You are on page 1of 219

Features

• Reflects the very latest Egyptian Code provisions (ECP 203 - 2007)
and includes all major changes and additions.
• Numerous illustrations and figures for each topic.
• Good theoretical background for each topic with code provisions.
• Extensive examples in each chapter utilizing SI units.
• All examples are worked out step by step ranging from
simple to advanced.
• Full reinforcement details for every example.
• Numerous design charts for sections subjected to flexure.

This volume covers the following topics:


• Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals
• Design of Singly Reinforced Sections
• Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections
• Design of T-Beams
• Bond and Development Length
• Design for Shear
• Design of Simple and Continuous Beams
• Design for Torsion
• Design for Combined Shear and Torsion
• Truss Models for RIC Beams
DESIGN OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Volume 1

Mashhour Ahmed Ghoneim


Professor of Concrete Structures
Cairo University

Mahmoud Tharwat EI-Mihilmy


Associate Professor of Concrete Structures
Cairo University

Second Edition
2008
PREFACE
Teaching reinforced concrete design, carrying out research relevant to the behavior of
reinforced concrete members, as well as designing concrete structures motivated the
preparation of this book. The basic objective of this book is to furnish the reader with
the basic upderstanding of the mechanics and design of reinforced concrete. The
contents of the book conform to the latest edition of the Egyptian Code for the Design
and Construction of Concrete Structures ECP-203. The authors strongly recommend
that the Code be utilized as a companion publication to this book.

The book is aimed at two different groups. First, by treating the material in a logical
and unified form, it is hoped that it can serve as a useful text for undergraduate and
graduate student courses on reinforced concrete. Secondly, as a result of the continuing
activity in the design and construction of reinforced concrete structures, it will be of
value to practicing structural engineers.

Numerous illustrative examples are given, the solution of which has been supplied so
as to supplement the theoretical background and to familiarize the reader with the
steps involved in actual design problem solving.

In writing the book, the authors are conscious of a debt to many sources, to friends,
colleagues, and co-workers in the field. Finally, this is as good a place as any for the
authors to express their indebtedness to their honorable professors of Egypt, Canada
and the U.S.A. Their contributions in introducing the authors to the field will always.
be remembered with the deepest gratitude.

This volume covers the following topics

• Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals


.• Design of Singly Reinforced Sections
• Design of Doutily Reinforced Sections
• Design of T -Beams
• Design for Shear
• Bond and Development length
• Design of Simple and Continuous Beams
• Truss Models for the Behavior of RIC Beams
• Design for Torsion
It also includes appendices containing design aids.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. REINFORCED CONCRETE FUNDAMENTALS


1.1 Introduction ........................................................................... " .......................... 1
1.2 Reinforced Concrete Members ....................... , ................................................... 3
1.3 Reinforced Concrete .......................................................................................... 5
1.4 Reinforced Concrete Behavior ........................................................................... 5
1.5. Mechanical Properties of Concrete .................................................................... 7
1.5.1 Compressive Strength ................................................................................ 7
1.5.2 Tensile strength ......................................................................................... 11
1.5.3 Modulus of Elasticity ................................................................... ;............ 13
1.5.4 Strength of Concrete Under Biaxial Loading ............................................. 14
1.5.5 Shrinkage .................................................................................................. 16
1.5.6 Creep ......................................................................................................... 17
1.6 Reinforcing Steel ............................................................................................... 18
1.7 Limit States Design Method ............................................................................... 20
1.8 Strength Reduction Factors ................................................................................ 20
1.9 Classification of Loads ....................................................................................... 23
1.10 Load Combinations ............................................................................................ 25
Example 1.1 ....................................................................................................... 28

2. DESIGN OF SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS


2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 31
2.2 Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior ... :............................................................. 32
2.3 Flexure Theory of Reinforced Concrete ............................................................. ~4
2.3.1 Basic Assumptions of the Flexure Theory ................................................. 34
2.3.2 Stress-Strain 'Relationships .......................................... ,............................. 35
2.3.2.1 Concrete in Compression ........................................... ;............................... 35
2.3.2.2 Reinforcing Steel ....................................................................................... 36
2.3.3 The Equivalent Rectangular Stress Block .................... ,............................. 37
2.4 Analysis of Singly Reinforced Sections .............................................................. 39
2.5 Maximum Area of Steel of a Singly Reinforced Section ................................... .42
2.6 Balanced, Under, and Over Reinforced Sections ............................................... .47
2.7 Minimum Area of Steel. ..................................................................................... 48
2.8 Factors Affecting Ultimate Strength .................................................................. 49.
Example 2.1 ..................................• ,........................................................... 52
Example 2.2............................................................................................... 54
Example ·2.3 ............................................................................................... 56
Example 2.4 .................................................................. ~ ............................ 58

