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ICS Appendices

ICS Appendices

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Appendixes

(Database on EDPs)

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Table of Contents
(DATABASE ON EDPS) .............................................................................................................I TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... III APPENDIX 1. COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS.........................................................1 ABBREVIATION OF POLYMERS ..................................................................................................1 MAJOR USED DEGRADABLE POLYMERS ....................................................................................3 APPENDIX 2. STANDARDS ..................................................................................................4 2.1 ISO STANDARD TESTS ON DEGRADABLE PLASTICS ............................................................4 2.2 ASTM ENVIRONMENTALLY DEGRADABLE PLASTICS STANDARDS.....................................4 Composting Environment ....................................................................................................4 Anaerobic digestion/processes .............................................................................................5 Other.....................................................................................................................................5 Photodegradation environment ............................................................................................6 2.3 ASTM BIODEGRADATION TEST METHODS ........................................................................6 2.3 ASTM TEST METHODS FOR PHOTO- AND OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION................................6 2.4 ISO BIODEGRADATION TEST METHODS ..............................................................................7 2.5 ISO TEST METHODS FOR PHOTO- AND OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION ....................................7 APPENDIX 3. EDPS MANUFACTURING AND APPLICATION COMPANIES .................8 3.1 LIST OF EDPSPPRODUCERS IN THE WORLD.........................................................................8 3.2 DATABASE ON TRADE-MARKS MANUFACTURERS AND APPLICATION .................................9 3.3 POLYMER PRODUCERS ......................................................................................................10 3.4 COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DEGRADABLE POLYOLEFINS ...............................................12 3.5 EDPS APPLICATION COMPANIES .......................................................................................12 3.6 EDPS MANUFACTURING COMPANIES................................................................................18 3.7 MAJOR DEGRADABLE POLYMERS, THEIR APPLICATION AND SUPPLIERS .........................21 3.8 COMPANIES IN EDPS MEDICAL APPLICATIONS ................................................................25 APPENDIX 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................27 4.1 GENERAL LITERATURE ON EDPS .......................................................................................27 4.2 ORCA PUBLICATIONS ......................................................................................................30 4.3 BOOKS ON STARCH BLENDS AND GRAFT POLYMERS OF STARCH.....................................33 4.4 BOOKS ON BIODEGRADABILITY TESTING .........................................................................34 4.5 MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR DEGRADABLE POLYOLEFINS .................................................34 4.6 MAJOR BOOKS FOR DEGRADABLE POLYOLEFINS ..............................................................39 4.7 RECENT BOOKS ON MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS..............................41 4.8 REVIEW ARTICLES ON MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS (AFTER 1995) .....43 4.9 OTHER BOOKS ON DEGRADABLE POLYMERS ...................................................................57 4.10 LITERATURES ON POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES ..............................................................60 4.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides……………………………………………………… 342 APPENDIX 5. EDPS WEBSITE DIRECTORY .....................................................................408 5.1 WEBSITES OF ASSOCIATIONS ..........................................................................................408 5.2 SEARCH ENGINES FOR BOOKS .........................................................................................409 5.3 SEARCH ENGINES FOR PATENTS ......................................................................................409 5.4 DEGRADABLE POLYMERS ................................................................................................410 5.5 ONLINE DATABASE .........................................................................................................410
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APPENDIX 6. INVENTORY OF PATENTS ........................................................................ 411 6.1 PHOTODEGRADABLE POLYOLEFINS PATENTS ................................................................. 411 6.2 BIODEGRADABLE POLYOLEFINS ..................................................................................... 412 6.3 PATENTS ON PACKAGING, HYGINE AND NON-PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS........... 414 6.4 PHARMACEUTICAL AND AGRICULTURAL PATENTS ......................................................... 415 6.5 MICROBIAL, CHEMICAL METHODS, SYNTHESIS AND DEGRADATION PATENTS .............. 417 6.6 BLENDING, COMPOSITION AND PLASTICIZER PATENTS .................................................. 419 6.7 PATENTS ON POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER ........................ 420 6.8 OTHER RELEVANT PATENTS ........................................................................................... 435 6.9 PATENTS IN MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS ....................................... 437 APPENDIX 7. LIST OF R&D INSTITUTIONS ON EDPS ................................................. 491

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Appendix 1. Commonly Used Abbreviations
ASTM CEN DIN EDP HV/LC ISO ISWA LCA/LCI MSW ORCA PPM TC WG WTO UNI American Society for Testing and Materials 'Comité Européen de Normalisation' , European Union The 'Deutsche Institut für Normung', Germany Environmentally degradable plastics High volume and low cost International Standard Organization International Solid Waste Association Life cycle assessment/Life cycle inventory Municipal solid wastes Organic Reclamation and Composting Association Process and Production Methods Technical Committee Working group World Trade Organization (replaced GATT, General Agreement on Trade and Tariff) Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione, Italy

Abbreviation of Polymers
AU BPA CA, CDA CAP, CAB CMC CMHEC CMMC DETOSU DIVEMA EU HA HEC HMC HPC MC MEEP MDI Nylon2 Nylon6 PBA PBLA PBS PBSA PCL PCL-PET PCPA PCPP P(CPP/A7SA) PDLA PDLLA poly(ester-urethane) bisphenol A cellulose acetate, diacetate cellulose acetate propionate, -butylate Carboxymethylcellulose Carboxymethylhydroxyethylcellulose Carboxymethylmethylcellulose 3,9-bis(ethylidene- 2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5,5] undecane) poly(maleic anhydride-co-divinylether) poly(ether urethane) Hyaluronic acid hydroxyethylcellulose hydroxymethylcellulose hydroxypropylcellulose Methylcellulose poly[bis(methoxyethoxyethoxy)phosphazene 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate polyglycine poly(epsilon-aminocaproic acid) poly(butylene adipate) poly(beta-benzyl-L-aspartate) poly(butylene succinate) poly(butylene succinate adipate) polycaprolacton polycaprolacton-co-poly(ethylene terephthalate) poly(p-carboxyphenoxy acetic acid) poly[1,3-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)propane] poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)propane-co-sebacic acid] poly(D-lactide) poly(DL-lactide)

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PDLLA-PCL PDO-PGA PDO-PGA-TMC PDS, PDO PEA PES PET PGA PGA-PCL PGA-TMC PGCA PHA PHA/PET PHB PHB/PCL PHB/PEO PHB/A30PVAc PHBB PHBH PHBP PHBV PHBV/CAB PHBV/CAP PHEA PHV PLA PLA/PVOH PLLA PLLA/PDLLA PLAGA PLCA PMDI PMLA Poly(Glu) Poly(Glu-Lys-Tyr) Poly(Lys) PPDA PPG PSA PSA-HDA PSA-PEG PTMEG PTMS PTPA-SA PUR PUU PVOH TDI TPU

poly(DL-lactide-co-caprolactone) poly(p-dioxanone-co-glycolide) poly(p-dioxanone-co-glycolide-co-1,3-trimethylenecarbonate) poly(p-dioxanone) polyethylene adipate poly(ethylene succinate) polyethlene terephthalate, modified polyglycolide, polyglycolic acid, polyglycolate poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) poly(glycolide-co-trimethylcarbonate) poly(1,3-trimethylene carbonate-co-glycolide) poly(beta-hydroxy alkanoate), poly(beta-hydroxy acid) poly(beta-hydroxy alkanoate)-co-poly(ethylene terephthalate) poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-caprolactone) poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-ethylene glycol) poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-vinyl acetate) poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4- hydroxybutyrate) poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexnoate) poly((3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxypropionat) poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)-co-(cellulose acetate butyrate) poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)-co-(cellulose acetate phthlate) poly{α,β-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-D,L-aspartamide]} poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) polylactide, poly(lactic acid), polylactate poly(lactide-co-vinyl alcohol) poly(L-lactide) poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) poly(glycolide-co-lactide) poly(lysine citramide) polymeric isocyanate poly(β-malic acid), poly(malate) poly(glutamic acid) poly(glutamic acid-co-lysine-co-tyrosine) polylysine poly(phenylene dipropionic acid) polypropylene glycol poly(sebacic acid) poly(sebacic acid-hexadecandioic acid) poly(sebacic anhydride-co-polyethylene glycol) polytetramethylene ether glycol poly(tetramethylene succinate) poly(terephthalic acid-sebacic acid) polyurethane Polyurethane ureas polyvinylalcohol toluene diisocyanate thermoplastic polyurethane

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Major Used Degradable Polymers
abbreviation PL PG PGL PLL PDL PDLL PDS PCL PDO-PGA polymer polylactide polyglycolide poly(glycolide-co-lactide) poly(L)lactide poly(D)lactide poly(DL)lactide poly(p-dioxanone) polycaprolacton polymer type polyester polyester polyester polyester polyester polyester polyetherester polyester polyetherester polyamide

POLYANHYDRIDE
polyamide-enamide PVA polyvinylalcohol ethylene-vinylalcolhol copolymer polyvinylacetate ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer polyethyleneoxide polyorthoester polyurethane, linear polyphosphazene

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Appendix 2. Standards
2.1 ISO Standard Tests on Degradable Plastics
ISO 846-78 ISO/DIS 14851 ISO/DIS 14852 ISO/CD 14853 ISO/DIS 14855 ISO-TC61/SC5 N 5025 ISO-TC61/SC5 N 5026 ISO/CD 15985 Plastics - Determination of behavior under the action of fungi and bacteria Evaluation by visual examination or measurement of change in mass or physical properties. Evaluation of the Ultimate Aerobic Biodegradability of Plastic Materials in an Aqueous Medium - Method by Determining the Oxygen Demand in a Closed Respirometer (TC61/SC5 N 798) Plastics - Evaluation of the Ultimate Aerobic Biodegradability in an Aqueous Medium - Method by Analysis of Released Carbon Dioxide Plastics Evaluation of Ultimate Anaerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials in an Aqueous System. Method by Analysis of Carbon Conversion to Carbon Dioxide and Methane Plastics - Evaluation of the Ultimate Aerobic Biodegradability and Disintegration Under Controlled Composting Conditions - Method by Analysis of Released Carbon Dioxide Evaluation of Ultimate Anaerobic Biodegradability and Disisntegration of Plastics Under High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion Conditions status: to be considered Evaluation of the Compostability and Biological Treatability of Plastics - Test Scheme for Final Acceptance status: to be considered Plastics-Evaluation of the ultimate anaerobic biodegradability and disintegration of plastics under high solids anaerobic digestion conditionsMethod by analysis of released biogas (TC61/SC5 N 861). This is based on ASTM Standard “Standard test method for determining anaerobic biodegradation of plastic materials under high-solids anaerobic digestion conditions [D5511-94] Plastics-Evaluation of the compostability-Test scheme for final acceptance (TC61/SC5 N 862). This is based on ASTM Standard “Standard Guide to assess the compostability of environmentally degradable plasticsD6002-96]”.

ISO/CD 15986

2.2 ASTM Environmentally Degradable Plastics Standards
COMPOSTING ENVIRONMENT
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Standard test method for determining the aerobic biodegradation of plastic materials in the presence of municipal sewage sludge [D5338-93, D5338-98 el] Standard test method for determining the aerobic biodegradation of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions [D5509-94] Standard practice for exposing plastics to a simulated compost environment [D5512-94] Standard practice for exposing plastics to a simulated compost environmnet using an externally heated reactor [D6003-96] Standard test method for determining weight loss from plastic materials exposted to a simulated municipal solid waste aerobic compost environment [D5988-96] Standard test method for determining the aerobic biodegradation in soil of [D 5209-91]

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7. 8.

[D6002-96] [D6340-98]

9. [D6400-99] 10. [D5951-96]

11. [D5152-91]

plastic materials or residual plastic materials after composting Standard Guide for Assessing the Compostability of Environmentally Degradable Plastics Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Radiolabeled Plastic Materials in an Aqueous or Compost Environment Standard Specification for Compostable Plastic Standard practice for preparing residual solids obtained after biodegradability standard methods for plastics in solid waste for toxicity and compost quality testing Standard practice for water extraction of residual solids from degraded plastics for toxicity testing– Fate & Effect testing

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION/PROCESSES
12. [D5988-96] 13. [D5271-92] 14. [D 5210-91] 15. [D5511-94] 16. [D5526-94] 17. [D5525-94A] Standard test method for determining the aerobic biodegradation of plastic materials or residual plastic materials after composting in contact with soil Standard test method for assessing the aerobic biodegradation of plastic materials in an activated-sludge-wastewater-treatment system Standard test method for determining the anaerobic biodegradation of plastic materials in the presence of municipal sewage sludge Standard test method for determining anaerobic biodegradation of plastic materials under high-solids anaerobic digestion conditions Standard Test Method for Determining Anaerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials Under Accelerated Landfill Conditions Standard Practice for Exposing Plastics to a Simulated Landfill Environment

OTHER
18. [D 5437-93] 19. [D 5247-92] 20. [D5510-94] 21. [ D6118] 22. [D6094-97] 23. [D3826-98] Standard Practice for Weathering of Plastics Under Marine Floating Exposure Standard test method for determining the aerobic biodegradability of degradable plastics by specific microorganisms Standard practice for heat aging of oxidatively degradable plastics Standard test method for determining hydrolytic degradation of plastic materials in an aqueous solution Standard Guide to Assess the Compostability of Environmentally Degradable Nonwoven Fabrics Standard Practice for Determining Degradation End Point in Degradable Polyethylene and Polypropylene Using a Tensile Test

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[D5272-92] (1999) Practice for operating Xenon arc-type exposure apparatus with water for exposure of photodegradable plastics Standard Practice for Exposure of Photodegradable Plastics in a Xenon Arc Apparatus Practice for operating fluorescent UV and condensation apparatus for exposure of photodegradable plastics Standard Practice for Outdoor Exposure Testing of Photodegradable Plastics 2.and Oxidative Degradation ASTM test No. D5209 D5210 D5247 D5271 D5338 D5437 D5509 D5511 D5512 D5525 D5526 Test environment Aerobic sewage sludge Anaerobic sewage sludge Aerobic with specific organisms Aerobic activated sewage sludge Aerobic controlled composting Marine floating conditions Simulated compost Anaerobic biodegradation Simulated compost Simulated landfill Accelerated landfill Test measurement Volume CO2 evolved Volume CO2/CH4 evolved Polymer molecular weight Volume O2/CO2 evolved Volume CO2 evolved Physical properties Physical properties Volume CO2/CH4 evolved Physical properties Physical properties Volume CO2/CH4 evolved 2.PHOTODEGRADATION ENVIRONMENT 24. D3826 D5071 D5208 D5272 D5437 D5510 G26 G53 Test method Degradation end points using a tensile test Operation of Xenon arc-type exposure device Operation of fluorescent ultraviolet and condensation device Outdoor exposure testing of photodegradable plastics Weathering of plastics under marine floating exposure Heat-aging of oxidatively degradable plastics Operating light exposure apparatus (Xenon-arc type) Operating light and water exposure apparatus (fluorescent UV/condensation type) 6 .3 ASTM Biodegradation Test Methods ASTM test No. [D5071-99] 26.3 ASTM Test Methods for Photo. [D5208-91] 27. [D5071-91] 25.

natural weathering or artificial light.4 ISO Biodegradation Test Methods ISO test number ISO 9439 ISO 9408 ISO 9438 ISO 14855 ISO 10708 ISO 14855 Aerobic biodegradation Aerobic controlled composting Aerobic controlled composting Aerobic controlled composting Volume CO2 evolved Volume CO2 evolved Volume CO2 evolved Test environment Aquatic Test measurement Volume CO2/CH4evolved 2.and Oxidative Degradation ISO test number ISO 4892:81 ISO 4607:78 ISO 4611 ISO 4582 ISO 4892-1. water spray and salt mist. fluorescent tube lamps.2.5 ISO Test Methods for Photo. Methods of exposure to laboratory light sourcesPart1: generalguidance Part2: xenon-arc guidance Part3: open-flame carbon-arc lamps ISO 4607-1978 Methods of exposure to natural weathering 7 . Determination of changes in colour and variations in properties after exposure to daylight under glass.2.4 Test method Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources (xenon arc lamp. Determination of effects of exposure to damp heat. Methods of exposure to natural weathering.

Poly-aspartic acid* Extrusionable Starch Materials Hydroxypropyl (Amylose 70%) DegraNovon® EnviroPlastic®C Polyaspartic Acid* PE/starch 8 . Polyaspartic acid* Polyesteramides Extrusionable Starch Materials Starch-based blends Polyesters Polypeptide (Proteins)* Extrusionable Starch Materials Polyethylene / Additives Polyesters Extrusionable Starch Materials Poly(vinyl alcohol)* Cellulose acetate Poly(lactic acid) Starch-based blends Extrusionable Starch Materials Poly(caprolactone) Foamable Starch Materials Foamable Starch Materials Polyethylene / Additives Modified Cellulose Cellulose derivatives BAK 1095 . Ethicon Deutsche Gelatin AG EMS Chemie / Battelle EPI Fermentation Institute Fluntera AG Idroplast Mazzucchelli Neste OY Novamont Novon Polymers AG Solvay Storopack Sunstarke Technicoat Tubize Plastics (Rhône Poulenc) United Paper Mills USA Air Products Amylum Archer Daniels BioPlastics Cargill Dow Polymers Chronopol Dow Chemical DuPont Eastman Chemical Co. Lawrence Starch Trademark Name(s) Key Components Starch-based blends Polyesters. EDPs Manufacturing and Application Companies 3.1 List of EDPsPproducers in the World Polymer Developer EUROPE Avebe BASF Bayer Biopac* Biotec Boehringer.PEA Biopack PLA/PLGA Gelatin Amylose* DCPTM PHB copolymers Fluntera Plast Mater-BiTM Novan Potato starch** Tech-No-BagTM Cellulose acetate SOP PE/Starch PE/Starch Envar EcoPLa® HeplonTM Biomax® Easter BioTM 14766 BiopolTM Synthetic/Products* Extrusionable Starch Materials Extrusionable Starch Materials Starch/Polycaprolactone (PCL) Poly(lactic acid) Poly(lactic acid) Polyesters Polyesters Copolyester Polyesters/Cellulose Derivatives Poly(hydroxy alkanoate) (PHA) Starch-based derivatives Starch Foamable Starch Materials Starch-based Derivatives Poly(ethyleneglycol)* Polypeptide (Proteins) . Monsanto (stopped activity) National Starch National Starch & Chemical American Excelsior Novon International Planet Polymer Technologies Rohm & Haas St.Appendix 3. BPI.

Surgical 9 . BIOLAND U.Union Carbide USDA . (sold by) Bioscience ltd.Agritech Warner & Lambert Willow Ridge ASIAN PACIFIC BASIN Aicello Ajinomoto Chisso/Novon International Dai Nippon Daicel Chemical Hayashibara Group Japan Corn Starch Kuraray Misui-Johatsu Mitsubishi Nippon Shokubai Nippon Unica Nissei Shimadzu Showa High Polymer * Materials soluble in water media TONE®P-787 EAA/starch Fluntera Plast Polystarch® Poly (caprolactone) (PCL) Extrusionable Starch Materials Extrusionable Starch Materials Polyethylene + starch Dolon CC Novon GCelGreen P-H (Placcel) PUL EverCorn Poval CP Lacea Polyaspartic Acid** Lunare SE Tone Eco-ware Lacty Bionolle® Chitosan/Cellulose/Starch Bacterial Cellulose Starch / PVA or PCL Blends Poly(aspartic acid)* Cellulose Derivatives/PCL Blends Pullulan* Starch-based derivatives Polyvinyl Alcohol* Poly (lactic acid) Poly (aspartic acid)* Poly (ethylene succinate) Polycaprolacone (PCL) Starch-based Poly (lactic acid) Aliphatic Polyesters 3.S.S.Surgical Davis & Geck Smith & Nephew polymer type PLA PDS homopolymer PG and PL PGL PGL PL PDS/PGA/TMC PG TMC/PG polyanhydride containing BCNU (carmustin) PDS homopolymer TMC/PG PG/PCL polydioxanone 98%L-PL/2%D-PL PL PGL LAPRA-TY™ MAXON® MONOCRYL® Orthosorb® PDS® PHUSILINE PL-FIX POLYSORB™ suture clip suture suture pins suture interference screw pins suture Davis & Geck Ethicon PHUSIS Zimmer Japan (sold by) U.2 Database on Trade-marks Manufacturers and Application trademark ABSOLOK™ Bio-Interference Screw BIOFIX® Biologically Quiet™ Biologically Quiet™ BioScrew® Biostop® BIOSYN™ DEXON® ENDOFIX® Gliadel© application ligating clip interference screw pins interference screw staple interference screw cement restrictor suture suture interference screw brain tumor implant Manufacturer Cargill Inc. Arthrex. Inc. Instrument Makar Instrument Makar Linvatec Corp.

USA Telephone 205-620-0025 FAX 205-620-9888 General Information: jpenglish@absorbables.de/index. development and manufacturing Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). USA Phone: (205) 917-2231 Fax: (205) 917-2245 http://www. Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma KG Fine Chemicals Binger Straße 173. applications-development. and manufacturing of biodegradable-polymer formulations for controlledrelease pharmaceuticals. Copolymers of lactic and glycolic acid are raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry. glycolide and ε-caprolactone polymers etc. (BPI) is a company that manufactures and sells biodegradable polymers for medical application. The company provides: biodegradable-polymer-synthesis (Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). The company provides: Synthesis of lactide. products (standard and custom-synthesized materials. All polymers are produced under current Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). and medical devices for enhanced therapies. PURAC biochem 10 .com Birmingham Polymers Inc. Homopolymers of lactic acid (polylactides) are mainly used to produce resorbable implants in the field of medical devices. AL 35124.3 Polymer Producers Absorbable Polymer Technologies. Inc. Germany Phone: ++49 6132 77 2192 Fax: ++49 6132 77 3755 http://www.boehringer-ingelheim.It focuses on the human pharmaceutical as well as on the animal health business. Inc. AL 35211-4467. 2683 Pelham Parkway Pelham. 756 Tom Martin Drive Birmingham.bpi-sbs. analytical laboratories.Septicin™ SURETAC® Surgicel© SYSORB® VICRYL® * To be updated antibacterial bone implant suture anchor hemostat interference screw suture polyanhydride Acufex Microsurgical.absorbables. which serve mainly to encapsulate active ingredients for controlled release. and the company maintains both Drug and Device Master Files with the FDA. (APT) is a research and development-based company specializing in the design. RESOMER® is the generic term used to describe the polymers that are produced on the basis of lactic and glycolic acid.com The Boehringer Ingelheim group of companies is one of the world's leading pharmaceutical corporations. Research. TMC/PG oxidized cellulose SYNOS DL-PL Ethicon PGL 3. like polylactides etc. D-55216 Ingelheim. clean-room manufacturing facilities).html e-mail: finechem@ing.resomer. bpi@srt.com.com Absorbable Polymer Technologies.) Birmingham Polymers Inc. Inc. Sample Kits are also available.com/ E-mail: info@birminghampolymers. development.com http://www.

Spain and the Netherlands .purac. and Canada: 1-877-4CD-POLY (1-877-423-7659) In Europe.is represented in more than 100 countries. call the Dow Information Centre in The Netherlands at : ++31-20-6916268 In Japan.a renowned Dutch multinational specializing in the production and marketing of food ingredients and foodstuffs . Cargill Dow Polymers LLC 15305 Minnetonka Boulevard Minnetonka. The main CAPA® R&D facilities are located in the UK but with significant support provided by Central R&D laboratories of Solvay in Brussels.com/home. UK Telephone:+44 (0) 1925 651277 Fax: +44 (0) 1925 232207 Internet: http://www. For customers in highly sophisticated medical and pharmaceutical areas worldwide. PURAC. with factories in Brazil. comprising monomer and polymers of varying molecular weight. like wound closure products. the Biomaterials Business Unit offers lactide and glycolide monomers and biodegradable polymers and copolymers.com PURAC is the world's largest manufacturer of natural L (+)-lactic acid and lactates.O. The Netherlands Phone +31 183 695 695 Fax +31 183 695 600 http://www. 4200 AA Gorinchem.asp 11 .S.cdpoly.solvay.com/ E-mail pnl@purac.Arkelsedijk 46. orthopaedic implants and controlled drug delivery systems. a subsidiary of CSM . Warrington. SBU Caprolactones Solvay Interox Ltd Baronet Road.com/capa Solvay Caprolactones provides caprolactone monomer and polymers.plus a worldwide sales network. PURAC works according to the GMP method and is ISO certified. CAPA® is the Solvay trademark for its range of caprolactones. Minnesota 55345 For more information in the U. P. call: 81-33-285-0824 http://www. CheshireWA4 6HB. Box 21. PURASORB lactide and/ or glycolide polymers and copolymers have been developed to provide materials for a variety of medical devices and pharmaceutical applications.

APS develops a specialized delivery system. 64 Sidney Street. (US) Amerplasr (Finland) American Brazilian Company (USA) Ampercet (USA) Green Plastigone (in polypropylene Ecoten (manufacture baler twine) discontinued in 1975) Cleanfields Iron salts Probably Ferric stearate Copolymers of ethylene. a human dermal replacement designed as a treatment for skin ulcers and its strategy is to efficiently and costeffectively expand the number of potential products that can be derived from the core proprietary technology. CA 94063. and Dermagraft®. USA Phone: 8587137300 Fax: 8587137400 Advanced Tissue Sciences is developing products for tissue engineering technology. a temporary wound covering for the treatment of burns.4 Commercially Available Degradable Polyolefins Common description Composition Ferric tiolates Photosensitising/Photo(sometimes with activating additives other metal Antioxidant-Photo-activator tiolates in (Scott-Gilead process) polyethylene) Trade name Plastor Manufacture Plastopil (Israel) Polydress (Germany) EniChem Agricultural (Italy) Plastigone Technologies Inc.5 EDPs Application Companies Advanced Polymer Systems 123 Saginaw Drive. Redwood City. Advanced Tissue Sciences 10933 North Torrey Pines Road. La Jolla. Cambridge. USA The company provides polymer based delivery systems for use primarily in ethical pharmaceutical products. Alkermes. The pharmaceutical partner provides the drug. Advanced Tissue Sciences has commercialized two products based on its proprietary tissue engineering technology TransCyte™. Inc. funds product and clinical development and markets the end product. propylene and styrene with a vinyl ketone Poly Grade Photodegradable compolymer Vinyl ketone copolymers (Guillet process) Ethylene-carbon monoxide polymers Ecolyte EcoPlastics E/CO DuPont (USA) Union Carbide (USA) Dow (USA) Coloroll (UK) St. California 920371005.3. Lawrence Starch (Canada) Biodegradable polyolefins Starch filled polyethylene (Griffin process) Physical blend of Bioplast LDPE and starch Ecoplast 3. USA Telephone: 617 4940171 12 . and to fund development of those products through strategic alliances and research grants. Massachusetts 02139.

sutureless design for the arthroscopic and open fixation of Bankart lesions of the shoulder. FL 34104. RingCapTM and Dose Sipping oral delivery technologies. dissolved in biocompatible carriers. Fort Collins. The TissueTak provides a new. bioabsorbable. flexion and torque while the tear is healing. the Company manufactures and supplies Medisorb® Polymers a wide range of standard and custom developed pharmaceutical grade. The polymerbased BEMA™) Film system is designed to deliver systemic levels of drugs rapidly across oral or vaginal mucosal tissues. 1777 Sentry Parkway West. The Bionx Implants Inc. acute anterior shoulder instability due to tears in the labrumligament 13 . Hermiankatu 68L. 18002592580 fax 12156536128 BIONX Implants. urology. USA Telephone: 513 4890294 . for use in a variety of applications which include orthopedic surgery.com Atrix Laboratories. arrows and stents. The BioCorkscrew Suture Anchor with a braided suture eyelet molded into the body of the implant is another concept for bioabsorbable soft tissue repair. longitudinal “BucketHandle” tears of the meniscus in the vascular zone (redred and redwhite) through arthroscopic or open methods. including screws. ARTHREX 2885 South Horseshoe Drive. Ltd. properties that are advantageous throughout the healing and remodeling process. The Bionx Implants Inc. 6960 Cornell Road. sutureless solution for arthroscopic SLAP and Bankart repairs. 2579 Midpoint Drive. pins. Inc. SRPLLA implants have a highly fibrous and tough structure that is not brittle or weak under load. The BioFASTak is a 3 mm diameter suture anchor designed for cortical bone and incorporates a suture eyelet which virtually eliminates suture drag to significantly improve the performance of sliding knots. Bankart Tack is a simple. Blue Bell. FIN33720 Tampere. Atrix Laboratories. AIRTM pulmonary delivery systems and. CO 80525. PO Box 3.3. resorbable polymer implants. Cereport® bloodbrain barrier permeabilizer. Inc. In addition. Inc. contact our Polymer Customer Service Department at: Alkermes. The BEMA system consists of bioerodible bilayer or multilayer thin films that can be developed to deliver at different time intervals. similar to those used in other systemically administered products. Naples. dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. USA Telephone: (970) 4825868 Email: atrixlab@frii. Gwynedd Hall. Fax: 513 4897244 Alkermes diversified technology currently consists of four proprietary delivery systems: ProLease® and Medisorb® injectable sustained release systems. The arrows are made out of a proprietary SelfReinforced™ PLLA. BIONX Implants. The Headed BioAbsorbable Corkscrew is a sutureless solution to rotator cuff repairs. Meniscus Arrow™ is indicated for the repair of vertical. bioabsorbable PLG polymers. which imparts to the material an ultrahigh strength microstructure and a unique ability to resist shear.3165 629 Bionx Implants is a manufacturer and marketer of selfreinforced (SR). The ATRIGEL drug delivery system consists of biodegradable polymers. USA Phone 8009344404 Fax 8006439310 Quality engineered products and educational services for orthopaedic surgeons. Finland fax +358. Cincinnati.Fax: 617 4949263 For polymer information. Inc. Ohio 45242 . Suite 400. PA 19422 USA tel. is a drug delivery and drug development company.

SelfReinforced absorbable fixation pins are indicated for a variety of orthopaedic applications. ETHICON..complex or capsular shift procedures. The material. a Johnson & Johnson company. The company also markets a full line of surgical mesh products. New Jersey ETHICON. through its Mitek Products division. 10-0 VICRYL (polyglactin 910) suture. Ethicon. Inc. is a world's marketer of surgical sutures.com Phone: (800) 2370169 Fax: (727) 3995256 International Fax (727) 397-4540 Linvatec Corporation is a arthroscopy/power surgical instrument equipment manufacturer in the United States. ferred to as "Gamekeeper's Thumb" or "Skier's" tear. MI 48864.S. flexion and torque while the fracture. 2950 East Mount Hope • Okemos. Box 988. IN 465810988. Largo. which imparts to the material an ultrahigh strength microstructure and a unique ability to resist shear.com Instrument Makar develops. osteotomy or fusion site is healing. INC. For ACL reconstruction. Linvatec Corporation 11311 Concept Boulevard. a copolymer of glycolic and lactic acid. Laboratory studies performed show that the Interference Screw had an even greater resistance to pull-out than metal screws of the same geometry*. The Bio-Absorbable Interference Screws both the original screws and the femoral screws are available in 7. The Bionx Implants. The Biologically Quiet Staple is a copolymer of glycolic and lactic acid. 8 and 9mm dia. suture anchors. Warsaw. The Bionx Implants. The Bionx Implants SmartTack is indicated for the repair of ruptures involving the Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the Thumb of the first metacarpophalangeal joint. is the only U. The SmartScrew is made of SelfReinforced PLLA polymer. Inc.O. and. Inc. company that offers an adhesive alternative to sutures for topical skin closure. 700 Orthopaedic Drive. Instrument Makar's Biologically Quiet™ Screw is a suture material. INC. has shown no adverse effects or bone cyst formation. The Biologically Quiet™ Staple is an alternative to metal implants for ACL reconstruction utilizing the semitendinosus tendon. The Biostop® G Bone Cement Restrictor is a bioresorbable plug designed to seal the medullary canal before introducing bone cement during surgery with a cemented prosthesis. 14 . USA Phone +1 5173323593 Fax +1 5173322043 Toll free orders in the United States and Canada 8002484668 Email iminfo@instmak. SelfReinforced absorbable fixation screws are indicated for a variety of orthopaedic applications. hemostats. Inc. An absorbable suture that offers wound integrity for the first 28 days and is completely absorbed after 70 days Instrument Makar. Instrument Makar's Biologically Quiet Interference Screw provides security for the bonetendon-bone graft throughout the time necessary for the healing process to be complete. manufactures and markets safe and effective innovative orthopedic instrumentation. by 20mm and 25mm sizes. Florida 33773-4908. Sommerville. USA Tel: +1 (800) 3668143 Fax: +1 (219) 2677196 DePuy is a manufacturer of orthopaedic implants in the United States. DePuy Orthopaedics P. USA Linvatec Customer Service Email: cust_serv@linvatec. The Biologically Quiet Screw is solid.

one-handed placement Low profile implant head and built-in countersink minimize condylar contact Four rows of barbs for increased pull-out strength Curved and straight instruments allow access to all meniscal zones MacroMed. Mansfield. USA Telephone 19787491000 Fax 9787491108 Main Office 18003438386 U.com Founded in 1995. Samyang aims to be an R&D-oriented company through its cooperation with TheraTech. Customer Service Fax 18005546105 Acufex Microsurgical Smith & Nephew 130 Forbes Blvd. Seoul 110725. braided. Unlike traditional PLGA microspheres.S. MacroMed is a privately held company developing novel drug delivery systems utilizing proprietary polymer technologies. synthetic and absorbable suture prepared by utilizing Polyglycolic Acid. MacroMed’s patented processing uses aqueous cosolvents providing a drug-friendly loading environment. ChongnoGu. no methylene chloride is used in the processing. MacroMed’s process also creates a homogenous drug/polymer matrix. Samyang 263 YeonjiDong. Endoscopy Division Andover. Samyang's Surgisorb is a coated. Inc. Biomesh GTR barrier GTR barriers are needed in severe cases of periodontal diseases where patients are at a risk of permanent loss of tooth due to the removal of the abscess or the infected connective tissues and alveolar bone during reconstructive surgery. Smith & Nephew.Bio-Stinger™ meniscal repair Bio-absorbable PLLA implant Cannulated implant for precise. Inc. MA 02048 Tel 18003394332. fax 15083394332 15 . 9520 South State Street. Sandy. Korea Tel : 8227407299 Fax : 8227436626 Samyang is one of the Drug Delivery System (DDS) manufacturers in the world. USA Phone: (801) 565-8561 Fax: (801) 565-8562 R&D Fax: (801) 565-8563 email: macromed@macromed. Utah 84070. this enables a constant release profile with little or no initial burst. Oligosphere® Injectable Microspheres Oligosphere® is a proprietary.S. Customer Service 18003435717 U. MacroMed and VivoRx of the United States in capital participation and joint research. Oligosphere® is injected parenterally and is designed for drug release profiles of greater than one month. polymeric microsphere technology based on FDA-approved PLGA polymers. Massachusetts 01810.

a bioabsorbable copolymer. Zurcherstrasse 12. dental implants) and Cardiovascular Prostheses (heart valves and vascular grafts). including soft bone. development and manufacturing of controlled release drug delivery products for clients to commercialize human and veterinary pharmaceuticals. The tapered shaft and leading edge design ease passage through tissue to bone. Southern BioSystems. Duluth. Inc. from early concept stages through clinical trials. EndoFix® Bioabsorbable Interference Screws Polyglyconate Bioabsorbable Interference Screws 1. Box 769. 325 South Lake Ave. USA Southern BioSystems. AL 352114467. Inc. The two Sulzer Medica divisions are Orthopedics (artificial joints. so there’s no worry about metal in the joint. Tel: (978) 3920551 FAX (978) 6920743 info@tescoassociates. TESco aids clients in areas such as product development support. SABER™ is a biodegradable gel that can be formulated for oral. Anatomically Targeted Screws for ACL and PCL Reconstruction Only one line of bioabsorbable screws gives you techniquespecific screws optimized for all approaches of both ACL and PCL reconstruction: Screws are designed to hold the graft in place for secure anatomic aperture reconstruction. (SBS). Incorporated 4 Lyberty Way.Smith & Nephew is a global medical device company. Minnesota 55802. Winterthur (Switzerland) and with significant presence in the United States. Suite 608. Westford. arthroscopy.O. Designed exclusively for the humeral head bone. or MRI compatibility. Inc. Bioabsorbable TAG® Suture Anchors Bioabsorbable suture anchor made of polyglyconate. 756 Tom Martin Drive Birmingham. THM Biomedical. Its twin freesliding sutures increase the overall strength of the repair by doubling the number of sutures in the tendon. spinal implants.A.3628 16 . primarily for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. allowing patients to resume their active lifestyles.com TESco provides consulting services. develops. RotorloC's propellerlike. research.5mm cannulation. especially absorbable polymeric implants. trauma surgery. dermal or other routes of administration Sulzer Medica Ltd. Suretac® Bioabsorbable Fixation Suretac® attaches soft tissue with ease. Switzerland Sulzer Medica Ltd. MA 01886 U.720. P. mold design and fabrication. *RotorloC™ Absorbable Rotator Cuff Suture Anchor RotorloC from Smith & Nephew. and solution of critical manufacturing difficulties. focusing on medical devices. manufactures and markets medical implants and surgical products. the RotorloC Absorbable Rotator Cuff Suture Anchor delivers superior deployment and retention in all humeral head bone densities. material selection and development. selfinserting action creates a platform and locks the anchor into place for superior retention and stronger fixation.S. Sysorb® is a bioresorbable interference screw that fixes the “new” cruciate ligament in the knee. parenteral. Suretac is made of polyglyconate. while the cannulation ensures precise placement over the guidewire. USA Telephone: 218. TESco Associates. This fixation is as stable as with a metal screw. CH8401 Winterthur.

Carmustine is a nitrosourea oncolytic agent. polifeprosan 20. Epi-Guide® Bioresorbable OPLA® Periodontal Barrier Epi-Guide is indicated for use as an adjunct to periodontal restorative surgeries in the treatment of periodontal defects following established surgical procedures. patented.com Located in Duluth. Research is being conducted by THM in the fields of bone and cartilage repair and regeneration. chemotherapeutic drugdelivery and dentistry.45 cm in diameter and 1 mm thick. Carmustine is homogeneously distributed in the copolymer matrix.Email: contact@thmbiomedical. known as OPLA® (Opencell PolyLactic Acid) can be utilized for a broad range of biomaterials and sustained drug delivery applications. consists of poly[bis(pcarboxyphenoxy) propane: sebacic acid] in a 20:80 molar ratio and is used to control the local delivery of carmustine. Epi-Guide (D. D-L. L-polylactic acid) is a hydrophilic. The core technology. off-white to pale yellow wafer approximately 1. The copolymer. D-L. DRILAC® Bioresorbable OPLA® surgical dressing Drilac is indicated for the prevention of alveolar osteitis following mandibular third molar extractions. Each wafer contains 192. GLIADEL® Wafer (polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implant) is a sterile.3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. threee dimensional matrix dressing material resembling cancellous bone. L-polylactic acid) functions to support the initial blood clot and maintain competence of collateral circulation.3 mg of a biodegradable polyanhydride copolymer and 7. or BCNU].7 mg of carmustine [1. 17 . Minnesota. THM was organized in 1990 to commercialize health care applications of its unique. bioresorbable polymer technology. Drilac (D.

PURAC (http://www. Alkermes (http://www. Lukens Valtrac.com) Purasorb PL. (http://www. PURAC (http://www. poly(alphaacid.htm) Lacty.ch): Pins and rods Biofix. (lactic acid-plastics from corn).com): suture anchor Endofix (Acufex): interference screws Lactasorb (Davis and Geck). PURAC (http://www. Atrix (http://www.com): interference screws Bio-Statak (Zimmer.htm) PLA.3.6 EDPs Manufacturing Companies abbrev.de) 18 .neste. poly(alpha-hydroxy acid) Purasorb PD.com) PLA.com) Phusiline. Mitsui Chemical Inc. http://www.com) Resomer.bionximplants.de) PLLA poly(L-lactide) polyester. Boehringer Ingelheim (http://www. Davis and Geck: anastomosis ring Resomer LR (http://www.com) Lacea. Boehringer Ingelheim (http://www. Geistlich (http://www. microbial polyester PDLA poly(D-lactide) Arthrex (Arthrex): interference screws Biofix (Bionx.purac.resormer. Boehringer Ingelheim (http://www.bionximplants. THM Biomedical: dental Heplon.com): guided tissue Medisorb.com) Resomer L. http://www.atrixlabs.zimmer.com/products/bio/bio. Resor-Pin. PURAC (http://www. Anastomosis clip SmartScrew (Bionx.com). Schimadzu Corporation (http://www. poly(alphahydroxy acid) polyglycolide.com) Resomer R.com) Purasorb.de) PLLA/PD poly(L-lactide-co-D.de) PDLLA poly(DL-lactide) polyester.co. Bionex (http://www.purac. Hygail PLA.zimmer.resormer.resormer.purac. poly(alphahydroxy acid) Atrisorb. Neste (http://www. http://www. Birmingham Polymers (http://www. Cargill Dow Polymers .mitsuichem. poly(alphahydroxy acid).LLLA lactide) PGA copolyester.jp/english/info/senyaku.purac.alkermes. poly(alpha-hydroxy acid) trade name/manufacturer NatureWork. Birmingham Polymers (http://www.bpi-sbs. polymer PLA polylactide.cdpoly.resormer.bpi-sbs. screw polyester.geistlich.bionximplants. Procordia: guided tissue PDLLA. Ercadex. Birmingham Polymers (http://www.com) Purasorb PDL.com): Pins and rods Dexon II. Davis and Geck: sutures PGA Suture. polyglycolate hydroxy acid) Biologically Quiet. Phusis: interference screws (98%PLLA2%PDLA) .com). http://www. Chronopol Guidor. polylactate polymer type brand name/company/application polyester. poly(lactic acid).bpi-sbs. Pins and rods Bioscrew (Linvatec. Instrument Makar PGA. polyglycolic polyester.com) Drilac.the largest producer of PLA resins (http://www.shimadzu.

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alza. poly(malate) poly(alkylene D-tartrate) poly(1. Davis and Geck: sutures packaging film.eastman. PDO: ligating clip PDS. US Surgical:sutures BASF (http://www. DuPont (http://www.com/ProductFiles/Prod1519.com) Eastman (http://www.polyaspartate. pharmaceutical biomedical drug delivery Endofix.com) Bayer (http://www.com) PMLA poly(β-malic acid). coating packaging medical Biosyn. (http://www.4-butylene adipate-copolycaprolactone) PDS poly(p-dioxanone) copolyester.com). Alza (http://www.basf. modified PDO/P+ poly(p-dioxanone-coA37GA glycolide) PDO/PG poly(dioxanone-coA/A39TM glycolide-coC trimethylenecarbonate) poly(iminocarbonates) based on tyrosinederivatives polyaspartate Poly(Lys) polylysine poly(glutamic acid) PHEA PLCA Nylon2nylon6 poly[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)D.ethiconinc. thermoplastic disposable film. poly(iminocarbonates) poly(amino acid) poly(amino acid) poly(amino acid) poly(amino acid) polyamide copolyamid poly(ester amide) drug delivery system dispersants. Acufex: interference screws Suretac. Acufex: suture anchor. Maxon.guilfordpharm.eastman.dupont. containers polyether ester LAPRA-TY.htm) Biomax.com) poly[bis(ppolyanhydride carboxyphenoxy)propane -co-sebacic acid] 20 .com): medical. Gliadel: brain tumor implant Donlar.L-aspartamide] poly(lysine citramide) poly(glycine-coaminocaproic acid) BAK 1095. Inc.com) Alzamer. Donlar Corporation (http://www. absorbants and medicals drug delivery system drug delivery system drug delivery system drug delivery system packaging packaging Biodel.3-trimethylene carbonate-co-glycolide) polyester polyester copolyester PGCA Ecoflex Eastar Bio PET polyethlene terephthalate.com) Guilford Pharmaceuticals. Eastman (http://www. Eastar Bio.PBA-PCL poly(1. PDO: suture clip ABSOLOK™. Ethicon (http://www. BAK 2195 P(CPPSA) copolyester copolyester polyester Polyether ester Polyether ester pseudopoly(amino acids).bayer.

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fr) Cargill (http://www. chemical and pharmaceutical Nadeg by Schulman-Amylum industry Eridania-Beghin-Say Cerestar (http://www.eridania-beghinsay. Society St Lawrence Starch Company .dk) Roquette (http://www. emulsifiers. starch/LDPE/Ecostar. PE/starch mulch film. ex. Lignotech USA (http://www. Bioflex: starch/polycaprolactam.novo. Biopur: starch/CA blends. polysaccharides.0. lignin sulfonate polysaccharide lignin: adhesives.novament.ltus. Stoll Papierfolien Eco-Foam. starch/PCL blends. vinylpyrrolidone. National Starch (http://www. starch acetate. PE/starch blends. Fluntera AG. Novamont (http://www. Michigan Starch(< 50%)-co-hydrophobic polymers. Midwest Grain Sconacell. Buna Sow Leuna ST1. Biologische verpackungssysteme GmbH.avebe. 60% starch/40% polyamide. ST2. Austria BioPlast. Society Polychem Ecostar.com) packaging plastic BioPac. Warner-Lambert Polytriticum 2000.de/biotec) Bio-stoll. EMS SB 220. Bio Plastics. Swiss Envar. preparation of polyurethane Borregard.gp.com) Ecopolym.kunststoffweb.cargill.nationalstarch. starch (>60%)/PVA alloy.com) Georgia Pacific (http://www. dispersing agents.com). Novon International (http://www.Lignin. Avebe (http://www.com/i_c/index.com) Poly-Novon.novoninc. EMS Chemie AG. lignosulfonate or lignin Kraft: paper pate. Swiss Mater-Bi. Starch (90-95%) + additive.htm) Paragon.net/northway) Starch polysaccharide paper industry.com) Novo-Nordisk (http://www. starch blends with copolymers of PVOH.com) Northway Lignin (http://duenorth. ST3. Biotec (http://www.roquette. starch/PCL. Chisso Corporation USA Ecostar. Starch Tec Starch blends 24 . hydrophobic polymers.

LAPRA-TY™ Biologically Quiet™ interference screw PGL/PLA http://www.gliadel.aventisph arma-us. Naughton. road G.com/ http://www. Ethicon.co m/ 25 .L. Inc.O.Biostop® 0988.K.bionximpla CA nts. Mansbridge.8 Companies in EDPs Medical Applications Company Advanced Polymer Systems Research Institute Advanced Tissue Sciences. WO 9911296 A2 11 Mar. Inc. http://www. Bioerodible Mucoadhesive Gliadel® drug delivery poly(a-hydroxy acids)/ release www. Davis & Geck Division of Johnson & Johnson. Inc. poly-pdioxanone http://www.cfm PCL/ PLA.. DePuy Orthopaedics Division of Johnson Jamiolkowski. http://www. 1999/ Bioresorbable PLLA/PGA Products TMC/PG http://www. Address 123 Saginaw Drive City Redwood City La Jolla State Trademark CA 94063. suture Bio. P. USA bioresorbable plug PCT Int. USA MONOCRYL®.instmak. & Johnson. MAXON® suture t. com/ http://www. Torrey Pines J. book 11 com/ Somerville New Jersey. ABSOLOK™. Associate Heller J. W. clip PANACRYL®. Headed interference screw. ligating clip. BioFASTak®..arthrex. USA ProLease® Medisorb® INJECTABLE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS poly-(DL-lactide-coglycolide) PLDLA copolymer http://www. suture. suture VICRYL®.com/ http://www.P.depuy. USA IN 46581. 2579 Midpoint Drive Fort Collins Colorado 80525. 10933 N. Dermagraft® USA Application orthopedics Polymer poly(ortho)esters homepage ref.co m/index.net. Connecticu DEXON®.D. BioCorkscrew™ ATRIGEL®. PDS®. USA TissueTak™.com/ 130:21 3683 Smartscrew™.atrixlabs. (endosurgery) 700 Orthopaedic Drive Danbury Warsaw.alkermes. Inc.com/ book 11/ JBMR 42 Aventis Pharmaceuticals Products Inc Bionix Implants Oy Tormala. 2950 East Mount Hope Okemos MI 48864. Smarttack™ American Cyanamid Corp. D.advancedt book 12 issue. Smartpin™.Absorbable anchor Corkscrew™. USA CA 92037.Box 3 FIN 33721 Finland Tampere poly(CPP-SA) www. Bonfield. Bartel.ethiconinc.. USA Instrument Makar.htm Atrix Laboratories Dunn.advanced book 05 polymer.co m/flash. 64 Sidney Street 2885 South Horseshoe Drive tissue engineering/ skin Arthrex.com/ Alkermes. R. Appl. BEMA™ Parenteral Drug Delivery System. USA Naples FL 34104.3. Cambridge Massachus etts 02139.. Inc. R.

USA France Korea Oligosphere® http://www. Drilac® therapeutic implants. Inc SYNOS.samyang. suture anchor. Sulzer Medica Ltd. BioMesh GTR barrier interference screw suture. Perrin.com/ http://www. drugloaded implants interference screw mold design and fabrication Zurcherstrasse CH8401 Switzerland SYSORB® 12 Winterthur 4 Lyberty Way Westford Duluth MA 01886 . USA Bio-Stinger™. Incorporated THM Biomedical. 9520 South State Street Sandy PHUSIS SA Samyang Pharmaceuticals R&D. glycolide and caprolactone polymers DL-PLA http://www.S.thmbiomedi book 04 cal.Linvatec Corp. J. 263 Yonjidong. USA interference screw.Saber™ 4467.ht ml TMC/PG lactide. Soft Tissue Fixation Device drug delivery http://www. D. fixation delivery systems.com BIOSYN™. M.ch PHUSILINE Surgisorb.linvatec. SURETAC® 756 Tom Martin Drive Birmingha m AL 35211. USA Minnesota 55802.sn-e.co m/ Macromed.H.macromed .com/ http://www.sulzer. POLYSORB™ PDS/PGA/TMC 26 . Smith & Nephew Southern BioSystems. BioScrew®. Samyang Genex Co.Surgical Brekke. Zentner. com/english/index. reconstructive surgery ENDOFIX®. BioTwist™ Meniscal Fixation Device. surgical dressing suture PLA http://www. U. Inc.com/ 98%L-PL/2%D-PL http://www. Gaylen. TESco Associates. Chongno-gu Seoul Utah 84070. USA Epiguide®. endoscopy. Inc.southernbi osystems.E 11311 Concept Largo Boulevard Florida 33773. PLLA Bio-Absorbable Interference Screws and Delivery System. microencapsulation.

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and Karlsson S. DC.H. 285-297. 599 (1995).: Aspects of Biodeterioration of Inert and Degradable Polymers.and Russo S. IL.: The Influence of Blend Composition and Morphology on the Degradation Rates and Products.. Symp. J. and Karlsson S. 206th National Meeting of American Society. 97-103 (1994). Chem.: Increased Biodegradation of LDPE-Matrix in Starch-Filled LDPEMaterials. Pure and Appl. p. 1097-1105 (1994)... Macromol. 45. Aug 22. 7-17. Albertsson A-C...B.: Techniques and Mechanisms of Polymer Degradation. Part 1. November 1993. 797-801 (1995). Griffin G. and Albertsson A-C. Albertsson A-C. p. Japan.. Sci. Albertsson A-C. Degrad. Karlsson S. Sci. J. Macromol. 98. 1994... London. Appl. 45.. Workshop on Environmentally Compatible Materials and Recycling Technology. Biodet. Griffin G. 757-765 (1993). J.G. Stab. J.: Increased Biodegradation of LDPE with Nonionic Surfactant. 1992. Preprint. Albertsson A-C. 36. Karlsson S. and Lindberg T.. Int.: Degradable Polymers. Aggarwal S. Barenstedt C. 243-246(1993). 29-42. and Karlsson S..Albertsson A-C. 36 . 241-245 (1993).L. 3075-3083 (1995). Macromol. Int. and Karlsson S.and Karlsson S. 51-53 (1996). and Karlsson S.: Biodegradation of Polymers. and Albertsson A-C. and Karlsson S. Albertsson A-C. Polym. Albertsson A-C. Barenstedt C. Degrad. Barenstedt C. Albertsson A-C. New York. Polym. Acta Polym..: Degradation of Enhanced Environmentally Degradable Polyethylene in Biological Aqueous Media. Albertsson A-C. Maadhah A.: The Product Pattern and Morphology Changes as means to differentiate abiotically and biotically aged degradable polyethylene.. Pure Appl.. J. 1995. Albertsson A-C. Pergamon Press. and Karlsson S.J. Albertsson A-C. and Karlsson S. A32. Oxford. Polym. Chromatogr. London. Eds. Degrad. in "Comprehensive Polymer Science". A30. 207-217 (1995). Eds. and Karlsson S. Chapman and Hall.J. Barenstedt C.L. Scott G. p... Allen G. Acta Polym. Environ. Degrad.L. Sci... Barenstedt C. 345-349. in Degradable Polymers: Principles and Applications. Polym. 1992.. and Watanabe Y. and Amin M...: Spectroscopic and Mechanical Changes in Irradiated Starch filled LDPE. Marcel Dekker..and Karlsson S.. and Gilead D. Chicago. Karlsson S. 1.. 31. Polym.: Solid Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Identification of Degradation Products from Enhanced Environmentally Degradable Polyethylene. 173-178 (1994).. 4 . Chem. 1993. J. Stab. Mechanisms During the First Stages. p. Albertsson A-C.. Karlsson S.: New Tools for Analysing Degradation.: Degradable Polymers for the Future. First Supplement.. Sares C.. Acta Polym.: Degradation Products in Degradable Polymers. 46. Polymer.. 345-263. Eds. Albertsson A-C.: Abiotic Degradation Products from Enhanced Environmentally Degradable Polyethylene. Cell 71.. 41.: Chemistry and Biochemistry of Polymer Biodegradation. Biodegrad. in "Handbook of Polymer Degradation".: Biodegradable Polymers.: Biodegradable polymer blend of polyethylene and starch. and Karlsson S. Chapman and Hall. Environ. A 690. Albertsson A-C. 1993. 161-170 (1993). Barenstedt C. American Chemical Society: Washington. Ed. Albertsson A-C. 51. Hamid S. Albertsson A-C... 114-123 (1995). Albertsson A-C. Nishimoto K.. Albertsson A-C. and Karlsson S. in Chemistry and Technology of Biodegradable Polymers. 44.: Environment-Adaptable Polymers.: Chromatographic Finger-Printing as means to Predict Degradation Mechanisms. 1993..

:..Niegisch W.. New York. 1565-705 (1996). Feijen J. 329-342 (1998). E. Polym... Report EPA-R2-72-046. Environ. p. In Degradability. Eng. Maadhah A. Macromolecules... Albertsson A-C.. Polym.. Environmental Protection Agency. Karlsson S. 1-5.: Macromolecular Architecture ... 118. Hakkarainen M.: Environmental Interaction of Polymers-Natural Metabolites as Opposed to the Degradation Products of Syntetic Polymers.. Sweden.: Biodegradable Polymers and Environmental Interaction. Polym. Dynamics in prediction of life-time of environmental adaptable polymers. and Albertsson A-C. B. Macromol. Albertsson A-C. Sci. and Karlsson S. 38.: Molecular Weight Changes and Polymeric Matrix Changes with the formulation of Degradation Products in Biodegraded Polyethylene. and Karlsson S. Polym. A. Potts J. 61.G. Symp. Chem... Sci.. Renewability and Recycling – Key Functions for Future Materials. Washington.. D. 741. A. and Vert M. Wiley.: Trapping of Volatile Low Molecular Weight Photoproducts in Inert and Enhansed Degradation LDPE. Stab. Scott G.. 1998. Albertsson A-C..: The Mode of Action of Corn Starch and a Prooxidant System in LDPE: Influence of Thermooxidation and UV-irradiation on the Molecular Weight Changes. Degrad. Degrad. Ackart W. Polym... 1998.. E. J. Erlandsson B. A33. and Vert M.. Karlsson S. Polym. Macromol. A32 64-651.) Polymers in Ecological Problems. Marcel Dekker. 12511253 (1998). 959-967 (1997).. J. E. Sweden. in Encyclopedia of Environmental Anlysis and Remediation. 417-435.. p. Sci. P.1995. 187195 (1998). Macromol. Renewability and Recycling – Key Functions for Future Materials.. Chiellini E. Stab.. Eds. 144. Albertsson A-C. and Karlsson S. Potts J. Hakkarainen M. Stab. Albertsson A-C. Chiellini E. DC. B. in "Handbook of Polymer Degradation". Albertsson A-C.: Dicarboxylic Acids and Ketoacids Formed in Degradable Polyethylenes by Zip Depolymerization through a Cyclic Transition State. 237-245 (1997). and Albertsson A-C. Meyers R. U. and Karlsson S. Ackart W. Stockholm. and Albertsson A-C.. 30. Albertsson A-C. (Ed. Macromol. 6. 1-5... and Karlsson S. 1999.H... Chem.: Chemical and morphological changes of environmentally degradable polyethylene films exposed to thermo-oxidation. Degradability. 37 . Karlsson S. 63. Feijen J. Clendinning R. Swift G. Eds. Albertsson A-C.: Biodegradable Polymers. Degrad.Hakkarainen M. and Amin M. Makromol. 7721-7728 (1997).. 1972.5th International Scientific Workshop on Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers..and Karlsson S. A... Scott G.S. Pure Appl. Environmental Protection Technology Series. Pure Appl. J... London.B.. J. and Albertsson A-C.: Susceptibility of Starch-Filled and Starch-Based LDPE to Oxygen in Water and Air. Ed.. 1998. 641-651. 251-263 (1996). Chem.. Karlsson S. 61. Biodegradation of Polymers in Historical Perspective Versus Modern Polymer Chemistry. 733-737 (1997). Clendinning R. Eds. 144. Appl.. Chromatogr. Hakkarainen M. Erlandsson B. Symp. Sci. Albertsson A-C. Hamid S.A. 66... 5th International Scientific Workshop on Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers. Office of Research and Monitoring.Nature as Model for Degradable Polymers. Khabbaz F. Macromol. and Karlsson S. Khabbaz F.: Solid-phase extraction and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for identification of complex mixtures of degradation products in starch-based polymers. Degrad. Plenum Press. and Karlsson S.. 1973. J. Stockholm. Symp. Albertsson A-C. Albertsson A-C. 55. Opportunities for environmentally degradable polymers.. in Guillet J. New York. 127-138 (1999).

Environmental oxidation processes in yellow gas pie: implications for electrowelding.. E. Appl. 27. J. E.Potts J. Luc-Gardette J. Fauve A.... 56. Technoligical and physical aspects.. H. Elsevier. Al-Malaika S. L. A32. New York. 1990. Lemaire J... Plast..). A: Chem.. 35-36.. Proceedings of Symposium on degradable plastics.. 68. Scott G. Scott G. p. 1990. 1984. P... M. p. 135. Doi Y. E. Aminabhavi T.. Chem.. p.. 265-274.. Scott G. E. Macromolecules.. 1973. Proceedings of symposium on degradable plastics. The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.. 731-741.. Plenum Press.Pure. A comparative study of degradability and recyclability of different classes of degradable polyethylene. Allen N.. Maadhah A. Fauve A. 628-668. Direction for environmentally biodegradable polymer research. 63. 946-949. Sci. 51. Supplemental Volume.. SPI.. Sci. 1990. p. Appl. 1992. Balundgi R. G. Polym. Stab. Eng. Polym. 1972. Maaroufi A. Photo-biodegradable plastics: their role in protection of the environment. 165-170. Nicholas A.. p. Dorris M. 1-25. 10 June. 29:3. Photobiol.. (Ed. Polymers with controlled lifetimes. B. 1995. 2000. S. Fukuda K. Environmental studies. Guillet J. in Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers. Harlan G. Guillet J.. P. S... Polymers with enhanced photodegradability. Intern..). 383-408.. Gilead D. A review on biodegradable plastics. Al-Malaika S. Amin M. p. Environmentally degradable plastics.. Degrad. 1993.. Degradable ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymer. Arnaud R.. Chem... J. 605. E. Stab. Stab. Macromol. 1990. J. Scott G. Degrad. 26. 52. Polym. Mater. p. (Eds. Sci. Appl. Degrad. 1-7. Lemaire J.. in Guillet J. Hartley G. Plastics in agriculture. Acc. New York. Dabin O. Polym. Macromol. 73-79.. Statz R. Stab. 3rd ed. 1995. initiation and control. Scott G. Guillet J... Washington. 51-55. 1987. Ennis R. Eng. 1991. John Wiley & Sons. J. 31. Polym.. Coker M.... Degrad. Polymers and Ecological Problems. Marogi A. Swift G. Marshal G.. 235-262. 105-110. 38 . Marcel Dekker.. Polym. DS. SPI. 1988. Environmental studies on photodegradable plastic packaging. Chem. Klemchuk P. Res. 29.. in Hamid S. 1990.. J.. 1968. Sci.. Polym.. p. M. pp. Degrad. 1. Technol. 14-17. Stab. Scott G.. Al-Malaika S. 3. 1986. (Eds) Handbook of Polymer Degradation. 685-698.. Washington DC. H. Cassidy P. p. M. Photochem. p. Dabin O. 13:4. 79. Scott G.. Plastics packaging and coastal pollution. 10 June. Palmer S... Controlled degradation of plastics: environmental toxicology. 183-202.. Plastics with controlled biodegradability from concept to realization.. I. A32. Environmental biodegradation of hydrocarbon polymers. Chohan S. Arnaud R.... Photochemistry of Ketone Polymers. Mechanisms of antioxidant action: Time controlled photoantioxidants for polyethylene based on soluble iron compounds. 709-730. Degradable Plastics: a critical review. New York.H. C. Pure. Scott G. 1987. 65-71. Chohan S. 29. in Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Polym.. E. Can polyethylene be a photo(bio)degradable synthetic polymer? J. Proceedibgs NAPA Conference. Photodegradable polyethylene. Gilead D. Scott G.. Studies of ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 1990. 1997. Green polymers.

Degradation studies of novel degradable starch-polyethylene plastics containing oxidized polyethylene and prooxidant.. Johnsson K.6 Major Books for Degradable Polyolefins TITLE: Degradable polymers AUTHORS: Albertsson A. Environ. PUBLICATION YEAR: 1999 ISBN: 3-527-29904-1 TITLE: Degradable polymers: Principles and Applications AUTHORS: Scott G. Kesel De. Chapman & Hall. Polym. Germany. 27-38.. 123. Polym.. Swanson R. Bellare R. Eng... L... L.. Chiellini E. Weiland M. Renewability and Recycling-Key Functions for Future Materials AUTHORS: Albertsson A. 1995. Johnsson K. L. Photo-oxidative degradation of polyethylene greenhouse film in a harsh environmen. Appl. Macromol. Breslin V.. 4. Sci. Gilead D. Kim M. 2:1.Environmental hazard or blessing? Polym. The biodegradation of polymers: recent results. 35-40. Weathering of starch-polyethylene composite films in the marin environment. Chem. Starch-based degradable plastics.. Andrady A. H. 1994... (Eds. 39. (Editors) 39 .. Environmentally degradable starch filled low density polyethylene. 1997. Symp. 1989. 48. Amin M. Environ. Stab. Air & Waste. Boen L. Hamid S. Die Ang. p. Scott G.).. T. in Handbook of polymer degradation. S.. B. 23. PUBLICATION YEAR: 1998 ISBN: 3-85739-327-0 TITLE: Degradability. WILEY-VCH. Degrad. 165-173.. G.. Int. 28. Deterioration of starch-plastic composites in the environment. C. Weathering of polyethylene (LDPE) and enhanced photodegradable polyethylene in the marine environment. 2063-2079. Polym. Pometto III A. Hamid H. Photodegradable high density polyethylene-based shopping bags... Bandopadhyay S. 209-224. Guillet J. 1995.. Microbiol... 253. Degrad. 1992. 325. Photo-degradable polymer films derived from low density polyethylene.. Amin M. October 1999. J.. Fratzke A.. Maddever W... April 1998. A. (Editors) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: Oxford. 59:4.. David C. 365. J. H.. 21-35. 47. 43. Appl. Pometto III A... Marcel Dekker. 201-207. R. 1155-1161. 1992. 363-370. PUBLICATION YEAR: 1995 ISBN: 0-412-59010-7 TITLE: Degradation and Stabilisation of Polyolefins AUTHORS: Sedlacek.... Stab.. 1993. B. Lefebvre F. 1993.. 1993. 1990.... Huthig & Wepf . Degrad. Degradation of degradable starch-polyethylene plastics in a compost environment. B. M. Makromol. J. Appl. Shah P.. Blahoslav. Nikolov Z. Khan J.Breslin V. C. 216. Feijen J. Giesse R. Hood M. De Paoli M. (Editors) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: London. (Editors) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: Weinheim.. New York. 1995. 1994. Sci. T... L. Karlsson S... J Polym. Ferguson G. 14:4. MaddhahbA.... Polym.. Environmental aspects of photodegradable plastics. Polym.

PUBLICATION INFORMATION: New York. 1999. Cop.. S. (Editors) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: New York. Rabek J. 1990. Photo-oxidation and photostabilization of Polymers: Principles and Applications AUTHORS: Rånby B. 1976 PUBLICATION YEAR: 1976 40 . PUBLICATION YEAR: 1975 ISBN: 0-471-70788-0 TITLE: Polymer Photodegradation: Mechanisms and Experimental Method AUTHORS: Rabek J. Elsevier Applied Science. (Editors) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: Cambridge: Cambridge U. Cop. Rabek J.. Wiley. (Editor) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: New York.. Cop.. Cop. (Editor) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: London... PUBLICATION YEAR: 1990 ISBN: 1-85166-505-6 TITLE: Polymers and the Environment AUTHORS: Scott G. 1977. 1983. P. F... (Editor) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: Cambridge. 1996 PUBLICATION YEAR: 1996 ISBN: 3-540-60716-1 TITLE: Long-Term Properties of Polymers and Polymeric Materials AUTHORS: Rånby B. F. Elsevier Applied Science. Scott G. 1995 PUBLICATION YEAR: 1995 ISBN: 0-412-58480-8 TITLE: Photodegradation of Polymers AUTHORS: Rabek J. PUBLICATION YEAR: 1977 ISBN: 99-0130972-7 TITLE: Degradation and Stabilization of Polyolefins AUTHORS: Allan N. Royal Society of Chemistry. (Editoe) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: London. PUBLICATION YEAR: 1983 ISBN: 0-85334-194-x TITLE: Mechanisms of Polymer Degradation and Stabilization AUTHORS: Scott G. 1990.. Springer. Applied Science.. F. Wiley & Sons.. Cop. F.. PUBLICATION YEAR: 1999 ISBN: 0-85404-578-3 TITLE: Polymer Degradation and Stabilization AUTHORS: Grassie N.. (Editors) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: London. F. (Editor) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: London. Chapman & Hall. 1985 PUBLICATION YEAR: 1985 ISBN: 0-521-24961-9 TITLE: Photodegradation of Polymers: Principles and Applications AUTHORS: Rabek J.. 1975... (Editor) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: London. Cop. PUBLICATION YEAR: 1990 ISBN: 1-85166-408-4 TITLE: Photodegradation.

Dekker. C. PUBLICATION YEAR: 1994 ISBN: 0-7514-0003-3 TITLE: Handbook of Polyethylene AUTHORS: Peacock A... (Editor) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: New York. H. Koide.. Koide.7 Recent Books on Medical and Pharmaceutical Applications ID Title book 001 Biodegradable Polymers as Drug Delivery Systems book 002 Controlled Release of Drugs: Polymers and Aggregate systems book 01 Polymer Yearbook 16 book 02 Polymer Yearbook 15 Author/Editor Chasin.M. (Editors) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: Washington. Blackie Academic & Professional. G. Grassie N. S. R. 2000 PUBLICATION YEAR: 2000 ISBN: 0-8247-9546-6 TITLE: Polymer Durability AUTHORS: Clough R.. Marcel Dekker. 2000 PUBLICATION YEAR: 2000 ISBN: 0-8247-0324-3 TITLE: Thermal Degradation of Polymers AUTHORS: Billingham N...A. (Editors) No PUBLICATION INFORMATION.. L. L. (Editors) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: London. M. ISBN 0-8247-8344-1 year 1990 1988 VCH Publishers. Chien J.. Doi Y.. C.. 1999 1998 41 .. W. B.. Zaikov. N. R. H. (Editors) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: New York.. 1992. G.E. Inc... C.. Cop. G.ISBN: 0570-4898 TITLE: Fundamentals of Polymer Degradation and Stabilization AUTHORS: Allen N. N. T.A. (Editor) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: New York. Tsuruta... 1994. American Chemical Society.E.. New 0-89573-321-8 York Harwood Academic Publishers Harwood Academic Publishers 90-5702-473-X Pethrick. Publisher Marcel Dekker. 1992.. Marcel Dekker Inc. Inc... Pethrick. Gillen K. Rosoff... 1996 PUBLICATION YEAR: 1996 ISBN: 0065-2393 4. Year and ISBN TITLE: Chemistry and Technology of Biodegradable Polymers AUTHORS: Griffin G. PUBLICATION YEAR: 1992 ISBN: 0-8247-8671-8 TITLE: Handbook of Polymer Degradation AUTHORS: Hamid S. DC. Zaikov. Maadhah A. T. Elsevier Applied Science. Edge M.. T. (Editor) PUBLICATION INFORMATION: London. Billingham N. PUBLICATION YEAR: 1992 ISBN: 1-85166-773-3 TITLE: Handbook of Polymer Degradation AUTHORS: Hamid S. Amin M. Cop. Langer. Tsuruta. Cop. J.. J. R..

J.. Society. II Degradable Polymers: Principles and applications ACS Symposium Series: Polymers of Biological and Biomedical Significance ACS Symposium Series: Polymeric Delivery Systems Biomedical application of synthetic biodegradable polymers Synthetic Biodegradable Polymer Scaffolds Hydrogels and Biodegradable Polymers for Bioapplications Biodegradation and Biodeterioration of Polymers: Kinetical Aspects Handbook of Biomaterials Evaluation: Scientific.. T. I Encyclopedic handbook of biomaterials and bioengineering: Part A Materials vol. Tsurata..A. D... W. I Encyclopedic handbook of biomaterials and bioengineering: Part B Applications vol. Huang. G. S. Inc. K. American Chemical 0-8412-2624-5 Charpentier.. Kost. Harwood Academic 90-5702-1530-6 1997 Wiseman. Inc. Co. Ikada.F. M. K.. 1-56676-004-6 1993 Park.L. 0-8247-9594-6 1995 book 06 Wise. 0-8247-9595-4 1995 book 07 Wise.book 03 book 04 Controlled drug delivery Encyclopedic handbook of biomaterials and bioengineering: Part A Materials vol. Chapman & Hall 0-412-59010-7 1995 1992 American Chemical 0-8412-2732-2 Society. Commack.. K. A. H. T.. et al. M. D. II Encyclopedic handbook of biomaterials and bioengineering: Part B Applications vol. K. and Langer. D. Nova Science Publ.. A.S.. R. 42 . Wise.. Marcel Dekker. Publishers Park.. Technomic Publ. Gilead. 0-8247-9596-2 1995 book 08 book 09 Scott.O. R. Park. Shalaby. et al. Marcel Dekker. Ishihara.. von Recum. Y. Bronzino. G. J. CRC Press 0-8493-4896-X 1993 1995 book 12 book 13 book 14 Atala.. Cambridge CRC Press 0-85186-207-1 1992 0-8493-4519-7 1993 CRC Press in coop.M. Philadelphia 1-56032-479-1 book 15 1999 book 16 book 17 book 18 book 19 book 20 Vert. Langer. 0-8412-3418-3 0-8247-9593-8 1997 1995 book 05 Wise. Kimura. J.W. 0-8493-8346-3 1995 IEEE Press Domb. Royal Society of Chemistry. B. Feijen. Hayashi. ACS Professional Reference Book Marcel Dekker. G. J. Kataoka.J. J. and Chiellini. Williams. K. S. Gumargalieva.. R.L.. D..P. Shalaby. Zaikov. Scott. and Clinical Testing of Implant Material Biodegradable polymers and plastics Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Materials The Biomedical Engineering Handbook Handbook of Biodegradable Polymers Biodegradable hydrogels for drug delivery Park. Inc. 1-56072-582-6 Inc...A. K. Birkhauser Boston 0-8176-3919-5 1997 1996 1998 ACS Washington 0-8412-3400-0 D. D.Z.M. Inc..J. Albertsson. A. D.. Piatt. Marcel Dekker.L. Y. Ottenbridge. E. J.W. et al. NY Taylor & Francis.C. Inc. and Mooney.E. Washington Hollinger. et al. D. Technical.M.D. Washington book 10 book 11 El-Nokaly.L. Vacanti.J. A.. D.

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Protein delivery from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable microspheres: release kinetics and stability issues Crotts. Opportunities and limits Schroeter. Blunk.. Achim Polylactide (PLA)-a new way of production Jacobsen. Zhu. Maria Teresa. Joachim Int. Benoit. Biodegradable materials. 61-70 Polymeric biodegradable hemoglobin nanocapsule as a new red blood cell substitute Chang. Koneberg. W. I. Gopferich... P. Bittner. Ivanova... Hilbert. Denis. S.-hydroxy acid)s microspheres in relation with monolayers Proust. S.. Kangjie The use of natural metabolites in the design of new materials for tissue engineering Kohn. Anne Katrin. Degee. Congr. Panaiotov. Patrick Development and application of lactic acid-derived biodegradable plastics Kamikura. Lara Structure. D'Angelo. Michaela.. Yu.Minireview Geerts. R. Christine. morphology and degradation of poly(. Biodegradable polymers for the controlled release of ocular drugs 53 . Vauthier. G.alpha. Khosla. Didier. A. 1169(Tissue Engineering for Therapeutic Use 1). Jerome. Scott D.. Boury. Laboratory and field evaluation of biodegradable polyesters for sustained release of isometamidium and ethidium . Johannes Biodegradable materials. S. Vivek R.. M. J. Hiroaki Encapsulation of proteins for improved delivery Putney. H. Brandt.. Ph. P.. Application of polyphosphazenes in drug controlled release systems Qiu. Labarre. J. F. R. Opportunities and limits Schroeter. Park. Masao Bioabsorbable polymers for implantable therapeutic systems Sinha. (1998). G. De Deken. Tz. Regina. T. Tae Gwan Development of medical goods using bioabsorbable materials Takazawa. Jeffrey A. Torsten.. J. Thomas.Carrier for drug formulations and artificial living tissues Schulz. Liyan. Fritz. Dubois. Fattal. E. Saulnier. Ser. R. Jean. Desmaele. Development of novel technologies for the synthesis of biodegradable PEGylated nanoparticles Peracchia.. Couvreur. Elias. Ph. Beate Synthetic for biodegradable polymers for tissue engineering and drug delivery Hubbell. Johannes Microencapsulation of antigens for parenteral vaccine delivery systems Kissel. P..

V. Jones. P. Navnit H.. Jerome. Biodegradable polymer microspheres as vaccine adjuvants and delivery systems Gupta.. Yoji Tissue engineered cartilage Ashiku. Design of macroporous biodegradable polymer scaffolds for cell transplantation Maquet. R. Xu.. Tabatabay. Chen. Biodegradable synthetic and semisynthetic polymers 54 . K. Yu. Randolph.. T.. Waseem. S. Qiqi. Derek. Solvent Evaporation Processes for the Production of Controlled Release Biodegradable Microsphere Formulations for Therapeutics and Vaccines Cleland. Andrew J. Ho.. M. A. Rajesh K. Recent advances in vaccine adjuvants for systemic and mucosal administration O'hagan. M. OluFunmi L... R. Hans P. J. C. Protein release from polyphosphazene matrixes Andrianov. Payne. Shah. A. Gander. A.. Athanasiou. C. Merkle. Guping. Application of biodegradable polymeric materials for steroid delivery Tang. Vacanti. James W. Nam-Tran.. Putney. Claudio. Heckman. Scott. One. M. Manmohan.. Jeffrey L. J. Hiroaki Preparation of microspheres by the solvent evaporation technique O'Donnell.Merkli. Jeffrey L. Dosage and design of leuprorelin acetate microspheres for long-term sustained-release injection Okada.. Alexander K. S. Gurny..and three-month release injectable microspheres of the LH-RH superagonist leuprorelin acetate Okada. Jiangtao Nanoencapsulation of hemoglobin and red blood cell enzymes based on nanotechnology and biodegradable polymer Chang. K. Christopher T. Chang. K. Siber. Rajeev.. Heller. Lendon G. G. Bruno Biodegradable materials Imai. Controlled drug delivery by biodegradable polyester devices: different preparative approaches Jain. S. R. Recombinant human growth hormone poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microsphere formulation development Cleland. D. Biodegradable PLA-PGA polymers for tissue engineering in orthopedics Agrawal. -C. Patrick B. A. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles for the development of single-dose controlled-release vaccines O'Hagan. A.. Rhodes. Derek T.. Hiroaki Drug Microencapsulation by PLA/PLGA Coacervation in the Light of Thermodynamics. Malick. McGinity. Johnson.. C. A. 1. Gupta. R. W. Singh. Overview and Theoretical Considerations Thomasin.

Biodegradable polymer research: an overview 55 . Chiellini. Van Nest. Gupta. Koneberg. Jianping. Hungerer. Donatella. Robert Production and novel applications of natural L(+)-lactic acid: food... Rajesh K. Baluom.. Vladimir. Teomim. Kathleen V. Kyriacos Recent advances in vaccine adjuvants: the development of MF59 emulsion and polymeric microparticles O'Hagan.. Hilbert. D.. Yasuaki Biodegradable scaffolds for use in orthopedic tissue engineerin Athanasiou. Emo Polymeric carriers of drugs for site-specific therapy Ulbrich. Injectable microcapsules prepared with biodegradable poly(. Biodegradable polymers for medical applications Lin.. Nassar. Chiellini.C. Domb. Gordana. Boaz. Biodegradable implant strategies for inhibition of restenosis Orloff.. Roberto. Kathleen V. Subr. Liguang. Maskiewicz. pharmaceutics and biodegradable polymers Bogaert. Solaro. Ott. Strohalm. Morganti. Blanka Degradable controlled release systems useful for protein delivery Roskos.Chiellini. Doron.. Gary S. Fabrizio.alpha. Pharmaceutics Biopharmacy. D-35032. Lisa A. Progress and challenges Schwendeman. Gary The rationale for peptide drug delivery to the colon and the potential of polymeric carriers as effective tools Rubinstein. Gershon Recent development trend of biodegradable and bioabsorbable materials Kim. protein. Philipps-Univ. R. H. Pechar. David. G.. Henry R. Ilia. Karel. Richard Microencapsulation of antigens using biodegradable polyesters. Michal.. Abraham. A. Dep. Wu. Jiri. Y. Abraham J. Langer.. K... Maskiewicz. Fishbein. Costantino.. Salvatore. Facts and Phantasies Kissel. Germany Peptide. Derek T. Rihova. Giannasi. Emo. Taher. Peilin Multifunctional polymeric materials for biomedical applications Solaro. K. W.-hydroxy acids) for prolonged release of drugs Ogawa. Lisa E. and vaccine delivery from implantable polymeric systems. Cen. Gordana. Tirosh. Kim.. Muhammad. Lisa E. Freed. Steven P. D'Antone. J. Cell-polymer-bioreactor system for tissue engineering Vunjak-Novakovic. Freed. T. Roberto Cell-polymer-bioreactor system for tissue engineering Vunjak-Novakovic. Marburg. Richard Degradable controlled release systems useful for protein delivery Roskos. Golomb. Elisabetta E.

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.. R. E. C. W. Haigler. H. C. McGucken. Kaplan.. Versatility Polysaccharides in Medical Applications Biodegradable Polymers and Packaging Biodegradation and Bioremediation Biodegradable: Detergents and the Environment Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Cellulose Poly(ethylene Glycol) Chemistry Biotechnical and Biomedical Applications Macromolecular Biomaterials Dimitriu. Weimer. Marcel Dekker. L. R. A. J. Leao.. A. H. W.. Haigle. C. Langer.Second International Symposium on Natural Polymers and Composites Capparelli Mattoso. Ching. M. CRC Press 58 . Haigle.J. Frollini. J. Ducheyne P. Technomoc Publishing Academic Press Texas A&M University Press Marcel Dekker Plenum Press ISNaPol 98 0-8247-8344-1 1998 Natrural polymers 1998 Polysaccharides 1996 Polysaccharides Medical Polysaccharides Structural Disversity and Fundtional Chasin. H. Weimer... P.. Sao Carlos Marcel Dekker. Thomas. R. S. L.. C.J. C.. Haigler. D. E. P. Martin. Weimer. Inc.. 1-56676-008-9 0-1204-9861-8 0-8909-6479-3 0-8247-8387-5 0-306-44078-4 0-8493-6263-6 1993 1999 1991 Detergents 1990 Cellulose 1992 PEO 1984 General Packaging Hastings G. Weimer. Embrapa. L.. Inc.

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4. Microbial production of poly-betahydroxybutyric acid from D-xylose and lactose using Pseudomonas cepacia.... Atlanta...Metabolism 309. Y. Journal of Bacteriology 1994.page 62 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title 1.M. R. eutrophus accumulated trehalose together with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3(HB)) as intracellular storage compou Strain . A. PHB/V. 200 Degradation . D. 89069. 19:1274-1276 1990 1986 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 trehalose The metabolism of a. Kunioka.H.L. H. 3 DeWaard. by PHB depolymerase B from Pseudomonas lemoignei. Eggink.xls . 578.1 HMR-imaging . The samples examd. 2006 (English) 1995 1995 dopamine monooxygenase PAM catecholamine adrenal chromaffin poly hydroxybutyric acid xylose lactose Pseudomonas Abstract Unavailable Strains Macromolecules 1995. Briese. Orts. 176(6):1661-1666 1994 546. Doi. Ulm. A.enzymic degradation 1H NMR imaging has been used to monitor the enzymic degrdn. M. Huijberts. B. Doi.. 8218-8225 1997 Pseudomonas lemoignei ..N. Avail. Y. Order No. Y. 4 Kawaguchi.. 13C NMR Determination of the degree of cocrystallization in random copolymers of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-cobeta-hydroxyvalerate) 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of Pseudomonas putida fatty acid metabolic routes involved in poly(3hydroxyalkanoate) synthesis Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1 Young. 1030 Macromolecules 1986. Evidence for Preferential Degradation of the Amorphous Phase by PHB Depolymerase B from Pseudomonas lemoignei Macromolecules (1997). Y. R. B 1995. were thin films of approx.. Germany 1H NMR Imaging Study of Enzymic Degradation in Poly(3hydroxybutyrate) and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate).. Georgia Institute of Technology. Int. of poly(3hydroxybutyrate). 6 Sektion Kernresonanzspektros kopie. 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance study of trehalose and Nagatsuta. G. Y. DeRijk. Jendrossek. atrehalose in the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 was studied by analysis of the 13C NMR spectra of intact cells. Univ.. PHB. 30(26). Tokyo Institute of Technology. W.. USA 254 pp. and poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-23%-3hydroxyvalerate).. GA. Kimmich. 28:6394-6400 1995 595. Microfilms Int. Nakamura.: DA9526142 From: Diss.. K. G. D. Midori-ku. 56(4). Frederick Kwai VanderHart. Nakmaura. 2 Marchessault. P. 2. Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization. 5 Soga. Abstr.J. poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) metabolism in Alcaligenes Yokohama 227 Japan eutrophus 1H and 13C NMR analysis of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) isolated from Bacillus megaterium Applied Environmental Microbiology 1990.. C.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Spyros. An investigation into the effects of novel DBM and PAM effectors on catecholamine metabolism and amidation in adrenal chromaffin cell culture. Universitaet Ulm.

Applications Abstract unavailable. Müller (1). 9 W. Alteration of the glass compn. Garth IRC Biomed. Galien. after cardiac Uppsala. B. P.. A biodegradable patch used as a pericardial substitute University Hospital.. T. Hazenberg. A. Germany 11 T.. Universität Leipzig. Fakultät für Biowissenschaften. Mater. Pharmazie und Psychologie.M. Witholt.43(5):271-4 1995 postoperative pericardial adhesions . A disk assay for poly. Jendrossek. G.. 35:2090-2097 1994 Pseudomonas oleovorans A composite has been developed. de. using a completely degradable phosphate glass for reinforcement and a PHB polymer matrix. Preusting. D.xls .J. In vivo. 10(Biomaterial-Tissue Interfaces). Queen Mary Westfield Coll.M. Sweden.. surgery: 6.J. Malm T. Adv. van.. produces an alteration in the glass soly. Permoserstraße 15.G.. Abteilung Biotechnologie. H. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1995 Oct.-hydroxybutyrate.. 7 Bowald S Koning. Biomater. This method has been applied here to measure both the distribution of single-cell fluoresc .52(2):607-13 prosthetic composite phosphate glass polyhydroxybutyrate 1992 1973 (2) A flow cytometric approach for characterization and differentiation of bacteria during microbial processes Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 43 Issue 1 (1995) pp 93-101 1995 The analysis of growing or resting bacterial populations by flow cytometry offers several advantages over traditional methods for determining mean-value parameters. 493. Bilsen. Bley (1).and 24-month evaluation with CT. J. D04318 Leipzig.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. S. London E1 4NS. UK 10 Ward AC. Schirmer. 439-46 (English) 1992 Anal Biochem 1973 Apr.Biodegradable patches made of PHB Biodegradable patches made of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) were recently shown to limit postoperative pericardial adhesions when inserted into the pericardium in sheep. Scheper (2) A completely degradable phosphate glass/polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) based composite with long term stability and biocompatibility..page 63 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Duvernoy O.M. H. The present study was carried out to evaluate the presence of post-operative retrosterna Applications A biodegradable rubber by crosslinking poly(hydroxyalkanoate) from Pseudomonas oleovorans Polymer 1994. Department of Diagnostic Radiology... Lemstra. Ramstrom J. Dawes EA (1) Projektgruppe Biosignale.4. this has been used to control the overall degrdn. van 8 der.. Lösche (1). W. Jonathan C. A. Knowles. Hastings.

(1996) 96 Meet.xls . Fulai . Wiese S.control the con 69. SteAnne-de-Bellevue. Pseudomonas sp. Seoul 150-010. gene is required for operation of the PHB degradation Canada. Kusung-dong. A megaplasmid-located methylmalonyl-CoA-mutase-like Quebec H9X 3V9. 1996 Deletion studies on Rhizobium meliloti megaplasmid pRmeSU47b identified a region required for poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation pathway intermediates 3hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) and acetoacetic acid (AA) as sole C-source. Republic of Korea 15 LEE. 20. Yusong-ku. Germany. 96th General Meeting. New Orleans. Republic of Korea A METHOD FOR PRODUCING HYDROXYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS BY AUTO-DEGRADATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES WO9929889A1 June 17. Expo Apartment.4. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1994 Jan. Republic of Korea WANG. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate degradation (conference abstract) Abstr. 19-23 May. Microbiol. 11:42583 1980 A structured model is pesented giving a mathematical description of batch cultures of Alcaligenes eutrophus strain H 16 under chemolithoautotrophic growth conditions.Kinetics chemolithoautotrophic growth .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 464-1. #212-702..Am.Meet. 1980. Taejon-si 30. Lafferty. Young LG CHEMICAL LTD. pathway in Rhizobium meliloti. A massspectrometer with a membrane inlet system Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 was used to measure and Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Stain . E. Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie. Appl. the present invention provides a method for prod LEE. 1999 1999 . 1996. R. DSM 1650 and Pseudomonas sp.. mendocina.40(5):669-75 1994 Using a 30-mer oligonucleotide probe highly specific for polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) synthase genes. P. Clo The present invention provides a method for producing optically active hydroxycarboxylic acid monomers by autodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Yup . the respective genes of Pseudomonas citronellolis. Charles T C. Institut für Biotechnologie TU Graz A kinetic model for growth and synthesis of poly-áhydroxybutyric acid (PHB) in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 European J.. 373-1. GeorgAugust-Universitat Gottingen. Biotechnol. Yusong-ku. Chunmin-dong. A general method for identification of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase genes from pseudomonads belonging to the rRNA homology group I. Taejon-si 305-701. M.. Yoido-dong. Dumont R 14 McGill University. GP4BH1 were cloned from genomic libraries 13 Heinzle.Soc. In particular.page 64 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 12 Timm A. Sang. Youngdeungpo-ku.Gen.Microbiol. 557 American Society for Microbiology. LA.

page 65 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title A method for the demonstration of extracellular hydrolysis of poly-á-hydroxybutyrate A method for the isolation of microorgansims producing extarcellular long-side-chain poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoate) depolymerase Source / Application Number Year Journal of Applied Bacteriology 1978. K. Argentina. Cabrera JE. D.63(13):91-8 1997 Chikyu-Kankyo-Sangyo. A new intracellular PHA decomposition enzyme.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. D48149. Germany. J Biol Chem 1998 Sep 11.xls .4.. Genti-Raimondi S Departamento de Bioquimica Clinica. or a protein sequence in with one amino acid either added. 45(1):143146 1978 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1994. sequence analysis.A. Universidad Nacional de A new Comamonas testosteroni steroid-inducible gene: cloning and Cordoba. Munster.. R. 1994 Comamonas testosteroni can grow on a variety of steroid compounds as the sole carbon and energy source. Ramsay. Claus. Also claimed are: a protein encoded by To investigate the metabolic link between fatty acid de novo synthesis and polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) synthesis. 2(1):36708 Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware 35. The PHAG gene from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 encodes a 3hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein-coenzyme a transferase. Ramsay. I. The gene 20 Rehm BH. we isolated mutants of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 deficient in this metabolic route. testosteroni 563.Kanagawa 19 Japan.A. and has polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-degrading activity is new. Corrensstrabetae 3. B.. A new metabolic link between fatty acid de novo synthesis and polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthesis. Westfalische WilhelmsUniversitat Munster. we cloned and sequenced the testosterone-inducible betahsd gene from C. Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas.A. 18 Pruneda JL. Kruger N. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997 Sep-Oct. In a previous study. Ablage 16 Malik.. Marchessault. Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie.H.273(37):24044-51 1998 . deleted and/or replaced. Saracovan. Univ. Panzetta-Dutari G. recombinant enzyme production via vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in host cell for improved JP 11113574 27 Apr 1999 polyhydroxyalkanoate production 1999 A protein which is encoded by protein sequence (I). 17 J.

arpigny@ruh acidocaldarius DSM 639 displaying similarity to r-uni-bochum. Switzerland A process for the recovery of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) from Bioprocess Engineering Abstract Volume 17 Pseudomonads Part 1: Solubilization Issue 1 (1997) pp 7-13 1997 Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are bacterial storage polyesters. of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid in microbioal biomass 6:29-37 A rapid spectrophotometric assay of alpha. de Koning. betaunsaturated acids and beta-hydroxy acids Ananlytical Chemistry 1960. H. M. 8. ETHHönggerberg. Jendrossek D. ALDERSON BARRY. Microbiol. CH 8093 Zürich.M. Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. 24 van Meurs. R. G. Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. The 314amino acid polypeptide displays a maximum sequence similarity (43%) to a putative Objective Hardware Ablage Lehrstuhl fur Biologie der Mikroorganismen. C.page 66 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A fragment of genomic DNA from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639 encoding a lipolytic enzyme was cloned and sequenced.. 25 R. Ruhr-Universitat Bochum. A novel heat-stable lipolytic enzyme from Sulfolobus jeanlouis..xls .. preferably after a lipid extraction step with 23 G. Kellerhals. J. B. Sonnleitner. Witholt Braunegg. currently receiving much attention because of their potential as biodegradable and renewable plastics. de Koning. ETHHönggerberg. 26 Slepecky. Law. 1978. Institut für Biotechnologie. B. M. Switzerland A process for the recovery of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) from Pseudomonads Part 2: Process development and Bioprocess Engineering Abstract Volume 17 economic evaluation Issue 1 (1997) pp 15-21 A rapid gas chromatographic method for the determination European J. Germany. J. EP0015123 1980-09-03 1980 Poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid is separated from bacterial cells by drying a finely divided stream or spray of an aqueous suspension of the cells with a gas heated to above 100 DEG C and then extracting the PHB.4. Biotechnol. Witholt Institut für Biotechnologie. which are currently receiving much attention because of their potential as biodegradable G.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. WRIGHT LEONARD FREDERICK. CH 8093 Zürich. 21 Arpigny JL. 32(12):1697-1699 1997 1978 1960 21. Well known are poly(hydroxybutyrate) a Medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) are storage polyesters accumulated by fluorescent pseudomonads. M. B. A. Jaeger KE FEMS Microbiol Lett 1998 Oct 1. Lafferty. . SENIOR PETER 22 JAMES ICI PLC (GB) A process for the extraction of poly-3-hydroxy-butyric acid from microbial cells. J. Appl.167(1):69-73 1998 HOLMES PAUL ARTHUR.de polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerases.

Appl. Florida State University. R. J ttner.1.M. Department of Biological Science. R. Micribiol. Kalscheuer D-48149 29 R.Technol. A new recombinant plasmid vector contains a gene cluster encoding beta-ketothiolase (acetyl-CoAacyltransferase. 1975. 28 A recombinant plasmid.) endogenous storage lipid poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate J. acetoacetyl-CoAreductase (EC-1. A simplified mehod for bacterial nutritional status based on Tallahassee.Lipid extraction The bacterial endogenous storage lipid poly-betahydroxyalkanoate (PHA) can be recovered from environmental samples by extraction with boiling chloroform or after treatment with sodium hypochlorite.Japan. A Simple Method for the Determination of Poly-betaHydroxybutyric Acid in Microbial Biomass Arch Microbiol 1999 Jan.C. R.1.171(2):73-80 European J.-R.A.4.Sci. EC2..S. Chikyu-KankyoSangyo LO Japan. downst The oxazine dye Nile blue A and its fluorescent oxazone form.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. a transformed blue-green alga containing it and preparation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Nile red. viable-colony staining method using Nile red for direct screening of bacteria that accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acids and other lipid storage compounds..Knackmuss A sensitive. of Microbiol..36) and polyhydroxybutyratepolymerase. Steinbuchel A Munster. Alcaligenes eutrophus acetyl-CoA-acyltransferase.3. Corrensstrasse 3.page 67 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) KOREA INST SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Title A recombinant Escherichia coli producing poly-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and a process for preparing PHB employing the same Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 27 LEE SANG-YUP AU4835197 1998-06-18 1998 Abstract unavailable. Westfalische WilhelmsUniversitat M unster. Baumeister D. Germany. Spiekermann P. acetoacetyl-CoA-reductase and polyhydroxybutyratepolymerase expression in Synechococcu JP 09131186 20 May 1997 1997 Institut fur Mikrobiologie.16) from Alcaligenes eutrophus. H.H.30 J. D. Rehm BH. 11:233-237 1999 1975 polyhydroxyalkanoic ac 12. FL 32306 the simultaneous determination of phospholipid and (U.1. In this study the determination of PHA after extraction Extraction 676. were used to develop a simple and highly sensitive staining method to detect poly(3hydroxybutyric acid) and other AgencyInd. White. 6:113-120 1987 Bacterial nutritional status Phospholipid fatty acid . Methods 1987. Lafferty.xls . . 31 Findley.

.. Alicante. D. Tokyo Institute of Technology. S.. 668-76 (Korean) 1992 polyhydroxybutyrate fermn Alcaligenes simulation optimization 1992 For the purpose of optimizing poly-bhydroxybutyrate (PHB) prodn. 24(1).. A. Univ. Korea A simulation study of two-stage fed-batch culture for optimization and control of PHB production. Japan copolyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) Polymer 1994. A structural study of the crystalline state of the bacterial 33 Inoue.. D. K. 23-9 (English) 1993 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1993.. film biodegrdn Colonization of the films microorganism soil by fungal hyphae and polyhydroxyalkanoate film other microorganizms. The sp. 35:193-197 1994 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co4-hydroxybutyrate)s (P(3HB-co-4HB)s) with a wide range of 4HB contents were biosynthesized. 20(6). 572.A. 2:39 Biotechnology Letters 1989.. N. The optim Department of Biomolecular Engineering. Nat. Sakurai. 35 Sipinen.J. A. V. Johnsonbaugh. L. A.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ambientales Recur.R. Program. Yoshie.. W. prodn. Nakamura. 11(7):471-476 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1993. S. hydroxyalkanoate copolyesters. Lee. 1:193 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1994. E. Y. M. Seoul 151-742. Midori-ku. Dep. Yokohama 227.W.xls . 38 Tilstra. and their crystalline states were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compared with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). M. Spain soil using scanning electron microscopy. Jae Ho. Rich.. Alicante 03080. 36 Crews. (PHA) films in 34 F.. 37 Dawes. Rutherford. Anderson. 343. Haywood. . P. 2stage fed-batch culture was adopted. A study of biodegradation of poly-b-hydroxyalkanoate Lopez-Llorca. Seoul Natl. 1:247 1993 1993 1994 1989 1993 Biodegradability in soil of poly-b-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) films was monitored using both light microscopy and SEM. Colom Valiente.J. Nagatsuta.page 68 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Lee.. A study of the oxidative degradation of polyolefins A summary of environmental legislation targeting disposable diapers and review of related literature A survey of the accumulation of novel poly-betahydroxyalkanoates by bacteria A test method to determine rapidly if polymers are biodegradable Micron. Cienc. Eng. Yoo. growth rate was maximized during the 1st stage and sp. Gascon. Univ.C. 32 Young Je Biochem. from Alcaligenes eutrophus. biodegrdn probab 588. Yong Woo.4.. L. rate was maximized during the 2nd stage. Sanop Misaengmul Hakhoechi. 570.. G. PHA films were buried in a forest soil for fungi soil polyhydroxyalkanoate up to three months. Niemeyer. those of the cold-stretched copoly molecular mechanics 488.

Gottschalk. 44 Ewing. non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirilum rubrum. 3:66-68 1967 1987 Hydrogenomonas H 16 Organotrophic growth Metabolism Poly-betahydroxybuttesäure (HBS) ist weit verbreitetes bakterielles Speicherlipid. 40 Winton. 1958.xls . 662.11(1):49-55 1989 Studies have been carried out in order to optimize growth and culture conditions for the intracellular formation of poly(betahydroxyalkanoates) (PHA) in the phototrophic. W.page 69 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 39 Ashby. R. R. Shi.4. D. University of Massachusetts-Lowell. Massachusetts 01854 email: Richard A. H. Accumulation of a PHA Containing Primarily 3-HD from simple Carbohydrate Substrates by Pseudomonas sp. Microbiol. 56:248-277 Abbaubare Polymere aus dem Fermenter BioEngineering 1987. Knee EJ Jr.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Strain NCIMB 40135 Int J Biol Macromol 1989 Feb.M. Gross Massachusetts.Metabolism 107. purple. F. 28:55-57 1999 1985 Alcaligenes eutrophus and Alcaligenes latus. E. 1990. University of Brandl H. 41 Hippe. 633. Env. Dawe Strain . A J. ihr Vorkommen ist mit Ausnahme der Thio. Department of Chemistry. Lenz RW Amherst 01003. Anderson. 43 RA. 42 Hartley. Dawes. 56:3354-3359 1990 358. 1 University Avenue. Fuller RC. Gross. ..62(1):106-13 Chemical week 1985..e A tunable switch to regulate the synthesis of low and high du) molecular weight microbial polyesters A versatile polymer's delayed debut Biotechnol Bioeng 1999 Jan 5..D. Others 680. 1962. Schlegel u. J. P. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen Abbau und Wiederverwertung von Polyhydroxybuttersäure durch Hydrogenomonas H 16 Archiv f r Mikrobiologie 1976. G. Haywood.uml. A. Gross (Grossr@woods..und Athiorhodaceen auf streng aerobe Bakterien beschränkt (Übersichten bei Forsyth et al. Its potential to produce novel Apll. F. Ability of the phototrophic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum to produce various poly (beta-hydroxyalkanoates): potential sources for biodegradable polyesters. Department of Biochemistry.A.. molecular weight The addition of poly(ethylene glycol) (Mn = 200 g/mol) (PEG-200) to the fermentation media of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Alcaligenes latus at various stages of growth resulted in the synthesis of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with bimodal molecular weight No abstract. Lowell.

Rhodococcus sp. Hyun S. namely growth stage and nitrogendeficient polyesteraccumulation stage. The copolyester of 3hydroxybutyrate and 409. Sun Hill Glucose Co. 1992. 47 Rhee. Res... KIST. S. NCIMB 40126. Lo W Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. Hung Hom. 35 1998 Kim. . J. 48 Jung H. This organism accumulated copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3hydroxyvalerate after 24 h Strain . Accumulation of Copolyesters consisting of 3Daejeon 305-335. Daejeon 305-764 and 1 Genetic Engineering Research Institute. Int J Biol Macromol 1991 Apr. Anderson AJ. Chungnam National University. Lee.70-72:929University. Williams 45 DR.. Y.. Inst. Ewing DF Accumulation of a poly(hydroxyalkanoate) copolymer containing Department of Applied primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate from simple carbohydrate Biology. G. H. When C5 was used as the sole carbon sou Objective Hardware Ablage Haywood GW. Lett.4. Technol. 3-hydroxyvalerate in Alcaligenes eutrophus. Biotechnol. 1017-20 (English) 1993 1993 Methylobacterium polyhydroalkanoate polyester 449.xls . One of these. SH-69 Copolyesters . Bae1. 15(10). Ltd. Kang.. synthesized a variety of copolyesters when secondary carbon substrates were added to nitrogen-limied cultures contg. Hong Accumulation of biodegradable copolyesters of 3-hydroxyKong Polytechnic butyrate and Appl Biochem Biotechnol 1998 Spring. Accumulation of PHA and its copolyesters by Incheon 404-250. South Korea SH-69 in batch culture Biotechnol. SH-69 strain capable of accumulating poly-betahydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from a range of carbon sources was isolated... Yun. K. UK.. Choong K. KCTC 0048 isolated from soil.13(2):83-8 1991 46 Chua H. Dawes EA. methanol as a major carbon and energy source.Substrates Methylobacterium sp. Y.Copolyesters batch culture w . Department of Microbiology. Kim.. Yu PH. Lett. S.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Hydroxybutyrate and 3-Hydroxyvalerate by Alcaligenes sp. 14:27-32 1992 Alcaligenes sp. K. Methylobacterium sp. University of substrates by Hull.page 70 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A number of taxonomicallyrelated bacteria have been identified which accumulate poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) copolymers containing primarily 3hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer units from a range of unrelated single carbon sources. Korea KCTC 0048.Unusual precursors for 3hydroxyvalerate An Alcaligenes sp. Rhodococcus Biodegradable copolyesters of 3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate (3HB3HV) were produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus in a two-staged process.

Ayaaki. Ishizaki.. Tanaka.8% of the dry biomass. and the intracellular ATP level were compared in the exponential phase of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)-accumulating cells of A. Kenji. Accumulation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in Spirulina platensis. F. Only 18% of the isolates accumulated PHB ranging between 1. Inc. 1982. 51:214-216 1999 1986 In a limited-scale survey.L.4. Paul Castillo. Stevens Jr. 74(5). Accumulation of Poly (3-Hydroxybutyric Acid) by Some Soil Curr Microbiol 39:153-158 (1999) Streptomyces © 1999 by Springer-Verlag New York. Japan Accumulation of polyphosphate and substrate gas utilization efficiency in PHB accumulation phase of autotrophic batch culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC17697T. Kyushu Univ. 49 Amal K. 288-91 (English) 1992 polyhydroxybutyrate formation Alcaligenes phosphate hydrogen metab 1992 The consumption of phosphate... 52 Stanbury. 149:361-363 1982 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate has been identified in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. R. Agric. Ferment. Campbell.xls . Rebeca Banerjee. 50 J. eutrophus. Berraquero. J. 1986. The promising isolate DBCC-719. 55 soil streptomycetes were screened for the accumulation of poly (3hydroxybutyrate) [PHB]. J. Fukuoka 812.. Env. The addition of reduced carbon compounds to the growth medium was not required for poly-betahydroxybutyrate accumulation.R. Phosphate consumption (mg/g dry cell wt. Microbiol. Valera. J...E. Ramos.page 71 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Anupam Manna.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. Poly-betahydroxybutyrate accumulated durin 180.R. S. Peter F.) by PHBaccumula . formation of polyphosphate. Balkwill. Bioeng. Accumulation of Poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) by Halobacteria Appl.97. i 293.. Bacteriol.F.G. Fac. F.. 51 D.

oxygen consumption and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate depositon was investigated with N-free and NH4+ batch cultures Azotobacter . University of Sydney. of Sydney. 56 ramos-Cormenzana.xls . Les 53 Dep. strain CC 1192 Appl. 2006. Chalberg SC. 3-hydroxybutyric. J. 55 Anderson GJ... J Biol Chem 1981 Jun 25. Appl Environ Microbiol 1998 Aug.Metabolism 675. strain CC 1192. Department of Microbiology. purified from lactating bovine mammary gland. 28592863 1998 Biochem. This species is of interest for studying PHB synthesis because the polymer accumulates to a large e Biochemical controls that regulate the biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) were investigated in Rhizobium (Cicer) sp. Moreno. Australia 2006. of Agric. The NADPH:acetoacetyl-CoA reductase ha 54 Chohan SN. Strain CC 1192. Gonzales-Lopez. New South polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in Wales. rhizobium (Cicer) sp..256(12):6282-90 1981 la Rubia. de. medium . microbiol. Guzman MG.. .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Kumar S Acetoacetyl-CoA reductase activity of lactating bovine mammary fatty acid synthase. strain CC 1192. M. This species is of interest for studying PHB synthesis because the polymer accumulates to a large extent in free Fatty acid synthase. University of Granada.V.page 72 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Chohan. Martinez-Toledo. 147:354-357 1987 The effect of a low phosphate concentration on intracellular adenine nucleotide content.4.When the microorganisms Energy-charge wer Strain . and crotonic acids as substrates for its partial reactions at micromolar concentrations. Microbiol. controls that regulate the biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) were investigated in Rhizobium (Cicer) sp. Copeland L Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science. Univ.Low-phosphate of Azotobacter vinelandii. J. Faculty of Pharmacy..64(8):2859-63 1998 Dodds PF. 1987. utilizes coenzyme A esters of acetoacetic. A. Azotobacter vinelandii grown at low phosphate Spain concentration Arch. Copeland. Shahid N. Acetoacetyl coenzyme A reductase and Australia polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in Rhizobium (Cicer) sp. Acetoacetyl coenzyme A reductase and Sydney. (1998). Sydney. Environ. and Soil Sci. R. Chem. 64(8). Adenine nucleotide contents and energy charge of E-18001 Granada.Adenine nucleotides .

Hauts Polymeres. No.epsilon. The films of poly[(R)-3hydroxybutyrate] (P(3HP)). Legras. Olga.xls .epsilon.-caprolactone) (PCL) films modified by an alkaline hydrolysis and of poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET) track-etched me J.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 1996 Sec. Belg. Chim. PCT/GB94/01496 Sec. 1995A process of bonding two or more articles together using an adhesive composition comprising at The kinetics of adsorption and hydrolysis by an extracellular PHB depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis were studied at 37 degrees C on the surface of five types of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) films.19(1):35-40 1996 Lab. (1998).page 73 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 57 KEMMISH DAVID JOHN (GB) ZENECA LTD (GB). 19. Biomater. Japan. Roger. and fibronectin on the surface of poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) ( PHB/HV) and of poly(. 371 Date Apr. 26. Ed. poly 58 KEMMISH DAVID JOHN (GB) ZENECA LTD (GB) Adhesion process US5711842 1998-01-27 1998 Department of Bioengineering. WO95/02649 PCT Pub. 60 Schneider. 1996 PCT Filed Jul. Louvain-la-Neuve. collagen. KEMMISH DAVID JOHN (GB) ADHESION PROCESS WO9502649 1995-01-26 1995 A process of bonding two or more articles together using an adhesive composition comprising at least one polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) wherein the PHA is placed between the articles to be bonded and the articles are subjected to pressure to set the ad PCT No. Date Jan. Polym. Sci. Doi Y Adsorption kinetics of bacterial PHB depolymerase on the surface of polyhydroxyalkanoate films. Univ. Laurence. 12791304 1998 The effect of alk. Duhoux. Borecky. Phys. Yves-Jacques Adsorption of albumin. Rouxhet. 102(e) Date Apr.caprolactone) (PCL) films and of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes have been . Catholique de Louvain. 1994 PCT Pub. 59 Kasuya K.. Yokohama. 19. Florence. 11.4. 9(12). Tokyo Institute of Technology. hydrolysis on several surface properties of poly(hydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate) (92/8) (PHB/HV) and poly(. Inoue Y. Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology. Int J Biol Macromol 1996 Jul.

