communication with four different satellites is needed to calculate one’s exact position. Two satellites are sufficient to determine a position on the X/Y plane. Each radius corresponds to the distance calculated to the satellite. the location of the receiver is at the exact point where the two circles intersect beneath the satellites (Figure 5). can best be explained by initially determining one’s position on a plane. YP) 0 0 XP X-co-ordinates Figure 5: The position of the receiver at the intersection of the two circles GPS-X-02007 Page 13 . To achieve this. 1 YP Position of the receiver (XP. Y-co-ordinates Circles S2= τ2 • c S1= τ1 • c Sat.GPS Basics The distance S to the satellite can be determined by using the known transit time τ: u-blox ag distance = travel time • the speed of light S =τ • c Measuring signal transit time and knowing the distance to a satellite is still not enough to calculate one’s own position in 3-D space.2 Determining a position on a plane Imagine that you are wandering across a vast plateau and would like to know where you are. 2. If the position above the satellites is excluded. By using the signal transit time to both satellites you can draw two circles with the radii S1 and S2 around the satellites. 2 Sat.1. four independent transit time measurements are required. All possible distances to the satellite are located on the circumference of the circle. Why this should be so. Two satellites are orbiting far above you transmitting their own on board clock times and positions.

all possible positions are located on the surface of three spheres whose radii correspond to the distance calculated. Position Figure 6: The position is determined at the point where all three spheres intersect All statements made so far will only be valid. We are reminded when producing calculations that if N variables are unknown. an additional third satellite must be available to determine the true position. If the distance to the three satellites is known. synchronised clock is needed. the transit time in the case of all three measurements is inaccurate by the same amount. However. signal transit time can be correctly determined. As the difference between a plane and three-dimensional space consists of an extra dimension (height Z). For the receiver to measure time precisely a highly accurate. If the transit time is out by just 1 µs this produces a positional error of 300m.3 The effect and correction of time error We have been assuming up until now that it has been possible to measure signal transit time precisely. we need N independent equations. rather than on a plane. if the terrestrial clock and the atomic clocks on board the satellites are synchronised. The position sought is at the point where all three surfaces of the spheres intersect (Figure 6). Mathematics is the only thing that can help us now. this is not the case.e. If the time measurement is accompanied by a constant unknown error.GPS Basics u-blox ag In reality. 2.1. As the clocks on board all three satellites are synchronised. a position has to be determined in three-dimensional space. i. GPS-X-02007 Page 14 . we will have four unknown variables in 3-D space: • • • longitude (X) latitude (Y) height (Z) • time error (∆t) It therefore follows that in three-dimensional space four satellites are needed to determine a position.

GPS-X-02007 Page 15 . 1 to sat. 2 Sat. Sat. four independent equations are needed. 3 Sat. The 28 GPS satellites are distributed around the globe in such a way that at least 4 of them are always “visible” from any point on Earth (Figure 7).GPS Basics u-blox ag 2. 5 – 10 m.1. The four transit times required are supplied by the four different satellites (sat. 4). a position on a plane can be calculated to within approx. 4 Signal Figure 7: Four satellites are required to determine a position in 3-D space. 1 Sat. Despite receiver time errors.4 Determining a position in 3-D space In order to determine these four unknown variables.

. THE TECHNOLOGY If you would like to . monitor stations. and ground control stations) The user segment (all civil and military GPS users) GPS-X-02007 Page 16 . .GPS Basics u-blox ag 3 GPS. o understand why three different GPS segments are needed o know what function each individual segment has o know how a GPS satellite is basically constructed o know what sort of information is relayed to Earth o understand how a satellite signal is generated o understand how GPS signal transit time is determined o understand what correlation means then this chapter is for you! 3.1 Description of the entire system The Global Positioning System (GPS) comprises three segments (Figure 8): • • • The space segment (all functional satellites) The control segment (all ground stations involved in the monitoring of the system: master control station.

GPS-X-02007 Page 17 . The three ground control stations are equipped with ground antennae.almanac . They orbit at a height of 20.ephemeris . Due to the rotation of the Earth.date. time . a satellite will be at its initial starting position (Figure 9) after approx.1 Satellite movement The space segment currently consists of 28 operational satellites (Figure 3) orbiting the Earth on 6 different orbital planes (four to five satellites per plane).time corrections From the ground station User segment Figure 8: The three GPS segments Control segment As can be seen in Figure 8 there is unidirectional communication between the space segment and the user segment. which enable bidirectional communication. Any one satellite completes its orbit in around 12 hours. 3.satellite health .calculated almanacs . 24 hours (23 hours 56 minutes to be precise).established ephemeris .2 Space segment 3.GPS Basics u-blox ag Space segment L1 carrier .health .180 km above the Earth’s surface and are inclined at 55° to the equator.time pulses .2.

The distribution of the 28 satellites at any given time can be seen in Figure 10.00 hrs UTC on 14th April 2001 GPS-X-02007 Page 18 . It is due to this ingenious pattern of distribution and to the great height at which they orbit that communication with at least 4 satellites is ensured at all times anywhere in the world.GPS Basics u-blox ag 90° 15h 3h Latitude 0° 12h 18h 0h 6h 12h 21h 9h 90° -180° -120° -60° 0° 60° 120° 180° Longitude Figure 9: Position of the 28 GPS satellites at 12. Figure 9 shows the effective range (shaded area) of a satellite located directly above the equator/zero meridian intersection.00 hrs UTC on 14th April 2001 Satellite signals can be received anywhere within a satellite’s effective range. 90° Latitude 0° 90° -180° -120° -60° 0° 60° 120° 180° Longitude Figure 10: Position of the 28 GPS satellites at 12.

2. -153dBW. The minimum signal strength received on Earth is approx.0*10-18W) The received power of –160dBW is unimaginably small.1 Construction of a satellite All 28 satellites transmit time signals and data synchronised by on board atomic clocks at the same frequency (1575.42 MHz).9W) +13.9 dB below receiver background noise [ii].8dBm) -3.9W.0dB -160dBW (-130dBm=100.8dBW (56.2 The communication link budget analysis The link budget analysis (Table 1) between a satellite and a user is suitable for establishing the required level of satellite transmission power. Gain (+) /loss (-) Power at the satellite transmitter Satellite antenna gain (due to concentration of the signal at 14.2.4dB -184.2. The maximum power density is 14. In accordance with the specification. modulated with the C/A code. In accordance with the specification. the maximum strength is approx.3°) Radiate power EIRP (Effective Integrated Radiate Power) Loss due to polarisation mismatch Signal attenuation in space Signal attenuation in the atmosphere Gain from the reception antenna Power at receiver input Table 1: L1 carrier link budget analysis modulated with the C/A code Absolute value 13. Figure 11: A GPS satellite 3.4dB 26.2.4dBW (43.4dB -2. -158dBW to -160dBW [i]. GPS-X-02007 Page 19 .2.0dB +3. In order to ensure this level is maintained.2 The GPS satellites 3. the satellite L1 carrier transmission power. the minimum amount of power received must not fall below –160dBW (-130dBm).4dBm=21. must be 21.GPS Basics u-blox ag 3.

5 minutes.3 • • • • • • Satellite signals u-blox ag The following information (navigation message) is transmitted by the satellite at a rate of 50 bits per second [iii]: Satellite time and synchronisation signals Precise orbital data (ephemeris) Time correction information to determine the exact satellite time Approximate orbital data for all satellites (almanac) Correction signals to calculate signal transit time Data on the ionosphere • Information on satellite health The time required to transmit all this information is 12.2. PRN-Code. The following time pulses and frequencies required for day-to-day operation are derived from the resonant frequency of one of the four atomic clocks (figs. coarse reception code at a frequency of 1023 MHz). this unique identifier is continually repeated and serves two purposes with regard to the receiver: • • Identification: the unique signature pattern means that the receiver knows from which satellite the signal originated.GPS Basics 3. Signal transit time measurement 3. 1 ms/1023 1 0 1 ms Figure 12: Pseudo Random Noise Lasting a millisecond.3 Generating the satellite signal 3.1 Simplified block diagram On board the satellites are four highly accurate atomic clocks. With every change in the modulated data there is a 180° change in the L1 carrier phase. This signature consists of an apparent random sequence (Pseudo Random Noise Code.2. GPS-X-02007 Page 20 .2.2.42 MHz) The data modulated by the C/A code modulates the L1 carrier in turn by using Bi-Phase-Shift-Keying (BPSK).3. By using the navigation message the receiver is able to determine the transmission time of each satellite signal and the exact position of the satellite at the time of transmission. Each of the 28 satellites transmits a unique signature assigned to it. PRN) of 1023 zeros and ones (Figure 12). which modulates the data using an exclusive-or operation (this spreads the data over a 1MHz bandwidth) • The frequency of the civil L1 carrier (1575. 13 and 14): • • The 50 Hz data pulse The C/A code pulse (Coarse/Acquisition code.

42 MHz BPSK modulated L1 carrier 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 Figure 14: Data structure of a GPS satellite GPS-X-02007 Page 21 . 1575.023 MHz 0 C/A code Data generator (C/A code) 50 Bit/sec Data 1 0 Exclusive-or Data Figure 13: Simplified satellite block diagram Data.GPS Basics Multiplier Carrier frequency generator 1575.42 MHz 1 u-blox ag L1 carrier Transmitted satellite signal (BPSK) PRN code generator 1.023 MBit/s Data modulated by C/A code L1 carrier. 50 bit/s C/A code (PRN-18) 1.

42MHz Antenna BPSK modulator 1575. the C/A code playing an important part in this process.42MHz x 154 Carrier freq.2. data frequency.3. generator 1575. is generated by a feedback shift register. therefore. the carrier frequency. A satellite is always identified.23MHz is derived in a satellite from the resonant frequency of one of the four atomic clocks. This signature. 1575. As all 28 satellites transmit on 1575.23MHz Time pulse for C/A generator 1. the timing for the generation of pseudo random noise (PRN). The C/A code is an apparent random sequence of 1023 bits known as pseudo random noise (PRN). The C/A code generator has a frequency of 1023 MHz and a period of 1. are derived from this basic frequency (Figure 15).GPS Basics u-blox ag 3. In turn.023MHz 1. which lasts a millisecond and is unique to each satellite.023MHz C/A code generator 1 period = 1ms = 1023 Chips 1. GPS-X-02007 Page 22 . by its corresponding C/A code.023 chips.42 MHz). which is the same as a gold code. a process known as CDMA Multiplex (Code Division Multiple Access) is used.2 Detailed block system The atomic clocks on board a satellite have a stability greater than 2.23MHz frequency 10. The data is transmitted based on DSSS modulation (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Modulation) [v]. The C/A code used (PRN code). is constantly repeated. As all satellites transmit on the same frequency (1575. the C/A code contains the identification and information generated by each individual satellite. and the C/A code (course / acquisition code). The basic frequency of 10.023MHz C/A code exclusive-or : 204'600 Data pulse generator 50Hz 50Hz Data processing 1 Bit = 20ms 0/1 50Hz Data Data Figure 15: Detailed block system of a GPS satellite The modulation process described above is referred to as DSSS modulation (Direct Sequence Spread Modulation).42 MHz. which corresponds to a millisecond.10-13 [iv].023MHz 1.42MHz L1 carrier BPSK : 10 Atomic clock Derived basic 10. and therefore exhibits good correlation properties.

h and t are determined from the distance and known position of these four satellites. The receiver then calculates the user’s latitude ϕ. 1 ms Satellite signal Synchronisation Receiver signal (synchronised) Receiver time mark ∆t Figure 16: Measuring signal transit time In order to determine the position of a user. The control segment also oversees the artificial distortion of signals (SA.GPS Basics u-blox ag 3. λ. As mentioned earlier.S. It was shut down in May 2000. 67 milliseconds to reach a receiver. if necessary. Four different signals are generated in the receiver having the same structure as those received from the 4 satellites. in order to degrade the system’s positional accuracy for civil use. The most important tasks of the control segment are: • • • • • • Observing the movement of the satellites and computing orbital data (ephemeris) Monitoring the satellite clocks and predicting their behaviour Synchronising on board satellite time Relaying precise orbital data received from satellites in communication Relaying the approximate orbital data of all satellites (almanac) Relaying further information. height h and time t from the range and known position of the four satellites. The correlation point is used to measure the actual signal transit time and. By synchronising the signals generated in the receiver with those from the satellites. a complete match will eventually occur (that is to say that the correlation factor CF is one). GPS-X-02007 Page 23 . As the receiver is able to recognise all C/A codes currently in use. Department of Defense (DoD). either on a global or regional basis. the four satellite signal time shifts ∆t are measured as a timing mark (Figure 16). including satellite health. but with a different C/A code. although a fairly complex level of iteration is required. Expressed in mathematical terms. and three ground control stations that transmit information to the satellites. longitude λ. as previously mentioned. by systematically shifting and comparing every code with all incoming satellite signals. but it can be started up again. all 28 satellites transmit on the same frequency. The relevant distance to the satellites is determined by the transit time of the signals. their transit time depends on the distance between the satellites and the user. this means that the four unknown variables ϕ.4 User segment The signals transmitted by the satellites take approx. System accuracy had been intentionally degraded up until May 2000 for political and tactical reasons by the U. the satellite operators. clock errors etc. five monitor stations equipped with atomic clocks that are spread around the globe in the vicinity of the equator. Signal recovery and the identification of the satellites takes place by means of correlation. which will be dealt with in greater detail at a later stage. The measured time shifts ∆t of all 4 satellite signals are used to determine signal transit time. and a correlation point will be attained (Figure 17). to identify the satellite.3 Control segment The control segment (Operational Control System OCS) consists of a Master Control Station located in the state of Colorado. As the signals travel at the speed of light. 3. radio communication with four different satellites is required. Selective Availability). This process is basically termed Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

The value range of CF lies between minus one and plus one and is only plus one when both signals completely match (bit sequence and phase). in phase Figure 17: Demonstration of the correction process across 30 bits CF = 0.00 Correlation point: CF = 1.GPS Basics u-blox ag Incoming signal from PRN-18 bit 11 to 40. in phase Reference signal from PRN-18 bit 21 to 50.07 CF = 0.33 The quality of the correlation is expressed here as CF (correlation factor). mB: uB: N: GPS-X-02007 Page 24 . leading Reference signal from PRN-18 bit 11 to 40. trailing Reference signal from PRN-5 Bit 11 to 40. reference Reference signal from PRN-18 bit 1 to 30. CF = 1 N • ∑ [( mB ) − (uB )] N i =1 number of all matched bits number of all unmatched bits number of observed bits.00 CF = 0.

Transmission time for the entire almanac is therefore 12. A GPS receiver must have collected the complete almanac at least once to be capable of functioning (e. Each frame is 1500 bits long and takes 30 seconds to transmit.g. The frames are divided into 5 subframes. GPS-X-02007 Page 25 . for its primary initialisation).GPS Basics u-blox ag 4 THE GPS NAVIGATION MESSAGE If you would like to .5 minutes. In order to transmit a complete almanac. Data is transmitted in logically grouped units known as frames or pages. 25 different frames are required (called pages). Each subframe is 300 bits long and takes 6 seconds to transmit. . Each satellite relays the following information to Earth: • • • System time and clock correction values Its own highly accurate orbital data (ephemeris) Approximate orbital data for all other satellites (almanac) • System health. The navigation message is needed to calculate the current position of the satellites and to determine signal transit times. etc. . The data stream is modulated to the HF carrier wave of each individual satellite.1 Introduction The navigation message [vi] is a continuous stream of data transmitted at 50 bits per second. o know what information is transmitted to Earth by GPS satellites o understand why a minimum period of time is required to for the GPS system to come on line o know what data can be called up where o know what frames and subframes are o understand why the same data is transmitted with varying degrees of accuracy then this chapter is for you! 4.