ii
Example 2.5 ............................................................................................... 60
3.2.7 Design of T-sections Using Curves .......................................................... 139
Example 2.6 ................................................................................................ 62
3.2.7.1 Development of the Curves ...................................................... ;................ 139
Example 2.7 ............................................................................................... 65
3.2.7.2 Using the Design Aids (charts C1-J and RT-J) .......................................... 142
Example 2.8................................................................................... , ............ 67
Example 3.17 (a<ts) .................................................................................. 143
2.9 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections by First Principles .................................. 69
Example 3.18 (a>ts) .................................................................................. 145
Example 2.9 ................................................................................................ 70
3.3 Design ofL-Sections .......................................................................................... 147
Exalnple 2.10 ............................................................................................. 73
Example 3.19 ............................................................................................. 149
2.10 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections Using Curves .. ;........................................... 75
Example 3.20 ............................................................................................. 151
2.10.1 Design Charts (R-J..l) ............................................................................................. 75
2.10.2 Design Chart (R- ro) ............................................................................................. 77
Example 2.11 ............................................................................................. 80 4. SHEAR IN RIC BEAMS
Example 2.12 ............................................................................................. 81
4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 153
Example 2.13 ............................................................................................. 83
4.2 Shear stresses in Elastic Beams ........................................................... ;.............. 154
Example 2.14 .............................................................................................. 84
4.3 Shear Stresses in Cracked RIC Beams ............................................................... 158
Example 2.15 .................................................................. ,.......................... 85
4.4 Behavior of Slender Beams Failing in Shear ...................................................... 159
4.4.1 Inclined Cracking ...................................................................................... 159
3. DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS AND T-BEAMS Internal Forces in Beams without stirrups ................................................. 160
4.4.2
3.1 Doubly Reinforced Sections .............................................................................. 86 4.4.3 Behavior of Slender Beams with Stirrups ..................................... :............ 162
3.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 86 4.5 Egyptian Code's Procedure for Shear Design .................................................... 164
3.1.2 Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections ................................................... 88 4.5.1 Critical Sections for Shear ......................................................................... 164
3.1.3 Maximum Area of Steel for Doubly Reinforced Sections .......................... 92 4.5.2 Upper limit of Design Shear Stress ............................................................ 166
Example 3. 1(compression steel yields) ...................................................... 95 4.5.3 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete ........................................................ 166
Example 3.2 ............................................................................................... 97 4.5.4 Shear Strength Provided by Shear Reinforcement.. ................................... 167
Example 3.3 (compression steel does not yield) ........................................ 98 4.5.5 Code Requirements for Shear Reinforcement.. .......................................... 170
3.1.4 Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections Using First Principles ........................... 100 Example 4.1 ............................................................................................... 172
Example 3.4 ................................................................................................ 101 Example 4.2 ............................................................................................... 176
Example 3.5 ............................................................................................... 103 Example 4.3 ............................................................................................... 180
Example 3.6 ............................................................................................... 105 Example 4.4 ............................................................................................... 183
Example 3.7 ................................................................................................ 107
3.1.5 Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections Using Curves ........................................ 108 5 BOND, DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND SPLICING OF
Example 3.8 ............................................................................................... 111 REINFORCEMENT
Example 3.9 ...................................................................... ;........................ 112 5.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 186
Example 3.10.............................................................................................. 113 5. 2 Average Bond Stresses in a Beam ...................................................................... 187
3.2 T-Bearns ............................................................................................................ 115 5.3 True Bond Stresses in a Beam.................................. :......................................... 189
3.2.1 Application ofT-Beams ............................................................................ 115 5.4 Development Length ............................................................. ;............................ 190
3.2.2 Effective Flange Width .............................................................................. 115 5.4.1 Theoretical Considerations ........................................................................ 190
3.2.3 Analysis ofT-Beams ........................................... :...................................... 119 5.4.2 Development Length According to ECP 203 ............................................. 192
3.2.4 Minimum Area of Steel for T -sections ...................................................... 122 5.5 Bar Cutoffs in Flexural Menibers ....................................................................... 196
3.2.5 Maximum Area of Steel for T -sections ...................................................... 123 5.5.1 The Moment of Resistance ofa RIC Beam ................................................ 196
3.2.6 Design ofT-sections Using First Principles ............................................... 126 5.5.2 Curtailment of Bars in Beams .................................................................... 198
Example 3.11 .............................................................................................. 127 5.5.3 Egyptian Code's Requirements for Curtailment .. ;..................................... 200
Example 3.12 .............................................................................................. 129 5.6 Beams with Bent-up Bars .................................... :.............................................. 203
Example 3.13 T Sections (a<ts) ................................................................. 131 5.7 Anchorage of Web Reinforcement ..................................................................... 203
Example 3.14 (a>ts) .................................................................................. 133 5:8 Splicing of Reinforcement ................................................................................. 204
Example 3.15 ..................................................................... ·......................... 135 5.8.1 Lap splices ................................................................................................. 204
Example 3.16 ........ ~ .................................................................................... 137 5.8.2 Welded and Mechanical Connections ........................................................ 206

iii
iv
6 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS
8 DESIGN FOR TORSION
6.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 207
6.1 Statical Systems of RiC Beams .......................................................................... 208 8.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 326
6.2 The effective span .............................................................................................. 209 8.2 Equilibrium Torsion and Compatibility Torsion ................................................. 327
6.3 Loads Acting on Beams ..................................................................................... 210 8.2.1 General ...................................................................................................... 327
6.3.1 Own weight of beams ................................................................................ 210 8.2.2 Equilibrium Torsion .................................................................................. 327
6.3.2 Slab loads .................................................................................................. 211 8.2.3 Compatibility Torsion ............................................................................... 329
6.3.3 Wall loads ................................................................................................. 216 8.3 Principal Stresses due to Torsion ....................................................................... 330
6.4 Slenderness limits for beams .............................................................................. 219 8.4 Thin-Walled Tube in Torsion .......................................................... ,.................. 331
6.5 Linear Elastic Analysis of Continuous Beams ................................................... 220 8.5 Space-Truss Model for Torsion ................................................ ·.......................... 333
6.6 Reinforcement Detailing in'RiC Beams ............................................................. 221 8.5.1 Components of the Space Truss ................................................................. 333
6.6.2 Bar Spacing ............................................................................... ,............... 222 8.5.2 Diagonal Compressive Stresses ................................................................. 335
6.6.3 Egyptian Code Recommendations ............................................................. 223 8.5.3 Forces in Stirrups ...................................................................................... 337
Example 6.1 ............................................................................................... 224 8.5.4 Longitudinal Force .................................................................................... 337
Example 6.2 ............................................................................................... 231 8.6 The Design for Torsion in the Egyptian Code ............................................ :....... 339
Example 6.3 ............................................................................................... 235 8.6.1 General ...................................................................................................... 339
Example 6.4 ............................................................................................... 241 8.6.2 Calculation of the Shear Stress due to Torsion .......................................... 339
Example 6.5 ............................................................................................... 245 8.6.3 Consideration of Torsion ........................................................................... 341
Example 6.6............................................................................................... 254 8.6.4 Adequacy ofthe Concrete CrOss-Section .................................................. 341
Example 6.7 ............................................................................................... 266 8.6.5 Design of Torsional Reinforcement.. ......................................................... 341
Example 6.8 .................................................................. _............................ 273 8.6.5.1 Closed Stirrups ................................................. :........................................ 341
Example 6.9 ............................................................................................... 283 8.6.5.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement. ................................................................. 342
8.6.6 Code Requirements for Reinforcement Arrangement ................................ 342
7 TRUSS MODEL FOR BEAMS FAILING IN SHEAR 8.6.7 Summary of Torsion Design According to ECP 203 .~ ............................... 345
Example 8.1 ............................................................................................... 347
7.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 290 Example 8.2 ............................................................................................... 351
7.2 Background ........................................................................................................ 291 Example 8.3 ............................................................................................... 355
7.2.1 Slender Beams Versus Deep Beams .......................................................... 291 8.7 Combined Shear and Torsion ............................................................................. 359
7.2.2 Analysis of Forces in RiC Slender Beams ................................................. 293 8.8 The Design for Shear and Torsion inECP 203 .................................................. 359
7.2.2.1 Sectional Analysis ................................................................................. 294 8.8.1 Consideration of Torsion ............ :.........................................................., ... 359
7.2.2.2 Mechanical- Mathematical Models ...................................................... 295 8.8.2 Adequacy of the Concrete Cross-Section .................................................. 360
7.3 Truss Model for Slender Beams ......................................................................... 296 8.8.3 Design of Transverse Reinforcement.. ..................................·..... :............... 361
7.4 Traditional 45-Degree Truss Model ................................................................... 297 8.8.4 Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement. ..................................................... 361
7.4.1 Formation ofthe45-Degree Truss ............................................................. 297 8.8.5 Summary of the Design for Shear and Torsion .......................................... 362
7.4.2 Evaluation of the Forces in the Stirrups ..................................................... 298 8.9 Compatibility Torsion ............................................................ :........................... 365
7.4.3 The Compression Force in the Diagonals .................................................. 299 8.10 Torsional Rigidity ............................................................................................... 365
7.4.4 The Axial (Longitudinal) Force Due to Shear ........................................... 302 Example 8.5 ............................................................................................... 372
7.4.5 Comments on the 45-Degree Truss-Model ................................................ 303 Example ·8.6 ................................................................................................ 376
7.4.6 Comparison of the Truss Model and ECP 203 ........................................... 303 Example 8.7 ............................................................................................... 382
Example 7.1 ............................................................................................... 304
Exalnple 7.2......................................... ;..................................................... 310
7.6 The Variable-Angle Truss ModeL. .................................................................... 316
APPENDIX A: DESIGN AIDS ......................................................................... 391
7.6.1 General ........................................................................ c.............................. 316 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................409
7.6.2 Analysis of the Variable Angle Truss ModeL .......................................... 317
Example 7.3 ............................................................................................... 320