Yinguang. NaOCl method. 214036. O`Donnell. which hybridized with pdhA.J. introduced the principles and processes for extg. ammonia method and NaOH meth Ageing phenomena in bacterial poly(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate Polymer 1992..hydrolysis and Neuve.-hydroxy butyrate) (PHB). Wuxi University of Light Industry.4. surfactant-NaOCl method.H.M.. Duhoux F. Wuxi. Du. 64 D. as 434. Chen. Guocheng. A. T.T. G. Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie. Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat Munster. Germany. Alcaligenes eutrophus possesses a second pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1). solvent method. 4394-4408]. poly Universite Catholique (epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) films modified by an alkaline de Louvain. Peop. were identified on two nonrelated A. collagen. Jian. S.G. China Advances in extraction of biodegradable PHB Huagong Jinzhan (1998). Environment and Biotechnology Laboratory. 65 Hein S.J. including org. Louvain-la. enzyme method. P.J.page 74 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The effect of alkaline hydrolysis on several surface properties of poly(hydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate) (92/8) (PHB/HV) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) films and of poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) tracketched membranes have been characterized. eutrophus 554. Carswell. 61 Legras R. Belgium. and fibronectin on the Laboratoire de surface of Physique et de Chimie poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) and of des Hauts Polymeres. 17(1). Bacteriol. College of Bioengineering. 33(15):3295-3297 1992 Two gene loci. J. Shiyi 63 deKoning.. Schneider YJ Advances in biopolymer engineering 62 conference Adsorption of albumin.xls . & Steinbuchel. 176.beta. Lun. 41-45 Chinese 1998 A review with 23 refs. Borecky O. Lemstra. Hill. Rep.. Objective Hardware Ablage Rouxhet L.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. (1994) J. the structural gene of the E1 component of the Alcaligenes eutrophus pyruvate dehydrogenase complex [Hein.237(3):674-84 1996 .9(12):1279-304 1994 1998 1994 Chen. of poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) track-etched membr Advances in Biopolymer J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 1998. and purifying of poly(. Eur J Biochem 1996 May 1.

United Kingdom BRIGGS. Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. the ra 176.. K. systematic Bacteriol. T. MO 63167.V. Kimmel GL. 66 Durham DL1 5JS. and DLepsilon-decalactone in rabbit were shown to be qualitatively similar. NewJersey 07110.. T. poly (epsiloncaprolactone). An extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis An NAD-Linked Acetoacetyl-CoA Reductase from Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M Biomaterials 1981 Oct. S.2(4):215-20 1981 The gram-negative bacteria that are capable of autotrophic growth by the use of molecular hydrogen as an energy source are currently assigned to the genus Pseudomonas. Shuto. and their copolymers in vivo. Tomita. T.J. 124:71-77 Eur. the isolati Strain Isolation The mechanisms of biodegradation of poly (DLlactide). Corynebacterium.. 69 Masamune. Linda. T... Fukui. Tomita. Further provided are methods of producing PHA polymer by cultivating said Alcaligenes eutro 67 Palleroni. 402. Surles 68 J. Louise . Berkely. J Biochem. Anne . Paracoccus. 1981. Palleroni. 1982. T. B-1380 Ohain.Biochem..10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. United Kingdom MONSANTO COMPANY. H. The degradation of poly (DLlactide).xls . 56 Victoria Embankment.. A. Eur.4. K. Helen. J. Universiy of California. Schindler A Tanio. Y. Chemin du Margot 20. T. 118:53-59 1982 1981 233.. Department of Chemical Research. Saito. and copolymers of epsiloncaprolactone with DL-dilactide. California 94720 Alcaligenes latus. 70 Shirakura. Aliphatic polyesters II. Gratzl MM. Alcaligenes. Louis..page 75 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage NAYLOR. Fukui. a new species of hydrogen-utilizing bacteria Int. Shirakura. 1978. . 28:416-424 1978 Pitt CG. STRAINS WHICH SYNTHESIZE St.. deltavalerolactone. However. of Alcaligenes latus strain H-4 (= Aquaspirillum.. Saito.J. Kaiho. 800 North ALCALIGENES EUTROPHUS Lindbergh Boulevard. poly (epsilon-caprolactone). Nutley. Darlington. and Department of Zoology. Co. POLYMERS OF United States of HYDROXY ALKANOIC ACIDS America WO9735025 1997-09-25 1997 Novel Alcaligenes eutrophus strains are provided which synthesize PHA polymer more rapidly than typical members of the species. N. In this ATCC 29712) report. Y.

The isolated protein exists as a monomer with a molecular weith of approx. The NADP+-linked enzyme. (1999). 72 Probst.page 76 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage T. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of GA16 p . one was NADP+-linked and D(-)-beta-hydroxybutyryl CoA specific and the other was NAD+-linked and L(+)isomer specific.G. Nakano. 576:471478 1979 Alcaligenes eutrophus Ralstonia eutropha Flavohemoprotein Hemoglobin . Biotechnol Bioeng 1999 Jun 5. F. 43 000. Akira. Blackall LL Anaerobic phosphate release from activated sludge with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. 73 Bond PL. k. 71 Tomita. Y. Shunsaku. 4072.Oxygen binding A procedure is described für the purification of a soluble flavohemoprotein from the hydrogen bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus.114(3):211-7 1977 Zoogloea ramigera I-16 M was found to contain two stereospecific acetoacetyl CoA reductases.b. Nagoya. Nagoya University. purified approxima 30.a. Departments of Chemical Engineering and Microbiology.and AgroSciences. I. Bacteriol. Fukui. G. Wolf. Göttingen and b Institut für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz der Universität An oxygen-binding flavoheoprotein from Alcaligenes Göttingen.. Advanced Wastewater Management Centre. Yamane.4. H. Division of Molecular Cell. Göttingen eutrophus Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1979. A possible mechanism of intracellular pH control. Hideo. The molecule contains two prosthetic groups. An NADP-linked acetoacetyl CoA reductase from Zoogloea ramigera Arch Microbiol 1977 Sep 28. Australia. We investigated details of the EBPR model to determine the nature of the anaerobic phosphat 58. 2914-2921 locus of Paracoccus denitrificans 1999 The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) granuleassocd. 181(9). Tsuneo 74 Laboratory of Molecular Biotechnology.a a Institut für Mikrobiologie derr Gesellschaft für Strahlen. 464-8601. Ueda.xls . Keller J.63(5):507-15 1999 Maehara.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. The University of Queensland.und Umweltforschung mbH München. Schlegel. Analyses of a polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granule-associated Japan 16-kilodalton protein and its putative regulator in the pha J.Saito. Graduate School of Bio. level.Tanaka.Ikeda. and its corresponding gene was cloned and analyzed at the mol. Brisbane. 16-kDa protein (GA16 protein) of Paracoccus denitrificans was identified. T. The biochemical mechanisms of the wastewater treatment process known as enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) are presently described in a metabolic model.

A 687-bp ph .beta. Department of Biological Mechanisms and Functions. locus of Paracoccus denitrificans. Graduate School of Analyses of a polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granule-associated Bio. 1429-1435 1999 Wieczorek R.beta. A. Munster. The NThe postulated posttranslational modification of the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHA) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha by 4-phosphopantetheine was investigated. Steinbuchel. Astrid.181(9):2914-21 Nagoya Maehara A. Pries A. Germany Analysis of 4-phosphopantetheinylation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: generation of . and its corresponding gene was cloned and analyzed at the molecular level.. 75 Yamane T 1999 The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) granuleassociated 16-kDa protein (GA16 protein) of Paracoccus denitrificans was identified.0-kbp genomic EcoRI restriction fragment which complemented a third subclass of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA)-leaky mutants of A.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Rehm. eutrophus that accumulated PHA at a lower rate than the wild type was cloned from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Nagoya protein and its putative regulator in the pha University. J Bacteriol 1999 May. Alexander 76 Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat Munster.-alanine auxotrophic Tn5induced mutants of R. Analysis of a 24-kilodalton protein associated with the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granules in Alcaligenes eutrophus. Steinbuchel A. 77 Mayer F Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversitat zu Gottingen.and Agro16-kilodalton Sciences. D-48149. Chikusa-ku. Bacteriol. Four . Bernd H.xls .177(9):2425-35 1995 A 5. J Bacteriol 1995 May. (1999).page 77 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Laboratory of Molecular Biotechnology. eutropha HF39 were isolated Hoppensack. 181(5). Division of Molecular Cell Mechanisms. Ueda S.-alanine auxotrophic Tn5 mutants and cloning of the panD gene region J.4. Nakano H. Germany.

United States of America Compositions providing increased energy content of animal feed using plant crop biomass which include a polyhydroxyalkanoate have been developed.page 78 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The beta-ketothiolase gene (phaA) and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase gene (phaB) were isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans.133(1-2):85-90 1995 79 Antonio RV.744 Da and of 242 amino In order to investigate the in vivo substrate specificity of the type I polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that they encoded proteins of 391 amino acids with a molecular mass of 40. 27 Radcliffe Road. Clive. PEOPLES.4. Steinbuchel A. Waters. MA 02174. 40:292-300 2000 1983 245. Des Moines.. 6799 82 Ceres Circle. . Analysis of beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase genes of a methylotrophic bacterium.. D-48149. Oliver. Johnston.B. Nagoya University. F. the compositions can be prepared using WO9934687A1 July 15. J.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Rehm BH Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat Munster. Paracoccus denitrificans. Biotechnol.W. Germany. Maehara A. United States of America NICHOLS. Microbiol. Arlington. 1993 544. Court .. 400 Locust Street. Faculty of Agriculture. Mayer. United States of America SAUNDERS. 800 Capital Square. 78 Yamane T Department of Applied Biological Sciences. 80 Karr. 1993. Emerich.K. 81 Steinb chel.182(1):111-7 Analysis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids by ion-exclusion high-pressure liquid Applied and environmental microbiology 1983. P. IA 50309.. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1995 Nov 1. 13188 Pincrest Lane. In one embodiment. Munster. D. M. and their expression in Escherichia coli. we functionally expressed the PHA synthase gene in various Escherichia coli mutants affected in fatty acid beta-oxidation Objective Hardware Ablage Yabutani T.xls . chromatography and UV detection 46(6):1339-1344 Analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid-biosynthesis genes of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria reveals synthesis of a polyester exhibiting an unusual composition Appl. Scott . D. 1999 1999 ANIMAL NUTRITION COMPOSITIONS . Ueda S. Liebergesell. IA 50325. INC. Corrensstr. Analysis of in vivo substrate specificity of the PHA synthase from ralstonia eutropha: formation of novel copolyesters in recombinant escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2000 Jan 1. 3.. A. IA PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL. Japan.

[1-14C]dlactic acid.g. Thus. a protocol for electroporation was optimized by systematic alterations of growth conditions..42(7):715-9 1996 Henry E.S. Ser.M.. Valentin. USA. 89 Holmes. 247. A novel antibody to PHB for use in the preferred analytical method is described. 16:32-36 Steinb chel. 1985. method for detecting the presence poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) which can be used as an indicator of atherosclerotic risk. To develop a system for gene replacement in Nocardia corallina. Division of U. Goodman. No. A. P. time constant and the electroporation buffer. A. .S.) Objective Hardware Ablage Reusch. 83 Board of Trustees Operating Michigan State University. UNIV MICHIGAN (US) Antibodies for PHB Anti-lipolytic effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate US5880269 1999-03-09 Meatabolism 1969. 19 pp. Germany Application of enzymatically synthesized short-chain-length hydroxy fatty acid coenzyme A thioesters for assay of polyhydroxyalkanoic Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract acid Volume 40 Issue 5 (1994) pp 699-709 1994 synthases Application of recombinant gene technology for production of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids: biosynthesis of poly(4Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation hydroxybutyric acid) homopolyester 1994. D37077 Göttingen.A. [1-14C]l-lactic acid.E. Grisebachstrasse 8. 1994 1985 565. the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase I gene in Nocardia corallina. Valentin. Dennis D Department of Biology. Alexander 87 Steinbüchel Institut für Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversität Göttingen. B. field strength. method is described. [3-14C]d-(-)hydroxybutyric acid.269. 18(11):906-915 1999 1969 86 Valentin HE. VA replacement of 22807. H. 2:67-74 Applications of PHB .. Can J Microbiol 1996 Jul. etc. James Madison University.4. rabbit anti-PHB IgG w An analytical method for detecting the presence poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) which can be used as an indicator of atherosclerotic risk. Antibodies for PHB REUSCH ROSETTA 84 N (US) Hellmann. 809.Technol.. Senior. USA U.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. D. Transformation efficiencies of 0.a microbially produced biodegradable thermoplastic Phys. Rosetta N. 88 Sch"nebaum. 85 H.E. A novel antibody to PHB for use in the preferred anal..page 79 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract An anal. Application of an optimized electroporation procedure for Harrisonburg. 317.5 x Various hydroxyacyl coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters were synthesized from the corresponding hydroxyalkanoic acid (such as e..xls .

ViennaInst. *Lubtiz W 91 Univ. Austria.65(2-3):173-82 1998 The poly(betahydroxybutyrate) (PHB) biosynthetic genes of Ralstonia eutropha that are organized in a single operon (phaCAB) have been cloned in Escherichia coli. Bohrgasse 9. Wanner G. (1998) 65. A1030 Vienna. Slater S. Austria.Microbiol. 2-3. University of Vienna. Although it is com.xls . 1998 The poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis genes (phaCAB genes) of Ralstonia eutropha that (organized in a single operon) were cloned in Escherichia coli using vector plasmid pTZ18UPHB. Germany Approaches to increase the economy of the PHB production Polym. Slater 92 S. (1998). 183-186 Resch S.. Arbeitsbericht September 1984-März 1985 J Biotechnol 1998 Oct 27. Leipzig.4.Genet. It is independent of the carbon source and the type of nutrition. 173-82 transfer and expression in Escherichia coli 1998 kopiert Resch S. Dr. Dennis D. Wanner G. leading to the formation of 50-80% PHB/cell Objective Hardware Ablage Ackermann. Degrad. PHB has several interesting properties. Gruber K. Dennis D. Aqueous release and purification of poly(betahydroxybutyrate) from Escherichia coli. . 90 Wolfgang University of Leipzig. Gruber K. Lubitz W 93 Bogensberger.page 80 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A review with 11 refs. Stab. Escherichia coli. Jorg-Uwe. 59(1-3). Babel. Institute of Microbiology and Aqueous release and purification of poly(betaGenetics. B. Ralstonia eutropha recombinant biodegradable thermoplastic preparation by vector plasmid pTZ18U-PHB-mediated phaCAB gene J. The ability to synthesize polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is widespread in prokaryotes. LO Institute of Microbiology and Genetics.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. University of hydroxybutyrate) from Vienna. where the expression of the genes in the wild-type pha operon from plasmid pTZ18U-PHB leads 241.Biotechnol.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (1997). Univ. more than 100 different hydroxyalkanoic acids have been already identified as constituents of these polyesters. David P.F. Gerrit. Aspects of PHB granule formation in vitro 1997 A combined chem. Meeting Date 1996.Bacteriol. Cambridge. 1990. Publisher: National Research Council of Canada.page 81 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Metabolix. Tillman U. 1985 318. Microfilms Int. 51(6). Germany Assembly of bacterial PHA granules and other aspects of PHA biosynthesis Int. Editor(s): Eggink. Slepecky. 96 Ralf Institut fur Mikrobiologie. Evanston.G. 94 02142. and enzymic procedure to synthesize poly-[(R)-3hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) granules in vitro was examd. E.xls . Roman. Gerngross. USA Int.. 2836 (English) 1990 Asymetric synthesis of (S)-methyl-3-hydroxyalkanoates from ketene and 2. Int. Ottawa. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (1997). Ont. Massachusetts.H. 82:33-36 1961 Bacillus megaterium KM spectrophotometric assay 83. Jossek. Ottawa. In most bacteria PH polyhydroxybutyrae polyhydroxyvalerate biocompatibility 95 J. D-48149. Publisher: National Research Council of Canada. 36-47. Ont. Department of Chemistry. Munster. 98 Wynberg. Martin. Avail.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.2-dichloraldehyes via 4-(1. Bath. 26(38):4665-5668 1990 Abstract unavailable. Northwestern University. Staring.J. Symp.. Symp.4. Bacteria are able to synthesize a large variety of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA).A. Alvarez. MA. Editor(s): Eggink. B Assessment of the biocompatibility of PHB and P(HB-HV). The granules form rapidly when purified recombinant polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Alcaligenes eutrophus is incuba A convenient spectrophotometric assay of bacterial poly-betahydroxybutyric acid has been devised. BRDX90145 From: Diss.. R. Meeting Date 1996. UK 276 pp. Westfalische WilhelmsUniversitat Munster. Inc..E. 1961. H. Bath. Steinbuchel. Univ. 1997 97 Kennedy. P. Order No. Wieczorek. 28-35. Bact.1dichloralkyl)-2-oxetanones Tetrahedron Letters 1985.. Hector. Harvarrd University. and Department of Biological Sciences. Quantitative conversion of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid to crotonic acid by heating in concentrated sulfuric acid and determination of the ultraviolet abso Analytics A review with 35 refs. Bact. Joanne Elizabeth Ketelaar. Cambridge. . Ilinois Assay of poly-beta-hyroxybutyric acid J. Alexander.Law. Gerrit. Abstr.

facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacterium oxidizing Journal of General Microbiology 1979. Autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism of 20017 Hydrogenomonas Journal of Bacteriology 1968. Trends Biotechnol 1998 Oct. Department of Biology.C. 71. The Catholic University of America. The Catholic University of America. a new species of thermophilic. Washington. 95:1469-1475 1968 Autotrophic mutants of Hydrogenomonas eutropha and H. or being considered for use.de production.. Department of Biology.4.C.Alcaligens (mixotrophic) cultivation in eutrophus . Aragno..Hydrogen plus either fructose or Heterotrophic growth alanine allowed Autotrophic growth autotrophic growth to Mixotrophic growth begin Strain . Autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism of Washington. 103 Steinbuchel A. 1979 255. DeCicco.Hydrogenomonas the presence of hydrogen facilis .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.16(10):419-27 1998 Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) and other structurally related aliphatic polyesters from bacteria. steinbu@uni. Fuchtenbusch B Institut fur Mikrobiologie.Alcaligens H2 and an organic eutrophus . 39:289-319 Bacillus schlegelii. form biodegradable thermoplastics and elastomers that are currently in use. . P. 102 Schenk. The facilis . P.Hydrogenomonas substrate for growth. A. D.T. B. Hydrogenomonas eutropha Dual substrate Ralstonia eutropha . A. 115:333molecular hydrogen 341 1970 1973 102.page 82 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 99 DeCicco. R.Metabolism The effects of the number of organic substrates on the autotrophic metabolism of Hydrogenomonas eutropha were examine. Stukus. Westfalische WilhelmsUniversitat Munster. 101 Mc Fadden. 100 Stukus.Hydrogen ratio of the cell yields Heterotrophic growth under dual substrate Autotrophic growth condition Strain . 101:339-345 Autotrophic CO2 assimilation and the evolution of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase Bacteriological Reviews 1973. B.E.Metabolism 101. referred to as polyhydroxyalkanoic acids.Bacterial and other biological systems for polyester muenster. hydrogenomonas: Regulation of autotrophic growth by 20017 organic substrates Journal of Bacteriology 1970. Germany.xls . M.E.. in industry. facilis requiring utilizable amino acids were employed to demonstrate the Hydrogenomonas eutropha simultaneous utilization of Ralstonia eutropha .T. D.

N. Biol. Ecol. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1996. . S.W. 15-24 (English) 1991 1991 groundwater nutrient bacteria polyhydroxybutyrate exopolysaccharide prodn The physiol. 3:23 Forum Mikrobiologie 1984. Fuller. 108 Lee. R. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. biopolymer. C. Fuller. Lenz. Macromol. J. More than 80 HAs have been detected as co 602. email: Sang Yup Lee (leesy@sorak. Macromolecules 1994.page 83 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 104 Bengtsson. Goeran Dep. Bacterial metabolism of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate Bacterial polyesters containing branched poly(beta107 Fritzsche. Several strains gave flocculent growth without any PHB detectable. M. R.. K. 12:92-101 1972 1983 1990 floccultation ... Swed. H. Pages: 114 polyhydroxyalkanoate. R. Gross.. FEMS Microbiol. 106 Tomita.T. fermentation 1996 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HAs) synthesized by numerous bacteria as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds and accumulated as granules in the cytoplasm of cells. habitats. poly(3hydroxybutyrate). Ecol.ac.kaist. The Bacterial flocculation and production of poly-betaNetherlands hydroxybutyrate 105 Deinema. Ecol.A.H. R. Hanna. 373-1 Kusong-dong. Univ. 248. The cells reduced their prodn. Bacterial exopolymer and PHB production in fluctuating Lund. Wageningen. kr) Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates Bacterial production of poly(á-hydroxyalkanoates) containing unsaturated repeating units by Rhodospirillum rubrum Bakterien produzieren Kunststoff Bakterien und Ammonium Batch cultivation of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b: V. Taylor.4. N.. Lenz.xls .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. M. T.. 27:1676-1679 Organ der (tm)sterreichischen Gesellschaft f r Natur und Umweltschutz 1983. W.24(6):857-8 Biochemistry of Metabolic Processes 1983 Int. 1990. Saito. Agricultural University.. M. 195. K. 281. .Y. Issue 1. Korea. R. ground-water Lund S-223 62. Yusonggu.. 1996. Other stra Laboratory of Microbiology. response of a strain of ground-water bacteria to short-term fluctuations in the quality of percolating water was followed in a continuous-flow watersatd.W. 350. Taejon 305-701.. 86(1). biodegradable plastic. T. R. 49:161171 1996 603. hydroxyalkanoate) units Appl Microbiol 1972 Dec. Ecotoxicol.. Ulmer.activated sludge Others 110.L.. 7:13-19 1994 1983 1984 492. D.C. of uronic acidscharacterized extracellula Experiments with a number of bacteria isolated from activated sludge have shown that flocculation is independent of the presence of poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) in the cells. Characterization of poly-á-hydroxybutyrate production under methane-dependent growth conditions Biotechnology & Bioengineering Volume 49. Chem. L 111 Kleiner. Korr.. 110 Lukschanderl.. 109 Weisbach. Posada. 112 Shah. Fukui. P. soil column. Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center.

xls .000-800.4. Saitama. Minimum lag periods and high growth rates were obtained in shaken flask cultures with a prepared gas mixture containin Strain .25(1-2):297-302 1988 Biochem.. 100. esp. of 50. G. National Institute of Allergy and Infectiuos Diseases.H 161.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. esp. R. Bicarbonate requirement for elimination of the lag period of 117 A.L. Behtesda.000.% poly-D(-)-3hydroxybutyric acid (PHB). A. comprise an opt. H. Catholic University. A. Luong. V. 401. granulated drug coated with 1-20 wt. The PHB has a mol. is produced in cytoplasm of various vacteria.page 84 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Batch culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17697T using recycled gas closed circuit culture system Batch Kinetics of Microbial Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Source / Application Number Year Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 1990. K. Ando Y Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. H. Ambrose. Tanaka. J. 69(3):170-174 1990 Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1988. 32:639646 1988 Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 591. celiprolol. 115 Fukada E. 1973. Mulchandani... Repaske. C..wt. poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB)..CO2 O2 Carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations have a profound effect on the lag period of chemoautotrophically grown Hydrogenomonas eutropha. 118 Binder-free delayed-release pharmaceutical granules DE3871840 1992-07-16 1992 . An optically active polymer. Japan.000. and Department of Biology. 116 Oeding. 143:239-248 1973 630.. Washington D. J. The drug. De.Metabolism Binder-free delayedrelease granules for oral or parenteral admin. M. T.A. 114 Leduy. The coefficient between the electrical polarization and the stress gradient 113 Ishizaki.C. Beta-Ketothiolase from Hydrogenomonas eutropha H16 and its significance in the regulation of poly-betahydroxybutyrate metabolism Biorheology 1988. Bending piezoelectricity in a microbially produced poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. A. Laboratory of Microbiology. Natinal Institute of Health. Lacy.C. Schlegel. Repaske. Maryland 20014. 107(3):712-717 1971 Hydrogenomonas eutropha Ralstonia eutropha Alcaligenes eutrophus . The bending piezoelectric effect was observed in oriented films of PHB.000-400. 20017 Hydrogenomonas eutropha Journal of Bacteriology 1971..

UFZ STOTTMEISTER ULLRICH PROF DR UMWELTFORSCHUN 119 (DE) GSZENTRUM LE (DE) Bio:technical production of poly-beta-hydroxy-butyric acid DE19619084 1997-11-06 1997 Process for biotechnical production of poly. Macromol.25(1-3):3-19 1999 Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) represent a complex class of storage polyesters that are synthesized by a wide range of different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as by some Archaea and that ar Pseudomonas lemoignei has five different polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) depolymerase genes (phaZ1 to phaZ5).G. ROGGE GERLIND (DE). 120 Alexander Institut fur Mikrobiologie. B. Germany Biochemical and genetic analysis of PHA synthases and other proteins required for PHA synthesis Int. A. J. and PH D. other proteins required for PHA synthesis. 122 T.. M.beta hydroxy-butyric acid (PHB) or copolymers comprises cultivating a methanotrophic bacterial strain in aqueous nutrient medium with a methane containing gas as sole carbon source and a free oxygen-contai Rehm. Andermann. GeorgAugust-Universitat zu Gottingen. KNAAK ELVIRA (DE).Jendrossek.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. H. 3-19 1999 A review with 74 refs. D-48149. JECHOREK MIRKO (DE). Germany. bacteria as well as by some Archaea and that are deposited as 121 Rehm BH. Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie. HELM JANA (DE). Westfalische WilhelmsUniversitat Munster.Stanislawsky.D. Bernd H. which encode the extracellularly localized poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerases C. A. . A. and Gram-neg. Biochemical and molecular characterisation of Pseudomonas lemoignei polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase system J Bacteriol 1995 Feb. Westfalische WilhelmsUniversitat Munster.177(3):596-607 1995 529.xls . H. Frisse.page 85 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage WENDLANDT KARINDAGMAR DR (DE). and D. Munster. Biol... (1999).4. Steinbuchel.Schlegel Institut fur Mikrobiologie. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. Kratzin. 25(1-3).. poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHV) depolymerase. Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) represent a complex class of storage polyesters that are synthesized by a wide range of different Grampos. Biochemical and genetic analysis of PHA synthases and Germany.Behrends.

M. H. isolated from fresh water. Inoue. Scandola. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Kanagawa.Environ. Tonomura. Inoue Y. Departement de Genie Chimique. R.. poly-(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-beta-hydroxyvalerate)Canada. D. Email: Kasuya K. 128 Kamibayashi. Biodegradability: an assessment of commercial polymers Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation according to the canadian method for anaerobic conditions 1994. Microbiol. Tadahisa. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992. Yoshio. Tanaka T.g T.59(4):1242-6 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1994. Biodegradability of polymers in the environment: complexities and significance of definitions and measurements Biodegradability of Synthetic Polyesters by Poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB)-Decomposing Microorganisms Appl Environ Microbiol 1993 Apr.F.. Japan polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerase of Comamonas acidovorans YM1609.page 86 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Kasuya. 127 Swift. Quebec. . secreted a polyhydroxybutyratedepolymerase into the culture supernatant when grown on poly-betahydroxybutyrate (P3HB) or a poly-betahydroxybutyrate and polybeta-hydro Wheat starch granules and poly-(betahydroxybutyrate-co-betahydroxyvalerate) [P(HB-coHV).4. 2:121 1994 573. 12. Lotti. Saitama 351-01. Akehata ydoi@postman.xls . Tanaka. 4844-52 1997 Ramsay BA. 129 Day.W... 2-1 Hirosawa.. (1997) 63... Langlade V. Toshiaki. Schneider. N. Fukui. Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology. Lenz. 2:49-57 1993 1994 564. Takeshi. R. Doi. 48444852 1997 Comamonas acidovorans YM1609 secreted a polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase into the culture supernatant when it was cultivated on poly(3hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] or poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-3hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] as the s Comamonas acidovorans YM1609. Yoshiharu 123 Department of Bioengineering. Iwata. Increasing the starch content from 0 to 50% (wt/wt) decreased the tensile strength of P(HB-co-HV) from 18 MPa to 8 M Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. Fukui T. D. (1997). Cooney. Ken-Ichi.jp 124 Biochemical and molecular characterization of the polyhydroxybutyrate-depolymerase of Comamonas acidovorans YM1609. for polybeta-hydroxybutyrate degradation Appl. 103:339-346 1992 482. starch blends. Japanese Journal 1976 635. Japan. Environ. G.Microbiol.. 125 Ramsay JA Gilmore. Ecole Polytechnique de Biodegradability and mechanical properties of Montreal. Shaw. isolated from freshwater Appl. Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN).C.. A. 126 B. 63(12). Biodegradability of blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) with cellulose acetate esters in activated sludge. Takao. *Doi Y o. K. Fuller. Tokyo Institute of Technology.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Wakoshi. a freshwater isolate from Lake Biwa. Tanaka. enzyme purification and gene cloning in Escherichia coli.riken. K.. Iwata T. Akehata. (19. 227. Carreau PJ. M.1 mol% HV)] were blended at 160 degrees C.

McCarthy. 1. 2000 2000 132 NODA ISAO (US) PROCTER & GAMBLE (US) Biodegradable copolymers The present invention relates to biodegradable PHA copolymers comprising at least two randomly repeating monomer units. MA).10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.4. Cincinnati.beta. Michael S.page 87 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Gross.beta . (Tyngsboro. MA). (Chelmsford. composed of poly(. MA). University of Reeve. Isao The Procter & Gamble Company. Stephen P. MA). The present invention further relates to a plastic article comprising a biodegradable copolymer. wherein the biodegradable copolymer US5602227 1997-02-11 1997 .xls . 8. Richard A. (Lowell. US5439985 Aug. OH Biodegradable copolymers USRE036548 Feb. Massachusetts Lowell Biodegradable and hydrodegradable diblock copolymers 130 (Lowell.-alkanoate) component and a chemically synthesized polyester component formed by ring-opening polymerization. 1995 1995 A biodegradable and hydrodegradable diblock copolymer includes a naturally-occurring poly(. A method of forming the biodegradable and hydrode The present invention relates to biodegradable PHA copolymers comprising at least two randomly repeating monomer units. The present invention further relates to a plastic article comprising a 131 Noda.

10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. The present invention further relates to a plastic article comprising a biodegradable copolymer. The present invention further relates to a plastic article comprising a biodegradable copolymer.xls . wherein the biodegradable copolymer US5618855 1997-04-08 1997 134 NODA ISAO (US) Biodegradable copolymers and plastic articles comprising PROCTER & GAMBLE biodegradable (US) copolymers US5498692 1996-03-12 1996 The present invention relates to biodegradable PHA copolymers comprising at least two randomly repeating monomer units.4.page 88 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 133 NODA ISAO (US) Biodegradable copolymers and plastic articles comprising PROCTER & GAMBLE biodegradable (US) copolymers The present invention relates to biodegradable PHA copolymers comprising at least two randomly repeating monomer units. wherein the biodegradable copolymer US5489470 1996-02-06 1996 . The present invention further relates to a plastic article comprising a biodegradable copolymer. wherein the biodegradable copolym 135 NODA ISAO (US) Biodegradable copolymers and plastic articles comprising PROCTER & GAMBLE biodegradable (US) copolymers The present invention relates to biodegradable PHA copolymers comprising at least two randomly repeating monomer units.

the second RRMU has the structure .4. and n is 1 or 2. 137 NODA ISAO (US) Biodegradable copolymers and plastic articles comprising PROCTER & GAMBLE biodegradable (US) copolymers of 3-hydroxyhexanoate US5502116 1996-03-26 1996 The present invention relates to biodegradable PHA copolymers comprising at least two randomly repeating monomer units (RRMU) wherein the first RRMU has the structure wherein R1 is H or C2 alkyl.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. The present invention further relates to a plastic article comprising a biodegradable copolymer.xls .page 89 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 136 NODA ISAO (US) Biodegradable copolymers and plastic articles comprising PROCTER & GAMBLE biodegradable (US) copolymers of 3-hydroxyhexanoate US5536564 1996-07-16 1996 The present invention relates to biodegradable PHA copolymers comprising at least two randomly repeating monomer units (RRMU) wherein the first RRMU has the structure wherein R1 is H or C2 alkyl. and n is 1 or 2. wherein the biodegradable copolym . the second RRMU has the structure an 138 NODA ISAO BIODEGRADABLE COPOLYMERS AND PLASTIC PROCTER & GAMBLE ARTICLES COMPRISING (US) BIODEGRADABLE COPOLYMERS WO9520614 1995-08-03 1995 The present invention relates to biodegradable PHA copolymers comprising at least two randomly repeating monomer units.

dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile properties Polym. Research Institute of Material Science and Technology (INTEMA). 141 Vazquez. Mar del Plata.xls . Int. (1999). NIDA Res Monogr 1981.. Galego. crystallinity. Engineering Faculty. Fernandez. Mar del Plata University. P. 7600. Thermal behavior. 705-712 1999 Blends of poly(3hydroxybutyrate)-poly(3hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) and polyalcs.28:232-53 1981 Cyras. have been prepd.page 90 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 139 NODA ISAO BIODEGRADABLE COPOLYMERS AND PLASTIC ARTICLES COMPRISING PROCTER & GAMBLE BIODEGRADABLE COPOLYMERS OF 3(US) HYDROXYHEXANOATE WO9520615 1995-08-03 1995 The present invention relates to biodegradable PHA copolymers comprising at least two randomly repeating monomer units (RRMU) wherein the first RRMU has structure (I) wherein R<1> is H or C2 alkyl. the second RRMU has structure (II). The classes of polymer which form the basis of different types of drug delivery systems are discussed. 48(8). and mechanical properties are co 140 Pitt CG. morphology. Marks TA. polyalcohols blends: crystallinity. and the relationships between the chemical structure of the polymer and its permeability. Biodegradable films from PHB-8HV copolymers and Argent. biodegradability. used were castor oil (CO) and polypropylene glycol (PPG400 and PPG1000). A. N.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Schindler A Biodegradable drug delivery systems based on aliphatic polyesters: application to contraceptives and narcotic antagonists. and n is 1 or 2. by solvent casting. The polyalcs. V.4. .

Cellulose fibers processed processing cellulose with I-melt exhibited polyhydroxybutyrate biodegrdn defibrillation as shown synergism by SEM. Technol. are made by injection moulding synthetic block copolymers with the formula: -(A)n1-(B)n2(A)n3. Mar del Plata University.page 91 ID Adress(es) / Applicant(s) 1Research Institute of Material Science and Technology (INTEMA). N Galego Fernández 2. ADLER BERNHARD PROF DR (DE). 51(7).cellulose with PHB. morp SCHAFFER JUERGEN DR (DE). dynamic mechanical analysis.xls .. J. Microscopic studies of extd. Thermal miscibility. (PPG400 and PPG1000). Swed. crystallinity. These prods. Argentina 2Laboratory of Polymers. fibers Poly(ether ester) block copolymers based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polylactic acid (PLA) segments were synthesized and characterized. VOIGT HANS-DIETER DR (DE). (7600) Mar del Plata.22(11):993-1009 1988 . Materials and Reagents Institute. dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile properties Polymer International Volume 48. 143 KAKUSCHKE ROLF DR (DE) BUNA GMBH (DE) Biodegradable floral creations for non-inflammable Christmas trees DE4433661 1996-03-28 1996 Artificial florist's creations made of biodegradable plastic are esp. 1999. Polym. Younes H Biodegradable PEO/PLA block copolymers. Dep. Goeteborg S. Engineering Faculty. Pages: 705-712 1999 Blends of poly(3hydroxybutyrate)-poly(3hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) and polyalcohols have been prepared by solvent casting. with the aim of developing a new family of bioadsorbable polymers. Havana V P Cyras 1. Christmas trees and florist's accessories. Mathiasson. Sci.. Synergistic effects of processing Chalmers Univ. The materials developed were tailored to meet va Casali Institute of Applied Chemistry.. Appl. Issue 8. polyhydroxyalcanoates. Justo 4302. during the processing of cellulose with bacteria-produced polyhydroxybutyrate (I). P. polypropylene glycol. B.A)n1 = readily biodegradable bl 144 Gatenholm. School of Applied Science and Technology. Technol. II. 145 Cohn D. J Biomed Mater Res 1988 Nov. and polypropylene glycol castor oil. The polyalcohols used were castor oil (CO) blends. Polym. J. 412 96. Biodegradable natural composites. A University. Israel. Havana City 1 142 Vázquez 1 * Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Biodegradable films from PHB-8HV copolymers and polyalcohols blends: crystallinity. 1231-7 (English) 1994 1994 This article reports on the synergistic effects obsd.. Hebrew University of Jerusalem. membrane behaviour.4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. A.

I. Kunioka. i.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 44(10).. Tadashi. 3:291297 Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 146 Paetau.. especially poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB). metabolic pathways of PHAs. Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHAs) are insol. Azotobacter and Rhizobium meliloti. C.Address) China National Information Centre of Industrial Microbiology. Liang J 148 Biodegradable plastics . Su T. Eligia M. A 589. 1991 . PHB is produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus. These polyesters are synthesized by a variety of microorganisms. 97-115 (Polish) 1996 1996 review microorganism polyhydroxyalkanoate A review with 112 refs. (1997) 27. People's Republic of China. A. Y. 147 Steinb chel. M. Kagaku to Kogyo (Tokyo). Segawa.Microbiol.4.. Source / Application Number Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1994. Biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4hydroxybutyrate) produced from gamma-butyrolactone and butyric acid by Alcaligenes eutrophus Polymer communications 1989. by biosyntheses review and stereospecific hydration ester stereospecific hydration of review esters. poly-betahydroxyalkanoate production by fermentation for use as biodegradable plastic Ind... Lodz. Amagasaki 650. Japan Biodegradable polymer (PHB) and synthesis of raw materials for them. Tai. Shanghai 200233. Effects of cross-linking and cellulose incorporation on mechanical properties and water absorption Biodegradable plastics (Pub.. 285.e. in water. 1994 1992 Poly-betahydroxyalkanoate. and their significance for living cells are dis 151 Kikukawa. 150 Szewczyk..page 92 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Biodegradable plastic made from soybean products. 1740-3 (Japanese) 1991 A review with 11 refs. 353 Guiping Road. production was studied with a view to using the products in biodegradable plastics. Akira Nard Inst.xls . Zhou H.poly(hydroxyalkanoic acids) (PHA) synthesized by microorganisms. on poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB)-type polymers. Ltd. 3polyhydroxybutyric acid hydroxybutyric acid biosynthesis optical active acid derivs. Akademia Medyczna. Biotechnologia. Chen.. 2:211 Current Opinion in Biotechnology 1992. (3). J. II. A. including the properties and prepn. Polymer accumulation in bacteria.. 37-44 1997 149 Doi. Biodegradable polyesters [polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA)] synthesized by microorganisms. 3. Zaklad Mikrobiologii Farmaceutzcznej.. 30:169-171 1989 437. of optically active review biodegradable polyester materials. Jane. Shanghai Institute of Industrial Microbiology. Pol.-Z.

10(1). Hoffmann T. Deng. Seebach 154 D 155 Doi. M. Kunioka.. Biodegradation of cyclic and substituted linear oligomers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Can J Microbiol 1995. Burger MH. Aeberli B. Sin. Org.6(9):775-95 1995 Brandl H. Gaofenzi Cailiao Kexue Yu Gongcheng.page 93 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 152 Zhang. Xianmo Chengdu Inst. Peop.41 Suppl 1:180-6 Biodegradation of Microbial Copolyesters: Poly(3-HB-co-3HV) and Poly(3-HB-co-4-HB) Macromolecules 1990. Switzerland. 64-8 (Chinese) 1994 1994 Studies were conducted on the miscibility. Acad. China Biodegradable polymer blends containing PHB and PCL or PECL. Chengdu. Bachofen R. and phase structure of poly(bbiodegradable polyester blend hydroxybutyrate)/poly(emiscibility crystn caprolactone) (PHB/PCL) phase structure polyester blend and polyhydroxybutyrate blend poly(b-hydroxybutyrate)/emiscibility crystn caprolactone-polyethylene polycaprolactone blend glycol block miscibility crystn copolymer (PHB/PECL) caprolactone polyethylene blends. linear 3-HB octamers obtained as either tertbutyl or 1995 1990 356.. oligo(3HB). Y. Lianlai. In addition. Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials. Ankara. All biomaterials must meet certain criteria and regulatory requirements before they can be qualified for use in medical ap 153 Piskin E Chemical Engineering Department. Kanesawa.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. crystn. was synthesized and purified. Chem. Schwegler I.xls .. Hacettepe University. Universitat Zurich. Muller HM.. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 1995. Polymers are the most diverse class of biomaterials. resulting in oligolides that contained three to seven (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate units (triolides up to heptolides). 23:26-31 Cyclic oligo(3hydroxybutyrate).4. Y. . The PHB/PCL glycol block copolymer blends were imm Biomaterials are used in prostheses and medical devices for different purposes. Rep. Lengweiler UD. Institut fur Pflanzenbiologie. Turkey.

of CO2 at 5-10 mg C/L. of PHB. R. J. Fuller. Watanuki.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Objective Hardware Ablage Itoh.. D. FEMS Microbiol Rev 1992 Dec. Tomohiko. 639-43 (Japanese) 1994 1994 Degradeable Materials: Perspectives. Kersters K Laboratorium voor Microbiologie. Sper. 43(8). A polyepichlorohydrin blend bacterium which produced Aureobacterium saperdae extracellular enzymes that biodegrdn polyhydroxybutyrate degraded I even when polyepichlorohydrin blended 1995 Degradation of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) and copolymers with 3hydroxyvaleric acid was investigated in natural environments. Veg. by the sewage bacteria was followed by the prodn.. Carta Fibre Tess. The degrdn... Mas-Castella. Patrizia.xls . 2675-86 (English) 1993 Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1995. a biodegradable plastic. Graziano. 194(10). F. Issues and Opportunities.page 94 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The aerobic biodegrdn. Ezio Urmeneta. 1990. Cell. Bulli.-cast films of poly(D-()-3-hydroxybutyrate) (I) blended with the meltcompatible component atactic polyepichlorohydrin (II) biodegrdn polyhydroxybutyrate was investigated. The influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the degradation is disc 514.. Anderson C. J. Shin-ichi. 159 Guerrero. Belgium.4.9(2-4):317-21 1992 . chlorinated biodegradation intermediates. Naito. Alberto. Kanagawa Prefectural Public Health Biodegradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) and Laboratories. Biodegradation of poly(D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate)/atactic Milan polyepichlorohydrin blends by Aureobacterium saperdae. Japan Biodegradation of Poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoates) biodegrdn polyhydroxybutyric acid wastewater chlorinated polyhydroxybutyric acid intermediate biodegrdn Yukagaku. Lenz. Artif. Mergaert J. Wouters A. Chem. PHB is metabolized via acetoacetic ac 353. 481-514 1990 Sadocco. Elegir. its Yokohama 241. started after 2-3 days of lag phase and it was 71-79% complete in 30 days. R.. Italy Biodegradation of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates in a lake sediment sample increases bacterial sulfate reduction Makromol. Tsutomu 156 157 Gilmore. Syoji. 61:2046-2048 1993 The biodegradability of soln. 20133. Universiteit Gent. 160 Swings J. Stn. Chiara. Biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates. and the microorganisms involved were isolated and identified. R. 158 Martuscelli. C. Unemoto. Seves.

by Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Alcaligenes eutrophus was studied using the following carbon sources and solvents: (1). Gross. and (4).10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. and bacterial produced PHB is com. R. Germany. 205-216 1998 Biodegradable polyesters such as biol.J.D 161 Schlegel E Biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids Bhalakia. Biodegradeable Blends of Bacterial Polyesters with 162 McCarthy. and encouraged by the discovery of new constituents of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (P 388.. available . Briese. N. Fax: +49 551 393793 e-mail: D. Jendrossek. Tshudy DJ. Germany hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase A from Pseudomonas lemoignei are sufficient for PHB binding Macromol. 44(7):14-17 1992 1991 1992 The formation of poly(betahydroxybutyrate). Grisebachstraße 8. J. 651. produced poly[(R)-3hydroxybutyric acid]. D3-ace PHB 655 652. Gross RA. M. Schirmer. Ddegradation. Department of Polymer Science and Engineering. Fuller 163 RC 164 Hartman. Ulmer HW. 37077 Göttingen. Symp. D3acetate in H2O. 130.14(1):33-40 Carbohydrates in the Netherlands 1991. Batel. (1998).page 95 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Institut für Mikrobiologie. Georg-AugustUniversitaet. 6 Energie 1992. PHB. 59-C-terminal amino acids of poly(337077. S. Lenz RW. acetate in 90 to 92% D2O.xls . P. A. acetate in H2O. Uden PC. (PHB) other polyhydroxyalkanoic acids and related chemosynthetic polyesters have attracted industrial interest.. 165 Lein. Jendrossek. (3). Biodeuteration of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate). S. Biological basis of enzyme-catalyzed polyester Goettingen. Bernd Holger. University of Massachusetts. Biodgradable Polymers Bio-Kunststoff bald aus Raps Int J Biol Macromol 1992 Feb. DJENDRO@GWDG. (2). Dieter 166 Institut Mikrobiologie Genetik. G. A. Amherst 01003. Brandt H. Georg-AugustUniversität Göttingen.. T.4. H. Polyethylene and Polystyrene Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 46 Issue 5/6 (1996) pp 451-463 1996 ??? 1990 Stimulated by the commercial availability of bacteriologically produced polyesters such as poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid].

BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FOR Cambridge. Gjalt. HUISMAN. Ser. N. C. David. Biopolymer production by Haloferax mediterranei. PHB is an interesting biopolymer 399. Univ. Alicante. 6:42979 Bio World 1997. J. M. 1:13-15 BioEngineering 1993.C. 1 1999 1996 1993 1997 615. H. INC.Poly(beta-Hydroxyalkanoates) NATO ASI Ser.4. . 204. Menner. Biopolymers . Starnecker.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 174 Inmaculada Spain 175 Braunegg.. Dep. 130-170 monomer units.. 52 Salem Street. Boston. United States of America SKRALY. F. . MA 02215.. 201(Gen. United States of America MARTIN. East Lansing 48824. potential due to its capacity as polymer producer. A. METABOLIX. R. 33 Heml Seeliger Bichler.Die Lösung des Müllproblems Biologische Vielfalt bakterieller Kunststoffe Biopol The unique biodegradable thermoplastic Biopol-one of nature's polymers WO9914313 1999-03-25 (tm)ChemZ 1996. Apartment 5... This microorganism accumulates poly-bhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as intracellular granules in very large amts. Boston. 168 169 170 171 172 173 Uttley. P. Alicante. 373-80 (English) 1991 1991 ??? poly beta hydroxybutyrate prodn Haloferax biopolymer prodn Haloferax The halobacterium H. MA 02113.9(2-4):119-29 1992 Short-chain complexed poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. Thi The gene encoding a 4hydroxybutyryl-Co A transferase has been isolated from bacteria and integrated into the genome of bacteria also expressing a polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase..xls . Drittler. 39 Bay State Road. Michigan State University. mediterranei is an organism of biotechnol. 321. MANUFACTURE OF United States of POLYHYDROXYLALKANOATE POLYMERS America CONTAINING 4-HYDROXYACIDS Biologisch abbaubare Polymerwerkstoffe Biologisch abbaubare Verpackungsmaterialien . 436. T. to yield an improved production process for 4HBcontaining polyhydroxyalk 470. Mol. H. MA 02142. Microbiol.. A. or by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. A. W. Garcia Lillo. . . Aspects Halophilic Microorg. 645. Rodriguez-Valera. A. Utz. Meseguer... G. Frank. Biological complexes of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. Langowski.). Anton. wherein it is usually associated with other macromolecules by multiple coordinate bonds. FEMS Microbiol Rev 1992 Dec.page 96 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 167 Reusch RN Department of Microbiology. is a ubiquitous constituent of cells. Luck.. Apartment 1F. Appl. Genet. 303 Third Street. Josefa.

Biosynthesis and characterization of hydroxybutyratePrinceton University. offer a number of novel material properties and commercial opportunities. T. Register RA Department of Chemical Engineering.4.N. 23:3705-3707 Biosynthesis and characterization of bacterial poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxypropionate) Macromolecular reports 1991.L.15(10):390-4 Environmental Science and Technology 1972. 180 Nakamura.umd. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 May. Karel SF. Int J Biol Macromol 1995 Apr. Kunioca.24(4):311-8 1999 Most polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) reported to date fall into one of two broad classes: either hydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate copolymers (typified by the PHA produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus). M. Biosynthesis and characterization of a new bacterial copolyester of 3-hydroxyalkanoates and 3-hydroxy-omegachloroalkanoates Macromolecules 1990. E.. 181 Caballero KP. Abe.Fikui 179 Doi.Fifth international symposium on pseudomonas: Biotechnology and molecular biology. or hydroxyoctanoate-rich heteropolymers (typified by the PHA Copolyesters of 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) were produced by Burkholderia cepacia D1 at 30 degrees C in nitrogen-free culture solutions containing n-butyric acid and/or n-valeric acid. 1995.17(2):86-92 1995 182 Mitomo H. Kiryu. Saito T Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering. Japan. Y. Kang. S. USA. August 2125.1 Workshop abstract. University of Maryland.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. both Bacteria and Archaea.. Ito H. Davis. C.. Kato. Pseudomonas 1995. M.K. 6(2):161-164 1997 1972 Biopolymers from marine prokaryotes. Biosynthesis and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) produced by Burkholderia cepacia D1. USA.. Tsubuka. Biopolymers of activated sludge Trends Biotechnol 1997 Oct.Doi. Y..page 97 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 176 Weiner RM 177 Wallen. College Park 20742.xls . 178 Y. Faculty of Engineering. Gunma University. Biosynthesis and characterisation of biodegredable polyesters by Pseudomonas sp.edu Biopolymers from marine prokaryotes. Doi. L. hydroxycaproate NJ 08544. C. Takahashi T. Japan 1995 534.. The characteristics of marine exopolysaccharides and melanins that enhance the survival ability of the organisms prod 312. rw19@umail. 533. When n-valeric acid was used as the sole carbo . copolymers. 1990 1991 551. Department of Microbiology. 28:15-24 Suppl.

Japan. Biosynthesis and n.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Haywood. A. Kunioka M Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization.12(2):106-11 1990 Anderson.r. The properties of the enzymes of poly(hydr Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 was grown on mixtures of 1H. Biosynthesis and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) in Alcaligenes eutrophus.r 352. UK. Inoue Y. G. Yokohama. . Department of Biomolecular Engineering. Department of Applied Biology. 184 Dawes.xls . Tokyo Institute of Technology. University of Biosynthesis and composition of bacterial Hull. Goto Y. but longer 3-hydroxyacid monomers have not been reported to occur in this organism. W.m. J. Tokyo Institute of Technology. Japan.and 2Hacetate as carbon sources. poly(hydroxyalkanoates) Int J Biol Macromol 1990 Apr. Segawa A.. G.4. E. A.. The accumulation of deuterated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) was observed. When Objective Hardware Ablage 183 Doi Y.12(2):102-5 1990 It is well established that Alcaligenes eutrophus can accumulate a copolymer containing 3hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate. Yoshie N. 185 Chujo R.page 98 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Copolyesters of 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) were produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus at 30 degrees C in nitrogen-free culture solutions containing gammabutyrolactone alone or with fructose or butyric acid as the carbon sources.m.14(2):81-6 1992 287. Int J Biol Macromol 1990 Apr. Biosynthesis and production of poly-D-(-)-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) Int J Biol Macromol 1992 Apr. The deuterium distributions in the isolated P(3HB)s were determined from 1H and 2H-n. Doi Y 186 Braunegg. studies of deuterated poly(3hydroxybutyrate) produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Sakurai M.

Y. acid and medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids Volume 42 Issue 6 (1995) pp 901-909 Grisebachstrasse 8.C. Nakamura. Y. Biosynthesis of an Unusual Copolyester (10 mol % 3-HB and 90 mol % 3-HV Units) in Alcaligenes eutrophus from Pentanoic Acid Int J Biol Macromol 1994 Jun. 190 Soga.. Lee (1). (1) Department of Chemical Technology.PEP Crude extracts from Hydrogenomonas eutropha strain H 16 catalyze the biosynthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate from pyruvate and adenosine triphosphate. Commun. M. Lenz. B. Seoul National University. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschft für Strahlen. Jendrossek (2). Japan.3-butanediol or from 3-hydroxybutyrate by 1995 Pseudomonas sp.. 79:220-230 (Article in German) 1971 Hydrogenomonas H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 pyruvate . Tamaki. K. Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). Kunioka.page 99 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. W. Schirmer (2). Schlegel. from 1. 27:45-49 Polyhydroxyalkanoates 3hydroxybutyrate · mediumchain-length 3hydroxyalkanoates · 1 · 3butanediol · Pseudomonas sp. A. R. 1987. Fuller. 20:2988-2991 Biosynthesis of methyl-branched poly(betahydroxyalkanoate)s by Pseudomonas oleovorans Macromolecules 1994. 1971. M.und Umweltforschung mbH München in Göttingen Biosynthesis of Phosphoenolpyruvate from Pyruvate by Extracts from Hydrogenomonas eutropha Strain H 16 / Synthese von Phosphoenolpyruvat aus Pyruvat durch Extrakte aus Hydrogenomonas eutropha Stamm H 16 Arch Mikrobiol. R. 61-3 isolated from soil was found to produce a polyester consisting of 3hydroxyalkanoic acids of even carbon numbers C4. Saitama. Choi (1). A. H. 189 Steinbüchel (3) Doi. C.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. A. 191 Hazer.. Soga. 1635-1636 1987 389. Fukushima T... The polyester produced was fractionated J Chem. Y. C8.W.Metabolism 164. A33 Biosynthesis of copolyesters in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 from 13C-labeled acetate and propionate Macromolecules 1987.16(3):115-9 1994 Pseudomonas sp. 491. Under identical conditions extracts from Escherichia coli synthesized phosphoenolpyyruvate from pyruvate als Strains . A33 and other isolates of aerobic bacteria accumulated a complex copolyester containing 3hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) and various medium-chainlength 3hydroxyalkanoic acids (3HAMCL) from 3-hyd 500. Korea (2) Institut für Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustBiosynthesis of copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyric Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Universität Göttingen..G. C10 and C12 when sodium gluconate was fed as the sole carbon source. Doi Y.xls . . 192 Frings. Y.. Biosynthesis from gluconate of a random copolyester consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and medium-chain-length 3hydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas sp. 1987 1994 324. Seoul 151-742. C6. Soc. Chem. A33 · polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase · polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase · biodegradable Pseudomonas sp. 61-3. D... College of Engineering. Y. 188 K. Kunioka..4. Eya H Doi. 187 Abe H. E.

Inoue 193 Y Department of Biomolecular Engineering. 35(3). Y. The optimum condition fo Nakamura K. Woo-Sik 195 Takeda. Eng.1% to 30%. Tokyo Institute of Technology. 412-418 Korean 1997 Appl. Dep. Koizumi. Japan.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Yoshie N. Tokyo Institute of Technology.. Microbiol. for growth were detd. Yoshie N.14(6):321-5 1992 It was found that an optically active copolyester. Int J Biol Macromol 1992 Apr. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) from threonine. Yoon. Eng. 120-749. were performed 598. Chem. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with Korea Alcaligenes latus Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) by a mutant of Sphaerotilus natans Hwahak Konghak (1997). Cent. 44:37-42 1995 . Geun-Do.. Ban. Jeong-Yeol. Optimum carbon and nitrogen sources and their concns. Chujo R Department of Biomolecular Engineering. Culture conditions for the optimum growth and biosynthesis of PHB in Alcaligenes latus DSM 1123 were investigated. 196 Ohashi. M. Hikuma.. Goto Y.. Goto Y.. Joon Taek. Inoue 194 Y.page 100 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Nakamura K. Yonsei Univ. threonine.. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) from amino acids. Oh. Cho. H.. The 3HV content of these polyesters ranged from less than 0. Japan. Int J Biol Macromol 1992 Dec. poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate). denoted as P(3HB-co-3HV). Biotechnol. Bioproducts Res. Seoul.xls . and batch and fed-batch fermns. 1995.4. Kim. M. J. Matsuoka... Coll. H. is synthesized by Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 from several amino acids under various fermentation conditions.. S.14(2):117-8 1992 A series of copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) was biosynthesized by Alcaligenes eutrophus from an amino acid.

Takeda (1). B.. Kang. Tel. Teng K. SH-1 and GW-014 from structurally unrelated single carbon 198 Lee. Uenohara. a biopolymer of important commercial applications. 199 Steinbuchel A 200 Koning. A. Kanagawa 240. E. Clostridium kluyveri . Sohling B. C.Y. McGill University. (2). The National University of Yokahama. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 1995. Ohashi (2). Poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid). C.4. Escherichia coli . Hein S.. Choi. Yamanashi Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-Co-3197 Koizumi (1) 409-01. NishiM.page 101 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage (1) Division of Bioengineering.H. is found in a wide range of Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria and cyanobacteria.de Escherichia coli. de. Biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in the luminescent bacterium. Ban Tokyo University. Canada. Fax: +49 (251) 83-38388. Chavarie. Y. Matsuoka (2). * Corresponding author.: +49 (251) 83-39821. J. Biodegradable polyester. 1:223-226 1997 1993 The aim of this study was the production of the homopolyester poly(4hydroxybutyric acid) (poly(4HB)) with recombinant strains of Escherichia coli.. I. Montreal. Polyhydroxyalkanoic acid. substrates Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 44 Issue 1/2 (1995) pp 37-42 1995 The copolyester of 3hydroxybutyrate and 3hydroxyvalerate was synthesized from the combined carbon sources of glucose and sodium propionate by a filamentaion-defective mutant of Sphaerotilus natans. Vibrio harveyi. 4-Hydroxybutyric acid metabolism..10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Hodogaya. Microbiol. H. Cao JG.J. which i 502. S. M. 201 Sun W. H. Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat Munster. 56:3133-3138 1994 1990 Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). The present study has resulted in the identification of PHB in the luminescent marine 355. . Biosynthesis of Poly-beta-Hydroxyalkanoates from Pentoses by Pseudomonas pseudoflava J Biol Chem 1994 Aug 12. Maxwell. F. A. Ramsay. Department of Biochemistry.-L. Ramsay. Germany. Hikuma (2). EBiosynthesis of poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) by recombinant mail: steinbu@unistrains of muenster.269(32):20785-90 Appl. Fax: +81 45 331 1704 (2) Department of Bioscience.-i. PHA synthase.A.. 79:328-334 1995 Keywords: Alcaligenes eutrophus . FEMS Microbiol Lett 1997 Aug 15. 202 J. J. N-(3-hydroxybutanoyl)homoserine lactone. Japan. 4-Hydroxybutyric acid-CoA transferase 505. Env.xls . Meighen EA Bertrand. Gottschalk G. Wildtype strains and other widely used nonrecombinant strai ganze Artikel 581.153(2):411-8 Biosynthesis of poly-(R)-3-hydroxyalkanoate: an emulsion Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation polymerization 1993. and regulation by the lux autoinducer. Quebec.M. 1990. Japa hydroxyvalerate) by a mutant of Sphaerotilus natans Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) by newly isolated Agrobacterium sp..

Yoshida. Rhee. 203 Kim.4. Young Ha. Biosynthesis of polyesters from various amino acids by Alcaligenes eutrophus. Kang Tae. Kawagoe-shi. A.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 25(1-3). Toshiaki. Bae. Daejeon 305-764. 52(7). Macromol. Yasuhiko. Inoue Y Yokohama. (Seoul). Microfilms Int. Avail. were examd.xls . Young Baek Department of Microbiology. Toyo University. for PHA prodn. J. Yoshie Technology. Abstr. Ahed Univ. Order No.. Japan. Korea Biosynthesis of poly-b-hydroxyalkanoates by Bacillus thuringiensis R-510. B 1992. Int J Biol Macromol 1993 Aug. Fukui. Kim. Microbiol. Int. Department of Applied Chemistry. Univ. This organism was resistant to poly beta hydroxyalkanoate relatively high concn. eutrophus cells. The cyclic process of biosynthesis and degradation of poly(3hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) was studied in Alcaligenes eutrophus under conditions of nitrogen-limitation of growth. Kyung Sook. 33(1). BRD-93846 From: Diss. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by Japan recombinant Ralstonia eutropha and effects of PHA synthase activity on in vivo PHA biosynthesis Int. Bradford. 3749 (English) 1990 polyhydroxybutyrate fermn Alcaligenes 1990 Abstract unavailable. (1999). Doi.page 102 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Abstract Synthesis and accumulation of poly-bhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in Bacillus thuringiensis R510 isolated from soil were investigated. eutropha phb operon. which had accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) of 55 wt% Department of Biomolecular Engineering. UK 302 pp. Jeong Yoon. Yoshiharu 206 Faculty of Engineering. Biol. 69-77 1999 Recombinant strains of Ralstonia eutropha PHB4. which harbored Aeromonas caviae polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) biosynthesis genes under the control of a promoter for R. 205 N. Tomoyasu.15(4):253-5 1993 Kichise. Saitama. Bradford. Biosynthesis of poly-b-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 (NCIB 11599): an experimental study to enhance the synthesis rate of poly-b-hydroxybutyric acid by Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 (NCIB 11599) using ammonium chloride-supplemented e J. Kuroki H. S. of manuf Bacillus propionate and had beta hydroxyalkanoate polymer the capability of manuf Bacillus accumulating copolymers consis Keyword(s) Objective Hardware Ablage Lee. Chungnam National University. Nakamura K. 59-65 (English) 1995 1995 204 Bitar. from various alkanoic aci . Tokyo Institute of Fujita M.

1987. A. Pseudomonas oleovorans and Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 52 Issue 1 (1999) pp 91-95 1999 Rhodococcus ruber a This study attempted to det. Fukui T. Toyo eutropha and effects of PHA synthase University.: +49251-8339821 Fax: +49. The biosynthesis of PHB started after 6 h 208 Fuchtenbusch B. 3hydroxyvalerate. were examined for PHA Objective Hardware Ablage 207 Kichise T. eutropha phb operon. Yoshida Y. 121-3 (English) 1994 polyhydroxybutyrate formation Bacillus 1994 Doi.. strains of University of Silesia. Sylwia. and 5-hydroxyvalerate in Alcaligenes eutrophus from 5-chloropentanoic and pentanoic acids Bull. D48149 Münster. 209 Kowalczuk. Izabella.: Biol. M. carbon source.Rapid Commun. activity on in vivo PHA Japan. Faculty of recombinant Ralstonia Engineering. Biosynthesis of terpolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate.4. Saitama. biosynthesis. Doi Y Department of Applied Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by Chemistry. the ability of Bacillus cereus to synthesize poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Katowice 40-032. Radecka. 42(2).de Tel. Soga... Y. 210 K. cereus was grown for 48 h at 30°C in a nutrient broth medium with glucose (1%) as an addnl. Makromol. Tamaki. Germany eBiosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates from low-rank coal mail: steinbu@uniliquefaction products by Pseudomonas muenster. Sci. Acad.25(1-3):69-77 1999 A screening identified several bacteria that were able to use chemically heterogeneous low-rank coal liquefaction products as complex carbon sources for growth. .. Corrensstraße 3. Steinbuchel A Labuzek. B. Pol.xls . Kunioka. Sci. which harbored Aeromonas caviae polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) biosynthesis genes under the control of a promoter for R.. Pol. bacteria.Chem. 8:631635 1987 325.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Marek Department of Biosynthesis of poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by some Biochemistry. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster.page 103 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Recombinant strains of Ralstonia eutropha PHB 4.oleovorans and 251-8338388 Rhodococcus ruber Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul.

Abe. T.Fermentation chemolithoautotrophic growth reutilization of .extracttion the synthesis and Strain .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 211 Fukui. Appl. 1995. Jaeger (1). Biotechnol.F. aeruginosa PAC1R or an overexpressing P. Microbiol. Fax: (49) 234 709 4425 E-mail: karlerich.Vienna Symposium of the Federation of hydroxybutyrate in microbial Biomass European Microbiological Societies 1977 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a widely found intracellular energy and carbon reserve polymer in procaryotic organisms..xls . Institute for Biotechnology TU Graz. J. 212 Steinb chel.. D-44780 Bochum. Pseudomonas sp.ruhrBiotechnological application of Pseudomonas aeruginosa uni-bochum.jp recombinant bacteria expressing the PHA Tel. T.: synthase gene phaC1 Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract +81-48-467 from Pseudomonas sp. A. H. 43:880-886 1995 Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage H. K. Gomez.. da. Y. M. which has been isolated from culture media of either industrial fermentation of wild-type P.riken.jaeger@rz.F.G.Extraction . Schimossek (2).Kinetics 56. Germany. B.g hydroxyalkanoates) by o. Doi Rodrigues.A. E... Liebeton (1). Extraction and Characterization of Poly-beta. 61-3 accumulated a blend of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] homopolymer and a random copolymer consisting of 3hydroxyalkanoate (3HA) units of 4-12 carbon atoms. K. Austia Biosynthesis. Zonta (2). 2-1 Hirosawa.page 104 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Polymer Chemistry Laboratory and the RIKEN Group of Japan Science and Technology Corporation. 61-3 Volume 53 Issue 4 (2000) pp 401-409 2000 Biosynthesis og poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid co-3-hydroxy-4pentenoic acid) from unrelated substrates by Burkholderia sp.C. R. A.E.1. (1) Lehrstuhl Biologie der Mikroorganismen.. 214 Reetz (2) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 46 Issue 2 (1996) pp 99-105 1996 Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes an extracellular lipase (EC 3. M. Silva. F.-E. The genes encoding <beta>-k 593.1. L. It has also been found in yeast. Lafferty. K.M..continous mechanisms involved in culture .4. Heinzle. Universitätstrasse 150. The biosynthetic Alcaligenes eutrophus pathway and regulatory Ralstonia eutropha . G. Matsusaki. Biosynthesis of Japan e-mail: poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3ydoi@postman. Saitama 351-0198.de lipase: efficient kinetic resolution of amines (2) MaxPlanck-Institut f and alcohols K. Jungschaffer. Taguchi.. H. Ruhr-Universität. RIKEN Institute. 213 srienc. aer .3).Wako-shi. Sonnleitner. Valentin.

200: 79-86 1976 Ketone bodies .E. P.P. Korneti. Reusch. Korr. Arhus.xls . 186. Biotechnological potential of halobacteria. 32:36740 Review 1982 No abstract. William H.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Arhus Amtssygehus. . F Braunegg. infusions of DL-3-hydroxybutyrate. Chem. In juvenile diabetics with high initial fasting concentrations of ketone bodies.. 2. 1996 1996 .. In more recent times their peculiar physiology involving extreme adaptation to the salt environment and o 242. of Okemos. MI Board of Trustees operating Michigan State University. Biotechnologische Gewinnung von Poly-D(-)-3hydroxybuttersäure (PHB) und deren Anwendung Biotechnologische Gewinnung von Poly-D(-)-3hydroxybuttersäure und D(-)-3-Hydroxybuttersäure Biotechnology. Strempfl.v. Strempfl. Objective Hardware Ablage Departmento de Genetica Molecular y Microbiologia. From Medical Department III and the Department of Clinical Chemistry. 215 Rodriguez-Valera F 216 Braunegg. Tech.58:135-47 1992 219 Wildenhoff. G. L. An industrial view Biochem Soc Symp 1992. R.Blood Diabetics Ketone body tolerance has been studied in 26 diagnosed diabetics and 9 normal control persons after rapid i. 217 L. .. disappearance rates of aceto Others Compositions and method for providing a solid conductive electrolyte composition containing a polyhydroxyalkanoate poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) and a salt of a conductive metal are described.page 105 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The extremely halophilic archaebacteria (halobacteria) became an early focus of scientific interest owing to their role in salted food deterioration. of 220 Okemos.) J. The PHA is a biodegrada 103. G. East Lansing.. Spain.4.. MI Reusch. Universidad de Alicante. MI Branched poly(hydroxyalkanoate) polymer salt electrolytic compositions and method of preparation USRE035257 May 28. 1982. Blood ketone body disappearance rate in diabetics and Denmark normals after rapid infusion of DL-3-hydroxyburyrate Acta Med Scand 1976. K. Lafferty. Review 136.M. Rosetta N. 218 King. Biotechnol. Korneti. F. Österreichische Wissenschaftsmesse Wien (Article in German.

The bacterial synthesis is generally induced and promo 223 Maskow T. Breeding of a constitutive-producing strain of Streptomyces rochei PHA-34 that produces the lytic enzyme for Phaffia rhodozyma and extraction of astaxanthin using the Seibutsu Kogaku Kaishi. 1968. Hyogo 663-8227. Hamachi M. 129-143 (German) 1968 Hydrogenonmonas H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Entner-Doudoroff-Pathway molecular hydrogen 167. for instance as bulk plastics. REUSCH compositions and method 221 WILLIAM H (US) UNIV MICHIGAN (US) of preparation US5266422 1993-11-30 1993 Compositions and method for providing a solid conductive electrolyte composition containing a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and a salt of a conductive metal are described.. Schlegel.H. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen Catabolite Repression and Enzyme Inhibition by Molecular Hydrogen in Hydrogenomonas / Katabolische Repression und Enzymhemmung durch molekularen Wasserstoff bei Hydrogenomonas Arch.77(2-3):247-53 2000 Macromolecules 1995. R. Marchessault.de substrates. The PHA is biodegradable and biocompatible and provides a basis for batteries whi Nishi A.ufz. . Umweltforschungszent rum Leipzig Halle GmbH. H.G. 60-65 enzyme. the synthesis of the enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff degradative pathway is repressed. Kumagai C 222 General Research Laboratory. Nishinomiya. A similar response to molecular hydrogen has been observed in all (58) strains of hy Strain . (1999) 77.. Ozeki Corp. A. Japan. 2. recombinant enzyme production English 1999 The Phaffia rhodozyma lytic enzyme gene was cloned and expressed in Streptomyces rochei PHA-34 on induction by adding Phaffia sp. Calorimetrically recognized maximum yield of poly-3Germany.page 106 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Branched polyhydroxyalkanoate polymer salt electrolytic REUSCH ROSETTA N (US). Sektion Umweltmikrobiologie. 28:6108-6111 1995 1. calls for cheap raw materials and greater overall process efficiency.4. 225 Blackkolb. 4-9 Imazu Dezaike-cho. F. In Hydrogenomonas H 16 molecular hydrogen suppresses the adaptation to fructose. cell wall fragments into the fermentation broth. hydroxybutyrate (PHB) continuously synthesized from toxic maskow@umb.. Mikrobiol. A constitutive-producing strain was formed with the aim o The broader usage of polybeta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB).Metabolism 597. Carbon-13 Nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4hydroxybutyrate) in the bulk J Biotechnol 2000 Feb 17. Ohbuchi K. Babel W 224 Spyros.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls .

Cellular incorporation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate into plasma membranes of Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii alters native membrane structure. USA Catalytic degradation of poly-D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) J.page 107 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) polyhydroxybutyrate degrdn hydroxybutyrate polymer degrdn Synthesis of acidic exopolysaccharides. 227 Zevenhuizen. 34P (English) 1987 1987 294. Rep. Madden LA. Sadoff H.M. R. 226 L. Sichuan Norm. involvement of The University of Hull. Zheng. beta-1.J. 47:418-497 1981 183. Guochang Cell Biol.T. poly-betahydroxybutyric acid and extracellular polysaccharides in fast growing species of Rhizobium Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1981.25(1-3):43-53 1999 chain transfer in poly(3hydroxybutyrate) synthesis Ralstonia eutropha (Alcaligenes eutrophus) kopiert 231 Han. Peop. can act as chain transfer agent The appearance and size of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules during the development of O. China Changes in PHB granules during bacteroid development in Onobrychis viciaefolia nodules.2-glucan.. Univ. Pouton. 39(Suppl.. Harris R. M. L.). Anderson AJ. PHaseoli Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Majid. Reusch R. viciaefolia bacteroids were studied. Lab. We have identified a range of compounds which.4.P. 228 Beveridge T 229 Davis. Exopolysaccharide production by R. Chengdu 610066. Notarianni. Pharm. Cellular glycogen.. Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii incorporate polybeta-hydroxybutyrate into their plasma membranes.xls . Shanhua.B. transfer agents. Shah DT. when present during poly(3hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] accumulation by Ralstonia eutropha (reclassified from Alcaligenes eutrophus). Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. leguminosarum. C.33(5):435-44 Applied Microbiology 1964. 136-40 (Chinese) 1995 Onobryosis bacteroid polyhydroxybutyrate 1995 . 35(2).. Genetic transformation competence of both bacteria increase 310. 230 Asrar J Department of Chain termination in polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis: Biological Sciences.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. J. in non-aqueous solution Pharmacol. exogenous hydroxy-compounds as chain UK. Cellular lipids of a Nocardia grown on propane and nbutane Can J Microbiol 1987 May. Hiske T. Weishengwu Xuebao.W. neutral dellular polysaccharides and polybeta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) by Rhizobium is storngly dependent on cultural conditions and the strain s used. 12(4):301-304 1987 1964 Under growth-limiting conditions or conditions which mediate genetic transformation..

(1997) 21. U. . Department of Health. 235 Lee SY. *Lee Y H 233 Department of Genetic Engineering.. Characteristics of cell growth and poly-betaTaegu 702-701. 2.Technol.1. C.Biokhim. R. aceto-acetylCoAreductase and polyhydroxybutyrate-synthase) A brief review of the development of our knowledge about hydrogen bacteria is presented.4. is discussed in greater de Strain . Education.3. 85-90 1997 234 Repaske. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Public Health Service. Korea. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology.Mikrobiol. with emphasis on the characteristics and physiological differences of various Hydrogenomonas species. Kyungpook National University. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996 May 15. the activities of certain enzymes involved in the primary and intermediate metabolic pathways f Alcaligenes eutrophus transformants AER3. Belova L L. College of Natural Sciences.M.. 2:263-269 1996 1994 Abstract unavailable. eutrophus encoding acetyl-CoAacetyltransferase (EC2.W.782:133-42 Characterization and enzymatic degradation of a crossJournal of Environmental Polymer Degradation linked bacterial polyester 1994. transformants harboring cloned phb CAB genes. Bethesda. Trotsenko Yu Moscow oblast. A 142292.16). polymer production by fermentation Enzyme Microb.Metabolism Park J S. 1. Maryland Department of Chemical Engineering. Lenz.. South hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis of Alcaligenes eutrophus Korea. 80-83 Russian 1997 When the nitrogen supply to the facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens 15 grown in a methanol-containing medium was turned off. 232 Changes in the metabolism of the polyhydroxybutyratesynthesizing facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens. 8:217235 1966 Hydrogenomonas eutropha Alcaligenes eutrophus Ralstonia eutropha cytochromes 90. Fuller. National Institutes of Health.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Hydrogenomonas eutropha. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis Prikl. Pushchino.xls . 566. Yusong-gu Taejon. T.. R. and Welfare. (1997) 33. Huh T L. Chang HN 236 Scherer.page 108 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms. Characteristics of hydrogen bacteria Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1966. phbAB and phbC genes (from A.S. One species. Characteristics of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) synthesis by recombinant Escherichia coli. Sokolov A P. AER4 and AER5 harboring cloned phbCAB. Russia.

8 kb EcoRI fragment carrying nodGEFH and part of nodP of Rhizobium meliloti 41 was cloned in pUC18 to yield pAB503.ac. 1984. Paris.mutant. of expression in a Dwivedi. Kim.231(3):375-84 1992 Department of Agricultural Chemistry.E. France.depolymerase from 7528011 Xanthomonas sp. JS02 Characterization of intracellular accumulation of poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) in individual cells of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 by flow cytometry Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 53 Issue 3 (2000) pp 323-327 2000 Biotechnology and Bioengineering Symp.4. Agriculture. USA Microbiology (Reading. Radhey S. Herman. The nucleotide sequence of a 2 kb SalI-SmaI fragment of A bacterium. 1984 232. Characterization of an Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 gene homologous to Alcaligenes eutrophus phbB and to Rhizobium meliloti nodG. 26:982-987 239 H. H. capable of degrading an aromatic medium-chainlength polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHAMCL). JS02. Sunchon 540-742. Institut Pasteur. J. J. Elmerich C Departement des Biotechnologies. Mol Gen Genet 1992 Feb.). Kim 240 Srienc.-S. F. 140(10). Enkiri. B.sunch Characterization of an extracellular on. Bailey. U.. 1998). This component was weakly synthesized or was missing in bacteroids of a unique Nod+ Fix. unique Nod+ Fix... 14 kDa component of bacteroids of Bradyrhizobium japonicum I-110ARS was identified and characterized using monoclonal antibodies. was isolated from wastewater-treatment sludge (Ju et al. 237 Eliot M.. Objective Hardware Ablage Characterization of a 14 kDa component with low Sikora. United State Dep. David. Nancy K.kr Tel.xls . Ju. ARS252 A 4 kb SalI fragment from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 that shares homology with a 6.page 109 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A pronase-sensitive. K. Beltsville. Korea e-mail: hoon@sunchon. . 2761-7 (English) 1994 Bradyrhizobium PHB limiting membrane protein 1994 238 Vieille C.: +82-661poly(3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate) 7503294 Fax: +82-661.Bradyrhizobium japonicum. poly(3-hydroxy-5phenylvalerate) (PHPV). Arnold. Lawrence J. Sunchon National University.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. MD 20705-2350. Kuykendall..

and of its structural gene. D. Anderson.41 Suppl 1:160-9 J Bacteriol... 127:481-489 1976 374. 1953. Morphologically. C. 9747 AG Characterization of intracellular inclusions formed by Groningen. Characterization of the extracellular poly(3hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase of Comamonas sp. 246 L.G. 52:91-96 1988 335.crystal microscopy. Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversitat Gottingen.X-ray viscosity. Marchessault. Backhaus M. 89:245-251 1965 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from different bacterial genera was studied with regard to its crystal structure. Jendrossek D. Bacteriol. W..noctane . The Pseudomonas Netherlands oleovorans during growth on octane. R. Syracuse University. Wynberg H 242 Scott.xls . Characterization of the Protoplasmic Constituents of Bacillus megaterium Can J Microbiol 1995. 241 Kingma J. . 244 Andermann M 245 Weibull. and electron diffractometry . A. R.. C. intrinsic characterization of PHB .. Schnaitman. New York Characterization of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate extracted from different bacteria J. Characterization of Intracytoplasmic Hydrocarbon Inclusions from the Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Acetinobacter Species HO1-N J Bacteriol 1983 May.poly-betahydroxyoctanoate characterization The growth of Pseudomonas oleovorans on n-octane was characterized by the formation of intracellular structures. Universiy of Groningen. 66:696-702 1995 1953 The poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase structural gene of Comamonas sp. G. Witholt B. Department of Bacteriology and Botany. 243 C. All PHB morphology of PHB samples precipitated from viscosimetry .4. Department of Chemistry. E. L. C.. 1976. Characterization of two 3-ketothiolases posessing differing substrate specifities in the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesizing organism Alcaligenes eutrophus Fems Microbiology Letters 1988.page 110 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage de Smet MJ. and College of Forestry at Lundgren. they resembled the poly-betaStrain kopiert J Bacteriol. Germany. These inclusions were isolated and characterized.A.J. Chu. R. (phaZCsp) was cloned in Escherichia coli and identified by halo formation on PHBcontaining solid medium..154(2):870-8 1983 Pseudomonas oleovorans . Syracuse. Haywood. 1965. infrared absorption.W. Biological Research Laboratories.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.molecular dilute chloroform solution weights gave identica Morphology 80. Alper.H. Finnerty. The nucleotide sequence of a 1719 base pair MboI fragment was determi 367. Dawes. Eggink G.

(R)-(-)microbial polyester hydroxycarboxylic acid. Taejon 305-701. H. Tokyo Institute of Technology. 1999. Schlegel.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.4. 58:380-409 (German) 1967 chemostat Hydrogenomonas H16 Ralstonia eutropha H16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 Hydrogen A chemostat for growing Knallgasbacteria with limiting concentrations of hydrogen of oxygen is described.. There are many potential uses for these copolyesters owing to their biodegradability and biocompatibility. Mikrobiol. E. 1990. Wang F kr) chemicals Marchessault. several depolymerization. Both faseous components were produced by electrolysis of the mineral medium. Biol.ac. nyoshie@bio.page 111 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 247 Yoshie N. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen Chemolithotrophic Growth of Hydrogenomonas H 16 Using Electrolytic Production of Hydrogen and Oxygen in a Chemostat / Chemolithotrophes Wachstum von Hydrogenomonas H 16 im Chemostaten mit elektrolytischer Knallgaserzeugung Arch. (R)-(-)-3 Copolyesters kopiert 346. J. Macromol. C. Dec 20/27:18-53 Department of Biomolecular Engineering. Issue 3.xls . Chemicalweek Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. Lee Y. polyhydroxyalkanoates polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). one of which was located outside the culture vessel Strain Fermentation 171. By using two anodes.. Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center. R.kaist. . Inoue Y 248 Plastics 1990. Alcaligenes model latus compounds. 373-1 Kusong-dong. Yusonggu.25(1-3):193200 1999 1989 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and its copolymers with hydroxyalkanoates are naturally occurring thermoplastic materials produced by bacteria. Pages: 363368 1999 Int. 1967. influenced by the alkane side-chain Biotechnology & Bioengineering Volume 65. Korea email: Sang Yup Lee Chiral compounds from bacterial polyesters: Sugars to (leesy@sorak. chiral compound.G. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. H. Chemical composition distribution of bacterial jp copolyesters. 1989. F. Yokohama. vivo Using this method. Japan. in (PHAs) was developed.ac. G. Chiral poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoates): an adaptable helix 251 Morin. 12:158-165 1990 A novel and efficient method for the production of enantiomerically pure (R)-(-)-hydroxycarboxylic acids by in vivo chirality. depolymerization of polyester. J. 249 Schuster. The 385. Monasterios. plastics to fine 250 Lee SY..titech.

Russia poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) Plast. Bayly RC. Germany... V. S. A. the single fibres have d Weathering of films from LDPE/poly(hydroxybutyrat e) blends was studied.39(3):309-17 1993 605. Ol'khov.4. . L. Pref. V. e 255 Valentin HE. of irregularly oriented single fibres of spun polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB) or a copolymer of PHB and polyhydroxyvalerianic acid. Ivanov. Vlasov. MOELLER KNUT DIPL ING (DE).: evidence that the gene is both plasmid and chromosomally located. A. Iordanskii. Steinbüchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie.118(1-2):14552 1994 The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) synthase gene (phaCAc) of a species of Acinetobacter isolated from an activated sludge treatment plant was cloned by heterologous complementation in a polybeta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) negative mutant of Alcaligenes eutrop A cosmid gene bank of partially EcoRI-digested genomic DNA from Methylobacterium extorquens IBT no. 6 was screened for DNA fragments restoring polyhydroxyalkanoic-acid (PHA) accumulation in the PHA-negative mutant Alkaligenes eutrophus H16 PHB-4. irregularly oriented fibres . Lomonosova. Monash University. PHB affects LDPE matrix initiating degrdn. (6). Victoria.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. B. Climatic aging of composite films based on LDPE and 253 V. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1994 May 1. 19-21 1998 Department of Microbiology. The M. at the interface and leading to accelerated aging of the film. 254 Schembri MA. Davies JK Cloning and analysis of the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase gene from an Acinetobacter sp. MITKhT im. compressed on the lateral axis..page 112 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage WIETHAUP WOLFGANG DIPL PHYS DR (DE). HAUSER BERNHARD DIPL 252 CHEM DR (DE) BAT CIGARETTENFAB GMBH (DE) Cigarette filter contg. M. GeorgAugust-Universitat Gottingen.comprises spun poly:hydroxybutyric acid or copolymer of hydroxybutyric acid and poly:hydroxy:valeric acid DE4013293 1991-11-07 1991 A cigarette filter comprises a section of a fibre strand. Cloning and characterization of the Methylobacterium extorquens polyhydroxyalkanoic-acid-synthase structural gene Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1993 Jun. A.xls . Massy (1998). Australia. Moscow. Clayton.

Ken-Ichi. (1999).H. PhaZPst was composed of 1728 bp encoding a protein of 576 amino acids. GeorgAugust-Universitat Cloning and molecular analysis of the poly(3Gottingen. The poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthetic pathway from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem 1992 Oct 1.170(10):4431-6 1988 540.4. Federal hydroxyalkanoic acid) gene Republic of Germany. Kasuya. Urawa.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 22807. an A. eutrophus H16 genomic library was constructed by using cosmid pVK102. Saitama University. W.C. Ohura. Takeshi. Voige. D. J Bacteriol 1988 Oct. Analyses of the N-terminal amino acid sequence Genes coding for polybeta-hydroxybutyrate were removed from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 and cloned into Escherichia coli. James Madison University. a polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase g . the polyhydroxyalkanoate gene locus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was cloned and characterised at the molecular level. Dennis. Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie. Microbiol. 338-8570. S. Two genes coding for polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases.xls . Initially. 189-197 1999 257 (US) DENNIS DOUGLAS E INNOVATIVE TECH CENTER (US) Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway US5518907 1996-05-21 1996 Department of Biology. 65(1).. Japan 256 Yoshiharu Cloning and characterization of the polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerase gene of Pseudomonas stutzeri and analysis of the function of substrate-binding domains Appl. Virginia Alcaligenes eutrophus 258 Slater. and cosmid clones that encode Objective Hardware Ablage Graduate School of Science and Engineering. Environ.. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the Harrisonburg. phaC1Pa and phaC2Pa.E. Doi. locus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.page 113 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The extracellular polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase gene (phaZPst) of Pseudomonas stutzeri was cloned and sequenced. Some of the clones produced PHB to 90% of the cell weight.209(1):15-30 1992 From genomic libraries. H16 poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway. 259 Timm A.

vinosum strain D in lL47. 262 Alexander Institut fur Mikrobiologie. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN).4. Pseudomonas sp. This fragment and sub . Doi Y J Bacteriol 1998 Dec. Fukui T. hydroxybutyrate) and WakoPoly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3shi. strain 61-3. Taguchi K. Eur. two adjacent EcoRI restriction fragments of 5361 base pairs (bp) and of 1978 bp were cloned. Saitama 351-0198. biosynthetic genes of Thiocystis violacea.180(24):6459-67 1998 261 Liebergesell M.. which produces a blend of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] homopolymer and a random copolymer poly(3 Matsusaki H. The 5361-bp EcoRI restriction fragment hybridized with a DNA fragment harbouring the Alc Liebergesell.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Biochem. Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie.page 114 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Polymer Chemistry Laboratory and the RIKEN Group of Japan Science and Technology Corporation. Kato 260 M. poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) in Chromatium vinosum strain D. 209(1).5-kbp EcoRI-restriction fragment was identified by hybridization with a DNA fragment harboring the operon for Alcaligenes eutrophus poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) synthase. strain 61-3. Manji S. GeorgAugust-Universitat Cloning and nucleotide sequences of genes relevant for Gottingen. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1993 Jan. Matthias. GeorgAugust-Universitat Cloning and molecular analysis of the poly(3Gottingen.xls . J. Steinbuechel. Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Two types of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis gene loci (phb and pha) of Pseudomonas sp. a 16. Federal biosynthesis of Republic of Germany. 2-1 Cloning and molecular analysis of the Poly(3Hirosawa.38(4):493501 1993 From a genomic library of Thiocystis violaceae strain 2311 in lambda L47. hydroxyalkanoate) biosynthesis genes in Japan. 135-50 (English) 1992 Chromatium polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis gene sequence ketothiolase acetoacetylCoA reductase gene sequence Chromatium PHA synthase gene sequence Chromatium 1992 From a genomic library of C. Federal hydroxybutyric acid) Republic of Germany.

Cloning of a cDNA encoding diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana and its functional expression. was isolated from soil samples and identified as Pseudomonas pickettii. Kitano Y..20).4. H. and reacted with peroxisomally available precursors because PHB synthesis in Georg-AugustUniversitat Gottingen. 263 Saito.20) catalyzes the final step of the pathway of triacylglycerol synthesis and is the only step which is unique to this proc From genomic libraries of the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum Ha and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC 17023 in the broad-host range cosmid pVK100. Osaka University. K. respectively.1. T. Inashiki 300-03.72(3):285-90 1992 . Norwich Research Park. Sci. Triacylglycerols are the most important storage lipids in most plants and animals. Yagi 264 K. 266 Hustede E. Japan. we cloned a 15.3..70-72:34152 1998 265 Hobbs DH.. Japan Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the poly(3hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase gene from Pseudomonas pickettii. Schlegel HG FRG. 357-61 (English) 1994 sequence PHB depolymerase gene Pseudomonas polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerase gene Pseudomonas 1994 An extracellular poly(3hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase (PHB depolymerase) producing bacterium. Cloning of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) synthase genes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodospirillum rubrum and heterologous expression in Alcaligenes eutrophus. Y. AcylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC 2. Tsukuba Research Center. Steinbuchel A. Mitsubishi Petrochemical Co. Miura Y. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1992 Jun 15. Hills MJ John Innes Centre.page 115 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Kurusu. H2-oxidizin Umeda F. FEBS Lett 1999 Jun 11. Y. Each of these fragment retained their catalytic activity. Stud. Murakami Y. Cloning and sequence analysis of the poly (3hydroxyalkanoic acid)-synthesis genes of Pseudomonas acidophila. strain K1. Mizoguchi T Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences.. Kohama.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. Lu C. The PHB depolymerase gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of strain K1 and th Pseudomonas acidophila can grow with CO2 as a sole carbon source by the possession of a recombinant plasmid that clones genes that confer chemolithoautotrophic growth ability derived from the H2-oxidizing bacterium Alcaligenes hydrogenophilus.3. Polym.1. Uchida. Yukawa..452(3):145-9 1999 Triacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC 2.and a 14-kbp HindIII restriction fragment. UK. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 1998 Spring.xls . Ltd. Arabidopsis thaliana. 12(Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers).

xls . USA.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Lee SY. Schlegel. synthase gene James Madison and production of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrateUniversity.44(7):687-91 1998 The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene (phaCNc) from Nocardia corallina was identified in a lambda library on a 6-kb BamHI fragment. Cloning of the Alcaligenes latus polyhydroxyalkanoate 373-1 biosynthesis genes Kusong-dong. The genes for I comprise polyhydroxyalkanoate synthetase. Matthias. EcoRI fragments which harbor Tn5-mob were isolated from pHC79 c Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are microbial polyesters that can be used as completely biodegradable polymers.8-kb XhoII subfragment was found to contain the intact PHA synthas . Taejon 305-701. Baldwin J.4. Appl. PCT Int. but the high production cost prevents their use in a wide range of 541. Peter. acetoacetyl C Schubert. production of Korea. Steinbuechel. Universitat Gottingen. 268 Alexander. Can J Microbiol 1998 Jul. Steinbuechel. co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) and Harrisonburg.page 116 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Liebergesell. VA poly-(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-322807. Yusongand use of these genes for enhanced gu. UK Cloning of polyalkanoate synthesis genes of Chromatium and manufacture of polyalkanoates with transgenic cells. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in Escherichia coli. Federal Republic of Germany. Cloning of the Alcaligenes eutrophus genes for synthesis of poly-b-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and synthesis of PHB in Escherichia coli. or in plants. hydroxyheptanoate). Appl Environ Microbiol 1998 Dec. at low coat by expression of the genes for synthesis of I in a bacterial host such as Escherichia coli. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. eutrophus defective in the intracellular accumulation of poly-b-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) were isolated after transposon Tn5 mutagenesis with the suicide vector pSUP5011. 269 Choi JI. Recombinant Escheri kopiert 270 Hall B. WO 9302194 A1 4 Feb 1993 1993 polyalkanoate synthesis gene Chromatium sequence Escherichia polyalkanoate manuf The biodegradable and thermoplastic polyalkanoate (I) is manufd. Rhie HG. Han K Department of Chemical Engineering. 267 Alexander Imperial Chemical Industries PLC. Institut fur Mikrobiologie. A 2. Hans G. Journal of Bacteriology 1988. Dennis D Cloning of the Nocardia corallina polyhydroxyalkanoate Department of Biology. 170(12):58375847 1988 Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate gene cloning Eight mutants of A.64(12):4897903 1998 applications.

T. ETH Hönggerberg. molecular analysis. Switzerland Closed-loop control of bacterial high-cell-density fed-batch cultures: Production of mcl-PHAs by Pseudomonas putida KT2442 Biotechnology & Bioengineering under Volume 65. J. Co-expression of 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase and 351-0198.biol. USA. Wako.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Yoshihiro. nucleotide sequence. acid.sources. 176(1).. 1999. 273 Bernard Witholt * *Correspondence to Bernard Witholt. Institute of Biotechnology.. Fukui. Hiromi. Kellerhals. poly(3. Aoyagi. ETH Hönggerberg. Japan polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase genes induces PHA production in Escherichia coli HB101 strain FEMS Microbiol. LABVIEW.xls . (1999). 274 Toshiaki. Dennis D Biology Department. ch) Appl Environ Microbiol 1999 Aug. Polymer Chemistry Laboratory and the RIKEN Group of Japan Science and Technology Corporation.65(8):3561-5 1999 The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase gene from Chromobacterium violaceum (phaC(Cv)) was cloned and characterized.3-kb BamHI fragment was found to contain both phaC(Cv) and the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (P bacterial genes. closed-loop control. K.page 117 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 271 Kolibachuk D.ethz. Some of these substrates. Matsusaki. and expression of the University. Doi. Pages: 306315 1999 single-substrate and cofeeding conditions Pseudomonas putida KT2442 is able to accumulate medium-chainlength poly(3hydroxyalkanoates) (mclPHAs) as intracellular inclusions on a variety of fatty acids and many other carbon polyhydroxyalkanoates. 171[1):184-189 1989 542. such as hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA). James Madison Cloning. Birgit Kessler. and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) prodn. Switzerland email: Bernard Witholt (bw@biotech. CH8093 Zürich.4. Chromobacterium violaceum. Miller A. Suzuki. Yoshiharu The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). Kazunori. octanoic remote control.hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis Institute of Biotechnology. Michele B. Virginia acid synthase (phaC) gene from 22807. CH8093 Zürich. A 6. polyhydroxyalkanoic Harrisonburg. Three plasmids resp. Cloning. 183-190 1999 . An equilibrium effect is proposed to explain the unexpected existence of 272 Saito. harboring fabGEc and the pol Taguchi. and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene for poly(3. Issue 3. Lett. alkenoic aci The Escherichia coli 3ketoacyl-ACP reductase gene (fabGEc) was cloned using a PCR technique to investigate the metabolic link between fatty acid metab.Yamamoto Journal of Bacteriology 1989.

170(1):69-75 Combined determination of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoic and cellular fatty acids in starved marine bacteria and sewage sludge by gas chromatography with flame ionization or mass spectrometry detection Combined procedure for assays of poly-betahydroxybutyric acid and inorganic polyphosphate Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis genes of Aeromonas caviae were expressed in Escherichia coli LS5218 (fadR atoC(Con)). Three pla FEMS Microbiol Lett 1999 Jul 1.F. G. Tunlid. (1999) 176. L. . P.synthase genes induces PHA production in Escherichia coli HB101 strain. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1986. 2-1 Hirosawa. was cloned using a polymerase chain reaction technique to study the metabolic link between fatty acid metabolism and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. G.Phys.Chem. Fukui T. pl Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. Westerdahl.176(1):183-90 1999 Taguchi K.page 118 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Taguchi K. Institute of Physical and Chemical Co-expression of 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase and Research (RIKEN). *Doi Y 276 Inst. Aoyagi Y.4. The Escherichia coli 3ketoacyl-ACP reductase gene (fabGEc) was cloned using a PCR technique to investigate the metabolic link between fatty acid metabolism and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. hydratase genes of Aeromonas caviae Fukui T. useful for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate by accumulation in bacterium FEMS Microbiol. Japan. Doi Y Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. designated fabGEc (I). A.Lett. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). Escherichia coli HB101 strain. Institute of Co-expression of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase and (R)Physical and Chemical enoyl-CoA Research (RIKEN).Res. 250.. 1. establishes copolyester biosynthesis 277 Y Japan. 52(4):1986 Journal of Microbiological Methods 1983.S aitama LO RIKEN Group of Japan Science and Technology Corporation.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Email: ydoi@postman. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1999 Jan 1.jp Co-expression of 3-ketoacyl-ACP-reductase and polyhydroxyalkanoate. 1:42736 1986 1983 320.xls .. Matsusaki H. 183-90 1999 Escherichia coli 3-ketoacylACP-reductase.. 3 Plasmids. J. A LS 1999 Odham. pathway in Escherichia coli.riken. Kobayashi G. 275 Fukui T. 278 Marden. Aoyagi Y.. polyhydroxyalkanoate Saitama.S. Doi Saitama. Yokomizo S. Wako-shi. and the polyhydroxyalkanoateproducing ability of the recombinants was investigated. Matsusaki H. Saitama 351-0198.. synthase genes induces PHA production in Japan. 279 Poindexter. Eley.g o.

00681-9019.xls . Part A: Polym. Polyhydroxamic acid (PHA) was prepared from polyacrylamide (PAA) and from polymethacrylamide (PMAA). PHB/PCL copolyesters were used as compatibilizers. Seong Ihl Woo (*) Department of Chemical Engineering.. Taejon. National Research Polyhydroxamsäuren verschiedenen Monatshefte fuer Chemie/Chemical Monthly 280 Salem (2) Center. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. No other enzyme used in this study showed activity toward PHB/V. El-Dokki. poly(-hydroxybutyrate-. Comparison of the catalytic activity of PHB-depolymerase. the blend of poly(<beta>-hydroxybutyrate) Yusong Gu. Mayaguez. studies suggested that enzym In order to increase the miscibility in the blend of poly(<beta>hydroxybutyrate) [PHB] and poly(<epsilon>caprolactone) [PCL]. poly(ethylenesuccinate).co--caprolactone) in the blend Yusong Gu. co-(3-hydroxyvaleric acid) 37(14). 2581-2585 1999 282 Bong Oh Kim. Reyes. M. Gad (1). University of Puerto Rico. El-Shafie A. and Polymer Bulletin Abstract Volume 41 Issue 6 Korea poly(<epsilon>-caprolactone) (1998) pp 707-712 1998 283 Bong Oh Kim. Polyacrylamide. and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid). Seong Ihl Woo (*) Department of Chemical Engineering.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. R.J. These PHB/PCL copolyesters w Objective Hardware Ablage (1) Petroleum Research Institute. Chem. Aponte. 373-1 Compatibilizing capability of Kusong Dong. 373-1 poly(<beta>-hydroxybutyrate-. Comparison Between the Electric Conductivity of Nasr City. and papain on poly(ethylene adipate). Polymethacrylamide. Cairo Polyhydroxamic Acids of Different Origin Wafaa M.. Emilio. Electrical properties. Diaz. Batista.page 119 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Summary.4. Yahia M. Abed (2) Vergleich der elektrischen Leitfähigkeit von (1). Cairo Ursprungs Abstract Volume 129 Issue 3 (1998) pp 245-252 1998 Polyhydroxamic acid. Semiconductors. Adalgisa. of Taejon.co-<epsilon>Kusong caprolactone) in Dong. Polym. Tousson A. Sci. Korea poly(-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(-caprolactone) Polymer Bulletin Abstract Volume 41 Issue 6 (1998) pp 707-712 1998 In order to increase the miscibility in the blend of poly(-hydroxybutyrate) [PHB] and poly(caprolactone) [PCL]. P. It was found that PHA from PAA has the properties of a semiconductor when it reacts with some met PHB-depolymerase degraded poly[(3hydroxybutyric acid)-co-(3hydroxyvaleric acid)] (PHB/V) significantly. loss and gel permeation chromatog. Hector R. PHB/PCL copolyesters were used as compatibilizers. Maria A. These PHB/PCL copolyesters were synthesized by transesterification in soluti . Korea Advanced Institute of Science Compatibilizing capability of and Technology. yeast lipase. Wt. Sayed (1) (*). (1999). 281 Department of Chemistry.

K.Microbiol.. Permoserstrasse 15.xls . A general 21 helical conformation for poly(beta-alkanoates) WO9738110 1997-10-16 1997 A poly-3-hydroxybutyrate metabolic pathway essential for Helicobacter pylori survival in a host is provided. Y. The Metabolite beta-ketothiolase had a concentrations · Methylotroph · relatively high Km for Methylobacterium rhodesianum acetyl-CoA (0. Competition between <beta>-ketothiolase and citrate Fax synthase during poly(<beta>+49-341-235 2073 hydroxybutyrate) synthesis in Methylobacterium rhodesianum Arch Microbiol 1996 Dec. Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 284 Mothes G. The PHA from cultures grown with trans-2-pentenoate of one Anaerobic syntrophic bacteria . Marchessault.Precursor fatty acids contained sm Copolyester 285 Amos. Fakultät für Biowissenschaften. Nakamura.. thiolase and PHB synthase as well as methods for their preparation and use are Makromol. KIETA HOLDINGS S A (CH) COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS RELATING TO DRUG DISCOVERY AND DETECTION AND TREATMENT OF GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES Conformational analysis of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) in Alcaligenes eutrophus by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy Conformational isimorphism. 209. 7:661664 1986 Macromolecules 1975. Department of Botany and Microbiology.H. Syntrophomonas wolfei grown on unsaturated fatty acid OK 73019-02450 USA substrates Arch.A. Poly-betahydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from crotonate-grown cutures of Syntrophominas wolfei contained only the Disomer of betahydroxybutyrate.4. 155:103-106 1991 420. University of Oklahoma. 287 Soga. Rivera IS. M. D04318 Leipzig. Norman. R. . 288 Cornibert.Unsaturated the substrate also Strain . 8:2961975 258. CORTHESY THEULAZ IRENE (CH). Y.of several hexenoates as Syntrophomonas . Germany Tel.J. Kunioka.Rapid Commmun. A novel Helicobacter pylori Coenzyme A transferase (Hp CoA-t). 1986.. +49-341235 2438. CORTHESY-THEULAZ 286 IRENE (CH) Doi. McInerney.. Babel W Universität Leipzig.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. J.166(6):405-10 1996 The enzymes betaketothiolase and citrate synthase from the facultatively methylotrophic Methylobacterium rhodesianum MB Poly(<beta>-hydroxybutyrate) · 126. Pharmazie und Psychologie. which uses the serine Citrate synthase · <beta>pathway. were purified Ketothiolase · and characterized.. Chem. M. D.. 770 Van Composition of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate from Vleet Oval. 1991.page 120 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) (1) Abteilung Biotechnologie.

and Polarographic oxygen electrodes. The data obtained f Plasmids containing the Alcaligenes eutrophus poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) biosynthetic genes were constructed for the production of PHB in Escherichia coli and plasmid stability was investigated by repeated subculturing without antibiotic pressure. Germany. and a redox electrode were used to measure dissolved H2. TU Graz Continuous mass spectrometric measurement of dissolved H2. glycerol. ethanol and/ . a mass spectrometer with a membrane inlet system. Madkour MH. et al Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat Munster. M. fructose. Construction of plasmids. Chang YK gu. ACKERMANN JOERG-UWE DR (DE). Yusung290 Lee SY. O2. E. comprises reacting methylobacterium or paracoccus species of bacteria with heterotropic substrates selected from glucose.4. Liebergesell M. Microbiol.41 Suppl 1:94-105 1995 Some mathematical calculations were done that provided information about the structure and biochemistry of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) granules and about the amounts of the different constituents that contribute to the PHA granules. Considerations on the structure and biochemistry of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoic acid inclusions. and use of stable plasmids for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) by recombinant Escherichia coli. Pieper-Furst U.CO2 continuously during redox electrode chemolithoautotrophic chemolithoautotrophic growth . Chang HN. Follner C. Taejon. Pries A. BioProcess Engineering Research Center. Aerts K. Institut für Biotechnologie. Mayer F. and CO2 during chemolithoautotrophic growth of European J. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. 292 BABEL WOLFGANG PROF DR (DE) UFZ UMWELTFORSCHUN GSZENTRUM LE (DE) Continuous preparation of poly:hydroxy:butyric acid DE19633858 1998-02-19 1998 Continuous biotechnology process for the preparation of poly beta -hydroxybutyric acid (PHB).cultivation of Alcaligenes Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 eutrophus H 16. Lafferty. 1980. estimation of plasmid stability.32(2):203-11 1994 kopiert 291 Heinzle. Yim KS.xls .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. J Biotechnol 1994 Feb 14. Alcaligenes eutrophus strain H 16 11:17-22 1980 Polarographic oxygen electrodes. R.mass spectrometry .page 121 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Steinbuchel A. 289 Valentin HE. Appl. Can J Microbiol 1995. O2. Biotechnol. A mass Ralstonia eutropha H 16 spectromete Analytics 68. Babel W.

Higashi-ku. glucose Continuous Production of Long-Side-Chain Poly-betaHydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas oleovorans Continuous production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DE 19633858 19 Feb 1998 1998 Appl. 294 J. I.beta. Microbiol. P(3HB) from CO2. PHB.4. Japan Control of acetic acid concentration by pH-stat continuous substrate feeding in heterotrophic culture phase of two-stage cultivation of Alcaligenes eutrophus for production of P(3HB) from CO2. J. Ayaaki Ishizaki * Fukuoka 812. used to make biodegradable polymers. A. N.. 503. Kyushu University.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Fukuoka. or Paracoccus sp. substrate inhibition. 1999. A.. is used to produce poly-d-3-hydroxybutyrate. 6-10-1 Toshikazu Sugimoto. (1999). Ramsay. 293 Babel W. 17:281-284 1991 1995 A new continuous method for the preparation of poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) involves reacting Methylobacterium sp. acetic acid or a m 400. Continuous preparation of polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB).. Alcaligenes eutrophus.. with heterotrophic substrates consisting of glucose. 820-8502. fructose. Takeharu Tsuge. ethanol. O2. acetic acid A-two stage culture method of hydrogenoxidizing bacterium. Shimizu. Hakozaki. 4(1). Kyushu Institute of Technology. Pages: 625631 1999 non-explosive conditions Alcaligenes eutrophus. Env. Marchessault. and H2 without using a very high oxygen transfer rate while maintaining the O2 concentration in gas phas . Tohyama. Eng. R. Germany.hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Ralstonia eutropha in Department of Food Science and Technology. Kazuyuki Japan 296 Control of a mixed culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Ralstonia eutropha for the production of PHB from glucose Biochem.page 122 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage UmweltForsch. H. Issue 6. B. 295 Koyama. by reacting Methylobacterium rhodesianum or Paracoccus denitrificans with e. Department of Biochemical Engineering. 57:625-629 Biotechnology Letters 1995.LeipzigHalle LO Leipzig. Ackermann J Ramsay. Saracovan. 45-53 via lactate 1999 The mixed culture system was considered in the present research where sugars such as glucose were converted to lactate by Lactobacillus delbrueckii and the lactate was converted to poly-. Masayuki. Y. feed control.xls . and O2 Biotechnology & Bioengineering under Volume 62. H2.g. 297 Kenji Tanaka. glycerol. Doi. 1991.Zent. Faculty of Agriculture.