1 Information contained in the subframes A frame is divided into five subframes. pa30 bits (TOW) ID rity 0. A complete navigation message consists of 25 frames (pages). • Subframe 1 contains the time values of the transmitting satellite.5 min Figure 18: Structure of the entire navigation message 4. Data Word content Sub-frame 4 Partial almanac other data TLM HOW Sub-frame 2 TLM HOW Sub-frame 3 TLM HOW Sub-frame 5 TLM HOW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Satellite clock and health data Ephemeris Ephemeris Almanac Navigation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 message 25 pages/frames 37500 bits 12. the difference between GPS and UTC time and information regarding any measurement errors caused by the ionosphere. each subframe transmitting different information. each subframe can transmit data from one satellite only). including the parameters for correcting signal transit delay and on board clock time. Subframe 4 contains the almanac data on satellite numbers 25 to 32 (N. Subframe 1 also transmits the so-called 10-bit week number (a range of values from 0 to 1023 can be represented by 10 bits). each subframe can transmit data from one satellite only).B.B. • • • GPS-X-02007 Page 26 .6s 16Bits reserved Handover word 17Bits 7Bits 6Bits (HOW) Time of Week div. Telemetry word 8Bits (TLM) pre30 bits amble 0..GPS Basics u-blox ag 4. The structure of the navigation message is illustrated in diagrammatic format in Figure 18. Each subframe begins with a telemetry word and a handover word (HOW).2 Structure of the navigation message A frame is 1500 bits long and takes 30 seconds to transmit. Every 1024 weeks the week number restarts at 0. The 1500 bits are divided into five subframes each of 300 bits (duration of transmission 6 seconds). as well as information on satellite health and an estimation of the positional accuracy of the satellite. GPS time began on Sunday. 6th January 1980 at 00:00:00 hours. Subframes 2 and 3 contain the ephemeris data of the transmitting satellite. This data provides extremely accurate information on the satellite’s orbit.6s 6Bits parity TLM HOW Subpage 300 Bits 6s Sub-frame 1 Frame (page) 1500 bits 30s TLM HOW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Word No.2. Each subframe is in turn divided into 10 words each containing 30 bits. All 25 pages are transmitted together with information on the health of satellite numbers 1 to 24. Subframe 5 contains the almanac data on satellite numbers 1 to 24 (N.

GPS Basics u-blox ag 4. The handover word (HOW) immediately follows the telemetry word in each subframe.800 seconds in a week. pages 2. the final 6 bits of the telemetry word are parity bits. in order to allow synchronisation with the P code. Bit Nos. • In the case of subframe 4. the almanac data for one satellite only is transferred per page. 20 to 22 are used in the handover word to identify the subframe just transmitted. the telemetry word (TLM). 8. Page 25 contains information on the configuration of all 32 satellites (i. In each case. the count runs from 0 to 100.3 Subdivision of the 25 pages A complete navigation message requires 25 pages and lasts 12. before returning to 0. followed by 16 bits reserved for authorized users. 9 and 10 relay the almanac data on satellite numbers 25 to 32. pages 1 to 24 relay the almanac data on satellite numbers 1 to 24. • GPS-X-02007 Page 27 . The TOW count begins with the value 0 at the beginning of the GPS week (transition period from Saturday 23:59:59 hours to Sunday 00:00:00 hours) and is increased by a value of 1 every 6 seconds. Page 25 transfers information on the health of satellite numbers 1 to 24 and the original almanac time.5 minutes. In the case of subframe 5. A marker is introduced into the data stream every 6 seconds and the HOW transmitted. Page 18 transmits the values for correction measurements as a result of ionospheric scintillation. 4. The handover word is 17 bits in length (a range of values from 0 to 131071 can be represented using 17 bits) and contains within its structure the start time for the next subframe. as well as the difference between UTC and GPS time. A page or a frame is divided into five subframes.799. As there are 604. In the case of subframes 1 to 3.2.2. the information content is the same for all 25 pages. the almanac data for one satellite only is transferred per page. which is transmitted as time of the week (TOW). The sole difference in the case of subframes 4 and 5 is how the information transmitted is organised. block affiliation) and the health of satellite numbers 25 to 32. In each case. 7.e. As with all words. contains a preamble sequence 8 bits in length (10001011) used for synchronization purposes.2 TLM and HOW The first word of every single frame. 4. This means that a receiver has the complete clock values and ephemeris data from the transmitting satellite every 30 seconds. 3. 5.

Semi major axis of orbital ellipse: a Eccentricity of the orbital ellipse: e = a2 − b2 a2 a b Figure 19: Ephemeris terms GPS-X-02007 Page 28 . of bits Almanac No. Information Ephemeris No. see Figure 18.2. The difference between the values transmitted lies mainly in the accuracy of the figures.GPS Basics u-blox ag 4. of bits 16 16 Square root of the semi major axis of 32 orbital ellipse a Eccentricity of orbital ellipse e 32 Table 2: Comparison between ephemeris and almanac data For an explanation of the terms used in Table 2. a comparison is made between the two sets of figures. the satellite orbits and therefore the relevant co-ordinates of a specific satellite can be determined at a defined point in time. In the following table (Table 2).4 Comparison between ephemeris and almanac data Using both ephemeris and almanac data.

measuring velocity. navigation (air.1 Introduction Although originally intended for purely military purposes. and special measuring techniques (phase measurement) positional accuracy can be increased to within a centimetre... o understand how co-ordinates and time are determined o know what pseudo-range is o understand why a GPS receiver must produce a position estimate at the start of a calculation o understand how a non-linear equation is solved using four unknown variables o know what degree of accuracy is guaranteed by the GPS system operator then this chapter is for you! 5. sea and land). . etc. .GPS Basics u-blox ag 5 CALCULATING POSITION If you would like to . e. several linked receivers (DGPS). positioning.1 The principle of measuring signal transit time (evaluation of pseudo-range) In order for a GPS receiver to determine its position.2 Calculating a position 5.g. monitoring stationary and moving objects. it has to receive time signals from four different satellites (Sat 1 . 5.. longer measuring time. the GPS system is used today primarily for civil applications. GPS-X-02007 Page 29 . determining time. Sat 4). The system operator guarantees the standard civilian user of the service that the following accuracy (Table 3) will be attained for 95% of the time (2drms value [vii]): Horizontal accuracy ≤13 m Vertical accuracy ≤22 m Time accuracy ~40ns≤ Table 3: Accuracy of the standard civilian service With additional effort and expenditure..2. such as surveying. ∆t4 (Figure 20). to enable it to calculate signal transit time ∆t1 .

the user co-ordinates can be calculated. Sat 2 Sat 1 XSat_2. three-dimensional co-ordinate system with a geocentric origin (Figure 21). YSat_4. YSat_2. The range of the user from the four satellites R1. YSat_3. ZSat_4 Y X Figure 21: Three dimensional co-ordinate system GPS-X-02007 Page 30 . R3 and R4 can be determined with the help of signal transit times ∆t1. As the locations XSat. ∆t2.GPS Basics Sat 2 Sat 3 Sat 1 ∆t2 ∆t1 ∆t3 ∆t4 Sat 4 u-blox ag User Figure 20: Four satellite signals must be received Calculations are effected in a Cartesian. ZSat_1 Ra nge: R1 Z Ra ng e: R Sat 3 XSat_3. R2. ∆t3 and ∆t4 between the four satellites and the user. ZSat_2 ∆t1 XSat_1. ZSat_3 ∆t3 Sat 4 3 Ra ng e: R ∆t2 2 ∆t4 Range: R4 User ZAnw Origin YAnw XAnw XSat_4. YSat_1. YSat and ZSat of the four satellites are known.

YAnw and ZAnw).GPS Basics u-blox ag Due to the atomic clocks on board the satellites. XAnw. As a result. The resultant time error ∆t0 causes inaccuracies in the measurement of signal transit time and the distance R.. four independent equations are necessary. the receiver clock is not synchronised to UTC and is therefore slow or fast by ∆t0.. All satellite clocks are adjusted or synchronised with each another and universal time co-ordinated. ∆tmeasured = ∆t + ∆t 0 PSR = ∆tmeasured ⋅ c = (∆t + ∆t 0 )⋅ c (1a) (2a) (3a) PSR = R + ∆t 0 ⋅ c R: c: ∆t: ∆t0: PSR: true range of the satellite from the user speed of light signal transit time from the satellite to the user difference between the satellite clock and the user clock pseudo-range The distance R from the satellite to the user can be calculated in a Cartesian system as follows: R= ( XSat − XUser ) + ( YSat − YUser ) + ( ZSat − ZUser ) 2 2 2 (4a) thus (4) into (3) PSR = ( XSat − XUser ) + ( YSat − YUser ) + ( ZSat − ZUser ) 2 2 2 + c ⋅ ∆t0 (5a) In order to determine the four unknown variables (∆t0 . the time at which the satellite signal is transmitted is known very precisely. The following is valid for the four satellites (i = 1 . In contrast. The sign ∆t0 is positive when the user clock is fast. 4): PSRi = ( XSat_i − XUser ) + ( YSat_i − YUser ) + ( ZSat_i − ZUser ) 2 2 2 + c ⋅ ∆t0 (6a) GPS-X-02007 Page 31 . an incorrect distance is measured that is known as pseudo distance or pseudo-range PSR [viii].

the first part only being used (Figure 22). YGes and ZGes is initially used (Figure 23). f(X) f'(x0) f(x) f(x0) function ∆x x0 Figure 22: Conversion of the Taylor series X x Generally (with ∆x = x − x 0 ): Simplified (1st part only): f' (x 0 )⋅ ∆x + f ' ' (x 0 )2 ⋅ ∆x + f ' ' ' (x 0 )3 ⋅ ∆x + . YSat_4. YSat_2. ZSat_3 Sat 4 RGes_4 user estimated position ZGes Y ∆x ∆z YGes XGes XSat_4. an arbitrarily estimated value x0 must therefore be incorporated in the vicinity of x.. Sat 3 RGes_2 XSat_3. YSat_3. YSat_1. YAnw and ZAnw directly. ZSat_2 RGes_1 XSat_1. an estimated position XGes .GPS Basics u-blox ag 5. In order to solve the set. this means that instead of calculating XAnw . ZSat_4 Sat 2 XSat_2. 1 ! 2! 3! f (x ) = f (x 0 ) + f ' (x 0 )⋅ ∆x (7a) f (x ) = f (x 0 ) + In order to linearise the four equations (6a).2.. the root function is first linearised according to the Taylor model. ZSat_1 error considerations estimated position ∆y user X Figure 23: Estimating a position Sat 1 Z RGes_3 GPS-X-02007 Page 32 . For the GPS system.2 Linearisation of the equation The four equations under 6a produce a non-linear set of equations.

this gives the following: PSRi = RGes _ i + ZGes − ZSat _ i YGes − YSat _ i XGes − XSat _ i ⋅ ∆x + ⋅ ∆y + ⋅ ∆z + c ⋅ ∆t 0 (11a) RGes _ i RGes _ i RGes _ i 5. 4) the four variables (∆x. XAnw = XGes + ∆x YAnw = YGes + ∆y ZAnw = ZGes + ∆z (8a) u-blox ag The distance RGes from the four satellites to the estimated position can be calculated in a similar way to equation (4a): RGes _ i = ( XSat _ i − XGes) + ( YSat _ i − YGes) + ( ZSat _ i − ZGes) 2 2 2 (9a) Equation (9a) combined with equations (6a) and (7a) produces: PSRi = RGes _ i + ∂ (RGes _ i) ∂ (RGes _ i ) ∂ (RGes _ i ) ⋅ ∆x + ⋅ ∆y + ⋅ ∆z + c ⋅ ∆t 0 ∂x ∂y ∂z (10a) After carrying out partial differentiation. ∆z and ∆t0) can now be solved according to the rules of linear algebra:  XGes − XSat _ 1  RGes _ 1  PSR1 − RGes _ 1   XGes − XSat _ 2 PSR 2 − RGes _ 2     =  RGes _ 2 PSR3 − RGes _ 3   XGes − XSat _ 3    RGes _ 3 PSR 4 − RGes _ 4    XGes − XSat _ 4   RGes _ 4  XGes − XSat_1  RGes_1  XGes − XSat_2 ∆x     ∆y    =  RGes_2  XGes − XSat_3  ∆z   RGes_3     ∆t0   XGes − XSat_4  RGes_4  YGes − YSat_1 RGes_1 YGes − YSat_2 RGes_2 YGes − YSat_3 RGes_3 YGes − YSat_4 RGes_4 YGes − YSat _ 1 RGes _ 1 YGes − YSat _ 2 RGes _ 2 YGes − YSat _ 3 RGes _ 3 YGes − YSat _ 4 RGes _ 4 ZGes − ZSat_1 RGes_1 ZGes − ZSat_2 RGes_2 ZGes − ZSat_3 RGes_3 ZGes − ZSat_4 RGes_4 ZGes − ZSat _ 1 RGes _ 1 ZGes − ZSat _ 2 RGes _ 2 ZGes − ZSat _ 3 RGes _ 3 ZGes − ZSat _ 4 RGes _ 4  c  c   c  c   −1  c  c   c  c    ∆x   ∆y  ⋅   ∆z     ∆t0  (12a)  PSR1 − RGes_1  PSR2 − RGes_2   ⋅ PSR3 − RGes_3    PSR4 − RGes_4  (13a) The solution of ∆x... ∆y and ∆z.3 Solving the equation After transposing the four equations (11a) (for i = 1 .GPS Basics The estimated position includes an error produced by the unknown variables ∆x.2. ∆y. GPS-X-02007 Page 33 . ∆y and ∆z is used to recalculate the estimated position XGes . YGes and ZGes in accordance with equation (8a).

g.2. ∆y and ∆z) down to zero by repeated iteration. until error components ∆x. ∆y and ∆z are smaller than the desired error (e. 5. 0. three to five iterative calculations are generally required to produce an error component of less than 1 cm.4 Summary In order to determine a position. This then gives: XAnw = XGes_Neu YAnw = YGes_Neu ZAnw = ZGes_Neu (15a) The calculated value of ∆t0 corresponds to receiver time error and can be used to adjust the receiver clock. the user (or his receiver software) will either use the last measurement value.GPS Basics XGes_Neu = XGes_Alt + ∆x YGes_Neu = YGes_Alt + ∆y ZGes_Neu = ZGes_Alt + ∆z (14a) u-blox ag The estimated values XGes_Neu . GPS-X-02007 Page 34 . Depending on the initial estimation.1 m). or estimate a new position and calculate error components (∆x. YGes_Neu and ZGes_Neu can now be entered into the set of equations (13a) using the normal iterative process.

3%) HDOP=2.5. The error component is increased further still as a result of terrestrial reflection (multipath).0) Horizontal error (2 sigma (95.. Speed of light: the signals from the satellite to the user travel at the speed of light. 10-20 ns.0) Table 4: Cause of errors Error 4m 2.2.1 Error consideration Error components in calculations have so far not been taken into account.2m 20. DGPS).3%) and 2 sigma (95.5%) HDOP=2. better than specified. This slows down when traversing the ionosphere and troposphere and can therefore no longer be taken as a constant..8m 25.2. Accuracy is.1 m 0. In many instances.5 m 2.3 m 5. horizontal error is under 7.1 12.0 m.2 m.7 1. the values applying to an average satellite constellation (DOP value) [ix]. In the case of the GPS system. Satellite orbits: The position of a satellite is generally known only to within approx. In all cases. GPS-X-02007 Page 35 .5. 1 sigma (68.5%) are also given.5.3%) VDOP=2. a time error of just 10 ns creates an error in the order of 3 m.GPS Basics u-blox ag 5.4 m 5.2) is referred to as GDOP (Geometric Dilution Of Precision).3%) VDOP=2.5) Vertical error (2 sigma (95. Cause of error Effects of the ionosphere Satellite clocks Receiver measurements Ephemeris data Effects of the troposphere Multipath Total RMS value (unfiltered) Total RMS value (filtered) Vertical error (1 sigma (68. The effect of satellite geometry on accuracy of measurement (see 5. 1 to 5 m.5 Error consideration and satellite signal 5.6m 10. the number of error sources can be eliminated or reduced (typically to 1. • The errors are caused by various factors that are detailed in Table 4.2. 2 sigma) by taking appropriate measures (Differential GPS.1 0.4 m and vertical error is under 9. measurements were conducted over a period of 24 hours [iv]. several causes may contribute to the overall error: • • • • Satellite clocks: although each satellite has four atomic clocks on board. which corresponds to a positional error of 3-6 m. Measuring signal transit time: The user can only determine the point in time at which an incoming satellite signal is received to within a period of approx. for the most part.5) Horizontal error (1 sigma (68. Satellite geometry: The ability to determine a position deteriorates if the four satellites used to take measurements are close together.4m Measurements undertaken by the US Federal Aviation Administration over a long period of time indicate that in the case of 95% of all measurements. which includes information on horizontal errors.