v
vi
1
REINFORCED CONCRETE FUNDAMENTALS

Photo 1.1 Nile City Towers, Cairo-Egypt.

1.1 Introduction
Reinforced concrete is one of the most important available materials for
construction in Egypt and all over the world. It is used in almost all structures
including; buildings, bridges, retaining walls, tunnels, tanks, shells and even
ships.
Concrete is a mixture of sand and gravel held together with a paste of cement
and water. Sometimes one or more admixture is added to change certain 1.2 Reinforced Concrete Members
characteristic of the concrete such as its workability, durability, and time of
hardening. Concrete has a high compressive strength and a very low tensile Reinforced concrete structures consist of a series of members. The first and the
strength. second floors of the building shown in Fig. 1.1 have a slab-and-beam system, in
which the slab spans between beams, which in tum apply loads to the columns.
Reinforced concrete is a combination of concrete and steel wherein the steel Again, the columns' loads are applied to footings, which distribute the load over
reinforcement provides the tensile strength lacking in the concrete. Steel a sufficient area of soil.
reinforcement is also capable of resisting. compression forces and is used in
columns as well as in other situations to be described later. The structure shown in Fig 1.2 is a typical framed structure. The slab carries its
own weight, flooring and live loads. The load is then transferred to secondary
The tremendous success of reinforced concrete can be understood if its beams. The reactions of the secondary beams are transferred to the girders,
numerous advantages are considered. These include the following: which in tum are supported by the columns. Finally, the columns' loads are
applied to the footings, which distribute the load to the soil.
• It is a low maintenance material.
• It has great resistance to the action of fire provided that there is adequate
cover over the reinforcing steel.
• A special nature of concrete is its ability to be cast in to a variety of
shapes from simple slabs, beams, and columns to great arches and shells.
• A lower grade of skilled labor is required for erection as compared to
other materials such as structural steel.
• In. most areas, concrete takes advantage of inexpensive local materials
(sand, gravel, and water) and requires a relatively small amount of cement
and reinforcing steel.

To use concrete successfully, the designer must be completely familiar with its
weak points and its strong ones. Among its disadvantages are the following:

• Concrete has a very low tensile strength, requiring the use of tensile
reinforcing.
• Forms are required to hold the concrete In place until it hardens
sufficiently. Formwork could be expensive.
• The properties of concrete could vary widely due to variations in its
proportioning and mixing. Furthermore, the placing and curing of concrete
is not as carefully controlled, as is the production of other materials such
as structural steel.
• In general, reinforced concrete members are relatively large, as compared Photo 1.2 Reinforcement placement during construction
to structural members, an important consideration for tall buildings and
long span bridges.

3
2
1.3 Reinforced Concrete
R.C. Beam It is a well-known fact that plain concrete is strong in compression and very
weak in tension. The tensile strength of concrete is about one-tenth its
compressive strength. As a result, a plain concrete beam fails suddenly as soon
as the tension cracks start to develop. Therefore, reinforcing steel is added in the
tension zone to carry all the developed tensile stresses; this is called a reinforced
concrete beam. .

Concrete and steel work together beautifully ·in reinforced concrete structures.
The advantages of each material seem to compensate for the disadvantages of
the other. The great shortcoming oflow concrete tensile strength is compensated
for by the high tensile strength of the steel. The tensile strength of the steel is
approximately equal to 100-140 times the tensile strength of the usual concrete
mix. Also, the two materials bond together very well with no slippage, and thus
act together as one unit in resisting the applied loads.

The disadvantage of steel is corrosion, but the concrete surrounding the


reinforcement provides an excellent protection. Moreover, the strength of the
exposed steel subjected to fire is close to .zero, but again the enclosure of .the
Fig. 1.1 Slab and beam system in a building reinforcement in the concrete produces very satisfactory fire protection. Finally,
concrete and steel work very well together in temperature changes because their
coefficients of thermal expansion are almost the same. The coefficient of
thermal expansion for steel is 6.5xlO·6 , while that for the concrete is about
Loads 5.5xlO-6.

1.4 Reinforced Concrete Behavior

Secondary beam The addition of steel reinforcement that bonds strongly to concrete produces· a
relatively ductile material capable of transmitting tension and suitable for any
structural elements, e.g., slabs, beam, columns. Reinforcement should be placed
in the locations of anticipated tensile stresses and cracking areas as shown in Fig
Column
1.3. For example, the main reinforcement in a simple beam is placed at the
bottom fibers where the tensile stresses develop (Fig. 1.3A). However, for a
cantilever, the main reinforcement is at the top of the beam at the location of the
maximum negative moment (Fig.l.3B). Finally for a continuous beam; a part of
the main reinforcement should be placed near the bottom fibers where the
Footing
positive moments exist and the other part is placed at the top fibers where the
negative moments exist (Fig. 1.3C).

Fig. 1.2 Typical reinforced concrete structural framing system

4 5
1.5. Mechanical Properties of Concrete
1.5.1 Compressive Strength
Many factors affect the concrete compressive strength such as the water cement
ratio, the type of cement, aggregate properties, age of concrete, and time of
curing. The most important factor of all is the water cement ratio. The lower
water content with good workability leads to higher concrete compressive
strength. Increasing the water cement ratio from 0.45 to 0.65 can decrease the
compressive strength by 30-40 percent. Currently, high-range water-reducing
admixtures (super plasticizers) are available and they allow engineers to
A- Simple beam produce fluid concrete mixes with a sharply reduced amount of water.
In Egypt, the compressive strength of concrete is usually determined by loading
Cracks
a158 mm cube up to failure in uniaxial compression after 28 days of casting and
is referred to as !cu. Additional details covering the preparation and testing of
cubes are covered by the Egyptian Code for Design and Construction of
Concrete Structures (ECP-203) including correction factors that can be used if
the tested specimen is not the same dimension or shape as the standard cube.
Reinforcement
This is the strength specified on the construction drawings and used in the
design calculations.
It should be mentioned that in other countries such as the United States and
Canada, the compressive strength is measured by compression tests on 150 mm
B-Cantilever beam x 300 mm cylinders tested after 28 days of moist curing. In the case of using
specimens other than the standard cube, the ECP 203 gives the correction factors
shown in Table 1.1 to obtain the equivalent compressive strength of the standard
cube.
Cracks Reinforcement Cracks Table 1.1 Correction factors to obtain the equivalentlcu=1c x/actor
Shape Size (rrun) Correction factor
Cube 100 xlOO x 100 0.97
Cube (158 x 158 x 158) or (150 x 150 x 150) 1.00
Cube 200 x 200 x 200 1.05
Cube 300 x 300 x 300 1.12
Cylinder 100 x200 1.20
C-Continuous beam Cylinder 150 x 300 1.25
Cylinder 250 x 500 1.30
I. Prism (150 x 150 x 300) or (158 x 158 x 316) 1.25
Prism (150 x 150 x 450) or (158 x 158 x 474) 1.3
Fig. 1.3 Reinforcement placement for different types of beams Prism 150 x 150 x 600 1.32