R. Alcaligenes eutrophus NCIMB 11599 was cultivated to produce poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) from 299 Kim. Laboratory of Bioreaction Engineering. Chungnam 320-800. Chang. 301 Shimizu.. .. Tamura. acid produced in fed-batch culture of Protomanas Nagoya 464. Chem. Ken-ichi Fac. Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxybutyrate fermn was cultivated to produce Alcaligenes glucose feeding poly(3-hydroxybutyric tapioca hydrolyzate PHB fermn acid) (HB) from tapioca Alcaligenes feeding hydrolyzate using this meth Kinetics of poly(-D(-)-3hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) prodn. Eng.. 311-14 1995 A method was developed to estimate the glucose concentration in culture broth using CO2 evolution rate (CER) data from a mass spectrometer.xls . 300 Suga. Suteaki. Korea.Tech. San 30.4. pH. H. In poly(-D(-)-3hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) prodn. were studied in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 (ATCC 17699) fedbatch culture using butyric acid and valeric acid as carbon sources. Konyang Univ. Japan extorquens Appl. the effects of cultural temperature. 311-14 (English) 1995 1995 A method to est. Biotechnol. molar ratio of methanol and ammonia.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Tech. in the culture broth using CO2 evolution rate (CER) data from a mass spectrometer was developed.page 123 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Kim B S. Sci. Ho Nam Dep. Chungnam. Gekko. K. Shinji. Biotechnol. Deguchi. Korea Control of glucose feeding using exit gas data and its application to the production of PHB from tapioca hydrolyzate by Alcaligenes eutrophus. Microbiol. Eng.. 1988. Shioya.. Nagoya Control of molecular weight of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric University. 365-72 (English) 1994 1994 polyhydroxyalkanoate fermn Alcaligenes mol wt distribution Suzuki. Japan Control of molecular weight distribution and mole fraction in poly(-D(-)-3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) production by Alcaligenes eutrophus. and concentration of methanol Strain . Chang H N 298 Department of Chemical Engineering. poly-betahydroxybutyrate production from cassava Biotechnol. Suita 565. Control of glucose feeding using exit gas data and its Nonsam. Osaka University. at the conditions o Shimizu. Stud.. Chikusa-ku. 27:487-491 1988 Protomonas exoterquens molecular weight To control molecular weight of poly-betahydroxybutyric acid (PHB) produced in a fed-batch culture of Protomonas extorquens.. Naedong-ri. Polym.. T. 5. Ishihara. Yoshiyuki. Konyang University. the glucose concn. Hiroshi. S. application to the production of PHB from tapioca 320-800. Faculty of Agriculture.Polymer in the medium on polym "Eigenschaften" 297. 12(Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers).. Beom Soo.. S. Department of Food Science and Technology. Yamane. 9(5).. (1995) 9. hydrolyzate by Alcaligenes eutrophus.

140:953-963 Control of pyruvate and beta-hydroxybutyrate utilization in rat brain mitochondria and its relevance to phenylketonuria and maple syrup urine desease Journal of Neurochemistry 1976. USA. Mowbray. phosphate in cyanobacteria.4. Tsukuba. The University of Rhode Island. Rhodes 305 CT Department of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences. Kataoka K.B. W. the thermoplastic aliphatic poly(esters) . is controlled at the enzyme level and is dependent on the C/N balance in the culture medium..acetoacetyl-CoA hydroxybutyrate reductase. devices: different jainr@nanosys.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. the kinetic properties of 3ketothiolase. Alberta T6G 2E9. University of Alberta. Page. Department of Microbiology. J Bacteriol 1997 Aug. Agency of Industrial Science and Technology.179(16):5009-13 1997 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis in a cyanobacterium.xls . Shah NH. Tel: +1 403 492 4782. Kingston Controlled drug delivery by biodegradable poly(ester) 02881. Edmonton. Malick AW.3CoA reductase.com preparative approaches. Canada. J. Author for correspondence: William J. and betaketothiolase . Clark. Page.. Synechococcus sp.M. Asada 302 Y National Institute of Bioscience and HumanTechnology.J. Among the different classes of biodegradable polymers.24(8):703-27 1998 There has been extensive research on drug delivery by biodegradable polymeric devices since bioresorbable surgical sutures entered the market two decades ago. Jain R. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1998 Aug. J. Fax: Control of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in Azotobacter +1 403 492 2216 vinelandii strain UWD Microbiology 1994. Shirai M. The first enzyme is PHB s To better understand the reasons for the hyperaccumulation of poyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in mutant Azotobacter vinelandii UWS. J.. 304 Land.page 124 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Miyake M. 26:823-830 1994 546 korr 1976 235. The r 303 Manchak. Control of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate synthase mediated by Ibaraki. strain MA19. The control involves at least two enzymes. 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase were dehydrogenase examined. acetyl Japan. J. acetoacetylAzotobacter vinelandii .

.Que. Y. 16(3):532-? 1977 ketone bodies . Azuma.. Crystallization and compatibility of poly(vinyl Biomol. Nair PG. Yoshio Dep.. J./cryst. polymer blend. was studied by compatibility high-resoln.Kunioka. Gougeon.differential differential scanning calorimetry.54(3):314-21 1976 The possible role of increased vascular reactivity in the mechanism of experimental hypertension was studied by measurements of the critical opening pressure (COP) of tail vessels in conscious rats. 310 Sakurai.xls . Reyburn. Crystalline and thermal properties of bacterial copolyesters: Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4hydroxybutyrate) Macromolecules 1989. Inoue.colorimetry No abstract. RICHARDSON 306 KENNETH RAYMOND Durocher. 17-24 (English) 1995 1995 . J. Technol. composition and tacticity of poly(vinyl alcohol). Yoichiro. Sci. Yokohama 226. The 1H crystallinity PVA blend domain spin relaxation time (T1) size measurements indicate that both the compa 309 M.4. 308 Darke AC. Naoko.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. Japan Polym. Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization.co-4HB)) were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and P(3HB-co-4HB) . Corps cetoniques urinaires:Methode de dosage colorimetrique et utilite clinique EP0204442 1986-12-10 1986 Copolymers of poly( beta -hydroxybutyric acid) and poly( beta -hydroxyvaleric acid) are produced by culturing alcohol-utilising strains of Alcaligenes eutrophus on a carbon source including primary alcohols having an odd number of carbon atoms such a Bull.thermal properties diffraction p The compatibility of a cryst. Appl.Biochem. Minoru. solid-state hydrogen bonding tacticity PVA 13C-NMR and 1H NMR blend NMR spectroscopy.analytics 62. 307 Bigras. Tamaki. 227 Japan. X-ray Crystallinity scanning calorimetry Copolyesters crystallinity .X-ray diffraction . poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerat) (P(3HB-co3HV)) and poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-4hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HBCopolyesters . 56(1). COLLINS STEPHN HUGH. Tokyo Institute of Technology. C. ICI PLC (GB) Départment de Biochemie Hôpital Notre-Dame Copolymer production. Eng. Tokyo alcohol)/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) blends: influence of blend Inst.) (PVA)/ polyvinyl alc poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) polyhydroxybutyrate blend (PHB).P(3HB-co-3HV) . 22:694-697 1989 678.Hop. R.Ass. 1977. others . Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1976 Jun. Yokohama. Gaskell P Critical opening pressure and reactivity of tail vessels in conscious hypertensive rats. Yoshie.page 125 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage SENIOR PETER JAMES. In hypertension induced by administration of desoxycorti Two types of bacterial copolyesters.. A. poly(vinyl alc.. Doi.

1563-7 (English) 1992 1992 The crystn. 314 Hasan A. University of Bristol. Royal Fort. Wills Physics Laboratory. H. polyester hydroxybutyrate and calorimetric crystn melting measurements. widehydroxyvalerate copolymer angle x-ray scattering. Keller.J. 19:2781-2794 1984 crystallisation . UK hydroxybutyrate) and its copolymer Polymer journal 1987. Tyndall Crystallization and morphology of poly(betaAvenue. Points .. Data are presented on crystallization kinetics. Heinzel. Univ.Lateral origins they are Crystallinity Expansion exceptionally pur Copolyesters The melting and crystallization behavior of poly(<beta>hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(ethylene succinate) blends has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy.Solution as the reference Grown Single Crystal homopolymer. 2 ICI Agricultural Division. Billingham. Polymer. A. Phys.. Regensburg 8400. P.*. E. H.L. H.korr 313 Mitomo.4.Long Spacings . A. of Materials Science 1984.1.1. Al-Salah Polymer Science and Technology Research Laboratory.* College of Technology. morphology of melt-and solution-crystallized PHB. Tyndall Avenue.Lath. Gumma University. PO Box 1.Melting hydroxybutyrate (PHB). II. the varialtion of lamellar crystallisation thickness with cry morphology 1 H. Regensburg. Mu'tah Crystallization and morphology of poly(ethylene succinate) University. The spherulitic growth-rate This paper presents a number of interesting results on the physical properties of poly-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB). V. Gumma 376. Mu'tah. P. Barham.morphology 668. The results indicate that 677. Japan. A.HV) were studied as well P(3HB-co-4HB) . 311 Divjakovic. Inst. 33(7).P(3HB-co-3HV) .2 UK thermoplastic: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate J. * H. Keller. Kiryu. Crystallization and morphology of a bacterial 312 Holmes. Bristol. J. Bristol UK.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. and melting behavior of bacterially produced 3-hydroxybutyrate (I) homopolymer and I/3hydroxyvalerate copolymer were investigated by crystn melting hydroxybutyrate optical microscopy. Chemistry Department.. Cleveland. J. P-J. Skrbic. 19(11):1241-1253 1987 The morphology and structure of the bacterical plastics of poly(betahydroxybutyrate-betahydroxyvalerate) P(HBCopolyesters . poly(betaPropylene Carbonate . and Polymer Bulletin Abstract Volume 41 Issue 5 Jordan poly(<beta>-hydroxybutyrate) blends (1998) pp 593-600 1998 .A. Otun.1. Germany Crystallization and melting behavior of poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and PHB/hydroxyvalerate copolymer. Wills Physics Laboratory.xls . Barham. Z.page 126 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Owen..Because of bacterial Like Crystal . Universiy of Bristol.

Blundell. and thermal behavior of II/I blends were analyzed by DSC and microscopy. 3:37-47 Polymer 1993.. Isttituto di Ricerche su Tecnologia die Polimeri e Reologia. which had accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) of 55 wt% Cultivation engineering of microbial bioplastics production FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992. thermal and Crystallization . Ethylene-propylene copolymer . Cox. Milano. A.J. E. Y. Y. A. R.H. S. E.. M. Cyclic nature of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) metabolism in Alcaligenes eutrophus FEMS Microbiol Lett 1990 Jan 15.C. The crystn. Italy hydroxybutyrate)-based blends Crystallization behavior and its influence on the mechanical properties of a thermoplastic elastomer produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans Crystallization behavior of predominantly syndiotactic poly(á-hydroxybutyrate) Crystallization phenomena in bacterial poly(R)-3hydroxybutyrate Crystallization phenomena in bacterial poly(R)-3hydroxybutyrate Polymer 1989. G. Macromolecules 1992. Kawaguchi.. Gagnon. G. 321 Yamane.. Milan. 315 B. A.J. 320 H. 318 S. Italy Crystallization and thermal behavior of poly(D(-) 3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(epichlorohydrin) blends.A. eutrophus cells.W. Lemstra. Univ. Seves. Farris. 1995 1993 568. 25:3723-3728 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1995. L. M. 322 Yoo. Segawa.M. Polymer. Polymer 1994. Crystallization and thermal behaviour of poly(D(-)-3Napoli.. P. E.M.P. Lemstra. J. P. R. A... Gross. W-S.Blend morphology. Kemnitzer. 34(19):4089-4094 1992 543.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Yokohama. 34(5).J. 35(21):4598-4605 1994 556. Japan.55(1-2):165-9 1990 357. Dip. deKoning.phase structure. Tokyo Institute of Technology. Scheeren...4. 80072 Arco Felice.. 555. P... J. Martuscelli.. 319 deKoning. K. 483.E. Martuscelli.. CNR. Liggat. Elettrochim.Miscibility crystallization behavi Crystallization 300. Kim. Marcandalli. 996-1001 (English) 1993 1993 polyhydroxybutyrate polyepichlorohydrin rubber blend crystn thermal polyhydroxybutyrate polyepichlorohydrin rubber blend morphol polyhydroxybutyrate polyepichlorohydrin rubber blend polyester polyepichlorohydrin rubber blend Atactic poly(epichlorohydrin) (I) rubber was blended in a wide range of ratios with poly[D(-)3hydroxybutyrate)] (II) isolated from Alcaligenes eutrophus cultures.. 103:257-264 1992 Cybernetic model for synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1994. Chim. 458. T.D.. All 316 Greco. P. Reynaers. Beltrame. 323 Kunioka.C. Canette. Fis..xls . Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization. Lenz. McCarthy. The cyclic process of biosynthesis and degradation of poly(3hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) was studied in Alcaligenes eutrophus under conditions of nitrogen-limitation of growth. Poly(vinyl acetate) .J.. 30:1475-1483 1989 The influence of molecular structure and characteristics of an uncrystallized rubbery second component (ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) on the melt miscibility. Peeters.... R.page 127 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Dubini Paglia. Via Toiano 6. acid in Alcaligenes eutrophus 43:1043-1051 1994 Doi. 317 Fuller.J..J. D. M.. M. R. .

. 329 H.91(1):304-10 1966 Abstract unavailable. versene and MgCl2. Sadoff.. 328 Thun. H. R..10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.N. Dermot H. Es wird bei unbehandeltem Diabetes bei der Acidose in großen Mengen im Harn ausgeschieden.. Agrawal. 161-170 1983 ? 1975 D-(-)-Poly-betahydroxybutyrate is a constituent of the membranes and the cytoplasms of genetically competent Azotobacter vinelandii. Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 324 Stevenson LH. J Bacteriol 1983 Nov.Enzyme 133.P. Chemische analytics of beta-hydroxybutyric Bestimmungsmethoden acid . Maximum enzyme activity was observed in the presence of cysteine. Leckie.C. Jane D-(-)-3-Hydroxybutyrat D-(-)-3-Hydroxybutyrat findet sich im Blut und in den meisten Organen des Körpers. E. D-(-)-poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in membranes of genetically competent bacteria. M. Within each species the concentration of D-(-)-poly-betahydroxybuty 271.. Socolofsky MD J Bacteriol 1966 Jan. De. and Haemophilus influenzae cells. 325 Williamson. H. Aus dem Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen D-(-)-beta-Hydroxybuttersäure-Dehydrogenase aus Hydrogenomonas H 16 Biochem. 1963. Schlegel.C. 326 Schindler. The enzyme is stable at low temperatures and under w Strain . Mellanby. 339:154-161 1963 PHB-dehydrogenase Hydrogenomonas H 16 A soluble D-(-)-betahydroxybutyricdehydrogenase was isolated from cell-free extracts of Hydrogenomonas strain H 16.L.G. 327 Reusch.page 128 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Cyst formation and poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid accumulation in Azotobacter. D. 221.xls .156(2):778-88 Das Ende des Plastikzeitalters Wochenpresse D-beta-Hydroxybutyrate: A major precursor of amino acids in developing rat brain Journal of Neurochemistry 1975.4.beta-hydroxybutyrate beruhen auf der Oxydation dehydrogenase zu Aceton und colorimetri Analytics 52. 189. Korr. . Vivo. J.Z. Bacillus subtilis.

Antoun.P. This depolymerisation . Schlegel. 53-63 (English) 1993 polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerase Comamonas 1993 523. Jendrossek. and air. by bacteria and purification of novel PHB depolymerase from Comamonas sp. 1273-1275 (Article in French) 1966 No abstract. GeorgAugust Universitat 333 Briese BH. 334 Fuller. S.J.xls .Metabolism Isolation and purification of a bacterial depolymerase 122. A. Goettingen 3400. Sc. R.4.. Institut fur Mikrobiologie. Pseudomonas beta-hydroxybutyrate lemoignei Delafield. Knoke.. One was selected for special study and described as a new Pseudomonas lemoignei .J. Lenz. California Garvard. R.90(5):1455-66 1965 A number of aerobic pseudomonads capable of using poly-betahydroxybutyrate as sole source of carbon have been partially characterized. California. lake water. University of Delafield. R. Reynaud. 331 B. 330 N... Korr. as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from various soils.poly. Palleroni. Steinbuechel. Rahim Bahodjb.. 1(4):296-274 1994 The degradation of sheets of poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-3-hydroxyvalerate) (BIOPOL) by aerobic sewage sludge was analyzed. C. Lusty. activated sludge. PHB. C. Jendrossek D. Ingrid. Dahinger. M.page 129 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Department of Bacteriology... F. Doudoroff. PHB. C.species.C. Acad. Alexander. Environ. Dieter.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Polym. Hauttecoeur.hydrolases bacterium cons Strain . 332 Hans Guenter Inst.W. Mikrobiol.5. Georg-August-Univ. R. Gilmore. Degradation of the polymer was highly dependent on the pH of the culture medium and was maximal between pH 7 and pH 8. Bacteria capable of growing on poly(3hydroxybutyrate).. Degrad. depolymerase A J Bacteriol 1965 Nov. Contopoulos. Paris 1966. J. Although all bacteria utilized a wide variety of monomeric substrates for growth Depolymerization 120. Berkeley.. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1994 Mar 15.F. Degradation du lipide poly-beta-hydroxybutyrique par un extrait enzymatique de Bacillus Megatherium I. Habibian... Germany Degradation of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). 1(1). D. . FRG. R. Schlegel HG Gottingen. Decomposition of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by pseudomonads. Below pH 6 a 1993 562.119(3):396 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1993.117(1):107-11 Degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) by aerobic sewage sludge. Degradation of poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoates) and polyolefin blends in a municipal wastewater treatment facility Published erratum appears in FEMS Microbiol Lett 1994 Jun 15..

and copolymers o Extruded bioplastic was prepared from cornstarch or poly(betahydroxybutyrate-co-betahydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) or blends of cornstarch and PHBV. Imam SH.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. precipitation.65(2):431-7 Degredation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) by aerobic sewage sludge FEMS mikrobiology letters 1994. Autotrophic anaerobic growth under a gas atmosphere of hydrogen and carbon dioxide Strain . Linhardt RJ. Mayer. 337 H. Agricultural Research Service.Repaske.. National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research. 28. Schmitt E Division of Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry.Mikrobiol. 336 Tosteson TR. Gordon SH. poly(3hydroxybutyrate).4.. Govind NS.H. Degradation of poly(ester) microspheres. Biopolymer Research Unit.Jendrossek. The blended formulations contained 30 or 50% starch in the presence or absence of polyethylene oxide (PEO). Appl Environ Microbiol 1999 Feb. 338 H. D.11(9):679-85 1990 Biodegradable polymeric microspheres have been prepared by spray drying.Metabolism 149. 339 Pfitzner. Iowa City 52242. University of Iowa. 117:107-112 Degredation of Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) [P(3HO)] by bacteria: purification and properties of P(3HO) depolymerase from Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13 1999 1994 A.S.page 130 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Wang HT. R. . Peoria. Erosion of microspheres of poly(lactide). Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen. Degradation of starch-poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-beta-hydroxyvalerate) bioplastic in tropical coastal waters.Jendrossek. D. 1973.Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Denitrification The hydrogen bacterium Hydrogenomonas eutropha (syn. J. USA. Alcaligenes eutrophus) strain H 16 is albe to grow autotrophically with fructose and nitrate or nitrite. whi 527. H.Schlegel Applied and environmental Microbiology 1993. Schlegel.und Umweltforschung mbH Denitrification in Hydrogenomonas eutropha Strain H 16 / Arch. Illinois 61604. Greene RV Briese. 335 Flanagan DR. respectivela. copolymers of lactide and glycolide. 340 R. 90:199-211 (Article in München in Göttingen Denitrifikation bei Hydrogenomonas eutropha Stamm H 16 German) Applied and Enviromental Microbiology 1976.G. Department of Agriculture. 32:592-597 Dense autotrophic cultures of Alcaligenes eutrophus 1973 1976 Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16 . Schlegel.G. Shogren RL. rotary evaporation and press grinding methods. Biomaterials 1990 Nov.Schirmer. 59(4):1220-1227 1993 524.xls .G. Palmer H. U. B.

. Jolivet. Gavard.R. L'utilisation de très basses températures et du 55.Acad.R.Sc. Obtention et structure d'oligomères de l'acide D(-)betyhydroxybutyrique.. Jolivet. Paris 1975. al Analytics Certaines propriétés des Polymères provenant de la dépolymérisation partielle du PHB de Bacillus megaterium ont été étudiées par chromatographie sur papier fractionnement dans des solvants organiques et chromtographie sur colonne de DEAEcellulose. du lipide beta-hydroxybutyrique (ou PHB) de Bacillus megaterium.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. .. R. 2801-2804 1975 Depolymerisation Par dépolymérisation chimique partielle du PHB.R.4. Depolymerisation par voie chimique menagee. Gavard. 342 Hauttecoeur. on obtient simultanément des polymères homologues du PHB mais à chaine carbonée plus courte et des oligomères constituant les premiers éléments de la macromolécule.Sc. Jolivet. Depolymerisation. 274:2729-2732 SerieD 1972 Bacillus megaterium 146.. La structure chimique de ces oligomères. Ils so Par dépolymérisation chimique partielle du PHB. C. R. B. C.page 131 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 341 Michel. du lipide beta-hydroxybutyrique (ou PHB) de Bacillus megaterium. Gavard.Paris 1975. a Le PHB de Bacillus megaterium a été dépolymérisé par voie chimique dans le but d'obtenir des produits homologues du polymère naturel mais susceptible d'étre métabolisés par une enzyme isolée de la bactèrie.Acad. on obtient simultanément des polymères homologues du PHB mais à chaine carbonée plus courte et des oligomères constituant le spemiers élèments de la macromolécule. du lipide á hydroxybutyrique (ou PHB) de Bacillus megaterium C. Raymond. 344 Hauttecoeur. B. Obtention et structure d'oligomeres de l'acide D(-)betahydroxybutyrique. M. 343 Hauttecoeur. Paris 1975. M. par voie chimique menagee.xls . 280:2899-2902 SerieD 1975 145. du lipide beta-hydroxybutyrique (ou PHB) de Bacillus megaterium..Acad. M.Sc. Gavard Depolymerisation par voie chimique menagee. Jolivet. R.R. Dépolymérisation par voie chimique ménagée.Acad. B.Paris 1972. 2801-2902 1975 Bacillus megaterium 637. Sc.. C. La structure chimique de ces oligomères.

Nishimura. 349 Apostolides. par voie chimique menagee. T. The rate o Analytics Ohi. complexed with other biomacro Dissolved hydrogen concentration in the culture medium was determined by the tubing method during the cultivation of hydrogen bacteria.chem. ces mêmes polymères permettent d'isoler en grandes quantités Objective Hardware Ablage 345 Hauttecoeur. M.. M.R.xls . 13(13):62-63 1979 1981 hydrogen bacteria . consisting of butyrate and valerate residues. Biotechnol 1981.. 34. Okazaki. 274:1975-1960 SerieC 1972 Journal of Bacteriology 1964. Department of Biochemical Engineering.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 57(3):203-209 Eoropean J.. Seebach D. M. and function of hz..4. Dissolved hydrogen gas which diffused through the membrane of the tube was determined by gas chromatography.et Detection. M. K. R. Doudoroff.M. Gavard. ETH-Zentrum. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences.page 132 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract L'action du mélange BF3CH3OH sur des polymères issus de la saponification ménagée du PHB conduit directement à la préparation de tous les esters méthyliques des oligemères. Fritz MGSeebach D. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul.Acad. Switzerland. B.ch oligo(3-hydroxyalkanoates): contributions by synthetic organic chemists. synthesis. J. Potgieter. 348 Yoshiharu. 346 Merrick. Jolivet. seebach@org.. Fritz 347 MG Laboratorium fur Organische Chemie der Eidgenossischen Technischen Hochschule Zurich. Soumis au seul BF3.Paris 1972. Suita-shi.. Osaka cultivation and assimilation of gaseous substartes by 565 Alcaligenes hydrogenophilus Determination of PHB in activated sludge by a gas chromatographic method Journal of Fermentation Technology 1979.Sc. Z.25(1-3):217-36 1999 Two types of the biological macromolecules poly(R-3hydroxyalkanoates) have been identified: the highmolecular-weight microbial storage material (sPHA) and a short-chain variety.. J. 88:60-71 1964 144. Osaka University.gas chromatography 63. structure. J. du lipide beta-hydroxybutyrique (ou PHB) de Bacillus megaterium Depolymerization of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by an intracellular enzyme system C. Appl. Depolymerisation. . 192. Yamada Determination of dissolved hydrogen concentration during Kami. D. microbiol.

Canada.page 133 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Two new detection methods for the determination of poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) and -valerate (PHV) are described.. hydroxyalkanoates).10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 354 D. Determination of polyhydroxyalkanoates in activated Hesselmann RP. O. this approach was u Objective Hardware Ablage Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG). General Clinical Research Center and Fels Research Institute.E.BoneBonding Application ??? 1990 387. . Fleischmann T.. The rate of synthesis icreased moderately during the first postnatal week and then decreased rapidly reaching negligible rates by the end of the fourth Others 138. P(3HA).17(4):129-37 1993 Composites Polyhydroxybutyrate . 353 Knowles JC Mayer. Determination of solubility parameters for poly(3Quebec. Department of Medicine and Biochemistry.xls . J Med Eng Technol 1993 Jul-Aug. Kaplan. Temple University School of Medicine. Both methods are based on depolymerization of PHB/PHV to 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV). M. M. PA Development and regulation of lipid synthesis from ketone 19140. Hany Dubendorf. S. U. M. For polar polymers such as poly(3hydroxyalkanoates).25(1-3):207-15 1999 352 Patel. Owen. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. interaction between polar groups and hydrogen bonding. bodies by rat brain IRC Biomedical Materials. Queen Mary and Westfield College. Gross. Chemistry Department and Pulp and Paper Centre.S. Philadelphia. Development of a natural degradable polymer for London.. UK. 28:109-114 1977 ketone bodies Cerebral cortex slices from 1-day old rats incorporated actively 3hydroxy[3-14C]butyrate into lipids. Greenberger. orthopaedic use.4.S.35(2):111-9 1999 351 Terada M. J. chromatographic and enzymatic methods. Korr. Marchessault RH McGill University.. Zehnder AJ Switzerland.A. R. Development of Standard Methods for Accelerated Degradation Studies of Polymer Films Journal of Neurochemistry 1977. L. J Microbiol Methods 1999 Mar. McCarthy. Montreal.. Depolymerization was achiev The three dimensional solubility parameters defined by Hansen are based on dispersion forces between structural units. sludge by ion 350 R.

. 359 Schindler. Oktober (Article in German) 1964 beta-Hydroxybuttersäure Milchsäure Brenztraubensäure Bernsteinsäure . J. sind sie durch Übergangsformen mit den kleinen Purpurbakterien verbunden und dem Bakterienreich zw Strain 117. und zwar auf direktem Wege. 1964. BARTHA (1961) wird die H2Oxidation junger.Buttersäure Crotonsäure . Aus dem Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen Die Synthese von Poly-beta-hydroxybuttersäure durch Hydrogenomonas H 16: Die zu beta-Hydroxybutyrylcoenzym A führenden Reaktionsschritte Arch. 42:110-116 (Article in German) 1962 Chromatium okenii Thiospirillum jenense Obwohl sich die großen Schwefelpurpurbakterien vom Typ des Chromatium okenii und Thiospirillum jenense durch ihre Größe von der Masse der Bakterien abheben. in Puffer suspendierter Zellen von Hydrogenomonas H 1 und H 16 (BARTHA 1962: WILDE 1962) durch Kohlendioxyd auf das Vierfache erhöht. Mikrobiol. 18. Archiv f r Mikrobiologie 1962. Aus dem Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen Die Speicherstoffe von Chromatium okenii Archiv für Mikrobiologie 1962. applications 140. Die Biosynthese der Poly-beta-hydroxybutttersäure durch Knallgasbakterien II.downstream processing . Korr. Korr. kopiert 357 Kaltwasser. Dabei wird CO2 fixiert und in Strain . H.applications 356 Lafferty.-19.Acetate . W. 49:236-255 1964 Hydrogen Bacteria .G. Acetat wird ebenfalls in PHBS eingebaut. G. Graz. 358 Schlegel. Verwertung organischer Säuren Archiv für Mikrobiologie 1964. Die Gewinnung und Anwendung von Biopolymeren Die Rolle der Polyphosphate im Phosphatstoffwechsel eines Knallgasbakteriums (Hydrogenomonas Stamm 20) 1979 Nach Untersuchungen von SCHLEGEL u.. 47:230-235 (Article in German) VÖCH .Special Form von Po carbon sources downstream processing No abstract.4.xls .Essigsäure Hydrogenomonas H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 biopolymers .Chemietage 1979. Lactat und Pyruvat werden nach einmaliger und Succin Metabolism 126. 41:281-302 1962 253.M. . R.Metabolism Knallgasbakterien vermögen unter Ausnutzung der Knallgasreaktion Poly-ßhydroxybuttersäure (PHBS) aus Kohlendioxyd zu synthetisieren.page 134 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 355 Gottschalk.Calvin cycle . Steiner. H.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.

Department of Microbiology. Lenz RW Int J Biol Macromol 1998 Oct. in addition to the broader lines normally associated with bacterial cellular material. J Biol Chem 1986 Dec 25. J. 341:260-270 (Article in German. Chinju. glutamic acid and aspartic acid in air but not under knallgas. LBr.page 135 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 360 Gottschalk..10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.23(3):165-73 1998 1.xls . Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen Die Verwertung organischer Substrate durch Hydrogenomonas in Gegenwart von molekularem Wasserstoff Biochemische Zeitschriften 1965.. model for pyrolytic behavior was tested using PPX and then applied to PHB..Metabolism Medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates. MCL-PHAs. P. Smith. UK Direct pyrolysis mass spectra of poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) and poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Schaefer J Direct measurement of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) in a pseudomonad by solid-state 13C NMR. produced by bacteria as inclusion bodies or granules were analyzed in situ by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) without isolation from the cells. Ray. G. 5(3). Chemolithotrophically (with H2 + O2 + CO2) grown Hydrogenomonas H 16 can adapt itself to fructose.) 1965 Hydrogenomonas H 16 chemolithotrophic growth Biomacromolecules Research Laboratory. Univ. London.. Yaping. grown arithmetical Strain .4. Differential scanning calorimetric study of poly(3hydroxyoctanoate) inclusions in bacterial cells. Gao. Chem. Garbow JR. 362 Jacob GS. Gyeongsang National University. Toube. Dep. London E1 4NS. Trevor P. 413-15 (English) 1995 pyrolysis mass spectra polyxylylene polyhydroxybutyrate 1995 Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DPMS) was applied to poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) and poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) samples. 363 James H. Peter D. acetic acid. grown previously on fructose (in air). The 49. lyophilized samples of Pseudomonas sp. The Four narrow lines are observed in the highresolution crosspolarization magic-angle spinning 13C NMR spectra of intact. Yu SM. The validity of a math. 361 Song JJ. Chem. Simple cleavage at an ester bond . Mater. 2.261(36):16785-7 1986 Cook. Yoon SC. South Korea. Utley. The strain H 16.

366 Nishida. Chemical lysis employed sequential treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium hypochlorite.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. University of Waterloo. A.xls . DISPERSIONS OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES IN GEORGE NEIL (GB) WATER WO9721762 1997-06-19 1997 This invention relates to a dispersion of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) particles that improves the stability of the PHA and simplifies the process of making the dispersions. Moo-Young. 1:227-233 Diversity of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoic acid FEMS Microbiology Letters 1995. 367 Steinb chel. KRUEGER NIELS (DE).page 136 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 364 GEORGE NEIL (GB) MONSANTO CO (US). M. Y.4. Valentin. a producer of the intracellular bioplastic poly(beta-hydroxybutyric acid). was disrupted by chemical and mechanical means.. Tokiwa. Eng. 368 STEINBUECHEL ALEXAND (DE) DNA sequence useful for the production of MONSANTO CO (US) polyhydroxyalkanoates US5750848 1998-05-12 1998 A genomic fragment harboring the gene phaG was cloned by phenotypic complementation of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 mutants.M. Canada N2L hydroxybutyric acid): Comparison of high-pressure 3G1 homogenization. defective in the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) synthesis via de novo fatty acid biosynthesis but not affected in PHA biosynthesi . Y. Disruption of Alcaligenes latus for recovery of Poly(betaOntario. 1998. The invention relates to a composition Alcaligenes latus.. Department of Chemical engineering.E.. The SDS t 365 Tamer. 648. bead milling and chemically induced lysis Ind. Chem. Res. H. 37:1807-1814 Distribution of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(gammacaprolactone) aerobic degrading microorganisms in Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation different environments 1993. H.. 128:219-228 1998 645 korr 1993 1995 583. I. Chisti.

Perrier. St. Quagliano.jp Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas en Microorganismos (CIBEM). Kazuyuki Shimizu mail:shimi@bse. Underhill. A. 592. MO 63167. .page 137 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage KRÜGER. Bourque. poly-<beta>-hydroxybutyrate obtained from Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 48 Issue 5 (1997) pp 662-664 1997 Argentina Azotobacter chroococcum 6B Effect of Ammonium supplementation on production of polybeta-hydroxybutyric acid by Alcaligenes eutrophus in batch culture Biotechnology Letters 1990. Department of Biochemical Engineering. 1998 Preprint of the 6th int.67(2-3):113-34 1999 The mixed culture system was considered in the present research where sugars such as glucose were converted to lactate by Lactobacillus Alcaligenes eutrophus delbrueckii and the lactate Ralstonia eutropha was converted to poly bLactobacillus delbrueckii hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by lactate . 107-112 1998 A genomic fragment harboring the gene phaG was cloned by phenotypic complementation of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 mutants. . Louis. Miyazaki 373 Bitar. Ganze Artikel 372 J. Fukuoka 820. Microbiología. Av.Metabolic pathways fermentor.PHB Alcaligenes fermentation . D-48341 Altenberge. Germany STEINBÜCHEL. 19.: ?81 948 Tomoji Katoh.Kintetics 683.0067. C.ac. San Effect of aeration and carbon/nitrogen ratio on the Martín 4453. Huidong Shi.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.kyutec 371 * h. Esking 4a. D-48727 Billerbeck. M. Haruki 29 7801. 369 Germany MONSANTO COMPANY. Alexander .xls .563-568 1990 The bacterial polyester poly-<beta>hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was quantified and characterized on an isolate of the nitrogenfixing bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum 6B on the basis of its average molecular mass. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Japan * Corresponding author: Tel. Kyushu Institute of Technology.Dynamics eutrophus in one Strain . J Biotechnol 1999 Jan 22. S Facultad de Agronomía. Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1995. Silvia S. 12(8). eYoshii. United States of DNA SEQUENCE USEFUL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF America POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES Dynamics and control of the fed-batch production of polybeta-hydroxybutyrate 370 Pomerleau. Niels .Mixed culture .(1417) molecular mass of the biodegradable Buenos polymer Aires. 800 North Lindbergh Boulevard. WO9806854A1 Feb... Iizuka. Daisuke Yuguchi.4. defective in the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) synthesis via de novo fatty acid biosynthesis but 1995 646.. conference on computer applications in biotech. Y. Rönnenthal 27. Dynamics and modeling on fermentative production of poly (beta-hydroxybutyric acid) from sugars via lactate by a mixed culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Alcaligenes eutrophus. D.Fermentation Modeling .

A. Portugal. Crespo J P S G.. propionate. S. Activated sludge 488 korr Lemos P C. Viana. 2:169-176 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1994. 1994 574. polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by a phosphateaccumulating mixed culture Enzyme Microb. (1) Department of Applied Biology. Ramos.Technol. University of Hull. Reis. Welton.. Eberiel.. Salgueiro. Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Viana C..J. 8. C..pt 377 Lee. A. 2:129 1994 584.page 138 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Taidi.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. of PHA by polyphosphateaccumulating bacteria.. and butyrate were tested independently. H. N. can influence the prodn..Y. Monte de Effect of carbon source on the formation of Caparica. Crespo. M. HU6 7RX. Email: amv@dq. Technol. . 662671 1998 In shake-flask culture. Faculdade de Ciencais e Tecnologia..P. Billingham. B. In the present work. 662-71 1998 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1994. S.-D.N. Methylobacterium extorquens accumulated poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) possessing a substantially higher weight-average molecular mass (Mw) than previously reported for this organism. D. Effect of carbon source on the formation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by a phosphateaccumulating mixed culture. mass of poly(3-hydroxyburyrate) produced by Volume 40 Issue 6 (1994) pp 786-790 1994 TS23 1YN. J.. J.. Chang. 374 Byrom. Hull. School of Life Sciences.xls . propionate and butyrate on poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate production and application in waste-water treatment Effect of complex nitrogen source on the synthesis and accumulation of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) by recombinant Escherichia coli in flask and fed-batch cultures Effect of environmental parameters on the degradability of polymer films in laboratory-scale composting reactors Enzyme Microb. Acetate. Ramos A M. Salgueiro E N. E. UK Methylobacterium extorquens and Alcaligenes eutrophus Lemos. G. attention was devoted to understanding how different carbon substrates and their concentration can influence the production of polybeta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by phosphateaccumulating bacteria.4. attention was devoted to understand how different carbon substrates and their concn.fct. In the present study. S. S. 2825.. C.. 376 *Reis M A M Departamento de Quimica.. Effect of carbon source and concentration on the molecular Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract PO Box 2. Yang. UK (2) Zeneca Bio Products. A.. M. 378 D. Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia. E. P. effect of acetate. (1998). (1998) 22. Dawes. R. P. Port. Anderson. Universidade Nova de Lisbon. McCarthy. 22(8). M.unl. Gu. 2825 Monte de Caparica. 375 Departamento de Quimica.A.

K. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis and Journal of General Microbiology 1979.acetoacety.A. E. Appl. Guan. by photosynthetic bacteria. 110:393HU67RX respiration of Azotobacter beijerinckii 400 1979 The effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on glucose metabolism.4. S. by melt copolymn. 19(2). Department of Biochemistry. J. Guihe.page 139 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Pseudomonas resinovorans produced poly-betahydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) when grown on hydrocarbons but not on glucose.of values spanning oxygen beta-ketothiolase . J. A. Hecheng Xianwei Gongye. Canada.. Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal. of a mixt. Effect of nitrogen limitation on long-side-chain poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate synthesis by Pseudomonas resinovorans.. 381 Ward. M. Shanghai 200051. 382 Carter.. Iwasaki.. I. 1992. B.oxygen limitation .. Rhodospirillum rubrum. H.limitation and sufficiency CoA reductase (n Strain . J. Wang. Tsuboi. In a chemostat culture. Effect of oxygen concentration and growth rate on glucose University of Hull.58(2):744-6 1992 441. E. Journal of general microbiology 1977. 380 Lebeault. 379 Marchessault RH Daniel. Choi. Quebec.. Kim. China. 383 Shirai. Huaping.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. the PHA composition was beta-hydroxybutyrate (C4)beta-hydroxyhexanoate (C6)-betahydroxyoctanoate (C8)beta-hydrox Objective Hardware Ablage Ramsay BA. Biotechnol. Rowley.H. Kahimoto. Hull metabolism.S. A. 384 Yueting Textile Univ. Microbiol. polybeta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis and respiration of nitrogenfixing Azotobacter Azotobacter beijerinckii beijerinckii was Entnter-Doudoroff enzymes investigated over a range nitrogenase . 37:702-706 1992 608. Zhang. China Effect of phase transition and heat treatment on flow characteristics of 60 PHB/PET thermotropic liquid crystal copolyester. I. Rep.Metabolism 61. Dawes. of 60 parts p-acetoxybenzoic acid (PHB) and 40 parts poly(ethylene glycol phase transition flow liq crystal terephthalate) (PET) at polyester 290° and the heat treatment acetoxybenzoic flowability was measured acid polyester by a capillary rheometer at 25 .. 18-22 (Chinese) 1996 1996 60 PHB/PET thermotropic liq. Ramsay JA. Effect of pH on the production of poly-beta-hydroxybutylate Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 1993.. Saracovan I. Y. 102:61-68 1977 3.M. C.xls . Dawes. 26:56-58 1993 487. Effect of nutrient deficiency on accumulation and relative molecular weight of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by methylotrophic bacterium. Pseudomonas 135 Effect of oxygen and nitrogen limitation on poly-betahydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in ammonium-grown Azotobacter beijerinckii Appl Environ Microbiol 1992 Feb. Peop.H.. Department de Genie Chimique. crystal copolyester was prepd.

B. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1995. Andersen. 388 C. J.. 4(3).. 742. University. C. Steinbuechel. 16:709-714 Effects of culture conditions on poly(beta-hydroxybutyric acid) production by Haloferax mediterranei Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1990. 389 Yoon. Nancy I. 16(2).S. Universidad de Buenos Aires 1428-Buenos Aires.. Effects of amino acid addition on polar fraction of 3hydroxyvalerate in copolyester of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3.H. Mirtha E. The survival strategy of B.. 308..K-912. condition phosphate and amino acids on the mol. Beatriz S.xls .Y. Doi. Andrews. ammonium. J.. Rodriguez-Valera. Microbiol.H. Effects of culture conditions on the molecular weight of Seoul National polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB) produced by Alcaligenes sp. 392 Yeom.S. ).Damodaran Biotechnology Letters 1992.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Effect of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) content on the starvation-survival of bacteria in natural waters. Schmidt. Mendez. Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyric The effects of temp. Garcia. B. S. mutants of Bacillus megaterium and Alcaligenes eutrophus in natural waters was studied.. F.H. Kim. A.4. 385 Augusto F. 518.. Floccari. Choi.G. properties of the polymer.. megaterium was dominated by the development of resistant forms 386 Kim. Ecol.. 44:1306-1314 1994 504.. Yoo. Effect of propionic acid on poly (beta-hydroxybutyric-cobeta-hydroxyvaleric) acid production by Alcaligenes eutrophus Effect of single nutrient limitation on poly-áhydroxybutyrate molecular weight distribution in Alcaligenes eutrophus Effect of the feeding made biosynthesis of poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) FEMS Microbiol. wt. 80(4):350-354 Effects of culture conditions on molecular weights of poly(3hydroxyalkanoates) produced by Pseudomonas putida from octanoate Biotechnology Letters 1994.Park. Kim. of polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB) produced by Alcaligenes sp.A.. K. 210-14 (English) 1994 1994 . Y.K. J. 46:497502 1995 Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1994. and acid mol wt the levels of PHB mol wt Alcaligenes culture glucose. Young Je Department of Chemical Engineering. 14:903-906 1992 455. J. 1994 496. Argent. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. 95-102 (English) 1995 polyhydroxybutyrate bacteria survival starvation river 1995 The effect of PHB content on the survival of wild-type strains and PHB-neg... Soga. Korea Biotechnol. Rhee. SH-69 1995.Y.. Y. Departamento de Quimica Biologica. 387 P. K. V. Sung Ho.Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering hydroxyvalerate synthesized by Alcaligenes sp.page 140 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Lopez. J. 391 Lillo. 390 Hori. Asenjo. J. 56(8):2517-2521 1995 601.R.A. Alexander. Seoul 151. K-912 is an important parameter characterizing the phys.G. 1990 The mol.

M. on the performance of continuous culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus for Alcaligenes poly-b-hydroxybutyrate polyhydroxybutyrate fermn (PHB) prodn. Y. Korea Effects of glucose and ammonium concentrations in continuous culture for poly-b-hydroxybutyrate production. 1994 460. Ibaraki 300-42..physiological behavior As one of a series of studies concerning the realtionship between the higher-order structure and the biodegradability of a biodegradable plastsic. Effects of crystal structure on Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 394 Nishida.Y. II. Japan. 40 Wadai Tsukuba.. Gortner Laboratories.. 597-606 (Korean) 1992 1992 Effects of diln. Crystallinity Bacterial po Degradation 558.b. Japan. Poly(3hydroxybutyrate). 20(5). rate.. Univ. Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. 1479 Gortner A6enue. Effects of recombinant modulation of the phbCAB operon J. USA b Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. Chem. MN 55108. inlet glucose and ammonium chloride concns. S. Kurt Jackson a .page 141 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 393 Lee. 49-60 396 * 1479 copy number on PHB synthesis rates in Ralstonia eutropha 1999 PHB synthesis rates. Seoul 151-742. Tokiwa. Biological Process Technology Institute..4. H. Young Je Dep. Paul. Kim. I.. Seoul Natl.xls . Biotechnol. 1-1-3 Effects of higher-order structure of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Higashi Tsukuba. (inlet glu 1 Tsukuba Research Laboratory.H. the effects of the crystal structure of the plastic on microbial degradation were investigated.1. When inlet computer simulation PHB fermn substrate concns. (1999). St. Yoo. Yong Woo. Sanop Misaengmul Hakhoechi. Ralstonia eutropha We have increased the gene dosage of the poly(3hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis operon in Ralstonia eutropha (formerly Alcaligenes eutrophus) to test whether PHB synthesis rates may be increased by recombinant methods. 2 Fermentation Research Institute. Park. microbial dgeradation 1993.N.crystal sturcture . 1(1):56-80 Effects of propionate on accumulation of poly(betaLee.K. H. 240 Gortner Laboratories. Uni6ersity of Minnesota. eutropha ganze Artikel . hydroxybutrate-co-beta-hydroxyvalerate) and excretion of 395 Y. Tokuyama Soda Co. on its biodegradation. 240 J.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 68(1). Ltd. Chang. Friedrich Srienc a. The native R. were glucose ammonium investigated. 16:611-616 1993 Biodegradable plastic microbial degradation .2 Ibaraki 305. Eng. Uni6ersity of Minnesota. pyruvate in Alcaligenes eutrophus Biotechnology Letters 1994. were Alcaligenes maintained const.

. Paul. 197-207 (English) 1995 1995 rheol polyhydroxybutyrate manuf Alcaligenes Naohiko Taga. of poly-(D-3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] by Alcaligenes eutrophus was investigated in an air-lift fermentor. Japan Effects of rheological change by addition of carboxymethylcellulose in culture media of an air-lift fermentor on poly-D-3hydroxybutyric acid productivity in autotrophic culture of hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium. Faculty of Agriculture. Alcaligenes eutrophus Biotechnology & Bioengineering Volume 53. 240 Gortner Laboratories. Higashi-ku. Uni6ersity of Minnesota. The native phbCAB operon was in The effects of rheol.xls . of 0. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production following plasmid pKT230 expression in bacterium J. Uni6ersity of Minnesota. caused by the addn. autotrophic culture. Ralstonia eutropha The gene dosage of the poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis operon was increased in Ralstonia eutropha H16 (ATCC 17699) to test whether PHB synthesis rates may be increased by recombinant methods.. Univ. Kyushu University. 240 Gortner Laboratories. Naohiko.page 142 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 397 Jackson J K. 40(1-2). on the autotrophic prodn. of sodium CMcellulose (CMC). Kenji Tanaka. Tanaka. Agric. Alcaligenes eutrophus. 1479 Gortner A6enue.MN 55108. Pages: 529533 1997 polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Addn. changes in the culture medium.Biotechnol. *Srienc F a Biological Process Technology Institute.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Taga. Fac.05% ganze Artikel Faculty Agriculture. 46-09 Hakozaki. 398 Ayaaki Japan Effects of rheologic conditions in the culture medium on the autotrophic production of poly-(D-3-hydroxybutyric acid) in an air-lift J. St. Poly(3hydroxybutyrate).4. Effects of recombinant modulation of the phbCAB operon copy number on PHB synthesis rates in Ralstonia eutropha. Kyushu University. air-lift fermentor. Ayaaki 399 Ishizaki * Department of Food Science and Technology. Kenji. 1. Kyushu fermentor. 1997. Issue 5. Fukuoka 812-81.. carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) The effects of rheological change by addition of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to culture medium in an air-lift-type fermentor on autotrophic production of poly-(D-3hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] by two-stage culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus is in . 49-60 1999 PHB synthesis rates. Fukuoka 812-81. (1999) 68. USAb Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. Ishizaki.

recovery. 1999. Hazenberg. Issue 5.14(4):195202 2000 . CH8093 Zürich. corn oil.S)-3hydroxybutanoic acid] (aPHB). Institute of Physical and Chemical Efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from plant Research (RIKEN). eff The ability of Alcaligenes eutrophus to grow and produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) on plant oils was evaluated. KOH. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1998 Mar. 373-1 Kusong-dong. and NH4OH). ETH Hönggerberg. Taejon 305-701. 41. H2SO4). Kowalczuk M Electrospray multistep ion trap mass spectrometry for the Polish Academy of structural Sciences.biol. and surf Institute of Biotechnology. Doi Y Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. strain. beta-lactam end group. or palm oil was fed as a sole carbon source. B. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. alkalies (NaOH.49(3):333-6 1998 Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA) have the potential to become a biodegradable alternative for conventional plastics. Poland.ethz.4.page 143 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 400 Jong-il Choi. Switzerland Tel. In order to produce PHA at competitive costs in comparison with commonly used plastics.S)-3Polymer Chemistry. oils by Saitama. poly[(R. the wild-type strain of Electrospray 'soft' ionisation (ESI) and multistep mass spectrometry (MS(n)) techniques enable characterisation of a bioactive polymer. containing covalently bonded 403 Adamus G. Pseudomonas ch oleovorans: economic considerations 401 W. Yusonggu. Witholt Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 48 Issue 5 (1997) pp 588-596 1997 402 Fukui T.hydroxybutanoic acid] containing a 800 Zabrze. recombinant Escherichia coli. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2000. Alcaligenes eutrophus and its recombinant Japan.: ++41 1 6333402 Fax: ++41 1 Efficient production of medium-chain-length 6331051 e-mail: poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) from octane by hzu@biotech. alkali A simple method for the recovery of microbial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] from recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the Ralstonia eutropha PHA biosynthesis genes was developed. Various acids (HCl. Centre for characterisation of poly[(R. Pages: 546-553 1999 poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Sang Yup Lee * Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center. When olive oil.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Korea Efficient and economical recovery of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) from recombinant Escherichia coli by simple digestion with chemicals Biotechnology & Bioengineering Volume 62.xls .

48(1).Inst. 408 Lee Y H. we generated and investigated different recombinant bacteria containing a stable regulated expr Institute of Biotechnology. 67:99-109 (Article in German) 1969 Hydrogenomonas H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 mutants . Leaf. Mikrobiol. B 1999. 8093 Zurich. Taegu 702-701.Lett. USA Engineering of stable recombinant bacteria for production of chiral medium-chain-length poly-3hydroxyalkanoates. Timothy Anders 407 Diss.95(6):2336-43 169 pp. Minneapolis. 59(8). Appl Environ Microbiol 1999 Aug.. of Minnesota. Korea. Bozzato GB. Univ. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen Enrichment and Isolation of Auxotrophic Mutants of Hydrogenomonas H 16 / Anreicherung und Isolierung auxotropher Mutanten von Hydrogenomonas H 16 Arch. 1987 Abstract Unavailable In order to scale up medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mclPHA) production in recombinant microorganisms. metabolic engineering for poly-betahydroxybutyrate and poly-beta-hydroxyvalerate or polygamma-hydroxybutyrate copolymer pr Biotechnol. Witholt B. Sadoff HL 405 Suk. . Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 404 Lin LP.4 percent and by 1-nitoso-3nitro-1-methylguanidine 1. Julie Suehyun Columbia Univ. 204 (English) 1987 1968 methane fermn polyhydroxybutyrate Methylcystis Abstract unavailable.Kyungpook-Nat. LO Department of Genetic Engineering.4. College of Natural Sciences. Kessler B Switzerland.xls . Engineering and biochemical analysis of the bioconversion of methane into an intracellular polymer: poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). (1997) 19. New York. 4287 Engineering yeast for polyhydroxybutyrate production 1999 Abstract unavailable. Avail.page 144 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Encystment and polymer production by Azotobacter vinelandii in the presence of beta-hydroxybutyrate. H.. Using cells of Hydrogenomonas H 16 after mutagenesis by nitrous acid about 0. Schlegel.65(8):3265-71 1999 (R)-3hydroxybutyrylCoA in plant peroxisomes. Kellerhals MB. 1969. 8. Int.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Huh T L Enhanced biosynthesis of P(3HB-3HV) and P(3HB-4HB) by amplification of the cloned PHB biosynthesis genes in Alcaligenes eutrophus. KoreaRes. Microfilms Int.Biosci. NY. 771-74 1997 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly-betahydroxyvalerate or PHB and poly-gammahydroxybutyrate copolymers were produced using Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 (ATCC 17699) transformants AER3. Order No. B 1987. DA8710227 From: Diss. USA J Bacteriol 1968 Jun..colistine 94. Abstr..Biotech nol.. Kyungpook National University. M. In order to increase the mutant yield an enrichment method Strain 409 Reh.. Int. 406 Radnovic D. Univ.G. MN. harboring recombinant plasmids c 1. Univ. Abstr. CHPrieto MA. Park J S. ETH Honggerberg. AER4 and AER5.5 percent auxotrophic mutants were found among the survivors.

Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. 1961.J.. Enzymatic degradation of poly(R. J. Biomaterials 1995 Mar. Edinburgh 8 Environmentally induced changes in bacterial morphology 11th Symp.15(4):215-20 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1993. Argentina.P. 414 Saito. Palmada F.4. formation in Birmingham.H.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Corr. Soc. Tighe BJ Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry. Micr. Doi Y Jesudason. 413 Yamada K. The conditions described allowed the detection of mutant clones screening a low pe strain 411 Duguid. Universidad de Buenos Aires.page 145 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Floccari ME. Wilkinson. Gen. [Article in Spanish] 1991 Bacillus megaterium Centrifugation through sucrose gradients was adapted to separate sporeforming cells of B.. poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) degradation studies.F. megaterium deficient in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate synthesis from wild type cells. Mukai K. J. Pseudomonas Saitama.. Marchessault. Others 113. UK. pickettii excreted an extracellular poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) depolymerase and grew on P(3HB) as 560. pickettii. Enrichment for mutants of Bacillus megaterium deficient in the synthesis Rev Argent Microbiol 1991 Jan-Feb. The strain P. 64-99 1961 Bacterial morphology No abstract. Aston Enzymatic assay of hydroxybutyric acid monomer University. T.16(4):341-3 1995 A novel method for monitoring the degradation of poly(betahydroxybutyrate) based on the enzymatic assay of beta-hydroxybutyrate (HBA) monomers has been developed. Institute of Physical and Chemical Enzymatic degradation of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) by Research (RIKEN). The method is particularly applicable to forms of the polymer. Teviot Place. 412 Foster LJ.S)-beta-hydroxybutyrate Int J Biol Macromol 1993 Aug.23(1):26-9 of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. J. R. University of Edinburgh. 410 Mendez BS Departamento de Quimica Biologica. Bacteriology Department. such as fibre and microcapsu A bacterium capable of degrading poly(3hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] was isolated from laboratory media and identified as Pseudomonas pickettii. Tiscornia G. Japan.xls . 1(2):89-98 1993 1993 . Polymer Chemistry Laboratory.

Saito. were studied in the culture contg. U... 1458 (English) hydroxyvalerate): physicochemical mechanistic aspects. 92(14). Megumi. K. Sci. Int. Japan Polym. J. T. 206. 415 H. Matsumoto. Tomito. S. T. 416 Doudoroff. U. P. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of poly[(R)-(-)-3Cambridge. Amherst. Metabolix. USA Enzymic degradation of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-beta.page 146 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The enzyme activity synthesizing poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) was mainly localized in the PHB-containing particulate fraction of Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M. DOCUMENT TYPE: Dissertation polyhydroxybutyrate granule semisynthesis enzymic degrdn hydroxybutyrate hydroxyvalerate copolymer mechanism hydroxybutyrate hydroxyvalerate copolymer biodegrdn Abstract Unavailable 1995 Polymer Chemistry Laboratory.. Arch Microbiol 1976 Nov 2.Diss. Mark Robert Univ. Inc. Merrick M. Proc. of Massachusetts. (1997). The granules form in a matter of minutes when purified polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase from Alcaligenes eutro 418 Gerngross. Yoshimoto. Ken-Ichi. Wako. 56(3).. Nishikawa. 1995.. 351. G.4. 189:890-892 1961 No abstract. Department of Bacteriology. Hosokawa. Berkeley Enzymatic synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in Zoogloea ramigera.M. 417 Korneti.. the enzyme a Objective Hardware Ablage Fukui. S. and enzymic procedure has been developed to synthesize macroscopic poly[(R)-(-)-3hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) granules in vitro. Natl..110(23):149-56 1976 10. Abstr.. 58(3). University of California. The Institute of Physical Enzymic degradation of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]: and secretion and Chemical Research properties of ***PHB*** depolymerase from Uefuji.. Kasuya. Martin. L. MA 02142. B 1995. A. On the other hand. Acad. 74.xls . 6279-83 (English) 1995 1995 419 Timmins. MA. hydroxybutyrate]: formation USA of macroscopic granules in vitro. Braunegg. A combined chem.pseudomonas stutzeri 420 Yoshiharu 01.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. T. Degrad. (RIKEN). which had been isolated from sea water. A. when it grew flocculatedly in a medium supplemented with glucose. D. M. Doi. 275-281 1997 The secretion mechanism and properties of an extracellular polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase of Pseudomonas stutzeri YM1006.. Stab. poly[(R)3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB) . Enzymatic synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid in bacteria Enzymatischer Abbau von Poly-D-3-hydroxybuttersäure durch Exodepolymerasebildenede Pseudomonaden Nature 1961..

Kenji. M. Tanaka. 424 Lemoigne. A. Toshihiro.. Fax: 55 011 J. in Göttingen Evidence for the in vivo regulation of 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16 from measurements of the intracellular concentrations of metabolic intermediates Arch. The evaluation Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen. 1974. Rodrigues 869 3566 (1). M.G.. São Paulo. Kawano. following the addition of hydrogen to the gas phase.Glucose 6phosphat dehydrogenase Enzyme regulation The inhibition of fructose utilization by whole cells of Hydrogenomonas eutrophus H 16. Ayaaki. Humphrey.. Torres (2). ATP. NADH. 97:273-281 1974 Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16 . 421 Takeharu 422 Zabriskie. . Oliveira Bioquímica. 39:145-173 Etudes sur l'autolyse microbienne origine de l'acide betaoxobutyrique forme par autolyse Annales de l'institut Pasteur 1927. Food Sci. C. Technol. Chem. Cook. P.M. A.Metabolism 114. Bueno Departamento de polyhydroxyalkanoic acids from Netto (1). D. Microbiol. M. Brazil.E. 423 Lemoigne. by Alcaligenes eutrophus of poly-bhydroxybutyric acid (PHB) from H2. 225-7 (English) 1993 Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1978. Dep. G. München. L. G-6-P. AMP. 6PG. S. da Silva (1) de Química. CEP 01064-970. Korr.Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Intracellular concentrations Poolsize (PEP.. 217. Jpn. Instituto carbohydrates and 425 (1).4. 41:149-165 safety polyhydroxybutyrate prodn fermentor Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate prodn fermentor Alcaligenes oxygen regulation 1993 1978 1925 1927 486. F. C. Alli (1).xls . (1) Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de S. F. Japan Equipment and operation for fermentative PHB production using gaseous substrate to guarantee safety from J.. Shimoji.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Kanemaru.page 147 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A bench-scale fermn. Takeshita. Kyushu Univ. Takashi. Gomez (1). 1968). Fukuoka 812. Universi propionic acid Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 45 Issue 6 (1996) pp 785-791 1996 A screening programme was developed leading to the isolation of 75 strains of soil gramnegative bacteria which are able to produce polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) from sugar-cane derivatives.und Umweltforschung mbH 426 Bowien. F-6-P) .W. and CO2. control systems. The intra Strain . The new fermentor allows use o Objective Hardware Ablage Ishizaki. C. Schlegel. B. Toshihisa. B. 216. ADP. explosion 26(2). H. Estimation of fermentation biomass concentration by measuring culture fluorescence 35(2):337-343 Etudes sur l'autolyse microbienne acidification par formation d'acide á-oxybutyrique Annales de l'institut Pasteur 1925. NAD. (2) Evaluation of soil gram-negative bacteria yielding L. has been explained as an inhibition of glucose 6phosphate dehydrogenase (Blackkolb and Schlegel. R. Caixa Postal 7141. 270.. system with several safety devices. Eng. and a specially designed agitation system was built for the prodn. M. A. B. Paulo S/A-IPT. O2.

D(-)3hydroxybutanoate Excretion of Metabolites by hydrogen bacteriaI. H. 26. 1989 1989 Mutants of A. D.. Belgium. Schlegel. Kinetics 295. Department of Microbiology. of an asymptotic observer for on line estimation of biomass Alcaligenes eutrophus and product Ralstonia eutropha . Excretion of pyruvate by mutants of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Influences European J.2. Fed..On. Inst. others 51. eutrophus. polyhydroxybutyrate potassium 397. Microbiol. Microbiol.. .G. Vollbrecht. Autotrophic and heterotrophic fermentations Microbiological Reviews 1978. Appl. Appl. Mikrobiol.4.. 1979.Temperature. H. and Universität Konstanz. Dynamique et Analyse des Systèmes University of Louvain. Appl. Microbiol. 168-75 (English) under conditions permitting synthesis of PHB. West Germany Evolutionary Aspects of Autotrophy Excretion of metabolites by hydrogen bacteria IV. on a pilot bioreactor.measurements is line biomass estimation presented.page 148 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 427 Quayle. Microbiol. M.. and Age of Cells 6:157-166 1978 239. 31(2). Thomas Vollbrecht. Rep. 1978. III.Pilot plant reactor . 6:145-155 1978 autotrophy No abstract. H.de Buyl. G. Biotechnol. Postfach 7733. Ger. 1978. 1979. Excretion of metabolites by hydrogen bacteriaII. England. 432 Hans G. Steinbuechel. Goettingen D-3400. 184.G.G..A. H. Fachbereich Biologie. (PHB). J. E. Biotechnol. 429 Vollbrecht.1 1 Laboratoire d´Automatique.xls . Janczikowski. of Aeration. Appl. Schlegel.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Schlegel. 428 Stoschek. G. Biotechnol. 7:259-266 European J. Biotechnol. Direction Centrale des Recherches.. D. 310 B-1120 Experimental validation of a methodology for on line state Bruxelles estimation in bioreactors Fourth international congress on computer applications in fermentation technology: SCI/IFAC symposium on modelling and control of biotechnological processes 1988 1988 An experimental validation. 2 Sovay and Cie. D-775 Konstanz. A. Alcaligenes pyruvate excretion sulfate. Bâtiment Maxwell B1348 Louvain-laneuve. Schlegel. Bastin. 1979 1979 1978 25. which are impaired in the accumulation of poly(b-hydroxybutyric acid) Appl. Respiration rate-dependent formation of primary metabolites and of poly-3-hydroxybutanoate Excretion of metabolites by hydrogen bacteria. 433 Dochain. Ferenci.. 42(2):251-273 European J. D. University of Sheffield S10 2TN. 430 Schlegel. 431 Vollbrecht. pH. Alexander. D.Kinetic concentrations from CO2 model . Biotechnol.G.Rodney... 7:267-276 European J. Georg-August Univ.1. El Nawawy. D. Rue de Ransbeek. Microbiol. phosphate. which are defective in the intracellular accumulation of poly(bhydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) were cultivated in the presence of excess carbon source after growth had ceased due to depletion of ammonium.

Expression of the Alcaligenes eutrophus poly(bhydroxybutyric acid)-synthetic pathway in Pseudomonas sp. Ger. Georg-August-Univ.W. 119:152-161 1974 The ability of succinate to repress the secretion of Pseudomonas lemoignei poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase was a function of pH..xls . New York 14214 Extracellular enzyme secretion by Pseudomonas lemoignei J..5-kb EcoRI restriction fragment PP1 of A. which encodes for bketothiolase.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. lack Pseudomonas lemoignei . Japan. Shiomi N.PHB of sensitivity to succinate depolymerase con Strain .Metabolism The PHA-degrading isolate. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. poly(betahydroxyoctanoate) (PHO). The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). State University of New York at Buffalo. Schubert. eutrophus strain H16. 1974. strain P37C. including both short chai Objective Hardware Ablage Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. . Extracellular degradation of medium chain length poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoates) by Comamonas sp. Buffalo.25(1-3):135-43 1999 437 Stinson. Doi Y Saitama. Repression only occured when the pH of the medium was 7. At a higher pH.. Merrick. Rep. Expression and characterization of (R)-specific enoyl coenzyme A hydratase involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis by Aeromonas caviae.cloning Pseudomonas PHB synthase gene Alcaligenes cloning Pseudomonas 301. Goodwin S. 01003.. University of Massachusetts Amherst.0 or less.Bacteriol. School of Medicine. Fed. USA. Goettingen D-3400. Department of Microbiology. 101-4 (English) 1989 1989 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16polyhydroxybutyrate formation gene . M. J.180(3):667-73 1998 Steinbuechel. 434 Fukui T. NADPdependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase and poly(bhydroxybutyric acid) synthase was mobilized to six different species of the genus Pseudomonas belo Strain . It was subsequently found to grow on a wide range of PHAs. Arch. was enriched from residential compost for its ability to hydrolyze the medium chain length PHA. 153(1).page 149 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Complementation analysis of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-negative mutant of Aeromonas caviae proved that ORF3 in the pha locus (a 402-bp gene located downstream of the PHA synthase gene) participates in PHA bi The 12. Alexander.4. 436 Park WH Department of Microbiology.Metabolism 86. J Bacteriol 1998 Feb. 435 Peter Inst. Mikrobiol. Microbiol.M. Quinteros R. Lenz RW.

Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul.. In Objective Hardware Ablage 438 Mukai K. Rep. The culture medium contained 0. 441 Xiujun.4. After the cells were isolated by centrifugation. Dijkstra PJ. the cells were ruptured by freezethawing. were studied by the weight loss (erosion) of copolyester films.umass monomers with the . Kim K J 440 Kohap LO Korea.25(1-3):55-60 1999 Im K B. Yamada K. These s Previous investigations on the role of the polymerase in the synthesis of poly-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) are reviewed. USA.1% glucose and 0. Extracellular polymerization of 3-hydroxyalkanoate rwlenz@polysci. University of Massachusetts. Shenyang 110015. Peop. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate or poly-betahydroxyalkanoate co-polymer purification from Alcaligenes KR 9502866 27 Mar 1995 eutrophus 1995 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) or poly-betahydroxyalkanoate (PHA) co-polymers are extracted from Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17699 (KCTC 1006) using alkali and protease. with S. 13(1). and the results from earlier in vitro studies on the activity and selectivity of the polymerase of Alcaligenes eutrophus are discussed.page 150 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Enzymatic degradation processes of microbial copolyesters. Extracellular poly(hydroxyalkanoate) depolymerases and their inhibitor from Pseudomonas lemoignei. Zhang S Polymer Science and Engineering Department. Int J Biol Macromol 1992 Aug. Acad. Jinping. poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate): P(3HBco-3HV) and poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-4hydroxybutyrate): P(3HBco-4HB). Tokyo Institute of Technology. Sin. 439 Goodwin S. natans.. Yokohama.14(4):235-9 1992 Lenz RW. 30-3 (Chinese) 1993 polyhydroxybutyrate prodn Sphaerotilus PHB extn Sphaerotilus 1993 Poly-(b-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) was produced by fermn. pH 8. Appl. Jun Shenyang Inst. in a method that involves: (1) washing strain KCTC 1006 in water a Zhang. Farcet C. Doi Y Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization. After centrifugation . Japan. Lixin.edu polymerase of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Amherst 01003.xls . Kuai. Extraction method of PHB or PHA copolymer using alkali and protease. Ecol. Wang. China Weishengwuxue Zazhi.1% peptone. Guo. Extraction of PHB from Sphaerotilus natans.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.

WHITTON JONATHAN RICHARD. WALKER JOHN. WHITTON 442 JONATHAN R US4358583 ICI PLC Extraction of poly( beta -hydroxy butyric acid) 1982-11-09 1982 GB2089823 443 ICI PLC Extraction of poly( beta -hydroxybutyric acid) 1982-06-30 1982 Poly( beta -hydroxybutyric acid). Switz. followed by contact with a solvent. polyhydroxyoctanoate extn microorganism org solvent 1993 The title ester is extd. and then extracting the PHB from the flocculated cells with a suitable extracti . A. PHB.. of the cells. EP0046017 1982-02-17 1982 Poly( beta -hydroxy butyric acid).xls . 10 Jun 1993. and air-drying. by pH modification. PHB. or with some cell suspension. ALDERSON 445 BARRY ICI PLC (GB) Extraction of poly(beta-hydroxy butyric acid). optionally with heating. is obtained. The biomass may be dried by suspension in acetone or iPrOH and agitation until a uniform mixt. Appl. 444 Ohleyer. PHB. WO 9311656 A1 Firmenich S. is extracted from a suspension of bacterial cells by causing the cells to flocculate. optionally with heating.4. and then extracting the PHB from the flocculated cells with a suitable extract Objective Hardware Ablage WALKER JOHN. solvent such as acetone or THF. PCT Int. by pH modification.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Eric Extraction of poly-(beta)-hydroxy-octanoate from microbial biomass.page 151 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Poly ( beta -hydroxy butyric acid). sepn. extraction by agglomeration of spray dried bacterial cells containing PHB with flocculated cells. is extracted from a suspension of bacterial cells by causing the cells to flocculate. from the predried biomass with a non-chlorinated org.

M. strain W-1S. Heinzle. 52:665-678 1946 Sudan black . Baylor University College of Medicine. strain W-1S.Biochem. 361-66 1996 452 Burdon. Poly( beta hydroxybutyric acid) is separated from bacterial cells by drying a finely divided stream or spray of an aqueous suspension of the cells with a gas heated to above 100 DEG C. ICI LTD Extraction process Extraktion eines Thermoplasten aus Bakterien US4324907 1982-04-13 ETH Zürich.page 152 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage HOLMES PAUL ARTHUR. SENIOR PETER J. The addition of NaCl and phosphate was Following Hartman. Idehara K. (1996) 57-58. . preferably after a lipid extraction 193.fatty material A marine photosynthetic bacterium. Houston. JONES 446 ERIC ICI PLC (GB) Extraction of poly(beta-hydroxybutyric acid).Biotechnol. ALDERSON BARRY 448 Lafferty.xls . Mizoguchi T 450 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. K. poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid production (conference paper) Appl. Osaka 565. as a bacterial fat stain (Hartman. and Kimbrough (1942) confirmed the greater value of this dye and modified the procedure for demonstrating Others 116.. and then extracting the PHB. Stokes. fixed slide preparations J. in the place of red Sudans. 1-6 Yamada-oka. Korr. E. Rhodopseudomonas sp. Japan. PHB. R. Factors affecting polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. WRIGHT 447 LEONARD F. extraction from a bacterial cell suspension by heating to above 100 DEG C under pressure. Osaka University. Arbeitstagung "Aufarbeitung in der Biotechnologie" 1977 1982 1977 Chowdhury W Q. EP0046335 1982-02-24 1982 Poly( beta -hydroxybutyric acid).4. Department of Bacteriology and Immunology. *Yagi K. 1910) Burdon. who first suggested the use of Sudan black B. releasing the pressure. and separating PHB granules from the cell debris.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. accumulated poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) to 56% of the dry cell weight under microaerobic and photoheterotrophic conditions. Miura Y. Texas Fatty material in bacterial and fungi revealed by staining dried. Suita. Maeda I.. 1946. Umeda F.L. Bacteriol.

27(5-6):411-6 1999 Sheng.. Xia. Robra. Oeding. Linpei.xls .. Fermn. which compositions comprise polyhydroxy acid (PHA) and a compatibilizer. China Fed-batch culture of Erwinia carotovora for PHB production Huagong Yejin (1997). but not PHB accumulation. Hassan MA. Fakhru'l-Razi A. Rep.. It is estimated that about 100 million liters of effluent are discharged daily from rubber processing factories. By means of this the carbon in the carbon US4433053 1984-02-21 Dechema-Monographien 1972. Jilun 454 Chinese Academi Sci.beta. Chen. R. 71:37-52 1984 1972 93. H. 15:1217-1222 1993 454. Katamune.page 153 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Rubber latex effluent is a polluting source that has a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) by fed-batch culture of recombinant Erwinia carotovora. Wu. LIN KANG (US) DU PONT (US) FILMS CONTAINING POLYHYDROXY ACIDS AND A COMPATIBILIZER WO9204410 1992-03-19 1992 This invention relates to certain compositions useful in making films and their preparation. Jiesheng. 100080. Inst. so that the PHB content is above 25% by weight. A. ICI PLC Fermentation process for the production of poly( beta hydroxy butyric acid) Fermentationstechnik mit Knallgasbakterien Fermentative production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid from xylose by a two-stage culture method employing Lactococcus lactis IO-1 and Alcaligenes eutrophus 457 Tanaka. . 358-362 in a 300L air-lift bioreactor 1997 HUGHES LORENZO (GB). was successfully carried out to produce poly-. Faculty of Feasibility study on the utilization of rubber latex effluent Tang SN. K.. Mo. Objective Hardware Ablage Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. Engineering. Chem. Beijing. 18(4). K. Bingyu. Utilization of this effluent such as the use of a Expt. Universiti for producing 453 Karim MI Putra Malaysia. Biotechnology Letters 1993. Ishizaki. Baihe.4. It also relates to films comprising such compositions and other polymers.. was performed for 25 h in a 300 L air-lift bioreactor using industrial sucrose as carbon s Continuous fermentation of Alcaligenes microorganisms capable of accumulating PHB under limitation of a nutrient required for growth. 455 RICHARDSON KENNETH R (GB) (GB) Lafferty.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. V. Peop.. Metall.H. Haitao. BELLIS HAROLD 458 EDWARD (US).M.G.. 456 Schlegel. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 1999 Sep-Nov. Li. bacterial biopolymers. K. Qing. Tian.

Schlegel.G. and environm. 1976 1971 7. 7:36800 1979 20. Harbor Drive. Braunegg.. Chlorogloea fritschii Mol Microbiol 1989 Mar. Gottschalk. A. T. Appl.-C. D. 2 Department of Soil Science. 1987) or sub-fragments thereof were constructed in a tac promoter vector.. WilhelmKlemm-Straße 2. Cambridge 02139. 1979. Degelau (1). 2:683-686 1989 460 Lin.H. D48149 Münster.. European J. University of Florida.1. L. 462 Hubbell. San Diego.G. CH-8093 Zürich. Biotechnol. Switzerland (3) Kelco. 191:463-465 1961 22. Zam. 2025 A E.3 A.3(3):349-57 Memoirs of the College of Agriculture.. . National Taiwan University 1976.M. B. 1988. Bleakley. Cells accumulated Encapsulation poly-beta-hydroxybu Strain . Gaskins. Analysis of protein lysates of induced cultures of these clones identifie Objective Hardware Ablage 459 Peoples OP. a spectrofluorometric method and one based on a laser flow cytometer.1.2. Fluorometric measurement of poly-<beta> hydroxybutyrate in Alcaligenes eutrophus by flow cytometry and spectrofluorometry Formal kinetics of poly-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) production in Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 and Mycoplana rubra R 14 with respect to the dissolved oxygen tension in ammonium-limited batch cultures Formation and utilization of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by Knallgas bacteria (Hydrogenomonas) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 42 Issue 5 (1995) pp 653-657 1995 fluorometric measurement spectrofluorometric method laser flow cytometer Two fluorometric assays for the determination of poly-<beta>hydroxybutyrate (PHB) inside intact cells are presented in this paper.. Floc formation by Azospirillum lipoferum grown on Polybeta-hydroxybutyrate Appl. Sonnleitner.xls . Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Heinzle. Fong. 54(12):2986-2995 1988 Azospirillum lipoferum RG6xx was grown under conditions similar to those resulting in encystment of Azotobacter spp.M. Fine structural analysis of the Zoogloea ramigera phbAphbB locus encoding beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase: nucleotide sequence of phbB. von 465 Bartha. E. B. 464 G. E.4.. C. L. Sinskey AJ Department of Biology. Germany (2) Institut für Biotechnologie. 82. ETHZürich Hönggerberg. R.page 154 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A series of expression plasmids containing either the complete insert from plasmid pUCDBK1 (Peoples et al. H. 17(1):60-65 Journal of Bacteriology 1971..E. J. Microbiol. lipoferum produced cells of uniform shape when grown on nitrogen-free Azospirillum lipoferum RG6xx . 463 Bailey (2). R. The Analytics 428.beta-hydroxybutyrate Azotobacter .Jensen. Gainesville. Fine structure of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate inclusions in the cells and cysts of Azotobacter vinelandii Fine stucture of poly-beta-hyroxybutyric acid granules in a blue-green alga.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.H. Lafferty. Guske (3) 1 Department of Agronomy. Scheper (1). 461 T. G. 3 Department of Microbiology and Cell Science.Morphology 674. J.-P. Sicko. Florida 32611 (1) Institut für Biochemie. M.. Microbiol.microflocs agar. S. Nature 1961.H.

refractile granules were formed instead.Copolyesters Parental strains and asporogenous mutants of Bacillus thuringiensiss subsp. Hustede.. Shionogi Research Laboratories. R.Sulfur purple bacteria .1 1 Institut für Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversität Göttingen. 2 Imperial chemical Industries. environ.C.page 155 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Timm. Schlegel.Non-sulfur purple bacteria Chemolithotrophic bacteria The formation of poly(3hydroxyalkanoic acid). accumulated poly(hydroxyalkanoates). On ST and ST-a media. Polymer Science and Formation of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) by phototrophic 468 Lenz. O. A. Mikrobiol.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Fuller. Box 1. 33:296-301 1990 Pseudomonas oleovorans Alcaligenes eutrophus Ralstonia eutropha . 43:1473-1480 1982 Bacillus thuringiensis deltaentotoxin sporulation 174. Microbiol..3Hydroxyoctanoate (3HO) - Recombinant strains of Pseudomonas oleovorans. 2 Department of Biochemistry. W3400 Göttingen.G.4. 1 Institut für Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversität Göttingen. Ltd. Grisebachstrasse 8. Microbiol. Japan Bacillus thuringiensis Appl. 155:415-421 1991 Copolyester . Germany. E.1 Engineering. Biotechnol. E. up to 70 % of the cell dry weight if the cells Strain .3. Chemolithotrophic bacteria were grown aerobically under nitrogenlimiting conditions on various aliphatic organic acid Strains 422.1.1. 1982. 1991. kurstaki ans aizawai produced high yields of delta-endotoxin on M medium which contained 330 µg of potassium per ml. Osaka hydroxybutyric acid granules by Asporoenous mautants of 467 Wakisaka. H.Phototrophic bacteria . MA 01003. Shionogi & Company. P. D. 3 Department of A. composed of 3hydroxyoctanoate (3HO).2.Chromatiaceae Rhodospirillaceae . Germany.1. University of Massachusetts. 553.1. W3400 Göttingen.. Steinbüchel. Steinbüchel. Y. Billingham.2. acids) by a recombinant strain of Pseudomonas UK oleovorans Appl. . Formation of crystalline delta-endotoxin or poly-betaFukushima-ku. A. Liebergesell.W. by various strains of chemolithotrophic and phototrophic bacteria has been examined. Formation of blends of various poly(3-hydroxyalkanoic Cleveland TS23 1LB. Strain 414. Timm. M. Byrom. Amherstr. USA. PHA. Univer and chemolithotrophic bacteria Arch. Y. R.1. which harbour the poly(3hydroxybutyrate)biosynthetic genes of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Masaki. Nishimoto. Grisebachstrasse 8. 466 A. 1990.xls .

McCoy M. Stangl A. .36) and the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-synthase from Rlastonia eutropha were expressed in Escherichia coli. G..58(9):2866-73 1992 Azotobacter vinelandii UWD formed polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers containing betahydroxybutyrate and beta-hydroxyvalerate (HV) when grown in a medium containing glucose as the primary C source and valerate (pentanoate) as a precursor. A. J. 1984. Valentin Email: H E. Huisman. 476 B. Edmonton.. 475 Steinb chel. Rudy B Formation of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) by Azotobacter vinelandii UWD Formation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate by soil microbial community during batch and heterocontiuous cultivation Formation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by Actinomycetes Formation of polyester blends by a recombinant strain of Pseudomonas oleovorans: different poly(3hydroxyalkanoates) are stored in seperate granules Formation of polyesters by Pseudomonas oleovorans: Effect of substrates on formation and composition of poly(R)-3-hydroxyalkanoates and poly-(R)-3hydroxyalkenoates Appl Environ Microbiol 1992 Sep. 1988.Witholt Folia Microbiol. Harrisonburg. Federal Republic of Germany. 1993 557. Witholt. Copolymer was 442.. G. A. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and 3hydroxyhexanoate copolymer production following acetoacetyl-CoA-reductase and PHA-synthase gene expression J.. 477 Timm A.. B. Preusting. VA 22807. James Madison University. G.4. 2-3. Eggink.edu 471 Formation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyhexanoate) by PHA-synthase from Ralstonia eutropha. Canada.Biotechnol. Jandera. 29 Indian Journal of Biochemistry 1970. Whi Department of Microbiology. Dennis D. H.. Huisman. F. P... 1(1):44501 1984 1970 261. L. 473 Hanzlikova.xls . R. Monsanto LO Department of Biology. Wu Z dennisde@jmu. 472 Page WJ. Manchak J.E. 223. USA. Large amounts of this polyester are synthesized when cells are grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. Kingma. Formation of polyesters consisting of medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids from gluconate by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other fluorescent pseudomonads. 54(12):2924-2932 1988 338. Klebsiella aerogenes and PHA-negative mutants of R. (1998) 64. Applied and Environmental Microbiol. Lageveen. Kunc. eutropha and Pseudomonas putida. University of Alberta. A.56(11):3360-7 1990 Pseudomonas oleovorans accumulates poly(3hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) after growth on medium chain length hydrocarbons.. Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversitat Gottingen.1.. 7:126-129 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1993. 474 Kannan. 177-86 1998 The acetoacetyl-CoAreductase (EC-1. Appl Environ Microbiol 1990 Nov.V.1.page 156 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Univ. H.HarrisonburgJames-Madison. Ketelaar.. Preusting.W. When nitrogen is resupplied in t 360.

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 157
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Formation of polymers of beta-hydroxybutyric acid in bacterial cells and a comparison of the morphology of growth with the formation of polyethylene in the solid state Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

Ballard; D.G.H.; Holmes; P.A.; Senior; 478 P.J.

NATO ASI Series C, MATH. and PHYS.SCI. 1987; 215:293-314

1987 Lactate, ethanol and butanediol were excreted when Alcaligenes eutrophus was exposed to severely restricted aeration. This indicaated the presence of dehydrogenases which are not normally present in aerobically grown cultures of this strictly aerobic bact

322.

479 Schlegel, H.G.; Vollbrecht, D.

Formation of the Dehydrogenases for lactate, ethanol and butanediol in the strictly aerobic bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus

J. gen. Microbiol. 1980; 117:475-481

1980

185.

480 Sleytr, U.

Institut für Lebensmitteltechnologi Freeze Etching of Different Strains of Bacillus sphaericus e, Hochschule für Gefrierätzung verschiedener Stämme von Bacillus Bodenkultur, Wien sphaericus Arch. Mikrobiol. 1970; 72:238-251

1970

Freeze etching - Bacillus sphaericus

The fine structures of three thermophilic and one mesophilic strain of Bacillus sphaericus have been compared by means of freeze etching. With the exception of one thermophilic strain, all strains had a rectangular cell wall surface structure consisting o Others

119.

Langenbach S, Rehm BH, Steinbuchel 482 A

Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Westfalische Wilhelmus-Universitt Munster, Germany.

Functional expression of the PHA synthase gene phaC1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Escherichia coli results in poly(3hydroxyalkanoate) synthesis.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 1997 May 15;150(2):303-9

1997

The potential of the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), consisting of medium-chain-length (MCL) hydroxyfatty acids (C5-C14), in recombinant Escherichia coli was investigated. E. coli mutants affected in fatty acid degradation and fatty acid de nov

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 158
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

483 Matavulj M, Molitoris HP

Institute of Biology, Fungal degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates and a University of Novi Sad, semiquantitative Yugoslavia. assay for screening their degradation by terrestrial fungi.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 1992 Dec;9(2-4):323-31

1992

The current problems with decreasing fossile resources and increasing environmental pollution by petrochemical-based plastics have stimulated investigations to find biosynthetic materials which are also biodegradable. Bacterial reserve materials such as p

Focarete, Maria Letizia; Ceccorulli, Giuseppina; Scandola, 484 Mariastella; Kowalczuk, Marek 485 K"szegi; B.

Department of Chemistry G. Ciamician and Centro di Studio per la Fisica delle Macromolecole del CNR, University of Bologna, Bologna, 40126, Italy

486 Riis, V.; Mai, W.

487 Lee; E.Y.; Choi; C.Y.

488 Robra, K. H.

Further Evidence of Crystallinity-Induced Biodegradation of Synthetic Atactic Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by PHBDepolymerase A from Pseudomonas lemoignei. Blends of Atactic Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with Crystalline Polyesters Gärtank oder Retorte ? Gas chromatographic determination of poly-betahydroxybutyric acid in microbial biomass after hydrochloric acid propanolysis Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis and its application to a screening procedure for novel bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoic acids containing long chain saturated and unsaturated monomers Gaschromatographische Bestimmung der H2-, O2- and CO2-Konsumptionsraten von Hydrogenomonas eutropha Stamm H 16

Macromolecules (1998), 31(24), 8485-8492 Risk kontroll 1982; 4:22-24

1998 1982

Blends of atactic poly[(R,S)-3hydroxybutyrate], a-PHB, with poly(.epsilon.caprolactone), PCL, and with poly(L-lactic acid), PLLA, were obtained in the form of compression molded films. The phase behavior of the blends was different: a-PH

kopiert 275.

J of Chromatography 1988; 445:285-289

1988

396.

Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 1995; 80(4):408-414

1995

600.

?

70.

489 S. Das, R.N. Reusch

Gating Kinetics of E. coli Poly-3Hydroxybutyrate/Polyphosphate Channels in Planar Bilayer Membranes

J. Membrane Biol. 170:135-145 (1999) © 1999 by Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.

1999

Nonproteinaceous calcium channel complexes from Escherichia coli, composed of poly-(R)-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), exhibit two distinct gating modes (modes 1 and 2) in planar lipid bilayers. Here we report

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 159
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

490 Maehara A, Ikai K, Ueda S, Yamane T

1Laboratory of Molecular Biotechnology, Division of Molecular Cell Mechanisms, Department of Biological Mechanisms and Functions, Graduate School of Bio- & AgroSciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-01, Japan Gene dosage effects on polyhydroxyalkanoates synthesis 2Laboratory of from n-alcohols in Applied Microbi Paracoccus denitrificans

Biotechnol Bioeng 1998 Oct 5;60(1):61-9

1998

polyhydroxyalkanoate; methylotroph; biodegradable plastics; fed-batch culture; molecular weight

Putative promoters of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-synthetic genes of Paracoccus denitrificans were identified. Gene dosage effects for PHA synthesis were investigated in recombinants of P. denitrificans with increased expression levels of each PHA syntheti

MASSACHUSETTS SINSKEY ANTHONY J (US); PEOPLES INST TECHNOLOGY 491 OLIVER P (US) (US)

Gene encoding bacterial acetoacetylco a reductase

US5798235 1998-08-25

1998

The present invention is a method for controlling biopolymer synthesis by determining the genetics and enzymology of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis at the molecular level. The purified enzymes and genes provide the means for developing new PHB

PEOPLES OLIVER P (US); SINSKEY 492 ANTHONY J (US)

MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY (US)

Gene encoding bacterial acetoacetyl-COA reductase

US5512669 1996-04-30

1996

The present invention is a method for controlling biopolymer synthesis by determining the genetics and enzymology of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis at the molecular level. The purified enzymes and genes provide the means for developing new PHB

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 160
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

PEOPLES OLIVER P (US); SINSKEY 493 ANTHONY J (US)

MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY (US)

Gene encoding bacterial beta-ketothiolase

US5661026 1997-08-26

1997

The present invention is a method for controlling biopolymer synthesis by determining the genetics and enzymology of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis at the molecular level. The purified enzymes and genes provide the means for developing new

494 Sudesh K, Fukui T, Doi Y

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Saitama University, Urawa, Saitama 338-0825, Japan.

Genetic analysis of Comamonas acidovorans polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase and factors affecting the incorporation of 4hydroxybutyrate monomer.

Appl Environ Microbiol 1998 Sep;64(9):3437-43

1998

Steinbuchel, Alexander; Schubert, 495 Peter; Timm, Arnulf; Pries, Andreas

Inst. Mikrobiol., GeorgAugust-Univ., Goettingen D-3400, Fed. Rep. Ger.

Genetic and molecular analysis of the Alcaligenes eutrophus poly(hydroxyalkanoate)-biosynthetic genes and accumulation of PHA in recombinant bacteria.

NATO ASI Ser., Ser. E, 186(Novel Biodegrad. Microb. Polym.), 143-59 (English) 1990

1990

Alcaligenes polyhydroxyalkanoate gene cloning Pseudomonas

The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene of Comamonas acidovorans DS-17 (phaCCa) was cloned by using the synthase gene of Alcaligenes eutrophus as a heterologous hybridization probe. Complete sequencing of a 4.0-kbp SmaI-HindIII (SH40) subfragment rev Mol. methods were applied to analyze the A. eutrophus PHB biosynthetic pathway. The genes for b-ketothiolase (phbA), NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phbB), and PHB synthase (phbC) are presumably organized in 1 operon with phbC being the 1st ge

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 161
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Rhizobium etli accumulates poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) in symbiosis and in free life. PHB is a reserve material that serves as a carbon and/or electron sink when optimal growth conditions are not met. It has been suggested that in symbiosis PHB can pr Objective Hardware Ablage

Cevallos MA, Encarnacion S, Leija A, 496 Mora Y, Mora J

Departamento de Ecologia Molecular, Universidad Nacional Genetic and physiological characterization of a Rhizobium Autonoma de Mexico, etli mutant Morelos, Mexico. strain unable to synthesize poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate.

J Bacteriol 1996 Mar;178(6):1646-54

1996

CSIRO Div. Plant Industry, Canberra ACT 2601, 498 Bergersen, F. J.; Gibson, A. H.; Licis, I. Australia 499 Northrop, J. H. Aragao, G.M.F.; Uribelarrea, J.L.; 500 Goma, G.; Pareilleux, A. Morinaga, Y.; Yamanaka, S.; Ishizaki, 501 A.

Growth and N2-fixation of soybeans inoculated with strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum differing in energetic efficiency and PHB utilization. Soil Biol. Biochem., 27(4/5), 611-16 (English) 1995 1995 Growth and Phage Production of Lysogenic B. megatherium Journal of General Physiology 1951; 34:715-735 1951 Growth and production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 on glucose 7th European congress on biotechnology 1995 Growth characteristics and cell composition of Alcaligenes eutrophus in chemostat culture Agric. Biol. Chem. 1978; 42(2):439-444

The hypothesis, that accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in bacteroids of soybean root nodules and utilization of this polymer soybean growth nitrogen during pod-filling, are fixation Bradyrhizobium strain factors in N2 fixation polyhydroxybutyrate utilization during seed development, Bradyrhizobium strain soybean was tested in a glasshouse expt. Lincoln soybean 366.

1995 1978

522. 2.

Hahn JJ, Eschenlauer AC, Narrol MH, 503 Somers DA, Srienc F

Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108, USA.

504 Page; W.J.; Cornish; A.

Growth kinetics, nutrient uptake, and expression of the Alcaligenes eutrophus poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis pathway in transgenic maize cell suspension cultures. Biotechnol Prog 1997 Jul-Aug;13(4):347-54 Growth of Azotobacter vinelandii UWD in fish peptone medium and simplified extraction of poly-betaAppl. Environ. Microbiol. 1993; 59(12):4236hydroxybutyrate 4244

1997

Transgenic suspension cultures of Black Mexican Sweet maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the Alcaligenes eutrophus genes encoding enzymes of the pathway for biosynthesis of the biodegradable polymer poly(betahydroxybutyrate) (PHB) were established as a tool

1993

440.

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 162
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

505 E. J. Bormann, M. Leißner, B. Beer

Innovent e.V. Arbeitsgruppe Growth-associated production of poly(hydroxybutyric Biotechnologie, acid) by Azotobacter beijerinckii from Göschwitzer Str. 22, D- organic nitrogen 07747 Jena, Germany substrates

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 49 Issue 1 (1998) pp 84-88 1998

Poly(hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) was produced by a selectant of Azotobacter beijerinckii in media containing only organic nitrogen sources such as N substrates. The chosen compounds were casein peptone, yeast

(1) Universität Leipzig, Fakultät für Biowissenschaften, Pharmazie und Psychologie, Abteilung Biotechnologie, Permoserstraße 15, D04318 Leipzig, Germany (2) UFZ- Growth-associated synthesis of poly(hydroxybutyric Umweltforschungszent acid) in Methylobacterium rhodesianum as rum Leipzig-Halle an expression GmbH, S of an internal bottleneck Halobacteria as producers of polyhydroxyalkanoates

Methylobacterium rhodesianum MB126 growing on fructose accumulates poly(hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) during exponential growth in contrast to growth on methanol, where the strain accumulates the polyester in r 474.

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 47 Issue 2 (1997) pp 144-149 1997 FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992; 103:181-186 1992

506 J.-U. Ackermann (1), W. Babel (2) 507 Rodriguez-Valera; F.; Lillo; J.A.G. Strohl, W. R.; Cannon, G. C.; Shively, J. M.; G de, H.; Hook, L. A.; Lane, C. 508 M.; Larkin, J. M.

Heterotrophic Carbon Metabolism by Beggiatoa alba

J Bacteriol. 1981; 148:572-583

1981

404.

509 Lee, Sang Yup; Chang, Ho Nam Preusting; H.; Houten, van; R.; Hoefs; A.; Langenberghe, van; E.K.; Favre510 Bulle; O.; Witholt; B.

BioProcess Eng. Res. Cent., Korea High cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli W using Adv. Inst. Sci. sucrose as a Technol., Taejon 305- carbon source. 701, S. Korea High Cell density Cultivation of Pseudomonas oleovorans: Growth and Production of Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) in Two-Liquid Phase Batch and Fed-Batch Systems

Biotechnol. Lett., 15(9), 971-4 (English) 1993

PHB Escherichia dense cultivation sucrose 1993

E. coli W was cultivated in the pH-stat fed-batch mode in a chem. defined medium contg. sucrose as sole C source. A final cell concn. of 105 g/L could be obtained in a defined medium in 36 h by feeding 20 g sucrose + 0.57 g MgSO4.7H2O whenever the pH ros

Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1993; 41:550- 1993( 556 4?)

451.

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 163
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

511 Wang; F.; Lee; S.Y.

Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusonggu, Taejon 305-701, Korea email: Sang Yup Lee High cell density culture of metabolically engineered E. coli (leesy@sorak.kaist.ac. for the production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in a defined Biotechnol Bioeng 1998 Apr 20-May 5;58(2kr) medium 3):325-8

1998

A recombinant Escherichia coli strain XL1Blue harboring a stable high-copy-number plasmid pSYL107 containing the Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis genes and the Escherichia coli ftsZ gen

681.

Bourque, D.; Pomerleau, Y.; Groleau, 512 D.

Biotechnol. Res. Inst., Natl. High cell density production of poly(b-hydroxybutyric acid) Res. Counc. Canada, (PHB) using Montreal, PQ H4P methanol in a fed-batch system. 2R2, Can.

Spec. Publ. - R. Soc. Chem., 109(Biodegradable Polymers and Plastics), 229-32 (English) 1992

polyhydroxybutyrate fermn methanol Methylobacterium 1992

Kim S W; Kim P; Lee H S; *Kim J H 514

Department of Biotechnology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-701, Korea.

High production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from Methylobacterium organophilum under potassium limitation; biodegradation plastic production in a microcomputer-aided fed-batch culture

Biotechnol.Lett.; (1996) 18, 1, 25-30

1996

Good process control was instrumental in the development of high cell d. fed-batch fermn. process for PHB prodn. from methanol. This success was achieved mainly by using an adaptive nonlinear control algorithm and using a dissolved gas membrane probe cou Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) mass production from Methylobacterium organophillum NCIB 11278 was carried out under potassium-limited conditions using a microcomputer-aided automatic fed-batch culture system. Cells were cultured in a 2

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 164
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

KURDIKAR, Devdatt, L. , 12220 Country Place Drive, Maryland Heights, MO 63043, United States of America STRAUSER, Fred, E. , 3006 St. Camella Street, Saint Charles, MO 516 63301-0356, United States of Am

MONSANTO COMPANY, 800 N. Lindbergh Boulevard, Saint Louis, MO 63167, United States of America

HIGH TEMPERATURE PHA EXTRACTION USING PHA-POOR SOLVENTS

WO9846783 1998-10-22 1998

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyester is extracted from biomass by dissolving the PHA in a nonhalogenated solvent which comprises a PHA-poor solvent that dissolves less than 1 % of the PHA at temperatures less than the

Bioprocess R&D Group, Biotechnology Research Institute (BRI), National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal (Quebec), Canada H4P 2R2 High-cell-density production of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from methanol by Methylobacterium extorquens. Production of high-molecular-mass PHB.

Bourque, D.; Pomerleau, Y.; Groleau, 518 D.

Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 44(3-4), 367-76 (English) 1995

polyhydroxybutyrate manuf methanol Methylobacterium 1995

Methylobacterium extorquens ATCC 55366 was successfully cultivated at very high cell densities in a fed-batch fermn. system using MeOH as a sole C and energy source and a completely minimal culture medium for the prodn. of poly-bhydroxybutyrate (PHB). C

604.

519 Kalousek S, Lubitz W

Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, University of High-level poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) production in Vienna, Austria. recombinant Escherichia coli in sugar-free, complex medium.

Can J Microbiol 1995;41 Suppl 1:216-21

1995

The poly(betahydroxybutyrate) (PHB) biosynthetic genes of Alcaligenes eutrophus that are organized in a single operon (phbCAB) have been cloned in Escherichia coli, where the expression of the genes in the wild-type phb operon from plasmid p4A leads to t

520 Choi JI, Lee SY

Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Kusong-dong, Yusonggu, Taejon 305-701, High-level production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3Korea. hydroxyvalerate) by fed-batch culture of recombinant Escherichia coli.

Appl Environ Microbiol 1999 Oct;65(10):4363-8

1999

Fermentation strategies for production of high concentrations of poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] with different 3hydroxyvalerate (3HV) fractions by recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the Alcaligenes latus polyhydroxyalkan

kopiert

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 165
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Abstract Examn. of high-resoln. electron micrographs of single crystals of poly(b-hydroxybutyric acid) (I) grown from PEG polyester crystal structure TEM soln. by optical polyhydroxybutyrate crystal diffraction yielded a structure TEM diffractogram showing 8 hydroxybutyric acid copolymer spots organized in a crystal TEM fashion similar to the hydroxyvaleric acid copolymer electron diffraction crystal TEM pattern. Latt Keyword(s) Objective Hardware Ablage

Deslandes, Yves; Orts, William; Sundararajan, Pudupadi R.; Marchessault, Robert H.; Revol, Jean 521 Francois; Chanzy, Henri D.

Xerox Res. Cent. Canada, Mississauga, High-resolution electron microscopy of single crystals of ON L5K 2L1, Can. poly(b-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and copolymers.

Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.), 29(1), 607-8 (English) 1988

1988

MONTADOR, James, Henry , 14 Northpark, Owington Farm, Billingham on Tees TS23 3SU, United Kingdom GEORGE, Neil , 10 Westward Lane, Ingleby Barwick, Stockton on Tees, Cleveland TS17 0UY, United 522 Kingdom

MONSANTO COMPANY, 800 North Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63167, United States of HOT SHAPING POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE America POLYMERS

WO9723549 1997-07-03

1997

523 Hippe, H.; Schlegel, H.G.

Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen

Hydrolyse von PHBS durch intracelluläre Depolymerase von Hydrogenomonas H 16

Archiv f r Mikrobiologie 1967; 56:278-299 (Article in German

1967

Hydrogenomonas H 16 Rhodospirillum rubrum Bacillus megaterium Depolymerization

Merrick, Joseph M.; Steger, Robert; 524 Dombroski, Darlene

School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Microbiology, State University of New York Hydrolysis of native poly(hydroxybutyrate) granules (PHB), at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, crystalline PHB, and artificial amorphous PHB granules USA by intracellular and extracellular depolymerases Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (1999), 25(1-3), 129-134 1999

This invention relates to processes for producing a shaped object of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that makes it possible to omit the preliminary extrusion-compounding step, thus saving expense and limiting loss of molecul Poly-betahydroxybuttesäure (HBS) ist Speicherlipid vieler aerober Bakterien sowie der Thio- und Athiorhodaceen. Es liegt in allen bisher bekannten Fällen in Form von intracellulären Granula vor. PHBS wird als hochmolekulare wasserunlösliche Verbindung er Metabolism Native poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granules, purified PHB and artificial amorphous PHB granules were examd. as putative substrates for hydrolysis by the intracellular depolymerase system of Rhodospirillum rubrum and the extracellular depoly

106.

30. 1996 1996 ASRAR. Atsushi . MO Hydroxy-terminated polyhydroxyalkanoates US5994478 Nov.xls . MO Shah. High molecular weight hydroxyterminated PHA is obtainable by the disclosed pr Hydroxyterminated PHA is produced by cultivating a PHA-producing microorganism in the presence of an aliphatic diol or an aliphatic polyol. . MO Tran. United States of America SHAH. MO 63017. Lindbergh Boulevard. 16. Treeside Court. 1999 1999 Hydroxy-terminated PHA is produced by cultivating a PHA-producing microorganism in the presence of an aliphatic diol or an aliphatic polyol. Emonton. Louis. The resin composition may typically comprise a Terumo Kabushiki 526 Matsumoto.J. United States of America HYDROXY-TERMINATED POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES WO9964617A1 Dec. 55:1134-1339 1989 Azotobacter vinelandii UW Azotobacter vinelandii UWD The transformation of Azotobacter vinelandii UW with A. Japan Kaisha. Chesterfield. Jawed . O. MO 63017. Ballwin.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. These transformants produce Strain . Devang. Devang T.4.. Chesterfield. 719 G. Jawed . 1989.Metabolism 323 korr . Environ. University of Alberta. Knosp. 800 N. . United States of America TRAN. Minhtien . Minhtien .page 166 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage There is provided a highly biodegradable resin composition comprising a hydroxyalkanoate polymer and a crystallization nucleating agent. vinelandii 113 DNA resulted in the formation of rifampin-resitant colonies. Tokyo. W. Japan hydroxybutyrate homopolymer or Hydroxyalkanoate polymer composition US5516565 May 14. Kanagawa. Canada T6G 2E9 Hyperproduction of Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate during exponential growth of Azotobacter vinelandii UWD Appl. 1999 1999 531 Page. 530 MO Monsanto Company. Department of Microbiology. St. St. 459 Holly 528 Terrace Co MONSANTO COMPANY. Chesterfield. 13 % of which also inherited a previously unrecognized mutation in the respiratoy NADH oxidase. MO 63189. Louis. High molecular weight hydroxyterminated PHA is obtainable Asrar. 14949 Royal Brook Drive. Alberty. T. Chesterfield. Microbiol.

Identification and characterization of two Alcaligenes eutrophus gene loci relevant to the poly(beta-hydroxybutyric acid)-leaky phenotype which exhibit homology to ptsH and ptsI of Escherichia coli. Priefert H. H. 108:17-26 1976 95. Mayer. J. Germany. Identification of 4-hydroxyhexanoic acid as a new Henry E.Identification and physiological characterization of the 3400 Göttingen. Although many wild types g Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 40 Issue 5 (1994) pp 710-716 1994 .Metabolism Objective Hardware Ablage Pries A. Lalucat.. which is involved in the utilization of acetoin in Alcaligenes eutrophus.Efficiency .Aerobic autotrophic (H2. Eun Yeol Lee (2).G. Schlegel. College of constituent of biosynthetic Cha Yong Choi (2). Germany.Aerobic heterotrophic (sucrose) and anaerobic acetylene conditions. Alexander Engineering. nitrogen fixing bacterium Corynebacterium autotrophicum Germany GZ 29 Arch. CO2) as hydrogen bacteria . F. was identified as the structural gene of an acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (acetate:coenzyme A ligase [AMP forming]. Schumann. Seoul polyhydroxyalkanoic acids 535 Steinbüchel (1) Nati from bacteria Various aerobic Gramnegative bacteria were analysed for utilizing 4hydroxyhexanoic acid (4HHx) as a carbon source for growth and for synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA).page 167 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract From genomic libraries of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 in lambda L47 and in pVK100.und Umweltforschung mbH in Göttingen.. Ostwal.01. Grisebachstrasse 8. 534 H.2.8 The coryneform hydrogen bacterium strain GZ 29.1. assigned to Corynebacterium autotrophicum fixed molecular nitrogen under Nitrogen fixation . 09:41 07.174(20):6590-9 1992 Berndt. Steinbuchel A Identification and molecular characterization of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetase gene (acoE) of Alcaligenes eutrophus. 533 Priefert H.xls . Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen und der Gesellschaft für Strahlen.-P.4. K. J Bacteriol 1992 Oct.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 532 Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie GeorgAugust-Universitat Gottingen. Physiological reduction . This gene was localized on a 3. (1) Institut für Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversität Göttingen.Oxygen well as under sensitivity . Kruger N. J Bacteriol 1991 Sep. Mikrobiol. Germany (2) Department of Chemical Technology. 1976. Grisebachstraße 8. we cloned DNA fragments which restored the wild-type phenotype to poly(betahydroxybutyric acid) (PHB)-leaky mutants derived from strains H16 and JMP222. D.Corynebacterium parameters of nitrogen autotrophicum fixation were measured Strain . Valentin (1).1994D-37077 Göttingen. EC 6.173(18):5843-53 1991 Institut fur Mikrobiologie GeorgAugust-Universitat zu Gottingen.. C.1).. The nucleotide seque The gene locus acoE..

polyhydroxyalkanoic Victoria. Schönebaum. Four predominant proteins of 64 kDa. E. H.page 168 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Valentin. Steinbüchel (3) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 46 Issue 3 (1996) pp 261-267 1996 A recombinant strain of Pseudomonas putida GPp104 (pHP1014::E146). 2 Institut für Organische Chemie der Georg-AugustUniversität Göttingen.2. Identification of 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid. which expressed the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) synthase of Thiocapsa pfennigii exhibiting an unusual substrate specificity at a high lev Schembri MA. Schönebaum (2). acid granules from Acinetobacter spp. James Madison University. D4-hydroxyheptanoic acid and 437077 Göttingen.Paracoccus belonging to the genera Methylobacterium Alcaligenes. 538 Davies JK Department of Microbiology. USA (2) Institut für Organische Chemie der GeorgAugust-Universität Göttingen. A.. 1992.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Tammannstraße 2. 38 kDa and 13 kDa were identified. A. Paracoccus. H1. 537 A. VA 22807.4. hydroxyoctanoic acid as Germany new constituents of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoic acids Appl. Australia. Tammannstrasse 2.133(3):277-83 1995 Proteins associated with poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules were purified from four Acinetobacter strains isolated from modified activated sludge treatment plants. W3400 Göttingen. Copolyesters 4-valerolactone Substrates hydroxypropionic acid 416. 536 Steinbüchel. Microbiol. E.examined with respect to terpolyesters . Harrisonburg. Monash Identification of a 13-kDa protein associated with the University. Clayton. Woods AA. N-ter . Germany.Alcaligenes Pseudomonas and eutrophus NCIB 11599 Methylobacterium. 36:507-514 1992 Twenty-four different strains of aerobic Gramnegative bacteria. Pseudomonas . were Pseudomonas oxalaticus Ox1 . Bayly RC.3hydroxybaleric acid (4HV). Grisebachtsrasse 8. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1995 Nov 15.4-hydroxyvaleric their ability to utilize 4Strains acid . W3400 Göttingen. Biotechnol. A. 41 kDa. mainly Alcaligenes .1 1 Institut für Mikrobiologie der GeorAugust-Universität Göttingen. Valentin (1).xls .4-valerolactone . Identification of 4-hydroxyvaleric acid as a constituent of Germany biosynthetic polyhydroxyalkanoic acids from bacteria (1) Department of Biology.