GPS Basics u-blox ag 5. on the accuracy of the individual pseudo-range measurements. the error in determining a position increases by a factor of two. There are several DOP designations in current use: • • • • GDOP: Geometrical DOP (position in 3-D space. on the one hand. incl. which in navigation literature is termed DOP (Dilution of Precision). formed by the positions of the satellites and user. PDOP: low (1. PDOP played an important part in the planning of measurement projects during the early years of GPS.2. This means that if the DOP value doubles. as shown in Figure 24. GPS-X-02007 Page 36 . This is expressed in a scalar quantity.2 DOP (dilution of precision) The accuracy with which a position can be determined using GPS in navigation mode depends. The best geometrical situation occurs when the volume is at a maximum and PDOP at a minimum. on the geometrical configuration of the satellites used. and on the other. Satellite deployment today is so good that PDOP and GDOP values rarely exceed 3 (Figure 1).7) Figure 24: Satellite geometry and PDOP PDOP can be interpreted as a reciprocal value of the volume of a tetrahedron. time deviation in the solution) PDOP: Positional DOP (position in 3-D space) HDOP: Horizontal DOP (position on a plane) VDOP: Vertical DOP (height only) The accuracy of any measurement is proportionately dependent on the DOP value.5. as the limited deployment of satellites frequently produced phases when satellite constellations were geometrically very unfavourable.5) PDOP: high (5.

The relevant PDOP values should therefore be included as evaluation criteria when assessing critical results.2 DOP = 1. In the case of kinematic applications and rapid recording processes. HDOP = 1. PDOP values can be shown with all planning and evaluation programmes supplied by leading equipment manufacturers (Figure 26). particularly as different PDOP values can arise over the course of a few minutes. unfavourable geometrical situations that are short lived in nature can occur in isolated cases.2 DOP = 6.8 HDOP = 2.GPS Basics u-blox ag Local time Figure 25: GDOP values and the number of satellites expressed as a time function It is therefore unnecessary to plan measurements based on PDOP values.8 Figure 26: Effect of satellite constellations on the DOP value GPS-X-02007 Page 37 Visible satellites .4 PDOP = 6. or to evaluate the degree of accuracy attainable as a result.3 PDOP = 1.

. the level surface of the oceans and seas do not lie on the surface of a geometrically definable shape. A geoid can only be defined as a mathematical figure with a limited degree of accuracy and not without a few arbitrary assumptions. GPS-X-02007 Page 38 . instead approximations have to be used. A geoid represents an approximation of this shape. average sea surface forms part of a level surface. 10 different grids. Several different methods have been attempted over the course of the centuries to describe as exactly as possible the true shape of the Earth.GPS Basics u-blox ag 6 CO-ORDINATE SYSTEMS If you would like to . A geoid is often used as a reference surface for measuring height. it is difficult to understand why with a good portable GPS receiver the right combination has to be selected from more than 100 different map reference systems (datum) and approx.1 Introduction A significant problem when using the GPS system is that there are very many different co-ordinate systems worldwide. Without this basic knowledge. it is necessary to take a look at the basics of the science that deals with the surveying and mapping of the Earth’s surface. The reference point in Switzerland for measuring height is the “Repère Pierre du Niton (RPN. geodesy. This is because the distribution of the mass of the Earth is uneven and. a position can be out by several hundred meters. the position measured and calculated by the GPS system does not always coincide with one’s supposed position. as a result. . 373. o know what a geoid is o understand why the Earth is depicted primarily as an ellipsoid o understand why over 200 different map reference systems are used worldwide o know what WGS-84 means o understand how it is possible to convert one datum into another o know what Cartesian and ellipsoidal co-ordinates are o understand how maps of countries are made o know how country co-ordinates are calculated from the WGS-84 co-ordinates then this chapter is for you! 6.2 Geoids We have known that the Earth is round since Columbus. In an ideal situation. In order to understand how the GPS system functions. a geoid is a theoretical body whose surface intersects the gravitational field lines everywhere at right angles. As a result. If an incorrect choice is made. 6. this surface is described as a geoid (Figure 27). which in a geometrical sense is the “surface” of the Earth. the smoothed. Differing from the actual shape of the Earth. But how round is it really? Describing the shape of the blue planet exactly has always been an imprecise science. By analogy with the Greek word for Earth. This height originates from point to point measurements with the port of Marseilles (mean height above sea level 0.600 m) in the Geneva harbour basin.00m).

Such a substitute surface is known as a spheroid. f= a−b a (16a) North pole Rotation b E q u a to rial p la n e a South pole Figure 28: Producing a spheroid GPS-X-02007 Page 39 . A simpler.3 Ellipsoid and datum 6. however. is a difficult shape to manipulate when conducting calculations.3.GPS Basics u-blox ag Land h Geoid Sea Earth Macro image of the earth Geoid (exaggerated form) Figure 27: A geoid is an approximation of the Earth’s surface 6.1 Spheroid A geoid. more definable shape is therefore needed when carrying out daily surveying operations. A spheroid is defined by two parameters: • Semi major axis a (on the equatorial plane) • Semi minor axis b (on the north-south pole axis) The amount by which the shape deviates from the ideal sphere is referred to as flattening (f). If the surface of an ellipse is rotated about its symmetrical north-south pole axis. (Figure 28). a spheroid is obtained as a result.

but the geoid. is known as geoid ondulation N (Figure 30) P Vertical deviation H h N Earth Geoid Ellipsoid Figure 30: Difference between geoid and ellipsoid GPS-X-02007 Page 40 . care should be taken to ensure that the relevant map reference system has been entered into the receiver. and the ellipsoidal height h. The difference between the measured orthometric height H. based on the geoid.1 Local reference ellipsoids When dealing with a spheroid. i.2 Datum. each country has developed its own customised non-geocentric spheroid as a reference surface for carrying out surveying operations (Figure 29). points on the Earth’s surface are incorrectly projected.3. based on the reference ellipsoid.2.e. In order to keep this deviation to a minimum. they are distinguished by “vertical deflection“ (Figure 30).e. and NAD83 for North America.2 Customised local reference ellipsoids and datum 6. Depending on the map used when navigating with GPS receivers.GPS Basics u-blox ag 6. i. WGS-84 as the global standard. care must be taken to ensure that the natural perpendicular does not intersect vertically at a point with the ellipsoid. ry unt Co A un Co Customized ellipsoid for country A try B Customized ellipsoid for country B Geoid (exaggerated shape) Figure 29: Customised local reference ellipsoid A spheroid is well suited for describing the positional co-ordinates of a point in degrees of longitude and latitude. Information on height is either based on the geoid or the reference ellipsoid.2.3.3. map reference systems National or international map reference systems based on certain types of ellipsoids are called datums. 6. Normal ellipsoidal and natural perpendiculars do not therefore coincide. Some examples of these map reference systems from a selection of over 120 are CH-1903 for Switzerland. The semiaxes a and b and the mid-point are selected in such a way that the geoid and ellipsoid match national territories as accurately as possible.

The WGS-84 co-ordinate system is geocentrically positioned with respect to the centre of the Earth. Z North pole Ellipsoid Equatorial plane b z Origin y P Y x a X Greenwich Meridian Equator Figure 31: Illustration of the Cartesian co-ordinates GPS-X-02007 Page 41 .) 6377397. right-handed. Earth Fixed).155 299. and each reference system employed for technical applications during surveying has its own name. If the same ellipsoids are used.0 6377397.GPS Basics u-blox ag 6. The positive X-axis of the ellispoid (Figure 31) lies on the equatorial plane (that imaginary surface which is encompassed by the equator) and extends from the centre of mass through the point at which the equator and the Greenwich meridian intersect (the 0 meridian).000 Table 5: National reference systems 6.465 297.155 6378249.3.1528128 299.3.145 6378388. Rome Amersfoort Hermannskogel Semi major axis Flattening a (m) (1: .1528128 297. Country Germany France Italy Netherlands Austria Switzerland International Name Potsdam NTF SI 1940 RD/NAP MGI CH1903 Hayford Reference ellipsoid Bessel 1841 Clarke 1880 Hayford 1928 Bessel 1841 Bessel 1841 Bessel 1841 Hayford Local reference Rauenberg Pantheon.1528128 299.155 6377397.3 National reference systems Different reference systems are used throughout Europe. The Z-axis lies perpendicular to the X and Y-axis and extends through the geographical north pole. Cartesian co-ordinate system with its original co-ordinate point at the centre of mass (= geocentric) of an ellipsoid.155 Country independent 6378388. Paris Monte Mario..0 299. they are distinguished from country to country in respect of their local references. which approximates the total mass of the Earth.1528128 293.. The non-geocentric ellipsoids that form the basis of these are summarised in the following table (Table 5).000 Old Observatory Bern 6377397.4 Worldwide reference ellipsoid WGS-84 The details displayed and calculations made by a GPS receiver primarily involve the WGS-84 (World Geodetic System 1984) reference system. The Y-axis also lies on the equatorial plane and is offset 90° to the east of the X-axis. Such a system is called ECEF (Earth Centered. The WGS-84 co-ordinate system is a three-dimensional.

e.31 Flattening (1: .5 Transformation from local to worldwide reference ellipsoid 6. geocentric system (e.378. i.. Z North pole Ellipsoid Equatorial plane h P ϕ λ Greenwich Meridian Equator Y X Figure 32: Illustration of the ellipsoidal co-ordinates 6. all that is required for datum transition are three shift parameters.137.356. h). rather than Cartesian co-ordinates (X. ∆Y.00 Table 6: The WGS-84 ellipsoid u-blox ag Semi minor axis b (m) 6.g. The geodetic datum specifies the location of a local three-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system with regard to the global system.GPS Basics Parameters of the WGS-84 reference ellipsoid Semi major axis a (m) 6. ϕz and a scaling factor m (Figure 33) may have to be added so that the complete transformation formula contains 7 parameters.1 Geodetic datum As a rule. Y. λ to longitude and h to the ellipsoidal height. ∆Z. ϕ corresponds to latitude. CH-1903) and a global. known as the datum shift constants ∆X.) 298. A further three angles of rotation ϕx.3. the length of the vertical P line to the ellipsoid.’752..g.5. λ. reference systems are generally local rather than geocentric ellipsoids. GPS-X-02007 Page 42 . ϕy. Z) are generally used for further processing (Figure 32). In the event that the axes of the local and global ellipsoid are parallel.3.257223563 Ellipsoidal co-ordinates (ϕ. The relationship between a local (e.. or can be regarded as being parallel for applications within a local area. WGS-84) is referred to as the geodetic datum.

Country Germany France Italy Netherlands Austria Switzerland Name Potsdam NTF SI 1940 RD/NAP MGI CH1903 ∆X (m) 586 -168 -225 565.3.84 -463. GPS-X-02007 Page 43 . Comprehensive conversion formulae can be found in specialist literature [xi]. Once conversion has taken place. WGS-84) into another (e.1366 0.326 660.344 ϕx (´´) -0. rotation and extension.4742 ϕx (´´) 2.GPS Basics u-blox ag Z-CH Z-WGS ϕz ∆Z ϕx ∆Y X-CH X-WGS ∆X Elongation by factor m ϕy Y-CH Y-WGS Figure 33: Geodetic datum The following table (Table 7) shows examples of the various datum parameters. The geodetic datum must be known. in order to effect the conversion.66 0.326 13.2970 0.3597 1.04 -577. or conversion can be carried out direct via the Internet [xii].9542 m (ppm) 9 1 4.8685 5.077 ∆Y (m) 87 -60 -65 49.4094 5. CH-1903) by means of three-dimensional shift.5.919 369.g.91 -577.551 ∆Z (m) 409 320 9 465.52 0 0. Additional values can be found under [x].4232 5.8065 ϕx (´´) -0.2 Datum conversion Converting a datum means by definition converting one three-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system (e. Cartesian co-ordinates can be transformed into ellipsoidal co-ordinates.5789 Table 7: Datum parameters 6.g.15 0 -0.0772 -2.82 0 1.

      a x= + h ⋅ cos(ϕ)⋅ cos(λ ) 2 2  1−  a − b  ⋅ [sin(ϕ)]2    a2               a y= + h ⋅ cos(ϕ)⋅ sin(λ ) 2 2  1−  a − b  ⋅ [sin(ϕ)]2    a2            a z= 2 2  1−  a − b  ⋅ [sin(ϕ)]2   a2           a 2 − b 2     + h ⋅ sin(ϕ) ⋅ 1−  2      a   (20a) (21a) (22a) GPS-X-02007 Page 44 . however. This means that the x.6. [xiii]     ϕ = tan −1        2  a − b 2    −1      z +   b 2  ⋅ b ⋅ sin  tan        (  z ⋅a  x 2 + y 2 ⋅b   (    a −b   2 2  ⋅ a ⋅ cos tan −1  x + y −  a2          ) 2 2 (      3    z⋅a    2 2 x + y ⋅ b        3 )      (17a) ) y λ = tan −1   x h= x2 + y2 − a  a2 − b2  2 1−   a 2  ⋅ [sin(ϕ)]    (18a) cos(ϕ) (19a) 6.6.3. dependent on the quandrant in which one is located. The conversion for central Europe is given here as an example.3.1 Converting Cartesian to ellipsoidal co-ordinates Cartesian and ellipsoidal co-ordinates can be converted from one representation to the other. y and z values are positive.6 Converting co-ordinate systems 6.2 Converting ellipsoidal to Cartesian co-ordinates Ellipsoidal co-ordinates can be converted into Cartesian co-ordinates.3. Conversion is.GPS Basics u-blox ag 6.

but it is possible to opt for a method of projection that keeps distortion to a minimum. three zones 3° in width are taken from the Bessel ellipsoid. This produces smooth. projection Normally.e. 500 km). planar co-ordinates are projections of reference ellipsoid co-ordinates onto a mathematical plane.g.1 Gauss-Krüger projection (Transverse Mercator Projection) Gauss-Krüger projection is a tangential. particularly those to the west of the prime meridian.1.4. Greenwich meridian N Mapping of the Greenwich meridians N Cylinder S S Equator Mapping of the equator Local spheroid (Bessel ellipsoid) Figure 34: Gauss-Krüger projection 1st step: projection onto cylinder Processing the cylinder: map with country co-ordinates In order that the co-ordinates are not negative. 6. i. The width of the zone is positioned around the prime meridian. Projecting an ellipsoid onto a plane is not possible without distorting it. GPS-X-02007 Page 45 . Standard types of projection include cylindrical or Mercator projection. easting is applied as a corrective process (e. the position of a point P on the Earth’s surface is described by the ellipsoidal co-ordinates of latitude ϕ and longitude λ (based on the reference ellipsoid) as well as height (based on an ellipsoid or geoid) (Figure 32). The cylinder is situated at a transverse angle to the ellipsoid. An elliptical cylinder is positioned around the spheroid. If positional data is used in conjunction with maps.GPS Basics u-blox ag 6. right-angled X and Y land survey co-ordinates. Most maps contain a grid enabling a point to be easily located anywhere in a terrain. Gauss-Krüger projection. 6. when carrying out ordnance surveys.1 Projection system for Germany and Austria At present. rotated by 90° (Figure 34). conformal. special attention must be paid to the type of reference system and projection used in producing the maps.g. Germany and Austria primarily use Gauss-Krüger projection. As geodetic calculations (e. the distance between two buildings) on an ellipsoid are numerically inconvenient. UTM projection and Lambert conic projection. transverse Mercator projection.4 Planar land survey co-ordinates. but both countries are either planning to extend this to include UTM projection (Universal Transversal Mercator Projection) or have already made the switch.4. the cylinder casing coming into contact with the ellipsoid along its entire Greenwich Meridian and in the vicinity of the poles. In ordnance surveying. ellipsoidal projections onto a mathematical plane are used in technical surveying operations. In order to keep longitudinal and surface distortion to a minimum.