6 7
Since concrete is used mostly in compression, its compressive stress-strain curve
The ECP 203 states in clause (2.5.2) that a concrete strength of 18 N/mm2 is of a prime interest. Figure 1.4 shows a typical set of such curves obtained from
should be used to qualify for reinforced concrete category,15 N/mm 2 for plain uniaxial compression test of cylinders. All curves have somewhat similar
concrete, and 30 N/mm 2 for prestressed concrete. Table 1.2 illustrates the grades characteristics. They consist of an initial relatively straight elastic portion in
of reinforced concrete RIC ·and prestressed concrete PIS as permitted by the which stresses and strains are closely proportional, then begin to curve to reach a
code. maximum value at a strain of 0.002 to 0.003. There is a descending branch after
Table 1.2 Grades of reinforced and prestressed concrete (N/mm2 ) the peak stress is reached. It can be noticed that the weaker grades of concrete
are less brittle than the stronger ones. Thus, they will take larger stains and
RIC 18 120 1 25 30 35 40 45 deformations before breaking.

PIS 30 35 40 45 50 155 160


70

Field conditions are not the same as those in the laboratory, and the specified 60
28-days strength might not practically be achieved in the field unless almost
perfect mixture, vibration, and perfect curing conditions are present. As a result, .--..
N 50
section 2-5-3 of the ECP 203 requires that the target concrete compressive E
E
-..
strength, in, must exceed the characteristic strength!cu by a safety margin (M). 40
The safety margin for a concrete mix design depends on the quality control of 6..,
..,
the concrete plant and can range from 4 N/mm2 to 15 N/mm 2 • Table 1.3 (2-15 of <1)
30
the Code) lists the values of the safety'margin M according to the number of the .....
l-<
rF.J
performed tests and the characteristic strength !cu. Therefore the targeted 20
concrete compressive strength J", is given by
10

/.,,=/cu+M ................................................... (1.1)


0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004
Table 1.3 Value ofthe safety margin M (N/mm2)

Statistical Strain
data Safety margin M
Fig. 1.4 Typical concrete stress-strain curves
feu < 20 N/mm 2 20-40N/mm2 40-60N/mm
2

40 test data
or more 1.64 SD ~ 4 N/mm 2 1.64 SD ~ 6 N/mm2 1.64 SD >
- 7.5
For computational purposes, mathematical representations of the stress-strain
2
N/mm curves of concrete in compression are available. For example, the stress-strain
curve shown in Fig. 1.5 may be used. The curve consists of a parabola followed
less than 40
Not less than 0.6 feu ~ 12N/mm
2
~ 15 N/mm
2 by a sloping line. Such a curve has been used widely in research purposes.
test data

One test data is an average of 3 cube tests


SD: Standard deviation

8 9
0.10f"" 1.5.2 Tensile strength

- _-;.1.; .:-I~:. : .~ ~- - - - - - ~
Experimental tests indicate that the tensile strength of concrete is highly variable
and ranges from about 8-12% of its compressive strength. The actual value
0.72f,," __________________ ;.;
__;.;_..._-.-___
depends on the type of test and crack propagation pattern at failure.

T T{msile strength is usually determined by the bending test (Fig. 1.6) or by the
split cylinder test (Fig 1.7). The ECP 203 states that the value of concrete
tensile strength can be taken from experimental tests as follows:

60% from the concrete tensile strength determined from bending test.
85% from the concrete tensile strength determined from split cylinder test.

In the bending test (modulus of rapture test), a plain concrete beam is loaded in
flexure up to failure as shown in Fig. 1.6. The flexure tensile strength or the
0.0038 modulus ofruptureJ,. is computed from the following equation
6M
Fig. 1.5 Modified Hognestad curve for concrete stress-strain relation fr = - 2 ........................................................ (1.2)
bxt

P/2 P/2

I~ ~I

t-
Fig. 1.6 Bending tensile test
\

Photo 1.3 Milwaukee Art Museum, USA.

10
11
The split cylinder test is performed on a 150x300 mm cylinder placed on its side
and loaded in compression along its length as shown in Fig. 1.7.A The stresses 1.5.3 Modulus of Elasticity
along the diameter are nearly uniform tension perpendicular to the plan of It is clear from the stress-strain curve of the concrete shown in Fig.I.3 that the
loading as shown in Fig. 1.7.b The splitting tensile strength let is calculated from relation between the stress and the strain is not linear. Thus, the modulus of
the following expression elasticity changes from point to point. Furthermore, its value varies with
2P
different concrete strengths, concrete age, type of loading, and the
fet = - ...................................................... (1.3) characteristics of cement and aggregate. The initial tangent is sometimes used to
7r d L .
estimate the concrete modulus of elasticity, in which the slope of the stress-
The parameters in Eq. 1.3 are defined in Fig. 1.7. strain curve of concrete at the origin is evaluated as shown in Fig. 1.8. The ECP-
203 gives the following formula for estimating the concrete modulus of
elasticity
Ee = 4400.JJ:: .................................................. (1.5)

where leu is the concrete compressive strength in N/mm 2

-~
hlh~j;,
The magnitude of the modulus of elasticity is required when calculating
deflection, evaluating bracing condition, and cracking of a structure.