Steinbuchel A Identification.76(3):227-33 1992 From a genomic library of Alcaligenes eutrophus strain H16 in the broadhost range cosmid pVK100 a 6300-bp EcoRI-fragment was cloned. Identification of a novel group of bacteria in sludge from a Denmark. cloning and sequence analysis of the poly(3-hydroxyalkanoic acid) synthase gene of the grampositive bacterium Rhodococcus ruber. e The microbial diversity of a deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor was investigated by methods not requiring direct cultivation. Technical University of Denmark. 542 Pieper U. Madkour MH. which coexpressed this protein with the polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB) biosynthesis operon of Alcaligenes The first polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) synthase gene (phbCRr) of a Grampositive bacterium was cloned from a genomic library of Rhodococcus ruber in the broad-hostrange plasmid vector pRK404. Mayer F.177(9):2513-23 1995 The function of the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) granule-associated GA14 protein of Rhodococcus ruber was investigated in Escherichia coli XL1Blue. Appl Environ Microbiol 1999 Mar. 8:100) but fail Nielsen AT.page 169 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 539 Pries A. The hybrid plasmid harboring phbCRr allowed the expression o Institut fur Mikrobiologie.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. GeorgPieper-Furst U. Grady L 540 Jr. August-Universitat 541 Steinbuchel A Gottingen. Hein S.65(3):1251-8 1999 Institut fur Mikrobiologie. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1992 Sep 1. Liu WT. Stahl DA Department of Microbiology. Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie. Lyngby. Identification of the region of a 14-kilodalton protein of Rhodococcus ruber that is responsible for the binding of this phasin to polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granules. derived from A. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1992 Oct 15. FRG. Filipe C. Identification of a lipoamide dehydrogenase gene as second locus affected in poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid)-leaky mutants of Alcaligenes eutrophus. deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor. The reactor was fed with media containing acetate and high levels of phosphate (P/C weight ratio. Germany. GeorgAugust-Universitat Gottingen. Molin S. FRG. which restored the wild-type phenotype in transposon-induced poly(3hydroxybutyric acid)-leaky mutants.xls . J Bacteriol 1995 May.75(1):73-9 1992 .4. GeorgAugust-Universitat Gottingen.

nov. Ten dogs had Gerngross. S2O32-. Hamilton. as an occlusive barrier over implants placed into fresh extraction sockets.. Fukui T. Hjorting-Hansen Copenhagen. Anthony J. G. obligately anaerobic rod with pointed ends. Oliver P. Taguchi K.xls . Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. Harfoot. Peter H. 5289-93 (English) 1993 Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate granule assembly polyhydroxybutyrate synthase granule surface localization Alcaligenes 1993 Antibodies raised against the Alcaligenes eutrophus poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase polypeptide were used for immunocytochem. O2.4. 544 E Denmark. Bacteriol.5(2):83-91 1994 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a biodegradable membrane of polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate copolymer reinforced with polyglactin 910 fibers. NO3-. Immediate implant placement using a biodegradable barrier. University. Stubbe. Urawa. Tillman U. A multicopy-number broad- Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences. (PHB) Massachusetts Inst. Improved production of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) by Comamonas acidovorans and its freeze-fracture morphology. C.25(1-3):79-85 1999 .. polyhydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate reinforced with polyglactin 910. 154(3). Reilly. Waikato. 253-9 (English) 1990 1990 Enrichments from an estuarine sediment with crotonate as substrate resulted in the isolation of a motile. Immunocytochemical analysis of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate Dep. Z.. Iwata T. School of Dentistry. 175(16). Microbiol. polyhydroxybutyrate metab Ilyobacter Arch. Sinskey. University of Gotfredsen K. The data presented demonstrate for the first Production of poly(4hydroxybutyrate) [P(4HB)] by Comamonas acidovorans JCM10181 was studied by introducing additional copies of its PHA synthase gene and the beta-ketothiolase gene.page 170 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 543 Janssen. a metabolically restricted anaerobic bacterium fermenting PHB.. Biol. 546 Peoples. gram-neg. Strain 423. The organism was asporogenous.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Sci. Biol.. synthase in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16: localization of the Technol. localization of the synthase enzyme in whole cells and purified PHB granules. enzyme at the surface of PHB granules.. synthase Cambridge.. 547 Doi Y Japan. Saitama Sudesh K. Ilyobacter delafieldii sp. designated strain 10cr1... Dep.. Univ. USA J. Nimb L. An experimental study in dogs. did not reduce S0. Clin Oral Implants Res 1994 Jun. Faculty of Health Sciences. MA 02139. Joanne. Pat. N.

1995 fermn poly beta hydroxyalkanoate overprodn operon prokaryote fermn poly beta hydroxyalkanoate Vector construct providing for inducible overprodn. . S.3HV)) was investigated in situ in natural waters. In situ biodegradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in natural waters. poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co10%-3hydroxyvalerate)(P(3HBco-10 %-3HV)). 76 pp. including Escherichia coli in particular. and is produced commercially in bulk by biotechnology. of poly-b-hydroxyalkanoate ("PHA"). 549 Swings J Laboratorium voor Microbiologie.. 551 Goosen. Dennis. Bonfield W Kwong. Queen Mary In vitro and in vivo evaluation of polyhydroxybutyrate and and Westfield College. Center for Innovative Technology.12(9):841-7 Journal of controlled release 1986. The vector constructs provide for one or more of (a) regulated trans Mergaert J. in prokaryotes. Appl. Th 550 Doyle C. PCT Int. John P. of London. K. Wouters A. including poly-bhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Can J Microbiol 1995. Belgium. M. Universiteit Gent.. F. Chou. A. Tanner ET. 4 1991 1986 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a polyester made by many microorganisms under conditions of nitrogen deficiency. It has been suggested that PHB-based materials (copolymers and composites) could be suitab 288.xls . UK. Douglas E. WO 9521257 A1 10 Aug 1995. and poly 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-20%3-hydroxyvalerate)(P(3HBco-20%. polyhydroxybutyrate reinforced with hydroxyapatite.. In vitro and in vivo release of insulin from poly(lactic acid) microbeads and pellets Biomaterials 1991 Nov. Anderson C. USA Improved production of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates in transformed prokaryotic hosts.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. A.41 Suppl 1:154-9 1995 The biodegradation of samples of poly(3hydroxybutyrate)(P(3HB)). A. Department of Materials.page 171 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 548 Kidwell. Sefton..4.

Inst.. UK In vitro degradation of a PHB/PHV copolymer and a new technique for monitoring early surface changes. Staffordshire Polytech.. Reichelt R. Peacock SJ In vitro biodegradation of polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate microcapsules exposed to Hank's buffer. pancreatin and synthetic gastric juice. C. turnover of R-(-)-3-hydroxybutyryl coenzyme A (3HB-CoA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) formation 554 Knowles. 66 1998 Purified recombinant poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid) (PHA) synthase from Chromatium vinosum (PhaECCv) was used to examine in vitro the specific synthase activity.14(1):35-49 1997 Spherical microporous reservoir-type microcapsules. Birmingham.xls . Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat Munster. Aston University. Biomaterials.page 172 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences. 12(2). J. UK.49(3):258vinosum. J Microencapsul 1997 Jan-Feb. newborn calf serum. fabricated using a W/O/W double emulsion technique with solvent evaporation and composed of 330 kD poly(beta-hydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate (P(HBHV)) (10.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 210-14 (English) 1991 1991 hydroxybutyrate hydroxyvalerate polymer degrdn The use of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and its copolymers (with hydroxyvalerate) as degradable materials for surgical use is showing increasing promise due to their long degrdn.. In vitro biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) by using purified poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid) synthase of Chromatium Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1998 Mar. W. Of considerable interest were the interfacial changes and their role . profile. Germany.4.8% HV)/20% PCL II containing a range of bovine 553 Jossek R. Hastings. 552 Atkins TW. Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7NY. G. Med.

C. Clemson. J. 28:167-187 1974 prokaryotic inclusion bodies 151. Med. Biomed.4. Unit..000) samples were placed in buffered saline at varying pH for long-term in vitro studies. Ooba K In vivo and in vitro degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in rat. W. injection of 14Clabelled poly(3-hydroxybut This review summarizes our current knowledge of prokaryotic inclusion bodies. 352-8 (English) 1992 polyhydroxybutyrate valerate biomaterial degrdn polyester biomaterial degrdn 1992 Injection-molded PHB/7% PHV (mol. Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7NY. UK In vitro degradation of a poly(hydroxybutyrate)[PHB]/poly(hydroxyvalerate)[PHV] copolymer. The inclusions habe been divided into two major groups based on the presence or absence of a surrounding membrane. The i. Japan. CONSTITUTION:An ac . Department of Biochemistry. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Anomalies between sample mass loss and Young's modulus were found for the different pHs. Poly(3hydroxybutyrate) sheet did not cause any inflammation in the chorioallantoic membrane of the developing egg. A third group (see section: Other Inclusions) includes those w Review 557 Shively. 3(5).12(3):309-12 1991 The inflammatory activity and biodegradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) were examined. Tomita K.v. 556 Saito T. Kyoto University. Med. J. Eng.page 173 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 555 Knowles. Mater.: Mater. Sci. G. others: 558 04 TAISEI CORP INCREASE OF SHARE OF PHB PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS IN ACTIVE SLUDGE JP4131196 1992-05-01 1992 PURPOSE:To increase the share of PHB producing microorganisms in an active sludge to efficiently recover PHB from the active sludge by continuing the aeration thereof for a specific number of days without the supply of a substrate. South Carolina 29631 Inclusion bodies of prokaryotes Am.xls . Hastings. Clemson University. 1974. Biomaterials 1991 Apr.. Juni K. Inst.Microbiol.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.M. SAITO YUJI.. J. The Young's modulus anomaly was Department of Health Chemistry.Rev. mass 580.

accumulated polybeta-hydroxybutyric acid amounting to 75% of cell dry weight at the late exponential phase..insulin 125I by 24 x 106 hydroxybutyrate IM-9 lymphocyte Others Alcaligenes latus DSM 1122. 43(5):1190-2 Laboratory of Molecular Biotechnology. 1997 Proc. Ventre G. producer. This led to induction of encystmen 507.4. The binding of . Nagoya University. Department of Medicine. Yamane T. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production by high cell density culture with optimized inoculum size 1976 The serum concentration of ketones increases in both fasting and diabetic ketoacidosis. Gainesville. University of Florida Scholl of Medicine. Fukunaga M. growth-associated poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) producers. Caldelari D Institut d'EcologieBiologie et Physiologie Vegetales. Anupam Manna. 89:798-799 1997 1992 Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201. Pulkkinen. when grown under nitrogen-free conditions with excess glucose. A. Batiment de Biologie.insulin receptor affinity .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Plant Physiol 1999 Dec. Sci. a growth-associated PHB Japan. Increased insulin binding by lymphocyte receptors induced Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Florida 32610 by beta-OH butyrate 1976. Department of Applied Biological Sciences. School of Agricultural Sciences. culture of Alcaligenes latus. Wheterh ketones alter.. Patel. 197-202 1996 Soma Pal.xls .J.121(4):1359-66 1999 Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from intermediates of fatty acid beta-oxidation was used as a tool to study fatty acid degradation in developing seeds of Arabidopsis. latus DSM 1123 gave the highest 137. C.beta. Lofton.. Nagoya 464. Switzerland. 2. 563 Paul 564 Kumar. Universite de Lausanne. Chikusa. .page 174 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 559 Poirier Y. Transgenic plants expressing a peroxisomal PHA synthase under the control of a Merimee. was grown in a pH-stat model fed-batch culture for comparison of their PHB productivity. Amal K.J.Increased PHB productivity by high-cell-density fed-batch ku. 560 S. DSM 1123 and DSM 1124. Acad. Natl. USA 1992. A. Lee Y W 561 Biotechnol.Bioeng. Induction of Encystment and Poly-beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid Production by Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201 Industrial ecology Curr Microbiol 35:327-330 (1997) © Springer-Verlag New York Inc. independent of changes in pH. the number and affinity of insulin receptors is not serum concentration of ketones known. Increased flow of fatty acids toward beta-oxidation in developing seeds of arabidopsis deficient in diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity or synthesizing medium-chain-length fatty acids. N. CH1015 Lausanne. T. (1996) 50. Korr..

M. Applied an dEnvironmental Microbiology 1993.P..xls .. J. O.7H2O and 24 ml trace element solution) with 3% g 498.Appl.. 14(2).cell elongation The influence of phenylacetic acid on the polymerization of betahydroxybutyrate and cell elongation in Azotobacter chroococcum has been investigated. Melinard. Wuxi. Goulet. F.. 52-55 1987 Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1995. Italy 571 Henrysson. T. Y. Lun. Guocheng. 1.7H2O.. A. M. Langer. Lab. Rep.2 h-1 diln. rate in the first stage.79 g/l MgSO4. Beaulieu Y. 59(5):1602-1606 CRC Critical Reviews in Biocompatibility 1987. McCarthx. Peop. 566 Leaversuch. culture medium optimization for poly.. 187192 Chinese 1998 The influence of diln. Light Industry. eutrophus in a twostage continuous culture system. 567 Pandian. Istituto di Microbiologia agraria dell' Università di Pisa.98 g/l Na2HPO4. 565 Hrabak. Pisa. 1. 572 Goosen. Cite Universitaire.. 569 Yinguang. rate on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) formation was investigated with A. R. Universite Laval.Microbiol. DeBertholdi. 103:251-256 1992 Modern Plastics 1987. of 27. Jian. Pandian S. Influence of ammonium salts and cane molasses on growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and production of polyhydroxybutyrate. 61:165-169 1995 Production of poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in synthetic culture medium (0. Influence of dilution rate on PHB formation with China Alcaligenes eutrophus in a two-stage continuous culture system Shengwu Gongcheng Xuebao (1998). R. Canada. 2.J. School Biotechnol. Biotechnol. 15 mg/l FeSO4.-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymerization and cell elongation in Azotobacter chroococcum Beij.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Chen.Microbiol.Metabolism 150.4. 165-69 beta-hydroxybutyrate production 1995 Du. 378.1 g/L could be obtained at 0. A maximal cell dry wt. Chen. Influence of phenylacetic acid on poly. Quebec. 3:45292 1993 1987 609. S. G1K 7P4.. 18:1275-1261 1972 Azotobacter chroococcum phenylacetic acid . Beaulieu. Centro di Studio per la Microbiologia del Suolo del Consiglio Nazionale delle 570 Nuti. 214036. calculated by intrinsic viscosity and l Strain . M. Melinard J.Environ. A. Beaulieu M. Departement de Sciences et Technologie des Aliments. The polymer was extracted by a new method. Wuxi Univ.5 g/l KH2PO4. Beaulieu. 1972. Gao.L. Ricerche. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992.. *Goulet J 568 Univ. (1995) 61.Laval LO Centre STELA. 290. Lepidi. J. Ist molecular weight. . M.A. P. Haijun. Influence of the endogenous storage lipid poly-áhydroxybutyrate on the reducing power availability during cometabolism of trichloroethylene and naphthalene by resting methanotrophic mixed cultures Insulin delivery systems and encapsulation of cells for medical and industrial use Can. Shiyi Environ.page 175 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Industrial production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate Industry weighs need to make polymer degradable Influence of ammonium salts and cane molasses on growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and production of polyhydroxybutyrate Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 481.

Fukui T Department of Biological Sciences. poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid and lipids during accumulation and subsequent utilization in a Pseudomonas Can J Microbiol 1997 Jun. L. 40:103-120 1974 222. University of New South Wales. FEMS Microbiol Rev 1992 Dec. Miyata Y. A. Australia. Interrelations between glycogen. 573 Gassner F.T.9(2-4):333-8 1992 Intracellular degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in bacteria is not yet clear. or a mixture of these two polymers was investigated. Sussmuth R 574 Zevenhuizen.P.xls .M. Owen AJ. Intracellular depolymerase activity in isolated inclusion bodies containing polyhydroxyalkanoates with long alkyl and functional substituents in the side chain.page 176 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract In a laboratory-scale system. Kanagawa University. Fuller RC Department of Biotechnology. Interaction between poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3biederma@unihydroxyvalerate and a hohenheim. Germany.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.26(2-3):187-92 1999 The in vitro degradation of isolated Pseudomonas oleovorans inclusion bodies containing either poly-3-hydroxynonanoate (PHN). Stuttgart. dentrification activity of a heterotrophic microbial starter culture changed when different lots of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co3-hydroxyvalerate (P(HBco-HV)) were used as the solid carbon source in the heterotrophic denitrifi Objective Hardware Ablage Biedermann J. or poly(-3-hydroxy5-phenylvalerate) (PHPV). Lenz RW. Ebbink. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Nov. Schloe KT.de denitrifying Pseudomonas strain. When incubated at 30 degrees C . Faculty of Science. Intracellular degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Japan. Sydney. granules of Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M.43(6):561-8 1997 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1974. The properties of the autodigestion of native PHB granules from Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M were examined. 575 Saito T. The release of D(-)-3hydroxybutyrate was observed only at pH 576 Foster LJ.4. Institut fur Mikrobiologie. Saegusa H. Universitat Hohenheim.G..

L.com Pseudomonas putida BMO1.4. 35(13).S) Department of Biology. C. Lenz henry. 224:317-328 1994 466. James Madison University. Dieter Investigation of the Enzymic Cleavage of Diastereomeric Oligo(3-hydroxybutanoates) Containing Two to Eight HB Units. 579 Seves. Stazione Sperimentale Cellulosa. Siciliano. Seebach. Marchessault. HB.valentin@mon polyhydroxyalkanoate inclusions in 578 RW. cyclic (R) oligomers. Veregin.. T. 577 Bachmann. R. Dennis D santo.. CH8092. Carta Fibre Vegetali Artificiali. 15(1):41852 1994 1985 polyhydroxybutyrate PMMA blend phase structure crystal morphol polyhydroxybutyrate PMMA blend Blends of poly(D-(-)-3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and atactic PMMA were isothermally cold-crystd.xls .e. Macremolecules 1986.N. Eur. R. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule associated proteins from Pseudomonas oleovorans were purified and the N-terminal sequences of two major proteins migrating in sodium dodecyl sulfate J Biotechnol 1998 Oct 8. . Fyfe. oligolides. Italy Investigation of the phase structure of poly(D(-)3-hydroxybutyrate)/atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) blends by small-angle x-ray scattering.H. Beat M. 2884-7 (English) 1994 Biologie in unserer Zeit 1985. PHB. Zurich.. it is known that various poly(3hydroxybutanoate). Sadocco. J.. 19:2871 1986 210. A..A. Ionenstr"me und Substratfl sse Isodimorphism in bacterial poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-cobeta-hydroxyvalerate) Isolation and 1H-NMR spectroscopic identification of poly(3-hydroxybutanoate) from prokaryotic and eukaryotic organismsDetermination of the absolute configuration (R) of the monomeric unit 3-hydroxybutanoic acid from Escherichia coli and spinach Polymer. 32(6). Stuart ES. The lon 279.K.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. A.. D. J. and polymers composed of rac-hydroxybutanoate.. P. Fuller RC. Investigation of the function of proteins associated to Valentin HE. from homogeneous amorphous samples obtained by quenching. Schneider. 580 Widma... M. 1777-1784 1999 So far. Reusch. 581 R. Milan 20133. Switz. 1994. VA.. Xray techniques were employed to investigate the phase structure of the cold-crystd. A. G..M. ETHZentrum. 582 H. blends. Brunner. Hamer. Biochem. Seebach. B rger. depolymerases are able to degrade all-(R) chains. A Model for the Stereoselectivity of ***PHB*** Depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis T1 Macromolecules (1999).. Harrisonburg. Bluhm. but not all-(S) or syndiotactic (R.page 177 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Laboratorium fuer Organische Chemie Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule. USA.P.64(2-3):145-57 1998 polyacrylamide gels with Canetti.

1972. The isolated strain (named No 8) accumulated 8 micrograms PHA/m of cul 1. Korr. J.78(2-3):227-32 1992 Agric. B.point“ colony isolation Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 method.xls . Isolation and identification of granule-associated proteins relevant for poly(3-hydroxyalkanoic acid) biosynthesis in Chromatium vinosum D. 587 Komura. . the colistine counterselection Hydrogenomonas eutropha H technique and the „pin 16 . Rev Argent Microbiol 1994 Jan-Mar... mutants of Mutants . H. Schmidt B. Steinbuchel August-Universitat 586 A Gottingen.. Minoda. GeorgLiebergesell M. Takahashi. Igarashi.Fructose . T. Mikrobiol.) was isolated from soil samples from the Agronomy Faculty campus and its ability to accumulate poly-betahydroxyalkanoate (PHAs) polymers was analyzed.G. 47. 1980. Chem. Y. Sagae. which harbored only four major granule-associated proteins as revealed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Biol. Kanou. Argentina.26(1):21-7 [Article in Spanish] 1994 A microorganism (Azotobacter sp. FRG. Chem.. Yamada. H. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen und Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen.Metabolism 584 Bowien. Miyazaki SS Catedra de Microbiologia. 1-nitroso-3nitro-1-methylguanidine.Entner-Doudoroff Hydrogenomonas pathway . 44:1835-1840 1980 Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) granules.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 87:203-210 Agr. were isolated from crude cellular extracts of Chromatium vinosum D by centrifugation in a linear sucros 375.4. 1975. 585 Kodama. for the production of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates. K. Institut fur Mikrobiologie..Glucose . Schlegel.. Isolation and Identification of n-Butane-assimilating Bacterium FEMS Microbiol Lett 1992 Dec 1. Y. Biol. I. 39(1):77-82 1972 1975 97. Facultad de Agronomia.und Umweltforschung mbH. Alegre P.eutropha strain H 16 Gluconate (ATCC 17 699) and of Strain .. Ichikawa. Employing mutagenic agents (nitrite. Isolation and characterization of Azotobacter sp. ethylmethanesulfonate). Y..page 178 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 583 Quagliano JC. München in Göttingen Isolation and Characterization on Mutants of Hydrogeneomonas eutropha Strain H 16 Defective in Catabolism / Isolierung und Charakterisierung katabolischer Defektmutanten von Hydrogenomonas eutropha Stamm H 16 Isolation and culture conditions of a bacterium grown on hydrogen and carbon dioxide Arch. H.Ralstonia eutropha H 16 .

between room temp. Kersters K. spore-for BLAUHUT WILFRIED DIPL ING (AT). C.. STREMPFL DANUBIA Isolation of poly:hydroxy:alkanoate from fermentation broth FRIEDRICH DIPL ING PETROCHEM . Joris. Biol. Vakgroep Biochemie. (Inst Pasteur) 1981. 10 new Pseudomonas lemoignei strains were isolated.. Jendrossek D. Universiteit Gent. Schirmer A. . bacteria from soil. below 100 deg.K. 43-48 (English) 1996 polyhydroxybutyrate formation bacteria soil 1996 Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). (b) adding a water-immiscible solvent with a b.xls . Department of Botany. developmental stages Int J Syst Bacteriol 1996 Jul. plating on specific media.4. 132B:13-21 1981 238.ac degrading strains 588 Swings J . Isolation and identification of poly(3-hydroxyvalerate)M. A.C. solvent 591 DR (AT) DEUTSCHLAND (DE) extn. India Proc. Acad. Environ. importance is produced as storage granules in many bacteria grown under high C:N ratio. Mau Belgium.by concn. phase.46(3):769-73 1996 Ann. 590 Pal. A. GIERLINGER WOLFGANG (AT). producing Calcutta 700 019.page 179 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract By using selective enrichment of polyhydroxyalkanoatedegrading bacteria and poly(3-hydroxyvalerate)containing granules from Chromobacterium violaceum as the carbon source. Hauben L. Hoste B. and spraying extract into hot water DE4036067 1992-05-14 1992 Isolation of intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate (I) from a fermentation broth is effected by (a) removing at least part of the liq. Microbiol. a biodegradable polymer of com.be of Pseudomonas lemoignei. Fysiologie en Microbiologie. 5(1). (c) stirring at a temp.Mergaert@rug. Mergaert J.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.pt. Paul. free-living N2fixers. Isolation and metabolism og glycogen and polybetahydroxybutyrate in Nocardia asteroides at different 589 Emeruwa. Isolation and screening of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) University of Calcutta. Following enrichment and diln. these strains were able to de Objective Hardware Ablage Laboratorium voor Microbiologie. Soma. pseudomonads.

The granules were extracted by chloroform and precipitated with ether from acid-hydrolyzed cells. Kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous hydrolysis of Saitama. 361-6 (English) 1993 1993 The kinetics and mechanism of enzymic degrdn. Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station and Engineering Experiment Station.hydroxybutyrate (PHB).beta. at a steady value. Ferment. T. was studied in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 (ATCC 17699) fed-batch culture using butyric acid as a sole carbon source. In order to control the butyric acid concn. 1986.. 4031. E. S. K. M. Kenji. 24:366-369 1986 poly hydroxyalkanoate depolymerase kinetics mechanism Alcaligenes poly hydroxyalkanoate depolymerase kinetics mechanism Pseudomonas poly hydroxyalkanoate depolymerase kinetics mechanism Comamonas poly hydroxyalkanoate depolymerase kinetics mechanism 607. screen and identify bacteria for the prodn.. Suteaki. Ken Ichi Fac. Hiroshi. Kinetics and effect of nitrogen source feeding on production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by fed-batch culture J. Korr.xls . Id study was conducted to isolate. Sci. W. 13:218-226 1965 Zoogloea ramigera Strain 132. Microbiol. Suga. Boyle. Isolation.C. Biol. National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (BIOTECH). M. 15(6). R. Yamane. S. Japan. T.. Yamada. of a biodegradable plastic material called poly-. screening and identification of bacteria for poly593 Reyes. 76(6). Gloria D. 594 Shioya. University of Wisconsin. Macromol. Environ. McCoy.. Bioeng. Appl. butyr Objective Hardware Ablage Crabtree.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.A. The results of isolating bacteria from soils showed that 78 isolates possessed cellu The kinetics of poly-D(-)-3hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) prodn. 596 Yoshiharu Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. Madison. (1997). Katsuyuki. 66(Global Environmental Biotechnology).. Japan Kinetic study of poly-D(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) production and its molecular weight distribution control in a fed-batch culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus. 465-9 (English) 1993 polyhydroxybutyrate fermn butyrate Alcaligenes 1993 595 Suzuki. G. poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] film by PHA depolymerases. Int.. Ulep.. Philippines .. a const. 737-748 1997 Shimizu. Pseudomonas pickettii . Doi. and metabolic role of the Wisconsin sudanophilic granules of Zoogloea ramigera Applied Microbiology 1965. 592 Rohlich.4.-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production Stud.page 180 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Organism isolated from activated sludge and identified as Zoogloea ramigera accumulated large amounts of sudanophilic granules as the cultrues flocculated. Laguna. Shinji. Suita 565. Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). Shimizu.. Isolation.. So. identification. on the surface of poly[(R)-3hydroxybutyrate] (P[(R)3HB]) film have been studied using three types of extracellular poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) depolymerases from Alcaligenes faecalis.. University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB) College. J. Eng. Mukai. Tamura. Biotechnol. Osaka Univ.beta.

Zeiser.. Kinetics of surface hydrolysis of poly[(R)-3Tokyo Inst. Wilde. Schlegel HG Braunegg. Subjected Beta-Ketothiolase . Mikrobiol. Arch.. Sammler.. Göttingen 1968 1969 1983 1968 166. Beta-Ketothiolase of Clostridium pasteurianum was purified 130-fold by ammonium sulphate fractionation and by column chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and hydroxylapatite.S. with an extracellular polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase purified from Alcaligenes faecalis T1. G.. 41:239-248 1995 The kinetics and mechanism of surface hydrolysis of poly[(R)-3hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)] film were studied at 25-37° and pH 6.G.. 600 K... Can. Inoue. Heinzle.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.4. 597 Kawaguchi. Braunegg. J. I. 48(1). F. Suk. 1985.103(1):21-30 1975 1. K"nig. G. E. . poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate Source / Application Number Macromolecules 1992. Y. 1969. The primary product o 517. G. Microbiol. München in Göttingen Kinetics and properties of beta-ketothiolase from Clostridium pasteurianum. G. Dep.. Loidl-Lanthaler... Kinetics as a tool for polyhydroxyalkanoate production optimization Arch Microbiol 1975 Mar 12.. 1995.. Yoshiharu Lafferty. of Bioengineering.0-8. E.. 15:225-234 Year 1992 Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 580.. ?7:51-57 Kosmos 1983. Srienc. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen und Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen. H.Enzymology 111. J. PHB depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis T1. Korr. Haage.. V. 167-74 (English) 1995 depolymerase polyhydroxybutyrate surface hydrolysis kinetics 1995 Abstract 207. 599 Berndt H. Y. G. Yoshio. Renner. Doi. Kenji. R. B. A. 601 Yamada. Yokohama 227. E. Degrad. of hydroxybutyrate] film by Technology. Doi. 598 Asenjo.und Umweltforschung mbH.Activation by ketothiolase Coenzyme A revealed two distinct b Strain .0. Ken-ichi.. Japan Kinetics of the biotechnological production of poly-betahydroxybutyric acid Konstitutive Glucose-6-phosphat-Dehydrogenase bei Glucose verwertenden Mutanten von einem kryptischen Wildstamm Kosmos Kulturgefäße zur Aufzucht von Hydrogenomonas H16 mit elektrolytischer Knallgaserzeugung Polym. 46.. C. Stab.xls . Lefebvre. 8:48-49 Dissertation. 602 Sonnleitner. 246. J. Kasuya. 604 Bakterien als Kunststoffproduzenten 605 Rudolph. 25:2324-2329 Biotechnology and Bioengineering Symp.M. 603 Schlegel.Clostridium to gel electrophoresis betapasteurianum .page 181 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Kinetics and mechanism of synthesis and degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in Alcaligenes eutrophus Kinetics and models for the bioconversion of methane into an intracellular polymer.A. Katzojannos. 1985 240.

. PCT/GB96/00284 Sec. TURNER PETER DERYK (IE) Latex of polyhydroxyalkanoate US5977250 1999-11-02 1999 608 Linda Birch. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthases catalyze the conversion of betahydroxybutyryl coenzyme A (HBCoA) to PHB. C. Jan/Fev 42309 1996 1991 PCT No.. No. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. These enzymes require an active site cysteine nucleophile for covalent catalysis. Frick T. Zollikerstrasse 107. Brandl Ramsay. HAMMOND TIMOTHY (GB). to the biodegradation of water insoluble Switzerland polymers Les Plastiques Biodegradables Department of Chemistry. Institut für Pflanzenbiologie.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Chavarie. Ramsay. residues in Chromatium 610 Stubbe J USA. LIDDELL JOHN MACDONALD (GB). Sinskey AJ. B.25(1-3):201-5 1999 Lamellar thickening behavior of microbial polyesters. A protein BLASTp Lipases provide a new mechanistic model for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Cambridge.39(14):3927-36 2000 . Faculty of Engineering. H. lecture: A rapid method for the determination of metal CH-8008 toxicity Zürich..page 182 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 606 Mitomo H. Using an overlay agar technique it could be d 380. Lamellar thickening and cocrystallization of Gunma University. 1996 PCT Pub. poly(3hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)]. 1997 PCT Filed Feb. Abteilung Mikrobiologie. GEORGE NEIL (GB). poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s on Kiryu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Gunma.4. 24. 609 D. Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry Abstract Volume 354 Issue 5/6 (1996) pp 760762 Interface 1991. TURNER PETER 607 DERYK (IE) SATGURUNATHAN RAJASINGHAM (GB). WO96/24682 PCT Pub. Japan. LIDDELL JOHN MACDONALD (GB). GEORGE NEIL (GB). Braunegg. annealing. HAMMOND TIMOTHY (GB). poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HBco-3HV)] and poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-4hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] annealed at various temperatures was inve SATGURUNATHAN RAJASINGHAM (GB). Date Aug. 102(e) Date Nov. vinosum PHB synthase. Normandin. Universität Zürich. 24. 1996A chiral (R) stereospecific polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in aqueous latex form having virgin disp A rapid and inexpensive test has been developed to investigate the influence of elevated heavy metal concentrations on the degradation of biodegradable plastics. Doi Y Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering. J.. 1997 Sec. 371 Date Nov. G. Kappock TJ.xls . 9. 77 Massachusetts Avenue. synthases: characterization of the functional Jia Y. 15. Biochemistry 2000 Apr 11. Massachusetts 02139.

Km 4. J Biol Chem 1999 Dec 31. confined to certain bacteria. O. H. solvating biopolymer involved in important physiological functions. Low molecular weight PHB. Gyeongsang National University.Local sequence dependence of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid 701. Korea. 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia. but a ubiquitous. M. Argentina (2) Institut für Mikrobiologie der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster. 612 Steinbüchel (2) Lipid metabolism during encystment of Azotobacter vinelandii.xls . co . Division of Life Science. Can J Microbiol 1995. Corrensstraße 3. (13)C NMR s Lipid storage compounds in marine bacteria Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 47 Issue 2 (1997) pp 132-139 1997 613 Yoon SC. Alvarez (1)(2). Sadoff HL (1) CEIMAUniversidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco. Michigan State University. Cells which encyst at low levels in aging glucose cultures undergo the same pattern of lipid synthesis as cells which undergo reasonably synchro Forty psychrophile or psychrotrophic crude-oilutilizing marine bacteria were investigated for their ability to accumulate lipid storage compounds in the cytoplasm during cultivation under nitrogen-limiting The first order intracellular degradation of various polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) inclusions in Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava cells was investigated by analyzing the compositional and microstructural changes of the PHA using gas chromatography.4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. H. USA.274(53):37800-8 1999 614 Reusch RN Department of Microbiology. A.145(2):889-95 1981 The formation of cysts by Azotobacter vinelandii involves the synthesis of lipids as major metabolic products. East Low molecular weight complexed poly(3-hydroxybutyrate): Lansing 48824. a dynamic and versatile molecule in vivo.page 183 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 611 Reusch RN. Choi MH Biomaterials Science Laboratory. J Bacteriol 1981 Feb. degradation in Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. Chinju 660. interactive. Pucci (1).41 Suppl 1:50-4 1995 It is increasingly clear that poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is not just an inert storage polymer.

Huh. up to 60% of biomass.Gent. when produced in f 623. Microbiol.D. G. Appl. T. Belgium. Materials derived from biomass/biodegradable materials. Lee.. In a continuous culture system under moderate pressure.Leip zig LO UFZUmweltforschungszent rum Leipzig-Halle GmbH. DE 19897.F. 393. 18(8):937-942 1996 Metabolic pathway engineering in cotton has been accomplished by introducing modified Alcaligenes eutrophus genes encoding the enzymes acetoacetylCoA reductase and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase. Methylocystis Leipzig. 1986. Shimizu. 1994. Shimizu. Wilmington. Yamane.S. Lindley. 28-30 September. English 1994 Methylocystis sp.. 619 Suzuki..L. Mathematical model for determining the effects of intracytoplasmic inclusions on volume and density of mocroorganisms Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992 Feb 1. J.xls . Pedros-Alio.hr was achie Interest in biodegradable plastics made from renewable resources has increased significantly in recent years. This paper provides an overview of the man 621 Luzier WD 622 Mas. 618 Suzuki. Y.Environ.Landbouwwet. 4b. particularly under Nand P-deficiency conditions.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.L.Rijksuniv.. Jechorek M. PHBV (polyhydroxybutyratepolyhydroxyvalerate) copolymers are good examples of this type of materials. Monsanto. C. Maliyakal E. Germany. Biotechnol.7 g/l. Microbiol. N. 23:322-329 1986 1986 394. J. A. ICI Americas.Fac. R. Journal of Bacteriology 1985. Park. J.. Bruges. sp.C.. 1986. D-04318 accumulation by methanotrophic bacteria. T. 615 Uribelarrea. 617 T. 24:370-373 Appl. . 14(Engineeering Middleton. Permoserstrasse Mass spectrometric on-line monitoring of PHB 15.. S. S. H. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production systems control (conference abstract) Meded. a PHB formation rate of 0. Biotechnol.. Crop Plants for USA Manipulating metabolic pathways in cotton fiber: synthesis Industrial End Uses). (1998). (1994) 59.4. Yamane..page 184 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Maintaining a controlled residual growth capacity increases the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers by Alcaligenes eutrophus Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Aragao... 53562. Pareilleux. T.Res. 133-147 of polyhydroxybutyrate Manipulation of the genes for poly-á-hydroxybutyric acid synthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus Biotechnology Letters 1995. T. Inc. Wendlandt K D.M. Stottmeister U 620 Cent.H.89(3):83942 1992 509.. Biotechnology Letters 1996. Guerrero. Park. Portland Press Proc. GB25 formed poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB). ICI BioProducts and Fine Chemicals. WI.. 2369-70 8th Forum for Applied Biotechnology. 17(7):729-734 Mass production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by fedbatch culture with controlled carbon/nitrogen feeding Mass production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by fully automatic fed-batch culture of methylotroph 1998 1995 619. 164(2):749-756 1985 550. These two enzymes. Agracetus. 616 John.

Kunamoto 860.Aclarubicin Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) microspheres containing aclarubicin hydrochloride were prepared by a solventevaporation process. Univ. 573-79 1999 The effect of plasticizers on physical properties and degradation characteristics of polybeta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based films was investigated.Latvian.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. CHUQ. bacterial polyesters. Issue 2. Mechanism and rate of degradation of Vert 1. Montpellier. aclarubicin from poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid Japan microspheres by fatty acid esters Chem. Pavillon Yves Marois 1 2. (shioya@bio. P(HB-co-HV).. Robert Lenz 3. Juni. Laval University.lv 624 Maximum production strategy for biodegradable copolymer P(HB-co-HV) in fed-batch culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Laprol was a good plasticizer for PHB and for PHB-containing biomass (BM) of Azotobacter 1CRBA-URA CNRS 1465. The kopiert Mechanical properties and biodegradation characteristics of PHB-based films. *Gercberga Z. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate degradation by bacteria and fungi for soil decontamination Process Biochem. 2000. Biotechnol Bioeng 1999 Mar 5. poly(3-hydroxybutyric-cohydroxyvaleric) acid. P(HB-co-HV).Biotechn ol. 4 Kronvalda Boulevard.LatvianInst. Sakado. France 2Laboratory of Experimental Surgery. Suita 565. 6. Physi 626 Kubota. Josai Universiy. LO Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology. Kunamoto University Hospital. 2-1 Yamadaoka. Dzene A. Quebec Biomaterial Institute. Université de Montpellier I.1. Osaka University.4. Univ. Kozaki Y.Microbiol.62(5):518-25 1999 optimization. Pages: 216224 2000 polyhydroxyalkanoates. (1999) 35.. Kodama H. 36:333-337 1988 Microsphere .ac. Graduate School of Engineering. 1988. polyhydroxyoctanoate films in aqueous 625 Robert Guidoin 2 * Quebec. 1 11-1 Honjo. degradation. Riga LVSavenkova L. Kalnin Email: M azot@com. Department of Surgery. Bibers I.latnet. Xiaoyan Deng 2.page 185 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Department of Biotechnology. mole fraction control A novel strategy for the maximum production of a biodegradable copolymer. polyhydroxyoctanoate. Bull. Michel St-François d'Assise. Faculté de pharmacie.2 Department of Pharmacy.osak 623 Shioya S a-u. Mechanism of Enhancement of the release rate of Saitama 350-02. Ze Zhang 2. Japan Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences.Riga-Tech.1. Nikolaeva 1586. K. based on the kinetic parameters obtained from fed-batch culture experiments of Alcaligenes eutrophus. .eng. in vitro study. Quebec. Latvia. was developed. Pharm. hydrolysis The present study investigated the in vitro mechanism and degradation rate of polyhydroxyoctanoate (PHO).jp) Univ. Solution-cast PHO films were incubated in either water or isoosmotic phosphatebuffered saline (PBS) for periods ranging from 1 to 24 months. Latvian University. 2 1-1 Keyakidai.xls . Japan email: Suteaki Shioya Shimizu H. media: A long-term in vitro study Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Volume 49. The release rates of the drug from the microspheres were significantly increased by incorporating ethyl or n-butyl esters Application 672. M. Nakano. M. V.

Abstr. Korea Technology Credit Guarantee Fund. Korea beta-hydroxybutyrate production 81. Y. * Metabolic engineering of Alcaligenes eutrophus through the transformation of cloned phbCAB genes for the investigation of the regulatory mechanism of polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis.D. Granular enzyme activities that structure were ganze Artikel .Metabolism carbon to the PHB biosyn Copolyesters kopiert Young-Mi Jung a .. Metabolic hydroxybutyrate-3engineering. Enzyme Microb Technol 2000 Feb 1. Melting and crystallization in poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoate) PQ. Taegu 702. Youido. 631 Yong-Hyun Lee a. Foglia Medium-Chain-Length Poly(beta-Hydroxyalkanoate) Synthesis from Triacylglycerols by Pseudomonas saccharophila 629 Pearce. 56(10).T. 5521 (English) 1996 1999 Pseudomonas saccharophila NRRL B628 is capable of utilizing agricultural lipids for growth. various transformants with PHB synthase. B 1996. 3.production The isocitrate dehydrogenase leaky mutant Alcaligenes eutrophus RM-1 was isolatet after mutagenesis. Montreal. No.26(2-4):201208 2000 The regulatory mechanisms of the biosynthesis of in vivo poly. Curr Microbiol 38:151-154 (1999) © 1999 by Springer-Verlag New York. S. b-Ketothiolase..10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Robert Patrick McGill Univ. The organism exhibited good growth with triacylglycerol substrates that contained saturated fatty acyl moieties such as coconut oil (CO. The PHB accumulation was significantly increased due to the icreased forw of Strain . Jin-Seo. Lee Yong-Hyun Department of Genetic Engineering. and ist metabolic characteristics were investigated. Richard D. Kyungpook National Metabolic characteristics of isocitrate dehydrogenase leaky University. Solaiman. Order No. Korea b Technology Appraisal Centers. blends. C. DANN99997 From: Diss.Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering Vol 701. Avail. B.E-mail addre 1996 Alcaligenes eutrophus Ralstonia eutropha . Phang. College of Natural Sciences. were investigated by using Acetoacetyl-CoA reductase. 197-205. C10-12 fa 1996 melting crystn polyhydroxyalkanoate blend Abstract Unavailable 630 Park. Kyungpook National University. Microfilms Int. Int.. Davis. Daniel K.[P(3HB-3HV)] of 3HV) biosynthesis.xls .isocitrate dehydrogenase leaky mutant metabolic characteristics poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-3hydroxyvalerate) . 627 Lory. 271 pp. 156(2):695-702 Year 1983 Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 274. Korea * Corresponding author. phbCAB Alcaligenes eutrophus genes. Can..page 186 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Mechanism of protein excretion by gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A Journal of Bacteriology 1983. Seoul 150-010. Thomas A.mutant of alcaligenes eutrophus and its utilization for poly. Univ. 1996 a Department of Genetic Engineering. 628 Ashby. College of Natural Sciences. Regulation hydroxyval-erate) mechanism of PHB and P(3HB. Inc.4.b-hydroxybutyrate Keywords: Alcaligenes [PHB] and poly(3eutrophus. Taegu 702-701.. Jin-Seo Park b .

MN. Valentin HE. USA Metabolic modeling of polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis Biotechnol. Taylor NB.4. Order No. Inc. (1998). 57(5). Tran M. Huisman GW 634 Guske. 632 Padgette SR. St. Univ.. Timothy A. CA.63(1):21-53 375 pp. A math. Houmiel KL. DA9137235 From: Diss. Nat Biotechnol 1999 Oct. USA Metabolic engineering of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates): from DNA to plastic. Gruys KJ Cereon Genomics. Massachusetts 02142. 52(10). USA. The model allows investigation of issues such as the existence of rate-limiting enzymic steps. University of Minnesota. but the process is not econ Objective Hardware Ablage Slater S.page 187 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) are natural polymers with thermoplastic properties. Pasadena. Stone DA. 557-570 1998 Abstract unavailable. Biological Process Technology Institute.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. specifically thermoplastic elastomers.xls .17(10):1011-6 1999 633 Madison LL. Cambridge. production. model describing intracellular polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus has been constructed. One polymer of this class with commercial applicability. Abstr. Mitsky TA. with at least 100 d Leaf. Hao M. possible regulatory m .. Rodriguez DJ. Christopher James Metabolix. Srienc. A wealth of biological diversity in PHA formation exists. Cambridge. 55108. Bioeng.. B 1992. California Inst.. Friedrich 635 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. Metabolic modeling of growth and poly(betahydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Int. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1999 Mar. 5398 (English) 1990 1999 polyhydroxybutyrate fermn Alcaligenes model 1992 Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are a class of microbially produced polyesters that have potential applications as conventional plastics. poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) can be produced by bacterial fermentation. poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer MA 02139. Kishore G. Reiser SE. Paul. USA.. Avail. Microfilms Int. Technol. 45 Metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis and Brassica for Sidney St.

Bacteriol.M.. composition.. Neth. function of Groningen. Wonink.4. When N is resupplied in the medium.J. Peter.. Identification and sequences of genes and Cent. Eric. 266(4). Smith. which encodes one of the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthases. 1 Purification. R. J. HF39.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 640 Qi Q. Witholt.page 188 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Various aerobic Gramnegative bacteria have been examined for their ability to use 4hydroxybutyrate and 1. J. 641 Terpstra. Kazemier.7(10):3676-81 1968 36. Rob. Merrick JM J Bacteriol 1971 Nov. J. PHA. 108(2):782-789 1971 631. Steinbuchel A. Gjalt W. Bernard Metabolism of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) by Pseudomonas Groningen Biotechnol. Zwingmann G. Metabolic pathway for biosynthesis of poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) from 4hydroxybutyrate by Alcaligenes eutrophus Eur J Biochem 1995 Jan 15. Rehm BH Institut fur Metabolic routing towards polyhydroxyalkanoic acid Mikrobiologie.. PHB-4 and Pseudomonas denitrificans 'Morris' were not able to gro Objective Hardware Ablage Valentin HE. the accumulat 642 Griebel. of this polyester are synthesized when cells are grown under N-limiting conditions. 644 Griebel RJ. . in Escherichia coli impaired in fatty acid betaoxidation results in polyhydr Huisman. 2191-8 (English) 1991 1991 polyhydroxyalkanoate polymerase depolymerase gene sequence Pseudomonas P oleovorans Accumulates poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) after growth on medium-chainlength hydrocarbons. inhibition of fatty acid beta-oxidation Germany. 639 Schonebaum A. by acrylic acid. Metabolism of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate.4butanediol as carbon source for growth. Groningen the encoded proteins in the synthesis and degradation of 9747 AG.xls . Merrick. Bert. Biol. GeorgAugust-Universitat zu Gottingen. Univ. Merick.. oleovorans. R.227(1-2):43-60 1995 613. Meima. Alcaligenes eutrophus strains H16. and properities of native poly-betahydrobutyrate granules from Bacillus megaterium Metabolism of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate: effect of mild alkaline extraction on native poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules Metabolism of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate: effect of mild alkaline extraction on native poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules. Z. Large amts. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1998 Oct 1. Chem. 643 Griebel. 1971. Biochemistry 1968 Oct. J. Munster. Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie.108(2):782-9 1971 Abstract unavailable. Germany. synthesis in Westfalische Wilhelmsrecombinant Escherichia coli (fadR): Universitat.167(1):89-94 1998 Heterologous expression of the phaC1 gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa..M.

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 189
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

645 Kominek, L.A.; Halvorson, H.O.

Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

646 Cook, A. M.; Schlegel, H. G.

Metabolism of poly-beta-hyroxybutyrate and acetoin in Bacillus cereus Metabolite concentrations in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 and a mutant defective in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate synthesis

J. Bacteriol. 1965; 90:1251-1259

1965

Bacillus cereus strain T sporulation

The synthesis of poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Bacillus cereus strain T begins after the cessation of logarithmic growth. Its accumulation is preceded by the formation of acetoacetyl coenzyme A reductase, an enzyme used for its biosynthesis. Exogenou Strain - Metabolism

84.

Arch. Microbiol. 1978; 119:231-235

1978

42.

647 Cook, A.m.; Urban, D.; Schlegel, H.G. 648 Budwill, K.; Fedorak, P. M.; Page, W. J.

Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH, München, in 3400 Göttingen, Metabolite concentrations in bacteria: the identification of Grisebachstraße 8, controlled enzymes from anomalous metabolite West Germany concentrations in a mutant Methanogenic Degradation of Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates)

558th meeting, Edinburgh Appl. Env. Microbiol. 1992; 58:1398-1401

? 1992

Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 metabolite excretion

Abstract unavailable.

Strain - Metabolism

165. 408.

KOSMANN JENS DR (DE); BUETTCHER VOLKER DR (DE); 649 WELSH THOMAS (DE)

INST GENBIOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG (DE)

Method for combining intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in microorganisms with an extracellular polysaccharide synthesis

DE4420223 1995-05-04

1995

So far, the commercialisation on a large scale of the environmentally harmless PHB and PHA biopolymers has failed because of the very high production costs involved in the production of these substances by biotechnological fermentation processes. The

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 190
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

SIM SANG JUN (KR); SINSKEY ANTHONY J (US); HOGAN SCOTT A (US); RHA CHOKYUN (US); 650 SNELL KRISTI D (US)

MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY (US)

Method for controlling molecular weight of polyhydroxyalkanoates

US5811272 1998-09-22

1998

A method has been developed for control of molecular weight and molecular weight dispersity during production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in genetically engineered organism by control of the level and time of expression of one or more PHA synthases in A method has been developed for control of molecular weight and molecular weight dispersity during production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in geneticallyengineered organism by control of the level and time of expression of

SNELL, Kristi, D. , 8 Walnut Street, Belmont, MA 02178, United States of America HOGAN, Scott, A. , Apartment 106, 2354 Golfview Drive, Troy, MI 48084, United States of America SIM, Sang, Jun , Kunyoung 651 Apartment 102-

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States of America

METHOD FOR CONTROLLING MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES

WO9804713A1 Feb. 5, 1998

1998

652 SAITO YUJI; others: 04 ALEXANDER STEINBUCHER (DE); JANG HO-NAM 653 (KR); LEE SANG-YEUP (KR)

TAISEI CORP KOREA INST SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY (KR)

METHOD FOR MONITORING PHB STORAGE CHANGE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE

JP4156998 1992-05-29 1992

PURPOSE:To easily monitor the PHB storage change in activated sludge by culturing the activated sludge contg. many kinds of microorganisms under the conditions of limiting nitrogen sources and measuring the turbidity of the culture solution at 660(nm)

METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGH DENSITY PHB USING FED-BATCH CULTURE OF RECOMBINANT E. COLI KR122437 1997-11-24

1997

Abstract unavailable.

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 191
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

PEOPLES OLIVER P (US); SINSKEY 654 ANTHONY J (US)

MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY (US)

METHOD FOR PRODUCING NOVEL POLYESTER BIOPOLYMERS

WO9100917 1991-01-24 1991

A method for controlling and modifying biopolymer synthesis by manipulation of the genetics and enzymology of synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyesters at the molecular level in procaryotic and eukaryotic cells,

PEOPLES OLIVER P (US); SINSKEY 655 ANTHONY J (US)

MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY (US)

METHOD FOR PRODUCING NOVEL POLYESTER BIOPOLYMERS

WO8900202 1989-01-12 1989

The present invention is a method for controlling biopolymer synthesis by determining the genetics and enzymology of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis at the molecular level. The purified enzymes and genes provide the means for developing new

MASSACHUSETTS PEOPLES OLIVER P INST TECHNOLOGY 656 (US); SINSKEY ANTHONY J (US) (US)

US5245023 Method for producing novel polyester biopolymers 1993-09-14 1993

A method for controlling and modifying biopolymer synthesis by manipulation of the genetics and enzymology of synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyesters at the molecular level in procaryotic and eukaryotic cells,

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 192
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

MASSACHUSETTS PEOPLES OLIVER P INST TECHNOLOGY 657 (US); SINSKEY ANTHONY J (US) (US)

Method for producing novel polyester biopolymers

US5229279 1993-07-20

1993

The present invention invention is a method for controlling biopolymer synthesis by determining the genetics and enzymology of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis at the molecular level. The purified enzymes and genes provide the means for develop

MASSACHUSETTS SINSKEY ANTHONY INST TECHNOLOGY 658 J (US); PEOPLES OLIVER P (US) (US)

EP0870837 Method for producing novel polyester biopolymers 1998-10-14 1998

A method for controlling and modifying biopolymer synthesis by manipulation of the genetics and enzymology of synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyesters at the molecular level in procaryotic and eukaryotic cells,

PEOPLES OLIVER P (US); SINSKEY 659 ANTHONY J (US)

MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY (US)

Method for producing polyester biopolymers

US5663063 1997-09-02

1997

A method for controlling and modifying biopolymer synthesis by manipulation of the genetics and enzymology of synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyesters at the molecular level in procaryotic and eukaryotic cells,

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 193
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

UFZUMWELTFORSCHUN GSZENTRUM BABEL, Wolfgang , Fritz-SiemonLEIPZIG-HALLE Strasse 23, D-04347 Leipzig, Germany GMBH, MASKOW, Thomas , Permoserstrasse 15, D- METHOD FOR THE CONTINUOUS 04318 Leipzig, MICROBIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF Bahnhofstrasse 9, D-06688 Germany POLYHYDROXY BUTYRIC ACID 660 Großkorbetha, Germany

WO9957298A1 Nov. 11, 1999

1999

The invention relates to the microbial synthesis of polyhydroxy alcanoic acids [PHA(B)] from substrates which are potentially ecotoxic and must therefore be detoxified and which present the phenomenon of substrate inhib Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate is produced by providing a culture of Escherichia coli bacterial host cells transformed by a DNA sequence coding for the biosynthetic pathway of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate and a

Dennis; Douglas E. , 661 Weyers Cave, VA

James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA

Method for the improved production and recovery of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate from transformed Escherichia coli

US5512456 April 30, 1996 1996

REUSCH ROSETTA 662 N (US) UNIV MICHIGAN (US) Method of detecting PHB in human blood serum

US5891642 1999-04-06 1999

An analytical method for detecting the presence poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), which can be used as an indicator of atherosclerotic risk is disclosed. In the method, antibodies to PHB are used to detect the PHB.

663 KIM KAP-JIN (KR); IM KON-BIN (KR)

KOHAP LTD (KR)

METHOD OF PRODUCING OF PHB/PHV

KR9405653 1994-06-22

1994

Abstract unavailable. The invention relates to recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology and, more particularly, to a process whereby polybetahydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers can be synthesized in a recombinant host strain containing the poly-betahydroxybutyrate

DENNIS DOUGLAS E (US); SLATER 664 STEVEN C (US)

INNOVATIVE TECH CENTER (US)

METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF POLY-BETAHYDROXYALKANOATE COPOLYMERS

WO9306225 1993-04-01 1993

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 194
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

665 Dennis, Douglas E.; Slater, Steven C.

James Madison University, USA

Method of production of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate copolymers. U.S. US 5371002 A 6 Dec 1994 1994

polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer prodn recombinant Escherichia

The invention relates to recombinant DNA technol. and, more particularly, to a process whereby poly-bhydroxyalkanoate copolymers can be synthesized in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain contg. the poly-b-hydroxybutyrate biosynthetic genes of Alcaligen The present invention provides methods for the production of poly-ßhydroxyalkanoate copolymer comprising the steps of (a) introducing into a prokaryotic host cell a vector construct which dir

Dennis; Douglas E. , Weyers Cave, VA Slater; Steven C. , Cambridge, MA Center for Innovative Rhie; Ho Gun , Seoul, Technology, 666 Republic of Korea Harrisonburg, VA

Method of production of poly-ß-hydroxyalkanoate copolymers

US5891686 April 6, 1999

1999

HOROWITZ, Daniel , Apartment 206, 435 Washington Street, Somerville, MA 02143, United States of America GERNGROSS, Tillman, U. , 6 Dorrance Place, Hanover, NH 03755, 667 United States of America

METABOLIX, INC., 2nd floor, 303 Third METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR Street, Cambridge, MA THE PRODUCTION OF AMORPHOUS 02142-1196, United POLYMER States of America SUSPENSIONS

WO9964498A1 Dec. 16, 1999

1999

MARTIN, David, P. , 82 Hibbert Street, Arlington, MA 02174, United States of America PEOPLES, Oliver, P. , 27 Radcliffe Road, Arlington, MA 02174, United States of America WILLIAMS, Simon, F. , 28 668 Deerfield Road, Sh

METABOLIX, INC., 2nd floor, 303 Third Street, Cambridge, MA METHODS FOR ISOLATING 02142-1196, United POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES FROM States of America PLANTS

WO9715681A1 May 1, 1997

1997

Methods and apparati have been developed for producing a suspension of predominantely amorphous polymer particles, wherein the method includes thermally treating a suspension that includes crystalline or semi-crystallin Methods are provided for separating polyhydroxyalkanoates ("PHAs") from plants, such as transgenic oil crop plants. The methods advantageously permitboth the oil and the PHAs to be recovered from the plant biomass. To

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 195
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

HOROWITZ, Daniel, M. , Apartment 206, 435 Washington Street, Somerville, MA 02143, United States of America BRENNAN, Elaine, M. , 113 Josephine Avenue, Somerville, MA 02144, United States of America 669

METABOLIX, INC., 303 Third Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States of METHODS FOR SEPARATION America AND PURIFICATION OF BIOPOLYMERS WO9951760A1 Oct. 14, 1999

1999

Methods for the recovery and purification of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from biomass containing PHAs, wherein the methods include treating the biomass or partially purified PHA with ozone, in at least one step of a pu The addition of PEG to culture media of Alcaligenes eutrophus and A. latus resulted in the following: (1) the controlled decrease in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) molecular weight, which decreases the melt viscosity and bi

GROSS, Richard, A. , 11 Ruthellen Road, Chelmsford, MA 01824, United States of America SHI, Fengying , 830 Skyline Drive #22, Dracut, MA 01826, China ASHBY, Richard, D. , 58 London Court, Merrimack, NH 03054, 670 United S

UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL CENTER, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, United METHODS OF CONTROLLING States of America MICROBIAL POLYESTER STRUCTURE

WO9707153A1 Feb. 27, 1997

1997

DENNIS, Douglas, E. , Route 2, Box 92A, Weyers Cave, VA 24486, United States of America VALENTIN, Henry, E. , 873 M Foxsprings Drive, Chesterfield, MO 671 63017, Germany

JAMES MADISON UNIVERSITY, 800 S. Main, Harrisonburg, VA 22807, United States of America

METHODS OF MAKING POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES COMPRISING WO9836078 4-HYDROXYBUTYRATE MONOMER UNITS 1998-08-20

1998

The PHA biosynthetic pathway is combined with a succinic semialdeyde metabolic pathway that metabolizes succinic semialdhyde via a 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA intermediate in order to produce high levels of PHA comprising 4HB Genes and methods for optimizing levels of substrates employed in the biosynthesis of copolymers of 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in plants and bacteria via manipulation of normal metabolic pathways using recombinant DNA techn

GRUYS KENNETH JAMES (US); KISHORE GANESH MURTHY (US); MITSKY TIMOTHY ALBERT (US); PADGETTE STEPHEN ROGERS (US); Methods of optimizing substrate pools and biosynthesis of SLATER STEVEN CHARLES (US); poly- beta STARK DAVID -hydroxybutyrate-co-poly- beta -hydroxyvalerate in 672 MARTIN (US) MONSANTO CO (US) bacteria and plants

US5942660 1999-08-24 1999

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 196
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Genes and methods for optimizing levels of substrates employed in the biosynthesis of copolymers of 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in plants and bacteria via manipulation of normal metabolic pathways using recombinant DNA techn Genes and methods for optimizing levels of substrates employed in the biosynthesis of copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and MONSANTO METHODS OF OPTIMIZING SUBSTRATE POOLS AND COMPANY, 800 North BIOSYNTHESIS OF Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63167, POLY-ß-HYDROXYBUTYRATE-CO-POLY-ß-HYDROXYV United States of ALERATE IN America BACTERIA AND PLANTS WO9800557A2 Jan. 8, 1998 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in plants and bacteria via manipulation of normal metabolic pathways using recombinan Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyester is extracted from biomass by dissolving the PHA in a nonhalogenated solvent which comprises a PHA-good solvent or a mixture thereof. Suitable PHAgood solvents can be selected from A cluster of genes on megaplasmid pRmeSU47b, bhbA-D, is required for growth on the Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, SteAnne-de-Bellevue, Que. H9X 3V9, Canada. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase encoding gene of tcharles@uwaterloo.ca Sinorhizobium meliloti. polyhydroxyalkanoate degradation pathway intermediates 3hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate as sole carbon source. DNA sequence Objective Hardware Ablage

GRUYS KENNETH JAMES (US); KISHORE GANESH MURTHY (US); MITSKY TIMOTHY ALBERT (US); PADGETTE STEPHEN ROGERS (US); Methods of optimizing substrate pools and biosynthesis of SLATER STEVEN CHARLES (US); poly- beta STARK DAVID -hydroxybutyrate-co-poly- beta -hydroxyvalerate in 673 MARTIN (US) MONSANTO CO (US) bacteria and plants

US5958745 1999-09-28

1999

GRUYS, Kenneth, James , 16534 Baxter Forest Ridge Drive, Chesterfield, MO 63005, United States of America MITSKY, Timothy, Albert , 2262-A Rule Avenue, Maryland Heights, MO 63043, United States of America 674 KISHORE, Gan

1998

KURDIKAR, Devdatt, L. , 12220 Country Place Drive, Maryland Heights, MO 63043, United States of America STRAUSER, Fred, E. , 3006 St. Camella Street, St. Charles, MO 63301-0356, United States of America 675

MONSANTO COMPANY, 800 N. Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63167, United States of America

METHODS OF PHA EXTRACTION AND RECOVERY USING NONHALOGENATED SOLVENTS

WO9846782 1998-10-22

1998

676 Charles TC, Aneja P

Gene 1999 Jan 8;226(1):121-7

1999

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 197
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Russian-Acad.Sci.; Polish-Acad.Sci.; Inst.Catal.Surface.Che m. Cracow LO Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 1, 30239 Cracow, Poland. Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Methylobacterium extorquens strain P14, which synthesized poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB), was isolated from Kaneda's culture medium. The cells were Gram-neg. motile rods, had polar flagellum and a carotenoid pigment, but they did not f The present invention relates to a type of polymer comprising repeating units of formula [Figure] and in particular to a poly-ßhydroxybutyrate polyester type polymer. The present invention al Objective Hardware Ablage

Ostafin M; Haber J; Doronina N V; Sokolov A P; Trotsenko Y A 678

Methylobacterium extorquens strain P14, a new methylotrophic bacteria producing poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate ( ***PHB*** ); polymer production by a bacterium fed-batch culture for use in biodegradable plastic production

Acta Microbiol.Pol.; (1999) 48, 1, 39-51 1999

Groleau; Denis , Quebec, Canada Bourque; Denis , Quebec, National Canada Research Council of Pomerieau; Yves , Canada, Ontario, 679 Quebec, Canada Canada

Methylobacterium extorquens microorganism useful for the preparation of poly-ß-hydroxybutyric acid polymers US5302525 April 12, 1994

1994

Universitaet Leipzig, Fakultaet fuer Biowissenschaften, Pharmazie und Psychologie, Abteilung Biotechnologie, Permoserstr. 15, Methylobacterium rhodesianum cells tend to double the Ackermann J U; Mueller S; Loesche A; 04318 DNA content under growth limitations and accumulate *Bley T; Babel W Leipzig, Germany. PHB; ammonium, phosphate and carbon limitation and 680 their effect on poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production

J.Biotechnol.; (1995) 39, 1, 9-20 1995

Methylobacterium rhodesianum MB126 was cultured in a BRAUN fermentor with a 1.5 l working volume, on a medium composed of 310 mg/l P (from equimolar concentrations of KH2PO4 and K2HPO4), 0.76 g/l NH4Cl and various salts in mg/l concentra

Ackermann, Joerg-Uwe; Mueller, Susann; Loesche, Andreas; Bley, 681 Thomas; Babel, Wolfgang

Universitaet Leipzig, Fakultaet fuer Biowissenschaften, Pharmazie und Psychologie, Abteilung Biotechnologie, Methylobacterium rhodesianum cells tend to double the Permoserstr. 15, DNA content 04318, Leipzig, under growth limitations and accumulate PHB. Germany

J. Biotechnol., 39(1), 9-20 (English) 1995

Methylobacterium polyhydroxybutyrate fermn DNA formation 1995

The investigation of microbial population dynamics gains more and more importance for biotechnol. processes insofar as people may assume that the individual cells of a population contribute differently to the overall productivity. Flow cytometry is known

S. 28. 1986. can be u . Swings. H. Universitat Konstanz... Lafuente R. 683 Pranamuda. Anderson.. 685 A.10(1-2):131-44 1994 The search for new materials that are not hazardous to the environment has become a major issue in our society.page 198 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Microbial Conversion of methane into poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB): Growth and intracellular product accumulation in a type II methanotroph Microbial degradation of an aliphatic polyester with a high melting point. Appl Environ Microbiol 1993 Oct.A.. Technol.xls . Mergaert J. Janssen PH. Frings J Mergaert. 686 Wouters A. J. Microbiologia 1994 Mar-Jun. H. 684 Schink B. Webb A. Anderson C.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. J. 64(4):271-278 Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1995. Universitat de Barcelona. Published erratum appears in Appl Environ Microbiol 1994 Jan. J. or 40 degrees C for up Mas-Castella J. J. Microbial degradation of natural and of new synthetic polymers. Tanaka. Y. Poly-betahydroxyalkanoates (PHA). poly(tetramethylene succinate) Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 682 Asenjo. Fakultat fur Biologie. Microbial degradation of poly(3-hydroxy<butyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in compost FEMS Microbiol Rev 1992 Dec. 61:1828-1832 1986 1995 256. deposited waste material is usually faced with strictly anoxic conditions. Suk. Universiteit Gent. Goodwin S. Belgium. FRG. Urmeneta 687 J.. Guerrero R Departament de Microbiologia.59(10):3233-8 Microbial degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in soils. Wouters.4. engaged as it is in the attainment of sustainable development. J. Tokiwa. 2:177-183 1992 In landfills.60(1):385 1993 1994 The microbial degradation of tensile test pieces made of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] or a copolymer of 90% 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 10% 3-hydroxyvaleric acid was studied in soils incubated at a constant temperature of 15. produced exclusively by prokaryotes. Swings J Laboratorium voor Microbiologie. 513. Microbial degradation of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates. C.9(2-4):311-6 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1994. This means that the design of new biodegradable polymers must take into consideration that degradation should be possible especially in the absence of molecular oxyge 1994 585. Ferment.

J. (1999). Traditionally. Witholt. University of Massachusetts. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (1997). Alexander.4. Ottawa.W. DE 4433134 A1 21 Mar 1996. Macromol. using microorganisms expressing the phaC and phaE genes of the purple bacterium Thiocapsa pfennigii. Ont. in the form of metabolic storage reserves. 191–203 TIPS 1979. Bact. 1996 Fuller. 171-177. Clinton 691 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Zinn. I. Microbial growth under multiple-nutrient-limited cultivation Switz. However.page 199 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) 1 Microbiology and Genetics Division Industrial Technology Development Institute Department of Science and Technology Bicutan. CH-8600. Pries. Roland. MA. Offen. This review discusses both the structure and function of this as Egli. 3. Jr. with special reference to the accumulation of PHA Int. pp. (Germany) polyhydroxycarboxylic acid manuf transgenic bacteria phaC phaE gene Thiocapsa polyester manuf 1996 Novel thermoplastic copolymers of hydroxycarboxylic acids with useful properties are manufd. Thomas. Liebergesell. of the copolymers is a function of the monomers s . Matthias.. 1604 Philippines 2 University of Santo Tomas Graduate School Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage TANSENGCO1.xls . Amherst. 25 pp. recently also the existence of clearly defined double-nutrientlimited growth regimes has been demonstrated un A review with 66 refs. are assembled in intracellular cytoplasmic inclusions. 690 Manfred. Tagig Metro Manila. Biol. microorganisms are grown in media where a single nutrient is limiting growth.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Germany Microbial manufacture of polyhydroxycarboxylic acids with microorganisms expressing Pha genes of Thiocapsa. Symp. Meeting Date 1996. 19 (1999) No. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). R. Microbial Degradation of Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate Using Landfill Soils Microbial exopolysaccharides Acta Biotechnologica Vol. Publisher: National Research Council of Canada. 55-59 1999 1979 The population of poly-bhydroxybutyratedegrading microorganisms and the biodegradation of PHB in local landfill soils were examined in vitro and in vivo. Gerrit. I. USA Microbial inclusions with special reference to PHA inclusions and intracellular boundary envelopes Int. Valentin. Bernard Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG). DOGMA2. Forty-two PHBdegraders consisting of 12 bacteria. often called granules. Henry. conditions. Dubendorf. Ger. 21-29 1999 Steinbuechel. 25 actinomycetes and 5 moulds were iso 257. 688 689 Sutherland. Editor(s): Eggink. The compn. A review with 27 refs. M. 693 Andreas Buck WErke Gmbh und Co. Durner. 25(1-3).

Ohyoung Research Institute of Innovative Technology Microbial synthesis and properties of poly(3for the Earth (RITE). 25:4237-4241 1994 1993 1992 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) was produced from xylose and lactose by using Pseudomonas cepacia. Scandola. Avail. 697 Saito. Awards.. of Lowell. 51(1).Xylose probe. RICHARDSON 700 KENNETH RAYMOND ICI PLC (GB) Microbiological process for the production of poly (betahydroxybutyric acid) and micro-organisms for use therein. Order No. Philip Ian Counc. Avail. Doi. Int J Biol Macromol 1994 Apr. M.4-butanediol or 4-hydroxybutyric acid was used as 616. Approximately 50 % PHB (grams of PHB total/grams of biomass total) was produced.. Univ. Y..16(2):99-104 1994 microbial prepn polyhydroxyalkanoate functional side chainmicrobial prepn polyhydroxyalkanoate functional side chain Comamonas acidovorans DS-17 was isolated from activated sludge and found to produce copolymers of 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4hydroxybutyrate (4HB) at 30 degrees C under growth-limited conditions. 699 Hardwicke.. With a laser-based fluorescent Pseudomonas cepacia .. Univ. UK 164 pp. Order No.4. pseudomonas putida. Abstr. 34:4782-4786 Macromolecules 1992. S.. Microfilms Int.. London. MA. USA biocatalysts). COLLINSON BARBARA ANN. Doi. Y. Microbial synthesis of polymers: Alcaligenes eutrophus and the production of poly-b-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB). Natl. Technology. 57(2). 485.. 694 May Sheldon W. Abstr. EP0015669 1980-09-17 1980 . 319 (English) 1989 1995 Abstract Unavailable 1989 Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate fermn Abstract unavailable. BRDX88759 From: Diss. Japan. Lowell. M. DA9618619 From: Diss. the first sta POWELL KEITH ADRIAN.. Accumulation of PHB is favoured by culturing in two stages.Substrates kopiert 489. Georgia 30332 695 Hiramitsu.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. acidovorans Microbial synthesis of poly(beta-hydroxy alkanoates) containing novel functional side chain units for advanced material applications Univ. B 1996.Lactose activity was s Strain . Georgia Institute of Young. 696 Nakamura. Y. Microbial Production of Poly-beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid form D-Xylose and Lactose by Pseudomonas cepacia Microbial synthesis and characterization of poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxypropionate) Microbial synthesis and characterization of poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) Applied and Environmental Microbiology Nov 1994. 1119 (English) 1995 358 pp. beta-galactosidase . Kastner James R. Y. Int. Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid). B 1990.page 200 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage School of Chemistry and Biochemistry. Atlanta. Doi.xls . Microfilms Int. When 1. Int. Frederick K. is produced by the aerobic culture of Methylobacterium organophilum strains NCIB 11482 to 11488 inclusive on a carbon source such as methanol. Acad. 4195-4198 Polymer 1993. PHB. 698 Kim. (pseudomonas oleovorans. hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) in Comamonas Saitama.

. poly(b-hydroxyalkanoates).6) were prepd. J. ruhlandii.25 mm) and pervaporation dense membranes for EtOH hydroxybutyrate polymer dehydration (Jtotal = microfiltration pervaporation 0. of membrane systems and of cytoplysmic inclusions of gram-negative aerobic hydrogen bacteria has been studied. McGill University.. Membranes.Microbiol.. Maria Elena Microscopic visualization of the enzymic degradation of poly(3HB-co-3HV) and poly(3HV) single crystals by PHA depolymerases from Pseudomonas lemoignei Microstructure and 13C nuclear magnetic relaxation of bacterial McGill Univ. and Cytoplasmic Inclusions Arch. D3400 Göttingen. The results have been tbulated. single crystals of a no.. 99-107 1998 Diss. Montpellier 34095.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. DOCUMENT TYPE: Dissertation carbon NMR bacterial poly beta hydroxyalkanoate Abstract Unavailable 1993 . H.800 L/m2×atm×J. Can. F. 32(4). HV). Universite des Sciences et Microfiltration and pervaporation membranes of PHB. Montreal.page 201 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Laboratoire de Chimie Macromoleculaire. Can. Environ. Sledz. pseudoflava. F. H. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen. Fr. P(HBTechniques du co-9% Languedoc. 53(12. (1998). Aragno. P. B 1993. Jaaba. Montreal. flava. 6(2). Polym.und Umweltforschung mbH und der Universität Göttingen. H3A 2A7..G..oparadoxus. Nobes. Jendrossek. from ethanol drying polyhydroxybutyrate and polyhydroxybutyrate membrane poly(hydroxybutyrate-cohy Walther-Mauruschat. 8. A. M.. Polym. 6324 (English) 1991. and three main groups could be recognized: Group 1: Alcaligenes eutroph Stains ..Ultrastructure Micromorpholo The fine structure of the cell envelope. 1).Morphology As a complement to previous studies of the enzymic degrdn. H. Marchessault. Aquaspirillum autotrophicumCorynebacterium autotrophicum and strains MA 2 and SA 35. PQ. J. pore radius = 0. B. selectivity membrane = 12. Int.. 702 Mayer. H. of folded chain lamellar single crystals of polyhydroxyalkanoates. PQ. Federal Republic of Micromorphology of gram-negative hydrogen bacteria II. P(HB-co-22% HV). Abstr. Grisebachstr. P. Briese. Korr. Schlegel. 704 Nedea. Eur. Pseudomonas facilis. 435-50 (French) 1996 701 Mas. J. Schue. of polyhydroxyalkanoates were partially degraded with depolymerases from Pseudomonas lemo 135. R. Paracoccus denitrificans . 703 Department of Chemistry..xls .008 kg/J×m2. D. 1977.. P. A. R. A. A. palleronii. 114:101-110 1977 Alcaligenes eutrophus. G.4. Degrad. 1996 Microfiltration porous membranes (flux JH2O = 15. A. Pt. Germany Cell Envelope. Filtration and surface properties.

Yamamoto.H. 28:6401-6409 1995 High-resolution 13C NMR spectra were obtained for a wide range of racemic poly-(R.. Tokyo Institute of Technology.S)-beta-hydroxybutyrate by 13C NMR Macromolecules 1995. Midori-ku. Inoue. Tokyo 152.* Department of Polymer Chemistry. *Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization. 707 Chujo. Quebec. Midori-ku. Department of Chemistry. N.xls . Doi. Tokyo 152. Canada H2A 3A7 Microstructure of poly(R. Kamiya. Y. 22:1676-1682 1989 copolyersters PHB/HV .differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) melting behaviour Bacterially synthesized copolyersters of 3hydroxybutyrate (HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (HV) of HV mole fraction ranging from 0 to 93 % were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)..page 202 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Kamiya. Department of Polymer Chemistry. Yamamoto.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Tokyo Institute of Technology. R.. Japan. P. R. 705 Chujo.. Japan Research Laboratory of Ressources Utilization. None of the samples followed Bernoullian statistics.S-betahydroxybutyrate) samples and interpreted with regard to several statistical models. Montreal. N.. 706 Hocking. Japan hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)s Macromolecules 1989.. Inoue. Microstructure of bacterially synthesized poly(3Yokohama 227. Tokyo Institute of Technology. Japan. Y. Y. Y. Y. Mc Gill University. R. Microstructures of Comercially available poly(3Yokohama 227. Meguroku. hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Macromolecules 1989. 3420 University Street.NMR spectroscopy . Marchessault..4. Meguroku. but the syndiotactic and atac 596. . The sequence distributions of some PHB-HV´ copolyesters 431.. 22:3800-3802 1989 no abstract 658.J. Tokyo Institute of Technology.

kais bacterial fermentation Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 51 Issue 1 (1999) pp 13-21 1999 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been attracting considerable attention as biodegradable substitutes for conventional polymers. Tsukuba. 4(3). Chem. PUR. Rep. Y. Choi. M. Yusonggu.. Japan e-mail: toshi@sakura. 545. University of Tsukuba..4.cc. 27:50-54 polyhydroxybutyrate blend miscibility crystn ethylene glycol lactide copolymer blend 1993 1994 The miscibility of poly(bhydroxybutyrate) (PHB) blends with poly(D.: +81-298-53-6626 Fax: mini-review: Microbial degradation of polyurethane.. Onuma. Lett.xls . 711 Noda. Peop. Xianmo. of PHB in the blend was strongly dependent on the amt. Doi. The blends were miscible in the amorphous state. The crystn. Chem. Sin. F. To reduce their production cost. Miscibility and morphology of blends of isotactic and atactic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Chin. Chengdu 610041.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. polyester PUR. Nakajima-Kambe. Korea e-mail: mini-review: Factors affecting the economics of polyhydroxyalkanoate production by leesy@sorak. Acad.ac. Nomura. in particular. N. 709 Nakahara Polyurethane (PUR) is a polymer derived from the condensation of polyisocyanate and polyol and it is widely used as a base material in various industries.. 373-1 Kusong-dong. China Miscibility and crystallization behavior of biodegradable blend of poly(b-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(D. 710 Chengdong Abe.. Ibaraki. of PELA. Satkowski. a great deal of effort has been devoted to dev Institute of Applied Biochemistry.jp. Taejon 305-701. 3058572. is known to be vu Deng. I. Xiong. Lianlai. H. (c/o Toshiaki Nakajima-Kambe) Tel. Org. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology.L-lactide)-copoly(ethylene glycol) (PELA) was investigated. T. Y. Zhang. Lee Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center. ShigenoAkutsu. S.M.tsuku ba.. . 265-8 (English) 1993 Macromolecules 1994. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract +81polyester 298-53-4605 polyurethanes and polyether polyurethanes Volume 51 Issue 2 (1999) pp 134-140 1999 T.L-lactide)-copoly(ethylene glycol). Y. Chengdu Inst.page 203 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 708 J.

. for 714 Bradel. De. and thermal treatments. Marco. 29(10). Choi. 28(24). Makromol.. Choi. 8065-72 (English) 1995 1995 The miscibility of poly(D-()-3hydroxybutyrate)/atactic poly(Me methacrylate) (PHB/aPMMA) blends was investigated as a function of blend compn.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Berlin D1000/12. Sci. Sung Jai. 1983-90 (English) 1993 model polyhydroxybutyrate mass fermn Alcaligenes 1993 The development of molar mass distribution of poly(D-(-)-3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was studied during the intracellular synthesis of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 bacteria with fructose as substrate and (NH4)2SO4 as N source. Macromolecules. Milan 20133. Stazione Sperimentale per la Cellulosa. w . A. The Iinteraction parameter II system showed a single polyhydroxybutyrate blend glass transition. Chang Soon.. C.. Incheon 402-751.page 204 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Siciliano. Han Sup. Germany Modeling of molar mass distribution of poly(D-(-)-3hydroxybutyrate) during bacterial synthesis. Carta e Fibre Tessili Vegetali ed Artificiali. Chem. The DSC thermograms obtained by heating up miscibility polyhydroxybutyrate samples of PHB/aPMMA PMMA thermal crystn property blends quenched from Yoon. Eng. Jin San. 194(7). 713 Lee. Hyoung Jin. The flask culture fermn.. Martuscelli. T. Polym. Soon Ja Dep.. Tech. 712 Silvestre. Korea Miscibility of poly[D(-)(3-hydroxybutyrate)] in poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(methyl methacrylate). Maing. miscibility whereas two glass transitions were obsd. Italy Miscibility and Thermal and Crystallization Behaviors of Poly(D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate)/Atactic Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends. Inha Univ. expts. Tech. Choi. Seves. E. A. Cimmino. Roman.. Poly.xls . 1359-64 (English) 1993 1993 Miscibility behavior of poly[D(-)(3hydroxybutyrate)] (I)poly(ethylene polyhydroxybutyrate miscibility oxide) (II) and I-PMMA polyoxyethylene PMMA blends were studied using glass temp polyhydroxybutyrate DSC and the vapor blend miscibility sorption technique. Chem. S.. Karl Heinz Inst.. Reichert. Berlin.4. J. Eur. Univ. S.

Krueger. B-3010 KesselLo. Molecular analysis of the Alcaligenes eutrophus poly(3hydroxybutyrate) biosynthetic operon: identification of the N terminus of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthase and identification of the promoter. and PHB synthase (phbC) has been cloned recently. eutrophus H16. United States of America D'HAENE. 1999 Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 1996. Ger. 81(5):422-428 1999 Compositions are provided which are useful in the production of polymeric products.5 wt. 447-8 (English) 1990 1990 polyhydroxybutyric acid synthase gene phbC Alcaligenes Molecular methods have been applied to analyze the expression of the Alcaligenes eutrophus poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthase gene (phbC).872- 579. synthase gene from a methylotrophic bacterium.178(3):774-9 1996 . MO 63017. such as coatings and films. Belgium OF COATINGS AND FILMS Mole fraction control of poly(3-hydroxybutyric-co-3hydroxyvaleric) acid in fed-batch culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus WO9914268A1 March 25. Steinbuchel A Institut fur Mikrobiologie. Pellenbersgstraat POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES FOR 179. which comprise branched PHA. Kruger N. The compositions of the invention comprise PHA and 0. Belgium 715 716 Ishihara. Pol . GeorgAugust-Univ. Jawed . Pries. The translational initiation codon was identified by analysis of the amino acid sequence of a PHB synthase-betaThe 12. Ueda S. Andreas. Peter. H. Polym. Utsunomiya University.6-kb EcoRI-SalI fragment of Paracoccus denitrificans DNA hybridized with a DNA probe carrying the poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) synthase gene (phaC) of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Goettingen D-3400. Chesterfield. GeorgAugust-Universitat zu Gottingen. Yabutani T. The entire structural A 3. E.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Steinbuechel.xls .. Paracoccus denitrificans. Molecular analysis of the Alicaligenes eutrophus PHBbiosynthetic genes: identification of the NH2-terminus of PHB synthase and NATO ASI Ser. United States of America D'HAENE. 186(Novel Biodegrad.). Pellenbersgstraat 179. Shioya.5-kb EcoRI DNAfragment PP1 isolated from genomic DNA of A. Rep.% of a freer 1996 622. Shimizu.. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region showed the presence of a 1. 717 Schubert P. 14949 Royal Brook Drive. B-3010 KesselPRODUCTION Lo. MODIFIED Pol ..173(1):168-75 1991 Schubert. Faculty of Agriculture. Microb.001 .. Mikrobiol.4. Niels. Chesterfield. which encodes the genes for bketothiolase (phbA). 718 Alexander Inst. 14949 Royal Brook Drive.. S.page 205 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage ASRAR. 719 Yamane T Department of Bioproductive Sciences.0. Molecular analysis of the poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) Japan. Jawed . Fed. identification of the transcription start site of phbC. Maehara A. Ser. MO 63017. ASRAR. Y. Federal Republic of Germany. J Bacteriol 1996 Feb. NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phbB). J Bacteriol 1991 Jan.

Petersgasse 12. Liebergesell August-Universitat 720 M.page 206 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The current knowledge on the structure and on the organization of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA)-biosynthetic genes from a wide range of different bacteria.tugraz. Abe (1). Japan (2) Akebono Brake R&D Center Ltd. Doi (1) Saitama 348. 722 Helmut Schwab * IInstitut für Biotechnologie. Published erratum appears in FEMS Microbiol Rev 1993 Apr. NATO ASI Ser.at (1) Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. Janes.. fax: ?43 316 8738434. NADH oxidase activity. Pieper U. Molecul The poly-bhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthetic pathway of A.5-kb insert of A. sequencing and expression in Escherichia coli of the poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) synthesis genes from Alcaligenes latus DSM1124. GeorgSteinbuchel A. 175-90 (English) 1990 Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate formation gene sequence PHB synthase gene sequence Alcaligenes autoacetyl CoA reductase sequence Alcaligenes 1990 Klaus F.9(2-4):217-30 Institut fur Mikrobiologie. Microb. 721 Douglas Dep. Higasi. VA 22807.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] produced in a recombinant Escherichia coli Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 47 Issue 2 (1997) pp 140-143 1997 684 . Polym. Wako-shi. Timm A. Molecular mass of poly[(R&hairsp.. which rely on different pathways for biosynthesis of this storage polyesters. Austria * Corresponding author. Valentin H Gottingen. James Madison Univ. Gerald Renner. Saitama 351-01. Harrisonburg. Regulation ganze Artikel Poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] (PHB) was produced at 37&hairsp. Hustede E.xls . Ser. J Biotechnol 1998 Oct 8. Lee (3). H. S. and analyzed for open reading fram Fragments of chromosomal DNA from Alcaligenes latus DSM1124 were cloned into Escherichia coli and transformants were screened for poly(D(-)-3hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] production during excess carbon supply.10(3-4):347-50 1992 477.ac. Dennis.8010 Graz. S.: ?43 316 8738417. Molecular cloning. Brian. analyses. e-mail: schwab@biote. Tel.64(2-3):125-35 1998 Keywords : Heterologous expression. 186(Novel Biodegrad. Biol. where it has been the subject of a series of mol. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis. is provided.. E. Jeff. FRG. Genser. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). latus Objective Hardware Ablage FEMS Microbiol Rev 1992 Dec. eutrophus H16 has been cloned into Escherichia coli.°C by a recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the Alcaligenes eutrophus biosynthesis phbCAB genes in Luria-Bertani media containing glucose at Hirosawa. 5-4-71. A.. A plasmid harboring a 5. 723 Y. Y. USA Molecular characterization of the poly(b-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthetic pathway of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16.). Kusaka (2). The DNA sequence of the pathway has been detd. Hollar. Technische Universität Graz. Molecular basis for biosynthesis and accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids in bacteria. Hanyu-shi.4.

T.98 . R. ***polyhydroxybutyrates*** and polytetramethylene J..4. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. R. succinate 724 Polymer (1998).page 207 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Department of Chemistry. The weight average degree of polymerization is approximately Polymer properties Poly-D(-)-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is synthesized in large amounts under certain physiological conditions in the cells of various microorganisms. Watanabe. Molecular weight of bacterially produced poly-D(-)-3hydroxybutyrate Molekular charakterisation of the extracellular poly(3hydroxyoctanoic acid) [P(3HO)] depolymerase gene of pseudomonas fluorescens GK13 and og its gene product 7. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Centre. modeling (MM) was used to investigate the cryst. PQ. This biological polyester acts as a carbon and energy storage medium for bacteria. Argentina Molecular weight distribution of native poly(D-betahydroxybutyric acid) Makromolekulare Chemie 1975.molecular weight distribution 141. Can.xls . R. A.. Montreal. chain conformations of a series of related aliph.Schirmer.. 728 A. D. 176(22):7065-7073 1994 528..Jendrossek Journal of bacteriology 1994.. A. Reichert. advance/repeat uni 725 Saito. Raymond. Division "Macromoledulas". R. was studied. Kleinke. 3065-3072 Molecular structure of extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis T1 1993. 1993 The molecular weight distribution of the biopolyester1 from D-betahydroxybutyric acid. J.. Iwata. The bacterial (isotactic) poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) helical conformation of 2. 176:2655-2667 1975 Rhizobium meliloti . 726 Figini. H3A 2A7. biodegradable polyesters... A. Marchessault. S. K. isolated from Rhizobium meliloti by methods which preserved ist native molecular properties. Pulp and Paper Research Molecular modeling of helical and extended-chain Pazur.H. H. Mola. La Plata. Calle 47 y 115. . T.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Hocking. Herrera de. 727 Bradel. 1(2):99-105 1998 Mol. P.V. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teóricás y Aplicadas. Dechema Jahrestagung 1989 1989 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 molecular weight 667.ANG. Marx-Figini.. The production of this poly Polymer properties 561. 39(14). M.

Monsanto Company. State University of New York at Buffalo. Ellar D.180(8):1979-87 1998 Electron microscopy and methods of polymer physics were used to investigate the texture of bacterial storage granules. 731 Marchessault RH Morphology of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules. involving extended polymeric c Morphology Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a class of carbon and energy storage polymers produced by numerous bacteria in response to environmental limitation. The type of polymer produced depends on the carbon sources available. D. 89:243-239 1965 Rhodospirillum rubrum Bacillus megaterium depolymerization . Louis. New York. 730 R. St.M.4. Department of Biochemistry. Missouri 63198. J. namely. J Bacteriol 1998 Apr. J Mol Biol 1968 Aug 14. granules associated with decreased susceptibility to New York enzymatic hydrolysis J.slater@mons hydroxyalkanoate) 732 TA. Buffalo. A labile factor associated with the granules and necessary for depoly Morphology 79.PHB granules - A complex enzyme obtained from extracts of Rhodospirillum rubrum cells hydrolyzes poly-betahydroxybutyric acid (PHB) contained in native PHB granules isolated from Bacillus megaterium. Italy.35(3):489-502 1968 granule-morphology Sustainable Development and Agricultural Sectors. Syracuse Morphological changes in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate University. Okamura K.Bacteriol. Syracuse. Pfister. The first level of native granule morphology is 100 to 150 A fibrills. Padgette SR. 1965. poly-betahydroxybutyrate.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Gruys KJ anto. Ravalli M Monitoring and regulating biological waste-water treatment. Houmiel KL. the flexibility of the organism's i 85. Mitsky steven. Taylor NB..c. Lundgren DG. kopiert .xls . USA. with carbon conversion.page 208 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A new method for monitoring and regulating installations for biological treatment of sewage or industrial wastewater involves constructing the installation so that the 4 basic reaction processes created by the microorganisms in a single Objective Hardware Ablage Waterplan LO Belluno. 729 Ghiribelli P.G. and Department of Becteriology and Botany. Lundgren. Tran M. School of Medicine.M. Multiple beta-ketothiolases mediate poly(betaSlater S.com copolymer synthesis in Ralstonia eutropha. denitrification and anaerobic polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in one fermentor EP 695720 7 Feb 1996 1996 Merrick. aerobic nitrification..

Y. J. and Model Validation. 29:174-176 1990 1988 552. München.. C. R. 1977.. Davis. R. B. Doi. de Koning W.. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen. NL-9747 AG NADH-Regulated Metabolic Model for Growth of Methylosinustrichosporium OB3b. C. 1972. Takagi. van der Leij. F. Model Sipkema EM. Abe.Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Isocitrate-Dehydrogenase 155.Mikrobiol. Kessler.. Nakamura.xls . Parameter 735 KJ. L. 738 Yamane. CH8093 Zürich.4. 740 Y. B.and NAD-Specific Isocitrate Dehydrogenase in Hydrogenomonas eutropha Strain H 16 / NADP-und NADspezifische Isocitrat-Dehydrogenase in Hydrogenomonas Arch. Estimation. Janssen DB. Nakamura. 379. in Göttingen NADP. Academic Press Inc.: +41 1 6333286 Fax: +41 1 6331051 e-mail: bw@biotech. 31:404-406 Polymer communications 1988. ETH Hönggerberg. Mutants of Pseudomonas putida affected in ch poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate synthesis N2 fixing hydrogen bacteria Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 49 Issue 6 (1998) pp 743-750 1998 Biological solar energy conversion . Strain .G. 739 Fuller. Biotechnol Prog 2000 Apr 7.. Y. Lenz.und Umweltforschung mbH.. The mutants from P. S. . M. 86:327-337 (Article in eutropha H 16 German) n-Alkane Utilization and Lipid Formation by a Nocardia n-amyl alcohol as a substrate for the production of poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by bacteria Natural Plastics New bacterial copolyester of 3-hydroxyalkanoates and 3hydroxy-omega-fluoroalkanoates produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans New bacterial copolyesters produced in Alcaligenes eutrophus from organic acids ??? 1960.. 98:57-60 Natural History 1990. A biochemical model is presented that describes growth of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b on methane. FEMS Microbiology Letters 1992. W. University of Groningen. 733 Witholt 734 J. 5:82-84 1992 1990 467.Metabolism Objective Hardware Ablage Q. Switzerland Tel.. Taima.biol. T.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. With respect to their affinity for isocitrate and NADP or NAD.ethz. Doi.and a NADspecific isocitrate dehydrogenase have been separated and partially purified. R... 737 Raymond. 439. The Presentation. Y. Ganzeveld Groningen. Ueda. which was developed to compare strategies to alleviate NADH limitation resulting from cometaboli From crude extracts of fructose-grown cells of Hydrogenomonas eutropha strain H 16 a NADP. H.page 209 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The generation and characterization of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 mutants affected in poly-3hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis are reported. Beenackers AA Netherlands. Schlegel. 1:299-297 1977 Chemical Engineering and Biochemistry Departments. The model. H. putida KT2442 carrying several copies of the PH 88. 8:329-334 1972 1960 Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16 . Ren. 741 Kunioka. Y. respectively. S. A. 371.. B.Ooyama Institute of Biotechnology.16(2):176-188 2000 736 Glaeser. Polymer Communications 1990. Matsumoto.

745 others: 03 SNOW BRAND MILK PROD CO LTD NEW PHB DEGRADING ENZYME. Steinbuechel.1.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 744 Alexander Inst. Corrensstrasse 3. The Mr as well as the Nterminal amino acid PURPOSE:To obtain a new PHB degrading enzyme useful for degrading a biodegradable plastics containing polyhydroxybutyrate as a component. Germany.4.17) and the identification of an open reading frame (ORF) 5Cv translational product as a granuleassociated protein wer The isolation of poly(3hydroxybutyric acid) granules of Chromatium vinosum D was re-examd.page 210 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To obtain a gene effective for improving the productivity of a polyhydroxyalkanoate in the cell. 719-724 (English) 1996 1996 polyhydroxybutyrate granule assocd protein Chromatium gene pha polyhydroxybutyrate granule protein Chromatium TOYODA SHUJI. Matthias.Lett. D48149 Munster..New knowledge about the pha-locus and P(3HB) granule48149. New knowledge about the PHA-locus and P(3HB) granuleassociated proteins in Chromatium vinosum. Mikrobiologie Westfaelischen Wilhelms. (1996) 18. 6. SOLUTION: This intracellular PHA decomposition enzyme encodes (i) Chromatium vinosum D (DSM 180) poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) granule isolation in the absence of lysozyme (EC3.. 18(6). a 14 kDa protein was identified as predominant granule-assocd. Beside the PHA synthase and a 17 kDa protein. Muenster D.2. Univ.xls . Muenster. KANAGAWA SAITO MITSUSANE. Biotechnol. *Steinbuechel A 743 Institut fuer Mikrobiologie der Westfaelischen WilhelmsUniversitaet Munster. protein. Lett. CONSTITUTION:This polyhydroxybutyrate degrading enzyme is capable of manifesting the following properties: (1) a Objective Hardware Ablage RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE EARTH. ITS PRODUCTION AND MICROORGANISM CAPABLE OF PRODUCING THE SAME ENZYME JP7155180 1995-06-20 1995 . associated Germany proteins in Chromatium vinosum. 719-24 1996 Liebergesell. SAEGUSA 742 HARUHISA JP11113574 UNIVERSITY NEW INTRACELLULAR PHA DECOMPOSITION ENZYME 1999-04-27 1999 Liebergesell M. by encoding a protein containing a specific amino acid sequence. poly-betahydroxybutyrate granule isolation and open reading frame 5Cv product identification Biotechnol.

pI 8. Iowa State University. ETH. Suter UW Zurich.000 (gel filtrati The present investigation was focused on the cell compatibility of recently developed biodegradable polyesterurethane-foam (DegraPol-foam) to chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Department of Microbiology. Environ.25(1-3):293for medicine.page 211 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Snow-Brand-MilkProd. Both Department of Materials. Iowa 50011 hydroxybutyrate Appl. Ames Nile blue A as a fluorescent stain for poly-á.G.Nickel 99. 746 New polyhydroxybutyratase (PHB-ase) production. .J.wt. New versatile. Switzerland. Neuenschwander P. Institute of Saad B. 749 Ostle.Trace elements . elastomeric. R. 513.3. 747 GK. Washington Nickel-dependet chemolithotrophic growth of two hydrogenomonas strains Journal of Bacteriology 1964. and mol. University of Washington.Metabolism 748 Bartha.4. 40 deg.xls . 89:1015-1019 1964 Hydrogenomonas H 16 Autotrophic growth Heterotrophic growth . Uhlschmid Polymers. 1982. polybeta-hydroxybutyrate-depolymerase purification from Pseudomonas sp. The organisms were grown in a mineral medium. optimal temp.G. is The trace element requirements for growth of facultative chemolithotrophic Hydrogenomonas strains H 1 and H 16 were investigated under both autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Glycogen and polyphosphate did Analytic 173.4. Seattle. and has the following properties: degradation of PHB. E. A. Heatfixed cells were treated with 1 % Nile blue A for 10 min and were observed at an excitation wavelength of 460 nm. 44:238-241 1982 Nile blue A Poly-betahydroxybutyrate-stain Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules exhibited a strong orange fluorescence when stained with Nile blue A.. Ordal. for use in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate degradation JP 07155180 20 Jun 1995 1995 A new poly-betahydroxybutyratedepolymerase (PHBD) is derived from Pseudomonas sp.. Holt. Department of Micorbiology.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. optimal pH 4. rendered deficient in trace Strain . 301 1999 chondrocytes and osteoblasts. 328 (FERM P-13954). J. degradable polymeric materials Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. Microbiol.

1981. This invention also relates to an absorbent article comprising such nonwoven material... Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen. Schlegel. microbiol. 129:254-256 1981 Alcaligenes latus Hydrogen bacterium Poly-bety hydroxybutyric acid Nitrogenase The aerobic hydrogenoxidizing bacterium Alceligenes latus represented by the three strains was found to be able to grow with dinitrogen as the sole nitrogen source: The doubling time of total (Kjeldahl) nitrogen during growth on glucose at 30 °C under an 178.A. Nile red.xls . This invention also relates to a composition comprising . 752 EDWARD DENIS DOUGLAS UNIV MADISON (US). Sci. and other Weishengwu Xuebao. Grisebachstraße 8. H.. Jung.page 212 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Nile red. Jingguo Coll. Federal Republic of Nitrogen fixation by the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Germany Alcaligenes latus Arch. ROLAND SOMERVILLE CHRISTOPHER. Resour. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming the plants with modified genes from micro 753 NODA ISAO (US) PROCTER & GAMBLE (US) Nonwoven materials comprising biodegradable copolymers US5685756 1997-11-11 1997 This invention relates to a nonwoven material comprising an adhesive comprising polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). and Environ. and Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen. a benzophenoxazone stain was attempted for microscopical observation of poly-bhydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and other lipid deposits in bacterial cells. Beijing Agric. China lipid deposits in bacterial cells. 34(1). Rep.G. D3400 Göttingen. 71-5 (Chinese) 1994 Nile red fluorescence stain bacteria cell polyhydroxybutyric acid lipid bacteria 1994 751 Malik.4. Two kinds of the lipids were distinct to some extent with fluorescence microscopy after Nile r Objective Hardware Ablage 750 Wang. Beijing 100094. Peop. YVES POIRIER. UNIV MICHIGAN (US) No title available..10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Gesellschaft für Biotechnologische Froschung mbH. Agric. FR2679735 1993-02-05 1993 The present invention relates to transgenic plants which produce polybeta-D-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). K. C. a superior fluorescence stain for detection of PHB Univ.

R. Centre for Polymer Chemistry. Cincinnati. G. Lafferty. 1568 Hunter Road. Review 96. 1998 1998 NODA.. ESI-MS. Sikorska. St. University of Minnesota. This This invention relates to a nonwoven material comprising an adhesive comprising polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA).745:134-48 1994 Abstract unavailable. 41. Cincinnati. 1997 1997 756 Schlegel. Cincinnati. 757 Jackson DE. PHB. One Procter & Gamble Plaza. 754 OH The Procter & Gamble Nonwoven materials comprising Company.M. copolymers. biodegradable copolymers OH US5747584 May 5. J. Jedlin ´ ski *. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994 Nov 30.G. United NONWOVEN MATERIALS States of COMPRISING BIODEGRADABLE America COPOLYMERS WO9704036A1 Feb. This invention also relates to an absorbent article comprising such nonwoven material. Poly(3-hydroxybutanoic acid) ganze Artikel . H. Novel methods to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates.Novel synthesis of functionalized poly(3-hydroxybutanoic 800 Zabrze.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. United States of 755 America THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY. M. 758 Adamus. Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science. OH 45014. This invention also rela Aerobic hydrogen bacteria metabolism . 1 1971 No abstract. W. Paul 55108.25(1-3):247-53 1999 Anionic polymerization.continous culture systems Objective Hardware Ablage Noda. Isao . OH 45202. Novel feasibility of fuctionalized poly(3hydroxybutanoic acid). 6. Rydz Polish Academy of Sciences. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. Kowalczuk. Poland * acid) and its Corresponding author. This invention also relates to an absorbent article comprising such nonwoven material.page 213 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract This invention relates to a nonwoven material comprising an adhesive comprising polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Fairfield. Isao . Lipase. Copolymers. Using these new synthetic approaches Z. and its copolymers synthesis via ring-opening of beta-butyrolactone (ROP) mediated by activated anionic initiators or enzymes in vitro is presented. Srienc F Novel energy and carbon sources Advances in Biochemical engineering 1971.4.batch cuture systems .xls .

Kawaguchi. K. M. 1989.. Midori-ku. hydroxybutyrate) and polyphosphate metabolism in Yokohama 227.. Environ.xls . SINSKEY ANTHONY J (US) (US) 764 Repaske. Y. 21:2722-2727 1988 438. Nucleotide sequence encoding acetoacetyl-CoA reductase EP0688865 and a method for producing polyester biopolymers Nutritional requirements for hydrogenomonas eutropha 1995-12-27 1995 1962 The present invention is a nucleotide sequence encoding acetoacetyl-oA reductase and a method for controlling biopolymer synthesis by determining the genetics and enzymology of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis at the molecular level. 759 Keeler J. 760 Kunioka. Bacteriol. 762 Soga. Japan Alcaligenes eutrophus Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on poly(betahydroxybutyrate) and a copolyester of betahydroxybutyrate and beta-hydroxyvalerate isolated from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 Appl. Y. Sanders JK Cambridge Centre for Molecular Recognition. Melby MK. Y. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on unsusual bacterial coplyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate Macromolecules 1988...10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Nakamura. Nakamura. K. 55:2932-2938 1989 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Metabolism The metabolic pathays of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and polyphosphate in the microorganism Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 were studied by 1H.. Y. 761 Soga. Kunioka.. Y. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation studies of University Chemical poly(hydroxybutyrate) Laboratory.. Tokyo Institute of Technology.4. J. Horowitz DM. M. and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) specroscopy and by convetional analytical techniques. Doi. MASSACHUSETTS PEOPLES OLIVER P INST TECHNOLOGY 763 (US). Macromolecules 1986. Nakamura. Int J Biol Macromol 1994 Apr. UK. Studies on varying concentrations of whole cells of Alcaligenes eut Objective Hardware Ablage Shaw GL. Y. Kunioka.. 83:418-422 . Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of poly(3Nagatsuta.. Y.. 1962. Microbiol.page 214 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The physical state of poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in whole cells and in the form of artificial biomimetic granules has been probed using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.Metabolism 302. eutrophus c Strain . 19:2860-2864 1986 577. R. in whole cells and in artificial granules. 13C.16(2):59-63 1994 Doi. A. M. Research Laboratory of Resource Utilization. The purifie 29. Doi.

172(5):2791-2 1990 Stockdale. Vincenzini M.Soc. Centro di Studio per la Microbiologia del Suolo Occurrence of alpha-. England Observation of mobile poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) in the storage granules of Methylobacterium AM1 by in vivo 13CNMR spectroscopy FEBS 1988. G.4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. E. Lepidi. J Bacteriol 1990 May. 231(1):16-18 Observations on the fine structure of spheroplasts of Rhodospirillum rubrum The Journal of Cell Biology 1964. Under mixotrophic growth conditions in the presence of acetate. D.N. 1968. Occurrence of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in Spirulina 768 A.. J.glucose Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from various representative strains of the genera Azotobacter.Derxia Beijerinckia fluminensis molecular nitrogen . Sanders. contained poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) at concentrations never exceeding a few milligrams per gram of dry weight. PHB reached v 60. M. Cambridge CB 1 EW.A. and molecular nitrogen as a Strains 73.xls . Department of Biochemistry. Sili C. Firenze.. Materassi R species.A. H.P. microfungi . . Hull. hydroxybutyric acids in the Cephalosporium herbarum fungal mycelia of six soil Fusarium sp.Analytics Several strains of photoautotrophically grown Spirulina spp.and gammaCephalosporium sp. 767 Nuti. de Philippis R. During growth in shake culture. Lensfield Road.W. with glucose as a carbon and energy source. Bacteriol. 766 Boatman. University Chemical Laboratory. A. 95:1798-1803 1968 Azotobacter .Br. University of Hull.page 215 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 765 Barnard. Fractionation of the cells demonstrates that the poly(betahydroxybutyrate) is located in the storage granules and t Strain . Istituto di Microbiologia Agraria e Tecnica dell'Universita e Centro di Studio dei Microrganismi Autotrofi del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. beta-. 1975. Universitá di Pisa Instituto di Microbiologia Agraria e Tecnica. Occurrence of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in the England Azotobacteriaceae J. 64(1):79-87 1975 Electron capture gasliquid chromatography (EC GLC) along with other biochemical procedures Electron capture gas-liquid was used to test for the chromatography (EC GLC) presence of alpha-. beta-. 769 E.S. frequentans Noticeable amounts of h Strains . . Beijerinckia.Aspergillus niger .. and gamma-hydroxybutyrates in some soil microfungi Trans. J.B.Penicillium inhabiting microfungi.Trehalose Methylobacterium AM1 13C-NMR spectra of whole native cells of Methylobacterium AM1 show dominant signals belonging to poly(betahydroxybutyrate) and trehalose.M.Morphology 296.Azotomonas Beijerinckia . Ribbons.. and Derxia was isolatet and characterized. 20:297-311 1988 1964 Storage granule .K. Brooks. Dawes. Ena Italy. 219.mycol.

Germany. Austria. 190(1):345-350 1978 Pathways followed by the carbon of long chain fatty acids in their conversion to 3-hydroxybutyric acid were traced and the contribution of omegaoxidation to fatty acid oxidation was determined omega oxidation . 770 Lafferty. University of uses of bacterial Hull.ketone where ketone body bodies formation occur others . They are composed of 3hydroxyacid monomer units and exist as a small number of cytoplasmic 272.fatty acids . E. Ohio 44106 hydroxybutyratic acid formation Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 1978. polyhydroxyalkanoates. Department of Medicine and Pharmacaology. Guo Qiang.page 216 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Chen.. FEMS Microbiol. 773 Landau.metabolism 59. 173-6 (English) 1991 Bacillus polyhydroxyalkanoate polyhydroxybutyrate polyhydroxyvalerate 1991 A range of Bacillus strains were examd. and industrial Biology.. . The organisms could produce poly-D(-)-3-hyd Fifty different polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA)-accumulating bacterial strains were investigated for the occurrence of phasin proteins bound to PHA granules and related to the GA24 protein of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Institute for Biotechnology. Hemmelgarn. of which polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most abundant. metabolism. United Kingdom.xls . W. Schmidt B Munster.R. Koenig. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1996 Jan 1.C.in the cellular environment 3-hydroxy-butyric acid .. Microbiol Rev 1990 Dec. are bacterial carbon and energy reserve materials of widespread occurrence. metabolic role. for their ability to accumulate poly-D(-)-3hydroxyalkanoates (polyHAKs) which are naturally occurring materials that are optically active. 84(2). Occurrence of poly-D(-)-3-hydroxyalkanoates in the genus Bacillus.4. Karl Heinz. Steinbuchel A. Omega oxidation of fatty acids and the pathway of 3Cleveland. Robert M. Schumann. biodegradable thermoplastics. Dawes EA Department of Applied Occurrence. Occurrence of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granuleassociated proteins related to the Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 GA24 protein in other bacteria. by isolating PHA granules and Western Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs).54(4):450-72 1990 351.135(1):23-30 1996 772 Anderson AJ. Graz University of Technology. Lett. Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat 771 Wieczorek R. Case Western University School of Medicine. B.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.