is the position issued in Swiss land survey co-ordinates). after considerable calculation and conversion. A main point on the ellipsoid (Old Observatory in Bern) is positioned on the plane when mapping the original co-ordinate system (with offset: YOst = 600.g. Known signal transit time from 4 satellites Calculation of WGS-84 Cartesian co-ordinaten Conversion into CH-1903 Cartesian co-ordinaten Projection onto sphere Projection onto oblique-angled cylinder Figure 36: From satellite to position GPS-X-02007 Page 46 . Only then.2 Swiss projection system (conformal double projection) The conformal projection of a Bessel ellipsoid onto a plane takes place in two stages. This process is known as double projection (Figure 35).2 UTM projection UTM projection (Universal Transverse Mercator Projection) is virtually identical to Gauss-Krüger projection. and then the sphere is projected onto a plane via a cylinder set at an oblique angle. The signal transit time from 4 satellites must be known by the time the positional co-ordinates are issued. and the zones are 6° in width.1.4.GPS Basics u-blox ag 6.4. is the position issued in Swiss land survey co-ordinates (Figure 36).9996. scale 1:25000): • • Land co-ordinates (X and Y in kilometers) projected onto the plane with an accompanying grid and the geographical co-ordinates (longitude and latitude in degrees and seconds) based on the Bessel ellipsoid 200'000 BERN 600'000 Local reference ellipsoid (Bessel ellipsoid) 1st step: projection onto sphere 2nd step: projection onto sphere Processing the cylinder: map with country co-ordinates Figure 35: The principle of double projection The signal transit time from 4 satellites must be known by the time the positional co-ordinates are issued.000 m and XNord = 200.000 m). The ellipsoid is initially projected onto a sphere. The only difference is that the Greenwich meridian is not accurate in terms of longitude. but projected at a constant scale of 0. after considerable calculation and conversion. Only then. Two different sets of co-ordinates are marked on the map of Switzerland (e. 6.

[xiv].94 ∗ Φ) Example: After conversion.73 ∗ Λ) + (6.60m produces: H = 600m GPS-X-02007 Page 47 .3.56 ∗ Λ2 ∗ Φ) + (119.95 ∗ Φ) + (3745. 6. as an example (Taken from “Bezugssysteme in der Praxis“ (practical reference systems) by Urs Marti and Dieter Egger.GPS Basics u-blox ag 6.464729 Λ= L − 26782.87´´ (WGS-84) becomes 165758. Converting longitude and latitude: Longitude and latitude in WGS-84 data have to be converted into sexagesimal seconds [´´].5′′ 10000 Example: 3. Calculating the height H: H [m] = ( HeightWGS −84 − 49.25 ∗ Λ2 ) + (76.79´´.37 + (211455.63∗ Φ 2 ) − (194.0m 5. Calculating the ordinate (S---N): x x [m] = 200147.79 ∗ Φ 3 ) Example: x = 100000.87´´.93∗ Λ) − (10938.326979 Λ = 0. Example: 1.36 ∗ Λ ∗ Φ 2 ) − (44. latitude 46° 2´ 38. When converted.54 ∗ Λ3 ) Example: y = 700000.3 Worldwide co-ordinate conversion There are several possibilities on the Internet for converting one co-ordinate system into another. This quantity is designated as L: L = 31429. heightWGS-84 = 650. 2. Federal Office for National Topography) Note that the accuracy is in the order of 1 meter! 1.79´´.07 + (308807.87´´. This quantity is designated as B: B = 165758.79´´ (WGS-84) becomes 31429. longitude 8° 43´ 49.4. When converted.0m 4.4.51∗ Λ ∗ Φ) − (0.66′′ 10000 Φ = − 0. 2.1 Converting WGS-84 co-ordinates into CH-1903 co-ordinates. Calculating the abscissa (W---E): y y [m] = 600072.55) + (2. Calculating auxiliary quantities: Φ= B −169028.

Any deviation in position can either be relayed directly by radio. which is known as Differential GPS (DGPS). accurately surveyed point. By continually comparing the user receiver with the reference receiver. The principle of DGPS is very simple. 1 cm) In the case of differential processes in use today. In principle. As the exact position of the reference station is known. The GPS reference station determines a person’s position by means of four satellites. accuracy to within a few millimeters can be achieved. . 1 m) DGPS based on the phase measurement of the carrier signal (achievable accuracy approx. 1 cm and for demanding feats of navigation. Industry has discovered a straightforward and reliable solution to this problem: differential GPS (DGPS). 15-20 m. In order to determine the movement of concrete dams down to the nearest millimetre.1 Introduction A horizontal accuracy of approx. Based on this principle. This deviation (differential position) also holds good for any GPS receivers within a 200 km radius of the reference station. 7. a greater degree of accuracy is required. or corrections can subsequently be made after the measurements have been made. GPS-X-02007 Page 48 . for example. a reference receiver is always used in addition to the user receiver. For surveying operations requiring an accuracy of approx. This is because a difference in measurement arises. many errors (even SA ones. o know what DGPS means o know how correction values are determined and relayed o understand how the D-signal corrects erroneous positional measurements o know what DGPS services are available in Central Europe o know what EGNOS and WAAS mean then this chapter is for you! 7. accuracy has to be increased. if it is switched on) can be eliminated. The differential position can therefore be used to correct positions measured by other GPS receivers (Figure 37). a general distinction is drawn between the following: • • • Local area differential GPS Regional area differential GPS Wide area differential GPS Several DGPS services are introduced in section A.2 DGPS based on the measurement of signal transit time In theory. . This is located at an accurately measured reference point (i. it is possible to calculate any deviation from the actual position measured. The process involves two different principles: • • DGPS based on the measurement of signal transit time (achievable accuracy approx. A GPS reference station is set up at a known.1.e. the co-ordinates are known).GPS Basics u-blox ag 7 DIFFERENTIAL-GPS (DGPS) If you would like to . 20 m is probably not sufficient for every situation. the achievable level of accuracy based on the processes currently described is approx.

1 Detailed DGPS method of operation The effects of the ionosphere are directly responsible for inaccurate data. Compensation takes place in three phases: 1.2.2. Correcting the pseudo-range measured by the GPS user 7. Relaying the correction values from the reference station to the GPS user 3. The correction value is different for every GPS satellite and will hold good for every GPS user within a radius of a few hundred kilometers. GPS satellite Satellite antenna RF receiving antenna GPS GPS user 9°24'26" 46°48'41" RF transmit antenna RF RF RTCM SC-104 Decoder Reference station Figure 38: Determining the correction values GPS-X-02007 Page 49 .1 Determining the correction values A reference station whose co-ordinates are precisely known measures signal transit time to all visible GPS satellites (Figure 38) and determines the pseudo-range from this variable (actual value). a technology is now available that can compensate for most of the errors. it is possible to calculate the true distance (target value) to each GPS satellite. Because the position of the reference station is known precisely.1. Determining the correction values at the reference station 2.GPS Basics u-blox ag Basel Zurich GPS reference station Berne GPS receiver Chur Geneva Figure 37: Principle operation of GPS with a GPS reference station 7. The difference between the true value and the pseudo-range can be ascertained by simple subtraction and will give the correction value (difference between the actual and target value). In DGPS.

All causes of error can therefore be eliminated with the exception of those emanating from receiver noise and mutlipath. 19 cm.3 Correcting measured pseudo-range After receiving the correction values. telephone. The range to a satellite can be determined using the following method (Figure 41).) to other GPS users (Figure 39).2.3 DGPS based on carrier phase measurement When measuring pseudo-range an achievable accuracy of 1 meter is still not adequate for solving problems during surveying operations.1. etc. they are relayed without delay via a suitable medium (transmitter. GPS satellite Satellite antenna RF receiving antenna GPS GPS user 9°24'26" 46°48'41" RF transmitting antenna RF RF RTCM SC-104 Decoder Reference station Figure 39: Relaying the corrction values 7.range he has measured (Figure 40). GPS satellite Satellite antenna RF receiving antenna GPS GPS user 9°24'26" 46°48'41" RF transmitting antenna RF RF RTCM SC-104 Decoder Reference station Figure 40: Correcting measured pseudo-range 7. the satellite signal carrier phase must be evaluated. radio. In order to be able to carry out measurements to within a few millimeters. The exact user position can now be calculated from the true distance.1. The carrier wavelength λ is approx. a GPS user can determine the true distance using the pseudo.2 Relaying the correction values As the correction values can be used within a wide area to correct measured pseudo-range.GPS Basics u-blox ag 7.2. GPS-X-02007 Page 50 .

λ) Wave length λ Phase ϕ t Number of complete cycles N Distance D Satellite Figure 41: The principle of phase measurement User Phase measurement is an uncertain process. GPS-X-02007 Page 51 . λ) + (ϕ .GPS Basics u-blox ag D = (N . because N is unknown. By observing several satellites at different times and by continually comparing the user receiver with the reference receiver (during or after the measurement) a position can be determined to within a few millimeters after having solved numerous sets of equations.

The following seven data sets are widely used with GPS modules to relay GPS information [xv]: GPS-X-02007 Page 52 . This format is standardised by the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) to ensure that data exchange takes place without any problems. Antenna Power supply DGPS signal (RTCM SC-104) GPS receiver Data interface (NMEA-Format) Data interface (Proprietary format) Timing mark (1PPS) Figure 42: Block diagram of a GPS receiver with interfaces 8. The most important elements of receiver information are broadcast via this interface in a special data format. These variables are broadcast after position and time have been successfully calculated and determined. GPS modules have a serial interface (TTL or RS-232 level). Loran. screen. To ensure that the different types of appliances are portable there are either international standards for data exchange (NMEA and RTCM). NMEA has specified data sets for various applications e. . to a peripheral (e. . or the manufacturer provides defined (proprietary) formats and protocols.2.1 Introduction GPS receivers require different signals in order to function (Figure 42). o know what NMEA and RTCM mean o know what a proprietary data set is o know what data set is available in the case of all GPS receivers o know what an active antenna is o know whether GPS receivers have a synchronised timing pulse then this chapter is for you! 8. GPS. Omega. transceiver).2 Data interfaces 8. Transit and also for various manufacturers.GPS Basics u-blox ag 8 DATA FORMATS AND HARDWARE INTERFACES If you would like to . GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). data is relayed according to the NMEA-0183 specification. course etc.g. velocity. Nowadays.g. computer.1 The NMEA-0183 data interface In order to relay computed GPS variables such as position.

. 0V) Data bits D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Stop bit TTL level 1 ( ca.1 Structure of the NMEA protocol In the case of NMEA. horizontal course and horizontal velocity) 7. –15V)..3V .Inf_2.Inf_4. GGA (GPS Fix Data. GSV (GNSS Satellites in View. the rate at which data is transmitted is 4800 Baud using printable 8-bit ASCII characters. GLL (Geographic Position – Latitude/Longitude) 3. satellites in view in the Global Satellite Navigation System) 5. RMC (Recommended Minimum Specific GNSS Data) 6. fixed data for the Global Positioning System) 2. Inf_3. a logical zero corresponds to approx.. VTG (Course over Ground and Ground Speed. Start bit D0 0 ( ca.1. +15V) and a logical one a negative voltage (-3V . A few GPS modules allow the baud rate to be increased (up to 38400 bits per second).Inf_5. +5V) In the case of an RS-232 interface a logical zero corresponds to a positive voltage (+3V .2. Each GPS data set is formed in the same way and has the following structure: $GPDTS..4). followed by eight data bits and a stop bit (logical one) added at the end. No parity bits are used.Inf_n*CS<CR><LF> GPS-X-02007 Page 53 .. degradation of accuracy and the number of active satellites in the Global Satellite Navigation System) 4.GPS Basics u-blox ag 1.Inf_6.. Transmission begins with a start bit (logical zero). GSA (GNSS DOP and Active Satellites.Inf_1. a level conversion must be effected (see 8. If a GPS module with a TTL level interface is connected to an appliance with an RS-232 interface. Vcc) RS-232 level 0 ( U>0V) 1 ( U<0V) Start bit D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Stop bit Data bits Figure 43: NMEA format (TTL and RS-232 level) The different levels must be taken into consideration depending on whether the GPS receiver used has a TTL or RS-232 interface (Figure 43): • • In the case of a TTL level interface. ZDA (Time & Date) 8.3. 0V and a logical one roughly to the operating voltage of the system (+3.

115.GPS Basics The function of the individual characters or character sets is explained in Table 8.0.11.00833.52.115.08.43.2.94.M. * CS <CR><LF> Description Start of the data set Information originating from a GPS appliance Data set identifier (e.W*7D<CR><LF> $GPZDA.2001.T.2.4717.130303.0.E.25.20.912.000.00833.M.39.5.043.4..04.130305..2.0.M.200601.306.130305.358.8.E.E.94.36*42<CR><LF> $GPGSV.52.36.0.047.43.187.4717.08.*59<CR><LF> $GPGLL.A.04.63.25.1.8.03.94.8.29..2.139.0.00833.25.N.E.20.39.306.13.A.39.074.4717. RMC) Information with number 1 .N.205..187.130305.33*04<CR><LF> $GPGSV.N.014.40.044.20.11.M..A.29.01.03. The following NMEA protocol was recorded using a GPS receiver (Table 9): $GPRMC.07.01.13.25.15.115.M.130304. Field $ GP DTS Inf_1 bis Inf_n .13.2.358..36.0.K*4C<CR><LF> $GPGSA.E.01.208.2001.130304.00499.2.000..5.4717.N.06.20.912.2.115..04.K*4F<CR><LF> $GPGSA.13.g.33*44<CR><LF> Table 9: Recording of an NMEA protocol GPS-X-02007 Page 54 .1.13.1.000.E.43.01.200601.A*32<CR><LF> $GPVTG.286.25.08.1.39.130304.000.4717. the start sign $ and end signs <CR><LF> are not counted.25.80.208..33*44<CR><LF> $GPRMC.40.00833..94.912.01.912.g.36*42<CR><LF> $GPGSV.52.37.52.05.T.N.80.15..*57<CR><LF> $GPGGA.. 175.015.29..*56<CR><LF> $GPGGA. n (e.3.000.0.07.43.1.074.000. (<LF>) u-blox ag Table 8: Description of the individual NMEA DATA SET blocks The maximum number of characters used must not exceed 79.1.04.8.*58<CR><LF> $GPGLL. For the purposes of determining this number.2.912.00499.04.044.04.01.115.13.8.3.2.N.139.63.33*04<CR><LF> $GPGSV.205.0.130304.20.20.047.3.4.00833.206.M.37.W*7C<CR><LF> $GPZDA.00833.0.09.07.0.07.11.4717.1.912.N.1.286.N.09..A*33<CR><LF> $GPVTG.11.29.06.4 for course data) Comma used as a separator for different items of information Asterisk used as a separator for the checksum Checksum (control word) for checking the entire data set End of the data set: carriage return (<CR>) and line feed.115.A.3.