Ji

A: Test setup B: Force system c: Stresses on an element

Fig 1.7 Split cylinder test

The tensile strength computed using the modulus of rupture is always higher
than the split cylinder tension tests. The tensile strength of the concrete can be
determined using its compressive strength. The tensile strength does not
correlate well with the concrete compressive strength but rather with its square
root. The ECP-203 gives an expression for estimating the concrete tensile
strength lezr as a function of its compressive strength as follows:

fett· = 0.6 .JJ:: .................................................... (1.4)

Strain

Fig. 1.8 Initial tangent modulus of concrete'

12 13
1.5.4 Strength of Concrete Under Biaxial Loading The biaxial state may occur in beams as shown in Fig. 1.10 where the principle
tensile and compressive stresses lead to biaxial tension compression state of
Portions of many concrete members may be subjected to stresses in two
stress. The split cylinder test illustrated in Fig. 1.7C is a typical example of
perpendicular directions (biaxial state). The strength of the concrete is affected
biaxial state of stress, where the compressive stresses develop in the vertical
greatly by the applied stress in the perpendicular direction as shown in Fig. 1.9.
direction and tensile stresses develop in the horizontal direction. This is the main
In Fig. 1.9, all the stresses are normalized in terms of the uniaxial compressive reason that splitting tensile strength is less than flexural tensile strength.
strength !cu. The curve has three regions; biaxial compression-compression,
biaxial tension-tension, biaxial tension-compression.
In the compression-compression zone, it can be seen that the compressive
strength of the concrete can be increased by 20-25% when applying compressive
stress in the perpendicular direction.
In the tension-tension zone, it is clear that the tensile strength of the concrete is
not affected by the presence of tension stresses in the normal direction. For
example, a lateral tension of about half the value of the uniaxial tensile strength
will reduce the compressive strength to 50% of the uniaxial compressive I{ig_ 1.10 Biaxial state of stress in beams
strength.

1.4 r-----
r-
1.2

feu V
-- f\ I~
.. '
1 ..-
..-
.
I iJ f7 ..-
0.8

0.6
I
-
II
I

l
Ir- ...-..-.
.
.
"
..- -
...-
0.4
..-
. compr SSlon
..-. V
-
..-
0.2 .

o
felr
..-
. -.
.- -
/
feu
ension It~tr +-
-0.2 I

-0.2 o 0.2 0.4 0_6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

Fig. 1.9 Strength of concrete in biaxial stress Photo 1.4 Typical reinforced concrete structure

14 15
1.5.5 Shrinkage Values of final shrinkage for ordinary concrete are generally of the order of
As the concrete dries it shrinks in volume due to the excess water used in 0.00016 to 0.00030 and can be taken from table 1.4.
concrete mixing. The shortening of the concrete per unit length due to moisture
loss is called shrinkage strain. The magnitude of the shrinkage strain is a Table 1.4 Values of shrinkage strain for concrete (x 10-3)
function of the initial water content, the composition of the concrete and the
relative humidity of the surroundings. Shrinkage is also a function of member's weather Dry weather Humid weather
size and shape. Drying shrinkage occurs as the moisture diffuses out of the
condition Relative humidity ==55% Relative humidity == 75%
concrete. As a result, the exterior shrinks more rapidly than the interior. This
leads to tensile stresses in the outer skin of the concrete member and
Time by Virtual thickness B Virtual thickness B
compressive stresses in its interior. The rate of the shrinkage increases as the
exposed area to the volume increases. B ~ 600 B ~ 600 B:O; 200
600 < B > 200 B 5. 200 600 < B > 200
days
The ECP-203 gives the following formula to estimate the virtual member
thickness
3-7 0.31 0.38 0.43 0.21 0.23 0.26
B= 2;, ........................................................ (1.6)
c 7-60 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.21 0.22 0.23
where B is the virtual member thickness, Ac area of the cross section, Pc is the >60 0.25 0.19 0.19 0.16
0.28 0.20
section perimeter subjected to shrinkage.

Although shrinkage continues for many years as shown in Fig. 1.11,


approximately 90% of the ultimate shrinkage occurs during the first year. 1.5.6 Creep
When a reinforced concrete member is loaded, an initial deformation occurs as
almost flat curve shown in Fig. 1.12. Experimental studies show that this initial deformation
increases with time under constant loading.
The total deformation is usually divided into two parts: (1 )initial deformation (2)
a time dependent deformation named creep.
After the occurrence of the immediate deformation (point A" to point A), the
creep deformation starts rapidly (point A to pint B) and then continues at a much
lower rate till almost it becomes a flat curve at infinity. More than 75% of the
creep deformation occurs during the first year and 95% in the first five years. If
the load is removed at point B, immediate recovery occurs (point C), followed
by a time dependent recovery till point D (creep recovery). The member will
t=oo Time never recover all the developed deformation and there will be a non-recoverable
deformation called permanent deformation.
Fig. 1.11 Variation of shrinkage with time for a typical concrete mix The creep deformations are within a range of one to three times the
instantaneous elastic deformations. Creep causes an increase in the deflection
with time that may lead to undesirable deformation of the member. Thus, the
...
!
deflection must be investigated to ensure that the deformations are within the
allowable limits ofthe code.

16 17
high yield steel the strength is based on a specified proof stress of 0.2% as
shown in Fig. 1.13. . .
The major disadvantage of using steel in beams and columns IS COrr?s.IOn. The
volume of the corroded steel bar is much greater than that of the ongmal one.
The results are large outward pressure, which causes severe cracking and
deformation under spallingof the concrete cover. The ECP-203 requires the increase o~ concrete
constant loading cover in corrosive environments. Epoxy coated bars are a perfect solutIOn for the
. load removal B
problem of corrosion of the reinforcement. They are expensive and need to be
~'\~:;:=::==:- handled very carefully to protect the coating layer from damage. However, they
1 are not as efficient as uncoated bars in developing full bond with surrounding
1
elastic recovery concrete.
:C
I'

A
\
,, creep recovery
.... ....

Elastic deformation
...... ---- D
Stress

time ofloadi g high grade steel


permanent
deformation 0.2% proofstress

start of strain hardening

Time

1;.
r---i-,--t ~ mild ,,"',

Fig. 1.12 Elastic and creep deformation of concrete yield plateau .

1.6 Reinforcing Steel


The most common types of reinforcing steel are bars and welded wire fabrics.
Deformed bars are the most widely used type and manufactured in diameters
from 10 mm to 40 mm. They are produced according to the Egyptian standards
262/1999. Bars are supplied in lengths up to 12m, however, longer bars may be Ho-...L...,-\--i---- plastic range --1-- Straiil
specially ordered. Reinforcing bars are available in four grades with a yield
strength of 240, 280, 360, and 400N/mm2. The cost of steel having a yield stress 0.002
of 400 N/mm2 is slightly higher than that of steel with a yield point of 240
N/mm2. However, the gain in strength and accordingly the reduction in the Fig. 1.13 St~ess-Strain curve for mild and high grade steel
required steel area is obvious. It should be mentioned that grade 400 N/mm2 is
the highest steel grade ,allowed by the Code for reinforced concrete structures.
The ultimate tensile strength, the yield strength and the modulus of elasticity are
determined from the stress-strain curve of a specimen bar loaded in uniaxial '"I
tension up to failure. The modulus of elasticity of steel (the slole of the stress-
strain curve in the elastic region) is 200 GPa (200,000 N/mm ). The specified
strength used in design is based on the yield stress for mild steel, whereas for