N. A.. F. Monofilaments of PHB homopolymer and poly(hydroxyvalerate)PHB (PHV-PHB) copolymers were studied in vivo and in 254... 8:271-278 1988 Optimization of microbial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) recovery using dispersions of sodium hypochlorite solution and Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1994. On the infrared absorption spectrum of Bacillus Wiltshire megaterium J. C. Williams. Univ. National Research Council of Canada. Biotechnology Research Institute..S. D. Claus. The results obtained revealed a linear correlation between total culture Strain . Hahn.E.Ralstonia eutropha ATCC 17697 . homopolymer Liverpool L69 3BX. Züger. J. K.A. On-line culture fluorescence measurement during the Montreal. butyl or betamethoxyethyl (R)-3hydroxy-butanoates are obtained in yields ranbing from 75-90% The infrared absorption spectra of the aerobic spore-forming bacilli are variable.Morphology Objective Hardware Ablage 774 Miller. D. CH-8092 Zürich On the Depolymerizatin of Poly-(R)-3-hydroxy-butanoate (Schweiz) (PHB) Helvetica chimica acta 1982. From cell-free PHB of from dried cells of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Quebec H4P batch cultivation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate producing 2R2. Microbiol.. the nature of the spectrum is related to the morphology of the bacteria. 44:265chloroform 261 1994 Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17697 .Fluorescence On-line monitoring .. Porton.. Bioeng. 19:566-580 1958 Bacillus megaterium . 129-37 (English) 1987 Abstract of the 38th meeting of the DGHM 1987 biodegrdn hydroxybutyrate hydroxyvalerate copolymer fiber 776 Seebach. K. D. 778 Mulchandani. H. B.T. enantiomerically pure methyl.infrared spectroscopy - 78. Microbiological Research Establishment. M. Kim. Chang.K. 1958. 1988. environments has led to its proposed use as a biodegradable implant material.xls . which had been grown in an aqueous fructose solution. UK and poly-b-hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate copolymers. On the changed taxonomic position of Alcaligenes latus Biomaterials. Laboratorium für Organische Chemie der Eidgenössischen Technischen Hochschule. S. 775 Malik.Analytics 298. ETHZentrum Universiätsstrasse 16. . gen. Dent. a poly-betahydroxybutyric acid (PHB) producer. 8(2). 779 Chang. Y. Luong. both showing acyclic variation with ti Strain . Evidence is presented to show that. Greenstreet. Biotechnol.. ehtyl.page 217 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The known biodegradability of PHB [26063-00-3] in certain biol. D.4. Ministry of Supply. J. 777 Norris. On the biodegradation of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) Liverpool..A. Canada Alcaligens eutrophus J. 459. for Bacillus megaterium. Inst.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Med. Groom.P..K.S. 65:495-503 1982 179.Biomass concentration Estimation of biomass concentration by on-line fluorimetry was examined during batch cultivations of Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17697.H.N.

The process comprises melting the PHA.xls . Gharapetian. M. St. 4(3).Optimization of poly(<beta>-hydroxybutyric acid) recovery 04071 Almeria. Korea 782 Optimum growth conditions and pH control solution for PHB biosynthesis in A.. Moo-YoungY. 783 United Kingdom MONSANTO COMPANY. Paul . 780 M.. Ltd. (Seoul) (1998). Jeong-Yeol. A. and optimum additive This invention relates to a process for producing oriented polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that requires less stringent temperature control than previous processes.. H.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. S.4.. Jeong-Kwi. University of Almeria E. M. United States of America ORIENTED POLYESTER WO9722459 1997-06-26 1997 Optimum growth conditions and pH control soln. A. M. Joon-Taek.. M. Chisti Department of Chemical Engineering. Northallerton DL6 2SQ. 215-220 1998 WALDOCK. 800 North Lindbergh Boulevard.beta. Tamer. F. Welbury. Sun. Chonnam. F. 781 I. resp.page 218 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Goosen. MO 63167. G. Spain from Alcaligenes latus: combined Fax: mechanical and chemical treatments Bioprocess Engineering Abstract Volume 19 Issue 6 (1998) pp 459-468 1998 Recovery of the intracellular bioplastic poly(<beta>hydroxybutyric acid) or PHB from fed-batch cultured Alcaligenes latus. Oh. Bioeng. Chem. was examined using combinations of chemical and mechanical treatments t G-Caltex Oil Refinery Seo. were obtained in the biosynthesis of PHB (poly-. ATCC 29713. 1985. Kim.. shaping preform from the . Chou. Canada N2L 3G1 (2) Y. 9 Springhill. Eng. Woo-Sik 550-600. Ind. Ontario. S. Yoon.hydroxybutyrate) with Alcaligenes eutrophus. Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Optimization of microencapsulation parameters: semipermeable microcapsules as a bioartificial pancreas Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Biotech. Co. 27:146-150 1985 289. Louis. O'Shea. Chisti (3) Department of Chemical Engineering. Optimum carbon and nitrogen sources were fructose and (NH4)2SO4. eutrophus J. University of Waterloo Waterloo.

Lett. soluble recombinant bacterial long chain and short chain PHA synthases are described.Res. Purified. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.S aitama LO Polymer Chemistry Laboratory and the RIKEN Group of Japan Science and Technology Corporation. SINSKEY ANTHONY J MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY (US). Snell KD. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). 29(1):593-615 1996 1973 1988 . Hou.2-Epoxyalkanes by Pseudomonas oleovorans Papers presented at the Toronto. 2-1 Hirosawa. Microbiol. METABOLIX INC Overproduction and purification of soluble pha synthase AU3322195 1996-03-07 1996 Abstract unavailable. Matsusaki H.xls . with methods and materials for overexpression and purification. Wakoshi.. Japan. Sinskey AJ. Saitama 351-0198. 789 SINSKEY ANTHONY J (US) 790 Abbott. Masamune S. Some recombinant E. 579-84 poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production 1999 A Pseudomonas sp. PEOPLES OLIVER P. Aoyagi Y. J. GERNGROSS TILLMAN U (US). 784 Stubbe J Department of Biology.page 219 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Gerngross TU. PEOPLES OLIVER P.. 61-3 malonyl-CoA-ACPtransacylase gene (fabDPs) was cloned by Southern blot hybridization using an equivalent gene of Escherichia coli (fabDEc) as a DNA probe. Emai Over-expression of 3-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase-III or malonylCoA-ACP-transacylase genes induces monomer supply for polyhydroxybutyrate production in Escherichia coli HB101. coli HB101 strains harboring fabDPs. GERNGROSS 788 TILLMAN U. Peoples OP.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. T. Biochemistry 1994 Aug 9.33(31):9311-20 1994 Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase has been expressed in Escherichia coli by reengineering the 5'-end of the wild-type (wt) gene and subsequent transformation of this gene into protease-deficient E. Overexpression and purification of the soluble polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Alcaligenes eutrophus: evidence for a required posttranslational modification for catalytic activity. 339. Csuhai E. METABOLIX INC OVERPRODUCTION AND PURIFICATION OF SOLUBLE (US) PHA SYNTHASE WO9605316 1996-02-22 1996 PEOPLES OLIVER P (US). Canada meeting US5480794 1996-01-02 Appl. Biotechnol. coli UT5600 (ompT-). Induction with IPTG results in sol Taguchi K. GERNGROSS 787 TILLMAN U. 26:86-91 polymer reprints 1988. 1973. *Doi Y 786 Inst. 791 MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY (US) Overproduction and purification of soluble PHA synthase Oxidation of 1-Alkenes to 1. B. 372. soluble recombinant bacterial long chain and short chain PHA synthases are described. 7. SINSKEY ANTHONY J MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY.Phys. Fukui T. C. Purified. with methods and materials for overexpression and purification.Chem. (1999) 21. Cambridge 021394307.4.

2. Beck. vol. The expt Hahn JJ. Dusan. a versatile ch. hydrocarbons. Several high Bacterial genes responsible for poly(3hydroxybutyrat e) (PHB) biosynthesis were targeted to plant peroxisomes 795 Witholt B. Michael.xls . Slovak Technical Univ.page 220 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The title polymers of mol. Kessler B Institute of Biotechnology ETH Zurich Honggerberg HPT 8093. Eidg. 9-12 (English) 1995 1995 partial specific vol polyhydroxybutyrate chloroalkane Partial sp. PHB.. and cooled to -75 to 105°. and Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics. 36(1). Polym. 44(5). Biological Process Technology Institute. Hochsch. of Li diisopropylamide. The enzymes evidently were transported into peroxisomes. or hexamethyldisil Objective Hardware Ablage Seebach. by d. Slovakia Partial specific volume of poly(D-b-hydroxybutyrate) in chloroaliphatic solvents. Braendli. 112-16 (English) temperatures. Klaus Lab. and Medium chain length (mcl) poly(hydroxyalkanoic acids) (PHAs) are polyesters accumulated by fluorescent Pseudomonads and other bacteria.ethz. Minnesota 55108. of poly(D-b-hydroxybutyrate).10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. Partial depolymerization and solubilization of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutanoate] (PHB) and its copolymer with (R)-3-hydroxyvalerate (Biopol) by treatment with lithium amides/lithium chloride in tetrahydrofuran at low Chimia. Ortega.. Org. polyhydroxyalkanoates in transgenic plants. PHB. This can be generalized for the group of solvents used. n20. were det. poly(hydroxyalkanoates).10(3):279-85 1999 . Srienc F Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. suspended in LiCl-contg. >7 ´ 105.s.6tetramethylpiperidide. Int. Perspectives of medium chain length bw@biotech.. Urs. Switz. 2. (3 equiv) THF under an inert atm. n20 Of PHB in tetrachloroethane is little influenced by temp. Chem. Mueller.6. Irmina Faculty of Chemical Technology. University of Minnesota. Dieter.15(6):1053-7 1999 Bacterial genes responsible for poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) biosynthesis were targeted to plant peroxisomes by adding a carboxyterminal targeting sequence. Black retained their catalytic Mexican Sweet maize cells activity. Tech. Peroxisomes as sites for synthesis of USA. 794 Somers DA. set of bacterial bioplastics. wt. Schneider. plant peroxysomes.4. Sleytr UB. Dieter. 792 Przybylski. dissolved when combined with a cold soln.biol. Albert K. measurements in several chloroaliph. Biotechnol Prog 1999 Nov-Dec. St. Curr Opin Biotechnol 1999 Jun. of 3 equiv. Work on the genetics of mcl-PHA formation has led to polymer synthesis in recombinant bacteria and plants. Eschenlauer AC. Switzerland. 793 Hernandez-Fuentes. Francisco. Paul. Zurich. Zurich CH8092. 1990 1990 hydroxybutanoate polyester depolymn lithium amide Bakos. Bratislava 812 37..

C. 111-121 I. Kluwer: Dordrecht.4.. Mathias . Tabita. Macromol. C. 796 Nawrath. Germany Monsanto Company. at least 435. modifyin Steinbuechel. and acid biosynthesis polyester packaging of Alcaligenes eutrophus are microorganism gene polyhydroxyalkanoic acid discussed in detail and the b Alcaligenes review ASRAR. Y. Simon F. Symp.. Niels Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat Munster. Altenberge. Henry . MO Pries. 800 Belgium MONSANTO COMPANY.. Peoples. D. 799 Roman. J. Germany PHA biosynthesis. on the development of medical applications for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). R. Louis. United States of America PIERRE. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. Somerville. MO PHA E and PHA C components of poly(hydroxy fatty acid) synthase from thiocapsa pfennigii US6011144 Jan. Lindbergh Boulevard. Mary E. Neth. Int. 14949 Royal Brook Drive.. (English) 1996 1996 A review with 20 refs. Andreas . Germany Valentin. Bad 801 Reichenhall.. 25(1-3). Dennis.. Muenster D-48149.. The Mw of the PHA in the pellets used to produce the films is at least 470. Alexander . K. USA PHA applications: addressing the price performance issue. 8th. MO 63167. its regulation and application of C1utilizing microorganisms for polyester production. St. 103:237-246 1992 Williams. Cambridge. 800 N. Klomparens. Edited by: Lidstrom. Robert. esp. Louis.. Methods are described for prepg. F. PHAs with high purity... Horowitz. MA. poly(3hydroxybutyric) acid [poly(3HB)]. B-5081 Saint-Denis. Jawed . Biol.. Germany Liebergesell. Krueger. Proc.page 221 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Poirier. Chesterfield. Daniel M.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Perspectives on the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in plants Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 479. Oliver P.1992. Meeting Date 1995. David P. The genes for review polyhydroxyalkanoic poly(3HB) prodn. .xls . on the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA). 2000 2000 PHA pellet compositions are provided which are processible into blown and cast free-standing films.000 if PHA thermal stabili The present invention relates to a process for the production of poly (hydroxy fatty acids) as well as recombinant bacterial strains for carrying out the process. St. United States of America PHA COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR THEIR USE IN THE PRODUCTION OF PHA FILMS WO9905207 1999-02-04 1999 Steinbuchel. 4. 237-244. Wieczorek. 797 Metabolix Inc. Martin. Tissue engineering 1999 A review with 27 refs. Chesterfield. a class of natural polymers with a wide range of thermoplastic properties. In addition. Rue des Trois Bonniers 13. new poly(hydroxy fatty acids) and new sub . Alexander. MO 63017. Jean. in C1-utilizing bacteria. Growth C1 Compd.000. Microb. (1999). Gottingen. Int.

4. Bunkyo-ku.15(1):63-7 1997 The genes encoding the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthetic pathway in Ralstonia eutropha (3-ketothiolase.page 222 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract PURPOSE:To provide an aid in finding an effective inhibitor including a degradation pathway of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) which is an aliphatic polyester. Snell KD. from bacteria to plants Int. Laura A. Nat Biotechnol 1997 Jan. Debra L. St. 105-109 1999 Valentin. Sinskey AJ USA. of polyhydroxyalkanoate by anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge was reviewed concg. (1999). Susan M. The prodn. Mino. Colburn. Cambridge 02139. others: 02 JP6086681 PHA INTRACELLULAR DEGRADING ENZYME 1994-03-29 1994 Satoh. Heather M. MO. Mahadeo.. phaA or bktB... The Int. Japan PHA production by activated sludge A review with 30 refs. Monsanto Company.. DeLaquil. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Felton. and PHA synthase. Pad PHA production. polydispersity of 807 Rha C. Macromol. Stubbe J. phaB. Tokyo. Louis. expected as a biodegradable plastic and accumulated by a microorganism by elucidating a PHA in Objective Hardware Ablage 802 others: 01 CHIKYU KANKYO SANGYO GIJUTSU SAITO MITSUSANE. Houmiel. acetoacetyl-CoA reductase. (1999). Broyles. PHA synthase activity controls the molecular weight and Sim SJ. Agricultural Sector. Macromol.. Hogan SA. Mitsky. Pamela A. Takashi. J. mechanisms and on the trials to increase polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content in activated sludge. on the biochem. Hiroyasu. 25(1-3). Henry E. phaC) were engineered for plant plastid targeting and expressed u A synthetic operon for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis designed to yield high levels of PHA synthase activity in vivo was constructed by positioning a genetic fragment encoding betaketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase behind a modified synt . Kathryn L. Lutke. 25(1-3). Tomonori Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering. Creely... Kathleen A.. J. University of Tokyo..xls .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Biol. Biol. Debbie A.. polyhydroxybutyrate in vivo. 303-306 1999 Department of Biology. Gonzalez.. USA 805 Timothy A. Casagrande. KENKYU KIKO. Kevin. 803 Matsuo. Wendi L.

*Snell K D. 63-67 1087-0156 ISSN: 1997 Seikagaku 1976.. Sinskey. Department of Biology.M.xls . MA J. USA. JoAnne Department of Chemistry and Department of Biology. Hogan S A. (1999). Jung. plasmid pSP2 expression in Escherichia coli for increased polybeta-hydroxyalkanoate-synthase gene expression and recombinant poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate PHB (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate) metabolism of Zoogloea ramigera. USA PHA Synthase from Chromatium vinosum: Cysteine 149 Is Biochemistry (1999). Buhler. A synthetic operon was designed to increase Alcaligenes eutrophus poly-betahydroxyalkanoatesynthase (PHA-synthase) activity relative to the activity of the native operon. ETH Honggerberg. Bernard. Bacteriol. Nat. Anthony J. Stubbe Cambridge. 02139. 812 Horowitz.. 38(2). which produces mcl PHA when grown in an excess of carbon source and under nitrogen limitation. 808 Stubbe. Daniel P. J..4. 858-868 regulatory expression system for pha genes Phase Separation within artificial granules from a blend of Polyhydroxybutyrate and Polyhydroxyoctanoate: Biological Implications Polymer ?? The phaC1 gene codes for the medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl PHA) synthase of Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1. 1. Plasmid pSP2 was constructed in the medium copy number plasmid Abstract unavailable. Lane. Rha C.. In this work. 813 814 PHA-synthase activity controls the molecular weight and polydispersity of polyhydroxybutyrate in vivo. Siz Objective Hardware Ablage Mueh. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Sanders.. of two subunits. Cambridge. Zurich. 181(3). Ute. Switz. Kirby. PhaC and PhaE. Birgit 810 Institute of Biotechnology. Witholt.M. Sim S J. we have 1999 435. Kuno. Maria A. CH-8093. (1997) 15. Bruno.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MA. Sinskey A J 02139. The synthase is composed of a .apprx.1:1 mixt.48(11):1045-8 [Article in Japanese] 1976 . D. a polyhydroxyalkanoate-granule-associated protein of Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1 involved in the J. Kessler.K.page 223 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PHA) from Chromatium vinosum catalyzes the conversion of 3hydroxybutyryl-CoA (HBCoA) to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and CoA. William S. PhaF. 826-837 Involved in Covalent Catalysis 1999 Prieto..Biotechnol.

PHB recovery by hypochlorite digestion of non-PHB biomass. Biotechnol. Ramsay. Tampere University of Technology. Can. Int. Braunegg. DOCUMENT TYPE: Book book PHB hydroxyalkanoate polymer 1996 816 Liggat.page 224 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Methylobacterium organophilum can use nitrogen in the form of ammonium ions ((NH4)2SO4 and NH4Cl) and from nonammonium sources such as glycine. Atlanta. Chem. significantly more poly. J. In this study. Taejon. PHB and Hydroxyalkanoate Polymers.4.xls . (1998). 107 pp. 1998 BAIRD JOHN K (US). were carried out in the pilot line at Tampere University of Technol (Institute of Paper Converting) in Finland. 8(4). C. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. Seon-Won. PQ H3C 3A7. Polytech.. Microbiol.. MERCK & CO INC 819 CLEARY JOSEPH M (US) (US) PHB-free gellan gum broth US5300429 1994-04-05 1994 P. Kim. 817 A.. John. Tampere. (English) 1996. Jung Hoe 815 Department of Biological Sciences. Hypochlorite digestion of bacterial biomass from intracellular poly-betahydroxybutyreate (PHB) has not been used on a large scale since it has been reported to severely degrade PHB. peptone.. Abstract unavailable. 779-802 of functional properties Publisher: TAPPI Press.-hyd Objective Hardware Ablage Kim. Kuusipalo. Ga. S.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. and yeast ext. Finland Polym. Kim.beta. . 1996. Jurkka 818 Paper Converting Laboratory. Biopol) (I) was provided by Monsanto PLC.. Volume PHB/V in extrusion coating of paper and paperboard: study 2. Com.. U Berger. Eng. When potassium was limited. Ramsay. Tech. B. Chavarie. alanine. 3hydroxybutyrate/3hydroxyvalerate copolymer (PHB/V. Pil. 3(4).. Montreal.. Biotechnol. 39(3) (Wiley: Chichester. to minimize degradation. elodea mutants are produced which produce gellan gum broth which contains no detectable amount of poly. G. Conf. Korea PHB accumulation stimulated by ammonium ions in potassium-limited cultures of Methylobacterium organophilum J.. 227-32 (English) 1989 1989 hypochlorite extn polyhydroxybutyrate biomass Alcaligenes biomass polyhydroxybutyrate extn 299. the initial Alcaligenes eutrophu Extraction Extrusion coating expts. (1998). Laminations Coat. Ec. Editor (UK). E. A.beta -hydroxy-butyrate (PHB). 301-304 1998 In: Polym. 305-701. UK).

EENINK ALBERT HENDRIK (NL). EGGINK GERRIT.Metabolism 98.beta -hydroxy-butyrate (PHB). pH-conditional. the only Alcaligenes eutrophus aminating enzyme found Nitrogen assimilation .page 225 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage BAIRD JOHN K (US). INSTITUUT VOOR AGRO TECHNOLOGI (NL). HUIZING INSTITUUT VOOR clycerol from a culture 821 HINDRIK JAN AGRO TECHNOLOGI medium AU5378094 1994-05-09 1994 Abstract unavailable. Glutamate Ralstonia eutropha dehydrogenase. Issues. Two amination-deficient mutants of Hydrogenomonas eutropha. Phb-producing microorganism and process for removing EENINK ALBERT HENDRIK.Bacteriol. characterized by pH-dependet linear growth on non-amino substrates were investigated to determine the exact nature of Hydrogenomonas eutropha mutation.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.Mutants in the wil EGGINK GERRIT (NL). . DeCicco. T. Department of Biology.F. PHB-PRODUCING MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS HUIZING HINDRIK FOR REMOVING CLYCEROL JAN (NL) FROM A CULTURE MEDIUM PHBVTM Biodegradeable Polyester WO9409146 1994-04-28 1994 Degradable Materials: Perspectives. The Catholic University of America. J. 1992-03-04 1992 P. B.4.C.xls . 1971. CLEARY 820 JOSEPH M (US) MERCK & CO INC (US) EP0473222 PHB-free gellan gum broth. ammonia assimilation-deficient mutants of Washington D. 822 HUIZING HINDRIK JAN (NL) 823 Galvin (ICI). L.T. EGGINK GERRIT (NL). EENINK ALBERT HENDRIK (NL). and Opportunities 1990. The invention relates to a PHB-producing microorganism which grows and produces PHB on or in minimal medium comprising only glycerol as source of carbon and energy and which produces PHB in industrially attractive quantities on or in a medium containi 354. 105:219-295 1971 Strain . elodea mutants are produced which produce gellan gum broth with contains no detectable amount of poly.. Hydrogenomonas eutropha: Isolation and growth 20017 characteristics J. 39-53 1990 825 Strenkoski.

R. (1998). Clayton. Mark A. Department of Environmental Science and Engineering. polyhydroxyalkanoic acid biosynthetic genes. Cell-free preparations of this organism exhibit oxidative phospho Regulatory mechanism in PHB [poly(hydroxybutyrate)] accumulation by cyanobacteria. Tsukuba. Bacteriol. Asada Y. Ronald C. Tokiwa Y Marchessault. Monash Phosphate concentration regulates transcription of the University. National Institute of Bioscience and HumanTechnology. 827 Isaacs. DK2800. Research Institute of Advanced Studies. Synechococcus MA19 was reviewed in comparison with a genetically engineered strain. Conformational aspects in solution Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. 91-100 conditions 1998 828 Bongers. Physical properities of poly(beta-hydroxy butyrate). H. Okamura. Miyake M. MA19 accumulates PHB under nitrogen s 538. phaAAc (encoding pha gene operon Acinetobacter a b-ketothiolase).4. . H. Japan. Bayly. 826 Davies. The strain. Den. Technical University of Denmark.xls . isolated from activated sludge. phaBAc (enco A characteristic of the biol. J Bacteriol 1995 Aug.page 226 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Schembri. Lyngby.jp recycling. Temmink. John K. Miyake J. 1967. Su. B. L. S. M..J. 830 C.25(1-3):37-42 ? 1970.. Ibaraki. Petersen. Acinetobacter Victoria.. phosphate regulation Nucleotide sequence anal. Therefore. Baltimore Maryland 21227 Phosphorylation in hydrogen bacteria J. especially by a thermophilic isolate...nibh.177(15):4501-7 1995 The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) biosynthetic gene locus was cloned and characterized from an Acinetobacter sp.g cyanobacteria--the metabolism and potential for CO2 o. 3:735-739 1999 1970 224. 32(1). Australia.. 93(5):1615-1623 1967 181.H. K.. Phosphate uptake kinetics in relation to PHB under aerobic Water Res. Kurane 829 R. phosphorus removal process is the interaction between different intracellular components.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Photosynthetic accumulation of poly-(hydroxybutyrate) by yasada@ccmail. an understanding of the effects of the intracellular components on biol. polyhydroxyalkanoate identified three clustered biosynthesis Acinetobacter genes. Henze. phosphorus removal is essential for The electron transport system of cell-free extracts obtained from Hydrogenomonas H-20 has been studied with particular reference to phosphorylation associated with the oxyhydrogen reaction. Department of Microbiology.

M.142 ( Pt 4):881-8 Current Microbiology 1981. Kohn J Department of Chemistry.. Physiological characterization of Pseudoflava GA3 Physiologische Untersuchungen ber den chemolithotrophen Stoffwechsel neu isolierter Hydrogenomonas-Stämme Physiology and biochemistry of aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria Microbiology 1996 Apr. Physical properties of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate Source / Application Number Macromolecules 1982.9-bis(ethylidene 2. H. 1981. poly-D(-)(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(epichlorohydrin) blends. with polyepichlorohydrin blend uncrystallizable miscibility polyhydroxybutyrate atactic polyepichlorohydrin blend poly(epichlorohydrin) (II) were studied. 1972...8.H. Conformational analysis and crystalline structure. Sci. IV. by Pseudomonas aeruginosa..10-tetraoxaspiro[ Williams SG.G. Rutgers.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. H. Physiological and biochemical changes accompanying the University of Leicester. properties of a new polymer blend obtained by mixing poly-D(-)(3polyhydroxybutyrate hydroxybutyrate) (I). New Brunswick. Und 687 korr 832 Cornibert J. 1962.Biol. Steady-state alginate production occurred for only 1-2 d under these conditions [qalginate 0. 41:313-350 Ann. was grown in continuous culture (D 0. H. 831 Revol. 35:405-452 1962 1981 48.097 g algina 252. R. C.. R. Morikawa. 5:333-337 1996 1981 Pseudomonas aeruginosa M60.. 17:1884 Year 1984 Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 316. G. . 327-30 (English) 1992 1992 835 Engelberg I. Schlegel. Physical properties of Owashi. 43(6). Archiv Mikrobiol. 839 Bowien. Physico-mechanical properties of degradable polymers used in medical applications: a comparative study. M. J. Inst.12(3):292-304 1991 The physico-mechanical properties of degradable polymers used for medical applications have been characterized. Japan Acta Polym. 38. Schlegel. Natl. polymer with property interesting polyester polyepichlorohydrin properties of blend phys property biodegradability and glass temp polyhydroxybutyrate biocompatibility. Jones 836 CW 837 Lee. a mucoid strain. 71:735-765 1972 1972 Abstract unavailable.05 h-1) under ammonia limitation with glucose as the carbon source.4. Phys. Sericul.page 227 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Marchessault.H. Marchessault RH 833 Marchessault. Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Physical properties of a naturally occurring polyester Physical properties of poly-beta -hydroxybutyrate. State University of New Jersey. Rev. Department of Biochemistry. loss of mucoidy UK. J Mol Biol 1972 Nov 28. Microbiol.4.. 191. a polyepichlorohydrin blend phys cryst. I-I 834 Tsukada.71(3):735-56 J. The following polymers were included in this study: three samples of poly(ortho esters) derived from 3. Entomol. Romano.M. B. Cornibert R. Greenwood JA. J. A.F. Biomaterials 1991 Apr.xls . Seves. 838 Bartha. Mol. Tsukuba 305.

4. 9-15 .8. Pt. Ando.xls . Ling. 7(1). Institut fur Mikrobiologie..7. J. R. J..ac. 13:770-780 1991 1991 The Alcaligenes eutrophus genes for betaketothiolase. D. 2361-71 beta-hydroxybutyrate production by fermentation Piezoelectric properties of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and copolymers of beta-hydroxybutyrate and betahydroxyvalerate Int. J. S.beta. H. B. Wong. Alternatively. Witholt. coli by homogenization and centrifugation Bioseparation (1997). coli is proposed.. Schlegel HG 841 Preusting.. P. H. Kingma. C.A. NADPHdependent acetoacetylCoA reductase and poly(beta-hydroxybutyric acid) synthase (PHB synthase) which comprise the three-step PHBbiosynthetic pathway. Gottingen. Biol.. Williams. using homogenization and centrifugation coupled with sodium hypochlorite treatment. The size of PHB granules and cell debris in homogenates was 1997 653. were cloned. Molecular studies revealed tha 403. Middelberg. (1997) 143. University of Adelaide. 1991. poly. Leicester LE1 7RH..Microbiology.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Physiology and molecular genetics of poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoic acid) synthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus.5(3):535-42 Enzyme Microb. 1986. Y. 845 Department of Chemical Engineering. the strain was grown in continuous culture at 34 deg and pH 6. A. Y. Macromol.uk Alcaligenes eutrophus growing in continuous culture. G.. University of Leicester. Email: Physiology of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by cwj1@le. 8:361-366 1997 Alcaligenes eutrophus NCIMB 40529 was grown in batch culture at 34 deg in SEII mineral salts medium with 2 g/l Csource (1 g/l each of cosubstrates). Technol. H. Poly- 1986 A new method of poly. Australia Pilot-scale extraction of PHB from recombinant E. Physiology and polyester formation of Pseudomonas oleovorans in continuous two-liquid-phase cultures Mol Microbiol 1991 Mar. Department of Biochemistry. 5005.-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) extn. J. Henderson R A. *Jones C W 842 844 Fukada. Thomas. E. from recombinant E.page 228 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 840 Steinbuchel A. Germany. UK.

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 229
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A mutant of A. latus DSM1124 with considerably increased productivity was incubated in shake flasks and further scaledup in a 300-L fermenter. In the next step the bacteria were transferred to the 15-m3 fermenter and grown to high densities. PHB was pr A plastic sleeve (1) for cable fittings for the production of joints, branches and sealing ends, and of crossovers and house connections from insulated electrical cables, with cable bushing tubes and with or without cast resin feed necks, and made up of Objective Hardware Ablage

846 Haenggi, Urs J.

Biotechnologische Forschungsgesselsch. Pilot-scale production of poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with m.b.H., Linz Alcaligenes A-4021, Austria latus.

NATO ASI Ser., Ser. E, 186(Novel Biodegrad. Microb. Polym.), 65-70 (English) 1990

1990

polyhydroxybutyrate manuf Alcaligenes

660.korr

PAULMANN UWE 847 (DE)

GT GMBH ELEKTROTECHNISC HE PROD (DE) Plastic sleeve for electrical cable fittings

DE19632504 1998-02-19

1998

Harrison ST, Chase HA, Amor SR, 848 Bonthrone KM, Sanders JK

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK. Plasticization of poly(hydroxybutyrate) in vivo.

Int J Biol Macromol 1992 Feb;14(1):50-6

1992

The influence of a variety of treatments on the mobility and crystallinity of poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in whole cells and native granules has been proved using 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, and correlated with the known biologic

ASRAR, Jawed , 14949 Royal Brook Drive, Chesterfield, MO 63017, United States of America PIERRE, Jean, R. , Rue des Trois Bonniers 13, B-5081 St.-Denis, 849 Belgium 850 Fishlock; D.

MONSANTO COMPANY, 800 N. Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63167, United States of America

PLASTICIZED POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR THEIR USE IN THE PRODUCTION OF SHAPED POLYMERIC ARTICLES Plastics from bacteria

WO9923146A1 May 14, 1999 Financial Times

1999

Plasticized PHA pellet compositions are provided which are processible into shaped objects, particularly blown and cast free-standing films. The Mw of the PHA in the pellets used to produce the films is at least 470,000 265.

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 230
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

Brandl H, Gross RA, Lenz RW, Fuller 851 RC 852 Keeler, R. 853 Voss, D.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003.

Plastics from bacteria and for bacteria: poly(betahydroxyalkanoates) as natural, biocompatible, and biodegradable polyesters. Plastics Grown in Bacteria Inch Toward the Market Plastics Recycling: New Bottles for Old

Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 1990;41:77-93 R&D Magazine 1991; Jan Chemical Engineering Progress 1989; 67-72

1990 1991 1989

Review

Hence, PHB belongs to the family of poly(betahydroxyalkanoates), PHA, all of which are usually formed as intracellular inclusions under unbalanced growth conditions. Recently, it became of industrial interest to evaluate PHA polyesters as natural, biodeg Review No abstract. General article

684. 401 corr. 377.

854 Guillet, J. E. 855 Park; J.S.; Park; H.C.; Huh; T.L.; Lee; 856 Y.H.

University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Plastics, energy, and ecology - a harmonious triad A cogent case is made for plastics as one of the most useful materials of our time and perhaps of all times. Plastics Engineering 1974; 30:48-56 Plastics 1990 Chemicalweek 1989; December 20-27: 18-53 Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by Alcaligenes eutrophus transformants harbouring cloned phbCAB genes Biotechnology Letters 1995; 17(7):735-740

1974 1989

Plastics - Environmental degradablility - Renewable ressources Plastics

Plastics can be made compatible with nature and the natural environment. In fact, the manufactrure of synthetic polymers for fiber and plastics applications shourd provide for less environmental stress than the use of such natrual materials as wool, cotto General article No abstract. General article

382. 405 korr.

1995 PCT No. PCT/KR91/00019 Sec. 371 Date Nov. 18, 1993 Sec. 102(e) Date Nov. 18, 1993 PCT Filed Sep. 16, 1991 PCT Pub. No. WO92/18553 PCT Pub. Date Oct. 29, 1992.A new poly- beta -hydroxy alkanoate (PHA) copolymer is produced in the cell of Pseudomonas ce

618.

LEE YANG-GUL (KR); 857 YIM GUHN-BEEN (KR)

KOHAP LTD (KR)

Poly- beta -hydroxy alkanoate (PHA) copolymer, method of its production, the microbe which produces it, and PHA copolymer blend US5395919 1995-03-07

1995

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 231
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract In the present invention a new poly- beta -hydroxy alkanoate (PHA) copolymer is produced in the cell of Pseudomonas cepacia KYG/505 (KCCM 10004) by the method of its production, and a variety of polymer blends of PHB and PHA are developed. The PHA cop Binding of (i) purified wildtype poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase PhaZ4 of Pseudomonas lemoignei, (ii) a purified truncated form of PhaZ4, which lacked 55 Cterminal amino acids and (iii) commercial lactate dehydrogenase to aqueous suspensions Objective Hardware Ablage

LEE YANG GUL (KR); YIM GUHN 858 BEEN (KR)

KOHAP LTD (KR)

POLY- beta -HYDROXY ALKANOATE (PHA) COPOLYMER, METHOD OF ITS PRODUCTION, THE MICROBE WHICH PRODUCES IT, AND PHA COPOLYMER BLEND WO9218553 1992-10-29

1992

Institut fur Mikrobiologie, GeorgAugust-Universitat 859 Behrends A, Klingbeil B, Jendrossek D Gottingen, Germany.

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases bind to their substrate by a C-terminal located substrate binding site.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 1996 Oct 1;143(2-3):191-4

1996

860 Huang R, Reusch RN

Department of Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) is associated with specific Lansing, Michigan proteins in the 48824, USA. cytoplasm and membranes of Escherichia coli.

J Biol Chem 1996 Sep 6;271(36):22196-202

1996

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is well-known as a high molecular weight homopolymer of R-3hydroxybutyrate which accumulates in storage granules within the cytosols of certain bacteria. Escherichia coli does not amass these granules; however, small amounts

861 Wong HH, Lee SY

Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701, Korea Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) production from whey by highe-mail: density leesy@so cultivation of recombinant Escherichia coli.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1998 Jul;50(1):30-3

1998

Recombinant Escherichia coli strain GCSC 6576, harboring a high-copynumber plasmid containing the Ralstonia eutropha genes for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis and the E. coli ftsZ gene, was employed to produce poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from whe

kopiert

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 232
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

862 Sang Yup Lee

863 Wang; W.; Lee; S.Y.

Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701, Korea e-mail: Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production from xylose by leesy@so recombinant Escherichia coli POly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) Production with high productivity and high polymer content by a fed-batch culture of Alcaligenes latus under nitrogen limitation

Several recombinant Escherichia coli strains harboring the Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis genes were used to produce poly(3hydroxybutyrate), PHB, from xylose. By flask culture of TG

Bioprocess Engineering Abstract Volume 18 Issue 5 (1998) pp 397-399

1998

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 197; 63(9):3703-3706

1997 To provide 4hydroxybutyryl-CoA for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co4-hydroxybutyrate) formation from glutamate in Escherichia coli, an acetyl-CoA:4hydroxybutyrate CoA transferase from Clostridium kluyveri, a 4hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from Ralstonia eutr

641.

864 Valentin HE, Reiser S, Gruys KJ

Monsanto Co., 800 North Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA email: Henry E. Valentin Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) formation (henry.e.valentin@mo from nsanto.com) gamma-aminobutyrate and glutamate.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2000 Feb 5;67(3):291-9

2000

Pseudomonas lemoignei is equipped with at least five polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) depolymerase structural genes (phaZ1 to phaZ5) which enable the bacterium to utilize extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), 273.

865 Schober U, Thiel C, Jendrossek D 866 Tombolini; R.; Nuti; M.P.

Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Universitat Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany.

867 Kim; Y.B.; Lenz; R.W.; Fuller; R.C. Marchessault; R.H.; Bluhm; T.L.; Deslandes; Y.; Hamer; G.K.; Orts; W.J.; Sundarajan; P.R.; Taylor; M.G.; 868 Bloembergen; S.; Holden; D.A.

Poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) depolymerase of pseudomonas lemoignei. Poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoate) biosynthesis and accumulation by different Rhizobium species Poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoate) copolymers containing brominated repeating units produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans

Appl Environ Microbiol 2000 Apr;66(4):1385-92 FEMS Microbiology Letters 1989; 60:299-304

2000 1989

Macromolecules 1992; 25:1852-1857

1992

484.

Poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoates): biorefinery polymers in search of applications

Makromol.Chem.,Macromol.Symp. 1988; 19:235254 1988

329.

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 233
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

Monsanto Company, Agricultural Sector, 700 Chesterfield Houmiel KL, Slater S, Broyles D, Parkway North, St. Casagrande L, Colburn S, Gonzalez K, Louis, MO 63198, Mitsky TA, Reiser SE, Shah D, Taylor USA. 869 NB, Tran M, Valentin HE, Gruys KJ

Poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) production in oilseed leukoplasts of brassica napus.

Planta 1999 Oct;209(4):547-50

1999

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) comprise a class of biodegradable polymers which offer an environmentally sustainable alternative to petroleumbased plastics. Production of PHAs in plants is attractive since current fermentation technology is prohibitively e A study was carried out to investigate a possible involvement of dicarboxylate transport in the accumulation of PHA by R. meliloti. Mutants derived from the wild-type CM2 were used, which are affected in dicarboxlate transport, namely CM12 (dct B-) and C

Tombolini, R.; Boesten, B.; O'Gara, F.; 870 Nuti, M. P.

Dip. Biotecnol. Agrar., Univ. Padova, Padua 35131, Italy

871 Shogren; R.L.

Poly(b-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) accumulation in Rhizobium meliloti affected in the dicarboxylate transport (DCT) genes. Poly(ethylene oxide)-coated granular starchpoly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) composite materials

NATO ASI Ser., Ser. E, 186(Novel Biodegrad. Microb. Polym.), 431-4 (English) 1990 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1995; 3:75-80

1990

polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation Rhizobium dicarboxylate transport

1995 Poly(hydroxy acids) so far have been examined for use in drug delivery in limited number, while the advantageous use of the polymers has been recognized due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility. Homoand copolymers of lactic acid and glycolic a

586.

872 Juni K, Nakano M

Poly(hydroxy acids) in drug delivery.

Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 1987;3(3):20932

1987

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 234
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA Tel.: +1 215 233 6483 Fax: +1 215 233 6795 e-mail: 873 R. D. Ashby, T. A. Foglia 874 Stal; L.J. 875 Braunegg; G. Dep. Biol., Massachusetts Inst. Technol., Cambridge, 876 Peoples, Oliver P.; Sinskey, Anthony J. MA 02139, USA rashby@arserrc Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) biosynthesis from triglyceride substrates Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) in cyanobacteria: an overview Poly(hydroxyalkanoate-thermoplastische Biopolyester Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 49 Issue 4 (1998) pp 431-437 1998 FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992; 103:169-180 1992

The biosynthesis of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA) by Pseudomonas resinovorans from triglyceride substrates was investigated. Each triglyceride, whether animal fat or vegetable oil, supported cellular growth 473. 334.

Poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB): a model system for biopolymer engineering: II.

NATO ASI Ser., Ser. E, 186(Novel Biodegrad. Microb. Polym.), 191-202 (English) 1990

1990

review polyhydroxybutyrate biopolymer engineering

877 Gangrade N, Price JC

878 Müller; H-M.; Seebach; D. 879 Heller J, Himmelstein KJ

College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens 30602. Laboratorium für Organische Chemie der Eidgenössischen Technische Hochschule ETHZentrum Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich Schweiz

Poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) microspheres containing progesterone: preparation, morphology and release properties.

J Microencapsul 1991 Apr-Jun;8(2):185-202

1991

A review with 35 refs. The biodegradable polyesters, poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(hydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were investigated for use as sustained delivery carriers of a model drug, progesterone. Spherical microspheres containing the drug were prepared by

Poly(hydroxyfettsäureester), eine fünfte Klasse von physiologisch bedeutsamen organischen Biopolymeren Poly(ortho ester) biodegradable polymer systems.

Angewandte Chemie 1993; 105:483-509 (Article in German) 1993 Methods Enzymol 1985;112:422-36 1985

Review

Abstract unavailable. Abstract unavailable.

Review

430.

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 235
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

Masamune, S.; Walsh, C. T.; Sinskey, 880 A. J.; Peoples, O. P. Capon; R.J.; Dunlop; R.W.; Ghisalberti; 881 E.L.; Jefferies; P.R.

Dep. Chem., Massachusetts Inst. Technol., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis: mechanistic studies on the biological Claisen condensation catalyzed by bketoacyl thiolase. Poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates from marine and freshwater cyanobacteria

Pure Appl. Chem., 61(3), 303-12 (English) 1989 Biochemistry 1983; 22(5):1181-1184

1989 1983

A review, with 22 refs. on the formation of poly-(R)-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in organisms such as Zoogloea ramigera and review polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis Zoogloea Alcaligenes Alcaligenes synthase polyhydroxybutyrate eutrophus. The pathway from acetyl-CoA through Zoogloea Alcaligenes review the 3 enzymes, acetoacetyl CoA reductase Zoogloea Alcaligenes review thiolase, acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase Zoogloea Alcaligenes reductase, and PHB synthase is dis review 314. Washed cells prepared from carbon-limited continuous cultures of Alcaligenes eutrophus synthesised poly-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) rapidly when supplied with glucose, DLlactate or L-lactate. Unlike growing cultures, washed cells excreted significant Strain - Metabolism amounts carbon sources

882 Henderson RA, Jones CW

Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, UK.

Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate production by washed cells of Alcaligenes eutrophus; purification, characterisation and potential regulatory role of citrate synthase.

Arch Microbiol 1997 Dec;168(6):486-92

1997

Washed cells - Alcaligenes eutrophus - Citrate synthase Ralstonia eutropha - lactate

682.

883 Reusch RN, Huang R, Bramble LL

Department of Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA.

Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate/polyphosphate complexes form voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in the plasma membranes of Escherichia coli.

Biophys J 1995 Sep;69(3):754-66

1995

The lipidic polymer, poly-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB), is found in the plasma membranes of Escherichia col complexed to calcium polyphosphate (CaPPi). The composition, location, and putative structure of the polymer salt complexes led Reusch and Sadoff (1988)

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 236
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage

Freeman, Christopher; Lock, Maurice 884 A.; Marxsen, Juergen 885 Tezuka, C.; Takeda, K.; Someya, J. Nickerson, K.W.; Zarnick, W.J.; 886 Kramer, V.C. 887 Wallen; L.L.; Rohwedder; K.

Poly-beta-hydroxy alkanoate and the support of river Sch. Biol. biofilm Sci., Univ. Wales, metabolism following radical changes in environmental Bangor LL57 2UW, UK conditions. poly-beta-hydroxy butyrate of methane oxidizing bacteria Poly-beta-hydroxy butyrate parasporal bodies in Bacillus thuringiensis Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate from activated sludge

Hydrobiologia, 271(3), 159-64 (English) 1993 japanische Zeitschrift!!! FEMS Microbiology Letters 1981; 12:327-331 Environmental Science and Technology 1974; 8(6):576-579

endogenous carbon source microbe river biofilm river metab environmental change polyhydroxyalkanoate carbon source river microbe nutrient deprivation river microbe carbon water polltuion biofilm microorganism river 1993

Endogenous carbon reserves such as polybeta-hyrdoxy alkanoate (PHA) can sustain microbial viability during conditions of nutrient deprivation. Microbial extracellular enzyme activities under one set of environmental conditions might be wholly inappropri 175.

1981 1974

225. 313.

888 Amos, D. A.; McInerey, M. J.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, 770 Van Vleet Oval, Norman, OK 73019, USA Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate in Syntrophomonas wolfei

Arch. Microbiol. 1989; 152:172-177

1989

The production of polybeta-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in Syntrophomonas wolfei grown in pure culture or in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei was studied. PHA was produced by S. wolfei Syntrophy - Anaerobic growth - during the exponential Fatty acids - Syntrophomonas phase of growth under wolfei both of these cultural Strain - Metabolism

413.

889 Chowdhury, A.A. 890 Schlegel, H.G.; Gottschalk, G.

Aus dem Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen

Poly-beta-hydroxybuttersäure abbauende Bakterien und Exoenzym Poly-beta-hydroxybuttersäure, ihre Verbreitung, Funktion und Biosynthese

Archiv f r Mikrobiologie 1963; 47:167-200 (Article in German) Angew. Chem. 1962; 74(10):342-347

1963 1962

Isolation of PHB-degrading bacteria - Depolymerase

Poly-ß-hydroxybuttersäure (PHBS) scheint der unter aeroben Bakterien am weitesten verbreitete Speicherstoff zu sein. Die chemische Natur dieses Reservestoffes wurde von LEMOIGNE (1926, 1927)an den Fettteinschlüssen von Bacillus megaterium Metabolism aufgeklärt. Daß Degradation

127.korr. 23.

4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls - page 237
ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Die Fähigkeit, Reservematerial in Form von Poly-betahydroxybuttersäure (PHB) vorübergehend intracellulär anzuhäufen, ist bei aeroben Bakterien anscheinend eher die Regel als eine Ausnahme. Die Akkumulation erfolgt, wenn Kohlenstoff- und Energiequellen im Objective Hardware Ablage

891 Schlegel, H.G.; Krauss, I.; Lafferty, R.

Poly-beta-hydroxybuttersäure-arme und -freie Mutanten von Hydrogenomonas H 16

Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschafren in Göttingen 1969

1969

182.

892 Peoples OP, Sinskey AJ

Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139.

Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Identification and characterization of the PHB polymerase gene (phbC).

J Biol Chem 1989 Sep 15;264(26):15298-303

1989

Tombolini R; Povolo S; Buson A; Squartini A; *Nuti M P 893

Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padua, Italy. Email: Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthetic genes in biotmpn@ipdunidx.uni Rhizobium meliloti 41; acetyl-CoA-acyltransferase phaA, pd.it acetoacyl-CoA-reductase phaB, poly-beta-hydroxybutyratesynthase phaC and ORF1 gene cloning Microbiology; (1995) 141, 10, 2553-59

1995

The phbC gene encoding the third enzyme of the poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway, polybeta-hydroxybutyrate polymerase, in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 has been identified by the complementation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate negative mutants of A Genes encoding acetylCoA-acyltransferase (phaA, EC-2.3.1.16), acetoacetyl-CoAreductase (phaB, EC1.1.1.36) and poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB)synthase (phaC) from Rhizobium meliloti 41, together with a fourth gene (ORF1), presumed to

kopiert

520.

895 Nickels, J.S.; King, J.D.; White, D.C. 896 Daniel, M.C.; Lebeault, J.M.

Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahasee, Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate accumulation as a measure of Florida 32306 unbalanced growth of the estuarine detrial microbiota Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate accumulation by facultative methylotrophic bacteria

Applied and enviromental microbiology 1979; 37(3):495-465 Como Tagung 1986

1979 1986

Regulation of PHBaccumulation in estuarine detrital microbiota - Balanced and unbalanced growth conditions

The procaryotic endogenous storage material poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) can be induced to accumulate the estuarine detrital microbiota under conditions which suggest unbalanced growth, such as limitation of a critical factor(s) in the presence of carb

Strain - Metabolism

124. Korr. 260.

A. The allosteric formation as electron sink gluco Strain .P. Medical University of Lodz. products of glucose NADP. ADP .S.PHB oxidation. 899 Peoples OP. Cambridge 02139.M. Sinskey AJ 900 C. 97:947-950 1969 Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans heterotrophic growth No abstract. 902 Szewczyk EM Department of Bacteriology and Botnay. 1969.NAD.xls . E. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate depolymerases of Pseudomonas lemoignei Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in staphylococci J Biol Chem 1989 Sep 15. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Characterization of the genes encoding beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase. 472. Biology Department. Doudoroff. ATP. Sinskey.Metabolism 125.J.both pathways are subject regulation of PHB-metabolism . M. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992. 898 Peoples.K. U.. Kingston upon Hull HU6 7RX.page 238 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 897 Senior. eutrophus H16 264(26):15293-15297 1971 1989 Azotobacter beijerinckii possesses the enzymes of both the Enter-Doudoroff and the oxidative pentose Azotobacter beijerinckii phosphate cycle pathways Entner Doudoroff pathway of glycose catabolism and pentose phosphate pathway . University of Hull. Syracuse University.9(2-4):165-8 1992 Staphylococci-chemoorganotrophic bacteria whose main habitats are human and animal organisms--can accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in their cells. FEMS Microbiol Rev 1992 Dec. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis and the regulation of glucose metabolism in Azotobacter beijerinckii Biochem.J. W. D. Specific hybridization signals were obtained and two fragments (a 2. 125:55-66 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Alcaligenes The journal of biological chemistry 1989. proteins 903 Wang. P. Poland. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in the chemolithotrophic bacterium Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans J. Journal 1971.264(26):15293-7 Biochemistry 1966.to feedback inhibition by allosteric regulation . The polymer is metabolized in endogenous turnovers preceding degradation of aminoacids. Dawes. Department of Biochemistry.A. 56:960-965 1989 1966 The poly-betahydroxybutyrate biosynthetic thiolase gene from Zoogloea ramigera was used as a hybridization probe to screen restriction digests of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 DNA.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. Korr..bacteriol. New York 131 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in staphylococci.J.Metabolism 77.Lusty.3-kilobas 33. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 103:165-168 1992 Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology. O.G. Lundgren.4. 901 Szewczyk. . Strain . 519. E. Syracuse.

the non-involvement of acyl carrier protein. R. 910 Reusch RN 911 Ramsay. Bacteriol. 905 Okon.4.xls . Beyatli Y. Faculty of Arts and Science.Metabolism 625.. Department of Microbiology. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate synthesis in Azotobacter beijerinkii. A. 1973. gen. Z. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1998 Feb 15.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. B. Hawirko.159(2):293-7 1998 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate was determined in lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus. J. Wilkinson. Cell biomass was obtai J Gen Microbiol 1969 Nov. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992. Ankara. the others were grown in Elliker broth medium. 906 Macrae. R. Caliskan F. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate/calcium polyphosphate complexes in eukaryotic membranes.58(3):3 1969 Department of Microbiology and Public Health. Lactococcus.. Aslim B. Winnipeg. Electron microscopy of thin sections showed that most of the gra Strain . Pediococcus and Streptococcus. and distribution of the complex suggest it may play a role in the regulation o 383. 1958.page 239 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 904 Emeruwa. 103:131-140 1992 471.M. East Lansing. Poly-beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid (PHB) Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1989 Sep. Itzigsohn. Dawes EA Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production by lactic acid bacteria. 116(2):989-993 1973 Clostridium botulinum sporulation The granules observed in the cytoplasm of cells of sporogenic and asporogenic strains of Clostridium botulinum type E were isolated at various developmental stages of growth and sporulation. R.. Gazi University. P. Poly-betahydroxybutyrate/calcium polyphosphate (PHBCaPolyPi) complexes exist as labile quasi-crystalline structures in bacterial plasma membranes.F. Senior PJ. N. A.191(4):377-81 1989 ??? Abstract unavailable.. Canada sporulation of Clostridium botulinum Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate metabolism in Azospirillum brasilense and the ecological role of PHB in the rhizosphere Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate Metabolism in Washed Suspension of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate occurrence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its significance in the fermentation process J. Lepidi. A. University of Manitoba. C. The composition. 19:210-222 Proceedings of the fourth international symposium of yeasts 1974 1958 15. . structure. Michigan State University.. Manitoba Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate metabolism during growth and R3T 2N2. Gunduz Turkey. Department of Biology. Lactobacilli were grown in MRS broth. 907 Nuti. Microbiol. Y. 908 U 909 Ritchie GA. J.. 1974 9.

E. 1983.ein biologisch abbaubarer Arzneistofftr"ger zur Liberationsverz"gerung 1. Mikucki J Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology. Review 251... Lodz. Heinzle. Identification and characterization of the PHB polymerase gene (phbC).. Korsatko. 131-9 (English) 1992 review Azospirillum polyhydroxybutyrate 1992 915 M. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid in staphylococci. MA 02139..page 240 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 912 Szewczyk E. Israel Poly-D(-)(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends: Phase diagram. Agric. Jerusalem. Sonnleitner.. F. eutrophus H16 was identified by the complementation of poly-b-hydroxybutyrateneg. Massachusetts Inst. Hebrew brasilense and the Univ. Biol. G. R.4. 918 B. Ind. . 916 H.. Itzigsohn. W. Braunegg. Its ability to survive the adverse conditions imposed by nutrient starvation 914 Okon. 913 Peoples. Sinskey. Martuscelli. 103(2-4). Poly-D(-)-3-hydroxybutters"ure . Pharm. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1989 Oct 15. E. Lafferty. mutants of A. thermal and crystallisation behaviour FEMS Microbiol. J.. 50.. in A.... 917 Korneti.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Wabnegg. Azospirillum brasilense is a rhizosphere microorganism which has potential use for promoting plant growth in economically important crops.M. Cambridge. Anthony J. Bogensberger.. Academy of Medicine.M. IR and UV spectrophotometry and NMR analysis revealed that the compound consisted only of the betahydroxybutyrate.. Braunegg. These resul A review and discussion with 28 refs. Chem.xls . eutrophus H16. Yaacov. Oliver P. s. R. Robin Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate metabolism in Azospirillum Fac. 264(26).. 15298-303 (English) 1989 1989 Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate polymerase gene phbC sequence The phbC gene encoding the 3rd enzyme of the polyb-hydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway. polyb-hydroxybutyrate polymerase. USA Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. R.. Biol.Mitt. Polymer papers 1988. Rehovot 76100. ecological role of PHB in the rhizosphere..Avella. Rev. B. B. Lafferty.M. L. Strempfl. G.52(3):279-84 1989 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) was extracted from various species of staphylococci isolated from different sources. Poland. Tillian. 45:525 Poly-D(-)-3-Hydroxybuttersäure(PHB)-ein biologisch abbaubares Biopolymer Poly-D-(-)-beta-Hydroxybuttersäure (PHB): Biomasse als Kunststoff 1983 264.M. 29:1731-1736 1988 539. The PHB level in t Dep. Technol. Poster 1983 1983 Review No abstract. Lafferty.

B. PRODUCTION. R. PCT/GB94/01095 Sec.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. GEORGE NEIL (GB). 1994A polyester composition comprises at least one first semi-crystalline or crystallizable polyhydr US5693389 921 LIGGAT JOHN JAMIESON (GB) ZENECA LTD (GB) Polyester composition 1997-12-02 1997 MONSANTO CO (US).. 102(e) Date Apr. 8. . Krict THE MICROBE WHICH PRODUCES IT. 17. Korneti. 919 L. Guhn. 1994 1994 Abstract unavailable. Guhn. 16. 371 Date Apr. Krict KOHAP LTD. LIGGAT JOHN 920 JAMIESON (GB) ZENECA LTD (GB). Bogensberger. METHOD OF ITS Krict PRODUCTION. Yang. Been.. Gul. Strempfl. AND YIM.M. Been. EP582567A1 Feb. (PHA) COPOLYMER. Braunegg.4. 1994 PCT Pub. THE MICROBE WHICH YIM.. LIDDELL JOHN 922 LIDDELL JOHN MACDONALD (GB) MACDONALD (GB) POLYESTER PARTICLES POLY--g(b)-HYDROXY ALKANOATE LEE. G. WO94/28070 PCT Pub. METHOD OF ITS LEE. 1997 1997 Abstract unavailable.page 241 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Poly-D-3-hydroxybutyric acid (poly-HB): Biotechnological production and polymer applications Source / Application Number Third European Congress on Biotechnology 1984 Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Lafferty. KOHAP R & D Center. GEORGE NEIL (GB). 1996 Sec. KOHAP R & D Center. No. COPOLYMER BLEND WO9722654 1997-06-26 1997 This invention relates to a process for producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that overcomes a problem encountered when seeking to separate PHA particles without centrifugation. LIGGAT JOHN JAMIESON (GB) POLYESTER COMPOSITION WO9428070 1994-12-08 1994 A polyester composition comprises at least one first semi-crystalline or crystallisable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA-X) and at least one second polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA-Y) in semicrystalline or crystalline form and having a higher crystalline melting poi PCT No. 1996 PCT Filed May 20. Gul. 1984 237. F. Krict KOHAP LTD. Yang. KOHAP PHA 924 R & D Center. The process comprises producing a biomass containing PHA particles and non EP582567B1 June 4.. KOHAP PRODUCES IT.xls . Date Dec. 17. AND PHA COPOLYMER BLEND POLY--g(b)-HYDROXY ALKANOATE (PHA) COPOLYMER. 923 R & D Center.

The DNA fragment is inse Objective Hardware Ablage LEE. J. E. Steinbüchel (1) Münster. de Andrade Rodrigues (1). Masako . Valentin (3). #212-702 Expo Apt. 927 Kanagawa. Republic of Korea (1) Institut für Mikrobiologie. Japan Takebe. 331-13. Yusong-ku. Japan Taisei Corporation. Polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase and Japan process for producing the same US5968801 Oct. Youngdeungpo-ku. Tokyo. Hidehi .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Tran (3).. Polyhydroxyalkanoate inclusion body-associated proteins Massachusetts 01003. Seoul 150-055. F. M. Republic of Korea CHOI. This work presents the results o 928 McCool GJ. J. Kanagawa. Germany ePolyhydroxyalkanoate accumulation in Burkholderia sp. Toshio . Sang. Taejon-si 305. Gruys 926 (3). Youngdeungpo-ku.. region in Bacillus megaterium. which comprises the genes for PHA synthase.page 242 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract There is diclosed a PHA biosynthesis-related DNA fragment.xls . Ltd. Tokyo. ßketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase. Tokyo. University of Massachusetts. D48149 POLYHYDROCYALKANOATE BIOSYNTHESIS-RELATED GENES DERIVED FROM ALCALIGENES LATUS WO9936547 1999-07-22 1999 M.: a mail: steinbu@unimolecular approach to elucidate the genes muenster. A. Berger (2).. Cannon MC Department of Microbiology.181(2):585-92 1999 . Japan Matsunobu. 464-1. Jong-il .de Tel. +49-251. which are all derived from Alcaligenes latus. Japan Shibayama.4. Japan Meiji Seika Kasha.: +49251-8339821. accumulates polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) containing 3hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxy4-pentenoic acid when grown on mineral media under limited phosphate or nitrogen. Amherst. Republic of Korea 925 CH LG CHEMICAL LTD. 19. K. and coding USA.involved in the 8338388 formation of two homopolymers consisting (2) of short-chain-length Monsanto Comp 3-hyd Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 53 Issue 4 (2000) pp 453-460 2000 Burkholderia sp. 1999 1999 The present invention relates to polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase having a Nterminal fragment of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 and having a molecular weight of about 33. Westfälische WilhelmsUniversität Münster. Yup . Yuji . Tokyo. J Bacteriol 1999 Jan. and using sucrose or glu Saito.000 as determined by SDS polyacrylam Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) are carbon and energy storage polymers that accumulate in inclusion bodies in many bacteria and archaea in response to environmental conditions. Yoido-dong. H. 20. Corrensstrasse 3. Chunmin-dong. Shingil 5-dong. P. Asrar (2).ndas. A. Seoul 150-010.

10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. VA Polyhydroxyalkanoate production in recombinant 22807. the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus produces high levels of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) when a suitable carbon source is available. new tool to study 932 Coullerez G. USA. Dennis D Department of Biology. Missouri 63130. expression.9(2-4):231-5 1992 478. Washington University.page 243 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage PEOPLES OLIVER P (US). FEMS Microbiol Rev 1992 Dec.xls . Kranz RG. 1015. Polyhydroxyalkanoate polymerase US5250430 1993-10-05 1993 The bacterial species Escherichia coli has proven to be a powerful tool in the molecular analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997 Aug. Department of Biology. James Madison University. Escherichia coli. Growth of transgenic plants in media containing fatty acids conjugated to Tw 930 Fidler S. CHPolyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in transgenic plants as a Mittendorf V. 931 Madigan MT Polyhydroxyalkanoate production in Rhodobacter kranz@wustlb. Harrisonburg. du mutants. Poirier Y Switzerland. The three genes that are tradit Transgenic plants producing peroxisomal polyhydroxy.20(1):45-55 1999 . Bongcam V.wustlb. SINSKEY 929 ANTHONY L (US) MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY (US) A method for controlling and modifying biopolymer synthesis by manipulition of the genetics and enzymology of synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyesters at the molecular level in procaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Using this microorganism. and physiology. Allenbach L. coli holds promise as a source for economical PHA production. Locke TA.63(8):3003-9 1997 Institut dEcologieBiologie et Physiologie Vegetales. carbon flow through beta-oxidation. St. Plant J 1999 Oct. In addition. Martini N. E. Louis.e capsulatus: genes.alkanoate (PHA) from intermediates of fatty acid degradation were used to study carbon flow through the beta-oxidation cycle. clones ha Like many other prokaryotes. Gabbert KK. Lausanne.4. Universite de Lausanne.

45(9):691-2 [Article in Osterreich. MI 63017. 4hydroxybutyrate.. MA 02474. MA 02215. MA 02142. B-5081 Saint-Denis. Louis. United States of POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE America BIOPOLYMER COMPOSITIONS WO9961624A2 Dec. Jawed . Jean. 1999 1999 Methods of making PHA coating compositions having molecular weights greater than about 125.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. . Cambridge. MO 63167. R. 1999 1999 ASRAR. 3hydroxyvalerate. INC. Rue des Trois Bonniers 13. Pol . German] 1998 1990 Abstract unavailable.4. 3hydroxypropionate. 303 Third Street. Korsatko W TAISEI CORP MEIJI POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE-DECOMPOSING SEIKA KAISHA LTD ENZYME AND ITS PRODUCTION JP10191980A July 28. Chesterfield. The PHA coating compositions derived therefrom have improved properties suitable for applications in which exc Problem to be solved: To produce the subject new decomposing enzyme. Boston. 27 Radcliffe Road. Oliver. 4hydroxyvalerate and 5-h Objective Hardware Ablage SKRALY. B-3010 Kessel934 Lo.xls . Frank. 4.page 244 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Several novel PHA polymer compositions produced using biological sytems include monomers such as 3hydroxybutyrate. comprising a polyhydroxyalkanoate(PH A) decomposing enzyme having an N-terminal fragment of a specific amino acid sequence and a specified molecular SAITO YUJI ITO MASAKO TAKEBE HIDEAKI 935 MATSUNOBU TOSHIO 936 Korsatko-Wabnegg B. A. P. Lindbergh Boulevard. 800 N. Pellenbergstraat 179. 1998 Institut fur Pharmazeutische Chemie. Karl-Franzens-Polyhydroxyalkanoates as drug carriers for the formulation Universitat Graz. 39 Bay State Road. 2. United States of America PIERRE. with "quick-release" effect. of tablets Pharmazie 1990 Sep. St.000 are provided. Belgium D'HAENE. 2hydroxybutyrate. United States of America POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE COATINGS WO9904948A1 Feb. . United States of America PEOPLES. 14949 Royal Brook Drive. MONSANTO COMPANY. . 933 United States of America METABOLIX. . Arlington. Apartment 5.

Copolyesters crystalline preperties .A. United States of America MARTIN. Marchessault. J Biotechnol 1998 Oct 27. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales.4. Polyhydroxyalkanoates. . Universidad de Buenos Aires. MA 021421196. PHAs can be pr Carbon reserve granules in the cytoplasm of bacteria are polyhyddroxyalkanoates. F. for tar Objective Hardware Ablage 937 Ruiz JA.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. United States of POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES America FOR IN VIVO APPLICATIONS WO9851812 1998-11-19 1998 Polyhdroxyalkanoates (PHAs). These are short Morphology diffraction sidechain P Analytics Bioworld 1997. PHAs which have been chemically modified to enhance physical and/or chemical properties. Department of chemisstroy. MA 01770. 940 Lauzier. United States of America GERNGROSS.x-ray PHB/HV. Sherborn. Montreal. Lopez NI.31(4):201-4 1999 WILLIAMS. Mendez BS Departamento de Quimica Biologica. P. biopolyesters from renewable resources: physiological and engineering aspects. 28 Deerfield Road.. C. R. Tillman . are biodegradable substitutes to fossil fuel plastics that can be produced from renewable raw materials. Austria. Rev Argent Microbiol 1999 Oct-Dec. Genser KF Institut fur Biotechnologie. 647.hydroxybutyrate-co-3long sidechain PHA hydroxyvalerate).page 245 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Bacterial survival in natural environments involves the ability of scavenging nutrients and energy sources. TU Graz.H. McGill University. 941 Babel.65(2-3):127-61 1998 640. 4:16-20 1997 939 Braunegg G. stored as bacterial reserve materials for carbon and energy. Canada H3A 2A7 Polyhydroxyalkanoates: morphology of tender morsels for microbes Polyhydroxyalkans"uren-ein Kapitel umweltprophylaxe 432. Argentina. 3420 University Street. W. 303 Third Street. Quebec.xls . 33 Hemlock Street. MA 02174. 12 938 Ant METABOLIX. Simon. Polyhydroxyalkanoates degradation affects survival of Pseudomonas oleovorans in river water microcosms. INC. . David. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are intracellular polymers that endow bacteria with enhanced survival capabilities in adverse environmental conditions Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from which pyrogen has been removed are provided for use in numerous biomedical applications..short sidechain PHA . Lefebvre G. Arlington. . Thechemical structure of these biodegradable poyesters is frequently copolymeric such as poy(3PHB/HV . Cambridge. PHA.

51-6 (English) 1987 1987 A review with 16 refs. B (1999). Gercberga.4.xls .page 246 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Dep. Zoja. The potential prodn. Polyhydroxybutyrate as a drug carrier. Muller RH. LV-1586. 942 Peoples. Ludmila.. The biopolymer engineering review availability of cloned Zoogloea polyhydroxybutyrate genes for the 1st 2 prodn review enzymes of the PHB Alcaligenes biosynthetic pathway allow polyhydroxybutyrate prodn the control of the time and review level 943 Koosha F. United Kingdom. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 1989. 53(2). Oliver P. School of Pharmacy. Davis SS Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Anthony J. of PHB from renewable substrates makes this polymer a prospective substitute for thermo . Sci.. 944 Martins Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology. of work in the authors' lab. USA Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): a model system for biopolymer engineering. on the biosynthesis of PHB in Zoogloea ramigera and Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate eutrophus. Zulfija.. Latv. Latvia Proc. Biol. Sinskey. Appl. University of Latvia. 117120 Polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis by Azotobacter 1999 chroococcum 23 from renewable unrefined carbon sources Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a thermoplastic biopolymer posessing unique properties. Massachusetts Inst. Polysaccharides).10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates..6(2):11730 1989 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) can be used as an alternative polymer to polylactide-glycolides for drug carrier production. Technol. Prog. Savenkova. It is a linear homopolymer biosynthesized by various strains of bacteria by condensation of D(-)-Bhydroxybutyric acid and used as an en Kizlo. Sect. such as biocompatibility and biodegradability. 3(Ind. Sci. Acad. MA 02139. Kalnins. University of Nottingham.. Cambridge. Riga. Biotechnol.

Polyhydroxybutyrate: an intriguing biopolymer. and biodegrdn. 330.. 229. MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY (US) Polyhydroxybutyrate polymerase Polyhydroxybutyrate.. The structure. such as poly-3-hydroxyvalerate and poly-3hydroxyoctanoate. Polyhydroxybutyrate: Plastic made and degraded by microorganisms Rev. U.xls . Christine R. on the phys. University of Hull..K. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. Environ.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. transgenic prodn. Santa Cruz. (1999). Toxicol. 159. Contam. 947 Dawes EA Department of Biochemistry. University of California. properties.4. 95064. Hankermeyer. P. Biosci Rep 1988 Dec. stereochem. synthesis. are unique biodegradable thermoplastics of considerable commercial importance. a speciality polymer of microbial origin US5534432 1996-07-09 chapter 17 1996 A method for controlling and modifying biopolymer synthesis by manipulation of the genetics and enzymology of synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyesters at the molecular level in procaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 1-24 1999 . Tjeerdema.page 247 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage PEOPLES OLIVER P (US). CA. properties and A review with 37 refs.J. USA 948 Ronald S. of hydroxybutyrate-based polyesters. SINSKEY 945 ANTHONY J (US) 946 Senior.8(6):537-47 1988 The microbial polymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates.

I.M. Jolly.page 248 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 949 Hankermeyer CR. B-5081 Saint-Denis. W. 955 Tighe. Jawed . R.5 gmgl Strain . 315. A. M. B. USA.4. 950 Belgium 951 Schnabel. 953 Byrom.. White. 30:97-102 Trends in Biotechnology 1987. Chesterfield.Metabolism 415. Yasin. D. The enzymes evidently were transported into peroxisomes.J. United States of America PIERRE.159:1-24 1999 PHA. 323.H.. The oligoester compounds can compatibilize blends of two or more biodegradable polymers resulting in excellent ductility and reduced by adding a carboxyterminal targeting sequence. Jean. .. University of Edinburgh.0-7. 954 Findlay.J. MO 63017. 45(1):71-78 Biomaterials 1987. some factors influencing the secretion of alginic acid and the accumulation of poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) by a highly mucoid strain of Azotobacter vinelandii were investigated in batch culture. University of California.C. Holland. R. MO 63189. United States of America POLYMER BLENDS CONTAINING POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES AND COMPOSITIONS WITH GOOD RETENTION OF ELONGATION Polymer Degradation WO9923161 1999-05-14 ? 1981.C. 5:240-250 Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1983. MONSANTO COMPANY. Rue des Trois Bonniers 13. PHB is formed from renewable resources.sucrose In this study. Santa Cruz 95064. 8:289-299 1989 1987 1983 1987 Azotobacter vinelandii alginate . EH9 Polymer production by a mucoid stain of Azotobacter 9JG. . Tjeerdema RS Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. The highest alginate yields (6.. Microbiol. In addition to its complete biodegradability. St. S. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 1999. Lindbergh Boulevard. Biotechnol. 326.. Scotland vinelandii in batch culture Polymer synthesis by microorganisms: technology and economics Polymeric beta-hydroxyalkanoates from environmental samples and Bacillus megaterium Polymers for biodegradable medical devices Appl. Department of Microbiology. 14949 Royal Brook Drive. Edinburgh. Sutherland.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Louis. 1989. 155-177 1999 1981 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) offers many advantages over traditional petrochemically derived plastics. review ASRAR.xls . A. King´s Buildings West Mains Road. 391. Polyhydroxybutyrate: plastic made and degraded by microorganisms. 952 Brivonese.W. D. It possesses better physical properties than polypropylene for food p Biodegradable polymer blend compositions are provided which contain oligomeric esters. 800 N.

dextran. UK.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. II. Initial experiments using a non-thermal preparation technique enabled the relationship between initial mol 957 Yasin M. Biomaterials 1990 Sep. Biomaterials 1987 Jul. Hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate copolymers: hydrolytic degradation studies. Jolly AM. 7.4. Tighe BJ Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.8(4):289-95 1987 The hydrolytic degradation of poly(hydroxybutyrate) together with a series of hydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate copolymers has been studied. Birmingham. Polymers for biodegradable medical devices. Hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate copolymers: effects of polymer processing on hydrolytic degradation. Holland SJ.xls . Birmingham. Aston University. V. Birmingham. UK. Polymers for biodegradable medical devices.page 249 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Holland SJ. Holland SJ. Yasin M.10(6):400-12 1989 The hydrolytic degradation of poly(hydroxybutyrate)poly(hydroxyvalerate) (PHB-PHV) copolymers in the form of blends with the polysaccharides amylose. VI. Polymers for biodegradable medical devices.11(7):451-4 1990 Yasin M. Hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate copolymers: accelerated degradation of blends with polysaccharides. Tighe 956 BJ Department of Molecular Sciences.6 . Biomaterials 1989 Aug. Jolly AM.4 and 10. UK. Aston University. The effects of copolymer composition and molecular weight are presented together with the results of varying pH and The effects of melt processing on those properties of polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate copolymers that control hydrolytic stability were studied. has been studied under a range of conditions (pH 2. Aston University. Tighe 958 BJ Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry. dextrin and sodium alginate.3.

Tighe BJ Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.xls . Birmingham. design of biocompatible hydrolyzable 962 R. Ponchel G. Universite Paris Val de Polymers of malic acid and 3-alkylmalic acid as synthetic Marne.11(3):206-15 1990 The hydrolytic degradation of hydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate copolymers was monitored in vitro at 37 degrees C and pH 7. Aston University.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. as synthetic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Aston Triangle. France. Tighe BJ Speciality Materials Research Group. Biomaterials 1990 Apr. Polymers for biodegradable medical devices. Blends containing low levels of polycaprolactone (less than 20%) were found to possess a considerable degree of compat 961 Embleton JK. VIII. Direct use of bulk properties such as weight loss and tensile strength did not reveal substantial changes in the polymer matrix ove 960 Yasin M. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. Inde Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Polymeres.4. Yasin M. Moine L. Biomaterials 1992. Kataoka K.fr devices. Polymers for biodegradable medical devices. UK. Hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate copolymers: degradation of copolymers and their blends with polysaccharides under in vitro physiological conditions. Birmingham. Birmingham. Aston University.10(3):341-52 1993 Reservoir-type microcapsules were prepared using a double emulsion solvent evaporation process from a range of different poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate homopolymers and copolymers thereof with 3hydroxyvalerate (P(HBHV) polymers) blended with 20 per cent by w Poly(beta-malic acid) and poly(beta-3-alkylmalic acid) derivatives. UMR C7581 CNRS. Polymers for biodegradable medical devices. present several advantages as macromolecular materials for temporary biomedical applications. Escalup Thiais. Microencapsulation studies: control of poly-hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate microcapsules porosity via polycaprolactone blending.25(1-3):273-82 1999 . Aston University. PHAs in the Cammas S. X. Bear MM. UK. Hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate copolymers: physical and degradative properties of blends with polycaprolactone. Guerin P cammas@glvt-cnrs. VII.page 250 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 959 Holland SJ.4. Tighe BJ Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry. J Microencapsul 1993 Jul-Sep.13(1):9-16 1992 The physical and degradative properties of polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate copolymer blends with polycaprolactone were investigated. UK.

.ed biosynthesis u genes based on fatty acid detoxification. Polysaccharides. Prediction of costs in continous fermentations Mater. T. S. Gunilla Eva .Appl. G. Bristol. Louis. Pt.wustl. Gabbert.H. lipids and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in Wageningen microorganism POolymer recycling: opportunities and limitations Reprinted from: Recueil des traveux chimiques des pays-bas 1962.and W-parameters and t3 distributions as a function of temp. Bowald. J. Gabbert KK.P.Chem. Lab. Deinema. Van 963 Veen. 105-110(Positron Annihilation. Korr. Sweden Porous flexible sheet for tissue separation A material for tissue separation at healing processes in injured soft tissue in mammals including man is described.G. The lifetime (t3) spectra contains 3 components. A. The material consists of a porous flexible sheet of a proteinfree bioresorbable polymer. Sodertalje. Wills Phys.63(8):3010-3 966 Kranz RG. H. UK 968 Trilli. Through several 282. Sci USA 1992. Staffan Folke . formation and utilization of polysaccharides. . Microbio Department of Biology. T.. N. Almunge.xls .. 89:835-838 1962 1992 polysaccharides . Natl. Alam. M. Positive selection systems for discovery of novel polyester kranz@wustlb. Madigan. A.T... show behavior compatible with glass and cryst. W. 27:251-259 polyhydroxybutyrate positron annihilation 1992 1977 The positron behavior in poly(hydroxybutyrate) is studied. Missouri 63130. Madigan MT 1997 Wilkinson. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997 Aug. 965 Goteborg. transitions.. Acad. USA. M. Sweden Astra Tech Aktiebolag. M. D. lipids and poly-betahydroxybutyrate in microorganisms have been investigated.. Locke. 508. G. Washington University.. 964 Stein Laboratory of Microbiology. E. 1997 1997 The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus can grow with short.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. and M. 3). Sweden Johansson. Agricultural University. Forum.H. Kranz. Univ. Bristol Positron behavior in PHB polymer. St. Archer. J. 1819-22 (English) 1992 J. 9-10:797-809 Proc.Biotechnol. Usmar.L. A. US5641505 June 24. Sci.lipids Sphaerotilus natans The occurence. Bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter were found to accumulate within their cells large amounts (up to 70% o Others 118. 967 BS8 1TL.to long-chain fatty acids as the sole carbon source (R. Zevenhuizen. K. K.page 251 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Mulder. Environ. L. The S. Clayton. Appl. 1977.4.

Peop. 970 McLellan. Glasgow G1 1XW (UK) Preparation and chromatographic analysis of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) hydrolysis products J. Hao. 15-18.W.. drug were prepd. SHUJIE ZHAO (CN). Jiangsu Institute Petrochemical Technology. Pang. Hauttecoeur at al. Zhang. Cells are continuously multiplied in the first tank and the PHB content in cell is increased under nitrogen limited in Dep.page 252 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Preparation and characterisation of poly(betahydroxyalkanoates) obtained from Pseudomonas oleovorans with mixtures of 5-phenylvaleric acid and nalkanoic acids Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 969 Y. 9(4). Chen.J. 971 CHENGYING FAN (CN) CHENGDU BIOLOGY INST CHINESE A (CN) Preparation of betal-polyhydroxybutyrate CN1104683 1995-07-05 1995 The process for preparing poly-betahydroxy butyrate from methanol by use of microbe includes twostage continuous fermentation.Lenz Macromolecules 1991. reported that oligomers (2-7 units long) (with methyl ester of the Analytics 679. Rep. Fine Chemicals. Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology. Haiqun.W.xls . University of Strathclyde. D. 24:5256-5260 1991 536.B.4. Changzhou.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. The release behavior and content of progesterone in the microspheres depended on the concn.Kim. 23 Chinese 1997 PHB [poly(3hydroxybutyrate)] microspheres contg. the ratio of proges . P. R. of Chromatography 1988. 972 China Preparative conditions of PHB microspheres containing drug Jiangsu Shiyou Huagong Xueyuan Xuebao (1997). of PHB in chloroform. by the emulsion solvent evapn. Halling. oligomers and derivatives of these that have been further modified in side reactions.crotonic acid Possible hydrolysis products of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) include the monomer. 445:251-257 1988 High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) oligomers . method. Yixin 213016.

Complex piezoelectric constant e = e ´ . M. Nishida.ie ´´ . solution or emulsion of active ingredients and carriers. Sympl Electrets. The capsules are obtained by spraying a suspension. 2 The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. 5th intern. Nishida.xls . K. Primary piezoelectric relaxation in a copolymer of betaWako.Copolyesters Oriented films of a copolymer of 70 mol% beta-hydroxybutyrate and 25 mol% betahydroxyvalerate produced from microorganism showed intrinsic shear piezoelectricity. Complex piezoelectric constant e = e ´ . Minato.ic´´ and dielect Crystallinity 670. 1985 1985 Piezoelectricity .ic´´ and dielect Crystallinity 673. Korea. E. M. Tokyo.1. elastic constant Copolyesters c = c´ . 975 Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. 974 Fukada.1. E. . Methylobacterium organophilum. Minato. Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. Japan hydroxybutyrate and beta-hydroxyvalerate IEEE transactions on Electrical Insulation 1986.2 1 Department of Industrial Chemistry.1.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Taejon Process analysis and economic evaluation for 305-701. Japan. Saitama.1. SANDOW 977 JURGEN KURT DR HOECHST AG (DE) Process for preparing biodegradable microcapsules containing peptides and proteins soluble in water and microcapsules obtained by said process.1. Koganei.ie ´´ . Y. elastic constant Copolyesters c = c´ .25(1-3):1-306 1999 Abstract unavailable. 373-1 Kusong-dong. Proc. 2 The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research.page 253 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Ando. Japan hydroxybutyrate and beta-hydroxyvalerate Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biological Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Primary piezoelectric relaxation in copolymers of betaWako. and Bioprocess Engineering Abstract Volume 17 Issue 6 (1997) pp 335-342 recombinant Escherichia coli were designed b 976 Jong-il Choi.4. 973 Fukada. Heidelberg. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). Saitama. Yusong-gu. Tokyo. Sang Yup Lee 1997 SCHMIEDEL RAINER DR. Ando.Copolyesters Oriented films of a copolymer of 70 mol% beta-hydroxybutyrate and 25 mol% betahydroxyvalerate produced from microorganism showed intrinsic shear piezoelectricity. Koganei. Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology.1. Alcaligenes latus. Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center. K. ePoly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by mail: leesy@s fermentation Several processes for the production and recovery of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus. Y. Saitama. E1-21(3):505-510 1986 Piezoelectricity .2 1 Department of Industrial Chemistry. EP0315875 1989-05-17 1989 The biodegradable carrier is a mixture of PHB and PLGA. 9-11 September 1998.

4. genetic engineering bacteria containing both PHB synthetic gene and lambda bacteriophage splitting gene S(-)RR2 is first constructed. YIN JIN (CN) UNIV QINGHUA (CN) Process for preparing poly-beta-hydroxy-butyrate CN1201043 1998-12-09 1998 980 Noda. OH The Procter & Gamble Process for recovering Company. the process comprising: a) comminuting the b The present invention relates to a process for recovering polyhydroxyalkanoate from a biological source material containing the polyhydroxyalkanoate. Isao . polyhydroxyalkanoates using centrifugal OH fractionation US5899339 May 4. 1999 1999 . Fairfield. WADDINGTON SIMON DOMINIC (US) PROCESS FOR PREPARING FILMS AND COATINGS WO9517454 1995-06-29 1995 Extrusion films and coatings are prepared by applying a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) to a surface which is in the range from 20 DEG C above to 20 DEG C below the optimum crystallisation temperature of the PHA. Cincinnati. Fairfield. OH Process for recovering The Procter & Gamble polyhydroxyalkanoates using centrifugal Company. 1999 1999 981 Noda. fractionation OH US5918747 July 6. SHEN ZHONGYAO 979 (CN). Isao . the process comprising: a) comminuting the biological source mate LI HONGQI (CN). While the above said bacteria is cultivated in the culture medium The present invention relates to a process for recovering polyhydroxyalkanoate from biological source material containing the polyhydroxyalkanoate. A PHA of high melt flow index is preferred In the preparation of polybeta-hydroxybutyric ester.xls .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Cincinnati.page 254 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage WADDINGTON SIMON 978 DOMINIC (US) ZENECA LTD (GB).

page 255 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The present invention relates to a process for recovering polyhydroxyalkanoate from a biological source material comprising the polyhydroxyalkanoate.US4957861 hydroxybutyric acid 1990-09-18 1990 LAFFERTY ROBERT M (AT).xls . Cincinnati. polyhydroxyalkanotes using air OH classification US5849854 Dec.US4786598 hydroxybutyric acid 1988-11-22 1988 NAYLOR LINDA 985 ANNE.4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. in Objective Hardware Ablage 982 Noda. which comprises culturing a microorganism that is a strain of Alcaligenes latus or a PHB-producing mutant The present invention relates to a process for the biotechnological preparation of poly-D-(-)-3hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) which comprises continuously culturing a microorganism that is a strain of Alcaligenes latus or a PHB-producing mutant thereof. 1998 1998 LAFFERTY ROBERT M 983 (AT). . 15. 984 BRAUNEGG GERHART (AT) DANUBIA PETROCHEMIE (AT) Process for the biotechnological preparation of poly-d-(-)-3. the process comprising: a) comminuting the biological source mate The present invention relates to a process for the biotechnological preparation of poly-D-(-)-3hydroxybutyric acid. WOOD JOHN CHRISTOPHER AU4631596 ZENECA LTD Process for the microbiological production of pha-polymers 1996-09-04 1996 Abstract unavailable. Fairfield. Isao . herein referred to as PHB. OH The Proctor & Gamble Process for recovering Company. BRAUNEGG GERHART (AT) DANUBIA PETROCHEMIE (AT) Process for the biotechnological preparation of poly-D-(-)-3.

371 Date Jul. 1. 1996 PCT Pub. 22. 1995 PCT Pub. 1996A hydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA)is recovered from matter derived from living organisms by disso GEORGE NEIL (GB).4. 1997 Sec. 1997 Sec. 1995 PCT Pub. 371 Date Jun. WO96/25509 PCT Pub. 15. 16. 1997 PCT Filed Feb. PCT/GB95/01926 Sec. 7. Date Feb. 102(e) Date Jul. WO96/06179 PCT Pub. 102(e) Date Jun. PCT/GB95/01925 Sec. 102(e) Date Dec. 29. HALL ALAN (GB). 15. No. PCT/GB96/00293 Sec. Date Aug. LIDDELL JOHN 988 MACDONALD (GB) US5952460 MONSANTO CO (US) Process of recovering polymers of hydroxyalkanoic acids 1999-09-14 1999 PCT No. WO96/06178 PCT Pub. 371 Date Dec. 16. 1997 PCT Filed Aug. Date Feb. 1997 PCT Filed Aug. No. No.xls . 1997 Sec. 1. 7. 1996A process for producing poly3-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by culturing Alcaligenes on a low water- LIDDELL JOHN 987 MACDONALD (GB) US5894062 MONSANTO CO (US) Process for the recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid 1999-04-13 1999 PCT No.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 9. 1996A process of recovering PHA from a suspension which comprises particles of PHA in a liquid wh . 29. WOOD JOHN CHRISTOPHER 986 (GB) US5871980 MONSANTO CO (US) Process for the microbiological production of pha-polymers 1999-02-16 1999 PCT No.page 256 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage NAYLOR LINDA ANNE (GB).

800 North Lindbergh Boulevard. -America PLANTS WO9717459 1997-05-15 1997 Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyester is recovered from vegetable matter associated with its production in transgenic plants. Zhang. J.4. United States of POLYESTERS FROM TRANSGENIC 989 Cleveland TS16 0DP. MO 63167. NAWRATH CHRISTIANE. 100084. which comprises heating at a temperature whereby (i) the polyester is restored to Hu. John. Willett. PROCESS TO RECOVER Road. valerate of different concns. by Azotobacter Vinelandii UWD in beet molasses media contg.xls . The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modifie 991 Kotnis. Beijing. Zengmin. Macdonald .S.A. O'BRIEN GREGORY BRIEN GREGORY O 992 (US) (US) WO9428048 PROCESSING OF POLYESTERS 1994-12-08 1994 A process for improving mechanical properties of an aged polyester composition comprising at least one polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and at least one plasticiser thereof. Rep. ZENECA LTD (GB). Ping.. Eaglescliffe. 1995 587. 14(2). LIDDELL.L. Peop. The process involves contacting the vegetable matter with one or more reagents inactive toward SOMERVILLE CHRISTOPHER ROLAND. 678 Yarm St. 3:97-105 1995 The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. 45-49 polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Chinese 1997 Poly(hydroxybutyrate) (I) and hydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate copolymer (II) with different contents of hydroxy-valerate were successfully prepd. 990 POIRIER YVES PROCESSES FOR PRODUCING POLYHYDROXYBUTYRATE AND RELATED UNIV POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES IN THE PLASTIDS OF MICHIGAN (US) HIGHER PLANTS Processing and mechanical properties of biodegradable poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate)-starch compositions WO9505472 1995-02-23 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1995. Guoqiang. M. Tsinghua University. G. LIGGAT JOHN LIGGAT JOHN JAMIESON (GB). The . Qiong 993 Department of Chemical Engineering. Stockton on Tees. Wu.. China Production and characterization of biodegradable plastics .Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao (1997). Chen. O'Brien. JAMIESON (GB).10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Louis.page 257 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage MONSANTO COMPANY.

was established. 66(41):485-488 1998 1992 446. Surf. 996 Songsri.. Biol. of poly(3hydroxybutyric acid).. Resour. Toshihiro. Japan Stud. 10330. genetically Hyogo. 237-242 1998 Mutitakul.xls . a biodegradable polymer from Bacillus (1998).. BA-019 407-413 Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by Azotobacter vinelandii UWD in media containing sugars and conplex nitrogen sources Appl. Haruki. Biotechnol. Suteaki Department of Microbiology. Sustainable Util. Fujikawa. S. Kazuki. M. Kanai.beta. H. H. E. Using this sys Out of 30 bacterial strains isolated from various kinds of samples. strain BA-019 was found to produce and accumulate poly-.. Production of PHB. B. engineered marine cyanobacterium 661. in the culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus growing on nitrogen-rich media under exerting respiratory inhibitors. (1998). Bangkok. Bertazzi. H. Sci. 1983 215..21% by dry cell wt. Thailand 997 Page. Synechococcus sp. Chulalongkorn University. and the vectorpromoter system for the expression of foreign genes in a marine cyanobacterium. (13. Kouichi.J.. Kusunoki.. Kupfer. Shioya. was examd. 998 Leuenberger.. Furukawa. Rattanasiri.4. were as follo A basic system for the biol.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.W..G. Eng.) than those of the other isolates when cultivated Miyasaka. W. Jyunzo. 38:117-121 Production of (+)-(S)-Ethyl-3-hydroxybutyrate and (-)-(R)Ethyl-3-hydroxybutyrate by microbial reduction of ethylacetoacetate Helvetien Chimica Acta 1983. The reagents used in this expt. 189-192 1997 Possibility of the microbial prodn.page 258 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Takeshita. 34. R. Kulpreecha. 114(Advances in Chemical Conversions for Mitigating Carbon Dioxide). Nakano. 12. conversion of CO2 into useful industrial materials was developed.. Kouichiro 994 Fac. Technical Production of ***PHA*** (poly-hydroxyalkanoate) by Research Center. Inc. sp.. Microbiol Biotechnol 1992. Japan Production enhancement of PHB produced in Alcaligenes eutrophus stimulated by introducing respiratory inhibitors Kyushu Sangyo Daigaku Kogakubu Kenkyu Hokoku (1997). 995 Kansai Electric Power Co. Hirano. Faculty of Science. Trop. Ito. H. . Catal. Akiyama. Kyushu Ind. Univ. PHB. Wipf.hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in higher amt. Fukuoka. Hasegawa.

UK considerations (1) Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. Kang 1001 (1). U. Edwin A. Microbiol 1998 Jan. D.acetate (3HB). Saitama Universit Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 40 Issue 5 (1994) pp 717-723 1994 463. A. Doi (1)(2) Production of a novel copolyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and medium-chain-length 3hydroxyalkanoic acids by Pseudomonas sp. C. C8. University of Hull. acid by University of Hull. St. 1992. as the on The biosynthesis of the 3hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer of polyhydroxyalkanoate by Rhodococcus ruber from succinic acid was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996 Jul. Grisebachstrasse 8. Polymer produced from [2. T. HU6 7RX. Minnesota 55108-6106. hydroxyvaleric acid from single unrelated carbon sources Germany by a mutant of Alcaligenes eutrophus Appl. Bao (2). Dawes (1).64(1):383 1996 1998 A novel pathway for the synthesis of poly-3hydroxybutyrate has been engineered by simultaneous delivery of two genes into insect cells (Spodoptera frugiperda) by use of individual baculovirus vectors. Y.P(3HB-co3HV) 3HV).succinate 3-hydroxybutyric acid . when sugars of glucos 1002 Williams MD.Substrates copolyesters . Kato (2). poly(3HB-coStrain . USA. 1000 David F. C10 and C12. H. Saitama 351-01.62(7):2540-6 Production of a polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymer in insect cells with a Published erratum appears in Appl Environ modified eucaryotic fatty acid synthase. Hull. Anderson (1). Microbiol. Roger Williams (1). 61-3 from sugars Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 45 Issue 3 (1996) pp 363-370 1996 Pseudomonas sp. Wako-shi.Copolyesters . W. This system includes expression of a dehydrase-domain . Institut für Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversität Göttingen.3- 417. Sherman DH Department of Microbiology and Biological Process Technology Institute.-K. Paul. which is a spontanious revertant to prototrophy of an isoleucine-auxotrophic Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 mutant of the wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H 16 strain H 16. School of Life Sciences.Production of a copolyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 33400 Göttingen. 37:36678 1992 Alcaligenes eutrophus mutant strain R3. Pieper.4.e. Rahn JA.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Biotechnol. UK Production of a co-polyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (2) and 3-hydroxyvaleric acid from succinic School of Chemistry.page 259 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 999 Steinbüchel. Ewing (2) (1) Department of Applied Biology.. 61-3 (isolated from soil) produced a polyester consisting of 3hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) and of medium-chainlength 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids (3HA) of C6. M. Japan (2) Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences. Rhodococcus ruber: biosynthetic HU6 7RX. Hull. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). accumulated Alcaligenes eutrophus R3 a copolyester consisting of fructose .xls . Alistair J. J. Fukui (1). i.lactate . Hirosawa.gluconate .

Kenneth. M. Yonezawa 992.4HB Precursors for copolyesters Alcaligenes eutrophus Ralstonia eutropha biosynthetic pathway of copolyester production biodegradation New copolyesters of 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutytate (4HB) were produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus from various carbon sources of 4hydroxybutyric acid. Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization. 1988 331..10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.Microbiol. Soga.Biotechnol. 1984-07-25 Production of beta-hydroxybuyric acid-beta-hydroxyvaleric acid copolymers Eur.. Y. Yokohama 227 and 1 Department of Material Science and Engineering. P. PCT/GB96/00305 Sec. No.4butynediol. hydroxybutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate by Alcaligenes 1007 Kunioka. LEE MYUNG-SUB (KR). hydroxyvalerate by Alcaligenes eutrophus from butyric and 1008 K.442 1986 1984 1986 Production of beta hydroxybutyrate polymers (PHB) by microbial cultivation wherein at least part of the carbon source is derived from cell material obtained by separation of PHB from PHB-containing micro-organism cells: i. 1996A process of making a polyhydroxyalkanoate PHA latex comprises making a liquid-form solution of Objective Hardware Ablage GEORGE NEIL (GB).. Kunioka. Doi. S. 4chlorobutyric acid. Midori-ku. 6. LIM DAE-WOO (KR). Tokyo Instiute of Technology. 1989. Collins. 6. Pat. Microbiol. Y.e. the non-PHB cell materia 292. H. Kawaguchi.. 1998 PCT Filed Feb. WO96/25452 PCT Pub.xls . 28:330-334 1989 Copolyesters . M. Biotechnol.. 1998 Sec. J. 1005 R. Date Aug. pentanoic acids Appl. Nagatsuta. Japan eutrophus Appl. KOREA INST SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY (KR) PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PHA (POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE) BY FED-BATCH FERMENTATION KR9701829 1997-02-17 1997 Abstract unavailable. 102(e) Date Jan. A. Appl. 30:569-573 Production of copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3Doi. Production of biodegradeable copolyesters of 3Yamagata University. 371 Date Jan. and gbutyrolactone. JANG HO-NAM (KR). 1006 LEE SEUNG-CHOL (KR) JEIL SYNTHETICS INC (KR). K. The coposition of copolyesters Copolyesters 404 corr. EP0114086 Production of beta-hydroxybutyrate polymers. EP 204. 1003 TURNER PETER DERYCK (IE) MONSANTO CO (US) Production of a polymer composition US5891936 1999-04-06 1999 1004 RICHARDSON KENNETH RAYMOND ICI PLC (GB) Senior. KIM BUM-SOO (KR).page 260 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract PCT No. 1. Y. Faculty of Engineering. LIDDELL JOHN MACDONALD (GB).. 1988. Tamaki. 22. . 12.4.. JUNG SUNGKOO (KR). 1996 PCT Pub.

4. yves. Universite deLausanne. AND MONOMERS DERIVED THEREFROM WO9854329A1 Dec. Bernard . Srienc F. In order to produce PHBV. Birgit .10(2):181-5 1999 .. USA. P. Y. CH-8093 Zürich. ETH Hönggerberg.ch Production of new polymeric compounds in plants. PHBV. To produce PHA in E. 1012 Germany PRODUCTION OF MEDIUM CHAIN LENGTH POLY-3-HYDROXY ALKANOATES INESCHERICHIA COLI.L. CH-8093 Zürich. HPT. Int J Biol Macromol 1996 Aug.xls . Qun . Rogers.unil. HPT. ETH Hönggerberg. a PHA polymerase encoding gene (phaC2) of Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1 was introduced into various E. 1010 Somers DA Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics. coli. a system of pathways is Production of medium chain length poly-3hydroxyalkanoates (mclPHAs) in Escherichia coli is reported for the first time. a PHA polymerase encoding gene (phaC2) of Pseudomonas olevorans GPo1 w Plant metabolic engineering has recently enabled the synthesis of a range of polyhydroxyalkanoates as well as a protein-based polymer. Eschenlauer AC. 1998 1998 1013 Poirier Y Institut d'EcologieBiologie et Physiologie Vegetales. Stoup SK. is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that has greater utility as a biodegradable thermoplastic polyester than poly-betahydroxybutyrate. CH-8093 Zürich. and monomers derived therefrom EP0881293 1998-12-02 1998 WITHOLT. United States of America REN..19(2):121-30 1996 Poly[beta-hydroxybutyrateco-beta-hydroxyvalerate] co-polymer. Fang. University of Production of heteropolymeric polyhydroxyalkanoate in Minnesota-St. China KESSLER.poirier@iebpv. Biotechnology Letters 1993. To produce PHA in E. SH-69 Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1009 Rhee. PHB. CH-8093 Zürich. Switzerland. ETH Hönggerberg.H. Curr Opin Biotechnol 1999 Apr. J-H. CH-1015 Lausanne. 15:377-382 1993 457. from a single carbon source. c Production of medium chain length poly-3hydroxyalkanoates (mclPHAs) in Escherichia coli is reported for the first time. Paul Escherichia coli 55108-6026.page 261 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Production of copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate by fed-batch culture of Alcaligenes sp. Switzerland Production of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxy alkanoates in Escherichia coli. ETH Hönggerberg. These novel compounds can be harvested from plants as a renewable source of environmentally friendly polymers or can be 1011 EIDGENOESS TECH HOCHSCHULE (CH) EIDGENÖSSISCHE TECHNISCHE HOCHSCHULE ZÜRICH INSTITUT FÜR BIOTECHNOLOGIE.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 3. HPT. coli. HPT.

4.. cultured by anaerobicaerobic method. Soejima. Germany Production of PHB with a high molecular mass from 1017 methane Polym. M. could accumulate PHB 25-30% (wt. High concns.. Soc. Stab. 45(6). 04301. Helm. Saito. The sludge.. Technology Research Production of PHB by activated sludge at wastewater Division. LeipzigWendlandt. Res. DJ. Mater. of PHB under N limited conditions was confirmed and NaOAc was better than glucose as a C source. 115-20 (Chinese) 1995 Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate fermn fructose syrup 1995 Fructose can be utilized by A. Production of PHB (poly-b-hydroxybutyrate) in activated Japan sludge. H16. K. -D. 59(1-3). Narashino 275. Zheng. Japan Trans.. Microbiol. Kami Pa Gikyoshi. in ~250 h in con 1015 Tomozawa. The PHB content of the biomass was up to 51%.beta. Shandong Univ. Stottmeister. Takashi. (1998). Leipzig. Res. dry sludge basis) under non-aeration condit Wen. Taisei treatment Corporation. eutrophus to accumulate poly-b-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) in mineral medium. Taisei Corp. 191-194 1998 The methanotrophic strain Methylocystis sp../wt. Jechorek. The prodn. Halle. 35(2). Zhuang.-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in a short non-sterile process.page 262 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1014 Tomozawa. Yuji Biotechnol. 664-70 (Japanese) 1991 1991 activated sludge wastewater treatment PHB polyhydrobutyrate formation activated sludge wastewater The formation of PHB (Poly-b-Hydroxybutyrate) in activated sludge wastewater treatment processes was studied. Degrad... Rep. U.. the accumulation of PHB from HFS amounted to those of PHB from fructose.. 313-16 (English) 1994 activated sludge prodn poly hydroxybutyrate 1994 The possibility of poly-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) prodn. Guoqiang. GB 25 DSM 7674 is able to accumulate poly. 18A(Ecomaterials).xls .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. by activated sludge at a wastewater treatment facility was studied. T.. PHB reached a max. China Weishengwu Xuebao. facilities. Peop. T. Centre for Environmental Research. 1016 Shimin Inst. Jinan Production of PHB from HFS by Alcaligenes eutrophus 250100. of Department of Remediation Research. Jpn. Xin. the effectivity was highest during the first 5 . Cent. When fructose was replaced by highfructose syrup (HFS).

Doi.Akiyama. K.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Y. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997 Dec. Box 17 6700 AA Wageningen..Doi Production of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) by a bacterium of the genius Alcaligenes utilizing long-chain fatty acids Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1992. Agrotechnological Research Institute (ATO-DLO). P(3HBco-3HV). 15:163-168 1993 456. P(3HB). A locally isolated soil microorganism identified as Erwinia sp. Toh MS. The effects of the growth rate on the biomass and polymer c 447. Y. Huijberts. M. Universiti Sains Malaysia.my Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by Erwinia sp. Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1018 Akiyama. K.O. 1019 M.page 263 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Production of poly (3-hydroxyalkanoates) from à..Taima. M. filamentation-suppressed recombinant Korea. G. Y. from either palm oil or glucose and its copolymer poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate). Biotechnology Letters 1993. Escherichia coli. Y. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. The Netherlands. Najimudin N. Few LL. Doi.63(12):4765-9 1997 Recombinant Escherichia coli XL1-Blue harboring a high-copy-number plasmid containing the Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis genes could efficiently synthesize poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) i kopiert . 37:698-701 1992 The synthesis of poly(3hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA) by Pseudomonas putida KT2442 growing on long-chain fatty acids was studied in continuous cultures. Soga. Eggink 1021 Hori. Samian MR. of Taejon.. Lee SY Department of Chemical Engineering. Fax: 31 317 412260 Production of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) by Pseudomonas putida KT2442 in continuous Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract cultures Volume 46 Issue 3 (1996) pp 233-239 1996 Production of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates-co-3-hydroxy-ìfluoroalkanoates) by Pseudomonas oleovorans from 1fluorononane and gluconate Biotechnology Letters 1994. P. Akmal DH.4. misa@usm. USMI-20 has been found to produce poly(3hydroxybutyrate). 16:501-506 1994 1020 G. 461. Penang.25(1-3):95-104 1999 1023 Wang F. USMI-20. Agustien A.xls . Korea Advanced Institute of Science Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by fed-batch culture and Technology. N. 1022 Azizan MN National Poison Centre. ìalkanedioic acids and hydroxylated fatty acids by Alcaligenes sp. from a combin Majid MI.

58(4):1089-94 1992 An Escherichia coli strain has been constructed that produces the copolymer poly-(3-hydroxybutyrateco-3-hydroxyvalerate) P(HB-co-HV). P(3HB-co-3HHx) was prod Objective Hardware Ablage Lee SH. Case Western Reserve University.an E.kaist. Cleveland. Harrisonburg. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. N.1 and Department of Chemistry2 and Department of Biology. 1:235-240 2000 1993 582.. 22807 hydroxybutyrate) by Alcaligenes latus Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-41028 Renner. Oh DH.. Y.67(2):240-4 Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) from various carbon sources by batch-fed Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation cultures of Alcaligenes eutrophus 1993. Choi 1024 Ji. G. Korea email: Sang Yup Lee Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3(leesy@sorak. N. 34:91-95 36587? 1993 1996 448. 624. Doi. 15:-3 Food technol. G. Ohio 44106-4960. Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology. 373-1 Kusong-dong. M. Virginia Production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-41027 Hiramitsu.ac. 1996. Corr. Doi. Biotechnol Bioeng 2000 Jan 20. hydroxyvalerate) in a Ohio 44106-4960. Case Western Reserve Production of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3University. K. recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Koyama. Braunegg. biotechnol.xls .. The characteristics of cell growth and polymer accumulation were examined using various carbon sources. Y. coli fadR atoC(Con) fadR atoC(Co 427. Ahn WS. Gallaher Thomas2.. Lee Y. Cleveland. Appl Environ Microbiol 1992 Apr. Slater Steven1.Escherichia coli . hydroxyhexanoate) by kr) high-cell-density cultivation of Aeromonas hydrophila. This has been accomplished by placing the PHB biosynthetic genes from Alcaligenes eutrophus into P(HB-co-HV) . Lee SY 1025 Koyama. coli E. Department of Chemical Engineering and Bioprocess Engineering Research Center. Taejon 305-701. 1026 Dennis Douglas3 Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology. Yusonggu.4. Pongratz.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates..3 James Madison University.page 264 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The newly screened Aeromonas hydrophila produces copolymer consisting of 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). . hydroxybutyrate) by Comamonas testeronii A3 Biotechnology Letters 1993.

James Madison University.4-butanediol .N. Chang. and w 465.. Faculty of Engineering. Lett. Escherichia coli strains: genetic and fermentation studies.K. Chang HN Department of Chemical Engineering. S. When 1.. 1032 Lee SY. Y.4-butanediol and pentanol. Technology. Y.58(1):33-8 1997 Terpolyesters of 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB). culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus with glucose 1031 H.. concentration control J Biotechnol 1997 Oct 2.Copolyesters A recombinant Escherichia coli strain has been developed that produces poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-4hydroxybutyrate) when grown in complex medium containing glucose. H. Tokyo Instiute of Technology. Production of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-4Yonezawa 992. Chang..1. B.K. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1994. F..Y. Lee. DH5 alpha. 1033 H. Y. Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization.page 265 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1029 Kimura. 14:445-450 1992 Department of Biology.butanediol was used as Pseudomonas acidovorans the sole carbon sourc Strain . Y. Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) by fed-batch Kim.Y.H.4. Y. S. B. Kim. 16:556-561 1994 462.Y.monsa recombinant Escherichia coli grown on 1030 Valentin HE. . 43:892898 1994 A number of Escherichia coli strains including K12. I. M.. 4hydroxybutyrate (4HB) and 3-hydroxybalerate (3HV) were produced by Pseudomonas acidovorans in nitrogenfree culture solutions of 1.C. S. 1992. Biotechnology Letters 1995. Midori-ku. Kim. Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) by recombinant Yusong-gu.. 1034 H.N.41 Suppl 1:207-15 1995 Kim. Harrisonburg. Chang. Lee. Yoshida. Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) by fed-batch culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus with substrate control using on-line glucose analyzer Production of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-betahydroxyvalerate) from glucose and valerate in Alcaligenes eutrophus Can J Microbiol 1995. USA.S. Dennis D nto. Taejon. S.I. XL1-Blue. and C600 were transformed with the stable high-copy-number plasmid pSYL105 containing the Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxyalkanoic acid biosynthesis genes.. 1994.4Terpolyesters .1.com glucose. VA 22807. HB101..10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. S.N. 17:571-574 1995 515. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. Park Enzyme Microb. Nagatsuta.. Woo. B. Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4hydroxybutyrate) in hevale@ccmail.. Yokohama 227 and 1 Department of Material Science and Engineering. Woo. Lee. This has been accomplished by introducing in kopiert 412.I.xls . Chang. Lee..C. JM109. S.S.. Doi.J. W.K.. Lee.. Japan hydroxybutyrate) by Pseudomonas acidovorans Biotechnol. Yamagata University. Chang.