M. 0000 * 58 <CR><LF> Description Start of the data set Information originating from a GPS appliance Data set identifier UTC positional time: 13h 03min 05.912 E 1 08 0.2.115 min Northerly latitude (N=north. An example of a GGA data set: $GPGGA. W=west) GPS quality details (0= no GPS.1.E.1.0. the number of satellites used and the height.912. 1= GPS..115 N 00833.0 4717.00499. Field $ GP GGA 130305.2 GGA data set The GGA data set (GPS Fix Data) contains information on time. 2=DGPS) Number of satellites used in the calculation Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP) Antenna height data (geoid height) Unit of height (M= meter) Height differential between an ellipsoid and geoid Unit of differential height (M= meter) Age of the DGPS data (in this case no DGPS is used) Identification of the DGPS reference station Separator for the checksum Checksum for verifying the entire data set End of the data set Table 10: Description of the individual GGA data set blocks GPS-X-02007 Page 55 .130305. S= south) Latitude: 8° 33..00833. the quality of the system.08.4717.GPS Basics u-blox ag 8.M.115.*58<CR><LF> The function of the individual characters or character sets is explained in Table 10.0.N.94 00499 M 047 M .047. longitude and latitude.0sec Latitude: 47° 17.94.912min Easterly longitude (E= east.

W=west) UTC positional time: 13h 03min 05.912 E 130305.130305.0.1.115 N 00833.3 GLL data set The GLL data set (geographic position – latitude/longitude) contains information on latitude and longitude.4717.115 min Northerly latitude (N=north.E.0sec Data set quality: A means valid (V= invalid) Separator for the checksum Checksum for verifying the entire data set End of the data set Table 11: Description of the individual GGL data set blocks GPS-X-02007 Page 56 .0 A * 32 <CR><LF> Description Start of the data set Information originating from a GPS appliance Data set identifier Latitude: 47° 17. Example of a GLL data set: $GPGLL. S= south) Longitude: 8° 33.00833.912min Easterly longitude (E=east.GPS Basics u-blox ag 8.A*32<CR><LF> The function of the individual characters or character sets is explained in Table 11.2. time and health.N.115. Field $ GP GLL 4717.912.

. 3=3D) ID number of the satellites used to calculate position ID number of the satellites used to calculate position ID number of the satellites used to calculate position ID number of the satellites used to calculate position ID number of the satellites used to calculate position ID number of the satellites used to calculate position ID number of the satellites used to calculate position ID number of the satellites used to calculate position Dummy for additional ID numbers (currently not used) PDOP (Position Dilution of Precision) HDOP (Horizontal Dilution of Precision) VDOP (Vertical Dilution of Precision) Separator for the checksum Checksum for verifying the entire data set End of the data set Table 12: Description of the individual GSA data set blocks GPS-X-02007 Page 57 ..2.63.1.94 1.20.0..25. the number of satellites used to determine the position and the accuracy of the measurements (DOP: Dilution of Precision).04.33 * 04 <CR><LF> Description Start of the data set Information originating from a GPS appliance Data set identifier Calculating mode (A= automatic selection between 2D/3D mode.33*04<CR><LF> The function of the individual characters or sets of characters is decribed in Table 12.3..01.. An example of a GSA data set: $GPGSA.11.1. M= manual selection between 2D/3D mode) Calculating mode (1= none.94. Field $ GP GSA A 3 13 20 11 29 01 25 07 04 ..13. 2=2D..A..4 GSA data set The GSA data set (GNSS DOP and Active Satellites) contains information on the measuring mode (2D or 3D).63 0.1. 1.GPS Basics u-blox ag 8.29.07.

99.33*44<CR><LF> The function of the individual characters or character sets is explained in Table 13..52. 360°) Signal-to-noise ratio in dB-Hz (1 .. 90°) Azimuth (0° ..286. An example of a GSV data set: $GPGSV.39.1. 90°) Azimuth (0° ...GPS Basics u-blox ag 8.2...01. 99.. 99.2. 90°) Azimuth (0° . null when not tracking) Identification number of the second satellite Elevation (0° ..187.. null when not tracking) Separator for the checksum Checksum for verifying the entire data set End of the data set Table 13: Description of the individual GSV data set blocks GPS-X-02007 Page 58 .07.25... Field $ GP GSV 2 2 09 01 52 187 43 25 25 074 39 07 37 286 40 04 09 306 33 * 44 <CR><LF> Description Start of the data set Information originating from a GPS appliance Data set identifier Total number of GVS data sets transmitted (up to 1 .2.. 9) Total number of satellites in view Identification number of the first satellite Elevation (0° . 360°) Signal-to-noise ratio in db-Hz (1 .04.5 GSV data set The GSV data set (GNSS Satellites in View) contains information on the number of satellites in view.306..09.......8. 99.. and the signal-to-noise ratio. null when not tracking) Identification number of the third satellite Elevation (0° . their identification. 360°) Signal-to-noise ratio in db-Hz (1 ... 90°) Azimuth (0° ....37.. 360°) Signal-to-noise ratio in db-Hz (1 ...25.. 9) Current number of this GVS data set (1 . their elevation and azimuth.074.43... null when not tracking) Identification number of the fourth satellite Elevation (0° .40.

3.E.000. longitude and height.04 205. S= south) Longitude: 8° 33. Field $ GP RMC 130304.912.0 A 4717.00833.0 sec Data set quality: A signifies valid (V= invalid) Latitude: 47° 17.5° Date: 20th June 2001 Adjusted declination: 1.2.N. This data set is relayed by all GPS receivers.0.W*7C<CR><LF> The function of the individual characters or character sets is explained in Table 14. speed. W=west) Speed: 0.115 min Northerly latitude (N=north.1. latitude.5 200601 01.115 N 00833.4717.130304.205.912 min Easterly longitude (E=east. An example of an RMC data set: $GPRMC. system status.200601.01.3° Westerly direction of declination (E = east) Separator for the checksum Checksum for verifying the entire data set End of the data set Table 14: Description of the individual RMC data set blocks GPS-X-02007 Page 59 .115.A.5.3 W * 7C <CR><LF> Description Start of the data set Information originating from a GPS appliance Data set identifier Time of reception (world time UTC): 13h 03 min 04.04 knots Course: 205.6 RMC data set The RMC data set (Recommended Minimum Specific GNSS) contains information on time.GPS Basics u-blox ag 8.912 E 000.04. course and date.

GPS Basics 8.T.2° (T) with regard to the horizontal plane Angular course data relative to the map Course 15.014.4° (M) with regard to the horizontal plane Angular course data relative to magnetic north Horizontal speed (N) Speed in knots Horizontal speed (Km/h) Speed in km/h Separator for the checksum Checksum for verifying the entire data set End of the data set u-blox ag Table 15: Description of the individual VTG data set blocks GPS-X-02007 Page 60 .1.03.000.K*4F<CR><LF> The function of the individual characters or character sets is explained in Table 15.N.000.015.7 VTG data set The VGT data set (Course over Ground and Ground Speed) contains information on course and speed. Field $ GP VTG 014.03 N 000.4 M 000.4.M.2.05.05 K * 4F <CR><LF> Description Start of the data set Information originating from a GPS appliance Data set identifier Course 14. An example of a VTG data set: $GPVTG.2 T 015.2.

The checksum consists of the two hexadecimal values converted into ASCII characters.2001..2. the date and local time....2. not specified here * 57 <CR><LF> Separator for the checksum Checksum for verifying the entire data set End of the data set 130305. F).8 ZDA data set The ZDA data set (time and date) contains information on UTC time.1. An example of a ZDA data set: u-blox ag $GPZDA.20.2 20 06 2001 Table 16: Description of the individual ZDA data set blocks 8.*57<CR><LF> The function of the individual characters or character sets is explained in Table 16. A . Field $ GP ZDA Description Start of the data set Information originating from a GPS appliance Data set identifier UTC time: 13h 03min 05. The exclusive-or operation commences after the start of the data set ($ sign) and ends before the checksum separator (asterisk: *).9 Calculating the checksum The checksum is determined by an exclusive-or operation involving all 8 data bits (excluding start and stop bits) from all transmitted characters.2.130305.. The 8-bit result is divided into 2 sets of 4 bits (nibbles) and each nibble is converted into the appropriate hexadecimal value (0 .2sec Day (00 … 31) Month (1 … 12) Year Reserved for data on local time (h).1. GPS-X-02007 Page 61 . including separators. not specified here Reserved for data on local time (min).06. 9.GPS Basics 8.

1 .c. Only the characters between $ and * are included in the analysis: GPRTE.1.B. 1 . $GPRTE. 0 Exclusive-or value Nibble Hexadecimal value ASCII CS characters (meets requirements!) ASCII (8 bit value) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 Direction to proceed 0000 0 0 0111 7 7 Table 17: Determining the checksum in the case of NMEA data sets GPS-X-02007 Page 62 .0*07 (07 is the checksum) Procedure: 1.GPS Basics u-blox ag The principle of checksum calculation can be explained with the help of a brief example: The following NMEA data set has been received and the checksum (CS) must be verified for its correctness. the exclusive-or value is one) 4.1. Each individual bit of the 13 ASCII characters is linked to an exclusive-or operation (N. The hexadecimal value of each nibble is determined 6. C .1.c. These 13 ASCII characters are converted into 8 bit values (see Table 17) 3. The result is divided into two nibbles 5. If the number of ones is uneven. Both hexadecimal characters are transmitted as ASCII characters to form the checksum Character G P R T E .1.0 2.

GPS Basics

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8.2.2 The DGPS correction data (RTCM SC-104)
The RTCM SC-104 standard is used to transmit correction values. RTCM SC-104 stands for “Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services Special Committee 104“ and is currently recognised around the world as the industry standard [xvi]. There are two versions of the RTCM Recommended Standards for Differential NAVSTAR GPS Service • Version 2.0 (issued in January 1990) • Version 2.1 (issued in January 1994) Version 2.1 is a reworked version of 2.0 and is distinguished, in particular, by the fact that it provides additional information for real time navigation (Real Time Kinematic, RTK). Both versions are divided into 63 message types, numbers 1, 2, 3 and 9 being used primarily for corrections based on code measurements. 8.2.2.1 The RTCM message header Each message type is divided into words of 30 bits and, in each instance, begins with a uniform header comprising two words (WORD 1 and WORD 2). From the information contained in the header it is apparent which message type follows [xvii] and which reference station has determined the correction data (Figure 44 from [xviii]).

Figure 44: Construction of the RTCM message header

Contents PREAMBLE MESSAGE TYPE: STATION ID PARITY MODIFIED Z-COUNT SEQUENCE NO. LENGTH OF FRAME STATION HEALTH

Name Preamble Message type Reference station ID No. Error correction code Modified Z-count Frame sequence No. Frame length Reference station health

Description Preamble Message type identifier Reference station identification Parity Modified Z-Count, incremental time counter Sequential number Length of frame Technical status of the reference station

Table 18: Contents of the RTCM message header

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GPS Basics The specific data content for the message type (WORD 3 ... WORD n) follows the header, in each case.

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8.2.2.2 RTCM message type 1 Message type 1 transmits pseudo-range correction data (PSR correction data, range correction) for all GPS satellites visible to the reference station, based on the most up-to-date orbital data (ephemeris). Type 1 additionally contains the rate-of-change correction value (Figure 45, extract from [xix], only WORD 3 to WORD 6 is shown).

Figure 45: Construction of RTCM message type 1

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GPS Basics Contents SCALE FACTOR UDRE SATELLITE ID PSEUDORANGE CORRECTION RANGE-RATE CORRECTION ISSUE OF DATA PARITY Name Pseudo-range correction value scale factor User differential range error index Satellite ID No. Pseudo-range correction value Pseudo-range rate-of-change correction value Data issue No. Error correction code Description PSR scale factor

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User differential range error index Satellite identification Effective range correction Rate-of-change of the correction data Issue of data Check bits

Table 19: Contents of RTCM message type 1

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the current being provided by the HF signal line. Data is only transmitted from those satellites whose correction values change rapidly. For mobile navigational purposes combined antennae (e.3. based on previous orbital data. the correction data relayed should not be older than approx.2. Active antennae.2. Accuracy decreases as the distance between the reference and user station increases. In message type 2. Patch antennae and Helix antennae. but only for a limited number of satellites (max. Two types of antenna are obtainable on the market. • • Message type 9 relays the same information as message type 1. generally have a ceramic and metallised body and are mounted on a metal base plate.3 Hardware interfaces 8.5 m within a radius of 250 km.3 RTCM message type 2 to 9 Message types 2 to 9 are distinguished primarily by their data content: • u-blox ag Message type 2 transmits delta PSR correction data. Figure 46: Open and cast Patch antennae Figure 47: Basic structural shape of a Helix antennae GPS-X-02007 Page 66 .5 – 1. [xxii]). 10 to 60 seconds (different values are supplied depending on the service operator.g. In order for there to be a noticeable improvement in accuracy using DGPS. Trial measurements using the correction signals broadcast by the LW transmitter in Mainflingen. Germany. the base to Patch surface ratio has to be adjusted. Patch antennae are flat.GPS Basics 8. Helix antennae are cylindrical in shape (Figure 47. with a built-in preamplifier (LNA: Low Noise Amplifier) are powered from the GPS module. Message type 3 transmits the three dimensional co-ordinates of the reference station. i. (see section A 1. [xxiii]) and have a higher gain than the Patch antennae.3) produced an error rate of 0. GPS antennae receive right-handed circular polarised waves. GSM/FM and GPS) are supplied. 8.1 Antenna GPS modules can either be operated with a passive or active antenna. see also [xx]). and 1 – 3 m within a radius of 600 km [xxi]. 3). the exact value also depends on the accuracy required. Patch antennae are often cast in a housing (Figure 46). the difference between correction values based on the previous and updated ephemeris is transmitted.e. This information is required whenever the GPS user has been unable to update his satellite orbital information. In order to ensure a sufficiently high degree of selectivity.