18 19
The strength reduction factors vary according to the applied compression force.
1.7 Limit States Design Method As the compression force increases, the strength reduction factor in tum
increases. One of the reasons for that, is the nature of the brittle failure that
Members are designed with a capacity that is much greater than required to
accompanies the compression forces. The strength reduction factor for concrete
support the anticipated set of loads. This extra capacity not only provides a
factor of safety against failure by an accidental overload or defective yc ranges from 1.73 for sections subjected to almost pure compression and 1.5
construction but also limits the level of stress under service loads to control for sections subjected to pure bending. The strength reduction factor for steel
deflection and cracking. The Egyptian code permits the use of two design reinforcement "Is ranges from 1.32 for sections SUbjected to compression and
methods, namely, the allowable working stress design method and the ultimate 1.15 for section subjected to pure bending.
limit states design method. In the present time, the former is the most commonly
used in the design of reinforced concrete structures. For sections subjected to combined compression forces and bending (eccentric
When a structure or a structural member becomes deficient for its planned use, it compression sections) with at least 0.05t eccentricity, the ECP-203 gives the
is said to have reached a limit state. The limit states of concrete structures can be following values for the strength reduction factors
divided into the following three groups:
Yc =1.5XH-(e~t)}21.5 ................................. (1.7)
A. Ultimate Limit states
These limit states are concerned with the failure of a structural member or the
whole structure. Such a failure should have a very low probability of occurrence Ys = 1.15X{~- (e~t)} 21.15 .............................. (1.8)
since it may lead to loss of human lives.

B. Serviceability limit states where e is the eccentricity. and t is the member thickness and !:.t 2 0.05
These include all types that affect the functional use of the structure and can be
. ,-..
classified as:
~
• Deformation and Deflection Limit States: Excessive deflections may .8 1.73
u
be visually unacceptable and may lead to walls or partitions damage. <S 1.50 concrete strength reduction factor Yc
• Cracking Limit States: Excessive cracks may lead to leakage, § 1.32
'.;::l
corrosion of the reinforcement, and deterioration of concrete. u

• Vibration Limit States: Vertical vibration of floors or roofs may cause ] /.15
unacceptable level of comfort for the users. .p steel strength reduction factor Ys

c. Stability 'limit states


g
~
CI)

The~e include buckling of compression members, overturning, sliding,


elt
formation of plastic hinge/mechanism, and general cases of instability. Also, in 0.05 0.50
some cases, localized failure of a member may cause the entire structure to
collapse. Such failure is called progressive failure and should be avoided.
Fig. 1.11 Concrete and steel strength reduction factors
1.8 Strength Reduction Factors
For other cases the strength reduction factors can be taken as
Strength reduction factors for both concrete and steel are introduced by the
Egyptian code to account for several factors. These factors include rc = 1.5 }pure bending, shear and torsion
simplifications, approximations, and small errors that may be encountered eccentric and concentric tensile forces
during calculations. They also consider variations between the actual strength
and the design strength. rs = 1.15 bond and bearing

21
20
for serviceability limit states the reduction factors can be taken as 1.9 Classification of Loads

Yc =1.0} for calculation of cracking, deflection and deformation There are several types of loads that may act on a structure and can be
categorized as:
Ys =1.0 Dead Loads: These are constant in magnitude and fixed in location for the
lifetime of the structure. A major part of the dead loads results from the own
weight of the structure itself. The dead loads also include sand required for
leveling of the flooring, flooring material and brick walls.
Live loads depend mainly on the use of the structure. For buildings, live loads
are the results of occupants and furniture. In bridges, vehicle loads represent the
major live load. Their magnitude and location are variable. Live loads must be
placed in such a way to produce the maximum straining actions on the
structures. But rather by placing the live loads on the critical locations that cause
maximum stresses for that member.
Table 1.5 gives examples of the values of live load on some structures as
mentioned in the Egyptian Code for Calculation of loads on Structures.

Table 1.5 Live loads value according to building type (kN/m2 ).

Structure Type Location/usage Live load - - - -


Rooms 2
Residential buildings
Balconies, stairs, kitchen 3
Offices 2.5
Office buildings Archives 5-10
Balconies and stairs 4
Patient rooms 2.5
Hospitals Surgery/lab 4 or more
Balconies and stairs 4
Classrooms 3
Labs 4 or more
Sports centers 5
Schools and faculties
Book shelf area 10
Lecture rooms 4
Balconies and stairs 4
Gust rooms 2
Hotels
Public area/restaurants/stairs 4
Photo 1.5 Queensland, Australia, 322 meters 78 stories (2005).

22 23
.--
1.10 Load Combinations
Seated area 4
Public area unseated 5 - For members that are subjected to live loads and where the lateral loads
Cinemas and theaters can be neglected, the ultimate factored loads U are computed from
Balconies 5
Stairs and corridors _ 6 U=I.4D+L6L ................................................... (1.9)
--
Mosque / church / Seated area 4 where D are the working dead loads, and L are the working live loads
Halls Unseated area 5 Alternatively if the live loads are the less than 75% of the dead load, the
following equation can be used
Inaccessible horizontal flexible roof 0.6
Roofs Inaccessible horizontal rigid roof 1.0 U=1.5(D+L) ................................................... (1.10)
Accessible horizontal roof 2 If the member is subjected to earth or fluid pressure (E), the ultimate load is
Parkil!K area (small cars) 3 given by
garages Buses 4 U = 1.4 D+1.6 L+1.6 E ........................................ (1.11)
Garage corridor 5 In the case oflateral pressure in closed spaces such as tanks and small pools, the
ultimate load is taken from
For residential buildings with more than five stories, the live loads may be U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.4E
reduced according to the Table 1.6
- I f the structure is subjected to wind loads W or earthquake loads S, the
TaJ,le 1.6 Reduction of live load in multistory residential buildings
ultimate load U is taken as the largest from the following two equations
Location of the floor Live load value
u = 0.8 (1.4 D+ 1.6 L+ 1.6 W) ............................... (1.12)
Roof P
From 1 to 4 under the roof P U=1.l2D+aL+S ............................................ (1.13)

Fifth floor under the roof 0.9P Where a is a coefficient that takes into account the effect of live load that might
Sixth floor under the roof 0.8 P-- exists on the building during an earthquake and is taken as follows
Seventh floor under the roof ~ a=1/4 in residentional buildings.
0.7 P
E!Khth floor under the roof 0.6P ~ a=1/2 in public buildings and structures such as malls, schools, hospitals,
garages and theaters.
Ninth flbor and more under the roof 0.5 P
~ a=1 in silos, water tanks, and structures loaded with sustained live loads
such as public libraries, main storage areas and garages for public cars.
Lateral loads These are the loads resulting from wind pressure, earthquake
loads, soil pressure, and fluid pressure. In recent years, significant progress has - In load cases in which reduction of live loads shall lead to increasing the
been made to accurately estimate the horizontal forces due to wind or value of maximum forces in some sections, the live load factor shall be
earthquake. taken to 0.9.
TheECP 203 states a series of load factors and load combination cases to be
used in designing reinforced concrete sections.