1036 Dube B. 1037 C.xls . Ishizaki. 3.Bioeng. P(3HB). Ramsay BA. Pseudomonas cepacia. Lomalizia.. Toshihisa. 56:2093-2098 1990 349. 268-75 (English) 1995 1995 fermn polyhydroxybutyrate Alcaligenes Hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium. B. In autotrophic cultivation of the microorganism. Department of Chemical Engineering. Japan Production of poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) from CO2. Lomaliza K. Food Sci. Ramsay JA Ramsay. Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal. Kawano T 1038 Univ. Bioeng. closed-circuit culture system was developed for production of poly-betahydroxybutyrate by high cell density autotrophic cultivation of Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17697. B. from carbon dioxide. 1990. Taejon. Production of poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-betahydroxyvaleric) acids. Production of poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-betahydroxyvaleric)acids Appl Environ Microbiol 1990 Jul.. H2. . Environ. Tanaka K.4. Chang HN. Bataille. Hakozaki. impeller design effect on kLa during poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production Biotechnol. SaibuGas LO Department of Food Science and Technology. Higashi.recombinant Escherichia gu. Chavarie. Biotechnol. Fukuoka 812.page 266 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title BioProcess Engineering Research Center. 45(3). it is essential to 497. Kenji. Yusung. The speciallydesigned agitation syste Tanaka. Chang YK Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994 May 2. Kanamaru. J. Technol. and O2 by high cell density autotrophic cultivation of Japan. Bataille P. poly(D-3hydroxybutyrate). Chavarie C. (1995) 45.Kyushu. Ayaaki.. Canada. Quebec. Microbiol.. A. Kyushu Univ.. Dub‚.Production of poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) from CO2.56(7):2093-8 1990 Alcaligenes latus. 268-75 1995 A bench-scale recycledgas. K.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 1039 Takeharu Dep.. ku. hydrogen. and Micrococcus halodenitrificans were found to accumulate poly(beta-hydroxybutyric-cobeta-hydroxyvaleric) acid [P(HB-co-HV)] copolymer when supplie Appl. Alcaligenes eutrophus.. and oxygen. Bacillus cereus. Pseudomonas pseudoflava. Ramsay. P.. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Production of poly(beta-hydroxybutyric acid) by Technology. *Ishizaki A. coli. Alcaligenes eutrophus. Kawano.721:43-53 1994 Abstract unavailable. Fukuoka 812. Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1035 Lee SY. Kanamaru T. Alcaligenes eutrophus autotrophically produces biodegradable plastic material. and O2 by high cell density autotrophic cultivation of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Kyushu University. A.. H2.

Prodn. A-04 was selected as a poly-. the biodegradable polyester from Bacillus sp. Lett Appl Microbiol 1998 Jun.. (1997). University of whey by Baroda. Kenichi Japan Production of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 in a fed-batch culture. Production of poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid). Faculty of Science.4. 10330. of PHB was continued to 32 h and PHB yield was >70%. Biochem. 221-228 1997 Alcaligenes sp.. The isolate wa Strain . Production of poly(hydroxybutyrate) homopolymer and copolymer from ethanol and propanol in a fed-batch culture Biotechnol.page 267 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1040 Lee SY.52:27-58 1995 Poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid) [PHA] is accumulated by numerous microorganisms as an energy reserve material under unbalanced growth conditions in the presence of excess carbon source. Eng. butyric acid as a C source. Taejon. C-H. BA-019 Biotechnol. Hiroshi.E. Matsuno. ZP24.. Bangkok. eutrophus in a fedbatch culture contg. 11.beta. Eng. properties compared with those of the authentic one. (English) 1992 polyhydroxybutyrate fermn Alcaligenes 1992 . Chanchaichaovivatt. Chang HN Department of Chemical Engineering. Conf. Faculty of Science. 1043 Yellore V. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 1995. Shinji. Desai A Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology Centre. 1044 Suteaki.. Songsri. 195-7. The polymer synthesized by Alcaligenes sp.xls . Springer: Tokyo. Isao. Toshiomi Thailand 1042 Production of poly-.26(6):391-4 1998 Methylobacterium sp. Sustainable Util. India. Shioya. Biol. J. giving 5. A-04 was characterized as PHB by its chem. Prog. Suga.hydroxybutyrate (PHB) producer. Biotechnol. Department of Microbiology. Japan. and phys. Methylobacterium sp. Biochem. Phonprapai. University. ZP24. D. Osaka Shimizu. isolated from a local pond. Kulpreecha. Osaka 565. Park. Univ. Karl. Daeduk Science Town. Trop.25 g l-1 biomass yield and poly-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) up to 59% of its dry weight in 40 h. Mutitakul. Endo. 2001. In spite of being a good candidate for biodegradable thermoplastics. ZP24 cheese whey kopiert Dep.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.Substrates PHB was synthesized by A. Resour.W.S. 1993. is able to grow in a medium containing 12 g l-1 lactose as a sole source of carbon. Asia-Pac.. Chanan. Chulalongkorn Rattanasiri.-hydroxybutyrate ( ***PHB*** ). Ryuichi. Arun. their 1041 Alderete. Shintaro. About Methylobacterium sp. Production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from lactose and M. Sonoo. 9:520-525 1993 494. Yoshida. Edited by: Furusaki.beta. Korea Advances Institute of Science and Technology. Proc.

A. B. B. Appl. Andre. S. 1989. The use of methanol. totally biodegradable plastics. Royalmount Avenue. 1052 Groleau. S. Vaheri. isolated from activated sludge Appl. Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by fedUniv.. H.Y. J. R. Biotechnol.InnovativeTechnol.g.. . e. 444. 893-97 1996 Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 1993. Park.... B. a lac operator and an Alcaligenes eutrophus phb operon. May.cheapest noble substrates isolation . 55:584-589 1995 1989 A new vector contains a trp promoter -35 region operably linked to a lac promoter -10 region. G. I. 1989.methanol available. Y.W. DE 19716.H. or a tac promoter. 1993. Biotechnol. fedbatch fermentation using a hollow fiber membrane was introduced.Substrates 418. polymer production by Alcaligenes eutrophus Production of Poly-beta-Hydroxybutyrate and measurement of related enzyme activities in Alcaligenes eutrophus Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by Alcaligenes eutrophus on different carbon sources Production of Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by Azotobacter vinelandii strain UWD during growth on molasses and other complex carbon sources Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by fed-batch culture of recombinant Escherichia coli J. G. G. Nam. Biotechnol.. Biotechnology Research Institute.Yonsei batch fermentation using hollow fiber membrane system. D. H..W. 594. Kim W S 1047 Lee. A Ramsay. Sepp"l". 1053 Bayly... 31:329-333 Biotechnology Letters 1990. 445.Eng. 1046 D. 1051 Kim. To improve biomass and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) concentration. 1045 Kidwell J P. Microbiol. A culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus NCIB 1199 was transferred to a 2. Microbiol.Chem. 39:42309 1993 1993 452. may help to red Strain . Choi. 1993.N.. 1049 Linko. E..5 l jar fermentor containing Oh J T. Department of Chemical Engineering. Biotechnol. University of Delaware. Microbiol. one of the Methylobacterium extorquens . D.N. Microbiol. S. Production of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate compounds.. 76:416-418 Appl. Oullette. 38:734-737 1992 1993 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and similar bacterial polyesters are promising candidates for the development of environment-friendly. 1050 Page. J. J. Cooper. Chang. 5. The vector may contain a lac consensus ShineDalgarno (SD) sequenc 345. National Research Council of Canada. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate overproduction using a new runaway replication vector with the Alcaligenes eutrophus WO 9521257 10 Aug 1995 phb operon in Escherichia coli or Klebsiella aerogenes Production of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoic acid by Pseudomonas cepacia Appl.. USA.C..Y. Bourque. Lee. Environm.4.J.S. 14(9):811-816 1989 1992 303.xls . S.. Vasiliadis. W.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Dennis D E Ramsay.N.. 1992.Jpn. 6100. Microbiol. Montreal Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate from methanol: (Quebec) Canada H4P characterization of a new isolate of Methylobacterium 2R2 extorquens Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in Acinetobacter spp. G. 37:36867 Appl. Rees. Newark... (1996) 29. H.page 268 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Cent. 1048 Chang.

*Gu T 1055 1056 Byrom. Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate on molasses by Email: recombinant Escherichia coli. coli host which includes the genes coding for the PHB biosynthetic pathway. 1057 Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) with Agencygene recombinant blue-green algae. Ridgway D. By inserting the genes coding for PHB into a host which includes a lactose utilization system. The pla . 4.1. acetoacetyl-CoA-reductase or polyhydroxybutyrate- JP 08187085 23 Jul 1996 1996 New recombinant plasmid pAER1 is constructed by cloning a structural gene encoding Alcaligenes eutrophus acetyl-CoAacyltransferase (EC2. (1998) 20..page 269 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Methods are provided for enhancing the production of PHB from a transformed E. LO Japan.4.36) or polyhydroxybutyratepolymerase.1.Japan hydroxybutyrate production by Synechococcus sp.3. Athens. polymer production following Biotechnol. D. poly-betaInd. 103:247-250 1992 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was produced by recombinant Escherichia coli HMS174 (plasmid pTZ18uPHB) on beet molasses as a sole C-source instead of glucose. Department of Chemical Engineering. USA.Lett. transformed with Alcaligenes eutrophus beta-ketothiolase. acetoacetyl-CoAreductase (EC1. 345-48 gu@ohiou. OH 45701.Technol. a 1994-08-02 1994 Objective Hardware Ablage DENNIS DOUGLAS E 1054 (US) INNOVATIVE TECH CENTER (US) Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in transformed escherichia coli US5334520 Liu F. Li W.1.edu plasmid pTZ18u-PHB expression in bacterium 1998 Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate: poly-betahydroxyvalerate copolymers FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992.xls .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Fermentation with molasses was cheaper than with glucose. The plasmid carr 480.16).Sci. Ohio University.

Kyushu Universiy. Korea using hollow fiber membrane system.E.CO2. Dennis.. 1060 Oh. Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid from carbon Fukuoka 812. WO 9118993 A1 12 Dec 1991 polyhydroxybutyrate manuf Escherichia whey 1991 Culture conditions for the manuf. Eng. 8:249253 1961 123. Ottawa. PCT Int. J.xls .. 893-897 (English) 1996 Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate manuf 1996 1061 Dennis.Metabolism Refractile granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid are produced by Micrococcus halodenitrificans during the exponential growth phase in a nitrogenous medium. Kim.page 270 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Abstract Objective The characteristics of PHB production from carbon dioxide by autotrophic culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 1769T using a recycled gas closed circuit culture system under the condition of oxygen Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC limitation were 1769T . Cell .Metabolism Fed-batch fermn. Joon Taek. Douglas E. Seoul 120-749. The amount Micrococcus halodenitrificans . Japan dioxide by Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17697T Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 1991. National Research Council. Tanaka.. Korr. When the genes are under control of the lac promoter.produced varied from effect of glycerol. 46-09 Hakozaki. in a . poly-b-hydroxybutyrate with Alcaligenes eutrophus.oxygen limitation investigated. Chem. then I is efficiently manufd. Jpn. G. Douglas E. Higashi-ku. 1059 Sierra. 71:254-257 1991 419. Production of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate with transformed Escherichia coli. Yonsei Production of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by fed-batch Univ. N. Canada Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid granules in Micrococcus halodenitrificans Canadian Journal of Microbiology 1961.. Gibbons.4. K.. A. Appl. Faculty of Agriculture. of poly-bhydroxybutyrate (I) with Escherichia coli harboring the genes for I biosynthesis of Alcaligenes eutrophus are described. using a hollow fiber membrane was used to manuf. fermentation S.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. pyruvate and about 1% of the salt-free acetate on polymer dry weight during vigorous accumulation aeration Strain . 29(5). Keyword(s) Hardware Ablage 1058 Ishizaki. Department of Food Science and Technology. Division of Applied Biology. Woo Sik Engineering Research Inst.autotrophic culture concentration increase Strain .

Production of poly-D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-D(-)-3-hydroxyvalerate by strains of Alcaligenes latus. Kenji. Ishizaki. P(3HB). from H2. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1991 Jul. 425-7 (English) 1994 1994 Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate fermn carbon dioxide A two stage culture was examd. Martinez Toledo.. A. chroococcum PHA (CECT 4435). Konig KH. Austria. latus were investigated. st 361. M. In this culture method.. With Na-propionate as PHV precursor.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. The abilities to store poly-D(-)-3hydroxyvalerate (PHV) of three strains of A. 1065 Victoriano Universidad de Granada. 8 pp. Ayaaki Fac. Kyushu Univ. O2 and CO2 without danger of gas explosion. Ferment.4. and its use for the prodn. When the gene switch is induced by the application of its chemical inducer. (Spain) 1994 polyhydroxyalkanoate fermn Azotobacter . Victoria.. Jesus. Bioeng. FENTEM PHILIP ANTHONY (GB) PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE IN PLANTS WO9411519 1994-05-26 1994 Gonzalez Lopez. of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate/3hydroxyvalerate) are claimed FENTEM PHILIP 1064 ANTHONY (GB) ZENECA LTD (GB). Salmeron Miron.60(1):61-6 1991 Alcaligenes polyhydroxybutyrate polyhydroxyvalerate prodn Alcaligenes latus strains can accumulate poly-D(-)3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) up to about 85% of cell dry weight. Lafferty RM Institute for Biotechnology. Japan Production of poly-D-3-hydroxybutyric acid from carbon dioxide by a two-stage culture method employing Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 1769T. the plant produces PHA bu A new microorganism. 1063 Tanaka. Span.xls . Fukuoka 812. Agric. 77(4). Graz University of Technology. obtained by mutation with nitrosoguanidine and capable of growth on waste olive exudate. Spain Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Azotobacter chroococcum PHA.page 271 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1062 Chen GQ. ES 2061405 A2 1 Dec 1994. the microorganism was grown beforeha Genes specifying the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates are placed under control of a gene switch and inserted into the genome of an oilseed crop. as a new method for the cultivation of Alcaligenes eutrophus to produce poly-D-3hydroxybutyric acid.

10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. and Klebsiella oxytoca. 1068 Poirier Y. Chen GQ. The strain demonstrated some unusual ability to synthesize polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) homopoly The cloned poly-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis pathway from Alcaligenes eutrophus has been introduced into sucrose-utilizing strains of Escherichia coli. James Madison University. Dennis D Escherichia coli and Klebsiella strains. Virginia Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in sucrose-utilizing 22807.xls . Corrensstrasse 3. Stanford.de Tel.: +49. D48149 Münster. 1069 Steinbüchel . Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas nitroreducens. The plasmid-borne genes were well expressed in these In response to problems associated with plastic waste and its effect on the environment. Nawrath C.13(2):142-50 1995 Polyhydroxyalkanoates 501.page 272 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A strain coded AS 1. Füchtenbusch. China. recombinant 1067 Zhang H. in bacteria and plants. Harrisonburg. there has been considerable interest in the development and production of biodegradable plastics. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster. Ralstonia eutropha H16 and Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 53 Issue 2 (2000) pp 167-172 2000 Pseudomonas oleovoran B. Objective Hardware Ablage Yao J. Biotechnology (N Y) 1995 Feb. Beijing. Obias V. Klebsiella aerogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol 1994 Apr.2343 was isolated from oilcontaminated soil in an oilfield in North China Tianjian City and it was identified as Pseudomonas nitroreducens. Wu Q. D. CA Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. a family of 94305-1297.Production of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids by Ralstonia 251-8339821 Fax: +49. biodegradable plastics USA.eutropha 251-8338388 and Pseudomonas oleovorans from an oil (2) remaining from Institut f biotechnological rhamnose production Screening experiments identified several bacteria which were able to use residual oil from biotechnological rhamnose production as a carbon source for growth. A. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1999 May.4. Germany email: steinbu@unimuenster. 1066 Zhang R Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology. Somerville C Carnegie Institution of Washington. Tsinghua University.60(4):1198-205 1994 547.75(4):3459 1999 Department of Biology. Gonyer K. Department of Plant Biology. Zhang G. Wullbrandt. and elastomers.

Cells were cultivated at 30 deg in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer shake flask with 100 ml of medium containing (g/l) 3 yeast 376.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 5. Leissner M. K.Jena. Dave H.. Jena. BSL-Olefinverbund LO Innovent e. D-07747. Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited. 20-30 g l-1 casein peptone or casamino acids as sole sources of nitrogen.Prod. Renner.Res.page 273 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acids. 50(5)..V.Natur.. Roth M./Biomaterialien. *Desai J D 1071 Environmental Sciences and Applied Biology Division. E. HansKnollInst. Beer. Microbiol. IPCB-403 was investigated. Beer 07747 Jena. Ramakrishna C. B. B. Metzner K Germany. the effect of casein peptone and casamino acid N-source on the production of poly-betahydroxybutyrate by a bacterium. 1073 Production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Ralstonia eutropha from protein hydrolyzates. India.Biotechnol. G. Tech.Exp. (1998). poly-betahydroxybutyrate production and waste-water treatment Indian J.Biol. Braunegg Institute of Biotechnology.4. Metzner.Microbiol. Technical University of Graz.Je na. Bormann.. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate by petrochemical activated sludge and Bacillus sp. using media based on casein pepto Poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) was produced by Ralstonia eutropha DSM 11348 (formerly Alicaligenes eutrophus) when it was grown in a culture medium containing 20-30 g/l casein peptone or casamino acids as a sole Nsource. Roth. (1996) 34. M.V. 3./Biomaterialien. Haage. A-8010 Graz. Microbial Synthesis Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1070 ??? ??? Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from petrochemical activated sludge by Bacillus sp. In fermns. DBormann E J. 604-07 1998 1075 G. 604607 1998 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was produced by Ralstonia eutropha DSM 11348 (formerly Alicaligenes eutrophus) in media contg. Scientific and Technical Background of the Problem. (1998) 50. B. Leissner. Felsbachstrasse 5. The cells we A group of 13 bacterial species from the rRNA superfamily III were tested for their ability to produce the biodegradable polyesters poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3-HB-co4-HB)] and poly(3-h Innovent. Austria. 216-19 1996 Innovent e. Biotechnol. M. Germany 1072 Production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Ralstonia eutropha from protein hydrolyzates Appl. Research Center..Coll. Production of short-side-chain polyhydroxyalkanoates by various bacteria from the rRNA Fax:+43316811050 superfamily III Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 46 Issue 3 (1996) pp 268-272 1996 . IPCB-403. Petersgasse 12. Baroda 391 346. for use in biodegradable plastic Appl. J.. G.xls .

Lab. Bhanthumnavin. Fuller. N. Y.C. Production of unsaturated polyesters by Pseudomonas oleovorans Production of unusual bacterial polyesters by Pseudomonas oleovorans through cometabolism Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul.. results that the a Objective Hardware Ablage 1076 Kelley AS. microaerophilic N2-fixing soil bacterium. K. 1078 Lenz. University of Minnesota..ca salinestris Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 48 Issue 1 (1997) pp 88-93 1997 Fu. 15(1). of PHB and Gellan gum has been studied by using the fermenter with novel axial impellers on the basis of the research on the mixing and mass transfer effect of the axial impellers. Shiyi Doi. USA. University of Alberta. Jian. T6G 2E9.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Srienc F 1077 Fritzsche. 476. J. of Environmental Biotechnology. Wuxi University of Light Industry. Biological Process Technology Institute.. Kawaguchi. 30:1 1989 666. Peop.4. Edmonton. 12:85-91 1999 1990 FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992.. Chen. a sodium-dependent. 79-84 China Production on PHB and Gellan gum by using the fermenter Chinese with axial impellers Production.25(1-3):61-7 Int. .hydroxyvalerate) mail: copolymer from sugars by Azotobacter Bill.. R.B. Macromol. A.. Lenz.W. Kim. M. Xiaobei. Ruman Department of Biological Sciences. Canada Production of Tel. St. School of Biotechnology. R. M. J. properties. Biol. R. 1081 Segawa. Y.page 274 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract To synthesize layered granules consisting of selected phases of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) homopolymer and PH(Bco-V) copolymer. 1079 Manchak.Page@Ualberta. Wuxi. Paul 55108. Ralstonia eutropha was grown on fructose and limited quantities (1 g/l) of valeri 348. It was indicated from exptl. Zhan.. Wenquan. W.. 1080 Lun. 214036. Azotobacter salinestris.xls . 103:207-214 1992 W. R. Y. J. C. and biodegradation of microbial copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate an 4-hydroxybutyrate 1999 Polymer preprints 1989.: (403) 492 4782 poly(<beta>-hydroxybutyrate-<beta>Fax: (403) 492 2216 e. Weimin. Page. Rufeng. Production of two phase polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granules in Ralstonia eutropha. Ruan. Rep. Huaxue Fanying Gongcheng Yu Gongyi (1999). Alberta. formed polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers comprised of <beta>-hydroxybutyric acid and 9-12 mol% <beta>hydroxyvaleric acid The prodn. 1990. Fuller. Qi. Kunioka.

. 1087 H.Metabolsim 11. Microcapsules were also prepared from the same polyme 512. Monasterios. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen und Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschft für Strahlen forschung mbH München Properties of The NAD-Specific Hydrogenase from Hydrogenomonas H 16 / Eigenschaften der NADspezifischen Hydrogenase aus Hydrogenomonas H 16 Arch.A. Iwata T. Lundgren. The enzyme catalyzes the reduction of NAD with molecular hydrogen. Middle East Technical University. 61:1727-1730 marine bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis AE122 Properties of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate latex: nascent morphology.G.. Turkey. Doi Y Properties and biodegradability of ultra-high-molecularAkebono Brake R&D weight Centre. Teraoka. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul.. I.12(2):185-93 Properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from a Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1995. 1086 Alper. M..7dichlorofluorescein. film formation and surface chemistry Properties of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. K. Saitama. 1085 Lepoutre.B. Schlegel. 71:67-78 1970 Hydrogenomonas H 16 Hydrogenase 160.page 275 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1082 Kusaka S. 1084 Yanase. Linke. Ltd. Ishimaru. poly[(R)-hydroxybutyrate] produced by a Japan recombinant Escherichia coli. P. J Microencapsul 1995 Mar-Apr. R.4.25(1-3):87-94 1999 Ultra-high-molecularweight poly[(R)-3hydroxybutyrate] (P(3HB)) (Mw = 3-11 x 10(6)) was produced from glucose by a recombinant Escherichia coli XL1-Blue (pSYL105) harboring Ralstonia eutropha H16 polyhydroxya Microcapsules of poly(3hydroxybutyric acid) [PHB] and its copolymers with hydroxyvalerate [HV] were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique and loaded with a model drug. . Department of Biological Sciences. Biopolymers 1963.xls . J.. General considerations concerning the naturally occurring polymer 1995 1995 1989 1989 344.. It does not require cofactors. Properties and drug release behaviour of poly(3hydroxybutyric acid) and various poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer microcapsules. Marchessault.. The N Strain .J. 1083 Gursel I. H. G. K. R.. Pfitzner. C. N. Ankara.H.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Kato. H. 1:545-556 1963 A soluble hydrogenase from cell-free extracrs of Hydrogenomonas H 16 has been purified 45-fold up to a specific activity of 36 500 units per g protein.Mikrobiol. D. Hasirci V Kita. 2.. 1970..

J Biotechnol 1998 Oct 8. phospholipids. Doudoroff. Both the polymerase and the depolymerase enzymes are active components of the structure. including nearly all existing named hydrogenomonas spp. Stanier. Amherst.1. proteins assocd. Valentin.. Douglas. M. have been compared. Fuller RC Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Recently. Ali. Recently. Amherst.Y. California 94720.64(2-3):137-44 1998 Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) cellular inclusions consist of polyesters. proteins associated with these inclusions have been descr .umass. 1090 Dennis D. Valentin HE.. University of Massachusetts. M. 1088 R. Texas 77025 implications 1969. Tehrani. Lenz RW. Dennis. Deparment of Biology. Both the polymerase and the depolymerase enzymes are active components of the structure. M. USA. It is proposed.. D. Clinton Fuller. and proteins. University of Massachusetts. MA.Taxonomy Stuart. Mandel. Tehrani A. esstuart@bio. Bekeley.H. and proteins. Korr. Henry E.page 276 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Davis. that the genus Hydrogenomonas should be rejected.. Stuart ES.e Protein organization on the PHA inclusion cytoplasmic du boundary. Proposal to reject the genus Hydrogenomonas: Taxonomic International Journal of Sytematic Bacteriology Houston. 64(2.3).2 1 Department of Bacteriology and Immunology University of California. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. E. 19(4):375-390 1969 Hydrogenomonas .4. phospholipids.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.1. S. 2 University of Texas.xls . R. with these inclusions ha 129.D. since ist type species H. 1089 Lenz. 137-144 1998 Fifty-six strains of "hydrogen-bacteria" and related nonautotrophic bacteria. (1998). Biotechnol. Robert W.1. USA Protein organization on the PHA inclusion cytoplasmic boundary J. pantotro Strains Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) cellular inclusions consist of polyesters.

Pseudomonas oleovorans as a source of poly(betahydroxyalkanoates) for potential applications as biodegradable polyesters J. phospholipids and proteins. Lenz.. 1093 Bernhard. Institut fuer Mikrobiologie. Bernd Holger. Gross. R.e du Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) cellular inclusions consist of polyesters.HarrisonburgJames-Madison LO Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 1988 328. Germany Pseudomonas lemoignei has five poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid) (PHA) depolymerase genes: a comparative study of bacterial and eukaryotic PHA depolymerases. Pseudomonas 2 F: Kinetics of Growth and Accumulation of Poly-D(-)-3-Hydroxybutyric Acid (Poly-HB) Biotechnol. Both the polymerase and the depolymerase enzymes are active components of the structure. (1998) 64.Metabolism 410. depolymerase A (Mr.C. Polym.page 277 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Univ. polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Ralstonia eutropha poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis operon phaCAB gene transfer to Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli J. H. 54(8):1977-1982 polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase gene sequence Pseudomonas Four polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) depolymerases were purified from the culture fluid of Pseudomonas lemoignei: poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Austria.. After a period of carbon limitation of 1 hour. USA.000). Briese. a recently isolated and new strain. University of Massachusetts. In order to further clarify the structure and fun Objective Hardware Ablage Stuart E S. R. differ considerably from the behaviour found hitherto with other strains. Dennis D. 137-44 1998 1092 Braunegg. Dieter Btandl. 55.A.. Lett. Graz University of Technology. MA. 2(2). .Carbonovercompensation Kinetics of poly-HB accumulation in Pseudomonas 2F. Email: esstuart@bio. Fuller R C 1091 Protein organization on the PHA inclusion cytoplasmic boundary. and PHB depolymerase B (Mr. L.Massachusetts.xls .umass. 6:825-829 1984 Pseudomonas 2 F .W.000) were specific for PHB and copolymers of 3hydroxyb 526.Biotechnol. Environ. Jendrossek. Schmidt. G.. Lenz R W. Univ. Tehrani A. Georg-AugustUniversitaet. Valentin H E. Amherst. Institute for Biotechnology. Goettingen 37077. Degrad.. 67. without the application of growth-limiting con Strain . 1984. R. 2-3..4. Korneti. 75-87 (English) 1994 1994 Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1988. 1094 Fuller.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.

Institut fur Mikrobiologie.su polyhydroxybutyrate. The sequence revealed that the corresponding structural gene is represented by open readi 548. Ito. P. Saito. G. methylotrophic producer of Trotsenko Yu A khov. P. and glycerol were found to have a very Strain -Metabolsim similar monomer Copolyesters composition. Email: Purification and characterization of citrate-synthase from Belova L L.500 protein of Rhodococcus ruber (the GA14 protein) was analyzed. Okon. Purification and characterization of acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase J Bacteriol 1994 Jul. T. Morgunov I G. M. 1095 B. . Y. 194. Witholt. G. Env. W. 1097 Fukui.O. Moscow Region 142292 Russia. K. 58:536-544 1992 Copolyesters .Pseudomonas putida KT2442 The biosynthesis of poly(3hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) by Pseudomonas putida KT2442 during growth on carbohydrates was studied. fructose. 1991. Tomita.. Germany.1. trotsenko@ibpn. Madkour MH. 6700 AA Wageningen. Microbiol. Pushchino... Eggink. Biochem 1982. 1.. Purification and characterization of extracellular poly(31100 M. Analytics 406. 85-90 Russian Journal of General Microbiology 1990. 127:423-428 1994 1982 The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) granule-associated M(r)-15. Purification included streptomycin sulfate treatment of cell-free 1990 1995 306.serpu Methylobacterium extorquens. J. Huisman. S. brasilense Cd Shiraki.7) was isolated and purified to homogeneity from the methylotrophic producer of poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB).. Shimada. GeorgPieper-Furst U. Smirnoff. Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms.2 Agrotechnological Research Institute (ATO-DLO). Methylobacterium extorquens 15. putida cultivated on glucose. Tatsumichi. enzyme for use in poly-beta1098 hydroxybutyrate production Purification and characterization of D(-)-betahydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from Azospirillum 1099 Tal.176(14):4328-37 Eur. G1. hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases Biokhimiya. M. University of Groningen 9747 AG Pseudomonas putida KT2442 Cultivated on Glucose Groningen.page 278 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Huijberts.4. T.1 and Groningen Biotechnology Center. M. 567. N. P. 3:13-21 1997 Citrate-synthase (EC4. Purification and characterization of a 14-kilodalton protein that is bound to the surface of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granules in Rhodococcus ruber. Sokolov A P. de Waard... August-Universitat zu 1096 Steinbuchel A Gottingen.2 The Accumulates PHAs Consisting of Saturated and Netherlands Unsaturated Monomers Appl.1. Mayer F. 136:645649 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1995. PHAs isolated from P.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.xls . Department of Biochemistry. (1997) 62.3. Box 17.2. T.1.

Yoshida. Fukui. Kyoto 606 Purification and properties of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M.Jendrossek Purification and Properties of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) Depolymerase from the Fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus D218 Purification and properties of poly(3-hydroxyvaleric acid) depolymerase from Pseudomonas lemoignei .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates..I. 188. Schlegel. F. G.. Tomita K Department of Health Chemistry. Y. Kyoto (Japan) Purification and characterization of NADP-linked Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1987. C. The molecular weight of the enzyme as determined by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration was 112. 1997 1997 Appl. 126(2):712-722 Eur. K. 1105 T. Inc. 1978. 1981. 1102 Merrick. Deparmtent of Health chemistry.. F. Tomita.. Kyoto University.. a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)accumulating bacterium. Saito.. corr. K. Sakyo-ku.. Ito. Tanio. T. M. T. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Kenzo Tonomura 1108 B. Kyoto Universiy. 118:117-182 1976 1981 D(-)-beta-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase was purified from Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M to 277.. The molecular weig 525. Sakyo-ku. kopiert Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Paecilomyces lilacinus D218 by column chromatography on CMToyopearl 650M and Curr.000.M. 1. T. Hidekazu Osaka. T. Saito T. Nakada T. Miki K.. 1104 H. K. J. J Biochem (Tokyo) 1981 Feb. D.Zoogloea ramigera 412 Mmol acetoacetylI-16-M CoA reduced per min Strain -Metabolsim 425.4. Ushijima A. J. Microbiol. Journal of Bacteriology 1976. Kyoto. Biochem. The purified enzyme NADP-linked acetoacety-CoA showed specific activity of reductase . Yu. Microbiol. Biochemistry 1966. 38:487-492 1993 hydroxylapatite. Oji 1106 C. Cornelius. T.89(2):625-35 1981 electrophoretic homogeneity.xls . Fukui T. Teizi 1107 Urakami.. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences.. 34:230-232 (1997) © Springer-Verlag New York.M ller. B"rbel. Microbiol Biotechnol 1993. 116:21-27 1966 1978 203. 5:3563-3568 Arch. Tomita. Saito. Takeko. Tanaka.page 279 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1101 Fukui. Tomita. 1103 Nishimura. Yuji Oda. 917:365acetoacetyl-CoA reductase from Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M 371 Purification and properties of a D(-)-beta-hydroxybutyric dimer hydrolase from Rhodospirillum rubrum Purification and properties of beta-ketothiolase from Zoogloea ramigera Purification and properties of chorismate mutase-phrenate dehydratase and phrenate dehydrogenase from Alcaligenes eutrophus Purification and properties of D(-)3-hydroxybutyrate-dimer hydroxylase from Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M 1987 An NADP-linked acetoacetyl-CoA reductase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M. Matsuda S. Saito. Yoshida.G.

und Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen. 745:267278 1976 1983 Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16 .page 280 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1109 Schneider.. Phosphoribulokinase was purified 286-fold from extracts of autotrophically grown cells. K. was purified 247-fold from extracts of cells. Purification and properties of soluble hydrogenase from Göttingen (G. 269. 1113 Nickerson.. 139:481-489 Purification of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by density gradient centrifugation in sodium bromide Appl. Microbiol. Schlegel. MgCl2 was required for activiey.und Umweltforschung mbH München..Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 fructose 1.G.H. West Purification and regulatory properties of Germany phosphoribulokinase from Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16 Biochem.0 in both crude extracts and purified preparation. M. Schneider.Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 phosphoribulokinase 1. 1110 H. 1982. 43:1208-1209 1974 1982 Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16 . Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen. Environ. 1112 Abdelal. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 237 000 and showed a pH optimum of 9.G. The enzyme showed a pH optimum of 8. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen. 3400 Göttingen.Metabolism 157.4.T. in Göttingen. . K.6Germany diphosphatase from Hydrogenomonas eutropha Journal of Bacteriology 1974.Metabolism 159. 190. Schlegel. 452:66-80 Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1983.T.12. ful Strain . Schlegel. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 170 000.. 1974. 120(1):304-310 1974 Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16 . H. The enzyme was sho Strain . A. H. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.) Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Purification and properties of the membrane-bound hydrogenase from N2-fixing Alcaligenes latus Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1976. 2. K.Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 soluble Hydrogenase The soluble hydrogenase (hydrogen: NAD oxidoreductase. produced during autotrophic growth.Metabolism 158. EC 1.1. Schlegel.5 in both crude e Strain . H.2.xls . 3400 Göttingen.J.G. Pinkwart. W. West Purification and regulatory properties of fructose-1.) from Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 was purified 86-fold with a yield of 20 % and a final specific activiy (NAD reduction) of about 54 µmol H2 oxidized/min per mg protein.. 1111 Abdelal.R.6-diphosphatase Fructose diphosphatase of Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16.G. A.F.

C. 1981. Institut fü The fluorescence properties of one chemically and seven biologically produced polyhydroxyalkanoic acid were investigated as film castings and in living cells respectively after staining with Nile red.de Tel. Fuller RC 1118 Repaske.. Putative structure and functions of a poly-betahydroxybutyrate/calcium polyphosphate channel in bacterial plasma membranes. Lenz RW. Department of Microbiology and Public Health. . Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology.118(3):279-82 1994 Appl. 59:2306 1981 (1) Institut für Mikrobiologie.Chem. Marose S. University of Massachusetts. Steinbuchel A. Sadoff HL 1115 Morikawa. Pyrolysis of bacterial polyalkanoates Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988 Jun. D48149 Münster. Scheper T Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1999 Jun. R.5. Objective Hardware Ablage 1114 Reusch RN. East Lansing 48824. The chain length of the polyhydroxybutyrate was es 208.4. Corrensstraße 3. H. Quantitative requirements for Exponential growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus FEMS Microbiol Lett 1994 May 15. quantitative degradation of novel poly3-hydroxyalkanoates has been restricted by the absence of an appropriate monitoring technique.85(12):417680 1988 Can. 1116 Rieseberg M. 1976.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Environ.: +49251-8339821 Fax: +49251-8338388 Quantification of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoic acids by (2) Nile red staining. Marchessault. Microbiol.H. R. All thes Gorenflo V. 32(4):585-591 1976 Research regarding the accurate. Germany email: steinbu@unimuenster. The calibration of a gas chromatograph to poly-3hydroxyoctanoate reveals a linear relat 27. Quantitative determination of intracellular depolymerase activity in Pseudomonas oleovorans inclusions containing poly-3hydroxyalkanoates with long alkyl substituents.51(6):765-72 1999 1117 Foster LJ. Michigan State University. Westfälische WilhelmsUniversität Münster.J.xls . Amherst 01003-4505.page 281 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A poly-betahydroxybutyrate complex extracted from the plasma membranes of genetically competent Escherichia coli contained polyhydroxybutyrate:polyp hosphate:calcium in molar ratios approximating 1:1:0. Repaske A.

M.4. Dieter. L. BRAKE LOREN D (US). Symp. Schirmer. Tel. Gerrit.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Wyndmoor. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 1995. fax: ?1 215 2336795. 41. Meeting Date 1996.G. 17:977982 1995 599.. Ont. J. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (1997). J. C4 to C14 with some Pseudomonas resino6orans. Foglia TA United States Department of Agriculture.J.page 282 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1119 Ashby RD. Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversitat Gottingen. 1120 SUBRAMANIAN NARAYANAN S (US) DU PONT (US) Rapid depolymerization of polyhydroxy acids US5264626 1993-11-23 1993 Rapid recovery from waste of high molecular weight polyhydroxyacid content by depolymerizing the PHA in acidic water. * Corresponding author. 37077. Eastern Regional Research Center. Editor(s): Eggink.A. Cromwick AM. of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). e-mail: Radiation crosslinking of a bacterial medium-chain-length rashby@arserrc. mono-unsaturation in the Radiation crosslinking C12 and C14 alkyl side ganze Artikel BRAKE LOREN D (US). SUBRAMANIAN NARAYANAN S 1121 (US) DU PONT (US) 1122 Mee. L. 1997 In this study we continued our investigations on the mechanisms of bacterial degrdn. Robertson. USA.: ?1 215 2336483.W. Rene Germany 1124 Recent advances in characterization of bacterial PHA depolymerases Int. van. This polymer had a repeat unit Keywords : Medium-chaincomposition ranging from length poly(hydroxyalkanoate).. 101:414-416 1993 1974 Recovery of polyhydroxy acids (PHAs) from waste containing high molecular weight polyhydroxy acid polymer by depolymerizing the PHA in water at elevated temperature and pressure. Int J Biol Macromol 1998 Jul. Handrick. Bact.23(1):61-72 1998 Pseudomonas resinovorans produces a medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (MCL-PHA) copolymer when grown on tallow (PHA-tal). Niel. PA 19038. In the first part we analyzed the extracellular poly(3hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) depolymerase of Pseudomonas fluorescens GK1 . Publisher: National Research Council of Canada.gov poly(hydroxyalkanoate) elastomer from tallow. E. Andreas. Jendrossek. Ottawa. US5229528 Rapid depolymerization of polyhydroxy acids Rapid determination of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid in blood and milk gas chromatography Rapid short-term poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production by Thiospora pantotropha in the presence of excess acetate 1993-07-20 Journal of Chromatography 1974. Gottingen. 89-101. 1123 Kuenen.xls .

dispersity (1. Snell. Kristi D. Lave. Acta biotechnol 1991. Scott A.k bacterial r fermentation: mini-review. Recent advances in the knowledge of the metabolism of bacterial polyhydroxyalcanoic acids and potential impacts on the production of biodegredable thermoplastics 1125 Lee SY. Sim. Hinmin. 14(3).81) during prodn. For the economical production of P 1126 Steinb chel. Recovering PHB from recombinant Escherichia coli by a Rep. Eng.apprx. and mol. 100084.page 283 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center. Jin. Chem. L. McMichael. China combined SDS-NaClO treatment Shengwu Gongcheng Xuebao (1998). A new process that the cell was treate .kaist. South Korea. Wong HH Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul.. Taejon. A. Li. Hogan. 342344 Chinese 1998 A combined SDS-NaClO method to recover PHB from recombinant E..ac. of polyhydroxyalkanoates in genetically engineered organism by control of the level and time of expression of one or more PHA syntha 532.. Chokyun Hendrickson. wt. Yin. C. coli HMS 174 (pTZ18uPHB) was studied.2. Yu. Choi J. Rha.. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology.4. wt. 1129 Zhongyao Dep. Recent advances in polyhydroxyalkanoate production by leesy@sorak.25(1-3):31-6 1999 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and other polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have been drawing much attention as biodegradable substitutes for conventional nondegradable plastics..xls . 56-60 549. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Beijing.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Anthony 1127 J. Tsinghua Univ. USA Recombinant preparation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) having controlled molecular weight in transgenic organisms with controlled expression of PHA synthase WO 9804713 Reconsider recycling 19980205 1998 1995 Chemtech 1995. Shen.02. Peop. Sinskey. 11(5):419-427 1991 A method has been developed for control of mol. The adding order of SDS and NaClO affected the result of this method and the reason was analyzed. Hongqi. 1128 F. Sang Jun...

hanley@durham. Chavarie. Elborough a . METZNER KLAUS DR OLEFINVERB GMBH 1134 (DE) (DE) Recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoates produced by microbial DE19712702 fermentation 1998-10-01 1998 A method for recovering polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) compounds produced by fermentation of microorganisms comprises mechanical breakdown of the cells.C.. University of Durham. DH13LE. 531. and optionally also water. acid) synthesized in Alcaligenes eutrophus and recombinant Escherichia coli.61(1):34-9 Biotechnology techniques 1990. Chang YK. Biodegradable confirmed by: (1) polyester sequenc ganze Artikel . *. BRAKE LOREN D 1133 (US) PONT (US) DU Recovery of polyhydroxy acids US5264614 1993-11-23 1993 Polyhydroxyacid (PHA) is recovered by heating under pressure in the presence of a C1-C6 alcohol.z.. 1132 Herron. The amount of PHB degraded to a lower-molecular-weigh Objective Hardware Ablage 1130 Hahn SK. Darryl J.. Antoni R.uk granule binding. J. This was granule. King. Re-evaluation of the primary structure of Ralstonia White a .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 14. Phasin. then drying of the PHA-containing a Department of Biological Sciences. London. Ralstonia eutropha. WC2A 3PX. UK *Corresponding Steven Zachary Hanley a. Fax: +44 (191) Pappin b .. 35:251-257 1995 1990 1978 499. E-mail: eutropha phasin and Kieran M. Taejon. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Recovery and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyric Technology. Andrew J. Lee SY Ramsay.4.S.ac implications for polyhydroxyalkanoic acid 1135 Slabas a . Dinah Rahman b . C. Durham. Recovery of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoic acid granules by y surfactant-hydrochlorite tratment Recovery of Poly-beta-Hydroxybutyrate from Estuarine Microflora Appl Environ Microbiol 1995 Jan.A.D.. followed by removal of the cell fragments and dissolved components. J. UK b Imperial Cancer Research Fund.447(1):99-105 1999 Abstract Sequence analysis of several cDNAs encoding the phasin protein of Ralstonia eutropha indicated that the carboxyl terminus of the resulting derived protein sequence Key words: Alcaligenes is different eutrophus. 377 2417.page 284 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract We studied recovery of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) from Alcaligenes eutrophus and a recombinant Escherichia coli strain harboring the A. SEMBRITZKI THORSTEN (DE). author. J. eutrophus poly(3hydroxyalkanoic acid) biosynthesis genes. E.C. SELA BUNA SOW LEUNA MARION (DE). D. s. Berger. 1131 B.xls . BioProcess Engineering Research Center. Ramsay. from that reported Polyhydroxyalkanoic acid previously. 4:221-226 Applied and Enviromental Microbiology 1978. White. FEBS Lett 1999 Mar 19.A.

C. was constructed in Escherichia coli. K. Markbreiter. Microbiol. Ralstonia eutropha H 16 This inhibition results in a Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 decrease Strain ..Membrane Biol.. Wilson. 1975.. P. In Hydrogenomonas H 16 the synthesis of the enzymes of the EntnerDoudoroff degradative pathway is repressed by molecular hydrogen. V.. 1141 H. Regulation des Poly-beta-hydroxybuttersäureStoffwechsels bei Hydrogenomonas eutropha Stamm H 16 und PHBS-freie Mutanten Dissertation 1972 1972 Strain .F. J.-dependent gene regulation under fed-batch Appl. 1139 Nieder. James Madison University. system in which the expression and gene dosage of the Alcaligenes eutrophus pha biosynthetic operon were effectively regulated by cultivation temp.Metabolism 276. 283. M. was constructed in Escherichia Alcaligenes operon pha cloning coli. Department Biology..G. Regulation of Alkane Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida J Bacteriol. D. ACS. USA Institut für Mikrobiologie Abteilung Bakterienphysiologie Göttingen Regulated expression of the Alcaligenes eutrophus pha biosynthesis genes in Escherichia coli. Valentin H E. poly-betahydroxybutyrate production by recombinant Escherichia coli with temp.. Toepfer.fully induced cells grown 6-P Dehydrogenase on fructose the utilization Hydrogenomonas H 16 of fructose in inhibited. The pha operon was regulation fused Regulation of PHB-Metabolism Hydrogenomonas H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Abstract unavailable. (1995) 61. Appl. Fennewald. Virginia 22807. 1982. A. F. John. Grund.JMU. F-. 63:177-196 1968 168. Babel. 1391-8 (English) 1995 1995 A novel poly-bhydroxybutyrate (PHB) prodn. 1142 Blackkolb. The pha oper Objective Hardware Ablage Kidwell J. M. Douglas 1138 Oeding. . Shapiro.. M.EDU Regulated expression of the Alcaligenes eutrophus pha biosynthesis genes in Escherichia coli.Environ. Harrisonburg. 1140 Erecinska. 126(2):723-732 1975 1982 373. 1391-98 culture conditions 1995 Kidwell. 70:41640 Regulation of chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase and prephenate dehydrogenase from Alcaligenes eutrophus Journal of Bacteriology 1976.G. Schlegel. 61(4).xls . 1968. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen Regulation of Glucose-6-phosphat Dehydrogenase from Hydrogenomonas by ATP and Reduced Pyridin Nucleotides / Regulation der Glucose-6-phosphatDehydrogenase aus Hydrogenomonas H 16 durch ATP und NADH2 Arch. Environ.G. Valentin. VA 22807.. M. 123:546-556 Regulation of cellular energy metabolism J. Friedrich.Metabolism 156. In Entner Doudoroff Pathway . James Madison University. 1976 1. Leahy. Henry E. Email: FAC_DENNIS@VAX1.G. Bacha. H. 1137 Dennis. Harrisonburg.. Schlegel. J.Microbiol..4.. 4..page 285 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A novel poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) production system in which the expression and gene dosage of the Alcaligenes eutrophus pha biosynthetic operon were effectively regulated by temp.. Mikrobiol. *Dennis D 1136 Department of Biology. USA.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.

H.1. 44-9 (English) 1995 polyhydroxybutyrate formation Alcaligenes regulation CoA 1995 Univ. 41(Suppl.Wilke. School of Life Sciences. 105:109-115 Journal of General Microbiology 1976. UK. Ackermann JU. University Mansfield D A.page 286 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Mansfield. 1994.Hull. Universitat Leipzig. 1995 Metabolites assocd. Permoserstrasse 15. Cells were grown in Climited chemostat culture to provide negligible PHB. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis pathway 1144 (conference paper) Can. F. Babel W 1146 D. 44-49 4th International Symposium on Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanoates. (1995) 41. 1145 Mothes G.Schlegel 1147 Jackson. Montreal. 14-18 August. HU6 Regulation of PHB metabolism in Alcaligenes eutrophus.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Anderson. Canada. LO Department of Applied Biology. *Anderson A J.. A.A. Linda A.169(4):360-3 Arch. . e.Regulation of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis in 04318 Leipzig. Zeneca-BioProd. The intracellular concentration of CoA decreased from a high value of 13. Univ. and in N-limited chemostat culture fo The intracellular concentration of CoA metabolites and nucleotides was determined in batch cultures of Methylobacterium rhodesianum grown on methanol and shifted to growth on fructose.d.4. of Hull. D.xls . eutrophus was grown in C-limited chemostat culture to provide bacteria produ Metabolites associated with poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus NCIMB 40529 were measured. Dep. Microbiol. Methylobacterium Germany. Microbiol.. rhodesianum MB 126 growing on methanol or fructose. Alistair 1143 J.G. Regulation of PHB metabolism in Alcaligenes eutrophus. 1). of Applied Biology. UK Can. Hull. Sachsisches Institut fur Angewandte Biotechnologie (SIAB). Naylor... Regulation of the Pyruvate Kinase from Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 in vitro and in vivo Regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and poly-áhydroxybutyrate metabolism in Azobacter beijerinckii grown under nitrogen or oxygen limitation Arch Microbiol 1998 Apr. J..1975. with the poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) biosynthetic pathway in A. A 7RX. David A. Hull HU6 7RX. eutrophus were measured to gain an insight into the regulation of PHB synthesis in vivo.Microbiol. Dawes. Naylor L of Hull.J. 97:303313 1998 1975 1976 37. Suppl.

6% peptone (N source). B. 1148 Young Hoon Park 1. 7:205-242 Trans N Y Acad Sci 1966 Apr. of PHB formed in the cells. 29(1). in Göttingen and Institute for Microbiology. Rep.autotroph 154. H. regulation. 1151 Yu.. 101-8 (Chinese) 1994 Bacillus polyhydroxybutyrate formation sporulation 1994 The relation between spore formation and PHB synthesis by B. Ping. Mycol. Issue 6. Bacillus pantotrophus. Yusonggu. 1996. nicotinamide nucleotides Regulatory roles of nicotinamide nucleotides and three key enzymes. University of Göttingen. 373-1 enzyme activities Biotechnology & Bioengineering Kusong-dong. Shandong Daxue Xuebao.page 287 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage In Young Lee 1. and citrate synthase (CS).4. 1150 Bradley DF Institute for Microbiology of the Gesellschaft für Strahlenforschung mbH. West Regulatory phenomena in the metabolism of Germans knallgasbacteria Relation between structure and activity of biopolymers. Taejon 305-600. München. Pages: 707Yusong-gu.Metabolism Abstract unavailable. Wei. Shandong Univ. Xiujun. Zheng. on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis in recombinant Volume 52. kopiert 1149 Schlegel. NADPHdependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (AAR). Xin Dep. Korea 2Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Regulatory effects of cellular nicotinamide nucleotides and Center.xls .G. Spore formation took place . KAIST. Sang Yup Lee 2 * 1Bioprocess Technology Research Group. on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis in recombinant Escherichia coli harboring a pl The knallgasbacteria have been known to be facultative chemolithotrophic bacteria since Kaserer (1906) isolated the first strain. Taejo Escherichia coli 712 1996 poly(3-hydroxybutyrate).. When the growth media contained 3% glucose (C source) and 0. Ziran Kexueban. Guo. Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. oxygen and c Strain . Wang. ketothiolase (KT). Jinan. Mi Kyoung Kim 1. Eberhardt. This name clearly expresses the capability of the organisms to grow either with hydrogen.28(6):788-95 1972 1966 Alcaligenes . China Relationship between spore formation and PHB [poly-bhydroxybutyic acid] synthesis by Bacillus cereus. PHB synthesis. 1972.. Peop.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. cereus grew well and a large amt. Escherichia coli. cereus was examd. Microbiol. U.Pseudomonas heterotroph .

Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Respiration rates Synchronous cultures Synchronous cultures of Alcaligenes eutrophus (Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16) were prepared by a size selection method which gave high synchrony indices (0. meliloti on PHB cycle intermediates. Corr. encoding acetoacetyl coenzyme A (acetoacetyl39. Ste. .page 288 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Wild-type cells of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodospirillum rubrum strains Ha and S1 as well as mutant cells defective in the synthesis of poly-(3hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) were used to study the competition between PHB accumulation and photoprodn.App. 1152 Alexander. 1980. D. Department of Biochemistry. Goettingen W-3400.. Steinbuechel. 39(1). M.182(8):2113-8 Biochimicia et Biophysica Acta 1976. 9(1):36739 1980 Zentralbl Bakteriol [Orig] 1965 Dec. Microbiol.A. synthetase and Quebec poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase for H9X growth of Sinorhizobium 3V9. Mikrobiol. Respiratory properties of synchronous cultures of University of Leicester.Metabolism 115.70 to 0..85). 99:383388 1977 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16 .. Nawawy. Germany Relationship between the photoproduction of hydrogen and the accumulation of PHB in non-sulfur purple bacteria. Canada. Abstract unavailable. Appl. Inst. Hans G. . Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 prepared by a continuous-flow Leicester LE1 7RH size selection method Restricted oxygen supply and excretion of metabolitesI.J. McGill University.W. Department of Natural Resource Sciences. G. and Paracoccus denitrificans Journal of General Microbiology 1977.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.Microb. Pseudomonas spec. 1156 Vollbrecht. 440:412428 2000 1976 1155 Edwards.. Schlegel.Requirement for the enzymes acetoacetyl coenzyme A Anne-de-Bellevue. Biotechnol. El. 1157 Hippe H Europ. C. 87-93 (English) 1993 hydrogen formation purple bacteria polyhydroxybutyrate 1993 1153 Cai GQ. Jones. C.4. One locus was identified as the gene acsA. Eilert. Schlegel.xls . Objective Hardware Ablage Hustede. H. Unlike the smooth exponentioal increase which was observed in exponentially growing cul Strain .198(1):321-3 Reuse of poly-beta-deoxybutyric acid by Hydrogenomonas. Driscoll BT. of We have identified two Sinorhizobium meliloti chromosomal loci affecting the poly-3hydroxybutyrate degradation pathway. School of Biological Sciences. GeorgAugust-Univ.. I.Biotech. [Article in German] 1965 280. Respiratory components and oxidase activities in Alcaligenes eutrophus J Bacteriol 2000 Apr.. Charles TC 1154 Probst.

10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. MITSKY Rhodospirillum rubrum poly. Eng. Jin. S. 40-45 Chinese 1997 Center for Environmental Biotechnology. J. Chem. of the viable microbial biomass with indications of the community compn. STARK DAVID M (US). 1636-42 (English) 1995 1995 polyoxybutyrate polyoxyethylene blend rheol CLEMENTE THOMAS E (US).. Sarah J. and enzyme treatment. Ont. by DSC and SEM. A review with numerous refs. of poly(. David. Li. Peop. Editor(s): Eggink. Yoon.. Polym. 37932-2575. Meeting Date 1996. Publisher: National Research Council of Canada. properties of biodegradable poly[D(-)(3hydroxybutyrate)] (PHB) blended with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) have been studied. Park.. H-S. chem. and nutritional/physiol. J..beta. S. KISHORE GANESH M (US). are provided.xls . Hongqi 1158 Dep. status. resp. and rheol. Ottawa. White. H... Ringelberg. 100084. Symp. A rotatio Isolated DNA fragments encoding a Rhodospirillum rubrum (ATCC 25903) polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase... Macnaughton. Knoxville. Gerrit. David C. Also provided is the deduced amino acid sequence of the R. USA 1159 Review of PHA and signature lipid biomarker analysis for quantitative assessment of in situ environmental microbial ecology Int. disruption. B. J. 1997 Choi. Sci. Zhongyao. morphol. Beijing. Thermal properties and morphol.. or biologically functional equivalents thereof. anal. Eng.beta -hydroxyalkanoate 1161 TIMOTHY A (US) MONSANTO CO (US) synthase US5849894 1998-12-15 1998 . Inha Rheological study on poly-D-(-)(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its Univ. Rep. Tsinghua Univ. Inchon 402-751. mech.. Dep. Choi.. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (1997). of the blends were examd.hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) from microorganisms including solvent extn.. blend with S.page 289 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A review with 40 refs. The Objective Hardware Ablage Shen. 1160 Lee. S.4. Korea poly(ethylene oxide). Polymer Science Engineering. rubrum PHA synthase. on methods for extn. (SLB) provides quant. 11(5). of the membrane lipid Aspects of thermal. Bact. Signature lipid biomarker anal. reagent treatment. 35(20). H. China Review of methods for recovering PHb from microorganism Huagong Shikan (1997). University of Tennessee. SLB is based on extn. Yin. 161-170. TN.

Ankara.j mu. A. Dennis. Sci.. Appl. Biomater. 2487-92 (English) 1995 polyhydroxyalkanoate formation Escherichia gene fadR atoC 1995 1165 Doudoroff. Email: fac_dennis@vax1. 8(12). VA 22807. Biol. E. James Madison University.. M.page 290 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Chem. Eng. Environ. (1997). Harrisonburg. Polym. by a solvent evapn. Zhao. Berkeley organic carbon by bacteria Nature 1959.Environ.acs. Bioengineering Div. technique. poly-betahydroxybutyrate and poly-beta-hydroxyvalerate copolymer overproduction using genes from Alcaligenes eutrophus Appl. Turk. 7.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Y.xls . Denkbas. Xu.. Kyung Hee Role of fadR and atoC(Con) mutations in Univ. . 75.Y. Ho Gun. i. coli fadR atoC(Con) mutants contg. R. Department of Bacteriology and Miller Institute.. (1995) 61. in which Rhie H G. Microbiol.e. 2487-92 1995 Recombinant fadR (negative fatty acid oxidation regulator) and atoC(Con) (positive fatty acid uptake regulator) mutant Escherichia coli LS5218 with poly-betahydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis genes from Alcaligenes eutrophus on a plas Recombinant E. 947potential chemoembolization agent 961 1997 The authors attempt to prep.. Ch. Ed. *Dennis D 1163 Univ...Microbiol. Stanier. The drug loaded PHB microspheres were prepd.. the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis genes from Alcaligenes eutrophus are able to incorporate significant levels of 3hydroxyvalerate (3HV) into the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co3-hydroxyvale kopiert 1164 Rhie. 183:1440-1442 1959 No abstract.. Dep. S. B. 1162 Rifampicin carrying polyhydroxybutyrate microspheres as a J. K.. S. Kassab. Universiy of Role of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid in the assimilation of California. Hacettepe Univ. polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as a potential chemoembolization agent. Seoul poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) synthesis in 130-701..3-hydroxyvalerate) synthesis in recombinant pha+ Escherichia coli. microspheres from a microbial biodegradable polyester. Douglas Dep. Korea recombinant pha+ Escherichia coli. USA. 61(7). Dou.Kyung-Hee LO Department of Biology. Piskin...edu Role of fadR and atoC(Con) mutations in poly(3hydroxybutyrate)-co. E.4.

University of Minnesota. Stoup SK. K. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing bacterial polyhydroxybutyrate-synthase produces poly-3hydroxybutyrate. University of Malaya.. N.. Microbiology 1996 May.. Peterson M S.4. Sudesh Kumar (3). (1) Department of Chemistry. containing the Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxybutyratesynthase gene under the control of a yeast GAL10/CYC1 hybrid promoter. . Somers D. Marchessault. 1479 Gortner Avenue. 50603 Kuala Lumpur. USA. J. K. PA 16081 USA (3) Institute of Advanced Studies.D. St. University of Malaya. PennState University. Barrington. polyhydroxybutyrate synthase produces poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. metabolic engineering Microbiology.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. S. T. 1169-80 1996 Plasmid pTL85. State College. 1994. 5.page 291 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Leaf TA. Peterson MS. was constructed. Srienc F Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. 59:83-89 1994 The synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by Pseudomonas putida PGA1. P. The PHA produced from SPKO was compared with those produced by the major fr 490.142 ( Pt 5):1169-80 1996 The polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase gene of the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus was used to construct a yeast plasmid which enabled expression of the functional synthase enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. University of Minnesota. was investigated. using saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO). Biotechnol. 240 Gortner Laboratory. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate preparation by Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxybutyrate-synthase gene expression in yeast. MN 55108. Saponified palm kernel oil and its major free fatty acids as carbon substrates for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas putida PGA1 Scale-up of a Cyclone Bioreactor Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 47 Issue 3 (1997) pp 207-211 1997 J.F. St Paul Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing bacterial 55108. P. Malaysia (2) Polymer Program. S. (1996) 142. Theanmalar (3).xls . (2) Sheppard. Tan (3). *Srienc F 1167 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. Cells transformed with the synthase plasmid ac Leaf T A. Stoup S K. Gan (1). USA. Paul. 1169 Whalen. 1168 Gordon III. Tech. Chem. M. B. 1166 Somers D. The plasmid carried a high copy number yeast 2-um plasmid replication origin I.

5.. J. (1999) 13. Bakken Screening of Soil Bacteria for Poly-beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid Production and Its Role in the Survival of Starvation Microb Ecol 35:94-101 (1998) © 1998 by Springer-Verlag New York. Bormann E J. Fax: 49 (0)941 943 3106 email: <HANSPETER.MOLITORIS@ biologie. 539-44 1999 Poly-beta-hydroxbutate (PHB) is a member of a family of polyesters in which more than 40 different hydroxyalkanoic acids are constituents (poly-betahydroxyalkanoates). Moss (2). DSelection of capsule deficient strains of Methylobacterium 07745 Jena. Wang. P. When grown in a nitrogenfree.. Pseudomonas lemoignei and Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13 is reported.DE> Scanning electron microscopy of polyhydroxyalkanoate 1170 M. Jendrossek (4) degradation by bacteria Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Bacterial degradation of sheets of selected polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. HansKnollInst. de Koning (3). S. V. poly-betaGermany. rhodesianum producing polyhydroxybutyrate. REGENSBURG. Germany.Prod.xls . Universitätsstrasse 31. Linss W.Je na. 1998 Seventy-three bacterial strains were isolated from a clay-loam soil and screened for poly-betahydroxybutyric acid (PHB) production. PHB is a biodegradable thermoplastic polyester. Five natural Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 46 Issue 5/6 (1996) pp 570-579 1996 polyhydroxyalkanoates were used. Molitoris (1).Res. UNIH.JenaFriedrich-Schiller LO Innovent e. L.G. Inc. T.page 292 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) (1) Institut für Botanik der Universität Regensburg. Leissner M 1173 Innovent-Jena. The pseudomonads. 23 strains produced PHB homopolymer.4. D. Such homo and . Biomaterialien. Roth M. namely po 1171 J.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. Felsbachstr. Univ. hydroxybutyrate production Biotechnol. D-93040 Regensburg. 8.Natur. carbon-rich medium.R.Tech. G.

Göttingen.. Germany Selection of mutants not accumulating storage material Reprint from "Radiation and Radioisotopes for Industrial Microorganism". RAMSAY JULIANA (CA).b. BRAUNEGG GERHART 1178 (AT) ECOLE POLYTECH (CA) Separation of poly. in a carbon-limited environment. Stanford. Gram-neg. München. 1971 1971 Hydrogenomonas eutropha H 16 .G. The process of the invention proposes t .Metabolism A freshwater Spirillum sp. 1174 Shuanglin Department of Biology.m. H..Metabolism 105. California 94305. Accumulation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid and its role in starvation.und Umweltforschung m.0 . USA Selective advantage of a Spirillum sp. International Atomic Energy Agency. 1176 Veenhuis M Department of Medical Microbiology.2 x 2.xls . the hypha was very long 1175 Schlegel. Stanford University.H. China Selection of high-yield PHB producing strain by technique of protoplasts Weishengwuxue Tongbao (1999).1.page 293 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Xue.Pseudomonas continous culture 65. BERGER ERIC (FR).beta -hydroxyalkanoic acid from microbial biomass US5110980 1992-05-05 1992 Hypochlorite digestion of bacterial biomass to recover intracellular polybeta -hydroxylalkanoic acid (PHA) has not been used on a large scale since it has been widely reported to severely degrade the polymer. 1978). RAMSAY BRUCE A (CA). V. Xifeng. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen. Rep. accumulated poly-betahydroxybutyric acid (PHB) during lactate-limited growth in continuous culture. 26(3). Qingyang College. 172175 Chinese 1999 A Strain of Sphaerotilus natans from 6 polluted water samples was isolated. CHAVARIE CLAUDE (CA). Stegeman V.4. it had sheath that cells were in it. Matin A. Jiang. Oeding. 0. bacteria. The production of singlecell protein has been recommended in order to increase the protein recources for animal and human nutrition. which apparently belongs to a niche of low nutritional status (Matin & Veldkamp.Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Mutants Selection of mutants not accumulating storage materials.112(2):349-55 1979 Spirillum .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Peop. The strain had some main features as follows: bacillus. Lingui. 745000.mu. Wang. J Gen Microbiol 1979 Jun.0-5. The PHB content varied in a complex ma Strain . Weiguo.85. Microorganisms generally accumulate reserve materials (triglycer Strain . Veldhuis C.

95125 Catania.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. NA. Q.4. Lenz RW. Impallemeni.19(1):29-34 1996 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are synthesized by many bacteria as inclusion bodies.xls . the reserve polyester produced included both a homopolymer and a copolymer. PHPV. G. Viale Polimerice. Beijing 100084. Montaudo. net. Doria 6. D. contained only 3hyd 663. Fuller RC Department of Polymer Science and Engineering.. Fourier transform 1181 G. Viale A. 1179 M. Italy. University of Sequential production of two different polyesters in the Massachusetts.Highbeen optimized in order to performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) . and their biodegradability and structural diversity have been studied with a view to their potential application as biodegrad microbes@public3. Garozzo. Sun (2).P(HB-co-HV) and raction kinetics has Methanolysis . 22:2107-2111 1989 The partial methanolysis of poly(betahydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and pf poly(betahydroxybuyrate-co-betahydroxyvalerate) (P(HB-coHV) has been performed.Fast produce oligomeres with molecular masses below Copolyesters atom bombardment mass the d Analytics spectrometry When Pseudomonas oleovorans was grown on a mixture of 5phenylvaleric acid. Huang (3) Tsinghua infrared spectroscopy Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 51 Issue 4 (1999) pp 523-526 1999 .. Copolyester . Hong (1) (1). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.: +861062783844 Fax: +861062788784 short contribution: A rapid method for detecting bacterial (2) polyhydroxyalkanoates in intact cells by K. USA. Tsinghua University. W. Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche. Chen (1). and nonanoic acid. A. Sequencing bacterial poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-betahydroxyvalerate) by partial methanolysis. inclusion bodies of Amherst 01003. Analysis Centre. PVA. G..cn Tel. (1) Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology. highperformance liquid chromatography fractionation and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry analysis Macromolecules 1989. Tian (1). Pseudomonas oleovorans.bta. 1180 Curley JM.. S. The homopolymer poly-3hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate. Università di Catanio.page 294 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Ballistreri. Giuffrida. W. China e-mail: Int J Biol Macromol 1996 Jul.

properties. or palm oil was fed as a sole carbon source. Department of Chemistry. McGill University. Y. Fukui.: +81 48 467 9402 Fax: +81 48 462 4667 e-mail: short contribution: Efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from plant oils by ydoi@postman. and phys. 1183 Roth (3). Polyhydroxyalkanoates (1997). Middelberg. In ferme A review with 22 refs.. S. Editor(s): Eggink. Doi Polymer Chemistry Laboratory.V.. short contribution: Production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Germany Ralstonia eutropha from protein hydrolysates Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 49 Issue 3 (1998) pp 333-336 1998 The ability of Alcaligenes eutrophus to grow and produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) on plant oils was evaluated.. Symp. Leißner (2). J. Felsbachstr. corn oil. Folded chain single crystals of linear polymers are cryst. Hocking.R. D-07743 Jena.riken.. 110-118. Gerrit. Like small mols. Martin. Japan Tel. Metzner (4) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 50 Issue 5 (1998) pp 604-607 1998 Marchessault. When olive oil.J.N. 5. 1186 J. PQ. Lee./Biomaterialien.G. kinetics of growth. 17(2):205-210 1995 620. Geoffrey A..R. B. Ottawa.xls .4. Robert H. Chang.P. lamellae whose shape. Bormann (1). Meeting Date 1996. Saitama 351-0198. Beer (1). The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN).: +49-36-41-28-2522 Fax: +49-3641-28-25-30 (2) Fachhochschule Jena. A. M. K. Can. hydroxybutyrate). not all poly(. H.. 508-511 1982 Size analysis of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) granules produced in recombinant Escherichia coli Biotechnology Letters 1995.g Alcaligenes eutrophus o and its recombinant strain 1) Innovent e. the wild-type strain o Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was produced by Ralstonia eutropha DSM 11348 (formerly Alicaligenes eutrophus) in media containing 20-30 g l1 casein peptone or casamino acids as sole sources of nitrogen..Y. Int. Wakoshi. Ont. Publisher: National Research Single crystal highlights and enzymic degradation of poly(3Council of Canada. R. H3A 2A8. Germany Tel. and perfection depend on copolymer compn. Bact. M.page 295 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1182 T. Bereich Wirtschaftsingenieurw esen. D07747 Jena. 1184 1185 Howells. stereochem. PHB 1997 Single-cell protein and related technology Chemistry and Industry 1982. Montreal. Nobes. E. .beta 231. E. D. Williams.. Hirosawa 2-1.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.. Philippa J.

melt processing of the material is accompanied by thermal degrdn.. Miyaki. Martin-Luther-Univ. Y.. Stazione Speriment. 9:774-780 1976 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a completely biodegradable polyester. Afr.. Cellulosa. P. Symp. 3368-75 (English) 1993 1993 polyhydroxybutyrate polyepichlorohydrin blend phase structure glass temp polyhydroxybutyrate polyepichlorohydrin blend morphol annealing polyhydroxybutyrate polyepichlorohydrin blend crystallinity polyhydroxybutyrate polyepichlorohydrin blend Isothermally crystd. 1188 S. The lateral crystal dimensions of I increased with annealing treatment and with increasing II content in th Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has emerging potential for use as a biodegradable thermoplastic. Hirosye. Macromolecules 1977. Y. Y. Because of poor thermal stability. Department of Chemical Engineering. Ini Cilliers. Rondebosch 7700. the polymer remains in granular form. 1190 H.. Y.R. Metzner. Milan 20133.. Fujita. A. 2. 1187 Martuscelli.. L. 227240 1998 Macromolecules 1976..4. D-06099. "Green" Polymers.page 296 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Sadocco.. L. Publ. properties.. solid-liquid separation of PHB by froth flotation. require its rigorous washing and dewatering. (1998). Spec. Thomas. 1. . Halle/Saale. 113-19 (English) 1994 polyhydroxybutyrate extn froth flotation 1994 Luepke.. T. 127(Rolduc Polymer Meeting 10: "Petro" Polymers vs. from the bacterial source. S. and poor mech. M. Seves.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. J. Miyaki. Harrison. Klaus 1189 Akita. E. Carta Fibre Tessili Veg. biosynthesis and Characterization Solution properties of poly(D-beta-hydroxybutyrate). 158(Separations for Biotechnology 3). . Johnson. Einaga. Soc. H. produced by bacterial fermn. 1997). Chem. Italy Small-angle x-ray scattering study of the phase structure of poly(D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate) and atactic poly(epichlorohydrin) blends.xls . To prevent 5. University of Cape Town. 34(16).. J.. Germany Solid-state processing of PHB powders Solution properties of PHB. Light scattering and viscosity in trifluoroethanol and behaviour of highly expanded polymer coils Macromol. by WAXD and SAXS. In its extn. Radusch. Polymer. S. and annealed blends of poly(D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate) (I) and atactic poly(epichlorohydrin) (II) were examd.. Hans Joachim. 10:1356-1364 1977 6. Hence the final stages of extn. Artificiali. T. Canetti. Einaga. 1191 Fujita. S.

acetonitrile. 1194 SCHECHTMAN LEE ARNOLD 1195 NODA ISAO PROCTER & GAMBLE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF POLYHYDROXYWO9707230 (US) ALKANOATES FROM BIOMASS 1997-02-27 Solvent extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoates from biomass facilitated by the use of PROCTER & GAMBLE a marginal nonsolvent for pha AU6775896 1997-03-12 1997 1997 Abstract unavailable. OH. the process comprising extracting the polyhydroxyalkanoate with at least one PHA solvent selected from the group consisting of acetone. . poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate purification method WO 9707229 27 Feb 1997 1997 SCHECHTMAN LEE 1193 ARNOLD (US). and involves treating the biomass with a PHA solvent and a marginal nonsolvent for PHA. acetonitrile. ben Objective Hardware Ablage Procter+Gamble LO Cincinnati. and removing the PHA solvent fro The present invention relates to a process for separating polyhydroxyalkanoate from a biomass.page 297 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract A method for separating poly-betahydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from a biomass is claimed. ben The present invention relates to a process for separating polyhydroxyalkanoate from a biomass. NODA ISAO (US) PROCTER & GAMBLE US5942597 (US) Solvent extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoates from biomass 1999-08-24 1999 NODA ISAO. the process comprising extracting the polyhydroxyalkanoate with at least one PHA solvent selected from the group consisting of acetone.xls . 1192 Noda I Solvent extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from biomass. removing any insoluble biomass.4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. USA.

Masako Taisei Corp. Ultrastructural Research 1972. Isao 1199 Dunlop.xls . the process comprising: a) treating the biomass with a PHA solvent and a marginal nonsolvent for PHA. Sato. JP 04156998 A2 29 May 1992 Heisei.4. and measurement of the cu 327. United States of America SCHECHTMAN. Yuji. United States of America THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY. A. the process comprising extracting the polyhydroxyalkanoate with at least one PHA solvent selected from the group consisting 1198 NODA. Robards. Fairfield. Tomosawa. Yasuko. Owen. One Procter & Gamble Plaza.. 2069 Edinburg Lane. 1200 Bongers. 1997 1997 The present invention relates to a process for separating polyhydroxyalkanoate from a biomass. THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES FROM BIOMASS FACILITATED BY THE USE OF A MARGINAL NONSOLVENT FOR PHA EP846184A1 June 10. Kokai Tokkyo Koho sludge. Arnold . Ind. United SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF States of POLYHYDROXY-ALKANOATES FROM America BIOMASS WO9707230A1 Feb. OH 1197 45014. 212. Colloid and Polymer Sci 1988. 40:391-400 1998 1972 1970 Abstract unavailable. Some aspects of continuous cultures of hydrogen bacteria Develop. 1998 Some artifacts of the freeze-etching technique J. Lee. Takashi. 5 pp. 266:241-247 1988 A simple and rapid method for monitoring changes in the PHB (polyester) accumulation in active sludge involves: cultivation of test active sludge contg. 1202 Shibayama. Isao . W. b) removing any insoluble 1998 NODA.J.page 298 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1196 NODA ISAO (US) Solvent extraction of polyhydroxy-alkanoates from biomass PROCTER & GAMBLE facilitated by the use of (US) marginal nonsolvent US5821299 1998-10-13 The present invention relates to a process for separating polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from a biomass comprising the PHA. Katsuo. OH 45202... A.F. 45. 1568 Hunter Road. Japan Spectrometric monitoring of changes in PHB accumulation in active Jpn.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Niimura.W. 11:241-255 Some structural and mechanical properties of bacterially produced poly-á-hydroxybutyrate-co-á-hydroxyvalerate 1201 Bauer. Cincinnati. H. multiple species of microorganisms under conditions of restricted N sources. Microbiol. L. OH 45014. (Japan 1992 active sludge PHB accumulation monitoring spectrometry sludge PHB accumulation monitoring . 1970. Fairfield. Saito. 27.

Powers.Plasmid stability . E. of filled property particulate maize starch reinforcing effect destructured granules were starch polyhydroxybutyrate investigated. Pera. C. Int. 28:291-299 1993 Escherichia coli . Y. Regensburg 93040.Metabolism 121.N. M. G.Ralstonia eutropha H 16 .Y. It was recognized that the PHBbiosynthesis genes c Gentetics 429. Department of Bacteriology and Public Health.. 333. J. Lee.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. t. Owen. 1:167 1996 The structure and mech. Polym. Abstract unavailable. 1206 Koller. G. Washington State University.. A-8010 Graz. Corti. Chang. H. Institut für Biotechnologie.L.. Chiellini. properties of melt-pressed sheets of bacterially produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and 3-hydroxybutyrate-3starch filled hydroxyvalerate polyhydroxybutyrate property copolymer (PHB/HV) filled hydroxyvalerate with hydroxybutyrate polymer starch various amts. 59:295-301 Stimulatory effects of amino acids and oleic acid on poly(3hydroxybutyric acid) synthesis by recombinant Escherichia Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering coli 1995. A.. A. H. Chen. A-4021 Linz. Universitaet Regensburg. Analytics 172. 1207 Vallini. J. Petersgasse 12. St. Stability of r-microbes: stabilization of plasmid vectors by 1205 Grohmann. A.. boehringer Hydroxybutyrat im Blut Spritzguss biologisch abbaubarer Polymere f r die Medizintechnik Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) beta-hydroxybutyrid acid in blood 65-71 Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1203 1204 Greive. 39(3).W. 654.. F. The rate of endogenous oxygen consumption by such cells was markedly increased by Mn++ and even more Strain .T... 79:177-180 1967 Sphaerotilus discophorus Mn++ .Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 . Cioni. 1995 511.tac promoter The genes for biosynthesis of the biodegradable polymer poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) cloned from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 were used for synthesis of PHB with recombinant Escherichia coli strains. O.Mg++ When grown with glucose.page 299 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Title Spezielle Untersuchungsmethoden f r das klinischchemische LaborEnzymatische Bestimmung von D-(-)-3mannheim. Austria the partitioning function of broad-host-range plasmid RP4 Journal of Biotechnology 1993.Lenz Institut Physik III. S. 1208 R.Q... 1209 Stokes. R. S. M. Technische Universität Graz. E.. Schwab.. T Starch-filled polyethylene in a composting environment: evidence for polyethylene matrix oxidation Stereoregular Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates: Produced by Bacteria or prepared from á-Lactones 1993 569. Stimulation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate oxidation in Sphaerotilus discophorus by manganese and magnesium Archiv f r Mikrobiologie 1967. Pullman.. btf-Biotechnologische Forschungsgesellschaf Haigermoser.. Hrabak. . Washington 1210 Lee. I.K. Peterstrasse 25. Solaro.Plasmid RP4 Partitioning .xls . Korr. 175-81 (English) 1996 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1993. discophorus synthesized large amounts of poly-betahydroxybutyrate which accumulated intracellularly as sudanophilic granules. Austria.4. Germany Starch-filled PHB and PHB/HV copolymer.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2000 Jun. 165-174 1999 . Julianalaan 67.page 300 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract This paper discusses the poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) metabolism in aerobic. Attilio. 2628 Stoichiometry and kinetics of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate BC metabolism Delft.nl cultures.6 kDa subunits. Deborah. Symp. Heijnen JJ Kluyver Laboratory for Biotechnology. 34127. Paletta F.4.67(4):379-89 2000 Beun JJ. Biochemistry 1999 Nov 23. slow growing.tudelft. PHB and polyP are ubiquitous cellular The structural and thermal properties of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) gels in DMF are presented and discussed. 1214 Sussich.68(5):496-507 2000 1213 Reusch RN Department of Microbiology. The dil. Verhoef EV. was found to contain two nonproteinaceous polymers. under denitrifying conditions in activated The Netherlands. Macromolecole. producing a gel in which the cryst. Univ.beun@stm. Michigan State University. 2628 BC Stoichiometry and kinetics of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate Delft. Paradossi. activated sludge cultures. The dynamic conditions which occur The objective of this research was to obtain a more detailed insight in the kinetics and stoichiometry of poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) metabolism in activated sludge cultures. Gaio Dipartimento Biochim. Delft University of Technology. Italy Structural and thermodynamic features of the polyhydroxybutyrate physical gels Macromol. Heijnen JJ Kluyver Laboratory for Biotechnology. Julianalaan 67. Trieste. USA. namely. Tgel. on cooling at a temp. aerobic. metabolism in The Netherlands. Trieste. mixed PHB/DMF system undergoes a phase sepn.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Van Loosdrecht 1211 MC. Biofis. 138(Polymer-Solvent Complexes and Intercalates II). sludge cultures. Biotechnol Bioeng 2000 Feb 20. Van Loosdrecht 1212 MC. Fabri.xls . and semi-dil. Delft University of Technology. slow growing. Chim.38(47):15666-72 1999 Cesaro. The process of storage and deg The Streptomyces lividans KcsA potassium channel. poly(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). activated sludge j. Streptomyces lividans potassium channel contains rnreusch@msu. East Lansing 48824. Fabiana. based on experimental data and on a metabolic model. (1999). a homotetramer of 17. Objective Hardware Ablage Beun JJ.edu poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate and inorganic polyphosphate.

page 301 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1215 Abe H. C-K. Structure and enzymatic degradation of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) copolymer single crystals with an extracellular PHB depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis T1 Structure and properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4hydroxybutyrate) produced by Alcaligenes latus Int. Biotechnol.Tech. J. 167-71 1997 The aim of this study was to identify the structure of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) containing 4hydroxyalkanoic acids by GC-MS. . S. Japan 1219 Kang.0198.go.jp (Y. Macromol.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. College of Engineering. Hironori Japan Sasatsuki b . Japan. 169-176 Biotechnology Letters 1995. The enzymatic degradation of polyester films was Department of Chemical Technology. Biol. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN ).: ?81-48-467-9402. 48-462-4667. Saitama. Single 10 mol%-4crystals of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) hydroxybutyrate) copolymers ganze Artikel 516. Wako-shi.4. poly-gammahydroxyalkanoate production by Comamonas sp. Yoshiharu Doi a. 1216 Lee E Y. Koe. The films of polyesters were prepared by both the solution-cast and melt-crystallized techniques. Structural effects on enzymatic degradabilities for poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] and its copolymers. 17:583-588 1999 1995 Lamellar single crystals of four random copolymers of (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate with different hydroxyalkanoates: poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-8 mol%-3hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-8%-3HV)). 3. Enzymatic degradation.E-mail address : Hachiouji. The bacteria were cultured at 30 deg overnight in a nutrient broth.. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 Jun-Jul. *. Shin-ichi Nakayama b .. fax: ?81. harvested. Doi Y Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. 25(1-3). Saitama 351. (1999). Tokyo 1921217 ydoi@postman. Tadahisa Iwata a .Kogakuin Uni6ersity. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN).riken. author. *Choi C Y Structural identification of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing 4-hydroxyalkanoic acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and its application to bacterial screening. Tel.25(1-3):185-92 1999 Poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] and its copolymers were prepared by biosynthetic and chemosynthetic methods.. Korea.xls . Seoul National University. (1997) 11. Doi) 0015. Hirosawa. Kusaka. Seoul 151742. suspended and incubated in a N a Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. b Department of Shinya Teramachi b* Corresponding Applied Chemistry. Y. poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-coElectron micrography.

and properties of both the membrane membrane a Strain .gen. D. Bloembergen.. Morowitz. 369. C.M. D.Microbiol. Bluhm. The enzyme has ben purified from autotrophically grown cells and tested for NAD-dependent hydrogenase . 100:25-39 1974 109. Merrick. 34:441-446 1964 A membrane surrounding poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules isolated from both Bacillus cereus and B. University of Hull. Universiy of Buffalo. Williams. Taidi.F.. München. S. 19:2865- 1986 Nocardia opaca strain I b has a NAD-depended hydrogenase (hydrogen dehydrogenase). Department of Biochemistry.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Mikrobiol.variety of single.4. 1974. 1220 J. 49:441-459 1992 1970 468. The Norcardia opaca strain Ib purification procedure Hydrogen bacteria involved protamine sulfate Chemolithotrophic bacteria tr Strain .K.J.a.page 302 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Lundgren..M. USA. Dawesa. in Göttingen. H. D. R.. Nocardia Universität Göttingen opaca 1 b Arch. 1221 G. Department of Bacteriology and Botany. School of Life Sciences and b School of Chemistry. T. UK 1223 B.Bacillus cereus . 103:93-102 J Mol. megaterium has been demonstrated by the carbon-replica technique and electron microscopy. 1964. 1970.xls . Syracuse. Marchessault.. Schlegel. D.b 1224 Morrison.a. Holden. Studies on copolyester synthesis by Rhodococcus ruber and factors influencing the molecular mass of polyhydroxyburyrate accumulated by Methylobacterium extorquens and Alcaligenes eutrophus Studies on Membrane Synthesis in Bacillus megaterium KM FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992.Enzymology Rhodococcus ruber NCIMB 40126 synthesizes copolyesters (polyhydroxyalkanoates) of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3hydroxyvalerate (3HV). Studies of composition and crystallinity of bacterial poly-(áhydroxybutyrate-co-á-hydroxyvalerate) Macromolecules 1986.a.und Umweltforschung mbH. containing primarily 3HV Rhodococcus ruber monomer units. H. Syracuse University. a Department of Applied Biology. . Biol. alcaligenes eutrophus chemically unrelated copolyester synthesis substrates.R.Bacillus Some general features megaterium . New York. und Institut für Mikrobiologie der Studies on a gram-positive hydrogen bacterium.. New York.G. USA Structure of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid granules J.. Buffalo. Anderson..H. R. M. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen. Hull.H. Hamer. J. Ewing.. A. D.G.Morphology 76. 1222 Aggag.A. PHB-granules . The 3HV molecular mass content of th 319. from a methylobacterium extorquens . Pfister.optimal assay conditions Hydrogen dehydrogenase and stability.A. E.

45-51 (English) 1994 1994 The degrdn. Jing Yu. de Alicante. (UCST and LCST. Jilun. by microorganisms in marine and freshwater biofouling environments polyhydroxyalkanoate water of polyhydroxyalkanoate SEM (PHA) films made from bacterial polyester biodegrdn exts. for soln. Study of biofouling of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) films in Alicante water by 03080. The exptl. Yang. Wang. Saucedo JE. Liu. China Study on high cell density cultivation of PHB fermentation 1227 in 15L airlift loop reactor Huaxue Fanying Gongcheng Yu Gongyi (1998).xls .. quantification by France. 14(1). Chinese Academy Zhang. Univ. under our experimental conditions. Colom-Valiente. Micron. 36:635-637 crit soln temp polymer solvent polyhydroxybutyrate blend crit soln temp 1996 1976 Upper and lower crit. Dep. of recombinant Ecc13B-1 for the prodn. Luis V. de Cienc. Applied Chemistry. Roblot C. Hong Fang. Beijing. Carcases. Wu. Linpei. Li.) behaviors were examd. Polymer-Solvent systems prepd. only 62% of the ester was detected by GC analysis. Xia. Courtois J. temp. Lett. Sciences. Amiens.225(2):258-63 1995 Inst.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. CAS. Chen. with various solven 234. 1225 Maria F. Peop. 100080. Sheng. can reach 57. both in seaetching biofouling bacterial and freshwater. 1226 Barbotin JN Laboratorie de Genie Cellulaire. 93-4 (English) 1996 Journal of Neurochemistry 1976. 25(1). Rep. Seguin JP. Nat.. of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(hydroxy ether of bisphenol A) (PBHE) blends in chloroform and chlorobenzene. Tian.4. soln. Qin. Changchun Study on the UCST and LCST in PHB/PBHE-solvent Shang Er. Mo. 7(1)..9g/cm3 in 53 h in Changchun Inst. Peop. 1228 Zhi Shen China Subcellular distribution of ketone body metabolizing 1229 enzymes in the rat brain Chin. resp. of PHB using sucrose as the C source were carried out to achieve high cell d. Faculte des Sciences. Jiesheng. Ambientales y Recur. . Song. gas chromatography. However. Courtois B. Chemical Mo. expts. 130022. of halobacteria water was studied.page 303 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Lopez-Llorca. Anal Biochem 1995 Mar 1. 92-96 Chinese 1998 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) quantification has been developed mostly using acidic methanolysis followed by GC analysis of the 3-hydroxybutyrate methyl ester. results showed that the cell d. Goethals G. in 15L Air-lift Loop Reactor. system. Bingyu. were polyester degrdn rapidly colonized by bacteria a Jan S. Metallurgy. Lianfu. Spain scanning electron microscopy. Maria J. Universite de Picardie Jules Study of parameters affecting poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Verne. Haitao. SEM hyphal track bacterial polyester observations showed that degrdn PHA films. Baihe Rep. Chem. Fa Jiang. The fermn..

. Infektionskrankheiten u. H.Kinetics ganze Artikel Biotechnology Research Institute. Wako-shi. R. Yoshiharu Doi a. Pseudomonas stutzeri (PhaZPst ). G. H4P2R2 Substrate inhibition kinetics for microbial growth and synthesis of poly-á-hydroxybutric acid by Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17697 Appl. Avenue.continuic culture Bei der Beschreibung eines Submersverfahrens zur Kultur aerober wasserstoffoxydierender Bakterien waren wir bereits auf die üblichen Kulturmethoden eingegangen (Schlegel. Bakterologie.Specific growth rate 305.. Parasitenkunde. Urawa-shi. f.T. J. H. R. Abt.xls . and Comamonas acido6orans (PhaZCac ). 1964 89. Infektionskrankheiten u. National Research Council of Canada.4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Saitama 351. polyhydroxybutyrate 1232 Kozue Masuda a . Sonderabdruck aus dem Zentralblatt f. Saitama 338. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN ). Substrate and binding specificities of bacterial Ken-ichi Kasuya a . Quebec. * Japa depolymerases. Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene 1964. 21 Hirosawa.G. a Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. Zentralbibliothek f r Bakteriologie. Takeshi Ohura b . wenige fermentation 92. Lafferty. ShimoOhkubo. . Microbiol. Biotechnol. Knallgaserzeugung im Kulturgefäá Hygiene 1964. Japan b Graduate School of Science and Engineering. Gottschalk 1961).page 304 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1230 Schlegel.0198. Catalytic domain. Submerskulturen von Hydrogenomonas mit elektrolytischer Parasitenkunde. 6100 Roylmount Mulchandani.H.24(4):329-36 1999 PHB depolymerase. Auf der Suche nach einem weniger aufwendigen. The growth rate was stimulate Strain . 30:11-17 1989 Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17697 . Saitama Uni6ersity.118 VEB Gustav Submerskultur von Hydrogenomonas mit elektrolytischer Fischer Verlag in Jena. Substrate-binding domain The substrate specificities of three extracellular polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerases from Alcaligenes faecalis (PhaZAfa ).. . 2:118 Sonderabdruck aus dem Zentralbl. A. Lafferty. Knallgaserzeugung im Kulturgefäß 1231 Schlegel. 1233 C. Groom... 1989.Ralstonia eutropha Kinetics . which are grouped into types A and B based on the pos The specific growth rate of Alcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17697 was observed to depend upon the ratio of ammonium sulfate (nitrogen) and fructose (carbon) concentration used for production of poly-betahydroxybutyric acid (PHB). Hygiene. Int J Biol Macromol 1999 May. 483-490 1964 Hydrogen bacteria . Parasitenkunde.0825. Montreal. II. Luong. Kaltwasser u.b.

Substrates 411.Azotobacter vinelandii UWD Beet molasses that had been fractionated commercially by ion exclusion resulted in two waste-streams: extract molasses (EM) and concentrated separator byproduct (CSB). 1983.61(8):3113-8 1995 537. The most versatile strains hydrolyzed five different polyesters comprising short chain length Objective Hardware Ablage Jaeger KE. Only EM at 4-5 % w/v contained sufficient sugar to promote polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) f Strain . Jendrossek 1234 D Lehrstuhl fur Biologie der Mikroorganismen der Ruhr-Universitat Bochum. University of Alberta. Pseudomonas alcaligenes. J. Edmonton. held in London on 16 September 1982. Pseudomonas aeruginosa.4. T6G 2E9 Suitability of Commercial Beet Molasses Fractions as Substrates for Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production by Azotobacter vinelandii UWD Biotechnol. Appl Environ Microbiol 1995 Aug. Jendrossek D Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversitat Gottingen. Germany. 1235 Schirmer A. Steinbuchel A. O.page 305 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The substrate specificities of extracellular lipases purified from Bacillus subtilis. Papers presented at a meeting of the SCI Biotechnology Group. and Burkholderia cepacia (former Pseudomonas cepacia) and of extracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate The isolation of poly(3hydroxyoctanoic acid)and poly(6hydroxyhexanoic acid)degrading bacteria yielded 28 strains with abilities to degrade various polymers. Sucrose and molasses as feedstocks for fermentation processes 1983 259. Alberta. 1237 Page. W. 1992. . Political and economic aspects of fermentation raw materials markets. 95-97 1995 1236 Brown. Substrate specificities of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerases and lipases: bacterial lipases hydrolyze poly(omegahydroxyalkanoates).41 Suppl 1:170-9 Chemistry and Industry.xls .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Matz C. 14:385-390 1992 Beet molasses . Pseudomonas fluorescens. Can J Microbiol 1995. Lett. Substrate specificities of poly(hydroxyalkanoate)degrading bacteria and active site studies on the extracellular poly(3hydroxyoctanoic acid) depolymerase of Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13. Department of Microbiology. Canada. Germany.

234:756-757 1992 1983 1952 A liquid reaction medium containing dissolved air and oxyleghaemoglobin. C. 1961. Germany Tel. Firat. PCC6803 · Biodegradable polyester · Polyhydroxyalkanoic acid · Poly(3hydroxybutyric acid) · PHAsynthase · PhaE · PhaC 1998 1972 During cultivation under storage conditions with BG11 medium containing acetate as a carbon source..G. Korkusuz.. Gursel. Y. Res. 1241 Kepes. 3rd Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology. Petek. Doi. Vasif 1238 Ankara Numune Hospital. J. G.H. Synechocystis sp.page 306 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract In this study..Acad. R. Fax: +49-251-83-38388 email: steinbu@unimuenster. J. A.A. Law. lactate and á-hydroxybutyrate Sur le propietes et la constitution des lipides áhydroxybutyrique Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1992 Aug 22. 1246 Y. Ors.249(1325):143-8 Life Sciences 1983. Yoshida. Kawaguchi. Corrensstraße 3. 46(4). Our 148. Sulbactam-cefoperazone polyhydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate (PHBV) local antibiotic delivery system: in vivo effectiveness and biocompatibility in the treatment of implant-related experimental osteomyelitis J. S. 82:37-42 1961 16. N.. K. 494-503 1999 1239 Bergersen FJ. F.xls . Institut für Mikrobiologie.de 1242 Hein S..10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. PCC6803 possesses a two-component polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase similar to that of anoxygenic purple sulfur bacteria Synthese der Enzyme des Tricarbonsäure-Cyclus in Hydrogenomonas eutropha Stamm H16 Synthese von Poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutters"ure und Ausscheidung organischer S"uren durch Alcaligenes eutrophus H16/M7 Synthesis and Degradation of Poly-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid in connection with sporulation of Bacillus megaterium Synthesis and degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates in Alcaligenes eutrophus Archives of Microbiology Abstract Volume 170 Issue 3 (1998) pp 162-170 Arch. Schlegel. 1972. R. H. M.: +49251-83-39821. Feza. H. Synechocystis sp. was supplied to bacteroids confined in a stirred flow reaction chamber. but no energy-yielding substrate. Suppression of an ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats by butyrate.4.Mikrobiol.Seance. Kimura.Sci 1952. R.F. 142. Y. Canberra. Tran H. Ankara.Bacteriol. Supply of O2 regulates O2 demand during utilization of reserves of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in N2-fixing soybean bacteroids.. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992. Braunegg. Steinbuchel A 1243 Glaeser. 32:2551-2554 C. . Nakamura. Peaud-Lenoel.. Ulken. Lafferty... Koyama.. ? 286. CSIRO Division of Plant Industry. Sniene. Ihsan. D48149 Münster.. 1244 M. a novel antibiotic carrier system for use in the treatment of implantrelated and chronic osteomyelitis was developed. M. Derr. 86:315-325 Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) up to 10% (w/w) of the cell dry weight.. Turner GL 1240 Derr. Turk. Sulbactamcefoperazone was introduced to rods of polyhydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate (22 mol % HV. (1999). Korkusuz. Draves. wt Objective Hardware Ablage Yagmurlu. Biomed. Mater.r. Hasirci.hebd. H. M. Westfälische WilhelmsUniversität Münster. Australia.. 1245 Slepecky. 103:103-108 1992 469. The relative oxygenation of the leghaemoglobin in the chamber was determined 236. Hiramitsu.

Biotechnol.und Umweltforschung mbH München in Göttingen Synthesis of C4-dicarboxylic Acids from Pyruvate by Hydrogenomonas eutropha Strain H 16 / Zur Synthese von C4-Dicarbonsäuren aus Pyruvat durch Hydrogenomonas eutropha Stamm H 16 Synthesis of cellulose-fatty acid esters for use as biodegradable plastics Arch. 103:195-206 1992 Gursel. Jin 1253 Kumagai. Res. Hasirci. non-degrading poly(2hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) membranes were prepd... Microbiol. H. Y. M. Balcik. Int. V. 1255 Wang. P. D.G. properties were studied. Department of Plant Synthesis of high-molecular-weight poly([R]-(-)-3Biology. 19(13). Poirier Y.Y. Radiometric methods employing 14Cbicarbonate have been used for the Strain . Doi. Biotechnol... Stanford. of Lowell. Crude extracts and partially purified enzyme preparations obtained from Hydrogenomonas eutropha strain H 16 have been tested for enzymes carboxylation pyruvate and phosphenolpyruvate. N. Their 443.S.J. Y. was produced from a suspension culture of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant cells expressing two genes from the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus involved in the . Sci. Synthesis and mechanical properties of interpenetrating networks of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate and poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Synthesis and production of poly(3-hydroxyvaleric acid) homopolyester by Chromobacterium violaceum Synthesis and study of poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoates): enzymic resolution and polymerization of substituted betaUniv. and their mech. B 1996.xls . Biol. R. 1121 (English) 1995. and synthetic.. Dep.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. W. Mikrobiol. Amos... Schechtman 1256 LA. USA.. Y.17(1):7-12 1995 High-molecular-weight poly([R]-(-)-3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). propiolactones.A. Tao. chiral polyhydroxyalkanoate prepn enzymic resoln lactone FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1992. 79:204-219 (Article in German) Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1995. DOCUMENT TYPE: Dissertation 1996 Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1993. Schlegel. Kealy. 1250 Marchessault. 1252 Xu. E. Middle East Technical Univ.. H. 1137-1143 Appl. C. Lab. O. I..PEPcarboxykinase 1. Turk.A. 1(2):81-87 Abstract Unavailable 1993 559. and biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate (PHBV). 3:115 1971 1995 Hydrogenomonas H 16 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Pyruvate carboxylase . 1971. A. Abstr. Lowell. Somerville C.Metabolsim 162. Palmer. Akkus.. USA Synthesis of a bloch copolymer of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(ethylene glycol) and its application to biodegradable blends Biomaterials (1998).. ID Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Synthesis and function of polyhydroxyalkanoates in anaerobic syntrophic bacteria Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 475.. Noda I Carnegie Institution of Washington. 1254 Frings.-M. Unit. Timm. W.4. 1993. A... Int J Biol Macromol 1995 Feb. a biodegradable thermoplastic. Debzi. 57(2). Biomaterials Res. 39:443-449 1998 1993 Diss. MA. Satkowski MM. 1248 Steinb chel. Naturally occurring biocompatible. 590... Akkas. J.. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen. CA hydroxybutyrate) in 94305. Ankara. 1247 K. transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant cells.page 307 Autor(s) / Inventor(s) McInerney. Arica.

Frederick G. Soc.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 10. Bernd H. chitosan cellulose acetate cellulose acetate. and poly(ethylenimine). Lett. Robert H. CH-1015 Mittendorf V. Poirier Y Switzerland. Polym. 1258 Monasterios. 155-162 PhaC2 1997 .. Montreal. into pBluescript SKcollinear to the lac p Qi. Rep. Low-mol. 24(22). Synthesis of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) conjugates: PHA-carbohydrate and PHA-synthetic polymer conjugates. and reaction products with Dglucamine were prepd. (1997). Manssur. Polym.. by modifications of the terminal carboxyl function of I. Alexander 1260 Inst. Cent. Peop. Frederick G. PQ H3A 2A3.. Lausanne. (Am. Shandong Univ.. of poly(b-hydroxybutyrate) in polyhydroxybutyrate conjugate the presence of chitosan. Res. Cent. 1259 Monasterios.. Can. Jinan. carbohydrate PQ H3A 2A3. 1257 Kruger N. Marchessault. Manssur. Medium-chainlength PHAs (MCL-PHAs) are synthesized in bacteria by using int Objective Hardware Ablage Institut de Biologie et Physiologie Vegetales. Chem.page 308 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a family of polymers composed primarily of R-3hydroxyalkanoic acids.. Batiment de Biologie.. Clevys J. Marchessault. Pulp and Paper Res. Steinbuchel A.95(23):13397-402 1998 Yalpani. Microbiol. Synthesis of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates in arabidopsis thaliana using intermediates of peroxisomal fatty acid beta. Universite de Lausanne. and PHA-synthetic polymers. by the partial depolymn.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998 Nov oxidation. Pulp Pap. 32(3). polygalactosamine and poly(galactosamine). Clevys J. Robertson EJ. Montreal. These polymers have properties of biodegradable thermoplastics and elastomers. PHAMcGill Univ. Chem... Prepr. Morin.4galactosamine). Rehm.. poly(a-1. Qingsheng. Macromolecules. A. 157(1). Synthesis of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) conjugates. the coding region of phaC2 was subcloned. Robert H.-wt Yalpani. including the ribosomal binding site. 6046-9 (English) 1991 1991 polyhydroxybutyrate conjugate carbohydrate synthetic polymer graft copolymer polyhydroxybutyrate polyester graft copolymer chitosan graft copolymer polyhydroxybutyrate cellulose acetate graft copolymer polyhydroxybutyrate polygalactosamine graft copolymer Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (I) graft copolymers with chitosan (II). Can. Steinbuchel. Leech RM.4. Morin. In order to obtain functional expression of PHA synthase gene phaC2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Escherichia coli. cellulose acetate.xls .). 224-5 (English) 1991 1991 Polymer conjugates were prepd. China Synthesis of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) in Escherichia coli expressing the PHA synthase gene phaC2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: comparison of PhaC1 and FEMS Microbiol. Div. 250100.

Ho 1262 Nam Chang Ueda. 16. Department of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center. Pages: 495503 1996 poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate). Issue 5. JM109.4. La Plata (Universidad Naccional de La Plata). Vergara. and DH5 harboring a stable high-copynumber plasmid pSYL105 containing the Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis genes were constructed. Withholt. Esqu. University of Synthesis of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates is a common Groningen. 1266 G. propionate. 58(11):3574-3579 1992 611. 178:267-270 1977 Poly(D-betahydroxybutyric acid) is one of the few biopolymers which can be synthesized also in vitro. De Leeuw.. S.page 309 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Kang Sub Yim *. Escherichia coli. Matsumoto. 1264 Jorge. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1992.. 1996. Sang Yup Lee. S. Takagi.amyl alcohol by the methylotrophic bacteria Paracoccus denitrificans and Methylobacterium extorquens División "Macromoleculas". Yusonggu. La Plata.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. pseudomonads.. Argentina Biotechnology & Bioengineering Volume 49. Instituto de Investigaciones Fiscoquimicas Teóricas y Aplicadas Casilla de Correo No. HB101. Synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxalkanoates is a common feature of fluorescent Pseudomonads Appl Environ Microbiol 1989 Aug.and physical properties of in vitro polymerization an in vivo and an in vitro p others 53. This offers the rare possibility to compare the polymerization kinetics and the physico-chemical poly-DL-beta-hydroxybutarate . These recombi 614. Korea email: Kang Sub Yim Synthesis of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3(Teesy@sorak. Eggink G. including XL1-Blue.. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. Eggit. Taejon 305-701..kr) Escherichia coli Synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from methanol and n. The feature of fluorescent Netherlands. 373-1 Kusong-dong. Sucursal 4. Diagonal 113. A. 1989.ac hydroxyvalerate) by recombinant . Huisman GW.55(8):1949-54 Applied and Entvironmental Microbiol. 1263 Yamane. G. . B. T. Victor. In this paper we show that prototype strain 340. one characteristic of which is that they do not accumulate poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) during nutrient starvation in the presence of excess carbon source.. 55(8):1949-1954 1989 1989 The fluorescent pseudomonads are classified as a group. Figini Ruben Synthesis of Poly(DL-beta-hydroxybutyric acid) Makromolekulare Chemie 1977.kaist.xls . de Leeuw O. Department of Biochemistry. 1265 Witholt B Huisman.W. 64. O. Groningen Biotechnology Center. valerate Several recombinant Escherichia coli strains.

The ketothiolase .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.T. 20. This bacterium is distinguished from other PHA-degrading strains by its ability to utilize both poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) . its genetic localization and conjugational 1268 H. Steinb chel.142(2-3):21521 1996 The poly(3hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) degrading isolate K10 was identified as Streptomyces exfoliatus. Somerville.. Schlegel Hans Germany eutrophus H 16 Synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid in Alcaligenes Schubert.page 310 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlen. 428) synthesizes the lipid-storage material poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate under autotrophic Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 conditions in the absence Ralstonia eutropha H 16 . P.C. G. 4 Proc. Y.xls . A. Kroppenstedt RM. 1964 Arch Strain . D. Kinetics of beta-Ketothiolase in vitro in Alcaligenes 1267 Eva-Maria.. 58th Meeting Edinborough Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen 1988. three genes encode the enzymes necessary to catalyze the synthesis of poly[(R)-(-)-3hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) from acetyl-CoA.autotrophic growth starts from acetyl-CoA (Gottschalk. 1270 Nawrath C.of a N2 source. Ruhr.91(26):12760-4 1994 In the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus. 1994 510. Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994 Dec accumulation.4. 17699. C. Poirier. Poirier Y. 1988 669..T. eutrophus. Stanford.Metabolsim 54.. Natl. USA 1994.G. Somerville C Department of Plant Biology. Acad.S. CA 94305. Schlegel. In order to target these enzymes into the plastids of higher plants.M.. Sci.und Umweltforschung mbH München in 3400 Göttingen. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1996 Sep 1. of polymer accumulation Biochemical Society Transactions. the genes were modifi Klingbeil B. 1271 Jendrossek D Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Georg-AugustUniversitat Gottingen. Synthesis of Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in vivo and Grisebachstraße 8. Germany. Taxonomic identification of Streptomyces exfoliatus K10 and characterization of its poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase gene. Carnegie Institution of Washington.Azotobacter synthesis of the polymer beijerinckii . C.beta. 91:1276012764 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 (A. transfer of the genes Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels 1269 Nawrath.

Zurich. to the melting temp.. Barham. Switzerland.4. V. University of Californiy Berkeley. California Taxonomic studies on some gram negative polarly 94720 flagellated "hydrogen bacteria" and related species Temperature dependence of mechanical properties of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-beta-hydroxyvalerate) Arch.Metabolism 152.. 1274 Mitomo.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. are measured and results are presented here. Doudoroff. ETHHonggerberg. 1970. 505-7 (English) 1996 1996 polyhydroxybutyrate unit cell polyester hydroxybutyric acid crystallinity The changes of parameters of the unit cell of biopolymer poly(b-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) during heating from room temp. 29:112-115 1970 1988 Pseudomonas palleronii Pseudomonas delafieldii Hydrogen bacteria The properties of several named and unnamed strains of polarly flagellated "hydrogen bacteria" are described and compared with those of related autotrophic and non-autotrophic species.. 37(3).H. 1275 Skrbic.. 398. has been observed in fluorescent and n Objective Hardware Ablage 1272 Kessler B.Mikrobiol.Y. 1273 M. Z. P. Keller. Novi Sad. The considerable increase of value of parameter a with increase of tem . Yugoslavia Temperature influence on changes of parameters of the unit cell of biopolymer PHB. J.50 Pt 2:711-3 2000 Davis..page 311 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Whereas poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Pseudomonas species is rare. A. Faculty Sciences.xls . Stanier. Palleroni NJ Institute of Biotechnology. a yellowpigmented Strains . D. Two new species of Pseudomonas are described: one. R. HPT. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2000 Mar. Polymer. Divjakovic. Department of Bacteriology and Immunology. H. Taxonomic implications of synthesis of poly-betahydroxybutyrate and other poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by aerobic pseudomonads. Novi Sad 21000. synthesis of medium-chain-length polybeta-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) other than PHB. 70:41275 Polymer Communications 1988. Univ.