Since 1967. at the same time. UTC = TAI . a distinction is drawn here between five important GPS time systems: 8. 8.3. irregular frequency errors in the atomic clocks on board the GPS satellites. where n = complete seconds that can be st st altered on 1 January or 1 June of any given year (leap seconds).3.01. The satellite clocks are monitored by the control station and any apparent time difference relayed to Earth.1 Atomic time (TAI) The International Atomic Time Scale (Temps Atomique International) was introduced in order to provide a universal 'absolute' time scale that would meet various practical demands and at the same time also be of significance for GPS positioning. the continuous time scale being set by the main clock at the Master Control Station.3. Any time differences must be taken into account when conducting local GPS measurements. In each case. Time defined in this way is therefore part of the SI system (Système International). 1s±40ns ca.3 GPS time General GPS system time is specified by a week number and the number of seconds within that week. in order to have a practical time scale that was oriented towards universal atomic time and.3.3. the second has been defined by an atomic constant in physics. 8.3 Time pulse: 1PPS and time systems Most GPS modules generate a time pulse every second. The start date was Sunday.n.3. 8. The resonant frequency between the selected energy states of this atom has been determined at 9 192 631 770 Hz.3.2 Supply GPS modules must be powered from an external voltage source of 3. adjusted to universal co-ordinated time. Each GPS week starts in the night from Saturday to Sunday. The time difference that arises between GPS and UTC time is constantly being calculated and appended to the navigation message.2 Universal time co-ordinated (UTC) UTC (Universal Time Coordinated) was introduced. individual satellite time is at variance with GPS system time. GPS-X-02007 Page 67 .3V to 6 Volts.3. i.3.00 hours (UTC). As time can play a fundamental part when GPS is used to determine a position. 6th January 1980 at 0. 8. the 133 non-radioactive element Caesium Cs being selected as a reference.3.e.4 Satellite time Because of constant.GPS Basics u-blox ag 8.00 hours. 200ms Figure 48: 1PPS signal The time pulse can be used to synchronise communication networks (Precision Timing). which is synchronised to UTC. referred to as 1 PPS (1 pulse per second). The start of atomic time took place on 01. It is distinguished from TAI in the way the seconds are counted. the power draw is very different. This signal usually has a TTL level (Figure 48).1958 at 00.

agreement must be reached by both sides on what checks should be implemented regarding the ready to transmit and receive status. The beginning of a data word is identified by a start bit. The baud rate is the number of bits per second to be transferred.4.1 Basics of serial communication The purpose of the RS-232 interface is mainly • • to link computers to each other (mostly bidirectional) to control serial printers • to connect PCs to external equipment. Both partners must work with the same interface configuration. In the case of even parity. Example of a time frame (Table 20) on 21st June 2001 (Zurich) Time basis Local time UTC GPS TAI Time displayed (hh:min:sec) 08:31:26 06:31:26 06:31:39 06:31:58 Difference n to UTC (sec) 7200 (=2h) 0 +13 +32 Table 20: Time systems The interrelationship of time systems (valid for 2001): TAI – UTC = +32sec GPS – UTC = +13sec TAI – GPS = +19sec 8. because interference in the link can cause transmission errors. i. 2400. GPS receivers. 300. and this will affect the rate of transfer measured in baud. Typical baud rates are 110.5 Local time Local time is the time referred to within a certain area. and at the end of every word 1 or 2 stop bits are appended. 150. etc. 4800. During transmission.e.3.3. The serial ports in PCs are designed for asynchronous transfer. i. The length of a data word is laid down in the transfer protocol. 7 to 8 data bits are condensed into a data word in order to relay the ASCII codes. The relationship between local time and UTC time is determined by the time zone and regulations governing the changeover from normal time to summertime. 1200. the error can be identified using the parity bit.4 Converting the TTL level to RS-232 8. Even if one bit of a data word is altered. Persons engaged in transmitting and receiving operations must adhere to a compatible transfer protocol. such as GSM modems. In addition.GPS Basics u-blox ag 8. These parameters are laid down in the transfer protocol.e. A check can be carried out using a parity bit.3. an agreement on how data is to be transferred. 9600. Checking parity is important. bits per second.3. the parity bit is selected in such a way that the total number of transferred data word »1 bits« is even (in the case of uneven parity there is an uneven number). 19200 and 38400 baud. 600. GPS-X-02007 Page 68 .

the levels are: • Logical 0 = positive voltage. provided the noise amplitude is below 2V. MAX3221 and many more besides).GPS Basics u-blox ag 8.+15V. Converting the TTL level of the interface controller (UART. Start bit D0 0: ( ca.. In accordance with standards. receive mode -3.g. Vcc) RS-232 level 0: ( U>0V) 1: ( U<0V) Start bit D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Stop bit Data bits Figure 49: Difference between TTL and RS-232 levels GPS-X-02007 Page 69 . transmit mode: +5..+15V • Logical 1 = negative voltage..4.3. Level inversion can clearly be seen. The following figure (Figure 49) illustrates the difference between TTL and RS-232 levels. T stands for transmitter and R for receiver.2 Determining the level and its logical allocation Data is transmitted in inverted logic on the TxD and RxD lines. transmit mode: -5. universal asynchronous receiver/ transmitter) to the required RS-232 level and vice versa is carried out by a level converter (e.-15V The difference between the minimum permissible voltage during transmission and reception means that line interference does not affect the function of the interface. receive mode:+3. 0V) Data bits D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Stop bit TTL level 1: ( ca..-15V.

and to accommodate the necessary equipment to generate negative supply voltage (by means of built-in charge pumps).. The circuit has an operational voltage of 3V . It is not always possible to evaluate this data directly through a PC. a TTL signal (0V . As a circuit is needed to carry out the necessary level adjustment. In the case of this configuration.GPS Basics u-blox ag 8. 3. The inversion and voltage increase to ±5V can be seen on lines T_OUT and R_IN of the RS-232 output.4.. C4 capacitors is to increase or invert the voltage. 5V and is protected against voltage peaks (ESD) of ±15kV..3V) is applied to line T_IN.. as a PC input requires RS 232 level values. The function of the C1 ... the industry has developed integrated circuits specifically designed to deal with conversion between the two level ranges.3V or +5V). 0V or approx. Vcc = +3. Figure 51: Functional test on the MAX3221 level converter GPS-X-02007 Page 70 .3. to undertake signal inversion.3 Converting the TTL level to RS-232 Many GPS receivers and GPS modules only make serial NMEA and proprietary data available using TTL levels (approx. TTL level RS-232 level Figure 50: Block diagram pin assignment of the MAX32121 level converter The following test circuit (Figure 51) clearly illustrates the way in which the modules function. A complete bidirectional level converter that uses a "Maxim MAX3221" [xxiv] is illustrated on the following circuit diagram (Figure 50).

20dB. n Digital IF 3 AGC Control Local Oscillator Reference Oszillator Control Interface Synchronisation Timing C/A-Code generator Time base (RTC) Correlator 2 1 Spread signal processor (SSP) Data LNA Mixer AGC 2 bit ADC .* # = • • Antenna: The antenna receives extremely weak satellite signals on a frequency of 1572. + .: 12°14'15'' Long. Antenna 1575. .00m Keyboard Figure 52: Simplified block diagram of a GPS receiver 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 .. Signal output is around –163dBW. Control Cristal Cristal Display Lat. 15 . LNA 1: This low noise amplifier (LNA) amplifies the signal by approx.: 07°32'28'' Kontroller Micro controller Memory (RAM/ROM) DGPS (RTCM) Power Supply Altitude: 655.42MHz LNA1 RFfilter IFfilter Signalprozessor HF-Stufe .42MHz.GPS Basics u-blox ag 9 GPS RECEIVERS If you would like to .1 Basics of GPS handheld receivers A GPS receiver can be divided into the following main stages (Figure 52). .. Some (passive) antennae have a 3dB gain. GPS-X-02007 Page 71 . o know how a GPS receiver is constructed o understand why several stages are necessary to reconstruct GPS signals o know how an HF stage functions o know how the signal processor functions o understand how both stages interact o know how a receiver module functions then this chapter is for you! 9.

This can either be displayed using a 7-segment display or shown on a screen using a projected map. The image frequencies arising at the mixing stage are reduced to a permissible level. whole routes being recorded. The HF stage and signal processor are simultaneously switched to synchronise with the signal. Correlation takes place by constant comparison with the C/A code. which co-ordinate system he wishes to use and which parameters (e. The signal processor can be offset by the controller via the control line to function in various operating modes. • • • • • • • GPS-X-02007 Page 72 . It controls the signal processor and relays the calculated values to the display. 2MHZ. Keyboard: Using the keyboard. latitude and height) must be made available to the user. The filtered IF signal is maintained at a constant level in respect of its amplitude and digitalised via Amplitude Gain Control (AGC) IF filter: The intermediate frequency is filtered out using a bandwidth of 2MHz. the user can select. The program and the calculation algorithms are saved in ROM. The HF stage and signal processor actually represent the special circuits in a GPS receiver and are adjusted to each other. number of visible satellites) should be displayed. HF stage: The amplified GPS signal is mixed with the frequency of the local oscillator.) are decoded and saved in RAM.GPS Basics • u-blox ag HF filter: The GPS signal bandwith is approx. the controller calculates position.g. time. Signal processor: Up to 16 different satellite signals can be correlated and decoded at the same time. Current supply: The power supply delivers the necessary operational voltage to all levels of electronic componentry. All the data ascertained is broadcast (particularly signal transit time to the relevant satellites determined by the correlator). Controller: Using the source data. speed and course etc. Important information (such as ephemeris. The positions determined can be saved. Display: The position calculated (longitude. the most recent position etc. The signal processor has its own time base (Real Time Clock. The HF filter reduces the affects of signal interference. RTC). and this is referred to as source data.

Figure 53 shows a typical block diagram of a GPS module. and the number of visible satellites etc. in order to determine a correct three-dimensional position. Up to 16 satellite signals are processed simultaneously. Calculating and saving the position. The control and generation of PRN sequences and the recovery of data is carried out by a signal processor. such as speed and acceleration can also be calculated. The satellite PRN sequence must be used to determine this time. additional physical variables.GPS Basics u-blox ag 9. along with the necessary clock frequency for the processor and correlator. The GPS module issues information on the constellation. This time signal is synchronised with UTC (Universal Time Coordinated). The reference oscillator provides the necessary carrier wave for frequency conversion. latitude and height.2.42 MHz) are pre-amplified and transformed to a lower intermediate frequency. Power supply (3.. satellite health.. Signal transit time from the satellites to the GPS receiver is ascertained by correlating PRN pulse sequences. otherwise there is no correlation maximum.3V . is carried out by a processor with a memory facility. 5V) Active Passive antenna antenna DGPS Input RTCM LNA Signal Supply RF amplifier Mixer A/D converter Correlators Signal processor PRN generator RAM Time mark 1 PPS Reference Oszillator Processor ROM NMEA Interface Figure 53: Typical block diagram of a GPS module Proprietary GPS-X-02007 Page 73 . Data is recovered by mixing it with the correct PRN sequence.1 Basic design of a GPS module GPS modules have to evaluate weak antenna signals from at least four satellites. A time signal is also often emitted in addition to longitude. The signals received (1575. From the position determined and the exact time. including the variables derived from this. At the same time.2 GPS receiver modules 9. The analogue intermediate frequency is converted into a digital signal by means of a 2-bit ADC. the useful signal is amplified above the interference level [xxv].

. touring on one’s Mountain Bike. known as E-911 (Enhanced 911). such as: • • • • • speed acceleration course local time range measurements The traditional fields of application for GPS are surveying. the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is demanding that. the use of GPS is becoming increasingly established. Various additional variables can be derived from the three-dimensional position and the exact time. when Americans ring 911 in an emergency. The reason for this enormous growth in demand is the motor industry. shipping and aviation. UTC) accurate to within a range of 60ns to approx. their position can automatically be located to within approx. latitude and height co-ordinates) accurate to within a range of 20 m to approx.GPS Basics u-blox ag 10 GPS APPLICATIONS If you would like to . . 1mm The precise time (world time. means that mobile telephones will have to be upgraded with this new technology. o know what variables can be determined using GPS o know what applications are possible with GPS o know how time is determined to precise values then this chapter is for you! 10. Whether on a hike. However. GPS is also being increasingly utilised in communication technology. which is hoping to make better use of the road traffic network by utilising this equipment. 125m. Basically. the precise GPS time signal is used to synchronise telecommunications networks around the world.1 Introduction Using the Global Positioning System (GPS. For example. Applications. out hunting. or surfing across Lake Constance in Southern Germany. a GPS receiver provides good service in any location. Universal Time Coordinated. the market is currently enjoying a surge in demand for electronic car navigation systems. 1ns. In the leisure industry too. a process used to establish a position at any point on the globe) the following two values can be determined anywhere on Earth: • • One’s exact location (longitude. GPS-X-02007 Page 74 . From 2001. such as Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) and the management of vehicle fleets also appear to be on the rise. GPS can be used anywhere where satellite signal reception is possible. This law.

Future remote reconnaissance satellites will also have GPS receivers.g. The expectation is that operational methods in this field will be available in the near future. conducting Land Register surveys. as well as GPS and 3D modelling.2. Using this method. geology) Physics (flow measurements. over 90% or so of ground reference points can be dispensed with. 10. the number of tenders to set up GPS networks as a basis for geo-information systems and cadastral land surveys is growing. A few important sectors are detailed below. continental and national GPS networks are emerging that. provide homogenous and highly accurate networks of points for density and point to point measurements.2 Description of the various applications GPS aided navigation and positioning is used in many sectors of the economy. Everywhere around the world. GPS can be used to determine the exact height of the survey boat. tourism. railway lines and rivers to even charting the ocean depths. At a regional level. technology. it has been possible to answer some of the following questions. in order to carry out surveys (satellite geodesy) quickly and efficiently to within an accuracy of a millimeter. as well as in science. so that the evaluation of data for the production and updating of maps in underdeveloped countries. By combining GIS (Geographic Information Systems) with satellite and aerial photography. GPS is regularly used to determine aerial survey navigation and camera co-ordinates in aero-triangulation. research and surveying.GPS Basics u-blox ag 10. For geometricians. Apart from determining co-ordinates for ground reference points. shipbuilding. in order to facilitate the arrangement of vertical measurements on a clearly defined height reference surface. the introduction of satellite-based surveying represents a quantum leap comparable to that between the abacus and the computer. carrying out deformation measurements and monitoring landslides etc. • • • What conclusions regarding the distribution of cultures can be made based on finds? Is there a correlation between areas favouring the growth of certain arable plants and the spread of certain cultures? What sort of blending and intermingling of attributes enable conclusions to be drawn regarding the probable furthest most extent of a culture? • What did the landscape look like in this vicinity 2000 years ago? Geometricians use (D)GPS. ranging from surveying properties. GPS has virtually become an exclusive method for pinpointing sites in basic networks. The (D)GPS process can be employed wherever three-dimensional geodata has a significant role to play. In hydrography.1 Science and research GPS has readily found itself a place in archaeology ever since this branch of science began to use aerial and satellite imaging. Already today. in conjunction with the global ITRF. general construction industry) Cartography Geography Geo-information technology Forestry and agricultural sciences Landscape ecology Geodesy Aerospace sciences GPS-X-02007 Page 75 . streets. is made easier. time standardisation measurement) Scientific expeditions Engineering sciences (e. In land surveying. GPS has an established place in photogrammetry. The applications are endless. Other possible areas of application for GPS are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Archaeology Seismology (geophysics) Glaciology (geophysics) Geology (mapping) Surveying deposits (mineralogy.

limousines and lorries with valuable or hazardous loads etc. This enables staff to inform passengers of the arrival time of a train. Out of a total market value estimated at 60 billion US-$ by 2005.6 billion alone will be allocated to road traffic and 10. and position estimates based on GPS. of course. where human life is dependent on technology functioning correctly. When there are traffic jams you will be able to find alternative routes without difficulty and the computer will calculate your journey time and the amount of fuel needed to get there. An additional function that can be performed by GPS is in the area of emergencies. Many trains are equipped with GPS receivers that relay the train’s position to stations down the line. when a subscriber’s car sends a signal to the centre). 21. allowing an electronic vehicle immobiliser to be activated as soon as the monitoring centre receives a signal (e.6 billion to telecommunications technology [xxvi]. Particularly successful solutions not only provide an error message. orbital operations too represent an area where precautions need to be taken against system failure. Back-up normally comes from equipment made redundant by new technology. GPS-X-02007 Page 76 . All this has been made possible by the miniturisation of electronic components. As a result.2 Commerce and industry It is clear that road traffic will continue to be the biggest market for GPS. Security vans. information for systems performing the same task comes from independent sources. At the same time. This idea has already been developed as far as the marketing stage. GPS is already used as a matter of course in conventional navigation (aviation and shipping). These systems monitor themselves. You will be able to select the best route to your destination.2. The alarm can. Using the requisite maps stored on CD-ROM. Vehicle navigation systems will direct the driver to his or her destination with visually displayed directions and spoken recommendations. an alarm automatically being set off. A vehicle will have a computer with a screen. In ideal situations. will be fitted with GPS. be operated by the driver at the press of a button. GPS can be used both for locating cars and as an anti-theft device. the system switches to another sensor as a data source.g.GPS Basics u-blox ag 10. as it were. As with all safety critical applications. by their enormously increased performance and by hardware prices plummeting. but also a display warning the user that the data shown may no longer be sufficiently reliable. A GPS receiver is connected to a crash sensor and in an emergency a signal is sent to an emergency call centre that knows precisely in which direction the vehicle was travelling and its current whereabouts. Anti-theft devices will be fitted with GPS receivers. the system will search for possible itineraries taking into account the most favourable routes. the consequences of an accident can be made less severe and other road users can be given greater advance warning. so that an appropriate map showing your position will be displayed no matter where you are. if the vehicle deviates from its prescribed route.