24 25
For cases in which the effects of the dead loads stabilize the structure, the Table 1.7 Load factors according to ECP 203
ultimate loads should be taken from the following set of equations
Condition Factored Load U
U = 0.9 D ........................................................... (1.14)
U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L
U =0.9 D+1.6 E .................................................. (1.15)
U = 1.5 (D+L) L '5,0.75 D
U =0.9 D+1.4 E (for tanks and pools) .................... (1.16) Basic
U=0.9 D
U =0.9 D+1.3 W ................................................. (1.17)
U = 0.9 D + 1.6 L
U=0.9D+1.3S ................................................. (1.18)
U = 0.8 (1.4 D + 1.6 L ± 1.6 W)
Iwind
U = 0.9 D±l.3 W

U = 1.12 D + a L + S
Earthquake
U =0.9D ±S

U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6 E


~arth pressure
U = 0.9 D + 1.6 E

U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.4 E


Closed tanks
U = 0.9 D + 1.4 E

Settlement, creep, or U = 0.8 (1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6 T)

temperature U = 1.4 D + 1.6 T

Photo 1.6: Opera Sydney in Australia U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6 K


~ynamic loading
U = 0.9 D + 1.6 K

where D, L, W, S, E, T, K are the dead, live, wind, soil, earthquake, temperature


and dynamic loads respectively.

26
27
Example 1.1
Using the load combinations of the ECP 203, determine the ultimate axial force -35.20 -35.20
and bending moment combinations for the column CD at point C. The frame is
subjected to the following working loads
D=15 kN/m'(uniform)
L=30 kN/m'(uniform)
Wind load of95 kN (may act in either direction)

dead or
live loads
95 kN Normal force (dead loads) Bending moment (dead loads)

D
A

Normal force (live loads) Bending moment (live loads)

Solution: :'52.4
since the structure is indeterminate, a computer program was used to calculate
the axial and bending on the frame. The following figures summarize the results. -52.4

-91.25 87.9
Normal force (wind loads) Bending moment (Wind loads)

28 29
To compute the ultimate loads and according to the ECP-2003, five
combinations were used as shown in the following table.

Load combinations for member CD

Axial
load

D -45.0
bending
moment
-35.2
case Equation
No.
1 U=1.4D+1.6L
Axial force
combination
e-207.0~
Bending
combination
-161.9
2 ,

DESIGN OF SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS


L -90.0 -70.4 2 U =0.8(1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6 W) -188.2 IC -196.6')
W -17.64 -52.4 3 U = 0.8 (1.4 D + 1.6 L - 1.6 W) -143.1 -62.5
4 U =0.9 D+1.3 W -63.4 -99.8
5 U =0.9 D-1.3 W C -17.6:> Ie +36.4)

An example of the calculation for the axial force for the case of (D+L+ W) is
given by
U =0.8[1.4D +1.6L ±1.6W]

U = 0.8 [1.4'(-45) + 1.6 (-90) ± 1.6 (-17.64)]

U =-165.60±22.60

=-188.2kN and -143.0kN

From the table, the maximum and minimum ultimate axial force on the column
is -207.0 and -17.6 respectively. The maximum and minimum ultimate bending
moment at C is -196.6 and +36.4.
It is very important to notice that the design should be carried out based on
Photo 2.1: Alamillo Cartuja suspended bridge, Spain
straining actions resulting from the same load combination not the maximum
from each case. Thus, it is wrong to design the column for an axial compression
. force of -207.0 and bending moment of -196.6. Instead, the section must be 2.1 Introduction
designed to withstand (an axial compression force of -207 and a bending
Until the late 1980s, nearly all reinforced concrete buildings in Egypt were
moment of -161.9) and (-axial -188.2, bending -196.6). In addition, it should be designed according to the working-stress design method. However, since 1989
designed for an axial force of -17.6 and a bending moment of +36.4. the ultimate limit states design method has gained popularity and has been
adopted by the Egyptian Code for Design .and Construction of Concrete
Structures. In this chapter, the basic design concepts of the ultimate limit states
design methods are discussed.

30 31
When the load is further increased, the developed tensile stresses in the concrete
2.2 Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior exc\!ed its tensile strength and tension cracks start to develop. Most of these
cracks are so small that they are not noticeable with the naked eye. At the
Consider that a reinforced concrete beam as the one shown in Fig. 2.1. is
subjected to an increasing load that will cause the beam to fail. Several stages of location of the cracks, the concrete does not transmit any tension forces and steel
behavior can be clearly identified. bars are placed in the tension zone to carryall the developed tensile forces
At low loads, below the cracking load, the whole of the concrete section is below the neutral axis. The neutral axis is an imaginary line that separates the
effective 'in resisting compression and tension stresses. In addition, since the
steel reinforcement deforms·thesame amount as the concrete, it will contribute tension zone from the compression zone. Therefore, by definition the stress at
in carrying the tension stresses. At this stage, the distributions of strains and the neutral axis is equal to zero as shown in· Fig. 2.1. Thus, the part of the
stresses are linear over the cross section. concrete below the neutral axis is completely neglected in the strength
calculations and the reinforcing steel is solely responsible for resisting the entire
uniform load
tension force.
1.1 .. 1 I I 1 1·1 1·1 I~..................................................................... .

1i-.---- ------.--------.--~.----.-. ____~.-.-J~L.---- --··I----~.v..-


~--====.=====.===.========-~...., ~. . . . . . ·. . . . ·. . . . A. . . ·
.~

a: before cracking
. ..
. · . L1
.
t-l~A
lIncracked
section
.