Int... Johnsonbaugh... Ulmer. R. The bacterial synthesis of functional poly(beta1280 P. The adsorption of substrate-binding domain of PHB Yoshiharu 351-01. R. Tadahisa.J. Claverton Down/Bath. Studies have been carried out in order Rhodobacter sphaereoides . Biol. Department of Chemistry. korr. Gross. Gross. R.W. R. USA. Macromolecules 1989. R. H. 22(2). hydroxyalkanoates) The biodegradation of blends of polycaprolactone and polyethylene exposed to a defined consortium of fungi The biosynthesis and characterisation of poly(betahydroxyalkanoates) produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans The biosynthesis and characterization of new poly(betahydroxyalkanoates) Microbiological Research Establishment. H. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research Shinomiya.. UK 11th Symp.C. Switzerland. Soc.A. Porton. D. Gross. 391-416 329 pp.W. 155:337-340 1991 In recent years industrial interest has been focussed on the evaluation of poly(3hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA) as potentially biodegradable plastics for a wide range of technical applications. C... Zollikerstraße 107.. 1720 (English) 1988 1961 Chemical composition of mircroorganisms No abstract.W.4. 1 University of Zürich. Macromol. 659. Fuller. Lowell. Lemstra.C. R. 33(15):3292-3294 1998 1992 The binding characteristic of PHB depolymerase has been studied by using glutathione Stransferase (GST) fusion proteins with substrate-binding domain of three bacterial PHB depolymerases. 1276 Lloyd. R. 1283 M. Doi. 1988 polymer degrdn drug delivery Abstract Unavailable .W. Institute of Plant Biology.M. Bath.A.A.to optimize growth and hydroxyvalerate cult Strain .. Int. Fuller. Polymer Chemistry Laboratory. 1281 Tilstra. 22:1106-1115 1989 342. J.3. Lenz.W.. DeMello. 1285 Majid. Univ. Lenz. 3 University of Massachusetts. Microfilms Int. CH-8008 Zürich. Mohamed Isa bin Abd Univ.C. G.. Others 112. R. Micr.. Alcaligenes faecalis.A. Microbiol. R. R. B 1988. Order No..10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 2 University of lowell. hydroxyalkanoate in vivo Ulmer. The chemical composition of micro-organisms as a Wiltshire function of their enviroment The degradation of PHB and P(HB/HV) copolymers and their uses in drug delivery. L. Miho.page 312 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Brandl. D. Comamonas acidovorans and Com 553. (1998). Iwata. Department of Polymer Science and The accumulation of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) in Engineering. 49(5). (RIKEN). 1284 Herbert.. 655. 1282 Gross. Wako-shi. Posada. Lenz. R.J. Fuller.W. Journal of Environmental Polymer Degradation 1993.xls .A. Gen. Brandl. H. 1961. Abstr. Avail. Lenz... 129-135 Polymer 1992. Japan depolymerases to the surface of poly(3-hydroxybutyric 1277 acid) The amorphous state of bacterial poly(R)-31279 deKoning. BRDX81854 From: Diss. 1991.Copolyester 421. P. R. Weisbach.. Amhe Rhodobacter sphaeroides Arch. MA 01854. 1:257 1993 571. H.

Appl. 16:155-160 1994 453. darkness and nitrate on nitrogenase activity. Inst. 7(Biomater.. Applied Biochemistry Division.Plant. T. Bioeng. UK The degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). environments. J.Metabolsim 57... Clin. 1289 Gerson.page 313 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Poly(b-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) has been proposed as a biodegradable implant material on the basis of its known degrdn. polybeta-hydroxyybutyrate (PHB) and betahydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BOHBDH) activity in Rhizobiom lupini while in symbiosis with Lupinus angustifolius were assessed. Wong. Polym. Bakos. Bratislva 842 36. N. J. Al2O3. G.. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.. 42:420-424 1978 beta-hydroxybutyrade dehydrogenase .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. characteristics in certain biol. oxides such as CaO. Page. PbO2. 471-6 (English) 1987 polyhydroxybutyrate fiber degrdn polyhydroxypentanoate polyhydroxybutyrate fiber degrdn prosthetic polyhydroxypentanoate polyhydroxybutyrate fiber 1987 Csomorova. MgO. Darkness and Nitrate on Poly-betaPalmerston north.). W.4.N. D..Q.... Miller. M. 441-6 (English) 1994 1994 kinetics polyhydroxybutyrate degrdn volatile product metal oxide catalysis polyhydroxybutyrate decompn magnesium oxide catalyst polyhydroxybutyrate decompn activation energy polyhydroxybutyrate degrdn Inorg.xls . ZnO and calcium hydride destabilize poly(betahydroxybutyrate) (PHB) to an extent dependent on the basicity of the additive which leads to much easier formation of volatile products compared with PHB itsel 1288 Chen. Patel. PbO. Adv. 43(3).. Biomater. The Effects of Age. Inst. Slovakia The effect of inorganic additives on the decomposition of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) into volatile products.. Liverpool. Liverpool. Slovak Acad. . D. It was concluded Strain . Rychly. Sci. 1287 Janigova. K. Med.J. D. Univ. Monofilaments of PHB homopolymer and PHBhydroxypentanoic acid (PHV) copolymers were 392. 1978. Polym. Dent. F. New hydroxybutyrate Levels and Nitrogen-fixing Ability of Zealand Rhizobium in Lupinus angustifolius Physiol. Stab. Objective Hardware Ablage 1286 Williams.Rhizobium lupini .Lupinus angustifolius nitrogen-fixation The effects of age.. I. Degrad. The effect of substrate of the molecular weight of poly-betahydroxybutyrate produced by Azotobacter vinelandii UWD Biotechnology Letters 1994.J.

. Instituto de Biotecnologia. Seoul.xls . Alcs. as C sources. Guzman J. S. 1290 Joon Taek. Moreno S. vinelandii gene libr . Kim. Cho. of Biology.35 g) were mixed with 35 ml 1% w/v sodium h In Escherichia coli carrying the poly(3hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) biosynthesis pathway on a plasmid (pha+). the function of the ackA (acetate kinase) and pta (phosphotransacetylase) genes is necessary Escherichia for efficient incorporation polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyval of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3erate formation HV) 1293 Rhie. Geun Do. Yeom S H. *Yoo Y J Department of Chemical Engineering.182(9):2624-8 Castaneda M. 441-7 (Korean) 1994 polymer fermn Alcaligenes alc 1994 The synthesis and properties of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and hydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate copolymer P(HB-co-HV) in Alcaligenes eutrophus NCIB 11599 were studied using glucose and alc. Ho Gun.4. J.. 32(3). 1). 709-12 1995 The effects of sodium bisulfite (antioxidant) were investigated in Alcaligenes eutrophus NCIB 11599-derived polybeta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) extraction using hypochlorite. Freezedried cells (0. (1995) 9. 200-6 (English) 1995 1995 Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular. 41(Suppl. Dennis. Mexico. The function of ackA and pta genes is necessary for Seoul 130-701. and pentanol w 1291 Roh K S.. EtOH. Korea The effects of alcohols on the biosynthesis of PHB and P(HB-co-HV). The GacS sensor kinase regulates alginate and poly-betaCuernavaca Morelos hydroxybutyrate 62250. Microbiol. PrOH. 1294 Espin G 2000 Azotobacter vinelandii produces two polymers: the extracellular polysaccharide alginate and the intracellular polyester poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB). Alcaligenes eutrophus-derived poly-betahydroxybutyrate purification Biotechnol. BuOH. production in azotobacter vinelandii. Bum Sang. Yonsei Univ.Tech. such as MeOH. Oh. Seoul National University. A cosmid clone (pSMU588) from an A. Douglas Dep.page 314 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Kim. 10. poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) synthesis in Korea recombinant pha+ Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 2000 May. Kyung Hee Univ.. Can. The effects of sodium bisulfite in extraction of PHB by Korea.. Eng. hypochlorite. Woo Sik Coll. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. S. Seoul 151-742. Hwahak Konghak.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.

Henze. Mas. 1300 Wilkinson.50(3):Suppl:i-ii 1968 Abstract unavailable. Chemistry 1979.. phosphours (BioP) removal are often disturbed by short periods of low org. 173-185 1958 19..L. 57(1). the phosphate uptake kinetics Arch.Edmond Gross. Ellar DJ. . 1298 R. Biol. R. Toegepaste Biol. Den The influence of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate accumulation on cell volume and buoyant density in Alcaligenes eutrophus The internal structure of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules from Bacillus megaterium. P. E.J. Brandl. Uden. 27:73-79 Microbial. F.4. H.. From the Department of Biological Chemistry and Mental Retardation Research Center. 1297 Webber.. only 3hydroxybutyrate (HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (HV) units.W. A. 254(10):3912-3920 1979 ketone bodies No abstract... F. Bioeng. J.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. PHB-synthase was active with D(-)-3hydroxybutyryl-CoA and D(-)-3-hydroxyvaleryl-C 390. G. Granule-assocd. R. (Univ. and glucose for lipid synthesis in brain in 90024 the 18-day-old rat The incorporation of deuterium into poly(áhydroxybutyrate) produced by Rhodobacter sphaeroides The influence of cultural conditions on Poly-betaHydroxybutyrate synthesis in Bacillus megaterium The influence of growth limiting conditions on the synthesis of possible carbon and energy storage polymers in Bacillus megaterium. H. loading. Physiology and Continuous Culture 1976. J.Fac. M. J.. 61(4a). 1984. R.. 1761-1767 (English) 1996 polyhydroxybutyrate effect phosphorus biol removal stability 1996 Activated sludge plants with biol. W. R. Guerrero. others 66.page 315 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title The heterotrophic and autotrophic growth of A. Okamura K Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering. J. 1302 Pedros-Alio. Marchessault 1303 RH. B. Hull HU6 7RX.. 1989 1989 polyhydroxybutyrate synthase polyhydroxyalkanoate formation Alcaligenes A.. J Gen Microbiol 1968 Mar. Macrae. California hydroxybutyrate.C. Technical University of The Influence of PHB on the Stability of the Bio-P Process. Petersen. Munro. Lett. Landbouwkd. Biotechnol. Anderson. Lyngby. 1-6 (English) polyhydroxylalkanoate synthesis by Alcaligenes eutrophus. Ulmer. Gent). Univ. . A. Lundgren DG.Lenz 1299 R. UK The importance of PHB-synthase substrate specificity in FEMS Microbiol. Sch. Los The in vivo utilization of acetoacetate. 1985... eutrophus can accumulate poly-3hydroxybutyrate (PHB) or polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) contg. eutrophus: responses to biomass gasification impurities Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1295 Farahnak..xls . 1296 Dawes. Fuller. Temmink.F.. Hull.E. D-(-)-3Angeles.W... The study presented in this paper focused on the influence of PHB on the stability of the Bio-P process.J. J. Wilkinson... School of Medicine. Wet. M. Tshudy. A. D.Microbiol. J. 657. 143:178-184 1985 249. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh 1958.S 1976 32. Denmark. University of California.C. 26:1258-1260 1984 291. Haywood.. D. Meded. Life Sci. C. H. Ollis. S. 1301 Isaacs.A.

J. Schlegel. 1304 F. Acta 1979. 600 East Mermaid Lane.G. Sun W. Wilkinson.page 316 Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Lickfeld. Krauss. J. and biochemical properties Biochim Biophys Acta 1998 May 19. Wyndmoor. Foglia (1). R. Lafferty. P..Others 665. 1310 Zang. H. Lenz. Eastern Regional Research Center. 1970. citronellolis were evaluated for their ability to grow and produce poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA) using tallow free fatty acids and tall 610. resinovorans. C. R. McGill University. ..H. Cromwick (1). 368. R. Ultrastructural Research 1972. G. ID Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title The interpretation of images of cross fractured frozenetched and shadowed membranes The isolation and estimation of the poly-betahydroxybutyrate inclusions of Bacillus species Source / Application Number J. H. H. 1307 Weibull. (1) Agricultural Research Service. H. gen Microbiol. S. Mikrobiol. When grown on a nitrogen deficient Mutations . I. 656. Y.G. 6795 The microbial production of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (2) from tallow 1312 Lenz (2) Zhao. Montreal.. Hu. Meighen EA 1309 Litchfield... Mutants defective in the produc 40.. 1311 Schink. methanol Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract Volume 46 Issue 5/6 (1996) pp 464-469 1996 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 199. purification. Biophys.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. The LuxR regulator protein controls synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate in Vibrio harveyi. Quebec.4. 19:198-209 Year 1972 1958 Five mutant strains of Hydrogenomonas H 16 which synthesize polybeta-hydroxybutyric acid either slowly or not at all have been isolated following nitrite and NMG treatment of wild type cells. K. USA.1384(2):35664 1998 ? 1971 1971 The LuxR regulatory protein of Vibrio harveyi has been shown to control synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as well as luminescence so as to occur at high cell density.Hydrogenomonas H retention of the dye 16 ssudan Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 213. 567:315-324 1979 43. W. 71:283-294 J Bacteriol.. The microbial production of polyhydroxybutyrate from 1313 Feng. Biochim. C.Solubilization. The mass cultivation of Hydrogenomonas eutropa in submerged culture The mechanistic study of the ring opening polymerization for á-butyrolactone The membrane-bound hydrogenase of Alcaligenes eutrophusI. Fax: + 1 215 233 A.xls .F. Hentrich. P.-M. 39(40):191-199 1993 The bacteria Pseudomonas oleovorans. PA 19038. putida. J. T. 1305 D. Fan. 1953: 66:688-695 1970 1953 Strain . M. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Gesellschaft für Strahlenforschung mbH München und Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen The Isolation of Mutants not accumulating Poly-betahydroxybutyric acid The Isolation of Protoplasts from Bacillus megaterium by Controlled Treatment with Lysozyme Arch. suggesting that it is a general regulatory protein.A.W. and P. 1308 Miyamoto CM. 38:279-287 J.. R. 1958.Williamson. B. 1306 Schlegel. 31. Achterrath. Gross. Department of Biochemistry.. United States Department of Agriculture. X... Chen. Canada.

J. Ciamician' dell'Universitá di Bologna and Centro di Studio per la Fisica delle Macromolecule del C.. 121:309-316 1971 495. G. G.M. Senior.. Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 from alginic acid The purification and characterization of acetoacetylcoenzym A reductase from Azotobacter beijerinckii The regulation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate metabolism in Azospirillum brasiliense during balanced growth and starvation Polymer Preprints 1989. 16 9747 AG G.A. Sanders JK University Chemical Laboratory. The non-involvement of acyl-carrier protein in poly-áhydroxybutyric acid biosynthesis in Azotobacter beijerinckii Biochem.W. Preusting. Senior. A. Karita. Huisman. Chem. R.F. 40216 Bologna. 1969. H. 24. Italy hydroxybutyrate) 1317 Schlegel.F. Sanders.. Pizzoli. Tijsterman. G.G. 264:3286-3291 1989 1976 1989 Crystallization . 1321 Seki.R.K.. Crystallization 664. 1989. J. P.A.studied the genetics and Genetics Copolyesters .page 317 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) 1314 Dawes. Via Selmi The physical aging of bacterial poly(D-beta1316 Scandola. Dawes. 1989.. J Biol Chem 1989 Feb 25. G.. Ceccorulli.J. 1:592-593 1989 Pseudomonas oleovorans is a soil bacterium capable of degrading mediumchain aliphatic hydrocarbons. C Groningen Biotechnology Center University of Groningen Nijenborgh Withold. 1323 Tal. The physiology of hydrogen bacteria 1318 Bernard. 136:11911196 1990 307. S. United Kingdom. J. B. Cambridge.N. Ritchie.Fine chemicals regulation of alkane oxid Copolyesters 661. . M.. A.J... Nijenhuis.Metabolism medium chain length (MSCL) . Journal of General Microbiology 1990. 220. A new insight based on NMR spectroscopy of whole cells. Y. E. The enzymes for this catabolic activity are encoded by the alk genes of the 500 Pseudomonas oleovorans kb OCT-plasmid. 1322 E. Dipartimento di Chimica 'G. Suzuki. H. Lageveen. M. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 1994. Netherlands oleovorans The production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate by hydrogen bacteria.N.264(6):3286-91 1989 High resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy of live cells has been used to show that poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) is predominantly in a mobile state within the storage granules of Alcaligenes eutrophus.4.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. A.... Dawes. Groningen The The production of polyalkanoates by pseudomonas 1320 Kingma. The poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granule in vivo.A. 2. We have Strains . Ablage 1315 Ritchie.A. 42:181-201 J. chem. 27:423-425 1994 Biochem. Okon..G. P. Methylobacterium extorquens... G. 341.Physical aging No abstract. 1971. 112:803-805 1969 214. 1319 Barnard GN... Eggink. 10:4750 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1976. E. P. and Methylobacterium AM1.xls . biol. M..J. The poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granule in vivo Makromol. rapid Commun.. Smirnoff. H.A. Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title The nature of Poly-beta-Hydroxybutyrate Source / Application Number ? Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware 17.

Fisica ed Elettrochimica. University of Hull. E. Appl. 1329 Seves.: 1974 The enzymes betaketothiolase.K. acetoacetate-succinate CoA-transferase („thiophorase“) and d(-)-3hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase have been partially purified from crude extracts of glucoseAzotobacter beijerinckii .. Sci.PHB. U. 56(8). E.J. Marcandalli.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. University of Hull. 1974 1976 Jun 2.Org. The synthesis of beta-hydroxy acids using beta-lihtiated carboxylic acid salts Biochem J 1972 Aug. in phys aging polyhydroxybutyrate isomerization rate of the diethylamino dye with aging. Hull The regulation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate metabolism in HU6 7RX. U.effect batch culture poly-betaof nitrogen and oxygenhydroxybutyrate was limitation on PHB accumulation formed towards the end Strain . 1007-13 (English) 1995 1995 The aging of bacterial polyester poly(D(-)3hydroxybutyrate) has been studied by coloring it with 4-diethylamino-4'cis trans isomerization methoxyazobenzene and azobenzene probe polyester detg.R. Castelli. 134: 225-238 1973 Advances in Micobial Physiology 1973. Azotobacter beijerinckii The role and Regulation of Energy Reserve Polymers in Micro-organisms The role and regulation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate as a reserve in micro-organisms. probe being a measure of the loss in polymer sequ .. Univ. Beltrame. The role of oxygen limitation in the formation of poly-betahydroxybutyrate during batch and continuous culture of Azotobacter beijerinckii.4. Ernestina. Ritchie GA. In Azotobacter beijerinckii . G.. 1326 Dawes EA Department of Biochemistry.grown nitrogen-fixing Metabolism regulation batch cultures of A Strain . the redn. Biochem. 18. Milane I20133.128(5):1193-201 J. Senior PJ.Metabolsim 108. Bruno Dip. Kingston upon Hull HU6 7RX. Pier Luigi. Korr. Beech GA. pp.K. Rio de Janeiro. 433-50.J. 1327 Dawes EA 1328 Moersch. 1325 Dawes.xls . such a methoxyazobenzene redn. Alberto.Metabolsim 131. Italy Thermal cis-trans isomerization of 4-diethylamino-4'-methoxyazobenzene in poly(D(-)3-hydroxybutyrate) and its hydroxyvalerate copolymer as a probe for characterizing their aging. Polym.W. Senior. oxygen or molecular nitrogen. Chim.A. P. J. 1973. Burkett.page 318 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1324 Senior. 311.Chem.. 36(8):1149-1151 1972 1971 Azotobacter beijerinckii was grown in ammoniafree glucose-mineral salts media in batch culture and in chemostat cultures limited by the supply of glucose. Abstract unavailable. acetoacetylCoA reductase. Dubini-Paglia. Department of Biochemistry. Dawes. 1971. A. 10:135266 1973 Proceedings of the International Symposium on Macromolecules.A. Antonella. J. Milano. P.

Scranton. PA. Technol. Grove Street.4. poly(b-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) into volatile products is slightly affected when nonisothermal expts. Maliyakal E.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. University of Havana. Cuba 2Laboratory of Polymers. Chavati Rozsa 2 1Department of Physical Chemistry. J. 4(4). Sci.xls . 43-53 1998 Bacterial genes responsible for the synthesis of the aliph. USA 1331 Chowdhury. Slovakia Iran. Csomorova. mass of t . ciselimination mechanism MATECH Associates. Issue 12. Thermal evaluation of transgenic cotton containing polyhydroxybutyrate Thermochim. Jozef. Acta (1998). Janigova. University of Havana. of PHB into volatile products is influenced by mol.. 1332 Bakos. Dusan Thermogravimetry of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) and its Polymer Inst. polyD-(-)-3. Rastislav. Institute of Materials and Reagents. Katarina. B. of biol. thermogravimetry. 274-82 (English) 1995 polyhydroxybutyrate thermal degrdn polypropylene polyhydroxybutyrate blend thermogravimetry polyethylene polyhydroxybutyrate blend thermogravimetry polymethyl methacrylate polyhydroxybutyrate blend thermogravimetry 1995 Decompn. Faculty of Chemistry. Sci... Cv DP50) through particle bombardment. Ed. differential thermogravimetry. 150 E. Broska. Pages: 1202-1204 1999 poly(-hydroxyalkanoates). Slovak blends with Acad. The thermal stability of the studied polyesters decreases slightly with increasing hydroxyvalerate (HV) c Objective Hardware Ablage 1330 Norma Galego 1 *. The resulting transgenic cotton cont Rychly. thermal stability. polyester compd. Polym. (Engl. polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate). 18510. prepd. John. Bratislava.hydroxybutrate (PHB) were introduced into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Ivica. are carried out in air instead of nitrogen. The process of decompn. Cuba Thermal decomposition of some poly(-hydroxyalkanoates) Polymer International Volume 48.). 313(1).page 319 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract The thermal decomposition of some polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) has been investigated by means of thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry.. 1999.

Medical School.. M. Mayer JE Jr USA. Sequencing of the hoxA locus revealed an open reading frame which could code for Department of Cardiovascular Surgery.4. poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Hrkach J. M. J. Shinoka T.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. were studied. Switzerland.c . Federal hydrogenase synthesis in Republic of Germany. S. implant polyester degrdn Polymers were implanted s..page 320 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1333 Eberz G. S. Friedrich B Institut fur Pflanzenphysiologie und Mikrobiologie. J Biomed Mater Res 1993 Sep. AO/ASIF Gogolewski. and poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) polyhydroxy acid degrdn tissue (PHB/VA. Stock U. hoxD. Jovanovic. biodegradable 1334 Langer R. polymer. Boston. Massachusetts 02115.27(9):1135-48 1993 The tissue response and in vivo mol. Research Institute. Dillon. Lien J. stability of injection-molded polyhydroxyacids. 5-22% VA polyester degrdn tissue content). Tissue response and in vivo degradation of selected polyhydroxyacids: Polylactides (PLA). Use of this cell-polymer construct in the systemic circulation resul Department of Polymers.173(6):1845-54 1991 Random Tn5 mutagenesis of the regulatory region of megaplasmid pHG1 of Alcaligenes eutrophus led to the identification of three distinct loci designated hoxA. Tissue engineering of autologous aorta using a new Taylor G. discussion 2305 1999 BACKGROUND: Ovine pulmonary valve leaflets and pulmonary arteries have been tissueengineered (TE) from autologous cells and biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA)polyglactin copolymers. Hughes. Freien Universitat Three trans-acting regulatory functions control Berlin. J Bacteriol 1991 Mar. M.. polylactides (PLA).68(6):2298-304. Landis W.xls . Vacanti JP. and hoxE. Stamp A. and poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/VA). 1335 K. Davos. Moses MA. Moran AM. Harvard Shum-Tim D. poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Perren. Children's Hospital. Alcaligenes eutrophus. G. Ann Thorac Surg 1999 Dec..

Argentina Tel. Anita. 1428 Buenos Aires. S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Vary (3). University "Sv. A. Skopje. 5(2). S.and poly(hydroxybutyrate)/PET fibers model composites has been investigated by polarizing optical and SEM. Yugoslavia Transcrystallinity phenomena in PET and PAN fibers/polyhydroxybutyrate matrix systems Compos. which encoded an activator homologous to <sigma>54 regulators and which was capable of activating Escherichia coli ato genes in trans. Méndez (1) bea@qui ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage trans activation of the Escherichia coli ato structural genes by a regulatory protein from Bacillus megaterium Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abstract : potential use in Volume 49 Issue 6 (1998) pp 737-742 1998 polyhydroxyalkanoate production A Bacillus megaterium genomic fragment. Pabellón 2. Pettinari (1). Kiril i Metodij".10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Vazquez (1). B. Interfaces (1998). inte Grozdanov. 179-189 1998 1339 MALIYAKAL JOHN AGRACETUS (US) TRANSGENIC COTTON PLANTS PRODUCING HETEROLOGOUS BIOPLASTIC WO9412014 1994-06-09 1994 A fiber-producing plant comprising in its genome a heterologous genetic construct is disclosed.: +54 1 782 0281 Fax: +54 1 M. Bogoeva-Gaceva. 1338 Gordana Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy.xls . 1337 Steinbüchel (2). was detected in a gene library The interface in poly(hydroxybutyrate)/PA N. This genetic construct comprises a fiber-specific promoter and a coding sequence selected from the group consisting of sequences encoding bioplastic-produ JOHN MALIYAKAL 1340 (US) Transgenic cotton plants producing heterologous MONSANTO CO (US) polyhydroxy(e) butyrate bioplastic US5602321 1997-02-11 1997 A fiber-producing plant comprising in its genome a heterologous genetic construct is disclosed. J. This genetic construct comprises a fiber-specific promoter and a coding sequence selected from the group consisting of sequences encoding bioplastic-produ . Volume Date 1998. 782 0458 e-mail: Krüger (2). N.page 321 Adress(es) / Applicant(s) (1) Departamento de Química Biológica. Under certain melting/cooling conditions in the PAN fiber system a transcryst. P. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales.4. G. J.

Hull HU6 7RX. *Anderson A J Turnover of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and its influence on the molecular mass of the polymer accumulated by Alcaligenes eutrophus during batch culture.4. Michigan State University. Giltner Hall. Lansing 48824..xls . A. Transport of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in human plasma. USA. Transmembrane Ion Transport by rnreusch@pilot.Lett. MI. UK.msu.J.page 322 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage SOMERVILLE CHRISTOPHER R (US). 2-3. 201-06 1995 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation by Alcaligenes eutrophus NCIMB 40529 was investigated to determine whether the decline in molecular mass of PHB during batch fermentation could be explained by turnover of the polymer. DENNIS DOUGLAS E (US) MICHIGAN (US) Transgenic plants producing polyhydroxyalkanoates US5650555 1997-07-22 1997 The present invention relates to transgenic plants which produce polybeta-D-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA).uk 1344 Taidi B. East Lansing. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992 Jan 3. a critical process in providing energy for cell functions. poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate accumulation and turnover FEMS Microbiol. plants and animals. University of Hull. Email: A.Anderson@appbiol . The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming the plants with modified genes from micro Transmembrane ion transport. The distribution of PHB in human plasma was investigated using chemical and immunological m Department of Applied Biology. E.e Polyphosphate/Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate du Complexes. POIRIER UNIV 1341 YVES (US). Michigan State University.ac. 48824.hull.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Sparrow AW. Gardiner J Department of Microbiology and Public Health. Mansfield D A. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000 Mar. is carried out by poreforming macromolecules capable of discriminating among very similar ions and responding to changes 1342 Reusch RN Department of Microbiology. eut .65(3):280-295 2000 1343 Reusch RN. School of Life Sciences. (1995) 129.1123(1):33-40 1992 Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an amphiphilic lipid that has been found to be a ubiquitous component of the cellular membranes of bacteria.

FEMS Microbiol. School of Life Sciences. Bjorkman PO. H. UK Turnover of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and its influence on the molecular mass of the polymer accumulated by Alcaligenes eutrophus during batch culture. Hull HU6 7RX. 1966.. The specific radioactivity of the polymer continued to increase. 1345 Anderson. 54:115-196 Über den Einsatz und die Verträglichkeit von Bakterieneiweiß (Hydrogenomonas) mit unterschiedlichem Gehalt an Poly-beta-hydroxybuttersäure in der Zeitschrift f r Tierpsychologie.page 323 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Radiolabeled glucose was added to a batch culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus during the accumulation of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) to label newly synthesized polymer. 1977 44. 129(2-3).xls . after Objective Hardware Ablage Taidi.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Stony 1348 Carpenter EJ Brook. Ultrastructural and chemical assessment of poly-betahydroxybutyric acid in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium thiebautii. Bergman B. sondern auch mit organischen Substraten unter Luft wachsen. Tierern"hrung Tierernährung und Futtermittelkunde 1977. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1992 Jul 1. U. Lett. State University of Siddiqui PJ. . Mikrobiol.. New York. 201-6 (English) 1995 1995 polyhydroxybutyrate formation Alcaligenes 1346 Eberhardt. E. Über das Wasserstoff aktivierende System von Hydrogenomonas H 16 Arch. Marine Science Research Center. Alistair J. A diurnal variation in the shape and size of PHB granules and in PHB content was observed. Niemann. 30%. University of Hull. by approx.4. Institut für Mikrobiologie der Universität Göttingen 1347 Brune. Heterotroph gewachsene Zellen oxydieren den molekularen Wasserstoff in der Regel mit geringer Strain 169. Sauerstoff und Kohlendioxyd. 38:13-22 1966 Ralstonia eutropha H 16 Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 Hydrogenomonas H 16 heterotrophic growth autotrophic growth Die bisher bekannten Knallgasbacterien können nicht nur mit Wasserstoff.73(1-2):143-8 1992 We report here on the occurrence and quantities of poly-betahydroxybutyric acid (PHB) in natural populations of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium thiebautii. Department of Applied Biology. David A. Mansfield.. Behnam.

43:109-131 (Article in German. York.beta.4.freeze-etching isolated by hypochlorite or . Hauz Khas. University of York.W. W.F. (1998) 64.Granules Für die meisten an gewaschenen Suspensionen von wasserstoffoxydierenden Bacterien (Knallgasbakterien) durchgeführten Untersuchungen wurden Zellen herangezogen. 3. an Strain . New Delhi. Indian Institute of Technology. 114(3):1271-1280 1973 The freeze-etching technique was used to examine the effects of fracturing and etching on the appearance of polybeta-hydroxybutyrate granules from Bacillus cereus. New Delhi 110016. Korr.Isolation and characterization Organotroph and chemolithoautotroph growth conditions 130. welche unter schlecht reproduzierbaren Bedingungen gewachsen aren und deren Stoffwechselzustand Strains . Korr. Initially.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. India. Updated mathematical model and fed-batch strategies for poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Alcaligenes eutrophus. Robards.) 1962 Hydrogen bacteria . Technol. Aus dem Institut für Mikrobiologie der Georg AugustUniversität Göttingen Untersuchungen über Wachstum und Speicherstoffsynthese von Hydrogenomonas Archiv für Mikrobiologie 1962. 110016.. Heslington. Ultrastructural studies of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate England granules from Bacillus cereus Journal of Bacteriology 1973.beta. Indian Institute of Technology. E. India Updated mathematical model and fed-batch strategies for poly-. Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology. Poonam. N/C ratio was found to both limit and inhibit the growth of the culture. 185-192 1998 The growth and the intracellular biopolymer poly-.-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Alcaligenes eutrophus Bioresour. *Srivastava A K 1352 Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology. Delhi. shake flasks fermentations were carried out in o Raje P.PHB granules by sonic tratment.xls . 1351 Raje. These granules were examined in extracts Bacillus cereus . Delhi. Ashok K. 185-92 1998 .page 324 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1349 Dunlop. 64(3). Srivastava. The growth and the intracellular biopolymer poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage kinetics of Alcaligenes eutrophus B4383 (from NRRL) were studied in a batch culture process. batch culture production of a polymer by a bacterium for the construction of a fed-batch culture mathematical model Bioresource Technol. Department of Biology. A. (1998).Metabolism 134. Hydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage kinetics of Alcaligenes eutrophus were studied in a batch cultivation process.. 1350 Wilde.

Ertola. K. Inniss. CT 06335.. 7(Anaerobe Biologische Abfallbehandlung). Biotechnol. (1998). United States BIOSYNTHESIS of America IN PLANTS WO9900505 1999-01-07 1999 UFZUmweltforschungszent rum Leipzig-Halle GmbH.page 325 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Provided are nucleic acid coding sequences and methods utilizing these sequences for optimizing levels of substrates employed in the biosynthesis of copolymers of 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in p Objective Hardware Ablage RANDALL. R. 22 Oak Ridge. U. MO ENHANCE POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE 65211. HAENGGI URS J DR (DE) 1357 Donawa. Sektion Wendlandt. . Stottmeister. biodegradable polymers Utilization of glyoxylate by acetate-grown bacillus megaterium KM 1999-07-01 1999 Canadian Journal of Microbiology 1971. R. Use of wate from the caprolactam industry for production of carotenoids and corrinoids by fermentation J. Use of methane for microbial synthesis of biopolymers 1354 Germany (PHB) Beitr. W. A. M. 25:239-240 1975 72. 1975.. Gales Ferry. 165-173 1998 A review with 3 refs. United States of America JOHNSTON.. Mark. the use of biogas in the prodn. 17:10021004 1971 Use of a mixture (I) with high affinity for organic substances comprising waterproof and biodegradable polymers from regrowing raw materials from polyalkanoate or polylactide and optionally other substances such 64. Abfallwirtsch.. F. L.. SCHECKLIES ELVIRA 1356 (DE). MO 65203.E.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 2008 1353 West Clark Street. of polyhydroxybutanoate (PHB). 1355 Segovia. United States of America MIERNYK. R. Jan. and lab. 207 Rockingham Drive. Helm. Wagner. Sanierungsforschung. Douglas.. . A.xls . P USE OF DNA ENCODING PLASTID PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE AND BRANCHED UNIVERSITY OF CHAIN OXOACID DEHYDROGENASE MISSOURI. 509 Lewis COMPONENTS TO Hall. -D. HAENGGI URS J DR (DE) DE19755966 Use of waterproof. . Columbia. Jechorek. Chem. .. J. The properties and use of polyhydroxyalkanoates.4.and pilotscale investigations are discussed. appl. Columbia.

65201 Chemie Linz Aktiengesellschaft. over a wide ra 163. Becker. ? 1962 196.. poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate). Mikrobiologie der 1362 H. A4020 Linz (AT). Verfahren zur biotechnologischen Herstellung von Poly-D()-3-hydroxybuttersäure DE3343551 1983-12-01 Verfahren zur Herstellung einer optisch aktiven Carbonsäuren ? Versuche zur Polyphosphat-šberkompensation in Hefezellen nach Phosphatveratmung Archiv f r Mikrobiologie 1962. Viscoelastic relaxations and thermal properties of bacterial Universita di Bologna...S. 1363 Scandola M. Utilization of organic nitrogen compounds by Hydrogenomonas eutropha Biotechnol. poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and Italy.page 326 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Department of Biochemistry. Int J Biol Macromol 1990 Apr. 243. a Strain .. Ceccorulli G. G. Missouri 1358 Wixom.Metabolsim 3-Hydroxybutyrate-3hydroxyvalerate (3HB3HV) as well as 3hydroxybutyrate-4hydroxybutyrate (3HB4HB) copolyesters have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. 1964. eutropha can Ralstonia eutropha Alcaligenes eutrophus .Alcaligenes eutrophus . Peter-Strasse 25.B.) Arch.Fructose Als fakultativ chemolithotrophe Mikroorganismen wachsen die Knallgasbakterien sowohl unter einer Atmosphäre von Knallgas und Kohlendioxyd als auch auf einer Reihe von organischen Substraten. thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. U.Seebach Centro di Studio per la Fisica delle Macromolecole CNR. and Space Sciences Research Center. H16 und H20 Glutami Strain .. The present data show that H. School of Medicine. P. but not all. Y. 41:383-392 Abstract unavailable. E. St. 1972. Aus dem Institut für Gottschalk. University of Missouri. Columbia. Doi Y 1364 M.xls .Ralstonia eutropha .12(2):112-7 Vorschrift zur Depolymerisation von PHB 1990 359. Bioeng. Hydrogenomonas eutropha. 48:95-108 1964 Hydrogenomonas ..Metabolsim 67. Mikrobiol. R. Robert M. . 205. Arabellastrasse 4 Postfach 810508 D8000 München 81 1359 Lafferty. 14:985-1006 1972 The chemolithotroph.organic utilize the nitrogen from nitrogen sources many. Schlegel. So werden von den HydrogenomonasStämmen H1. Letia GesmbH. Universität Göttingen Verwertung von Fructose durch Hydrogenomonas H 16(I. D.G.4. R.Zueger. Braunegg Gerhart (DE) 1360 1361 Liss. was tested für ist ability to utilize a variety of single nitrogen sources during growth in an atmosphere of H2-O2Hydrogenomonas eutropha CO2.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Sheng. Langen.K. Eberhardt.

poly(caprolactone) and poly(beta-hydroxybutyrateco-beta-hydroxyvalerate) have been analysed using static secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. recy kopiert 450. 1371 M. Pouton C. the yield.4. A. H. Ward Research Institute for Advanced Studies. Gefl gelk. In estg. pathway leading to PHB when a carbohydrate (glucose). Department of Pharmaceutical Davies MC. G.. Khan MA.. 102:598-599 Chemical Week 1994 1970 1994 Hydrogenomonas eutropha Ralstonia eutropha Alcaligenes eutrophus Succinate . 45:57-68 1981 187. XPS and SSIMS analysis of the surface chemical structure of poly(caprolactone) and poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-betahydroxyvalerate) copolymers. K. or a C4 compd. 1366 Greife.. (butyric acid) is used as a C source. Japan Biotechnol.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Assuming this difference to be equivalent to 1 molecule o Strain . Biomaterials 1990 May. 165-70 (English) 1993 polyhydroxybutyrate fermn theor 1993 The theor. Tsuneo Yield of poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate from various carbon Sch. yield of poly-D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was estd. R. a C2 compd.xls .Fumarate . Bioeng. Strempfl.. Korneti.-D. Nagoya 464-01...M. ID Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Wachstum und speicherung von poly-betahydroxybuttersäure bei Alcaligenes latus Weitere Untersuchungen zur N-Verwertung des H2oxidierenden Bakterienstammes Alcaligenes eutrophus und alimentärer Ribonukleinsäure durch wachsende Broiler Source / Application Number Vortrag Millstadt 1982 Year 1982 Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 244.Csources Molar growth yields on succinate and on fumarate chemostat cultures of Hydrogenomonas eutropha on succinate and on fumarate. Molnar. Maryland 21227 Yields of Hydrogenomonas eutropha from growth on succinate and fumarate Zeneca seeks partners to grow bioscience business J. (MeOH). Günther.11(4):228-34 1990 The surface chemical structures of poly(betahydroxybutyrate). Watts JF Nottingham. L.page 327 Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Küng. S. F. 1370 Bongers. Arch. 1365 Braunegg. L. The X-ray photoe 1369 Yamane.Bacteriol. theoretical study.Metabolsim 104. a C1 compd. from the biochem. Nagoya sources: a Univ.. 433. Baltimore. W. 41(1). 1970.. University of 1368 S. Lafferty. .. 1981. (HOAc). UK. The yields from culture on succinate were about 12 g higher on fumarate. Akhtar Sciences. Short RD.. Agric.

1375 Braunegg.Mechanical relaxation is shifted to Copolyesters anisotropy lower temperatures b Physical properties kopiert 686 korr 284. acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB) and PHBsynthase (phaC) from R. Universita di Padova.. Italy. Wako. Vol. An opinion as to valiti Strain 128. 60: 285-296 1984 Shear piezoelectricity is observed in uniaxially oriented system of optically active biopolymers such as poysaccharidesm poypeptides and poynucleotides.X-ray position of the primary scattering . 263: 799-803 Zur Kinetik des Wachstums und der Speicherung von PolyD(-)-3-hydroxybutters"ure Acta Biotechnol. Japan Piezoelectricity of natural biomaterials Ferroelectrics 1984. Korr. 1376 Squartini A. E. B. Nuti MP CRIBI Biotechnology Center. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthetic genes in Rhizobium meliloti 41 Microbiology 1995 Oct. 1373 Fukada Eiichi The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research.random copolymers. Bogensberger. Regensburg.Bone growth of crystallinity. Zooglea ramigera itzigsohn. Some dynamic mechanical properties of microbially produced poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate / beta-hydroxyvalerate copolymers Colloid & Polymer Science 1985. E. 17(1):36800 1967 Zoogloea ramigera itzigsohn The problem of identity and nomenclature of Zoogloea ramigera Itzigsohn has been presented.R. Tombolini R. meliloti 41.Biopolymers . A. Identification and description International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1967. Saitama 351. 1374 Owen.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. referred to as ORF1. 1985.141 ( Pt 10):2553-9 1995 Genes encoding betaketothiolase (phaA).4. The magnitude of the piezoelectric constant is Piezoelectricity .J. G. Povolo S. together with a fourth gene. A new strain I16-M has been descrobed in terms of modern systematic bacteriology and it is proposed for designation as the neotype strain. Institut für Physik III.page 328 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1372 Crabtree.Thermoplastics . McCoy. presumed to be involved in PHB biosynthe . The Dynamic modulus . Buson A.xls . Universität Regensburg. K.. 5(4):339-345 1985 1985 Dynamic tensile modulus and X-ray scattering measurements were made for a series of bacterially produced poly-betahydroxybutyrate / betahydroxyvalerate (PHB/HV) Biopolymers . the degree Applications 685 korr.proportional to the degree Physical properties Crystallinity .G.

mutants unable to synthesize poly-betahydroxybutyrate The isolation and characterization of four mutants of Rhizobium meliloti unable to synthesize poly-betahydroxybutyrate (PHB) are reported. S. Morea. Isolation and characterization of mutants of Rhizobium Padova. Area di Ricerca.P. 1994.Biosynthesis Accumulation Synthesis and accumulation of poly(betahydroxyalkanoate) in Rhizobium leguminosarum. Trifolii.1. Biotechnology Centre.3.1. Università di Padova.B. Hirosawa. Thizobium "galega". Tombolini. Tel.P.PHB synthase . The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN ). R. Povolo. University of Padova. E-mail address : ydoi@postman. Italy. fax: ?81-484684667.4. Japan * Corresponding author. Nuti M. The mutants were independetly obtained via Tn5 trasposon mutagenesis and exhibited physiological and cytomorphologi Strain . Poly(betahydroxybutyrate) is accumulated up to 55 % of the c Strain . 60:299-304 1989 Rhizobium sp. 2 Department of Applied Biology. 40:823-829 1994 Rhizobium meliloti .: ?81-484679402. Wako-shi. leguminosarum biovar. Research Centre Poly-biòs.1. The Enzymatic degradability. Italy accumulation by different Rhizobium species Fems Microbiology Letters 1989. meliloti were studied.1. Doi) poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] and its copolymers International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 25 (1999) 185–192 1999 Poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] and its copolymers were prepared by biosynthetic and chemosynthetic methods. A. Italy meliloti unable to synthesize poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate 1378 M. Universiy of Hull. A.g Structural effects on enzymatic degradabilities for o.J. R. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis and Padova.Metabolsim kopiert 1 C. Thizobizum "hedysarum" and R.3 Can.page 329 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1377 Tombolini R.0198.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Solid-state polyester films structure w ganze Artikel . University of Padova. techniques. enzymatic degradation of Chemical structure.Genetics kopiert 1379 Hideki Abe. J. Anderson.I. The films of polyesters were prepared by both the solution-cast Keywords : and melt-crystallized Poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid)s. Yoshiharu Doi * Polymer Chemistry Laboratory.xls . Microbiol. S. Padova.2 1 Biopolymers Laboratory.2. Trieste and 2 Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie. Hull. Casella. Saitama 351.jp (Y. United Kingdom. Nuti.riken.R.I. . 3 Deparment of Agricultural Biotechnology.

T. Tsukuba. People's Republic of China * Corresponding author. Ibaraki.8562 Japan recycling International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 25 (1999) 37–42 1999 Keywords : Photosynthesis. Higashi 11. Lixia Li. Masato Miyake a . functionally expressed the Copolyester.Photosynthetic accumulation of poly-(hydroxybutyrate) by 4. Substrate speci¢city. Lamellar morphology Thin films with average layer thickness 100 nm of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] (P[(R)-3HB]) and poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-10 mol% 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid] were isothermally crystallized at a given crystallization temperature after melting at 20 ganze Artikel Yuxian An. cyanobacteria—the metabolism and potential for CO2 305. Science University of Tokyo. Regina V. Lisong Dong *. Y.A. Ibaraki. Ralstonia mutants affected in fatty eutropha acid L-oxidation an Regulatory mechanism in PHB [poly(hydroxybutyrate)] accumulation by cyanobacteria. Doi a Japan * poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] and its copolymer ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Polymer 41 (2000) 867–874 2000 Keywords: Poly[(R)-3hydroxybutyric acid]. Aoki b . * . Thin film. 1-3. we synthase. Kikkawa b . Abe a. Fax: +86 4315685653. especially by a thermophilic isolate. Shinjuku.8566 Japan b National Institute of Ad6anced Interdisciplinary Research.Microscopic visualization on crystalline morphologies of H. Rehm Germany Analysis of in vivo substrate speci¢city of the PHA synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: formation of novel copolyesters in recombinant Escherichia coli FEMS Microbiology Letters 182 (2000) 111^117 2000 ganze Artikel Yasuo Asada a. Corrensstr. 1381 Zhishen Mo. ku.page 330 Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title a Polymer Chemistry Laboratory.4. Synechococcus MA19 was reviewed in comparison with a genetically engineered strain. T. Wako-shi. Antonio. Higashi 1. Biodegradable plastics. 1382 chel *.xls . MA19 accumulates PHB under nitrogen ganze Artikel Institut fu «r Mikrobiologie der Westfa«lischen Wilhelms-Universita«t Mu«nster. Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) ganze Artikel . Alexander Steinbu« 3. Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry. I European Polymer Journal 35 (1999) 365±369 1999 The overall isothermal crystallization kinetics and melting behavior of poly( bhydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) blends were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). Changchun 130022. Iwata a . Fatty various Escherichia coli acid L-oxidation.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 1383 Yutaka Tokiwa a a National Institute of Bioscience and HumanTechnology. Tsukuba. Tokyo 162-8601. Chinese Academy of Sciences. Zhiliu Feng Polymer Physics Laboratory. Jun Miyake b . The Avrami analysis indicates that the addition of PVA In order to investigate the in vivo substrate specificity of the type I polyhydroxyalkanoate Keywords: (PHA) synthase from Polyhydroxyalkanoate Ralstonia eutropha. PHA synthase gene in Polyhydroxyalkanoate. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). Y. *. Bernd H. Ryuichiro Kurane a . Akehata b . D-48149 Mu«nster. The strain. Cyanobacteria. 305. thin films for 1380 H. Hirosawa. Kagurazaka.1. Saitama 351-0198. Japan b Department of Industrial Chemistry.

1385 Robert W. Mass spectrometry pyrolysis or of PHAs partial met ganze Artikel . Eastern Regional * Corresponding author. E. Italy b Istituto per la Chimica e la Tecnologia dei Materiali Polimerici. the structure. James Madison Valentin b. Keywords : were determined by Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Giuseppe Impallomeni b . USA b Department of Biological Sciences. Polymer proteins associated with inclusion. e-mail: rashby@arserrc.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Subcellular these inclusions have compartmentaliza-tion been des ganze Artikel Characterization by mass spectrometry of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) produced by Rhodospirillum rubrum from 3-hydroxyacids International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 26 (1999) 201–211 1999 The sequence distributions of two microbial copolyesters obtained by fermentation of Rhodospirillum rubrum. Uni6ersity of Massachusetts. fax: ?1 215 2336795. Wyndmoor. Ashby *. and proteins. phospholipids. Consiglio Nazionale Alberto Ballistreri a. Henry E. Amherst MA. R. 600East Mermaid Lane. Both the polymerase and the depolymerase enzymes Keywords : are active components of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Clinton Fuller c Correspond Protein organization on the PHA inclusion cytoplasmic boundary Journal of Biotechnology 64 (1998) 137–144 1998 Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) cellular inclusions consist of polyesters.S. Douglas Dennis b . *. C12 Radiation crosslinking and C14 alkyl sid ganze Artikel a Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Ali Tehrani a . 95125 Catania. Anne-Marie 1384 Cromwick 2 . Viale . Uni6ersita ` di Catania. USA a Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche. Agricultural Research Ser6ice. Doria 6. Doria 6. Robert W. grown with 3-hydroxyhexanoic or 3hydroxyheptanoic acids. Lenz c . Stuart a. Recently. This polymer had a repeat unit composition ranging from Keywords : Medium-chainC4 to C14 with some length poly(hydroxyalkanoate). Italy* 1386 R. Catania. Uni6ersity. mono-unsaturation in the Pseudomonas resino6orans.4. *. Ultrastructural studies.1 . Radiation crosslinking of a bacterial medium-chain-length PA 19038.govR esearch Center. Mario Giuffrida b delle Ricerche.page 331 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Richard D. Tel. Viale A. analyzing the oligomers Sequence distribution of prepared by partial copolymers.c Harrisonburg VI.xls . Clinton Fuller a. Foglia United States Department of Agriculture. Thomas A. A. 95125 Lenz c .: ?1 215 2336483. USA poly(hydroxyalkanoate) elastomer from tallow 1 International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 23 (1998) 61–72 1998 Pseudomonas resino6orans produces a medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (MCL-PHA) copolymer when grown on tallow (PHA–tal).

School of Biotechnology. Wuxi 214036. PhilippsUniversity . P. D35037 Marburg . Alcaligenes eutrophus recovered ganze Artikel . PR China Recovery of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from Alcaligenes * Corresponding eutrophus by author.page 332 Title a Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmacy . Carta e Fibre Tessili Vegetali ed Artificiali. Supercritical strongly affected by carbon dioxide. Chelate.zza Leonardo da Vinci 26. Recover. purity. fax: 149Biodegradable semi-crystalline comb polyesters influence 6421-287-016. M. Guocheng Du.: +39-2-2395531. Detlef Mohr E-mail address : microsphere production by means of a supercritical fluid 1387 . surfactant–chelate aqueous system Process Biochemistry 34 (1999) 153–157 1999 A new method for the recovery of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from Alcaligenes eutrophus was reported. Fax: +39-2-2365039. Tel. Wuxi Uni6ersity of Light Industry. This process involved the use of a surfactant–chelate aqueous solution. The key Keywords : Poly(3factors that influenced the hydroxybutyrate). Structural characterization Films of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) were crystallized from the melt by different thermal treatments and submitted to enzymatic degradation by using a PHB depolymerase purified from Aureobacterium saperdae culture. Thomas Kissel kissel@mail extraction technique (ASES) ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Journal of Controlled Release 63 (2000) 53–68 2000 The aerosol solvent extraction system (ASES) is a method based on solvent extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide for the preparation of microspheres. Germany b Schwarz Pharma AG .xls . Italy * Corresponding author. Shiyi Lun En6ironmental Biotechnology Laboratory. Jian Chen *.: 1496421-285-880.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Canetti*. Biodegradable physico-chemical branched polyesters. The ASES technology seems to be Keywords : ASES. Cairong 1389 Yu. recovery rate and surfactant. * Armin Breitenbach . properties of Microspheres biodegradabl ganze Artikel 1388 M. P. Urso.4.it enzymatic degradation of bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Polymer 40 (1999) 2587–2594 1999 Keywords: Poly(3hydroxybutyrate). the a ba. Germany*Correspondi ng author. Monheim . Aqueous Mv of solution.cilea. I-20133 Milan. Influence of the morphology and of the supermolecular E-mail: structure on the sscctlib@icil64. Tel. Enzymatic degradation. Sadocco Stazione Sperimentale Cellulosa. The morphology and the supermolecular ganze Artikel Yinguang Chen. Ketzerbach 63.

E.cn poly(methylmethacrylate) blends: 1391 * r. * .: +39-40676-3684. South Korea b Department of Chemical Engineering. Morphology. The investigation has been carried out in dilute solutions mainly by high sensitivi ganze Artikel . Poly(3-D(-)hydroxybutyrate). Tel. Crystallization. Italy *Corresponding author. P.na. Calorimetry.4.: +39 81 8534174.trieste. Cimmino.it Crystallisation and melting behaviour of poly (3hydroxybutyrate) in dilute solution: towards an understanding of physical gels Thermochimica Acta 321 (1998) 3±16 1998 Keywords: Gelation. Via Toiano. Inchon 402751. C. miscibility and crystallization relationships Thermochimica Acta 321 (1998) 89±98 1998 Keywords: Atactic poly(methylmethacrylate) blends. Jhon b a Department of Polymer Science and Engineering. e-mail: Poly(3-D(-)hydroxybutyrate)/atactic Silvestre silv@mail. Phase structure. Polyesters. poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Polymer 40 (1999) 4135–4138 1999 Keywords: P(3HB/3HV). 6. e-mail: cesaro@univ. Jiarui Guan 1 .it Morphology. 1390 Myung S. the phase structure and the crystallization processes of poly(3-D()hydroxybutyrate)/atactic poly(methylmethacrylate) blends. PHB.xls . Biopolymers The purpose of this paper is to examine the thermodynamics of physical gelation by presenting some results gathered on gels of stereo-regular poly hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Jinho Kim a . Choi a. First normal stress difference The viscoelastic properties of microbial biodegradable copolymers containing 3hydroxybutylate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) were investigated as well as the reference homopolymer. CNR. by plotting the first normal stress di ganze Artikel Istituto di Ricerca e Tecnologia delle Materie Plastiche. Carnegie Mellon University.page 333 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Hyoung J. poly(3hydroxybutylate) (PHB). Biophysics and Macromolecular Chemistry. Tel. fax: +39 81 S. Thermal behavior The morphology. Attilio CesaÁro 1392 * Department of Biochemistry. USA * Corresponding Viscoelastic characterization of biodegradable author. Nanocrystallinity. Pittsburgh. I-34127 Trieste. Iodice. (PHB/aPMMA). PA 15213. University of Trieste. 8663378. The two-phase se ganze Artikel Deborah Fabri. Martuscelli. 80072 Naples.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. fax: +39-40676-3691. Italy *Corresponding author. have been investigated as a function of blend composition and thermal treatments. Arco Felice.irtemp. Inha University.

Italy }Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. 3were cultivated in a Hydroxypivalic acid. This review discusses both the structure and function of this assembly. MA 01003. 14. 20133 Milano. P.page 334 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage B. 3. AVELLA% *Stazione Sperimentale per la Cellulosa.uma inclusions and ss. 1998 1998 AbstractÐLignocellulosic materials treated by the steam explosion technique alone. L. constituent if the cells 3-Hydroxybutyric acid.2mineral salts medium Dimethyl-3-hydroxypropionic containing 3acid. BASED MATERIALS 187±194. FOCHER*}. D-48149 Muë nster. or in the presence of chemical reagents. Tel. Clinton Fuller * Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. are assembled in intracellular cytoplasmic inclusions. undergo remarkable modi®cations at the level of both the chemical composition KeywordsÐSteam explosion and supramolecular process. Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 26. A. Fax: +49 (251) 8338388. Fuller) intracellular boundary envelopes International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 25 (1999) 21–29 1999 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Institut fuë r Mikrobiologie der Westfaë lischen Wilhems-Universitaë t Muënster. pp. Marc Waë ltermann. chitin. University of Massachusetts Amherst.: +49 (251) 8339821. structure.: ?1-413545-0328.de STEAM EXPLODED BIOMASS FOR THE PREPARATION OF CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED BIOPOLYMERBiomass and Bioenergy Vol. 1393 BELTRAME$ and M. Carta e Fibre Tessili Vegetali ed Arti®ciali. in the form of metabolic storage reserves.C. developing algae.4. No. E-mail address : Microbial inclusions with special reference to PHA rcfuller@biochem. Alexander 1394 Steinbuë chel * Biosynthesis of novel copolyesters containing 3hydroxypivalic acid by Rhodococcus ruber NCIMB 40126 and related bacteria FEMS Microbiology Letters 159 (1998) 85^92 1998 Rhodococcus ruber and related Gram-positive bacteria synthesized and accumulated novel copolyesters containing 3hydroxypivalic acid as Keywords: Rhodococcus ruber. often called granules.xls . In addition an overview of othe ganze Artikel . Tel. Germany * Corresponding author. Polyhydroxyalkanoic hydroxypivalic acid and acid glucose as c ganze Artikel 1395 R.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. fax: ?1-4135453291. MARZETTI*. Corrensstra Me 3.edu (R. Dirk Fabritius. 2. lignocellulosics. E-mail: steinbu@unimuenster. composites features s ganze Artikel Bernd Fuë chtenbusch. USA * Corresponding author.

Canada b Department of Chemical Engineering. polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and copolymers poly(hydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate) (P(HB-coHV)). Qun Ren . Bernard 1398 Witholt . DRX) in order to be used in hydroxyapatite (HA) Material composit Characterisation ganze Artikel a Department of Chemical Engineering. FTIR. In Coenzyme A (CoA) using vitro activity assay.page 335 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage a Laboratory of Polymers. DSC. Campos. was investigated for producing the intracellular bioplastic poly( b-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB). Switzerland*Correspon ding author.: 134-950-215-566. Brazil Anali´a Va´zquez d .xls .b. Honggerberg HPT . Havana City 10400. Polyhydroxybutyrate.ethz. Chavati Rozsa a . Swiss Federal Institute of Technology . Juan Fung c . Fermentation optimization for the production of 1397 . Witholt) measurements Enzyme and Microbial Technology 25 (1999) 132–141 1999 Keywords: Poly( bhydroxybutyric acid).59-dithiobis (2chain length nitrobenzoic polyhydroxyalkanoates. University of Waterloo. acid) (DTNB). Biopolymer. Materials and Reagents Institute. E-mail medium address : chain length PHA polymerases based on CoenzymeA bw@biotech. Cuba b Advanced Material Laboratory. Murray Moo-Young a 484.. CH. Havana University. Almeri´a. University of Almeri´a. Waterloo. Alcaligenes latus. American Type Culture Collection 29713. Characterization and application of poly(bhydroxyalkanoates) family as composite biomaterials Polymer Testing 19 (2000) 485–492 2000 Some polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Bioplastic Batch culture of Alcaligenes latus. North Fluminense State Norma Galego a.8093 Zurich . Medium 5. fax: 134-950-215Enrico Grothe a . Spain* Corresponding author. University. Polymer Section.biol. composite experimental design was used to optimize the composition of t ganze Artikel 1 * Guy de Roo. were characterized by different techniques (GPC.1051.J.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. DMA. Polyhydroxyalkanoate. fax: 141-1.: 1411-633-3286. Birgit Kessler Journal of Microbiological Methods 41 (2000) 1–8 2000 An improved activity assay for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerases from Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1 was developed.* . Tel. Tel. Ontario. * E-mail: ychisti@u poly( b-hydroxybutyric acid) microbial thermoplastic ¨ ¨ ¨ Institute of Biotechnology . release ch (B. R. Julio Santo * Corresponding 1396 Toma´s e author.Development of an improved in vitro activity assay for 633. a Pseudomonas oleovorans compound ganze Artikel . A central. The activity assay is based on the detection of released Keywords : PHA polymerase. Yusuf Chisti b. ETH Zurich . Rube´n Sa´nchez b .4.

Polyvinyl acetate. * Rolf P. Depolymerization was achiev ganze Artikel a aba. PHB. Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Tel.Crystallisation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/polyvinyl acetate 145232. sludge by ion Journal of Microbiological Methods 35 (1999) Zurich . Tel. Miyamoto.ac. Zehnder 1401 S. Switzerland chromatographic and enzymatic methods 111–119 Department of Polymer Science and Engineering. Kyoto 606-8585.e. Birmingham B15 2TT. This polymer was polymerization. i.kit. The University of Birmingham. PHV ganze Artikel 2000 A telechelic poly([RS]-3hydroxybutyrate) ([RS]PHB) was synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of [RS]-bbutyrolactone (bBL) in the presence of 1. M. l-lactide to obtain a biodegradable thermoplastic elastomer Polymer 41 (2000) 7369–7379 1999 Keywords : Analysis. Hesselmann . Kimura * a¨ Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG). Japan * Corresponding author. Edgbaston.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates.B. Both methods are based on depolymerization of PHB/ PHV to 3hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV).X. Y. Enzymatic. Roland Hany .N.: 144-1214144544.4-butanediol (BD) with Keywords: Poly(3distannoxane as the hydroxybutyrate). Ring-opening catalyst.Synthesis and characterization of hydroxy-terminated [RS]712-3956. 1400 Alexander J.: 1 81-75724-7804. Kyoto Institute of Technology. Ion chromatographic. L. poly(3E-mail address: hydroxybutyrate) and its utilization to block ykimura@ipc. Telechelic found to be terminated by polymer sec ganze Artikel . Hay * . Thomas Fleischmann . 0–100 wt%.jp copolymerization with (Y. UK * Corresponding author. which var Two new detection methods for the determination of poly-bhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and -valerate (PHV) are described. Kimura).page 336 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1399 J. blends Polymer 41 (2000) 5749–5757 2000 Keywords: Poly(3hydroxybutyrate). Matsugasaki. Sharma The School of Metallurgy and Materials. Dubendorf and Swiss Federal Institute of Determination of polyhydroxyalkanoates in activated Technology¨ (ETH ). The blends exhibited a single glass transition temperature. fax: 1 81-75. Hiki. fax: 144-1214. Sakyoku. Blends Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) has been blended with poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and the system has been found to be miscible over the complete composition range studied.xls .4.

Yoshio ech.E-mail address:yinoue@bio. Trevor C. Germany * Corresponding author. Elke B. 37077 Go«ttingen.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Rhizosphere. Rehm muenster. Sinorhizobium meliloti Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 responds to external biotin signals from alfalfa plants through the bioS regulatory locus. Tel. Root colonization.. Kai Hofmann a . Streit a. Grisebachstr. Bernd H.de The Pseudomonas aeruginosa phaG gene product is involved in the synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid consisting of medium-chain-length constituents from non-related carbon sources FEMS Microbiology Letters 184 (2000) 253^259 2000 We recently identified the phaGPp gene encoding (R)-3-hydroxydecanoylACP:CoA transacylase in Pseudomonas putida.tit Tetsuya Ikejima. Michael Hoppert a Canada* .Fax: +49 (55 are both affected by biotin available in de¢ned medium FEMS Microbiology Letters 182 (2000) 41^44 2000 Keywords: Alfalfa. Corrensstra Me 3. Immunogold labeling and electron microscopy revealed that the BioS protein is located within the S. ENils Hoffmann. Ont.jp (Y. University of Waterloo. : +81-45924-5794. Japan* Corresponding author. Waterloo.xls . An Polyhydroxyalkanoate open reading frame (ORF) synthesis of which t ganze Artikel a Institut fu«r Mikrobiologie und Genetik der Universita«t Go«ttingen. Corresponding author. Biotin. : +49 (251) 833 9821.t Influence of tacticity and molecular weight of poly(vinyl alcohol) on crystallization and biodegradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid)/ Polymer Degradation and Stability 66 (1999) 263270 1999 poly(vinyl alcohol) blend films The crystallinity and the pro®le of biodegradation by environmental microorganisms in river water were investigated for bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [PHB] blend ®lms with stereoregular poly(vinyl alcohol)s [PVA] and low-molecular weight atactic ganze Artikel . Heinz a . Naoko Yoshie.Fax: +49 (251) 833 8388. Tokyo Institute of Technology. Alexander Steinbu« chel mail: steinbu@uni1402 *.ac. Germany b Department of Biology. (PHA) biosynthesis. Charles b . meliloti cytoplasm.A. Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021 bioS and bdhA gene Wolfgang Liebl a . Under biotin-li ganze Artikel Department of Biomolecular Engineering. Fatty biosynthesis and acid biosynthesis. Tel. D-48149 Mu«nster. polyhydroxyalkanoate Transacylase. : +49 (551) transcriptions 1403 * 393775. fax: +81-45924-5827.page 337 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Institut fu «r Mikrobiologie. Midori-Ku. Polyhydroxybutyrate. N2L 3G1. Wolfgang R. links the fatty acid de novo Polyhydroxyalkanoic acid.4. 8. Westfa«lische Wilhelms-Universita«t Mu«nster. Keywords: Pseudomonas which directly aeruginosa. 4259 Nagatsuta. 1404 Inoue* nyoshie@bio. Yokohama 226-8501. Tel. Inoue).

13C n. Tokyo Institute of Technology. Gabriel. 4259 Nagatsuta.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. E-mail: In vitro synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) by using steinbu@unian 1406 Ralf Jossek. Germany * Corresponding author. Lenz R. University of Massachusetts. poly(3hydroxynonanoate) ganze Artikel Knowles JC. PHA. Hastings GW. and 1408 Panday.de enzymatic coenzyme A recycling system FEMS Microbiology Letters 168 (1998) 319^324 1998 Keywords: Poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid). produced by Pseudomonas Oleovorans .r. In vitro synthesis.) spectroscopy was used to monitor the intracellular production and degradation in vivo of two poly(3hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs). In combination with purified propionylcoenzyme A transferase of Clostridium propionicum As a direcxt method for the evalualtion of tissue bonding to two polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) based composites. Propionyl-coenzyme A transferase Purified recombinant poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid). No. Alexander Steinbuë chel * muenster. Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid). Crystallization behavior and environmental Yokohama 226-8501. pp 491-496 1992 Composites Polyhydroxybutyrate . synthase from Chromatium vinosum was used to examine in vitro poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (P(3HB)) formation. Inoue * Department of Biomolecular Engineering.. 1407 Niwa S. Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.m.r.m.W.4.E. Westfaë lische WilhelmsUniversita ë t Muënster. Boeree N Development of a Degradable Composite for Orthopedic Use . The blend films showed X-ray Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid). Midori-Ku. Ohta H. Vol. Iss 8. intracellular PHA production and degradation. arose from the PHB Environmental biodegradability crystalline ganze Artikel Institut fuër Mikrobiologie. S. 13C n.m.: +49 (251) 833 9821.. Three composites were tested. a mechanical push-out test was perfomred on implants inthe femur of mature Japanesse White rabbits. C. Poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid) synthase. The first. D-48149 Muë nster.xls . biodegradability of the blend Japan films of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) with chitin and chitosan Carbohydrate Polymers 41 (2000) 351–356 2000 Crystallization behavior and environmental biodegradability were investigated for the films of bacterial poly(3hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) blends with chitin and chitosan. 21 pp 5313-5319 1997 bacterial polyesters.page 338 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage 1405 T. Tel. Chromatium vinosum. Ikejima.r.Invivo Biomechanical and Histological-Evaluation of 2 Bioactive Degradable Composite Based on the Polyhydroxybutyrate Polymer Biomaterials 1992. spectroscopy in living cells of Pseudomonas USA and oleovorans Polymer 1997. Y.M..Fax: +49 (251) 833 8388. S. Corrensstra Me 3.BoneBonding Curley J.C. Vol 13. diffractive peaks that Crystallization behavior..B. Amherst. Browne. MA 01003. spectroscopy in vivo ganze Artikel . Fuller R. a hyd Application natural abundance solution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (n. 38.

41-800 Zabrze. Japan Morphology and Crystal Structure of Solution-Grown Single Crystals of Poly[(R)-3-hydroxyvalerate] Macromolecules 2000. 01854.. poly(?. biocatalysts. 6624-6626 2000 no abstract .A. 1): 32-43 (1995) 1995 Nove functional poly(?hydroxyalkanoates). PHAs. 5797-5802 2000 MS. 800 N. sequence distribution 1411 Tadahisa Iwata* and Yoshiharu Doi Polymer Chemistry Laboratory.4.Pseudomonas oleovorand ATCC 29347 and hydroxyalkanoate). and Anderson A. Lowell. Con Sequence Distribution and Fragmentation Studies of Bacterial Copolyester Macromolecules: Characterization of PHBV Macroinitiator by Electrospray Ion-Trap Multistage Mass Spectrometry Macromolecules 2000. Mariastella Scandola Centre of Polymer Chemistry. Tran M. Polish Academy of Sciences. RIKEN Institute.organisms were first hydroxy-paragrown on citrate (40 mM) cyanophenoxyvalerate) before poly ganzer Artikel Grazyna Adamus. mass spectrometry. and Rutherford. PHBV. groups were prepared. 33. Asrar University of Hull.J. UK in the presence of 13C-labeled ethylene glycol Macromolecules 2000. with hyperbolarizable side Pseudomonas oleovorans.A. Wako-shi. Saitama 351-0198. poly(?. Pseudomonas putida.page 339 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Department of Chemistry. O. Maurizio 1410 Montaudo.. J. R. D. morphology. and Marek Kowalczuk.. These poly(3-hydroxy-6-paranitrophenoxyhexanoate). Synthesis of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate by Ralstonia eutropha 1412 J. Wanda Sikorska. Madden L. MA 1409 Kim.. University of Massachusetts Lowell. 5559-5565 2000 crystal structure. poly(3hydroxy-6-paraPseudomons putida KT 2442 were selcted as cyanophenoxyhexanoate). Microbiol. P([R]-3HV) crystals were squareshaped and gave well-resolved electron diffraction diagrams from wh Monsanto Co. USA Bioengineering of (poly-?-hydroxyalkanoates) for advanced material applications: incorporation of cyano and nitrophenoxy side chain substituents Can. Gross. Missouri 63167 Department of Biological Sciences. Instituto per la Chimica e la Tecnologia dei Materiali Polimerici. biopolyester macroinitiator obtained by partial alkaline depolymerization of natural PHBV containing 5 mol % of HV units Solution-grown lamellar single crystals of bacterial poly[(R)-3hydroxyvalerate] (P([R]3HV)) have been prepared in a mixture of chloroform and methanol. Lindbergh Blvd.. polymer analytic. Poland..St. Hull HU6 7RX. 33. Louis.A.xls .10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Hirosawa. Shah D. Berger P. electron diffraction Sequence distribution and chemical structure of mass selected macromolecules of poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate). 41(Suppl.. 33. 1 University Avenue.T.

Berger. Anderson Monsanto Co. 33. Lindbergh Blvd. Turkey. The Dow Chemical Company. ETHHönggerberg. Michigan Division.. The molecular weights (MW) of the ch This paper describes the biosynthesis and properties of bacterial poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHA) with predominantly hydroxyl end groups. soybean oily acids and the mixtures of octanoic acid (in weight ratios of 50/50 and 70/30) were chlorinated up to 54 wt % Cl content. (PHA-DB). Hydroxy termination is achieved by the addition of low molecular weight diols to the culture. and Jawed Asrar*. These and other mcl-PHAs are now available in sufficient amounts to carry out applicatio Department of Chemistry. Marmara Research Center. Food. Zonguldak Karaelmas University.‡ and Gebze. Science and Technology Institute. University of Hull.. Pierre A.B.. 2437-2445 2000 A method has been developed which utilizes the experimental results from pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) integrated with that from a Monte Carlo simulation to characterize the microstructure of a copolymer chain. and Helmut Brandl Zü rich. Sciences. 33. Witholt B.†.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. 67100. University of 1413 Tchouboukov A. and TU¬ BIú TAK. Louis. hazelnut. Turkey Side Chains Macromolecules 2000.. 3219-3223 2000 Unsaturated biopolyesters. 33. Kessler B. 33. Switzerland Institute of Environmental Kellerhals M.page 340 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Institute of Biotechnology. The bridge between Py-GC and the Mo . St.. Leigh A. 800 N. Winterthure Renewable Long-Chain Fatty Acids for Production of Biodegradable Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) at Laboratory and Pilot Plant Scales Macromolecules 2000. Hull Synthesis and Properties of Hydroxy-Terminated HU6 7RX. Michigan 48667 Characterization of a Polymeric Chain by Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography and Computer Simulation Macromolecules 2000. Madden and 1415 Alistair J. Midland. It is found that low mo Devang T. 41470. CH8093 Zürich. Chlorination of Poly(3-hydroxy alkanoates) Containing Ali Hakan Arkin. Poonam Aggarwal. Zonguldak.* . Minhtien Tran. † Baki Hazer. UK Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s Macromolecules 2000.xls . obtained from pure anchovy (hamci). 2875-2880 2000 1416 Frank Cheng-Yu Wang Analytical Sciences Laboratory.4. Unsaturated 1414 Mehlika Borcakli ‡ Kocaeli. 4690-4698 2000 Several types of mcl-PHAs were produced by Pseudomonas putida KT2442 at pilot and laboratory scales from renewable long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and octanoic acid. Missouri 63167 Department of Biological Sciences. Shah.

† and Marc Vincendon Grenoble. 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9. De´partement de Chimie-Mate´riaux. Universite´ Joseph Fourier. To probe the question of blend miscibility. 38000 Blends: 1417 Alain Dufresne* . France. scanning electron microscopy (SEM) obs . and Institut Universitaire de Technologie. 2998-3008 2000 Blends of bacterial poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with poly(hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) were prepared by co-dissolving the two polyesters in chloroform and casting the mixture.4. 39. 33.10 Literature on Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Fra Morphology and Mechanical Behavior Macromolecules 2000. BP 53.page 341 ID Autor(s) / Inventor(s) Adress(es) / Applicant(s) Title Source / Application Number Year Keyword(s) Abstract Objective Hardware Ablage Centre de Recherches sur les Macromole´cules Ve´ge´tales (CERMAVCNRS). Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) Bd Gambetta.xls .

4.11 Literatures on polysaccharides 342 .

343 .

ChampagneC@em. chitinase. Brion Biotechnol Bioeng 2000 Jun F. The viscosity and flow rate contributions in the drop formation is qualitatively analyzed to show how they affect droplet size. Environmental 2000 8 Biotechnology Laboratory. Canada J2S 8E3. Senuma Y. Here.0. Bacillus sp. The system was characterized by the dimensionless numbers Reomega = (omega x rho x D(2))/mu a 2 Production and characterization of a thermostable chitinase from a new alkalophilic Bacillus sp.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. The rotation of the shaft and bowl creates a climbing film (vortex) of solution. Hilborn JG. produce micron-sized particles with very narrow size distribution. . respectively. Institute of Microbial Technology.68(6):681-8 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year Food Research and Development 2000 Centre. Bacillus sp. relative to other existing techniques. Blahuta N.xls . Agriculture Canada. Inc. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Source / Application Number Champagne CP. where calcium-ion-rich media is continuously recirculated from the bulk solution to the bowl.page 344 ID 1 Title A vortex-bowl disk atomizer system for the production of alginate beads in a 1500-liter fermentor. Lowe C. West.4..ca Keyword(s) production. CH1015 Lausanne EPFL..imtech. Swiss Federal 2000 Institute of Technology Lausanne. India. environmental micro-organism. the interest is to produce. An atomizing disk centrally recessed within the bowl sprays an alginate solution into the climbing film where the droplets harden into beads. respectively. The chitinase immobilized on chitosan was stable between pH 5. The pH and temperature optima of chitinase immobilized on chitosan and calcium alginate were 8. 3 Alginate hydrogel microspheres and microcapsules prepared by spinning disk atomization.67(5):616-22 Polymer Laboratory. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons. BG-11.MTCC & Gene Bank. Beads of various sizes were produced by the unit. Gagnon C 20.88(5):800. The effect of heat treatment on the alginate solution on resulting bead properties was examined. The aim of this work is to present this technology for the production of alginate microspheres and microcapsules.0 and 10. production Our spinning disk atomization (SDA) can. 3600 Casavant Blvd. Switzerland. The end-products formed during the enzyme-substrate reaction were identified by 13C-NMR. at a concentr alginate. In addition. which were same as that of free enzyme. Abstract Using a model system.5 and 50 degrees C. at high rate. bharat@lion. We atomized and gelled aqueous alginate solutions into very narrowly dispersed microspheres with sizes ranging from 300 to 600 microm. alginate. The pH and thermostability of immobilized chitinase were enhanced significantly. particles of a given size with a narrow size distribution and also to show a new method of encapsulation using SDA.agr. hydrospheres. BG-11. 70 and 60 min. Zweifel Y. Marison I Biotechnol Bioeng 2000 Mar 5. Bhushan B J Appl Microbiol 2000 May. a technique for high degree of encapsulation is presented in which yeast is used as a model system. The production of yeast-loaded microspheres by SDA shows the potential of the technique for biotechnology applications. The system is comprised of a 60-cm diameter bowl fixed to the top of an agitation shaft. has been isolated and characterized. Quebec. respectively.85 is described. SaintHyacinthe. The molecular weight of purified chitinase was estimated to be 41 kDa by SDS-PAGE.in production. The sterilization operation did not appear to have a major effect on the alginate bead mechanical properties of firmness and elasticity which was much more a function of alginate concentration. It produced 76 U ml-1 of chitinase in liquid batch fermentation after 72 h of incubation at 50 degrees C using chitin-enriched medium. and the half-life of chitosan-immobilized enzyme at 70. Chandigarh.ernet. GlcNAc (GlcNAc)2 and (GlcNAc)3 inhibited the chitinase activity by 32. and Nacetyl-D-glucosamine was found to be the major end-product. An alkalophilic. 25 and 18%. a concept for the immobilization of microbial cultures within alginate beads directly in a 1500-L fermentor with a height to diameter ratio of 1. 80 and 90 degrees C was 90. beads.

USA. aeruginosa. Faculty of Science. aeruginosa.12(4):593-8 Department of Botany and Microbiology.7H2O. University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. The D-mannuronic acid residues of alginate and the D-rhamnose (D-Rha) residues of A-band polysaccharide are both derived from the common sugar nucleotide precursor GDP-D-mannose (D-Man). Penaloza-Vazquez A. The alg Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of producing various cell-surface polysaccharides including alginate. No gene encoding a phosphomannose mutase The role of nutrients on alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii was studied in batch cultures. 42 mg/l CaCl2. syringae. which encode proteins involved in the synthesis of GDP-DRha.. 2. The largest amount of bacterial alginate was obtained in presence of: 0. syringae revealed the presence of argH. syringae. 2 mg/l Na2MoO4. 1998/99 pseudomonas. syringae.181(11):347885 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. 2 mg/l ZnSO4. cellsurface. It contains 69.2H2O.san. Alginate production was not enhanced by natural additives or inducing agents. Egypt. was defective in alginate production but could be complemented when algR1 was expressed in trans. However. alginate. Hassett DJ J Bacteriol 1996 Dec. lipopolysaccharides 6 Effect of nutrients on alginate synthesis Sabry SA. Biochemitsry and Microbiology. hassetdj@ucbeh. Lam JS Mol Microbiol 1998 Sep. aeruginosa with copper being a major signal in P. 5 Synthesis of the A-band polysaccharide Rocchetta HL.4% protein. except for acetate. Bender CL Source / Application Number J Bacteriol 1999 Jun. 0. gene. Escherichia coli PMI and GMP mutants deficient in the K30 capsule were complemented with wbpW. aeruginosa. This indicates that WbpW. Abstract Both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the phytopathogen P. algZ. anaerob. aeruginosa counterpart. USA. production. Alexandria University. Sequence analysis of the region flanking algR1 in P. syringae.5H2O. homologues.3 g/l MgSO4.page 345 ID 4 Title Regulation of alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. In the present study. rmd. Oklahoma State University. A-band and B-band lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Chakrabarty AM. Ohio 45257-0524. It is similar to algal alginate. 1996 nutrient. like AlgA.9 mg/l H3BO3. syringae produce the exopolysaccharide alginate. in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. University of Guelph. aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced alginate and elevated algD (encoding GDPmannose 6-dehydrogenase) transcription under strict anaerobic conditions.5% M-M block. 0. the alternate sigma factor encoded by algT (sigma22) and the response regulator AlgR1 are required for transcription of algD.2H2O.uc. pseudomonas. and restoration of K30 capsule production was observed.29(6):1419.Department of Microbiology and sugar D-rhamnose requires Rmd and 34 Published erratum appears in Mol Canadian Bacterial Diseases WbpW: identification of multiple AlgA Microbiol 1999 Jan. production. Purified alginate added to bacterial suspensions caused a decrease in growth. Three genes. alginate.4 mg/l KH2PO4. production.7H2O.5 mg/l FeSO4.4 g/l NaCl. To confirm the enzymatic activity of WbpW.32. Ghanem KM. 0. alginate. regulation. Pacan JC. P. alginate. Stillwater.4.178(24):7322-5 Department of Molecular Genetics.3 mg/l CuSO4. Year 1999 Keyword(s) exopolysaccharide. 2. and hemC in an arrangement virtually identical to that reported in P. gmd and wbpW. have been localized to the 5' end of the A-band gene cluster.36% ash and 0. syringae FF5. but it has an extra acetyl group. Oklahoma 74078. production. ON. 16 mg/l K2HPO4. syringae showed 86% identity to its P. the environmental signals that trigger alginate gene expression in P. is a bifunctional enzyme that possesses both PMI and GMP activities for the synthesis of GDP-D-Man.7H2O. a gene which encodes a key enzyme in the alginate biosynthetic pathway. nitrate . suggesting that alginate contributes to oxygen limitation for the organism and likely for patients afflicted with the inherited autosomal disease cystic fibrosis. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Fakhr MK. Sabra in Azotobacter vinelandii and WA characterization of the produced alginate. WbpW and ORF488.5% M-G block and 3% G-G block. especially when using nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. In this study.edu 1996 pseudomonas. aeruginosa. An algR1 mutant.2 mg/l MnCl2.xls . The deduced amino acid sequence of AlgR1 from P.31(1):397-8 Network. syringae are different from those in P.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.4H2O. WbpW was found to be homologous to phosphomannose isomerases (PMIs) and GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylases (GMPs) involved in GDP-D-Man biosynthesis. In P. which increased alginate yield. polysaccharides. Microbiologia 1996 Dec. we cloned and characterized the gene encoding AlgR1 from P. Azotobacter vinelandii 7 Anaerobic production of alginate by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: alginate restricts diffusion of oxygen. The pure alginate contained 0. 27.

coli. a transactivator and an histone-like respectively.xls . viridiflava. suggesting that the EPS was primarily alginic acid. Palmer synthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. which is one of the most important factor of virulence of P. Horcher A. France. etc. we present a protocol for the chemical purification of alginates on a large-scale. cobalt. Wohrle M. surface charge and curvature. In this study. We recently conducted a survey of 37 copper-resistant (Cur) Pseudomonas spp. Bender CL syringae. Germany.page 346 ID 8 Title Author(s) / Inventor(s) Alginates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Schmitt-Andrieu L. The alginate biosynthetic pathway involves genes called alg which are clustered at the 34 min region of chromosomal DNA of P. cepacia.[Article in French] Source / Application Number C R Acad Sci III 1996 Mar. transplantation.. size. copper. and found that a subset of the P. Sundin GW. Subinhibitory levels of arsenate. CuSO4. Year 1996 Keyword(s) Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infections. Zimmermann U Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1994 Jan. and P. Frank H. DA. 1994 Biozentrum-Am Hubland. Beads made from alginates purified by this multi-step chemical extraction procedure did not induce a significant foreign body reaction when implanted for 3 weeks either intraperitoneally or beneath the kidney capsule of Lewis or non-diabetic BB/Gi rats. for use in immunoisolated Zekorn T. Alginate is a linear polymer of beta-1. which are applied to reduce the disease incidence caused by these bacteria. rubidium. Uronic acids extracted from selected strains were further confirmed to be alginate by demonstrating their sensitivity to alginate lyase and by descending paper chromatography following acid hydrolysis. lithium. alginate 10 Production of purified alginates suitable Klock G. Federlin K. University of Wurzburg. purified Alginate is used as a matrix for immunoisolation of cells and tissues in vivo.40(5):638-43 Lehrstuhl fur Biotechnologie. 9 Copper as a signal for alginate Kidambi SP.61(6):2172-9 Department of Plant Pathology. syringae. A modified carbazole assay indicated that the EPS produced on copperamended media contained high levels of uronic acids. The key enzyme of alginate biosynthesis. 1995 Oklahoma State University. Stillwater 74078-9947. Consequently. a scheme of alginate biosynthetic pathway and a model for the alg genes regulation are described from results published in literature and from our own interpret Plant-associated pseudomonads are commonly exposed to copper bactericides.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. Appl Environ Microbiol 1995 Jun. universite de Cergy-Pontoise. The use of purified material is a necessity in order to reveal the parameters that control biocompatibility of the implanted material (such as stability. 4-linked L-guluronic acid and D-mannuronic acid. including P. Hulen C a complex regulation of the pathway of biosynthesis. We have demonstrated previously that commercial alginates contain various fractions of mitogenic impurities and that they can be removed by free flow electrophoresis. alginates. P. the GDPmannose dehydrogenase is encoded by the gene algD.4. Here. Houben R. called alginate. syringae strains showed a dramatic increase in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production on mannitolglutamate medium containing CuSO4 at 250 micrograms/ml. Expression of algD is positively controlled by several proteins. fluorescens. Chakrabarty AM. AlgR and AlgP. aeruginosa. aeruginosa. . USA. many of these bacteria have acquired resistance or tolerance to copper salts. Environmental conditions induce the production by the bacteria of a viscous mucoid exopolysaccharide. P. especially in lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis.319(3):153-60 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Departement de biologie. Siebers U. especially AlgU. molybdenum.). a putative sigma factor homologous to sigma E of E. production.

The enzyme immobilized with Chitopearl retained more than 50% of its original activity after 17 days.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. phosphomannomutase (PMM). oxygen. production. 12 Oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis and enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lisboa. and the activity was fully restored by re-immobilization. 13 Continuous chitosan hydrolyzate production by immobilized chitosanolytic enzyme from Enterobacter sp. Harvard Medical School. G-1 were immobilized on various carriers to continuously hydrolyze chitosan. and alginate calcium.175(6):1605-11 Channing Laboratory. phosphomanomutase. Instituto Superior Tecnico. Matsuda H Applied Biological Sciences. the cloned gene could complement the PMM deficiency in the algC mutant strain 8858. alginate. At higher DOT values up to 70% of air saturation. Fukumoto I. At higher DOT. Boston. glutaraldehyde-treated FE-4612 (weak basic anion exchange resin.56(10):1546-51 Kawamukai M. Abstract We have cloned a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 that complements the defect in the production and incorporation of LPS O side chains in the LPS-rough strain AK1012. The cloned DNA was found to map to the 7-to-11-min region of the P.6-kb HindIII-SacI fragment. Alginate production by the highly alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8821M was maximal at a dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) of 5% of air saturation. Ohta Y. were attributed to the much higher sensitivity of PMI activity to irreversible oxidative inactivation. The LPS-rough strain AK1012 was deficient in PMM activity. Brigham and Women's Hospital. The enzyme immobilized on FE-3901 had the greatest activity. Nevertheless. aeruginosa chromosome. which encodes the enzyme phosphomannomutase (PMM) and also maps to this region of the P. Oct. cross-linking). The specific activity of the four enzymes leading to GDP-mannuronic acid formation. Nakagawa T. the specific alginate production rate decreased. Shimane University. Hatano K. aeruginosa chromosome. Glutaraldehyde-treated FE-4612 and Chitopearl immobilized more protein than the others. Pier GB Source / Application Number Address(es) / Applicant(s) J Bacteriol 1993 Mar. as indicated by the viscosity of solutions of the isolated biopolymer.139 ( Pt 3):441-5 Laboratorio de Engenharia Bioquimica. This same size restriction fragment contains the alginate gene algC. the molecular mass of the alginate increased at higher aerations. Lower DOT limited growth and alginate synthesis. Changes observed at high oxygen concentrations in the relative activities of PMI and GMP. This gene was characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. ionic binding). . increased with DOT of up to 25%. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1992 Kumagai N.page 347 ID 11 Title Synthesis of lipopolysaccharide O side chains by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 requires the enzyme phosphomannomutase. Sa-Correia I J Gen Microbiol 1993 Mar. The activity of enzyme immobilized on FE-3901 decreased rapidly when exposed to a continuous flow of 1% chitosan.4. only GMP and GMD maintained their maximum values. Four different carriers were tested: FE-3901 (strong basic anion exchange resin.xls . Matsue. Chitopearl (chitosan beads). and this activity was restored to parental levels when the cloned gene was transferred to strain AK1012. GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP) and GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (GMD). G-1. Leitao JH. Year 1993 Keyword(s) lipopolysaccharide. Enterobacter Chitosanolytic enzymes from Enterobacter sp. phosphomannose isomerase (PMI). 1993 alginate. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Goldberg JB. In addition. and the gene needed for complementation of the LPSrough phenotype was contained on a 2. Faculty of Agriculture. Massachusetts 02115-5899. 1992 chitosan. Japan. Portugal. Yamasaki Y. which are activities of the same bifunctional protein. Department of Medicine. deletion and restriction mapping of the cloned DNA. and biochemical analysis of the protein product. however.

11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.xls . Spain. production. A high sucrose concentration in medium (8%) markedly favored expopolysaccharide production. with derepressed levels of GMD. The mean diameter ranged from 200 to 1000 microns. Sa-Correia I Enzyme Microb Technol 1991 May. guluronosyl. which reached 14 g/L in about 72 h. thes 15 Production of exocellular polysaccharide by Azotobacter chroococcum. led to the increase of production rate and the final concentration of alginate produced by control strains harboring the cloning vector. leading to the irreversible oxidation of GDP-mannose to GDP-mannuronic acid. a key enzyme in the regulation of alginate biosynthesis. Paneque A Appl Biochem Biotechnol 1991 Sep. encoding GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (GMD) and cloned at Chakrabarty's Laboratory in the expression vector pMMB24 (plasmid pVD211). A slight increase in the level of GMD. beads. Production affection. Beaulieu C. In cell suspensions incubated in the presence of 8% sucrose in a nitrogen-free medium. polysaccharide. The technique has potential for large-scale and continuous applications in immobilization. polysaccharide by Azotobacter chroococcum ATCC 4412. Abstract Small diameter alginate beads (microspheres) were formed via internal gelation of alginate solution emulsified within vegetable oil. and acetyl residues. De la Vega MG. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Source / Application Number Poncelet D. biopolymer final concentration of 9 g/L corresponds to 68 g/g biomass. Cejudo FJ. Universidad de SevillaConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas. Neufeld RJ.page 348 ID 14 Title Production of alginate beads by emulsification/internal gelation. Universite du Quebec. biosynthesis. micron-sized beads were formed. I. the viscosity of the aqueous solutions prepared with the alginate (3 g l-1) produced by mucoid strains harboring pVD211 was lower than those with the alginate produced by the controls (shear rates in the range 0. Smooth.4. However. Fournier A Oct. The specific activity of . organisms The Pseudomonas aeruginosa algD gene. Methodology. in both strains harboring the plasmid pVD211 and batch-grown at 37 degrees C without IPTG induction. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1992 Halle JP.aeruginosa strains 8821 and 8821M.13(5):385-9 Laboratorio de Engenharia Bioquimica. Instituto Superior Tecnico. was mobilized into P. spontaneously obtained from mucoid strain 8821.30(3):273-84 Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis. Azotobacter Environmental conditions affect the production of extracellular chroococcum. environmental conditions of exocellular polymer from a variety of carbon sources depended on the air flow rate. 1991 alginate. Portugal. Martins LO. Year 1992 Keyword(s) alginate. spherical. but not neutral sugars. Maximum efficiency of sucrose conversion into exopolysaccharide peaked at 70% for initial disaccharide concentration of 6%. Pointe-Claire. microspheres.6-12 s-1). Though the presence of more than one kind of polysaccharide cannot be ruled out. Canada. controlled by the reactor impeller design and rotational speed. 1991 16 Alginate biosynthesis in mucoid recombinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa overproducing GDPmannose dehydrogenase. Lencki R. Strain 8821M was a highalginate-producing variant. Lisboa. High performance liquid chromatography and gas liquid chromatography of acid hydrolysates of the exopolymer revealed the presence of mannuronosyl.38(1):39-45 Address(es) / Applicant(s) INRS-Sante. Gelation was initiated by addition of an oil-soluble acid thereby reducing the pH of the alginate solution and releasing soluble Ca2+ from the citrate complex. The infrared spectrum corroborated the presence of carboxylate anions and Oacetyl groups in the exopolymer.

aeruginosa strain (C1712M) from a cystic fibrosis patient.58(5):1344-9 Department of Medicine. Mintzas AC. With a murine monoclonal antibody prepared against P. uncontrolled synthesis of alginate started after several hours of inhibition. D. the same nonmucoid strain (PA-96). S. C. but once the cells were capable of synthesizing alginate after initial hours of inhibition. s The slime material from a revertant nonmucoid variant. was found to contain 16% uronic acids. those studies did not specifically confirm this exopolysaccharide to be the characteristic P. strongly positive immunofluorescence (IF) staining of a nonmucoid P.5% carbohydrates. In addition. A. Anastassiou ED. O'Brien. Abstract We previously showed substantial differences in Pseudomonas aeruginosa exopolysaccharide production in vitro at oxygen tensions reflective of the right versus left cardiac circuits in vivo (40 versus 80 mm Hg. C. after exposure to pO2 of approximately 40 mm Hg. HarborUCLA Medical Center. nonmucoid. 18 Alginate production by clinical nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Torrance 90509.page 349 ID 17 Title Oxygen-dependent up-regulation of mucoid exopolysaccharide (alginate) production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eftekhar F. Tu J. one uronic acid fraction with properties similar to those of the alginate fraction of the parental strain and two other fractions consisting of neutral sugars and proteins in approximately a 5:1 ratio. Among the inhibitors tested. Nast CC. Firstly. Chemother. respectively. inhibitors. while the others showed no remarkable effect. aeruginosa strains. alginate.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. 48. 11% protein. aeruginosa strain (PA-96) was seen after its exposure in vitro to oxygen tensions (pO2) of approximately 80 mm Hg. 23:21-35. Nast.145(4):40810 1986 Biosynthesis. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Bayer AS. and 2% lipids. These results demonstrate that alginate production in various amounts is a property shared by all P. 1989). degradation of newly synthesized alginates to smaller molecular weight fragments took place if it was added after a few hours of incubation with the substrate. arsenite stopped alginate production from all the substrates during initial hours of incubation. Speert DP Source / Application Number Address(es) / Applicant(s) Infect Immun 1990 May. regulation. the intensity of the IF staining under these conditions was similar to that observed with a phenotypically mucoid P. and C. Chromatographic analysis by ion exchange chromatography revealed that this extracellular material consisted of three fractions. aeruginosa strains was found to contain alginate. derived by serial passage of a heavily mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from a patient with bacteremia. However. secondly. J.25(4):6569 1987 alginate. Presence of arsenite was needed for the initial inhibitory phase of alginate synthesis. Antimicrob. the slime material from six other clinical macroscopic nonmucoid P.xls . arsenite may be omitted from the medium. production. alginic acid . Norman. and thirdly. T. In contrast. Kounavis C. Pseudomonas 19 Alginate biosynthesis by Pseudomonas Banerjee PC aeruginosa: effect of arsenite and other metabolic inhibitors. Biosynthesis of alginic acid in presence of metabolic inhibitors by resting cells of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. aeruginosa alginate. Year 1990 Keyword(s) exopolysaccharide. Arch Microbiol 1986 Sep. arsenite exhibited very interesting results. Dimitracopoulos G J Clin Microbiol 1987 Apr. aeruginosa mucoid alginate seen in patients with cystic fibrosis. Bayer.4.

The optimal conditions of pullulan fermentation were determined by the investigation on the effect of feed mode. Baton Rouge.4. However. polysaccharide production 23 Studies on production of pullulan by the Sun W. J Med Microbiol 1987 Nov. initial feed time.xls . waterinsoluble capsular polysaccaride material accumulated in cultures prior to the appearance of water-soluble polysaccharide in the culture medium. On isolation. fed-batch . intermittent time. the enzymes that synthesise these extracellular polysaccharides.15(2):121-8 State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources.Bacterial Metabolism Research 62 Laboratory. A mixed-culture fermentation system was designed for the production of size-limited dextrans. The optimum pH and temperature for production of clinical dextran (75. guluronic acid and mannuronic acid. the enzyme that synthesizes dextran. hydrolysis and chromatography. Louisiana State University. 1994 dextran. McCallum MF Source / Application Number Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1975.16(10):844-8 Department of Microbiology. Small numbers of bacteria capable of growing on agar supplemented with amoxycillin 40 mg/L were isolated from the saliva of 9 out of 20 adult volunteers in a previous study. 1999 pullulan.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. Enzyme production by both antibiotic-resistant and sensitive bacteria was markedly inhibited by dextran primer. Jiang N. Enzyme Microb Technol 1994 Oct.0. Day DF clinical dextran by mixed-culture fermentation of Lipomyces starkeyi and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Chinese Academy of Sciences. The activity of GDP-Dmannose dehydrogenase recorded in crude cell-free extracts from Azotobacter vinelandii. polysaccharide. respectively.000 MW) were 5.41(1):25-32 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year 1975 Keyword(s) Azotobacter vinelandii. 21 A new process for the production of Kim D. In this process. PHLS Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research. Controlling initial conditions. Zhou T. Dextran fermentation was then allowed to proceed. Beijing. production. production 22 Characterisation of and polysaccharide Marsh PD. Salisbury. The amoxycillin-resistant bacteria were resistant to other penicillins. Above 70% of conversion yield and 100 kD of average molecular weight of the product was obtained at the optimal conditions. Keevil CW production by amoxycillin-resistant streptococci. This process was simpler and more economical than traditional methods. At the desired time (and molecular size). both strains were grown separately and then mixed. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Couperwhite I. tion of pullulan was investigated based on the conditions of batch fermentation. fermentation.page 350 ID 20 Title Polysaccharide production and the possible occurrence of GDP-Dmannose dehydrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii. dissolved oxygen (DO). production. the production of GTF-S.2 (+/. Xie H. rhamnos. Abstract During the growth of Azotobacter vinelandii in batch culture in Burk's 2% glucose medium supplemented with 50 mg EDTA per litre. As dextran production has been proposed as a key factor in the colonisation of damaged heart valves by bacteria such as The feed-batch fermentaStudies on production of pullulan by the feed batch fermentation. feed batch fermentation. Varying the ratio of L. China. was 2243% less than that of an antibiotic-sensitive control strain. pH of the fermentation broth.5) degrees C. and enzyme production by both organisms controlled the product size.24(3):259. It required the establishment of microbial consortia of Lipomyces starkeyi ATCC 74054 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 10830. Wiltshire. using a specific assay. starkeyi in the inoculum did not significantly affect either the final cell ratios or dextran production. mesenteroides to L. all the antibioticresistant strains were found to secrete glucosyltransferases (GTF). biomass. All the bacteria were identified as Streptococcus sanguis although no strains produced dextran in conventional tests. the fermentation was harvested. Ren Y Chin J Biotechnol 1999. West AA. growth. and composition of the feed solution on parameters such as productivity. may indicate a close similarity between the biosynthetic pathway of alginate synthesis in marine Phaeophyceae and this soil microorganism. their resistance to erythromycin was variable but they were uniformly sensitive to cephalothin and clindamycin.0.1) and 28 (+/. both these polysaccharides were observed to be composed of carbohydrate monomers having the same chromatographic mobilities as glucose. 1987 glucosyltransferases. conversion yield. viscosity of the fermentation broth and molecular weight of the product. when these polysaccharides were produced.

5% corn syrup. immobilized to controlled-pore glass (CPG). The glucose produced was oxidized by glucose dehydrogenase and the NADH formed determined photometrically. The polysaccharide was hydrolyzed by pullulanase and amyloglucosidase. The viscosity of the polysaccharide on day 7 was highest for cells grown on ammonium sulphate and 12. The viscosity of the polysaccharide on day 7 was higher for cells grown on thin stillage rather than ammonium sulphate as a nitrogen source. the use of corn steep liquor or hydrolysed soy protein as a nitrogen source instead of ammonium sulphate did not elevate polysaccharide production by ATCC 201253 cells grown in an aerated. Year 1999 Keyword(s) pullulan. The pullulan content of the polysaccharide elaborated by ammonium sulphategrown cells on day 7 was higher than the pullulan content of polysaccharide produced by stillage-grown cells regardless of whether yeast extract was added to the culture medium. Microbios 1996. It found that the optimal DE value of starch hydrolyzate was 40-50 when 10% starch hydrolysate was used as carbon source. The fermentation kinetics and effects of seed age. pullulan production. Strohfus B production by Aureobasidium pullulans grown in a batch bioreactor. Xie H. Beijing. agitation speed and number of vane group on the production of pullulan were investigated. China. Brookings 57007. Schmidt HL enzymes for process control of pullulan production by fermentation. of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans.page 351 ID 24 Title Author(s) / Inventor(s) Effect of nitrogen source on pullulan West TP.4. Strohfus B pullulans grown on ethanol stillage as a nitrogen source. flow injection system. pressure of tank.5% corn syrup. The use of 1% thin stillage as a nitrogen source instead of ammonium sulphate elevated polysaccharide production by strain RP-1 cells when grown on a concentration of up to 7. Analysis of one sample for the determination of glucose and pullulan took about 10 min. airflow rate. batch bioreactor containing 4 litres of medium.99(394):147-59 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Olson Biochemistry Laboratories. Brookings 57007. Zhou T. USA. Studies on optimal conditions for pullulan fermentation based on the results obtained from a shaking flask were carried out in a 16-L autocontrolling fermentor. 1996 pullulan production. Independent of the corn syrup concentration present. A flow injection system is described for the parallel determination of pullulan and glucose during a fermentation of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. Jiang N Chin J Biotechnol 1994.53(4):397-400 Lehrstuhl fur Allgemeine Chemie und 1992 Biochemie. Dry weights of cells grown in medium containing ammonium sulphate as the nitrogen source were higher than the stillage-grown cells after 7 days of growth. South Dakota State University. independent of yeast extract supplementation. USA. Ren Y. Germany.xls . seed volume. 27 Flow injection analysis with immobilized Englbrecht U. 26 Studies on the condition of fermentation Sun W. nitrogen Abstract Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 201253 using selected nitrogen sources was studied in a medium using corn syrup as a carbon source.10(4):283-90 Institute of Microbiology. The calibration curves for monomer and polymer were both linear between 2 mg dm-3 and 20 mg dm-3. pullulan production.88(354):7-18 Olson Biochemistry Laboratories. . The pullulan concentration was calculated from the difference to the response obtained for free glucose. Technische Universitat Munchen. The pullulan content of the polysaccharide elaborated by ammonium sulphate-grown cells on day 7 decreased as the corn syrup level rose in the medium while the pullulan content of polysaccharide produced by cells grown on cor 25 Pullulan production by Aureobasidium West TP. Cell weights after 7 days of growth on any of the nitrogen sources were similar. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 1992. Source / Application Number Microbios 1999. Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans strain RP-1 using thin stillage from fuel ethanol production as a nitrogen source was studied in a medium using corn syrup as a carbon source. Freising-Weihenstephan. The optimal concentration of ammonium sulfate in the medium for fermentation was different from that of the shaking flask. South Dakota State University. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. Pullulan production on corn steep liquor or hydrolysed soy protein as a nitrogen source became more comparable as the concentration of corn syrup was increased. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. production. Chinese 1994 Academy of Sciences.

both a slight increase in the value of OD600 nm in the culture medium and a drastic decrease in viable cell number were observed. glucose or saccharose. Tokuyasu K.4.jp 1999 chitin. deacetylase. the protease of B. Hayashi K. For deproteinization tests. 1. deproteinization and identified as a strain of Bacillus subtilis.2000 Yeh University. 1. 56%. subtilis Y108 attained the highest activity. Lohse R Source / Application Number Nahrung 1977. Yang J.05% MgSO(4).5% NaNO(3). was produced in the culture medium of Escherichia coli cells. better results were achieved than with simple sugars alone or with starch. 0. respectively. existing as a highly active form without the signal peptide. optimum conditions Abstract Optimum conditions for the production of pullulan by Pullularia pullulans were elaborated by examinating growth and production with different carbohydrates and mixtures of carbohydrates. Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. crustacean waste. 67. respectively. Kaneko S. and the further addition of a 12 amino acid sequence at its N-terminus caused a further decrease in the value. the recombinant chitin deacetylase had comparable kinetic parameters to those of the original enzyme from the fungus. crab shell. mediated by fast utilizable simple sugars like glucose followed by a substantial decreased growth rate in which production occurs. Taiwan Bacillus subtilis.2 U/ml. whose gene originated from a Deuteromycete.page 352 ID 28 Title Production of pullulan [Article in German] Author(s) / Inventor(s) Behrens U.e.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.26(5-6):406-413 Department of Food Engineering. and 83%. In contrast.0) containing 7% shrimp and crab shell powder (SCSP). With starch hydrolysates or mixtures of starch and simple sugars.xls .affrc. With the aid of a signal sequence of a chitinase from Streptomyces lividans. tokuyasu@nfri.5% CaCl(2). When penta-N-acetyl-chitopentaose was used as the substrate. The addition of a C-terminal six histidine sequence to the recombinant enzyme caused a slight decrease in the kcat value.0% arabinose. 0. 62. mediated by a sufficient supply of nutrite substances and a slow utilizable carbohydrate like starch. The protease was purified in a three-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipita 30 Production of a recombinant chitin deacetylase in the culture medium of Escherichia coli cells. This production system allowed us to easily produce in the culture media the recombinant chitin deacetylases pos . Chang-Hwa. Shih I. During the production of the recombinant chitin deacetylase. Escherichia coli. the protein removal of the acid treated wastes was 76. The optimized conditions for protease production was found when the culture was shaken at 30 degrees C for 3 days in 100 ml of medium (phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 6. and lobster shell wastes with this microbe showed protein removal of 88. subtilis Y-108 thus isolated can be used for deproteinization of crustacean wastes in the preparation of chitin. Mori Y FEBS Lett 1999 Sep 10. Japan. a recombinant chitin deacetylase. Tzeng Y. Condtions for optimum pullulan production are fast undisturbed growth. 29 Production and purification of protease from a Bacillus subtilis that can deproteinize crustacean wastes*. It was as high as 20. Tsukuba.21(3):199-204 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year 1977 Keyword(s) pullulan production.go. Da.458(1):23-6 National Food Research Institute. liquid phase fermentation of untreated shrimp shell. Wang S Enzyme Microb Technol 2000 Mar 1.1% K(2)HPO(4). A protease-producing microorganism was isolated in northern Taiwan chitin production. p. B. and 1. Under such conditions.

isolation.4. mycelial walls with acetic. but the amount of UDPGlcNAc is sufficient. . Both the production of UDPGlcNAc and its utilization for chitin synthesis appear to be post 32 Chitin synthase in Mortierella vinacea: properties. biosynthesis. and hydrochloric acids. White SA. At least an order of magnitude increase in total hexosamine occurs during germination. Certain uridine nucleotides. counteract the inhibitory effects of UDPGlcNAc.page 353 ID 31 Title Chitin biosynthesis during Blastocladiella zoospore germination: evidence that the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway is posttranslationally activated during cell differentiation. yields. Allin D.e. The properties of the 'microsomal' enzyme were investigated. A pH-dependent. and the temperature optimum was between 31 and 33 degrees C.90(2):22836 1975 chitin. Mucor rouxii 34 Theoretical maximum and observed product yields associated with curdlan production by Alcaligenes faecalis. The concentration of UDPGlcNAc in the zoospore is sufficient to act as an inhibitor of the enzyme. the theoretical "maximum" carbon (glucose) substrate to product conversion efficiency (i. heat-stable inhibitor of chitin synthase activity was present in the soluble cytoplasm from the mycelium.73(2):534-8 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year 1976 Keyword(s) Abstract chitin. review A method for the lab-scale production and isolation of chitosan (polyglucosamine) from hyphal walls of Mucor rouxii was developed. Lawford HG Can J Microbiol 1983 Oct.38(2):323-8 1979 production. formic. synthase. Blastocladiella De novo construction of a chitinous cell wall accompanies zoospore Blastocladiella emersonii zoospore germination. As a guide to both strain and process improvement and based on certain assumptions concerning both glucose and energy metabolism of the process organism. to account for the chitin synthesized during germination. The pH optimum was between 5-8 and 6-2. the rate of glucose consumption for cellular maintenance energy (grams of glucose per gram of cells per hour) was approximately five times higher than under carbon limitation. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Selitrennikoff CP. the last named was the most efficient. Alcaligenes faecalis. 33 Production and isolation of chitosan from Mucor rouxii. Hyphal wall yields were generally 16 to 22% on a dry cell weight basis. Alcaligenes faecalis var. by over an order of magnitude. This increase is into polymer (chitin) and occurs on schedule in the presence of cycloheximide. chitosan. Sonneborn DR Source / Application Number Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1976 Feb. not perceptibly influencing the activity of the first enzyme per se. of which 35 to 40% was glucosamine. myxogenes. Phillips KR. which promotes curdlan biosynthesis (mu = 0). Chitosan was readily extracted from purified. The yield of chitosan isolated ranged from 4 to 8% of the dry weight of the cell wall material.8 mM. Moore PM J Gen Microbiol 1975 Oct. Mortierella vinacea Chitin synthase of Mortierella vinacea was present in the "microsomal' fraction (100 000 g precipitate).11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. Farina PR. Uridine-5'-diphospho-Nacetylglucosamine (UDPGlcNAc). Fulton I Appl Environ Microbiol 1979 Aug. The enzyme was stimulated by Mg2+ and a slight stimulation was also effected by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Soluble chitodextrins were inhibitory. cellular location and synthesis in growing cultures. the 'cell-wall' fraction (2000 g precipitate) and the 'mitochondrial' fraction (10 000 g precipitate).xls . product yield) has been estimated for "curdlan-type" beta(1 leads to 3)-glucan exopolysaccharide production in batch fermentations. maximum specific activity of chitin synthase was associated with the cessation of exponential growth. both the end product of hexosamine biosynthesis and a substrate for chitin biosynthesis. is a potent inhibitor of the activity of the first pathway-specific enzyme of hexosamine biosynthesis in zoospore extracts. The effects of aeration and glucose concentration on enzyme production in growing cultures were also investigated. Under nitrogen limitation. production. The Km for UDP N-acetyl-Dglucosamine was 1.29(10):1270-6 1983 curdlan. Peberdy JF. The decrease in the theoretical "maximum" curdlan conversion efficiency of 74% to the average value of 50-56% was due primarily to the high maintenance coefficient of the nitrogen-starved culture..

page 354 ID 35 Title Production of curdlan-type polysaccharide by Alcaligenes faecalis in batch and continuous culture. South Dakota State University. (beta 1-4). Brookings 57007. production. production.102(402):89-101 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. curdlan. was genetically unstable and mutated spontaneously to a form producing more curdland than succinoglucan when stocked on nutrient agar slants. 36 Special bacterial polysaccharides and polysaccharases. or ultraviolet light. produces a water-soluble and an insoluble extracellular faecalis polysaccharide.29(10):1331-8 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year 1983 Keyword(s) curdlan. spontaneous mutation Alcaligenes faecalis var.xls .11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. which produces large amounts of succinoglucan and small amounts of curdlan. Exopolymer is not detected in singlestage. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Phillips KR. The former (succinoglycan) is composed of glucose." has been studied in batch and continuous cultures of Alcaligenes faecalis var. review. Spontaneous mutation in ability to produce these polysaccharides or oligosaccharides occurs in these strains. Alcaligenes faecalis. pyruvic acid and succinic acid (molar proportions 7:1:1:1) with (beta 1-3)-. were elucidated by successive fragmentation with two special enzymes obtained from Cytophaga arvensicola curdlan. galactose. Curdlan production is associated with the poststationary phase of a nitrogendepleted. USA. Alcaligenes faecalis. 2000 .4. Mutant strains were genetically stable and did not revert spontaneously for at least 1 year when stocked on nutrient agar slants. The specific rate of curdlan production is approximately four times higher in poststationary batch cultures than in single-stage continuous fermentations. West TP. The structures of succinoglycan. myxogenes 10C3. The latter (curdlan) is composed entirely of (beta 1-3)-linked D-glucose and forms a resilient firm gel when heated in suspension. ethyl methane sulfonate.48:97-116 1983 bacterial polysaccharides.and (beta 1-6)-glucosidic linkages. Fullenkamp NA Microbios 2000. The mutation occurred in the absence of cell division when the cells were incubated in saline and was enhanced by treatment with Nmethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Amemura A. The organism also produces extracellularly a repeating-unit octasaccharide of succinoglycan and cyclic (beta 1-2)-D-glucan.34(6):617-20 1977 38 Ability of casamino acids to support gellan production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461. Hisamatsu M. Harada T Appl Environ Microbiol 1977 Dec. These polymers or oligomers are also produced by many strains of Agrobacterium and Rhizobium. Lawford GR Source / Application Number Can J Microbiol 1983 Oct. Lawford HG. Pik J. Kligerman A. Lavers B. and similar polymers containing riburonic acid or galactose as the end residue of the side chain. batch culture. 37 Spontaneous mutation of polysaccharide production in Alcaligenes faecalis var. with CO2 being the only detectable by-product. review Abstract The biosynthesis of a thermogelable. nitrogen-limited chemostat culture. carbon-limited continuous cultures but curdlan can be isolated from the effluent of a nitrogen-limited chemostat operating at a dilution rate (D) of less than 0.1 h-1. A spontaneous variant of strain ATCC 21680 was isolated and found to be compatible with long-term.5 g curdlan/g glucose. extracellular homo-beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan called "curdlan. Alcaligenes soil. Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes 10C3. which we isolated from production. myxogenes. coninuous culture. aerobic batch culture. Harada T Biochem Soc Symp 1983. myxogenes 10C3. The product yield (Yp/S) associated with batch processing (nongrowing cultures) is approximately 0.