Other possible uses for GPS include: • • • • • • • • Use and planning of areas Monitoring of fallow land Planning and managing of plantations Use of harvesting equipment Scattering seeds and spreading fertiliser Optimising wood-felling operations Pest control Mapping blighted areas GPS-X-02007 Page 77 . and the mapping of sites in terms of yield and application potential. allowing additional quantities of wood to be transported. there are many conceivable GPS applications. combine harvester yields are recorded by GPS and processed initially into specific partial plots on digital maps. logistics in general (aircraft. In a precision farming system. In this way. The USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Forest Service GPS Steering Committee 1992. • • • Management of small private woods: In woodland areas divided up into small parcels of land. GPS can be used as a tool for carrying out processing instructions. Also. as well as GPS. the frequency with which remote tracks are used (dirt tracks for removing the harvested wood) can be identified. a reliable search can be conducted to find such tracks. The application maps are converted into a form that the on-board computer can process and are then transferred to this computer by means of memory boards. Analysis of these entries then serves to establish the amount of manure that needs to be applied to each point in the plot. and remote data transfer facilities. water-borne craft and road vehicles) Railways Geographical tachographs Fleet management Navigation systems u-blox ag 10.3 Agriculture and forestry For the forestry sector too. cost-effective.GPS Basics Other possible uses for GPS include: • • • • • • • • • • • • Exploration of geological deposits Remediation of landfill sites Development of open-cast mining Positioning of drill platforms Laying pipelines (geodesy in general) Extensive storage sites Automatic container movements Transport companies. Soil samples are also located with the help of GPS and added to the system. highly mechanised harvesting processes can be employed using GPS. optimal operational practises can be devised over a long period of time that can offer a high savings potential and provide an initial attempt at nature conservation.2. GPS makes a contribution to precision farming in the form of area administration. the vehicles can be directed efficiently from a central operations unit. For the foresters and workers on site. has identified over 130 possible applications in this field. Use in inventory management: Manual identification prior to harvesting the wood is made redundant by the navigation system. Use in the field of soil conservation: By using GPS. Examples of some these applications are briefly detailed below: • Optimisation of round timber transportation: By equipping commercial vehicle fleets with on-board computers.

is also relayed to the International Bureau for Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Paris for calculating the international atomic time scales TAI and UTC. A highly accurate reference clock used to receive GPS satellite signals along with Network Time Protocol (NTP). specified in RFC 1305.6 Military GPS is used anywhere where combatants. as it enables a location to be determined and found again without any great difficulty. for example. 60 ns. People who have got into difficulties at sea or in the mountains can be located using GPS (SAR: Save and Rescue). 10. Globally precise time measurements are necessary for synchronising control and communications facilities. GPS clock status is irrelevant.000 times "more inaccurate" than time measured by a GPS receiver. Other possible uses for GPS include: • • • • Route planning and selecting points of particular significance (natural monuments. As a rule. Time comparisons between the PTB and time institutes are made in this way throughout the world. forms the basis for this synchronisation Other possible uses for GPS include: • • Synchronisation of system time-staggered message transfer Synchronisation in common frequency radio networks 10. the more accurate.7 Time measurement GPS provides us with the opportunity of measuring time exactly on a global basis. GPS is also suitable for marking the position of minefields and underground depots. Measuring time with GPS is a lot more accurate than with so-called radio clocks. aircraft and guided missiles are deployed in unfamiliar terrain. Institutes that wish to compare clocks measure the same GPS satellite signals at the same time in different places and calculate the time difference between the local clocks and GPS system time. vehicles..4 Communications technology Synchronising computer clocks to a uniform time in a distributed computer environment is vital. for example. Because this involves a differential process. The most usual method today of making precision time comparisons between clocks in different places is “common-view“ comparison with the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites.GPS Basics u-blox ag 10. As a result of the difference in measurement at two different places. which is 10. which are unable to compensate for signal transit time between the transmitter and the receiver.2.. The PTB atomic clock status. determined with the help of GPS. signal transit time already accounts for 1ms. the difference between the clocks at the two institutes can be determined.5 Tourism / sport GPS receivers are often used at competitive gliding and hang-gliding events as an infallible method of recording times. Right around the world “time” (UTC Universal Time Coordinated) can be accurately determined to within 1 .2. GPS-X-02007 Page 78 . encrypted GPS signal (PPS) is used for military applications. culturally historic monuments) Orientiering in general (training routes) Outdoor activities and trekking Sporting activities 10.2. and can only be used by authorised agencies. If. the receiver is 300 km from the radio clock transmitter.2.

When the user receiver uses the corrected data. accuracy to within a few meters is achieved. correction signals are received by various public DGPS services.1. VHF. it can correct the measured range to all satellites by the amount of the difference. SW.5 m precision (for 95% of all measurements) A. In Europe. but further expansion throughout Switzerland is planned for the summer of 1999. FM transmitters. Some of these services have already been introduced.1 DGPS services A. RDS was developed to provide road users with traffic information via VHF [xxvii]. In Germany. The RDS-GPS service is offered by the Federal Office for National Topography [xxviii] in conjunction with SRG. In both instances. In the ’Mittelland’ region of Switzerland at present signals can be received. An extension of the Ceneri transmitter is currently being planned. in particular. The correction data is broadcast over the VHF or GSM network. Either an annual licence fee is levied or a one-off charge is made when the DGPS receiver is purchased.. GPS-X-02007 Page 79 . The RDS data is modulated to the FM carrier wave at a frequency of 57 kHz.3 AMDS AMDS (Amplituden Moduliertes Daten System – amplitude modulated data system) is used to transmit digital data on medium and long-wave using existing broadcasting transmitters. they make a charge. there is a DGPS service that broadcasts the correction data on LW via the Mainflingen transmitter (near Frankfurt-am-Main). there needs to be visible contact with a VHF transmitter. radio. the effects of SA (SA was switched off on 1st May 2000) and the ionosphere and troposphere can be massively reduced. In this way. 666 kHz). The data is phase modulated. Data is broadcast over an area of 600 – 1000 km. in contrast to GPS. After extensive trials. the user needing an RDS decoder to extract the DGPS correction values.1.).1 Introduction The reference receiver receives satellite signals and can immediately calculate the difference between the measured and actual distance. 87-108 MHz). in particular. The service is operated in Switzerland by Terra Vermessungen AG [xxix]. Users of this service can either pay an annual subscription or a one-off fee. across the ’Mittelland’ region to Lake Constance. At present. A.GPS Basics u-blox ag APPENDIX A.1. One thing all these services have in common is that. others are about to be launched. are active from Lake Geneva. satellite communication . from the Beromünster transmitter (MW. The service is offered at two levels of accuracy. The Radio Data System (RDS) is a European standard for the distribution of digital data over the VHF broadcasting network (FM. • • 1 .2 m precision (for 95% of all measurements) 2 . 531 kHz) and the German Rohrdorf transmitter (MW.. This difference is relayed to all surrounding user receivers via an appropriate communications link (LW. a regular service came on line in January 1999 with plans to charge a one-off fee. The Swiss National Topographical Institute offers such a DGPS service. GSM. In order to ensure good reception.2 Swipos-NAV (RDS or GSM) There is a service that operates under the name of Swipos-NAV (Swiss Positioning Service) that distributes the correction data via RDS or GSM.

1. The upper side band (OSB) is phase modulated (Bi-Phase-Shift-Keying. Data from the stations is relayed by Austrian Broadcasting via 18 main transmitter complexes and more than 250 converters. The RASANT correction data format is a conversion of RTCM 2. lines).6 dGPS Austria has been covered nationally since the summer of 1998 with a positional accuracy better than 1 Meter [xxxiv]. multi-functional DGPS service. In VHF broadcasts the signals are transmitted in a format known as RASANT (Radio Aided Satellite Navigation Technique). BPSK). It has even been possible since the summer of 2000 to achieve an accuracy of a few centimeters throughout Austria.GPS Basics u-blox ag supplied by the German National Survey Office) is a permanently operated.g.5 kHz) broadcasts its correction values over an area of 600 – 1000 km and can therefore be received in the ’Mittelland’ region of Switzerland. A. The ARD public broadcasting organisation.1. SAPOS comprises four areas of service with differing characteristics and precision: • • • SAPOS EPS – real time positioning service SAPOS HEPS – ultra-precise real time positioning service SAPOS GPPS – Geodetic precision positioning service A. A. GSM and SAPOS’s own 2-Meter band are offered as a standard for real time measurements. images) as a VHF radio signal using the existing ORF infrastructure (transmitter. VHF media broadcasting and long-wave have long been available nationally for the EPS service sector.0 correction data for transmission over the Radio Data System (RDS) of VHF radio broadcasting. The long-wave transmitter DCF42 (LW. DARC is a data transmission system that relays digital data packets (e.5 ALF ALF (Accurate Positioning by Low Frequency) broadcasts the correction values with an output of 50 kW von Mainflingen (Frankfurt-am-Main). 122. Correction data is broadcast by the data transmission system DARC (Data Radio Channel) over the Ö1 network. It is highly reliable and available throughout Germany. long-wave (Telekom). Due to the different demands made by the various individual applications. three different levels of accuracy are offered: • • • guaranteed accuracy of less than 10 cm guaranteed accuracy of less than 1 m guaranteed accuracy of less than 10 m GPS-X-02007 Page 80 .4 SAPOS SAPOS [xxx] (Satellitenpositionierungsdienst der deutschen Landesvermessung – Satellite Positioning Service • SAPOS GHPS – Geodetic high precision positioning service Both EPS and HEPS are usable in real time. The service is offered by the Federal Office for Cartography and Geodesy [xxxii] in co-operation with Deutsche Telekom AG (DTAG) [xxxiii].1. the correction data can be received despite shadowing. and in the 2-Meter band a total of 9 frequencies have been available to AdV [xxxi] (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen der Länder der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – a working group responsible for the administration of surveys carried out in the regional states of the Federal Republic of Germany) on a nationwide basis. The user pays a one-off fee when purchasing the decoder. A network of GPS reference stations forms the basis of the system. Due to the propagation characteristics of long-wave. The service comprises 8 reference stations and is still being expanded.

7 Radio Beacons Radio beacons are installed right around the world.42MHz). The WAAS signal can be accessed for civil use and offers far greater land. A. the Japanese MSAS (MTSAT based Augmentation System) and the European EGNOS system. and they must be visible. Three such systems are currently under construction around the world: the American WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System). Wide Area Ground Reference Station) that receive GPS signals. GPS-X-02007 Page 81 .GPS Basics u-blox ag A. The WAAS signals are received by GPS receivers equipped for this task and further processed. A European network of GPS/Glonass receivers has been built up to receive the corresponding satellite signals and relay these to central data processing stations.8 Omnistar and Landstar Several geo-stationary satellites transmit correction data to Europe continuously. sea and air coverage than was previously possible through land-based DGPS systems. Omnistar belongs to the Fugro Group [xxxv] and Landstar to Racal Survey [xxxvi]. WAAS correction signals are valid exclusively in North America. WAAS was developed for the American FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) to provide a high degree of accuracy during landing approaches. 300kHz. The signals received at these data processing stations are evaluated taking into account the exact known position of the receiving stations.10 WAAS The North-American WAAS system (Wide Area Augmentation System) is a network of approx. Omnistar and Landstar transmit their information to Earth in the L-band (1-2 GHz).1.1. With the help of these corrections positional accuracy of around 7 m can initially be achieved. The precisely processed DGPS correction values are transmitted to two geo-stationary satellites (Inmarsat) and beamed back to Earth on the GPS L1 frequency (1575. it is anticipated that the system will enter service in its initial stage of development by 2002/2003. 35-38° above the horizon.1. From the perspective of Switzerland. these geo-stationary satellites are located to the south approx. 25 ground reference stations (WRS. Each reference station determines actual and target pseudo-range deviation. The corresponding reference stations are distributed throughout Europe. a level of data integrity is attained that enables instrument approaches to be made in aviation. Two different services are available under the names of Omnistar and Landstar. According to current planning. in order to establish radio contact. relaying DGPS correction signals on a frequency of approx. A. The system operators generally charge an annual fee. The error signals are relayed to a master station WMS (Wide Area Master Station). In this way. They have been surveyed exactly in terms of their position. correction data can be determined that is ultimately broadcast to users via geo-stationary communications satellites. The signal bit rate varies between 100 and 200 bits per second depending on the transmitter. A. The three systems should be compatible with each other.9 EGNOS EGNOS [xxxvii] (European Geo-stationary Navigation Overlay System) is a satellite-based augmentation system for existing GPS and Glonass satellite navigation systems.1. principally along the coasts. The WMS’s calculate the differential signals and monitor the integrity of the GPS system. In addition.

height.1 Introduction Most manufacturers define their own control commands and data sets. each manufacturer having developed their own format. speed and time Signal-to-noise ratio. can all be communicated. which serves as a model for other protocols. 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 18 19 255 Name Measured Navigation Data Measured Tracking Data Raw Track Data SW Version Clock Status 50 BPS Subframe Data Throughput Command Acknowledgment Command NAcknowledgment Visible List Almanac Data Ephemeris Data OkToSend Navigation Parameters Development Data Description Position. elevation and azimuth Raw distance measurement data Receiver software Time measurement status Receiver information (ICD format) CPU throughput Reception confirmation Failed inquiry Number of visible satellites Almanac data Ephemeris data CPU On/Off status (trickle power) Reply to the POLL command Various internal items of information Table 21: SiRF output data sets GPS-X-02007 Page 82 . For example.2. specific information.GPS Basics u-blox ag A. (SiRF is familiar with more than 15 different proprietary data sets) The various SiRF data sets are described in Table 21. and status etc. A. and a few other protocols briefly introduced. the proprietary SiRF binary protocol.2 Proprietary data interfaces A. The proprietary binary protocol developed by SiRF. speed. the standardised NMEA protocol 2. SiRFData set No.2 SiRF Binary protocol GPS receivers fitted with integrated circuits supplied by SiRF in California relay GPS information in two different protocols: 1. is explained in detail.2. such as position.

2 satellite solution) “Dilution of Precision“ contains PDOP or HDOP values. It also contains the date and time. code) with a repetition rate of 1Hz A0A2002902FFD6F78CFFBE536E003AC00400030104A00036B039780E30612190E160F04000000000000 09BBB0B3 GPS-X-02007 Page 83 .GPS Basics u-blox ag Detailed description of SiRF data set No. and the identification number of the satellites used to perform the position calculation. 2 A practical example An example makes clear the structure of data set No. SiRF data set No. Contains additional information for differential data Week number since 6th January 1980. 2 has the following format: Name Message ID X-Position Bytes 1 4 4 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Unit m m m m/8s m/8s m/8s [Bitmap] 1/5 [Bitmap] Remarks Always 2 Position calculated by receiver Y-Position Y-Position X-velocity Y-velocity Z-velocity Mode 1 DOP Mode 2 GPS Week GPS TOW SV’s in Fix CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5 CH6 CH7 CH8 CH9 CH10 CH11 CH12 Speed calculated by receiver Contains amongst other things algorithmic details for determining position (ex. This particular data set (Measured Navigation Data Out) contains the position and speed calculated by the receiver. 2: • Received binary data (Hex. depending on the algorithm. 2 is presented as follows (Table 22). on 22nd August 1999 the clock was reset to zero. 2 The SiRF proprietary data set No. s/100 Seconds since the beginning of the previous week Number of satellites used to calculate the position Identification numbers of the satellites used to calculate position Table 22: Structure of proprietary SiRF data set No.

79 6 18 25 14 22 15 CH 6 CH 7 CH 8 CH 9 CH 11 CH 11 CH 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 23: Division and meaning of the binary information GPS-X-02007 Page 84 .125 4 2.375 0.0 0 875 *8 *8 *8 0000 0003 0001 04 A 00 036B 039780E3 06 12 19 0E 16 0F S /100 602605.GPS Basics • • • • • Start sequence: A0A2 u-blox ag Length of the information in bytes 0029 Information: 02FFD6F78CFFBE536E003AC00400030104A00036B039780E30612190E160F04000000000000 Checksum: 09BB End sequence B0B3 The 41 bytes of information are divided up as follows: Name Message ID X-position Y-position Z-position X-velocity Y-velocity Z-velocity Mode 1 DOP Mode 2 GPS Week GPS TOW SVs in Fix CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 5 Bytes 1 4 4 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 *100 *5 Scaling Value (Hex) 02 FFD6F78C FFBE536E 003AC004 Unit Scaling Value (Decimal) 2 m M m m/s m/s m/s Vx/8 Vy/8 Vz/8 Bitmap /5 Bitmap -2689140 -4304018 3850244 0 0.

3 Motorola: binary format GPS receivers and modules supplied by Motorola transmit the GPS information in two different protocols: 1. the proprietary Motorola binary format.GPS Basics u-blox ag A. the standardised NMEA protocol 2. @@Aa @@Ab @@Ac @@Ad @@Ae @@Af @@AO @@Ay @@Az @@Bb @@Be @@Bo @@Ea Name Time of Day GMT Offset Date Latitude Longitude Height RTCM Port Mode 1PPS Offset 1PPS Cable Delay Visible Satellite Status Message Almanac Data Output UTC Offset Status Message Receiver ID Description Time GMT offset Date Latitude Longitude Height DGPS mode 1PPS offset Cable delay Health of the visible satellites Almanac data output Offset UTC to GPS time Identification of the receiver Table 24: A selection of proprietary Motorola data sets GPS-X-02007 Page 85 . (Motorola is familiar with up to 35 different proprietary data sets) A selection of important Motorola data sets is listed in Table 24: MotorolaData set No.2.

GPS Basics

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A.2.4 Trimble proprietary protocol
GPS receivers and modules supplied by Trimble transmit the GPS information in two different protocols: 3. the standardised NMEA protocol 4. the proprietary TSIP binary protocol (Trimble Standard Interface Protocol, Trimble is familiar with as many as 30 different proprietary data sets) A selection of important Trimble data sets is listed in Table 25. Trimble Data set No. 0x41 0x42 0x45 0x46 0x47 0x48 0x4A 0x4D 0x55 0x83 0x84 0x85 0x8F-25 0x8F-27 Name GPS time Single-precision XYZ position Software version information Health of Receiver Signal level for all satellites GPS system message Single-precision LLA position Oscillator offset I/O options Double-precision XYZ Double-precision LLA Differential correction status Low power mode Low power configuration Description GPS time Single precision XYZ position Software version Technical status of receiver Signal strength for all satellites GPS system message Single precision LLA position Oscillator frequency offset I/O options Double precision XYZ position Double precision LLA position Differential correction status Low power mode Low power configuration

Table 25: A selection of proprietary Trimble data sets

A.2.5 NMEA or proprietary data sets?
GPS modules and appliances generate the standardised NMEA data format and their own proprietary data format. Developers and users of new products are continually confronted with the following issue: which data format is the best and which format is going to be used in new appliances? NMEA is a standardised data format that is accepted worldwide and that recognises various data sets. The most important information relayed by NMEA interfaces is: • • • • • • Geographical position (latitude/longitude/height) DOP values Elevation and azimuth of the satellites in view Course and speed Time and date Signal-to-noise ratio of the antenna signal

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If, for example, a GPS appliance or module is being used with the NMEA data set as part of a system, and that appliance or module has to be replaced, another make can confidently be used. All that the replacement appliance or module needs to function is the RMC NMEA data set. Proprietary data sets are very flexible. They use data line bandwidth extremely efficiently and, as a result, can generally offer much more information and potential than NMEA data sets. Proprietary interfaces, for example, relay the following additional information over and above NMEA data sets: • • • • • • • XYZ position and pseudo-ranges Raw data Ephemeris and almanac data Various internal items of information (e.g. software information and receiver ID.) UTC offset status message Oscillator offset Differential correction status

Proprietary data interfaces are therefore manufacturer-specific items, which when used, prevent consumers migrating from one product to another.

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RESOURCES ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB
If you would like to . . . o know where you can learn more about GPS o know where the GPS system is documented o become a GPS expert yourself then you yourself should explore all the Internet links on the subject!

General overviews and further links
Global Positioning System Overview by Peter H. Dana, University of Colorado http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html Global Positioning System (GPS) Resources by Sam Wormley, Iowa State University http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/staff/swormley/gps/gps.html Global Positioning System Data & Information: United States Naval Observatory http://192.5.41.239/gps_datafiles.html NMEA-0183 and GPS Information by Peter Bennett, http://vancouver-webpages.com/peter/ Joe Mehaffey and Jack Yeazel's GPS Information http://joe.mehaffey.com/ The Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Resource Library http://www.gpsy.com/gpsinfo/ ABOUT GPS: Satellite Navigation & Positioning (SNAP), University of New South Wales http://www.gmat.unsw.edu.au/snap/gps/about_gps.htm GPS SPS Signal Specification, 2nd Edition (June 2, 1995), USCG Navigation Center http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/gps/sigspec/default.htm

Differential GPS
Differential GPS (DGPS) by Sam Wormley, Iowa State University http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/staff/swormley/gps/dgps.html DGPS corrections over the Internet http://www.wsrcc.com/wolfgang/gps/dgps-ip.html Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS), Stanford University http://waas.stanford.edu/

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ion.org/ University NAVSTAR Consortium (UNAVCO) http://www.kyocera.satellite-nav http://groups.mac-europe. Coast Guard (USCG) Navigation Center http://www.com/groups?oi=djq&as_ugroup=sci.org.GPS Basics u-blox ag GPS institutes Institut für Angewandte Geodäsie: GPS-Informations.macom.geo.rin.alliscom.com.ifag.com/ EMTAC Technology Corp.und Beobachtungssystem http://gibs.uscg.google. http://www.cgi?de GPS PRIMER :Aerospace Corporation http://www.html Royal Institute of Navigation.tw/ GPS newsgroups and specialist journals Newsgroup: sci. KG http://www. WILHELM SIHN JR. London http://www.gov/ U.mil/gps.wisi.org/publications/GPSPRIMER/index.S.tw/ Allis Communications Company.uk/ The Institute of Navigation http://www.htm M/A-COM http://www.navy.unavco. Ltd.de/cgi-bin/Info_hom.satellite-nav Specialist journal: GPS World (appears monthly) http://www.navcen.ucar.de/ Matsushita Electric Works (Europe) AG http://www.edu/ GPS antennae WISI.emtac.leipzig.html U.geo.com GPS-X-02007 Page 89 .aero.com/kicc/industrial/products/dielectric.usno.S.gpsworld. Naval Observatory http://tycho. http://www.com.com/ Kyocera Industrial Ceramic Corporation http://www.

.........................................GPS Basics u-blox ag LIST OF TABLES Table 1: L1 carrier link budget analysis modulated with the C/A code............................... 60 Table 16: Description of the individual ZDA data set blocks ................................................................................................................................................................................... 85 Table 25: A selection of proprietary Trimble data sets..................... 82 Table 22: Structure of proprietary SiRF data set No................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Table 2: Comparison between ephemeris and almanac data...................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 Table 9: Recording of an NMEA protocol.................................................................................... 63 Table 19: Contents of RTCM message type 1..................................... 62 Table 18: Contents of the RTCM message header................................................. 41 Table 6: The WGS-84 ellipsoid . 55 Table 11: Description of the individual GGL data set blocks ............................................................................................................................ 54 Table 10: Description of the individual GGA data set blocks ................................................. 68 Table 21: SiRF output data sets ..................................................................... 56 Table 12: Description of the individual GSA data set blocks .............................................................................................................. 58 Table 14: Description of the individual RMC data set blocks ..... 43 Table 8: Description of the individual NMEA DATA SET blocks ..... 35 Table 5: National reference systems.............................................................. 83 Table 23: Division and meaning of the binary information ........................................................................................................................................................... 61 Table 17: Determining the checksum in the case of NMEA data sets ...................................................................................... 42 Table 7: Datum parameters................................................................................................... 29 Table 4: Cause of errors.................................................................................. 2.............................................. 28 Table 3: Accuracy of the standard civilian service............................................. 84 Table 24: A selection of proprietary Motorola data sets ........ 57 Table 13: Description of the individual GSV data set blocks ................................................................................................................................... 65 Table 20: Time systems............................................................................................................................................................................................. 86 GPS-X-02007 Page 90 ......................... 59 Table 15: Description of the individual VTG data set blocks ...........................

.................... 39 Figure 28: Producing a spheroid......................... 42 Figure 33: Geodetic datum .......................... 37 Figure 27: A geoid is an approximation of the Earth’s surface........................................................................ 30 Figure 22: Conversion of the Taylor series.......................................................... 37 Figure 26: Effect of satellite constellations on the DOP value.................................................................................................... 28 Figure 20: Four satellite signals must be received......... 12 Figure 5: The position of the receiver at the intersection of the two circles .......................................................................................... 49 Figure 39: Relaying the corrction values............................................................................................... 64 Figure 46: Open and cast Patch antennae............................................................................... 32 Figure 23: Estimating a position ........................ 14 Figure 7: Four satellites are required to determine a position in 3-D space............................................ 41 Figure 32: Illustration of the ellipsoidal co-ordinates ....................................... 40 Figure 31: Illustration of the Cartesian co-ordinates.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 46 Figure 37: Principle operation of GPS with a GPS reference station ............................................................. 12 Figure 4: Determining the transit time ... 18 Figure 10: Position of the 28 GPS satellites at 12.......................................................................00 hrs UTC on 14th April 2001...... 39 Figure 29: Customised local reference ellipsoid .............................................................................................................................................................. .... 11 Figure 3: GPS satellites orbit the Earth on 6 orbital planes............................................................. 50 Figure 40: Correcting measured pseudo-range................................................. 9 Figure 2: Determining the distance of a lightning flash ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 Figure 25: GDOP values and the number of satellites expressed as a time function................................ 22 Figure 16: Measuring signal transit time ................. 46 Figure 36: From satellite to position............................................................................................................................................................... 23 Figure 17: Demonstration of the correction process across 30 bits ...................................GPS Basics u-blox ag LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1: The basic function of GPS.............................................................................................. 51 Figure 42: Block diagram of a GPS receiver with interfaces ................................................................................................................................................................................ 63 Figure 45: Construction of RTCM message type 1............................................................................. 20 Figure 13: Simplified satellite block diagram .............. 66 GPS-X-02007 Page 91 ............................. 53 Figure 44: Construction of the RTCM message header ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43 Figure 34: Gauss-Krüger projection .................................. 19 Figure 12: Pseudo Random Noise ................................ 24 Figure 18: Structure of the entire navigation message .................. 32 Figure 24: Satellite geometry and PDOP............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18 Figure 11: A GPS satellite..................................................................................... 52 Figure 43: NMEA format (TTL and RS-232 level) ............................................................................ 15 Figure 8: The three GPS segments.................... 17 Figure 9: Position of the 28 GPS satellites at 12................00 hrs UTC on 14th April 2001....... 49 Figure 38: Determining the correction values ............................... 13 Figure 6: The position is determined at the point where all three spheres intersect................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 40 Figure 30: Difference between geoid and ellipsoid ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 21 Figure 14: Data structure of a GPS satellite ................................... 30 Figure 21: Three dimensional co-ordinate system ................................... 50 Figure 41: The principle of phase measurement ............................................................................ 45 Figure 35: The principle of double projection ........................... 26 Figure 19: Ephemeris terms................................................................ 21 Figure 15: Detailed block system of a GPS satellite .

................................................................................... 71 Figure 53: Typical block diagram of a GPS module .................................... 66 Figure 48: 1PPS signal ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 70 Figure 51: Functional test on the MAX3221 level converter .......... 73 GPS-X-02007 Page 92 ............................................ 67 Figure 49: Difference between TTL and RS-232 levels..... 70 Figure 52: Simplified block diagram of a GPS receiver........................................... 69 Figure 50: Block diagram pin assignment of the MAX32121 level converter ..........................................GPS Basics u-blox ag Figure 47: Basic structural shape of a Helix antennae...................................................................................................................................

Boston 1996. 45 GPS Standard Positioning Service Signal Specification. 2nd Edition. Seite 31 User Manual: Sony GXB1000 16-channel GPS receiver module User Manual: Sony GXB1000 16-channel GPS receiver module swipos.jpg http://www.html http://www.navcen.com. 2 Edition. Hofmann-Wellenhof: GPS in der Praxis.gov/pubs/dgps/rctm104/Default.uk Page 93 GPS-X-02007 .: Global Positioning System.geocities.html Manfred Bauer: Vermessung und Ortung mit Satelliten.potsdam. ISBN 3-211-82609-2 Bundesamt für Landestopographie: http://www. Standard For Interfacing Marine Electronics Devices.uscg.com Satellitenortung und Navigation.maxim-ic. Bundesamt für Landestopographie http://www. Positionierungsdienste auf der Basis von DGPS. Seite 6.pdf Parkinson B. Spilker J.ch Elliott D. http://www. Hofmann-Wellenhof: GPS in der Praxis.com/mapref/mapref..com http://www. Volume II. 1997. Heidelberg.org. 1995.asahi-net.. Werner Mansfield.iastate.edu/staff/swormley/gps/gps_accuracy.edu/staff/swormley/gps/gps_accuracy.or.tw/ http://www.gov/pubs/gps/sigspec/gpssps1. ISBN 3-87907-309-0 http://www. Wien 1994. Bradford W. Wichman-Verlag.: Global Positioning System.emtac. 1995.cnde. Lemme H. June 2. Standard Positioning System Service.swisstopo.cnde.navcen. Elektronik 1996.gov/pubs/gps/sigspec/gpssps1. page 18. 1995 http://www. Artech House.ch Elliott D.tandt.cnde.htm Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications.html B. 2nd Edition.geocities. ISBN 0-89006-793-7 http://www. page 89 NAVCEN: GPS SPS Signal Specifications.html http://www.cnde. Wichman-Verlag. Kaplan: Understanding GPS.be/wis NMEA 0183. Kaplan: Understanding GPS.alliedworld. http://www. Heidelberg.GPS Basics u-blox ag SOURCES [i] [ii] [iii] [iv] [v] [vi] [vi] [vi] [vi] [vi] [vi] [vi] [vi] [vii] [viii] [ix] [x] [xi] [xii] [xiii] [xiv] [xv] [xvi] [xvii] [xviii] [xix] [xx] [xxi] [xxii] [xxiii] [xxiv] [xxv] [xxvi] [xxvii] Global Positioning System.pdf Parkinson B. Version 2.edu/staff/swormley/gps/gps_accuracy. Volume 1.rds.de/potsdam/dgps/dgps_2.: Schnelles Spread-Spectrum-Modem auf einem Chip.ifag. H.uscg.30 http://www. Wien 1994. AIAA-Inc.html B. nd Signal Specification. 1997.navcen.iastate.uscg. AIAA-Inc. Springer-Verlag. Springer-Verlag.iastate.html http://www.jp/~VQ3H-NKMR/satellite/helical. Artech House. 38 to p. Boston 1996.swisstopo.iastate. Vieweg Verlag http://www. Spilker J. ISBN 3-211-82609-2 Bundesamt für Landestopographie: http://www. Seite 157.html Manfred Bauer: Vermessung und Ortung mit Satelliten.edu/staff/swormley/gps/gps_accuracy. Volume 1. ISBN 3-87907-309-0 http://www. http://www. Parkinson.com/mapref/mapref. 15 p.

GPS Basics u-blox ag [xxviii] http://www.ch [xxix] [xxx] [xxxi] [xxxii] http://www.allnav.esa.leipzig.ch/t_welcom.racal-survey.com [xxxvii] http://www.htm http://gibs.de/cgi-bin/Info_hom.at [xxxv] http://www.de http://www.swisstopo.com/ [xxxvi] http://www.htm http://www.potsdam.de/alf/ [xxxiv] http://www.cgi?de [xxxiii] http://www.ifag.omnistar.sapos.dgps.de/produkte/sapos.adv-online.int/navigation GPS-X-02007 Page 94 .ifag.

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