Zoon P. Hence. Instituto Superior Tecnico. and the 40 Exopolysaccharides produced by Lactococcus lactis: from genetic engineering to improved rheological properties? Kleerebezem M. We found that altering the growth medium can markedly affect the polysaccharide yield. production 41 Heteropolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. including Lactococcus lactis. lactis. size and structure are synthesized by lactic acid bacteria. They contain eps genes. Leitao JH. several slime-producing lactic acid bacterium strains and their biopolymers have interesting functional and technological properties. Jay AJ. Faculty of Sciences. De Vuyst L.Wageningen Centre for Food R. important advances have been made in the study of the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by several lactic acid bacteria. Portugal. production. Ridout MJ. model development has been initiated in order to Microbial exopolysaccharides are biothickeners that can be added to a wide variety of food products.ac. a significant component of cheese whey. de The Netherlands. stabilizing. The function of the glycosyltransferase genes has been established and the availability of these genes opened the way to EPS engineering. which may be exploited towards different products.23(2):153-77 Division of Industrial Microbiology. polymerisation. biosynthesis of EPS requires a number of housekeeping genes that are involved in the metabolic pathways leading to the EPS-building blocks. gellan Abstract The dairy industry produces large quantities of whey as a by-product of cheese production and is increasingly looking for new ways to utilize this waste product.xls . Depression of gellan production from lactose compared with gellan production from glucose (approximately 30%) did not appear to occur at the level of synthesis of sugar nucleotides. and chain length determination.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. which are involved in EPS repeating unit synthesis. as a carbon source. lactose (5 to 30 g/liter). Jun. in particular. polymer rheological properties.4. rfbABCD) allows the design of metabolic engineering strategies that should lead to increased EPS production levels by L. Ede.be review. galU. Vos WM 1999 review. lactic acid. Finally. Degeest B FEMS Microbiol Rev 1999 Apr. 1049-001 Lisbon. 1999 Fermentation Technology and Downstream Processing (IMDO). Martins LO. Tuinier R. emulsifying or gelling agents. Year 1999 Keyword(s) sphingomonas. The lactose-derived biopolymer had the highest total acyl content. Looijesteijn E. some of them exhibit remarkable thickening and shear-thinning properties and display high intrinsic viscosities. NIZO food research. Donval Appl Environ Microbiol 1999 ML. We studied and compared polysaccharide biosynthesis by S. which are the donors of monomers used for biosynthesis of the repetitive tetrasaccharide unit of gellan. Numerous exopolysaccharides with different composition. Belgium. Gellan gum is reliably produced by Sphingomonas paucimobilis in growth media containing lactose. bacteria . Author(s) / Inventor(s) Source / Application Number Fialho AM. In addition to the eps genes.page 355 ID 39 Title Structures and properties of gellan polymers produced by sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 from lactose compared with those produced from glucose and from cheese whey. and susceptibility to degradation. the nucleotide sugars.65(6):2485-91 Morris VJ. polysaccharides. where they serve as viscosifying. van Kranenburg Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1999 Jul. and sweet cheese whey. Sa-Correia I Address(es) / Applicant(s) Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica. the glucose Over the last years. natural fermented milks. paucimobilis ATCC 31461 in media containing glucose.76(1-4):357-65 Sciences. Structural analysis combined with rheological studies revealed that there is considerable variation among the different exopolysaccharides. molecular organization and fermentation conditions is rather scarce. polysaccharides. information on the biosynthesis. The heteropolysaccharides from both mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria have received renewed interest recently. acyl substitution level. Nov. From different EPS-producing lactococcal strains the specific eps gene clusters have been characterised. ldvuyst@vub. Hugenholtz J. Boels IC. export. The identification and characterisation of several of these housekeeping genes (galE. However. Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB).

and (beta 1-6)-glucosidic linkages. galactose. production review. Year 1997 Keyword(s) review.17(4):32761 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Dipartimento di Biologia. molecular mass and molecular mass distribution suited to a well defined application. genetics and kinetics of the production of alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii and its rheology. especially required in the biotechnological. production Abstract Although all commercial alginates are today of algal origin.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. Cadmus MC M. 1307 Copenhagen K. Edinburgh University. pullulan. which led to a yeast fraction of 41%.4 g/l) led to a decrease in the growth rate early in the fermentation as compared to cultivations in medium with high concentration of yeast extract. biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Jensen Adv Appl Microbiol 1978. produces a water-soluble and an insoluble extracellular polysaccharide. which we isolated from soil. polysaccharides cultivation aureobasidium pullulans. 1995 University of Copenhagen. The latter (curdlan) is composed entirely of (beta 1-3)-linked D-glucose and forms a resilient firm gel when heated in suspension. However. [No abstract available] polysaccharides. The production of alginate by A. Difesa e Biotecnologie Agroforestali. The organism also produces extracellularly a repeating-unit octasaccharide of succinoglycan and cyclic (beta 1-2)-D-glucan. These polymers or oligomers are also produced by many strains of Agrobacterium and Rhizobium.23:19-54 Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology ISSN: 0175-7598 (printed version) ISSN: 1432-0614 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 42 Issue 6 (1995) pp 910-915 1978 Department of General Microbiology. microbial. 45 46 Production of microbial polysaccharides.xls . alginates. The former (succinoglycan) is composed of glucose. myxogenes 10C3. This article summarizes current knowledge on the structure and properties of alginates and their applications and presents an overview of up-dated research on the physiology. When this medium was supplemented with zinc and iron the cultivation closely resembled that obtained in medium with high concentration of yeast extract (4.0 g/l). 43 44 Bacterial exopolysaccharides--their nature and production.4. The culture retained a high growth rate throughout the fermentation and the initiation of the mycelial to yeast (M-Y) transition and the exopolysaccharide production was delayed. were elucidated by successive fragmentation with two special enzymes obtained from Cytophaga arvensicola review. Reeslev. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Clementi F Source / Application Number Crit Rev Biotechnol 1997. pyruvic acid and succinic acid (molar proportions 7:1:1:1) with (beta 1-3)-.42:50-5 Biochem Soc Symp 1983. Solvgade 83H. vinelandii has been to date widely investigated both in batch (mainly in the shaken flask scale) and in continuous cultures. including the results of our recent studies. Special bacterial polysaccharides and polysaccharases. The species Azotobacter vinelandii seems to be the best candidate for the industrial production of alginate molecules characterized by a chemical composition. Italy. The structures of succinoglycan. Influence of Zn2+ and Fe3+ on polysaccharide production and mycelium/yeast dimorphism of Aureobasidium pullulans in batch cultivations Slodki ME.48:97-116 Department of Microbiology. B. Potenza. there is interest in the production of alginate-like polymers from bacteria. Denmark. Spontaneous mutation in ability to produce these polysaccharides or oligosaccharides occurs in these strains. UK 1989 1983 review. polysaccharides. bacterial Alcaligenes faecalis var. (beta 1-4). production Cultivation of Aureobasidium pullulans in medium with a low concentration of yeast extract (0. and similar polymers containing riburonic acid or galactose as the end residue of the side chain. Universita della Basilicata. cultivation in the defined medium without zinc resulted in a high production of exopolysaccharide and an increased intensity of the M-Y transition. Sutherland IW Harada T Antibiot Chemother 1989. exopolysaccharides. Fax:+45-35-322040 . In a defined medium or in defined medium without iron only a little exopolysaccharide was produced and the yeast fraction of the total biomass at the onset of the stationary phase was 22%-25%.page 356 ID 42 Title Alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii.

0. Audet. a higher dissolved oxygen concentration leads to a higher productivity but the quality of the product. 1996 515X (printed version) ISSN: 1432. Two experiments were conducted at constant aeration rates and two others with constant dissolved oxygen concentrations. Fax: 972-7-472916 Keyword(s) pullulan.7 Abstract Reciprocating plate bioreactors are particularly well suited for conducting fermentations which give rise to highly viscous broth. Small amounts of pullulan (less than 2 g l-1) are produced at this phase.B 653. Seviour Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Research Centre. starting at pH 4.5 with soy bean oil as the carbon source and glutamate as the nitrogen source. (printed version) ISSN: 1432-0614 Bendigo. Victoria. a strategy that resulted in the highest EPS concentration (approx.4. J. production 49 The production of exopolysaccharides by Aureobasidium pullulans in fermenters with low-shear configurations P. It appears that the optimum yield.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.Laval University. During 50 h of the production phase more than 35 g l-1 of pullulan was produced (productivity approx. expressed in terms of the viscosity of the fermentation broth. This fall in production could be counteracted by improving fluid circulation through the placement of impellers within the draught tube. production No increases in exopolysaccharide (EPS) yields in Aureobasidium pullulans were observed when grown with reduced-shear impellers instead of standard Rushton turbines in the same vessel.page 357 ID 47 Title Author(s) / Inventor(s) Enhanced production of pigment-free Y.xls . . Canada. the cells were shifted to a production stage with sucrose as the carbon source with continued nitrogen depletion. La Biotechnology ISSN: 0175-7598 Trobe University. M. yields were dramatically reduced when the organism was grown in an airlift reactor. and the viscosity remained low throughout the entire growth stage. Gibbs. For the latter two experiments. Lounes.O. production Abstract A two-stage fermentation process was established for the production of pigment-free pullulan by the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans (ATCC 42023). 3550 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 49 Issue 2 (1998) pp 168-174 1998 pullulan. Production of pullulan started immediately with no lag period. the population being restricted mainly to the yeast form of the microorganism (yeast form more than 90% of total cells) and the formation of pigment in the culture being prevented.Department of Chemical Engineering. Sainte-Foy 0797 (electronic version) Abstract (Quebec). When the oil and glutamate source were nearly exhausted (below 5% of initial amounts). I. J. A. a cell mass of about 15 g l-1 dry cell weight was obtained. would be achieved at an intermediate dissolved oxygen co 48 Pullulan fermentation in a reciprocating J. In the first stage. Australia. Ben1995 Gurion University of the Negev. However. in terms of both quantity and quality. Mukmenev pullulan by a morphogenetically arrested Aureobasidium pullulans (ATCC 42023) in a two-stage fermentation with shift from soy bean oil to sucrose Source / Application Number Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology ISSN: 0175-7598 (printed version) ISSN: 1432-0614 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 43 Issue 4 (1995) pp 595-603 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year Program for Biotechnology. PO Box 199. Shabtai. 13 g l-1) of all the fermenter configurations tested. a series of pullulan fermentations were performed with a particular emphasis placed on the influence of aeration on both the quantity and quality of the product. in general. To evaluate their performance for polysaccharide fermentations. Thibault plate bioreactor Bioprocess Engineering ISSN: 0178. Beer-Sheva 84105. It was found that. G1K 7P4 Volume 15 Issue 4 (1996) pp 209214 pullulan. P. R. was nevertheless reduced. the dissolved oxygen concentration was controlled by manipulating either the aeration flow rate or the reciprocating frequency of the perforated plates. Israel.

which allowed pO2 manipulation and control independently of the agitation rate. Center for Molecular Biology. regulation and biochemistry of alginate biosynthesis have been particularly well characterized in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. although the biochemistry of the polymerization process is still poorly understood. Some bacteria. Bendigo.edu. production. Fax: 61 54 447 476 e-mail: R. Investigations with gas blending.de (2) UNIGEN. 7005 Trondheim. Rehm (1). biosynthesis. are also capable of producing copious amounts of this polymer as an exopolysaccharide. Victoria. dissolved oxygen and agitation speed or frequency were recorded as a function of time along with the rheological properties of the culture broths. oxygen saturation. polysaccharide production at 1000 rpm could be elevated by maintaining the pO2 at a low level during the initial phase of the fermentation.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.au 1996 52 Bacterial alginates: biosynthesis and applications B. PO Box 199. showed that this yield reduction was due solely to the high pO2 levels that occurred at these agitation rates. Audet. S. This uniform polymer is then further modified by acetylation. Thibault Source / Application Number Bioprocess Engineering ISSN: 0178515X (printed version) ISSN: 14320797 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 19 Issue 1 (1998) pp 45-52 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year Department of Chemical Engineering.4. Australia. Lounes. The molecular genetics. J. a helical ribbon impeller (HR) and two different reciprocating plates (RPB1. A. RPB2). Corrensstr. mixing This investigation was undertaken with the objective to compare devices experimentally the performance of four different mixing devices for the production of the polysaccharide pullulan with Aureobasidium pullulans (2552). The type of mixing device used had a significant impact on the rate of biomass production and on polysaccharide physical properties. Seviour saturation influence exopolysaccharide production by Aureobasidium pullulans in batch culture? Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology ISSN: 0175-7598 (printed version) ISSN: 1432-0614 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 46 Issue 5/6 (1996) pp 503-510 Biotechnology Research Centre. 1998 Laval University. In the last 3 years major aspects of the molecular genetics of alginate biosynthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii have also been reported. The polymer is a wellestablished industrial product obtained commercially by harvesting brown seaweeds. 9 L/min). Gibbs. Seviour@latrobe. polysaccharide concentration.page 358 ID 50 Title Polysaccharide production: Experimental comparison of the performance of four mixing devices Author(s) / Inventor(s) J.5 vvm. linked together by 1-4 linkages. Gagnon. R. M. 51 Does the agitation rate and/or oxygen P. 3. H. Canada. Each mixing vessel had identical geometry and working volume (18 L). the evolution of biomass. production. the rate of polysaccharide produc agitation rate. both the timing of the pO2 decrease and the level at which it was maintained were crucial for obtaining yields at 1000 rpm. These four fermentations were performed with an equal level of power input per unit volume (1000 W/m3) and gas flow rate (0. G1K 7P4 Keyword(s) Abstract Polysaccharide Production. Valla (2) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology ISSN: 0175-7598 (printed version) ISSN: 1432-0614 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 48 Issue 3 (1997) pp 281-288 (1) Institut fuer Mikrobiologie der 1997 Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster. In both organisms the immediate precursor of polymerization is GDP-mannuronic acid. and the sugar residues in this compound are polymerized into mannuronan. D-48149 Muenster. J. mostly derived from the genus Pseudomonas and belonging to the RNA superfamily I. Aureobasidium pullulans When Aureobasidium pullulans was grown at a number of agitation rates under batch conditions. exopolysaccharide yields were dramatically reduced at high rates i. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. La Trobe University. at least 750 rpm. exopolysaccharide. Germany Tel. . For each system. However. Fermentations were performed using identical bioreactors with respectively an assembly of three Rushton turbines (RTB). Norway alginate.e.: +49 251 833 9848 Fax: +49 251 833 8388 e-mail: Rehm@uni-muenster. However.xls . H. A. Alginate is a copolymer of -d-mannuronic acid and -l-guluronic acid bacterial (GulA). Sainte-Foy (Quebec). 3550. Thus. similar to those observed at low agitation rates.

4.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.xls - page 359
ID 53 Title Effect of phosphate and oxygen concentrations on alginate production and stoichiometry of metabolism of Azotobacter vinelandii under microaerobic conditions Author(s) / Inventor(s) W. Sabra, A. -P. Zeng, S. Sabry, S. Omar, W. -D. Deckwer Source / Application Number Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology ISSN: 0175-7598 (printed version) ISSN: 1432-0614 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 52 Issue 6 (1999) pp 773-780 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Biochemical Engineering Division, Mascheroder Weg 1, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany e-mail: WDD@GBF.de Fax: +49-531-6181111 (2) Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt Keyword(s) alginate, production, Abstract Alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii was studied in batch and continuous cultures under microaerobic conditions. In batch culture at a pO2 of 2-3% (air saturation) alginate production was enhanced by decreasing the PO3-4 level in the medium. Alginate yield from biomass (YP/X) reached the highest value of 0.66 g/g at the lowest phosphate level (100 mg/l), compared to 0.40 g/g and 0.25 g/g at higher phosphate levels (200 mg/l and 400 mg/l, respectively). In contrast, biomass formation behaved differently and the growth yield (YX/S) decreased with decreasing PO43- concentrations. Moreover, the respiratory quotient (RQ) of the culture was dependent on the initial phosphate concentration, especially in the phosphate-limited phase of growth. As the initial phosphate level decreased from 400 mg/l to 100 mg/l, the average RQ value of the culture declined from 1.46 to 0.89. The low RQ value is very close to the theoretical optimum RQ, calculated to be 0.8 on the basis of the stoichiometry of the metabolic pat A high-cell-density fermentation process for production of an extracellular alginate lyase from Klebsiella pneumoniae on a defined medium has been developed. The process employs a strategy using two carbon sources. One low-molecular-mass, low-viscosity carbon source (sucrose) with high water solubility is used as the main carbon source for growth, while the high-molecular-mass and viscous alginate in low concentration is used as an inducer for enzyme synthesis. The repression of alginate lyase production by sucrose and the growth inhibition that we observed at increased levels of ammonia were circumvented by a computer-assisted fed-batch addition of the carbon sources (sucrose and alginate) and by supplying nitrogen sources as ammonia in the pH control. No enzyme production was observed when dissolved oxygen limited growth at an oxygen uptake rate of 40%-50% of the maximum uptake rate. An optimal composition of the feeding solution (12.5 g alginate and 587.5 g sucrose l-1) was found both for the maximu

54

Development of a fermentation process N. Dyrset, K. Q. Lystad, D. W. for production of an alginate G-lyase Levine from Klebsiella pneumoniae

Applied Microbiology and SINTEF Applied Chemistry, N-7034 Biotechnology ISSN: 0175-7598 Trondheim, Norway, Fax-no.: 47-7(printed version) ISSN: 1432-0614 596995 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 41 Issue 5 (1994) pp 523-530

1994

alginate, production, lyase

55

Utilization of a cell-bound polysaccharide produced by the marine bacterium Zoogloea sp.: New biomaterial for metal adsorption and enzyme immobilization

Jai-Yul Kong, Hang-Woo Lee, Jong-Wook Hong, Yang-Soon Kang, Jong-Deog Kim, MyungWoong Chang, Seoung-Kwon Bae

J Mar Biotechnol 6:99-103 (1998) © 1998 by Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.

unknown

1998

A cell-bound polysaccharide (CBP) produced by the marine bacterium Zoogloea sp. (KCCM 10036) was used as the adsorbent of metal ions and as a new support for enzyme immobilization. The CBP gel beads showed highly effective adsorbing in Cr, Pb, and Fe ion in solutions. The adsorption rates were above 95% at pH 5.0, 25°C, in 10 mg/liter of each metal solution. The gel beads formed by the CBP were stable within the range of pH 4.0-7.0 and at a temperature of 40-55°C. The optimum pH and temperature of the immobilized glucoamylase by the CBP gel beads (poly-G) were 5.0 and 45°C, respectively. The immobilized glucoamylase produced 10.5 mg/liter of glucose from 10 mg/ml of soluble starch.

4.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.xls - page 360
ID 56 Title MICROBIAL STRAINS AND PROCESSES FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF BIOMATERIALS Author(s) / Inventor(s) Source / Application Number HUISMAN, Gjalt, W. , 3370 Brittan Patent, Application Number:WO1999US0006878 Avenue #18, San Carlos, CA 94070-3419, United States of America BOYNTON, Laura , 5843 Darlington Road #3, Pittsburgh, PA 15217, United States of America HOROWITZ, Daniel, M. , Apartment No. 206, 435 Washington Street, Somerville, MA 02143, United States of America GERNGROSS, Tillman, U. , 6 Dorrance Place, Hanover, NH 03755, United States of America PEOPLES, Oliver, P. , 27 Radcliffe Road, Arlington, MA 02174, United States of America Address(es) / Applicant(s) METABOLIX, INC., 303 Third Street, Cambridge, MA 02142-1196, United States of America Year 1999 Keyword(s) Polysaccharides, production Abstract DNA constructs and genetically engineered microbial strains constructed using these DNA constructs, which produce a nuclease enzyme with specificity for DNA and/or RNA, are provided. These strains secrete nuclease into the periplasm or growth medium in an amount effective to enhance productivity and/or recovery of polymer, and are particularly suited for use in high cell density fermentation processes. These constructs are useful for modifying microbial strains to improve production and recovery processes for polymers such as intracellular proteins, such as enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines; for producing polyhydroxyalkanoates; and for producing extracellular polysaccharides, such as xanthan gum, alginates, gellan gum, zooglan, hyaluronic acid and microbial cellulose.

57

Sulfated extracellular polysaccharide production by the halophilic cyanobacterium Aphanocapsa halophytia immobilized on lightdiffusing optical fibers

T. Matsunaga (1), H. Sudo (2), H. (1) Department of Biotechnology, Takemasa (1), Y. Wachi (1), N. Tokyo University of Agriculture and Nakamura (1) Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184, Japan (2) Thermal and Chemical Laboratory, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., 1-8-1, Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku Yokohama, Kanagawa 236, Japan

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology ISSN: 0175-7598 (printed version) ISSN: 1432-0614 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 45 Issue 1/2 (1996) pp 24-27

1996

polysaccharide, production

The cyanobacterium, Aphanocapsa halo-phytia MN-11, was immobilized in calcium alginate gel and coated on light-diffusing optical fibers (LDOF) for sulfated extracellular polysaccharide production. Results indicated that sulfated extracellular polysaccharide production depends on the number of immobilized cells and the light intensity. In addition, the production rate reached 116.0 mg (mg dry cells)-1 day-1 when the cells that were immobilized on LDOF were incubated under a light intensity of 1380 cd sr m-2 at a cell concentration of 1.0×108 cells/cm3 gel. Cells immobilized on LDOF produced about ten times more sulfated extracellular polysaccharide than those immobilized in calcium alginate beads only (11.7 mg(mg dry cells)-1 day-1). Alginate is a copolymer of -d-mannuronic acid and -l-guluronic acid (GulA), linked together by 1-4 linkages. The polymer is a wellestablished industrial product obtained commercially by harvesting brown seaweeds. Some bacteria, mostly derived from the genus Pseudomonas and belonging to the RNA superfamily I, are also capable of producing copious amounts of this polymer as an exopolysaccharide. The molecular genetics, regulation and biochemistry of alginate biosynthesis have been particularly well characterized in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, although the biochemistry of the polymerization process is still poorly understood. In the last 3 years major aspects of the molecular genetics of alginate biosynthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii have also been reported. In both organisms the immediate precursor of polymerization is GDP-mannuronic acid, and the sugar residues in this compound are polymerized into mannuronan. This uniform polymer is then further modified by acetylation at posit

58

Bacterial alginates: biosynthesis and applications

B. H. A. Rehm (1), S. Valla (2)

(1) Institut fuer Mikrobiologie der Westfaelischen WilhelmsUniversitaet Muenster, Corrensstr. 3, D-48149 Muenster, Germany Tel.: +49 251 833 9848 Fax: +49 251 833 8388 e-mail: Rehm@unimuenster.de (2) UNIGEN, Center for Molecular Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7005 Trondheim, Norway

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology ISSN: 0175-7598 (printed version) ISSN: 1432-0614 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 48 Issue 3 (1997) pp 281-288

1997

alginate

4.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.xls - page 361
ID 59 Title Effect of phosphate and oxygen concentrations on alginate production and stoichiometry of metabolism of Azotobacter vinelandii under microaerobic conditions Author(s) / Inventor(s) W. Sabra, A. -P. Zeng, S. Sabry, S. Omar, W. -D. Deckwer Source / Application Number Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Biochemical Engineering Division, Mascheroder Weg 1, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany e-mail: WDD@GBF.de Fax: +49-531-6181111 (2) Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt Address(es) / Applicant(s) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology ISSN: 0175-7598 (printed version) ISSN: 1432-0614 (electronic version) Abstract Volume 52 Issue 6 (1999) pp 773-780 Year 1999 Keyword(s) alginate, phosphate, oxygen, Azotobacter vinelandii Abstract Alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii was studied in batch and continuous cultures under microaerobic conditions. In batch culture at a pO2 of 2-3% (air saturation) alginate production was enhanced by decreasing the PO3-4 level in the medium. Alginate yield from biomass (YP/X) reached the highest value of 0.66 g/g at the lowest phosphate level (100 mg/l), compared to 0.40 g/g and 0.25 g/g at higher phosphate levels (200 mg/l and 400 mg/l, respectively). In contrast, biomass formation behaved differently and the growth yield (YX/S) decreased with decreasing PO43- concentrations. Moreover, the respiratory quotient (RQ) of the culture was dependent on the initial phosphate concentration, especially in the phosphate-limited phase of growth. As the initial phosphate level decreased from 400 mg/l to 100 mg/l, the average RQ value of the culture declined from 1.46 to 0.89. The low RQ value is very close to the theoretical optimum RQ, calculated to be 0.8 on the basis of the stoichiometry of the metabolic pa Polysaccharide is produced in good yields with good control by continuous culture of a polysaccharide-producing strain of Azotobacter vinelandii under carbon-limited conditions, preferably with restricted oxygen uptake, with the advantage that the effluents produced are non-polluting having a low biological oxygen demand (B.O.D.).

60

Production of a polysaccharide under carbon limiting conditions

RIGHELATO RENTON CLIVE; JARMAN TREVOR RODNEY

Pats. Nr. US4110162,BE855083, CA1086671, DE2723166, DK235377, FI771705, FR2352880, GB1513061, IT1083007, JP52145596, JP55042839B, LU77433, NL7705898, NO771843, SE7706261 Pat. Nr. GB2026515

Tate & Lyle Ltd

1978

polysaccharide Production, carbon, limitation

61

Microbiological process for the production of alginate type polysaccharide

Tate & Lyle Ltd

1980

Polysaccharides, production, alginate, Pseudomonas

A process for the production of polysaccharide consisting of a partially acetylated variable block copolymer of D-mannuronic and Lguluronic acid residues, comprises cultivating in a nutrient medium therefor a strain of Pseudomonas, which is non- pathogenic to humans, and which has been obtained by treating a non- mucoid species of Pseudomonas, which is non-pathogenic to humans, with a beta -lactam or aminoglycoside antibiotic whereby a mucoid strain tolerant to said antibiotic as selected, and isolating from the medium the polysaccharide produced. Particularly suitable strains may be derived from P. mendocina, P. tabaci or P. putida. Suitable antibiotics include the penicillins, eg carboxyalkyl or carboxyaralkyl derivatives of penicillins, or esters thereof, or 3-halophenyl penicillins. A preferred antibiotic is carbenicillin (disodium alpha - carboxybenzyl penicillin).

62

Continuous process for the production of polysaccharide under phosphate limiting conditions

RIGHELATO RENTON C; DEAVIN LYNDA

Pats. Nr. US4130461, BE855084, Tate & Lyle Ltd CA1087123, DE2723165, DK235277, FI771704, FR2352879, GB1513104, IT1083006, JP1038813C, JP52145595, JP55030360B, LU77431, NL7705897, NO771842, SE7706260

1978

polysaccharides, production, continuous culture

Polysaccharide is produced in high yields by continuous culture of a polysaccharide-producing strain of Azotobacter vinelandii under phosphate-limited conditions, preferably with restricted oxygen uptake.

4.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.xls - page 362
ID 63 Title PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLYSACCHARIDE Author(s) / Inventor(s) Imrie, F Source / Application Number Address(es) / Applicant(s) Pat. Nr. US3856625, BE800878, Tate & Lyle Ltd CA986444, CH591559, DE2329808, FR2233397, JP49102891, JP53007519B, JP928683C, NL7308158 Year 1974 Keyword(s) alginate, polysaccharide, production Abstract An alginate-type polysaccharide is obtained by the aerobic cultivation of a bacterium of the species Azotobacter vinelandii in an aqueous nutrient medium containing sources of carbon, molybdenum, iron, mangesium, potassium, sodium, sulfate, calcium and phosphate. The carbon source comprises at least one monosaccharide or disaccharide. Contrary to normal culture conditions for this bacterium, for good Polysaccharide production, the phosphate concentration in the nutrient medium must be 0.1-0.8 millimolar, preferably 0.2-0.6 millimolar; and the pH of the medium must be maintained within the range of from 7.0 to 8.2, preferably 7.3 to 7.9. Production of high-purity alginate comprises: (a) extracting algal material or crude alginate with a solution of a complexing agent; (b) sedimenting cell components and particles from the solution with a porous binder, (c) filtering the solution; (d) precipitating alginate from the solution; and (e) collecting the precipitate. An Independent claim is also included for an alginate composition consisting of a copolymer of mannuronic acid (MA) and guluronic acid (GA) with a MA:GA ratio of 1-90:100 and a molecular weight above 1000 kD. Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris which provide, upon culturing, dextran, and the strains include deposited strains CNCM I-1692 and CNCM I-1693.

64

Production of high-purity alginate useful ZIMMERMANN ULRICH (DE); for making capsules of encapsulating BEHRINGER MARCUS (DE) implants comprises extraction, sedimentation, filtration and precipitation

Pats. Nr. DE19836960, WO0009566

2000

Production, alginate, algae

65

Leuconostoc strains for biosynthesis of NEESER JEAN-RICHARD (CH); dextran EYER KURT (CH); SCHMID DANIEL (CH); AEBISCHER JUERG (CH); D AMICO NICOLA (CH); RENIERO ROBERTO (CH); DE MALEPRADE DOMINIQUE (CH); LESENS CORINNE (FR)

Pats. Nr US6004800, AU6901598, BR9801736, CA2233411, CN1201039, CZ9801669, EP0881283, HU9801263, NO982004, NZ330239, PL326483

Nestec SA (CH)

1999

dextran, strains, production

66

Process for the production of dextran polymers of controlled molecular size and molecular size distributions

DAY DONAL F (US); KIM DOMAN Pat. Nr. US5229277 (US)

UNIV LOUISIANA STATE (US)

1993

dextran, production, polymer

A process for the production of dextran polymers of controlled average number molecular weight sizes, and molecular weight size distributions via the mixed culture fermentation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and a constitutive mutant microorganism capable of elaborating the enzyme dextranase, particularly Lipomyces starkeyi ATCC 74054, in the presence of sucrose. The Leuconostoc mesenteroides produces the dextran polymer, and the mutant Lipomyces starkeyi ATCC 74054 concurrently produces dextranase, an enzyme whose activity reduces the size of the dextran polymers and permits their growth or reduction in molecular weight size in direct relation to the temperature and time period regimen imposed as conditions for the reactions. Dextran for use in pharmaceutical preparations, especially for degradation to a blood plasma substitute, is made by growing Leuconostoc meserentoides in refined sucrose media containing as a growth factor for the micro-organisms the liquid obtained by boiling a suspension in water of fresh yeast free from autolyzed products, e.g. a 20 per cent w/v suspension, at pH7.5-8 and separating off the cell residues. The Leuconostoc is preferably a strain obtained by continuous subculture on a solid sucrose-peptone-agar medium followed by sub culture in pure sucrose media containing the yeast extract and ammonium, potassium, magnesium and phosphate ions. An example of the bulk medium for dextran production is: the acqueous yeast extract 250ml., microcosmic salt 5g., potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1g., magnesium sulphate 0.5g., sucrose 100g., tap water to 1000ml.

67

No title available.

Pat.Nr GB634129

0

Dextran, sucrose, fermentation,

4.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.xls - page 363
ID 68 Title Author(s) / Inventor(s) A process for the production of dextran. JARL KURT; ENGBLOM CURT Source / Application Number Pat. Nr. EP0087404, JP58155097, SE439647, SE8201021 Address(es) / Applicant(s) SORIGONA AB (SE) Year 1983 Keyword(s) dextrane, saccharose, production Abstract A process for preparing by means of microorganisms or enzymes, dextrane having a molecular weight suitable for clinical use starting from a saccharose-containing substrate, wherein it is carried out continuously with continuous supply of substrate and microorganisms or enzymes and continuous discharge of dextran-containing reaction mixture from which the dextran is then recovered. PURPOSE: To obtain dextran useful for a blood plasma substitute, etc., without being greatly affected by culture conditions by culturing a variant strain capable of producing a dextransucrase in a culture medium containing sucrose without using the induction of the sucrose in the culture medium. CONSTITUTION: A dextransucrase constituent variant strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides for producing dextran is cultured in a culture medium containing sucrose. Leuconostoc mesenteroides M209 strain (FERM BP-4903) or Leuconostoc mesenteroides M898 strain (FERM BP-4904) can be exemplified as the dextransucrase constituent variant strain. PURPOSE:To directly obtain a dextran having a weight-average molecular weight higher than that of a starting raw material, useful as a plasma extender and a raw material for a food in high yield, by continuously adding a solution of sucrose to a dextran precursor in the presence of a dextran synthase. CONSTITUTION:A dextran synthase such as dextransucrase prepared by culturing Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL-B-512 strain in a medium is added to a solution of sucrose and allowed to stand at pH5.2 at 30 deg.C for 24 hours to synthesize a dextran precursor comprising a low-molecular dextran which is an oligosaccharide having 2-10 glycosyl residues. The dextran synthase is further added to the solution, the solution is reacted for five hours with a solution of sucrose which is continuously added. After the completion of the reaction, the reaction solution is heated to deactivate the enzyme, a low-molecular substance is removed by an ultrafilter having 10,000 fractionated molecular weight to give the objective dex PURPOSE:To efficiently. obtain the subject compound useful for a blood extender, a plasma substitute, a gel filtering agent, etc., by culturing a microorganism, belonging to the genus Gluconobacter and capable of producing dextran in a culture medium containing a starch partial hydrolyzate, etc., and CaCO3 and then collecting the resultant product. CONSTITUTION:This method for efficiently producing dextran is to inoculate a microorganism, belonging to the genus Gluconobacter and capable of producing the dextran (e.g. Gluconobacter oxydans ATCC11894 strain) into a culture medium, containing a starch partial hydrolyzate or its reduced substance as a carbon source and having a calcium carbonate content within the range of 0.01-10wt.%, culture the microorganism at 25 deg.C for 4 days under shaking, centrifuge the resultant culture solution, remove the microbial cell, add 0.1% active carbon to the supernatant, allow the obtained mixture to stand at 50 deg.C for 30min, carry out the decoloring treatment, then pas

69

PRODUCTION OF DEXTRAN

YAMADA MASAHIKO; INOUE TOSHIYASU; HARA MASATO; TAKAYAMA KENICHIRO

Pat.Nr. JP8173178, JP2933842B2

SHIKISHIMA SEIPAN KK

1996

dextrane, culture conditions, fermentation

70

PRODUCTION OF DEXTRAN

SHIBATA TAKASHI; others: 01

Pat.Nr. JP7274991

FUJISAWA PHARMACEUT CO LTD

1995

dextran, production, synthase

71

PRODUCTION OF DEXTRAN

UNNO TAKEHIRO; others: 01

Pat.Nr. JP7289277

NIPPON SHOKUHIN KAKO CO LTD 1995

dextran, inoculation

4.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.xls - page 364
ID 72 Title Microbial enhancement of polymer viscosity Author(s) / Inventor(s) ANTLOGA KATHLEEN MARIE; BALL LAWRENCE ERNEST; GRIFFIN WILLIAM MICHAEL Source / Application Number Pat. Nr. GB2153834,CA1271150, NO162522B, NO162522C Address(es) / Applicant(s) STANDARD OIL CO OHIO Year 1985 Keyword(s) polymer, viscosity Abstract A method for increasing the viscosity of a solution of a preformed polymer which comprises combining, under conditions favourable to microbial growth, (a) an aqueous solution of the preformed polymer; and (b) a microorganism incapable of de novo synthesis of the polymer, but capable of increasing the viscosity of the polymer solution is disclosed. The present invention may be applied, for example, to oil recovery, water clarification and paper production. Polymers which may be treated by this method include guar gum, hydroxypropyl guar gum, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, carboxymethyl hydexyethyl cellulose, xanthan gum, scleroglucan, locust bean gum, polyacrylamide, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, poly (acrylic acid) and its salts, poly (2-acrylamido-2methyl propane sulphuric acid (2 salt, ANPS), poly (acrylic acid-coacrylate ester), poly (vinyl pyrrolidane), cellulose sulphate esters, poly (ethylene oxide), poly (vinyl alcohol), polyamine, poly (vinyl acetate-comaleic anhydride) and po

73

High molecular weight pullulan and method for its production

THORNE LINDA P (US); Pat.Nr. US6010899 ARMENTROUT RICHARD W (US); POLLOCK THOMAS J (US)

SHINETSU CHEMICAL CO (JP); SHINETSU BIO INC (US)

2000

pullulan, production

A method for obtaining a substantially biologically pure culture strain of Aureobasidium pullulans from a wild type strain by enriching the collected strain for organisms which grow as fungal yeastlike cells, growing colonies from isolated yeastlike cells and selecting those yeastlike cells which exhibit reduced pigmentation. Biologically pure culture strains obtained by the invention as well as methods for producing pullulan having decreased pigmentation and/or increased molecular weight are disclosed. The present invention relates to a new production method of pullulan by using fermentation process. It is characterized by that in the course of fermentation said method adopts discontinuous or continuous flow addition of solution containing carbon source and nitrogen source to produce pullulan, in which the carbon source can use cane sugar or starch hydrolysate, and the nitrogen source is inorganic nitrogen salt, etc. The fermentative conversion rate of pullulan produced by said invented method can be up to above 70% in general, highest is up to 76%, and the mean molecular weight is one hundred thousand Daltons. In the production of pullulan by aerobic, microbial fermentation of saccharides, the degree of polymerization, the yield and the culture period are controlled by adjusting the pH value and the concentration of phosphate ion in the culture medium. A method for purifying pullulan which comprises cultivating a strain of Aureobasidium pullulans in a liquid medium, removing the cells from the culture broth, precipitating pullulan present in said broth with at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of alcohols, esters and ethers respectively with three or more carbon atoms and ketones with four or more carbon atoms to recover, and then dehydrating and/or drying the recovered pullulan.

74

Method for producing pullulan from fermentation liquor

SUN WANRU (CN); JIANG NING (CN); REN YONG-E (CN)

Pat.Nr. CN1216781

INST OF MICROBIOLOGY CHINESE 1999 A (CN

pullulan, production, fermentation

75

Process for the production of pullulan

KATO KOSO; SHIOSAKA MAKOTO

Pat. Nr. US3912591

HAYASHIBARA BIOCHEM LAB

1975

pullulan, production, saccharides, fermentation

76

Method for purifying pullulan

KATO KOSO; NOMURA TATSUO Pat. Nr. US4004977

HAYASHIBARA BIOCHEM LAB

1977

pullulan, production

4.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.xls - page 365
ID 77 Title High pullulan content product, and its preparation and uses. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Source / Application Number MIYAKE TOSHIO (JP); NOMURA Pat. Nr. EP0586034, A3 TATSUO (JP); OZAKI YOSHIHIDE (JP) Address(es) / Applicant(s) HAYASHIBARA BIOCHEM LAB Year 1994 Keyword(s) pullulan, production, Abstract Disclosed is a novel high pullulan content product containing pullulan having an average molecular weight less than 250,000, said product being prepared by continuously cultivating a microorganism capable of producing pullulan in a nutrient culture medium containing a 10-20 w/v % saccharide while controlling the viscosity of the nutrient culture medium to a level below 30cp. The product can be advantageously used in a variety of fields such as a viscosity-imparting agent, coating agent, adhesive, formed product, food product, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and material for agriculture, forestry, stock raising and paper processings, as well as for mining and manufacturing industries. PURPOSE:To provide a process for producing pullulan which can give pullulan of high molecular weight and prevent the culture medium from blackening due to production of black pigments. CONSTITUTION:In the production of pullulan by culturing a microorganism capable of producing pullulan, Aureobasidium pullulans, the culture mixture is heat-treated at 50 to 75 deg.C for 0.3 to 3hrs. The heat treatment inhibits the medium for producing pullulan from blackening. PURPOSE:To obtain high-purity pullulan with a narrowed MW distribution in high yields, by partially decomposing raw pullulan, fractionating the decomposition product and collecting the fractions having a weight-average MW/number- average MW ratio of below a specified value. CONSTITUTION:Raw pullulan is partially decomposed, the decomposition product is fractionated and the fractions having a weight-average MW/number-average MW ratio of below 1.5 are collected. The resulting pullulan fractions ar usually decolorized and desalted by active carbon, an ion exchange resin, etc., to obtain the purpose pullulan product. USE:This pullulan product is used advantageously as a water-soluble high-molecular standard reagent. For example, in case where it is used in gel filtration or liquid chromatography, it is suitable to use pullulan with a MW distribution which is narrowed to such an extent that the reversed Mw/reversed Mn ratio is about 1.3-1.1. Moreover, the product is useful as a plasma expander, a blood flow impr

78

PRODUCTION OF HIGH-MOLECULAR- NAGURA SHIGEHIRO; others: 01 Pat.Nr. JP5328988 WEIGHT PULLULAN

SHIN ETSU CHEM CO LTD

1993

Production, pullulan, molecular weight

79

PRODUCTION OF PULLULAN WITH NARROWED MOLECULAR WEIGHTDISTRIBUTION

YOSHIDA MIKIHIKO

Pat. Nr. JP57141401

HAYASHIBARA SEIBUTSU KAGAKU 1982 KENKYUSHO KK

Production, pullulan, molecular weight

80

Production of xanthan gum by emulsion MAURY LUCIEN G fermentation

Pat. Nr. US4352882

KELCO BIOSPECIALTIES LTD

1982

xanthan, production, emulsion, fermentation

Preparation of xanthan gum is effected by dispersing the aqueous xanthamonas culture medium in a water insoluble oil such as a hydrocarbon or vegetable oil. Such dispersions generate substantially less viscosity and as a result, fermentation can be carried out to a higher polymer content with less energy input.

4.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.xls - page 366
ID 81 Title PRODUCTION OF XANTHAN GUM Author(s) / Inventor(s) NISHI HISAMITSU Source / Application Number Pat. Nr. JP58165798 Address(es) / Applicant(s) ASAHI DOW KK Year 1983 Keyword(s) xanthan, production, fermentation Abstract PURPOSE:Specific compounds such as organic acids, organic bases, vitamins and others are added to the fermentation medium containing a carbon source to produce xanthan gum with good viscosity properties, high heat stability and salt resistance. CONSTITUTION:The fermentation culture medium containing a carbon source used in the cultivation of Xanthomonas campestris NRRL. B-1459 in an aqueous solution containing at least one of carbon sources, nitrogen sources, phosphate salts, and magnesium salts along with at least one selected from organic acids, inorganic bases or vitamins. The culture medium is adjusted in pH to 6.8-7.2, sterilized and cooled. The cultivation is carried out at 25-30 deg.C with aeration for 70-95hr and, after completion of fermentation, a small amount of methanol and water in an amout of 2-5 times the volume of methanol are added to effect dilution. Then, the mixture is subjected to centrifugation to remove cell bodies. Xanthan gum is obtained as a precipitate by adding alcohol and a salt

82

PRODUCTION OF XANTHAN GUM WITH HIGH CLARITY

HISAYOSHI KEISUKE; others: 01 Pat. Nr. JP58165797

KOJIN KK

1983

XANTHAN, production, enzyme,

PURPOSE:A xanthan gum solution is treated with a small amount of a specific enzyme to remove cell bodies as contaminants efficiently to increase the clarity of the product. CONSTITUTION:Lysozyme as an enzyme is added to a xanthan gum solution of 1-10% gun concentration by 1-500ppm and the reaction is effected at a pH of 4.09.0 and 25-60 deg.C. At this time, a combination thereof with Nacetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase and peptidase may be allowed and slow agitation is preferred so that the high-viscosity solution is made uniform during the reaction. PURPOSE:To form xantham gum useful as foods, etc., in an aggregated state, to carry out its production and recovery efficiently, by fermenting aerobically Xanthomonas campestris in an aqueous medium containing both an inorganic salt and an aqueous solvent. CONSTITUTION:Xanthomonas campestris IFO 13303 is aerobically fermented in an aqueous medium containing preferably 0.25-0.75wt% inorganic salt (e.g., CaCl2, etc.) and preferably 15-30vol.% aqueous organic solvent (e.g., acetone, etc.). Low pyruvate xanthan gum comprising 0.1-1% by weight pyruvate (FCC Method) has useful properties for secondary oil recovery. It is produced by aerobically fermenting an organism of the genus Xanthomonas in a broth comprising: 1) a chemically defined simple salts medium comprising sources of nitrogen, sulphur, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and (optionally) iron, said simple salts medium being substantially free of cobalt, copper, manganese, zinc and boron; 2) an assimilable carbon source, and 3) a complex organic material which is a nitrogen source. Inoculation of the nutrient medium for production of xanthan gum by aerobic fermentation is effected at a dilution of 0.5-0.01% using an inoculum comprising an organism of the genus Xanthomonas, wherein the total levels of iron, manganese, and zinc in said nutrient medium are limited such that there is no more than 10 ppm iron, no more than 3 ppm zinc and the ppm ratio of iron : manganese is from 40 : 1 to 2 : 1.

83

IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF XANTHAN GUM

NISHI HISAMITSU

Pat. Nr. JP61173796

ASAHI CHEM IND CO LTD

1986

xanthan, production

84

Production of xanthan having a low pyruvate content.

JARMAN TREVOR RODNEY; PACE GARY WILLIAM

Pat. Nr. EP0066961

KELCO BIOSPECIALTIES LTD (GB) 1982

xanthan, low, pyruvate

85

Inoculation procedure for xanthan gum production.

JARMAN TREVOR RODNEY

Pat. Nr. EP0066957

KELCO BIOSPECIALTIES LTD (GB) 1982

Inoculation, xanthan, production, fermentation

4.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.xls - page 367
ID 86 Title Process for xanthan gum production. Author(s) / Inventor(s) JARMAN TREVOR RODNEY Source / Application Number Pat. Nr. EP0066377 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year KELCO BIOSPECIALTIES LTD (GB) 1982 Keyword(s) Xanthan, production Abstract Xanthan gum is produced by an improved process of fermenting an assimilable carbon source by an organism of the genus Xanthomonas comprising limiting the trace elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co and B as follows:(.) with the proviso that the ratio Re: Mn ranges from 40: 1 to 2: 1. xanthan, production A novel process is described for making a low calcium xanthan gum exhibiting smooth flow properties which comprises the use of high levels of phosphate in the fermentation medium. xanthan, gellan, welan, rhamsan, A method for treating a fermentation must intended for the production scleroglucan, production of exopolysaccharides of microbial origin comprises adding a surfactant drop by drop, without stirring, to an aqueous solution of the fermentation must containing the polysaccharide. The polysaccharide separates into a supernatant phase. It may be, for example, gellan, welan, rhamsan, scleroglucan or xanthan. No abstract available.

87

High phosphate process for making low EMPEY RICHARD A; DOMINIK calcium, smooth flow xanthan gum JURGEN G No title available. QUINN FRANCIS X (FR); MONOT FREDERIC (FR)

Pat.Nr. US4263399

MERCK & CO INC

1981

88

Pat. Nr. DE19547748

INST FRANCAIS DU PETROL (FR)

1996

89

90

PRODUCTION OF XANTHAN GUM FROM A CHEMICALLY DEFINED MEDIUM Xanthan gum from dairy permeates and other filtered dairy products.

WEISROCK WILLIAM P; KLEIN HARRIET S POLLOCK THOMAS J (US); ARMENTROUT RICHARD W (US)

Pat. Nr. CA1153970

STANDARD OIL CO

1983

Pat. Nr. EP0624651

SHINETSU BIO INC (US); SHINETSU 1994 CHEMICAL CO (JP)

xanthan, production, dairy, permeates

91

Process for making cellulase-free xanthan gum RECOMBINANT - DNA MEDIATED PRODUCTION OF XANTHAN GUM.

KANG KENNETH S

Pat. Nr. US4259477

MERCK & CO INC

1981

xanthan, cellulase

92

93

Process for the production of polysaccharides.

CAPAGE MICHAEL A; Pat. Nr. EP0326544 (WO8705938) DOHERTY DANIEL H; BETLACH MICHAEL R; VANDERSLICE REBECCA W CROS PATRICK Pat.Nr. EP0319372

GETTY SCIENT DEV CO (US)

1989

xanthan

The present invention relates to the unexpected discovery that xanthan gum can be produced from filtered whey or milk products, including whey permeates and milk permeates, by a fermentation process which uses organisms which are capable of converting lactose to xanthan gum. Cellulase in xanthan gum can be completely destroyed by treating xanthan gum beer with about 0.08 to 0.1% alkali metal hypochlorite followed by heat treatment. No abstract available.

RHONE POULENC CHIMIE (FR)

1989

94

Preparation of xanthan gum.

POLLOCK THOMAS J; THORNE Pat. Nr. EP0287363 LINDA

SYNTRO CORP (US)

1988

xanthan

Process for the production of biopolymers by fermentation of carbohydrates by means of microorganisms. The process consists in performing the fermentation in an aqueous nutrient medium containing starch as source of assimilable carbon in the presence of a saccharification enzyme. Application to the manufacture of xanthan gum in particular. A method of increasing xanthan gum production, comprising culturing a Xanthomonas campestris strain having a xanthan-increasing modification in a culture medium, wherein the modification is selected from the group consisting of (1) a mutation causing rifampicinresistance; (2) a mutation causing bacitracin-resistance; or (3) exogenous genetic information controlling the synthesis of xanthan; and separating xanthan from the culture medium, is provided along with specific DNA sequences and Xanthomonas campestris strains showing increased xanthan gum production. Xanthan gum is produced by fermentation with the bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459, of a nutrient medium containing a sugar and a stimulatory organic acid which stimulates the production of xanthan gum. The stimulatory organic acid can be a source of pyruvic acid, alpha-keto-glutaric acid, succinic acid or mixtures thereof. Increased xanthan concentrations are obtained in Xanthomonas fermentations by the gradual addition of a source of assimilable carbon, preferably glucose, to the aqueous nitrient medium during the course of the fermentation cycle.

95

Process for the fermentative production DEMAIN ARNOLD L; SOUW of xanthan gum with organic acids PETER

Pat. Nr. US4245046

MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY

1981

Xanthan, organic acid

96

Fermentation process for production of WERNAU WILLIAM C xanthan

Pat. Nr. US4282321

PFIZER

1981

xanthan

removing liquid from the precipitated xanthan gum to a liquid content of at most 50%.xls . BOYNTON LAURA. AMARAL COLACO MARIA TERESA (PT) Pat. with stirring. xanthan. nitrogen 99 Process for the production of a xanthan EYSSAUTIER BRUNO with high thickening capacity. WO9505476 NERA ASSOCIACAO EMPRESARIAL 1995 DA (PT).g. are provided. HOROWITZ DANIEL M. by adding linear or branched chained. and applications of this xanthan. such as enzymes. SHINETSU BIO INC (US) 1996 xanthan. production. NAGURA SHIGEHIRO (JP). Nr. AMARAL COLACO MARIA TERESA (PT) xanthan. saturated or unsaturated non-metabolizable organic acids (e. AIDA ASSOCIACAO INTERPROFISSIO (PT). and by mixing and using the water-soluble inorganic nitrogen component and a water-insoluble organic nitrogen component as the nitrogen sources of a seed fermentation medium. GB2008138 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Tate & Lyle Ltd Year 1979 Keyword(s) xanthan Abstract The conversion efficiency in a continuous fermentation of a strain of the genus Xanthomonas to produce a polysaccharide is enhanced by the choice of the carbohydrate carbon source as the growth-limiting substrate. gellan gum. to give pseudoplastic characteristics to solutions and suspensions. through the growth of Xanthomonas bacteria genus in a solution of mineral salts and one or more carbohydrates.page 368 ID 97 Title Process for the production of xanthan gum. 102 MICROBIAL STRAINS AND PROCESSES FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF BIOMATERIALS GERNGROSS TILLMAN U.WO9950389 METABOLIX INC (US) 1999 biomaterials. microbial cellulose . for producing polyhydroxyalkanoates. FR2606423 SANOFI ELF BIO IND (FR) 1988 xanthan 100 PROCESS FOR PRODUCING XANTHAN USING NONMETABOLIZABLE ORGANIC ACIDS PEREIRA ROSEIRO JOSE CARLOS (PT). and for producing extracellular polysaccharides.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. A method for the fermentation production of xanthan gum which comprises the step of carrying out culture by using a water-soluble inorganic nitrogen component alone as the nitrogen source of a production medium. EP0718311 SHINETSU CHEMICAL CO (JP). These constructs are useful for modifying microbial strains to improve production and recovery processes for polymers such as intracellular proteins. PEREIRA ROSEIRO JOSE CARLOS (PT). which produce a nuclease enzyme with specificity for DNA and/or RNA. and cytokines. HUISMAN GJALT W. disintegrating the cake of xanthan gum after the liquid removal to an average grain size of from 0. and are particularly suited for use in high cell density fermentation processes. hyaluronic acid. NAGURA SHIGEHIRO (JP) Pat Nr. growth factors. and drying the disintegrated xanthan gum by fluidizing the same at a temperature not exceeding 80 DEG C DNA constructs and genetically engineered microbial strains constructed using these DNA constructs. A process for the activation of the production of xanthan. 98 Method for fermentation production of xanthan gum HONMA TAIRA (JP). Pat. Nr.4. US5580763 SHINETSU CHEMICAL CO (JP). organic acid 101 Process for production of salinesolution soluble xanthan gum MUROFUSHI KANJI (JP). and a final product with fewer impurities. zooglan. alginates. A process for saline-solution soluble xanthan gum which comprises the steps of precipitating xanthan gum by mixing. hyaluronic acid and microbial cellulose. zooglan. This process results in improved yields up to 25 % higher. at a temperature of between 105 DEG C and 120 DEG C for 30 seconds to 8 minutes before isolating the xanthan. The process is applied to the production of xanthan gums by fermentation of x campestris.3 to 2 cm in diameter. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Source / Application Number Pat. Nr. PEOPLES OLIVER P Pat. such as xanthan gum. an aqueous solution of xanthan gum with an organic solvent which is a non-solvent to xanthan gum but is hydrophilic. Nr. Nr. This process for the production of a xanthan gum with high capacity for thickening aqueous media consists in rapidly heating the final broth from carbohydrate fermentation by a bacterium of the genus Xanthomonas. MUROFUSHI KANJI (JP) Pat. The heating of the medium is carried out at close to neutral pH. isobutyric acid. pseudoplastic. carob extract). alginates. These strains secrete nuclease into the periplasm or growth medium in an amount effective to enhance productivity and/or recovery of polymer. gellan gum. SHINETSU BIO INC (US) 1996 xanthan.

5 wt % of the nutrient medium during the culture of the Xanthomonas bacteria in the nutrient medium. US4400467 STANDARD OIL CO INDIANA (US) 1983 heteropolysaccharide. thereby minimizing problems of low oxygen transfer capability in viscous media. In the first stage. the requirement for oxygen is greatly reduced at the time when the culture medium has its highest viscosity. xanthan 105 Production of high-pyruvate xanthan gum on synthetic medium CADMUS MARTIN C. production. US4394447 JR CLARENCE A US AGRICULTURE 1983 high pyruvate. in a first fermenter to enhance cultural growth.2 to about 0.page 369 ID 103 Title Fermentation process for the production of polysaccharides Author(s) / Inventor(s) BANKS GEOFFREY T (GB). Nr. US4377637 STANDARD OIL CO INDIANA (US) 1983 xanthan. Nr. The process is directed broadly to use of bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas to produce xanthan gum from the aforesaid media. sulfur or phosphorous) has been essentially consumed. By this process. BROWNING PAUL D (GB) Source / Application Number Pat.g. production. The process may be modified by carrying out cultural growth and production of the polysaccharide in the same fermenter. by using a predetermined quantity of a carbon-containing nutrient which does not support biosynthesis of the polysaccharide. such as xanthan gum. Nr. fermentation Abstract Polysaccharides. by adding carbohydrate in the absence of nutrient required for polysaccharide growth. After the limiting growth element (nitrogen. the conditions are such that biosynthesis of the polysaccharide takes place with substantially no growth of the microorganism. 106 Method for producing a low viscosity xanthan gum WEISROCK WILLIAM P Pat. KNUTSON Pat. continuous culture . A process is described for the continuous manufacture of xanthan gum in which continuous culture is conducted under conditions of nutrient limited growth using relatively inexpensive chemically defined media containing certain vitamins with or without amino acids. of the Xanthomonas genus. US4692408 Address(es) / Applicant(s) IMP BIOTECHNOLOGY (GB) Year 1987 Keyword(s) polysaccharide. This invention involves the production of heteropolysaccharides such as xanthan gum by the continuous fermentation of suitable nutrient media with new degenerative resistant variants of Xanthomanas campestris.15% as the primary nitrogen source. is produced by fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris on a carbohydrate-containing nutrient medium having (NH4)2HPO4 at a level of at least 0. substantially free of insolubles and undesirable coloration. campestris NRRL B-12075 and NRRL B-KHOSROVI BEHZAD (US) 12074 for making heteropolysaccharide Pat. in a two stage process. A reduced viscosity xanthan gum is produced which can be converted to the normal viscosity xanthan gum.g. xanthan. Fermentation is conducted in a nitrogen. a low viscosity xanthan gum is produced by adding sulfate anions in a concentration ranging from about 0. e. In the production of xanthan gum by action of the Xanthomonas bacteria on a nutrient medium. the medium is then transferred to a second fermenter and fermentation continued while adding a suitable carbohydrate which the bacteria convert into the heteropolysaccharide product. low viscosity 107 Production of xanthan gum from a WEISROCK WILLIAM P.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. US4374929 STANDARD OIL CO INDIANA (US) 1983 Xanthan. xanthan A high-pyruvate xanthan gum. e.4.g.Nr. e. The bacteria employed were cultured from a glucose-mineral salts medium fortified with yeast extract or a glucosedefined minimal medium in which ammonium chloride served as the sole assimilable n 104 Process of using xanthomonas BAUER KEITH A (US). KLEIN chemically defined medium introduction HARRIET S Pat. are produced by culturing microorganisms. sulfur or phosphorous limited nutrient medium containing glucose or a minimal medium plus yeast extract and glutamic acid.xls . and having a total phosphate level of at least about 0. Nr. In the second stage.25%. growth of the microorganism is favored.

adding fresh. fermentation Abstract Xanthan gum is produced by means of semi-continuous fermentation using a culture of either Xanthomonas campestris XCP-1 ATCC 31600 or Xanthomonas campestris P-107 ATCC 31602. SOUW of xanthan gum with organic acids PETER Pat.page 370 ID 108 Title Author(s) / Inventor(s) Semi-continuous method for production WEISROCK WILLIAM P of xanthan gum using Xanthomanas campestris ATCC 31600 and Xanthomanas campestris ATCC 31602 Source / Application Number Pat. US5580763 SHINETSU CHEMICAL CO (JP). and the turbine impeller consists of a rotating disc having at least one turbine blade attached thereto.. Preferably the sugar is a mixture of mannose and glucose optionally containing minor amounts of other sugars. in a minimal medium. feedstock 115 Method for fermentation production of xanthan gum HONMA TAIRA (JP).4. Xanthan gum is produced by fermentation with the bacterium. US4301247 STANDARD OIL CO INDIANA 1981 xanthan. NAGURA SHIGEHIRO (JP). DE WANNEMAEKER BENEDICTE L T (BE) CERESTAR HOLDING BV (NL 1994 fermentation. Nr. fermentation 110 WEISROCK WILLIAM P Pat. and wherein the fermentation is carried out in the presence of a saccharidespecific amylolytic enzyme. BECK ROLAND H F DR (BE). Nr. deoxycholate 112 Process for the fermentative production DEMAIN ARNOLD L. MUROFUSHI KANJI (JP). withdrawing a portion of the fermented medium. xanthan gum. e. Nr. alpha-keto-glutaric acid. sterile medium to the residual medium and repeating the above cycle.xls . The stimulatory organic acid can be a source of pyruvic acid. Nr. xanthan gum in which a simple sugar is a component of the fermentation feedstock and a part of that sugar is mannose. organic acid 113 Apparatus and method for the production of xanthan gum HOMMA TAIRA (JP). of a nutrient medium containing a sugar and a stimulatory organic acid which stimulates the production of xanthan gum. SHINETSU BIO INC (US) 1996 xanthan. Nr. allowing the system to ferment for a period of about 24 hours. EP0609995 CLAUDE M (NL). recovering xanthan from the withdrawn portion. The helical impeller consists of a pair of vertically spaced arms extending from the agitator shaft in opposite directions and arranged in twisted relationship. the mixture of mannose and glucose suitably being produced by the epimerisation of glucose. MUROFUSHI KANJI (JP) Pat. cholate. xanthan 114 Fermentation feedstock DE TROOSTEMBERGH JEAN)Pat. are produced by the aerobic microbial fermentation of a carbohydrate in an aqueous nutrient medium containing starch as a source of carbon. and by mixing and using the water-soluble inorganic nitrogen component and a water-insoluble organic nitrogen component as the nitrogen sources of a seed fermentation medium. In the production of xanthan gum by action of Xanthomonas bacteria on a nutrient medium. NAGURA SHIGEHIRO (JP) Pat. Nr. A fermenter for the production of xanthan gum is provided with an upper helical impeller and a lower turbine impeller which are positioned therewithin. In the production of xanthan gum by the action of Xanthomonas bacteria on a nutrient medium. US4245046 MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY 1981 Xanthan. semi-continuous. SHINETSU BIO INC (US) 1999 fermenter. succinic acid or mixtures thereof. A method for the fermentation production of xanthan gum which comprises the step of carrying out culture by using a water-soluble inorganic nitrogen component alone as the nitrogen source of a production medium. and an agitator shaft for driving these helical impeller and turbine impeller. US4311796 STANDARD OIL CO INDIANA 1982 xanthan 111 Method for improving xanthan yield WEISROCK WILLIAM P Pat.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. Polysaccharide biopolymers.g. mannose. nitrogen . xanthan. US5972695 SHINETSU CHEMICAL CO (JP). 109 Production of polysaccharides of high viscosity using xanthomonas campestris and glycoamylase with fluidized starch Method for improving specific xanthan productivity during continuous fermentation CROS PATRICK (FR) Pat. A fermentation process for the production of a product comprising mannose units eg. Nr. Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459. the specific productivity of the organism employed can be improved by the increase in average cell concentration through the stepwise increase of growth limiting nutrients in the medium. US4328308 Address(es) / Applicant(s) STANDARD OIL CO INDIANA Year 1982 Keyword(s) xanthan. US5610037 RHONE POULENC CHIMIE (FR) 1997 polysaccharide. Nr. xanthan. the yield of xanthan gum can be improved by the addition of deoxycholate or cholate to the nutrient medium at the time of inoculation of the bacteria on the nutrient medium. and at least one shearing paddle bridging these arms.

or (3) exogenous genetic information controlling the synthesis of xanthan. Nr. subsequent precipitation in a high-turbulence precipitation bath. Nr. (2) a mutation causing bacitracin-resistance. 117 Xanthomonas campestris strain for production of Xanthan gum POLLOCK THOMAS J (US). The present invention is directed to a two-stage continuous process for the production of a gelable curdlan-type exopolysaccharide. The amount of nitrogen in the first stage is so limited that the effluent therefrom contains substantially no inorganic nitrogen. are obtainable by treatment at special pH values. Nr. THORNE LINDA (US) Source / Application Number Pat. more especially xanthan BALSER KLAUS (DE) Continuous process for the production of gelable exopolysaccharide LAWFORD HUGH G Pat. agitated culture medium containing assimilable carbon. nutrients and organic salts. wherein the modification is selected from the group consisting of (1) a mutation causing rifampicinresistance. US4355106 WESTON GEORGE LTD 1982 . more especially xanthan.4. comprising culturing a Xanthomonas campestris strain having a xanthan-increasing modification in a culture medium. xanthomonas. The resultant mixture is aerated and mixed at pH 5. Nr.page 371 ID 116 Title Xanthan gum-producing strain of xanthomonas Author(s) / Inventor(s) POLLOCK THOMAS J (US). is grown aerobically in an aerated. US5279961 SHINETSU CHEMICAL CO (US). and separating xanthan from the culture medium.xls . neutralization and. optionally. resistance A method of increasing xanthan gum production. THORNE LINDA (US) Pat. (2) a mutation causing bacitracin-resistance. is provided along with specific DNA sequences and Xanthomonas campestris strains showing increased xanthan gum production. the volume and dilution rate in the reactor being selected so that the residence time of the microorganism in the fermenter does not exceed an equivalent to the maximum length of time during which the activity of a batch culture of the microorganism with respec 118 Process for the production of WILKE MICHAELA (DE).5 at a temperature of from 25 DEG to 35 DEG C. curdlan-producing strain of microorganism such as Alcaligenes faecalis var. heteropolysaccharide.5 to 6. heteropolysaccharides having improved SZABLIKOWSKI KLAUS (DE). SHINETSU BIO INC (US) 1994 xanthan. is provided along with specific DNA sequences and Xanthomonas campestris strains showing increased xanthan gum production. xanthan. The effluent is introduced into a second stage in a constant volume fermenter wherein it is mixed with a nitrogen-free carbohydrate. and separating xanthan from the culture medium. comprising culturing a Xanthomonas campestris strain having a xanthan-increasing modification in a culture medium.. In the first stage a stable. SHINETSU BIO INC (US) Year 1994 Keyword(s) xanthan Abstract A method of increasing xanthan gum production. pH Cellulase-free heteropolysaccharides. properties. wherein the modification is selected from the group consisting of (1) a mutation causing rifampicinresistance. US4978750 WOLFF WALSRODE AG (DE) 1990 119 Pat. or (3) exogenous genetic information controlling the synthesis of xanthan. myxogenes ATCC 31749 and ATCC 31750. optionally cooling. heat treatment.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. US5340743 Address(es) / Applicant(s) SHINETSU CHEMICAL CO (US).

from filamentous fungi. MONSIGNY MICHEL. non-particulate support and aqueous liquid medium is passed through the immobilized system and product containing medium is recycled or withdrawn from the system. GUDIN CLAUDE COMMISSARIAT ENERGIE ATOMIQUE 1991 Polysaccharides. New water-soluble polysaccharides. water-soluble A process to produce products. BELOZERSKIKH O A Source / Application Number Pat. SANTOS PATRICK FERREIRA Pat. CAREL SERGE. They have an immunomodulating activity which makes them useful in the field of therapeutics. from 65 to 75% of neutral oses. in particular polysaccharides. These polysaccharides extracted from Escherichia coli and from Klebsiella pneumoniae contain less than 1% of proteins. BARNIER HENRI. THEPENIER CATHERINE. and have a molecular mass greater than 50. and then drying and grinding the washed polysaccharide. DELMOTTE FRANCIS. VANDERHOVEN CHRISTINE. Nr. PETIT CLAIRE LIPHA (FR) 1989 polysaccharides.page 372 ID 120 Title METHOD OF BROWN ALGAE PROCESSING Author(s) / Inventor(s) KURNYGINA V T. Nr. difficult to dry and with a tendency to agglomerate.xls . A3 STANDARD OIL CO OHIO (US) 1989 polysaccharides. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of brown algae. has a fibrous structure. JOHAL SARJIT S Pat. Milled algae are extracted with an organic solvent containing 1-6 carbon atoms at ratio raw : extractant = 1:(120). in an immobilized cell bioreactor wherein the fungus is fixed and adheres to the surface of a porous. TOVARISHCHESTVO S OGRANICHENNO Year 1999 Keyword(s) Abstract FIELD: biotechnology. MURRAY NORMAN.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. mannitol. from 5 to 9% of pyruvic acid in the form of pyruvilidene. process for obtaining them. AU616683 DOS. extraction No abstract available. The powder obtained from water-soluble substances of brown algae extract is the complex of polysaccharides. mineral substances (including that enriched with iodine)that can be used as the food and prophylactic addition in medicinal. but not so high that the washed product. Nr. production. Nr. Polysaccharides produced by fermentation are obtained in a nonfibrous form by washing the product produced by precipitation from the fermentation medium with an aqueous organic liquid in which the proportion of organic liquid is high enough to give a washed product which is not soft. food and chemicalpharmaceutic 121 122 PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND EXTRACTION OF POLYSACCHARIDES FROM A PORPHYRIDIUM CRUENTUM CULTURE AND APPARATUS FOR PERFORMING THE PROCESS The production of polysaccharides from filamentous fungi. from 18 to 27% of uronic acids. EP0347236. EP0308279 MARIE. RU2132622 Address(es) / Applicant(s) FITOLON. 123 Water-soluble polysaccharides. NEKRASOVA V B. NIKITINA T V. fungus. laminaria and bady wrack (Fucus vesiculosis) for preparing lipid concentrates and water-soluble concentrates enriched with iodine. namely. after drying and grinding. their use as medicaments and a preparation containing them. PAGE YVESPat.4. ROCHE ANNE-CLAUDE. less than 0.5% of osamines. 124 Process for the production of fermentation polysaccharides having a non-fibrous structure BOUNIOT ALBERT Pat. non-fibrous . Nr. vitamins. After distillation of solvent lipid and aqueous concentrates are obtained and separated their. CASH HOWARD A. An aqueous extract is dried to obtain water-soluble concentrate.000. US3988313 RHONE POULENC SA 1976 polysaccharides. Method provides the most effectiveness of extraction of lipid-soluble component of brown algae which are rich with nonsaturated substances and to use its as a substance for production of curative-prophylactic additions "Clamin" and "Phytolon".

1997 Sec. Nr. The protease can be added during the culture. pneumoniae. to prevent reduction of viscosity during storage. extracellular Abstract PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for culturing a photosynthetic microorganism high in utility. pneumoniae BEC1000 CNCMI-1507 which produces industrially useful quantities of a polysaccharide containing L-fucose. and a method for producing an extracellular polysaccharide. MICROORGANISM AND SUDO HIROAKI PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDE Source / Application Number Pat. The polysaccharide has properties which are particularly useful to the cosmetics industry. 126 PRODUCTION OF POLYSACCHARIDE YUMOTO ISAO Pat. Deleya marina L-2 strain: FERM P-16406) is cultured. SOLUTION: This method for culturing a photosynthetic microorganism comprises using agaragar as a comprehensive immobilizing carrier and culturing it to obtain an N/P ratio in a culturing solution of >=3.C) known as a biodegradable plastic. 102(e) Date Jul. 371 Date Jul. obtain &beta . by culturing a strain belonging to the genus Deleya and capable of producing the aimed polysaccharide followed by collecting the aimed product from the cultured product. WO96/23057 PCT Pub.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. for example. PCT No.xls . No. and at the same time. Neutral and alkaline proteases having activity at around pH 7 are particularly suitable. to obtain a polysaccharide of increased viscosity. phb. 1996The present invention discloses a new strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. agar-agar is used as the comprehensive immobilizing carrier and the photosynthetic microorganism is cultured to cause the N/P ratio in the culturing solution of >=3 to generate the objective extracellular polysaccharide. 25.4. soft drink bottles made of a hard and brittle biodegradable polymeric material having a high melting point (170 deg. and the aimed polysaccharide. produced by culturing strains of Azotobacter vinelandii. a flocculant used in wastewater treatment. US4234688 Tate & Lyle Ltd 1980 polysaccharide. microbial alginate. production. In the method for producing a polysaccharide derived from a microorganism by culturing the photosynthetic microorganism generating an extracellular polysaccharide using an immobilizing carrier. 25. a food thickening agent. a food thickening agent. along with &beta -polyhydroxybutyric acid produced by the strain. 127 Polysaccharide producing process using protease and Azotobacter RIGHELATO RENTON C.g. L-fucose . 128 Strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Azotobacter The solution viscosity of a polysaccharide. 1996 PCT Pub. wastewater treatment. a soil modifier as a water-holding agent. Also disclosed is a process of producing the polysaccharide using this strain and mutants thereof. Nr. is controlled by addition of a protease to the culture broth.g.g.polyhydroxybutyric acid useful for e. MITSUBISHI HEAVY IND LTD Year 1999 Keyword(s) polysaccharide.g.page 373 ID 125 Title Author(s) / Inventor(s) CULTIVATION OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MATSUMOTO KAZUNORI. and a process for the production of a polysaccharide containing L-fucose PAUL FRANCOIS MARIE BERNARD (FR). Nr. flocculant for e. polyhydroxybutyric acid PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To efficiently obtain a polysaccharide useful as e. Alternatively or additionally protease can also be added after culture but before the polysaccharide is isolated from the broth.g. Nr. PERRY DAVID FRANK (FR). JARMAN TREVOR R Pat. soil modifier such as waterholding agent. PCT/FR96/00127 Sec. Deleya. JP11113591 AGENCY OF IND SCIENCE & TECHNOL 1999 Polysaccharide. 25. SOLUTION: A strain belonging to the genus Deleya and capable of producing the aimed polysaccharide (e. is collected to obtain the objective polysaccharide useful as e. 1. subsp. 1997 PCT Filed Jan. photosynthetic. MONSAN PIERRE FREDERIC (FR) Pat. generating efficiency of a polysaccharide and utilizing efficiency of a light. Date Aug. JP11196858 Address(es) / Applicant(s) RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE EARTH. US5876982 BIOEUROPE (FR) 1999 polysaccharide.

which comprises culturing these celluloseproducing bacteria. continuously or semi-continuously culturing the microorganism to produce and accumulate the extracellular polysaccharide in the culture solution. polysaccharide Previously unrecognized polysaccharide products are extracted from either whole Lesquerella fendleri seed or commercially processed and oil-extracted seed meal or presscake or other seed material. It can be employed as a viscosity agent for thickening and gelling. The levan consists entirely of fructose and the residues linked by beta . glucuronic acid. This polysaccharide consists of repeating units which are composed of a backbone. SOLUTION: This method for producing the extracellular polysaccharide comprises culturing and multiplying a microorganism (e. maintaining the viscosity of the culture solution at a specific value or smaller.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. by culturing a microorganism belonging to the genus Lipomyces and having an extracellular polysaccharide. bacteria Abstract Novel cellulose-producing bacteria including one capable of producing of a bacterial cellulose having a weight-average degree of polymerization in terms of polystyrene of 1. Nr.4. KLEIMAN ROBERT (US) Pat.xls . 1 of D-galactose. YOSHINAGA FUMIHIRO (JP) Address(es) / Applicant(s) BIO POLYMER RES CO LTD (JP) Year 1998 Keyword(s) cellulose. on which pyruvic acid groups may be grafted and of which certain of the saccharide hydroxyl groups are esterified as acetate. Pat. PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To profitably produce the subject polysaccharide useful as a soil conditioner. a method for the production of bacterial cellulose. JP9131199 AJINOMOTO CO INC 1997 Lipomyces. SHIMIZU WITH MICROORGANISM OF GENUS SHIGEATSU LIPOMYCES Pat. POLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCED KAWAHARA YOSHIO. identified as strains of Bacillus polymyxa. TAKEMURA HIROSHI (JP). mannose. produce large quantities of a pure and uniform extracellular polysaccharide fructan (levan). centrifugally removing the cells from the culture solution. 1 of D-glucuronic acid.PLANARD MARIE FRANCE (FR) SANOFI ELF (FR) 1995 pseudomonas. NRRL B18475 and NRRL B-18476.6 x 10<4> or above.producing ability in a culture medium. concentrating the filtrate and subsequently drying the concentrated filtra 130 PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR UEHARA AKIYOSHI. bacillus polymyxa 133 Polysaccharide. CLARKE MARGARET A (US) Pat. in a sucrose medium. Nr. levan. one producing a Bingham polysaccharide as a by-product. a paper-strengthening agent. polysaccharide . 1 of L-lyxose and 1 of L-fucose. maintaining the viscosity of the culture solution at <=150 centipoises. Soil isolates. CARLSON KENNETH D (US). US5547863 US ARMY (US) 1996 fructan. 132 Production of fructan (levan) polyfructose polymers using bacillus polymyxa HAN YOUN W (US). ist production by fermentation and the pseudomonas strain which produces it FONTAINE THIERRY (FR).g. etc. TABUCHI MARI (JP). and (semi)continuously culturing the microorganism. its applications. 1 of D-xylose.page 374 ID 129 Title NOVEL CELLULOSE-PRODUCING BACTERIA Author(s) / Inventor(s) Source / Application Number TSUCHIDA TAKAYASU (JP). US5567812 US ARMY (US) 1996 Lesquerella fendleri. Processes used include the steps of: (1) combining the seed material with an aqueous solution. (2) high speed stirring or sonification of the resultant seed material for the separation of the polysaccharide from the seed. Nr. comprising 2 radicals of D-mannose. and bacterial cellulose thus obtained. trisaccharide 131 Polysaccharide products derived from lesquerella fendleri and methods of their production ABBOTT THOMAS P (US). 2 of D-glucose. and one producing a small amount of water-soluble polysaccharide. TAHARA NAOKI (JP). Lipomyces starkyi. YANO HISATO (JP). bleaching and salt conditions.. and (3) isolation of the polysaccharide from the aqueous filtrate. one capable of producing a bacterial cellulose containing a small amount of the fraction with low degrees of polymerization. Nr.CBS 1807) belonging to the genus Lipomyces and having an ability to produce the extracellular polysaccharide. 2-6 fructofuranoside linkage. MORINAGA YASUSHI (JP). TOYOSAKI HIROSHI (JP). Polysaccharide. galactose. Nr. The resultant polysaccharides are highly polymeric and enhance solution viscosities over a wide range of pH. EP0831101 WATANABE KUNIHIKO (JP). US5455343 FOURNET BERNARD (FR). Pat.

Nr. US4940663 SANOFI SA (FR) 1990 xanthan.. growth. US4696900 SECR DEFENCE BRIT (GB 1987 Xanthomonas. This production and extraction process comprises a stage of concentrating the polysaccharides consisting of leaving the culture medium (1) in a photoreactor (22) exposed to sunlight under stagnant conditions and at ambient temperature. consisting in conducting the growth of the microorganisms in a medium containing an enzyme which hydrolyzes the formed polysaccharide. Application: preparation of xanthane. especially of the Xanthomonas campestris group in a chemically-defined culture medium. particularly for the production of scleroglucane using sclerotium type fungi. leading to the formation of a polysaccharide-rich cream (23) and recovering said cream by skimming. by washing with a non-aqueous hydrophilic solvent or by air-drying. Substantially dried cellulose resulting from this procedure is highly absorbent. Microbial cellulose produced in the presence of carboxymethyl cellulose may be substantially dried by many means known to those skilled in the art. Nr.page 375 ID 134 Title Microbial cellulose modified during synthesis Author(s) / Inventor(s) BROWN JR R MALCOLM (US) Source / Application Number Pat. Nr. polysaccharide. US4942128 Address(es) / Applicant(s) UNIV TEXAS (US) Year 1990 Keyword(s) microbial cellulose Abstract The present invention involves a method of producing cellulose. Cultures have been run for over 2.4. A subject of the present invention is a composition of matter consisting essentially of such cellulose in a native or substantially dried form. and is usable where such absorbency is desired. Process for the production and extraction of polysaccharides from a porphyridium cruentum culture and apparatus for performing the process. 135 Process for multiplication of polysaccharide-producing microorganisms and use thereof in a polysaccharide production process EYSSAUTIER BRUNO Pat. a stage (24) of heating the concentrate obtained at a temperature between 60 DEG and 100 DEG C. The inoculated medium is then aerobically incubated to facilitate the production of cellulose. GUDIN CLAUDE (FR). tending to retain its absorbent properties during repeated wetting and drying. YEO RICHARD G (GB) )Pat. extraction 138 Production of bacterial polysaccharides ELLWOOD DEREK C (GB).11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. polysaccharide. US4906746 COMMISSARIAT ENERGIE ATOMIQUE 1990 porphyridium cruentum. polysaccharide 136 Fermentation process for the production of xanthane EYSSAUTIER BRUNO Pat. US5017479 SANOFI SA (FR) 1991 microorganisms. . for example. THEPENIER CATHERINE (FR) Pat: Nr. This method comprises inoculating a quantity of nutrient medium comprising a polysaccharide derivative such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with a cellulose-producing microorganism. FERREIRA DOS SANTOS PATRICK F (FR).000 hours without reduction in the polysaccharide yield. Nr. This drying may be. The invention relates to a process for the fermentation of carbohydrates by bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas for the production of a polysaccharide of the xanthane type. Polysaccharides are produced by single stage continuous culture of Xanthomonas bacteria. in which the source of nitrogen consists of a gelatin with a molecular weight of less than 5000. The step of substantially drying the cellulose may be added for certain products. fermentation process 137 Process for the production and extraction of polysaccharides from a porphyridium cruentum culture and apparatus for performing the process BARNIER HENRI (FR). The physical and chemical properties of the product can be controlled by selection of the growth limiting substrate (limiting nutrilite) in the culture medium to give a range of polysaccharides suitable for various applications. Application in a process for the production of polysaccharide in two stages.xls . EVANS CHARLES G T (GB). a stage of separating the solid and liquid phases formed (26). a stage (30) of precipitating the polysaccharides contained in the liquid phase and a stage (16) of drying the precipitate obtained. in which the growth stage takes place in the presence of an enzyme. Process for obtaining a mass of polysaccharide-producing microorganisms.

comprises cultivating in a nutrient medium therefore a strain of Pseudomonas. and extracting a polysaccharide therefrom CYSEWSKI GERRY R Pat. galactose. to form an immobilized cell system. US4235966 TREVOR R (GB) TALRES DEV (NL) 1980 Polysaccharide. Pseudomonas. The invention provides also for the use of the polysaccharide in the displacement of fluid from subsurface formations. Very high yields of polysaccharide are obtained. production . The culture is cooled. and isolating from the medium the polysaccharide produced. with a beta lactam or aminoglycoside antibiotic whereby a mucoid strain tolerant to said antibiotic was selected.ANDERSON DANIEL B (US) BATTELLE DEVELOPMENT CORP (US) 1983 143 Production of microbial polysaccharides KIM LEO (US). Biologically pure cultures of the organisms are another feature of the invention. IGARASHI TATSUO (JP) Pat. DOW THURMAN (US) Source / Application Number Pat. Pseudomonas mendocina. 140 Polysaccharide production using novel strains of Pseudomonas mendocina JARMAN TREVOR R (GB).. Nr. and polysaccharide-containing medium is withdrawn from the system. The whole culture is then extracted by making the culture strongly alkaline. US4384044 SHELL OIL CO 1983 polysaccharide. US4655758 Address(es) / Applicant(s) JOHNSON & JOHNSON PROD INC (US) Year 1987 Keyword(s) Abstract polysaccharide. These structures comprise densified planiform sheets or laminae that merge into one another and together define plural regions having reduced polysaccharide microfibril density. US4490467 KELCO BIOSPECIALTIES LTD (GB) 1984 141 Production of an allose-containing polysaccharide TAKEMOTO HISAO (JP). INOUE AKIRA.page 376 ID 139 Title Microbial polysaccharide articles and methods of production Author(s) / Inventor(s) RING DAVID F (US). laminar microbial cellulosestructures. and heat treating it. Sphaerotilus. This invention relates to a process for the production of a polysaccharide wherein a microorganism species which produces polysaccharide (preferably in the stationary phase of the growth cycle) is supported on a porous. ISHIYAMA Pat: Nr. the pore size being greater than about 0. in excess of 4. US4425431 TOYO SODA MFG CO LTD (JP) 1984 allose. The polysaccharide is produced extracellularly by cultivation of Pseudomonas viscogena strains in nutrient medium. 11688. production 145 Process for the production of novel polysaccharide HISATSUKA KENICHI.4.5 mu m. Nr. Nr. and 11689 in an aqueous nutrient medium by submerged aerobic fermentation of an assimilable carbon source and recovering the polysaccharide. extraction. aqueous nutrient medium is passed through the immobilized system. Porphyridium cruentum. JARMAN Pat. HACKING ANDREW J GB) Pat: Nr. Polysaccharides forming gels are produced by cultivating a microorganism such as Arthrobacter carbazolum FERM 2574 in a suitable medium.5 grams per liter of culture. Nr. polysaccharide. The disclosed laminar polysaccharide structures are derived by manipulating fibrous polysaccharide pellicles produced by microorganisms such as those of the genere Acetobacter. are disclosed. Rhizobium. SATO MIKIO IDEMITSU KOSAN CO 1979 Polysaccharide. polysaccharide. particulate inert support. and which has been obtained by treating a non-mucoid species of Pseudomonas. NASHED WILSON (US). microbial cellulose Laminar polysaccharide structures. and the like. Nr. A process for the production of polysaccharide consisting of a partially acetylated variable block copolymer of D-mannuronic and L-guluronic acid residues. polysaccharide A process for producing polysaccharide consisting of a partially acetylated variable block copolymer of D-mannuronic and L-guluronic acid residues comprises growing a biologically pure culture of a Pseudomonas mendocina microorganism selected from the group consisting of NCIB 11687. algae Porphyridium cruentum is cultured in an enriched seawater medium using a high initial cell concentration until the productivity of polysaccharide production by the alga is maximized. and an immobilized cell system for use in the foregoing process. production 144 Process for the production of polysaccharide GOVAN JOHN R (GB). acidified and the polysaccharide precipitated by addition of a water-miscible organic solvent such as ethanol. which is non-pathogenic to humans. 142 Process for culturing a microalga. US4417415 (US). Agrobacterium.g. A new polysaccharide including allose as a constituent sugar and Pseudomonas viscogena further characterized by galactose as a major constituent sugar is described. e.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. ASH STUART G (GB) Pat. US4153508 SABURO.xls . which is non-pathogenic to humans.TSUMURA OSAMU.

pathogenic to humans. US4130461 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Tate & Lyle Ltd Year 1978 Keyword(s) Azotobacter vinelandii. xanthan gum. and wherein the fermentation is carried out in the presence of a saccharide-specific amylolytic enzyme. A process for the production of polysaccharide consisting of a partially acetylated variable block copolymer of D-mannuronic and L-guluronic acid residues. the present resistant strains and the levan sucrasedefective strains.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides.. and isolating from the medium the polysaccharide produced. A larger amount of bacterial cellulose may be produced by culturing Acetobacter xylinum subsp. or 3-halophenyl penicillins. YOSHINAGA FUMIHIRO (JP) BIOPOLYMER RES CO LTD (JP) 1998 cellulose. Nr. than by culturing the BPR 2001 strain in the medium containing especially sucrose or glucose as carbon sources. Particularly suitable strains may be derived from P. TONOUCHI NAOTO (JP). bacteria This invention relates to a microorganism that is capable of producing a cellulosic product (referred to hereinafter as a "cellulose-producing bacterium") and belongs to a novel subspecies which is substantialy negative or very slightly positive in oxidation of acetates and lactates. US5610037 RHONE POULENC CHIMIE (FR) 1997 148 Pat. nonacetoxidans.page 377 ID 146 Title Continuous process for the production of polysaccharide under phosphate limiting conditions Production of polysaccharides of high viscosity using xanthomonas campestris and glycoamylase with fluidized starch Microbiological process for the production of alginate type polysaccharide Author(s) / Inventor(s) RIGHELATO RENTON C. and which has been obtained by treating a non. which comprises culturing these novel bactria and to bacterial cellulose which may be thus obtained. which have been derived and bred from the cellulose-producing bacteria. amino acid analog-resistant strains and levan sucrasedefective strains. SETO AKIRA (JP). Nr. mendocina. This invention also relates to novel saccharide analog-resistant strains. are produced by the aerobic microbial fermentation of a carbohydrate in an aqueous nutrient medium containing starch as a source of carbon. preferably with restricted oxygen uptake. polysaccharide. penicillin 149 NOVEL CELLULOSE-PRODUCING BACTERIA MATSUOKA MASANOBU (JP). this invention relates to a method for the production of cellulosic material (bacterial cellulose:"BC"). EP0834555 TSUCHIDA TAKAYASU (JP).carboxybenzyl penicillin). Suitable antibiotics include the penicillins.mucoid species of Pseudomonas. DEAVIN LYNDA Source / Application Number Pat: Nr. Polysaccharide biopolymers. Abstract Polysaccharide is produced in high yields by continuous culture of a polysaccharide-producing strain of Azotobacter vinelandii under phosphate-limited conditions. tabaci or P. Polysaccharide. which is non. . P. Pat. KOJIMA YUKIKO (JP). 147 CROS PATRICK (FR) Pat. comprises cultivating in a nutrient medium therefor a strain of Pseudomonas. Nr. e.xls . Further. A preferred antibiotic is carbenicillin (disodium alpha . phosphatelimitation xanthan.g. GB2026515 TATE & LYLE LTD 1980 polysaccharide.4. with a beta lactam or aminoglycoside antibiotic whereby a mucoid strain tolerant to said antibiotic was selected. or esters thereof. putida. which is non-pathogenic to humans. eg carboxyalkyl or carboxyaralkyl derivatives of penicillins.

0-11. Erwinia .C for 1-5 days to obtain a cultured material. Yoshinaga F. isopropanol. had sucrase activity and produced much cellulose and little levan in a medium containing sucrose. JP3219889 NIPPON OIL CO LTD 1991 levan. a levansucrasedeficient mutant. such as an Mg salt and aerobically cultured under aeration-agitation. etc. growth pH: 4. no mobility. sucZE3. production.. and O is the volume fraction of a dispersed oil phase is produced by fermenting a nutrient growth medium feedstock having a carbon source consisting essentially of an assimilable sugar selected from the group consisting of sucrose. May.5. In addition. acetobacter 153 Fructan from Erwinia herbicola.5.8)X(1.4. An LD-2 mutant harboring a plasmid containing the sucrase gene.0000-40 million. from Bacillus subtilis.C. Nr. Kojima Y. growth temperature: 8-41 deg. production.151(3):1595-7 McNeil KE 1982 levan. etc. Tonouchi N. was generated by site-directed mutagenesis and introduced into the LD-2 mutant.0)mu.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. Nr. production Abstract A water-soluble levan having a weight average molecular weight of about 10.NOC 1219 (FERMP-11171)] having the following mycological properties is obtained.6-0. or a mixture thereof with a Zymomonas mobilis microorganism capable of converting at least 50% of the fructose value of the sugar to said levan under nutrient growth conditions which enhance levan production while suppressing ethanol production. PURPOSE:To obtain the subject substance at an excellent production rate by culturing a levan-producing bacillus belonging to Serratia genus. fructan. called levan. C is the weight of emulsified protein per unit volume of the aqueous phase. etc. The obtained bacillus is then inoculated into a culture medium containing a hydrocarbon source such as an alcohol. Blake JD.62(5):833-6 Horinouchi S Bio-Polymer Research Co.. etc. LD-2. mutant sacB. The extracellular polysaccharide elaborated by strain 403 was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and methylation analysis.. It is useful as a colloid stabilizing agent. gas production from glucose: negative.xls . from Zymomonas mobilis together with zliS. DALLY ELLEN L (US) Source / Application Number Pat. and cosmetics. at 20-40 deg. and this property has some taxonomic significance for species differentiation within the "herbicola" group. is added to obta Cellulose production from sucrose by Acetobacter strains is accompanied by the accumulation of a water-soluble polysaccharide. a nitrogen source such as urea. Ltd. Clarke ML. CONSTITUTION:By separation from the soil. dentrifices. Shape: rod bacillus having (0. To improve cellulose productivity. The resultant cultured material is diluted using about double amount of water and centrifuged at about 10000G for about 10min. Kanagawa. a levanproducing bacillus. Serratia 152 Increased cellulose production from sucrose with reduced levan accumulation by an Acetobacter strain harboring a recombinant plasmid. was derived from Acetobacter strain 757 and used as a host for the construction of recombinant strains. raffinose. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1998 Tsuchida T. at pH3.5-9.. Jansson PE. 1998 levan. which encodes a protein with little levan-forming activity. Yanase H. others: 01 Pat. an inorganic salt. J Bacteriol 1982 Sep. H2S production: negative. US4879228 Address(es) / Applicant(s) IGI BIOTECHNOLOGY INC (US) Year 1989 Keyword(s) polyfructose. a gene that encodes a secretion-activating factor under the control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter.page 378 ID 150 Title Microbial production of polyfructose Author(s) / Inventor(s) MAYS THOMAS D (US). Serratia levanicum [Serratia sp. To the separated supernatant.0-2. preferably about 5-25 million and especially about 10-20 million which stabilizes a bovine serum albumin colloid having index (EAI) of about 3-100 determined according to the formula EAI=2T/OC wherein T is turbidity measured at 500 nm. Levan production by strains of Erwinia herbicola is common. This introduction also resulted in the higher cellulose productivity and little levan. a mutant levansucrase gene. Japan.. particularly with foods. beverages pharmaceuticals. 151 PRODUCTION OF LEVAN KOJIMA ICHIRO. Results showed it to be a typical bacterial levan.

production. Both pyruvilation and acetylation degrees and average molecular weight of xanthan increase with fermentation time at any operating conditions. a significant component of cheese whey. levan. tau(0) and K(c). and susceptibility to degradation. the glu Xanthan gum production under several operational conditions has been studied. The ability of casamino acids and vitamin-assay casamino acids to Sphingomonas support gellan production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 was examined in a medium containing glucose or corn syrup as the carbon source relative to yeast extract supplementation. South Dakota State University. Ridout MJ. 2000 Universidad Complutense. Xanthan molecules with the highest average molecular weight have been obtained at 25 degrees C. Temperature. Quimica. The parameter values of the Casson model.xls . cheese whey. Using vitamin-assay casamino acids as the nitrogen source. gellan.102(402):89-101 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year 1976 2000 Keyword(s) Abstract extracellular. structure. Jordan HV West TP. acyl substitution level. Santos VE. Donval Appl Environ Microbiol 1999 polymers produced by sphingomonas ML. Biomass production by the strain grown on either carbon source was increased by supplementing vitamins in the medium containing yeast extract. Leitao JH.65(6):2485-91 paucimobilis ATCC 31461 from lactose Morris VJ. gellan. Brookings 57007. polymer rheological properties. Sa-Correia I compared with those produced from glucose and from cheese whey. Depression of gellan production from lactose compared with gellan production from glucose (approximately 30%) did not appear to occur at the level of synthesis of sugar nucleotides. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Howell A Jr. Martins LO. as a carbon source. and rheological properties of the solutions have been related to molecular structure and operational conditions.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. Gellan gum is reliably produced by Sphingomonas paucimobilis in growth media containing lactose. have been obtained for each polysaccharide synthesised under different operational conditions. the presence of yeast extract in the growth medium stimulated gellan production by strain ATCC 31461 on casamino acids. rheological properties . The lactose-derived biopolymer had the highest total acyl content. Independent of carbon source. and sweet cheese whey. When glucose or corn syrup served as the carbon source. molecular structure. which are the donors of monomers used for biosynthesis of the repetitive tetrasaccharide unit of gellan. pyruvilation and acetylation degree of xanthan produced have been measured in order to know the influence of these variables on the synthesised xanthan molecular structure. xanthan gum solution viscosity has been measured. Enzyme Microb Technol 2000 Feb 1. Ability of casamino acids to support gellan production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461. Fac. the absence of yeast extract in the medium reduced biomass production. Spain xanthan. 1049-001 Lisbon. 156 Structures and properties of gellan Fialho AM.12(4):571-3 Microbios 2000. Quimicas. lactose (5 to 30 g/liter). The Casson model has been employed to describe the rheological behaviour. CC. the addition of vitamins lowered gellan synthesis by glucose-grown cells regardless of yeast extract supplementation while gellan elaboration by corn syrup-grown strain ATCC 31461 cells could only be increased by supplementing vitamins into medium lacking yeast extract.26(2-4):282-291 Dpt. initial nitrogen concentration and oxygen mass transfer rate have been changed and average molecular weight. Jun. Also. Ing.page 379 ID 154 155 Title Production of an extracellular levan by Odontomyces viscosus. Instituto Superior Tecnico. paucimobilis ATCC 31461 in media containing glucose.4. Portugal. Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica. 1999 157 Xanthan gum production under several Casas JA. Odontomyces casamino acid. Fullenkamp NA Source / Application Number Arch Oral Biol 1967 Apr. We studied and compared polysaccharide biosynthesis by S. Sphingomonas The dairy industry produces large quantities of whey as a by-product of cheese production and is increasingly looking for new ways to utilize this waste product. Jay AJ. Garciaoperational conditions: molecular Ochoa F structure and rheological properties*. USA. Madrid. Nevertheless. a Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. lactose. We found that altering the growth medium can markedly affect the polysaccharide yield.

oxygen. This analytical technique could be employed for kinetic modeling of microbial systems and even for internal phenomena analysis. compared with 500 rpm. Biotechnol Bioeng 1998 Jan 5. flow cytometry The use of flow cytometry (FCM) to quantitatively analyze intracellular compounds is studied. Katzen F. method Abstract Agitation speed affects both the extent of motion in Xanthan fermentation broths because of their rheological complexity and the rate of oxygen transfer. relative flow cytometry data are transformed into absolute data by means of calibrations employing the same fluorochromes with another technique: spectrofluorymetry. The University of Birmingham. D-mannosyl. that is. Santos VE. Other analytical methods. but for this purpose. were also employed to quantify intracellular compounds. In this work.50(2):145-52 Lehrstuhl fur Genetik. Birmingham B15 2TT. Edgbaston.sim. Universidad Complutense. it provides data in arbitrary units. leading to an increased proport 159 Intracellular compounds quantification Garcia-Ochoa F. relative data. Nienow AW Source / Application Number Biotechnol Bioeng 1998 Jan 20.4. including the synthesis of the sugar nucleotide substrates.57(1):87-94 Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica. Ielpi L Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1998 Aug. by means of flow cytometry in bacteria: Alcon A application to xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris. 1998 School of Chemical Engineering. Xanthomonas campestris. . but the results obtained are very poor compared wi 160 Xanthan gum biosynthesis and application: a biochemical/genetic perspective. An overview of the applications and industrial production of xanthan is also covered.page 380 ID 158 Title Agitator speed and dissolved oxygen effects in xanthan fermentations Author(s) / Inventor(s) Amanullah A. Spain. RNA. and protein intracellular concentrations are presented for the bacteria. agitator speed. With the development of increasing rheological complexity lending to stagnant regions at Xanthan concentrations >20 g/L. and D-glucuronyl acid residues in a molar ratio of 2:2:1 and variable proportions of O-acetyl and pyruvyl residues. campestris. it is shown that the superior bulk mixing achieved at 1000 rpm. it is widely used as a thickener or viscosifier in both food and non-food industries. 1998 Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas. Puhler A.ucm. the building and decoration of the pentasaccharide subunit. and the polymerization and secretion of the polymer. Calibrations of DNA.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. UK. Separating these complex interactions has been achieved in this study in the following way. The combination of these two effects causes the dissolved oxygen concentration and its spatial uniformity also to change with agitator speed. First. Under these controlled dissolved oxygen conditions. Becker A. Nevertheless.es xanthan. the results demonstrate that the biological performance of the culture was independent of agitation speed as long as broth homogeneity could be ensured. Universitat Bielefeld. Xanthan gum is also used as a stabilizer for a wide variety of suspensions.57(2):198-210 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year Centre for Bioprocess Engineering. and gives access to information which cannot be obtained in any other way. the influence of agitation speeds of 500 and 1000 rpm has been investigated at a constant nonlimiting dissolved oxygen concentration of 20% of air saturation using gas blending. Germany.xls . chapu@encmax. This article outlines aspects of the biochemical assembly and genetic loci involved in its biosynthesis. Tuttiett B. biosynthesis Xanthan gum is a complex exopolysaccharide produced by the plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. Keyword(s) xanthan fermentations. emulsions. based on biochemical determinations. FCM is a very useful technique for individual cell studies in microbial systems. absolute datathat is concentration of intracellular compounds-must be used. 1998 xanthan. Because of its physical properties. It consists of D-glucosyl. and foams. 28040 Madrid.

U. rehological anionic extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) from a mineral acid properties hydrolysate of wood.5 g/L (as hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide precipitate) when the pH of the hydrolysate was initially adjusted to 7. fermentation process. min.K. The experiments were performed in shaked flasks at 250 rpm and 2. multiple glucose-pulse feeding and continuous feeding of glucose) are compared to two batch fermentations with different initial glucose concentrations. ATCC 31260 produced substantial amounts of wood. Can J Microbiol 1995 Dec. Pastor MD. of a succinoglycan from Pseudomonas Nakas JP sp. Universidad Nacional de La Pampa. The University of Birmingham.3%) were obtained at 750 rpm. rheology of broths and pH control was evaluated. Edgbaston. Nienow AW Biotechnol Prog 1998 MarApr. Author(s) / Inventor(s) Source / Application Number Amanullah A. galactose. The higher xanthan levels (i. and acetate. Tanenbaum SW. xanthan. [Article in Spanish] Rev Argent Microbiol 1994 JanMar. pyruvate. Universidad Nacional de La Pampa. In the processes wherein an automatic control of pH was performed. Different aeration conditions based on variation of stirring rates were assayed. prepared using the "Tennessee Valley Authority" process. and yeast extract.page 381 ID 161 Title Enhancing xanthan fermentations by different modes of glucose feeding. are rheologically comparable with commercially available xanthan. de Quimica.26(1):9-20 Dpto. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. malt extract and amaranth meal as growth factors and nitrogen sources. Xanthan production was influenced by the glucose concentration and the presence of amaranth within the culture medium. viscosity ranges about 7000 cPoise and a low level of dissolved oxygen were detected in the culture medium. [Article in Spanish] Rev Argent Microbiol 1995 JulSep. reproducible fermentations were established and this protocol was used in studies of different agitator types and of bulk mixing and dissolved oxygen concentration in the next two. Syracuse 13210. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Solutions of this EPS are pseudoplastic.05% each of peptone and yeast extract. Satti S. in a KH2PO4/K2HPO4 buffer. Here. mechanically mechanically shaken fermentor.11 Literatures on Polysaccharides. production. and polymer production was performed by the Cadmus method. is composed of glucose. The modified medium contained glucose as carbon source. Birmingham B15 2TT. the polymer concentration did not increase regarding to processes involving regular pH evolution. meat peptone. 1998 School of Chemical Engineering. Argentina. The biological performances in three types of fed-batch cultures (a twostep glucose addition. 2.5 cm eccentricity. Influence of glucose concentration. Xanthomonas campesteris B-1459 The production of xantano from Xanthomonas campestris B-1459 was analyzed. Pseudomonas sp. building on the previous work. 1994 . Substrate concentration was determined according to the Miller method. The work confirmed that improved performance cannot be achieved by increasing the initial glucose concentration above 50 g/L nor by a single 10 g/L pulse addition (initial gluco 162 Production and rheological properties Meade MJ. Xanthan. xanthan. Pseudomonas sp. de Quimica. the influence of different glucose feeding strategies on Xanthan production in a 20-L agitated fermenter under equivalent conditions of agitation and dissolved oxygen is reported. agitated fermentors aeration of culture media. with 1 v/v.14(2):265-9 Address(es) / Applicant(s) Year Centre for Bioprocess Engineering. 163 [Isolation of xanthan from Xanthomonas Lorda GS.27(3):146-55 Dpto. Pastor MD. 1995 succino