strains stresses
At moderate loads (~f the concrete stresses do not exceed approximately one-
third the concrete compressive strength), stresses and strains continue to be very
close to linear. This is called the working loads stage, which was the basis of the
working-:stress design method. When the load is furthered increased, more
cracks are developed and the neutral axis is shifted towards the compression
service load zone. Consequently, the compression and tension forces will increase and the
stresses over the compression zone will become nonlinear. However, the strain
. cracks ·····~~~:~~·~:~:~·~·~·~y~·~:~·~:;~f-'~~A distribution over the croSs section is linear. This is called the ultimate stage. The
.t=:::::::===±±:±=:l::::±:::::1:::::::i:=""=====.t ~ ........LL .............L.s. distribution of the stresses in the compression zone is of the same shape of the
cracked concrete stress-strain c,urve. The steel stress j, in this stage reaches yielding
section
stressfy. For normally reinforced beams, the yielding load is about 90%-95% of
the ultimate load;·
b: cracking stage, before yield, working load
At the ultimate stage, two types of failure can be noticed. If the beam is
reinforced with a small amount of steel, ductile failure will occur. In this type of
ultimate load failure, the steel yields and the concrete crushes after experiencing large
0.003
deflections and lots of cracks. On the other hand, if the beam is reinforced with a
~~~~-~-~~~~.~~--F~~--~~~~~-~~~N,A large amount of steel, brittle failure will occur. The failure in this case is sudden
U~····LJ.~ ...........L and occurs due to the crusfiing of concrete in the compression zone without
.,' , . cs>ey j,=f/f.f5
cracked section yielding of the steel and under relatively small deflections and cracks. This is
c: ultimate and failure stage atliitimate
not a preferred mode of failure bec~use it does not give enough warning before
final collapse.
Fig. 2.1 Reinforced concrete beam behavior at different stages of loading

32 33
2.3.2 Stress-Strain Relationships
2.3 Flexure Theory of Reinforced Concrete
2.3.2.1 Concrete in Compression
2.3.1 Basic Assumptions of the Flexure Theory The stress-strain curve for concrete is non-linear with a descending branch after
reaching the maximum stress as shown in Fig. 1.4, presented in Chapter 1. The
In order to analyze beams subjected to pure bending, certain assumptions have recorded maximum compressive stress in a real beam differs from that obtained
to be established. These assumptions can be summarized as follows in a cylinder or a cube test. Several studies have indicated that the ratio of the
L Strain distribution is assumed to be linear. Thus, the strain at any point
maximum compression stress in beams or columns to the cylinder compressive
is proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. This assumption strength};. / can be taken equal to 0.85 for most practical purposes. This accounts
can also be stated as plane sections before bending remain plane after for the size effect and the fact that the beam is subject to a sustained load while
bending. the cylinder is tested during a short ·period. Furthermore, since the cylinder
strength};. / is about 0.80 of cube strength.tll> the maximum value of the stress
2. The strain in the reinforcement is equal to the strain in the concrete at strain curve for beams or columns is 0.85 x 0.80.t1l= 0.67 .til' For design
the same level. purposes, the previous value is divided by the concrete safety factor (y,.=1.5 in
case of pure bending) to account for the uncertainties explained in section 2.3.
3. The tension force developed in the concrete is neglected. Thus, only Hence the design compressive strength of the concrete as adopted by the
the compression force developed in the concrete is considered, and all Egyptian Code (ECP 203) is 0.67 };:/'y,.=0.45 };'II'
the tension force is carried by the reinforcement.
The Egyptian Code presents an idealization for the stress-strain curve in
4. The stresses in the concrete and steel can be calculated using the compression. The first part of the curve is a parabolic curve up to a strain of
idealized stress-strain curves for the concrete and steel after applying 0.002 and the second part is a straight horizontal line up to a strain of 0.003, as
the strength reduction factors. shown in Fig.2.2. Refen'ing to Fig. 2.2, the equation of the concrete stress};. in
terms of the concrete strain (tc) can be expressed as:
5. An equivalent rectangular stress block may be used to simplify the
calculation of the concrete compression force.
for Ec < 0.002
................. (2.1.A)
The above assumptions are sufficient to allow one to calculate the moment
for a.002::; Ec ::; 0.003
capacity of a beam. The first of these assumptions is the traditional assumption
made in the development of the beam theory. It has been proven valid as long as
the beam is not deep. The second assumption is necessary because the concrete * 0.67 feu
h
were 1.c = -rc- -
and reinforcement must act together to carry the load and it implies a perfect
bond between concrete and steel. The third assumption is obviously valid since
the strength of concrete in tension is roughly 1110 of the compressive strength
and the tensile force in the concrete below the neutral axis will not affect the _~.~_7..f<:.u!yc. ___________________,;._____-_------I
~ -
flexural capacity of the beam. The fourth and fifth assumptions will be discussed en
en
<U
in items 2.3.2 and 2.3.3. .....
+-'
en

~>=
o
U

i<-_ _ _ _--,-_--'-_ _ _-i--_ _ _ _--tConcrete strain tc


o 0.001 tc 0.002 0.003

Fig 2.2 ECP 203 idealized stress-str~in curve for concrete

34 35
2.3.3 The Equivalent Rectangular Stress Block
2.3.2.2 Reinforcing Steel
To compute the compression force resisted by concrete, the Egyptian Code
The behavior of the steel reinforcement is idealized by the Egyptian code replaces the curved stress block shown in Fig 2.4C by an equivalent stress block
(section 4.2.1.1 )as an elastoplastic material as shown in Fig 2.3. The reinforcing of an average intensity of 0.67 feuiYe and a depth a= peas shown in Fig. 2.40.
steel stress can be calculated using Eq. 2.l.B. The magnitude and location of the force calculated using the equivalent stress
block should be equal to that of the curved one.
h/~'
tension J,.' = 0.67 J,."
~ y,.
.,; ·1
~ E,=200,OOO N/mm2
en
e/Ys , u
., ey/ys Strain, ts c
co.
II
o:j c'

~
compression

neutral axis
-iv/Y,

B: strain C: parabolic stress D: equivalent reclangular


Fig 2.3 Idealized stress-strain curve for steel distribution stress block

/; = c., x E, when C x < c y / y,. ................................ (2.l.B) Fig. 2.4 Equivalent rectangular stress block calculation.
I, = j .. / Ys when c., ~ c,./ y,
To calculate the depth "a" of the stress block, one equates the compression force
obtained using the stress-strain curve of the Egyptian Code, shown in Fig. 2.4C,
to that using the equivalent stress block (Fig. 2.40).
The total compression force (C=C I+C 2) obtained using the stress-strain curve of
the Egyptian Code can be calculated as follows:

C 1 =bX(~Xjc') .......... ~ ................................... (2.2)

2
2 2e
C =bx-x-xf
33 c
• =bx (4
-eX
9
j')'
c
............................... (23)
.

e
C=C +C =-xbxj.• +-xbxj.
4e • =-exbx
7 j'..................... (24)
.
I 2 3 '9 '9 '

The compression force obtained using the stress block C' equals

c' = bxaxjc' = fJ exbxf~ ......................................... (2.5)


Photo 2.2 High grade steel Reinforcement
37
36
t
2.4 Analysis of Singly Reinforced Sections
By definition, C must be equal to C thus solving Eq. 2.4 and Eq. 2.5 for /3 gives
,

Concrete beams subjected to pure bending must resist both tensile and compressive
fJ =7.. = 0.777 stresses. However, concrete has very low tensile stresses, and therefore tension steel is
9
placed in these locations (below neutral axis) as shown Fig. 2.5. The most economic
The code approximates the previous value to /3=0.8, thus the rectangular stress solution is to place the steel bars as far as possible from the neutral axis except for the
block depth (a=0.8 c). concrete cover, which is normally assumed 50 mm from the external surface.
t
To find the location of the total compression force C take the moment of the
,

forces at point "0" and note that the e.O of the force F2 is at 3/8 of the distance
(2/3c)

C xk , c=C (12'x3'c) +C x gX3+3'


I
1 2
(3
2c c) .............................. (2.6)

i cxbxj,: xk l c ~XbXjc·(~)+* cxbxj,' C72 c) ....................... (2.7)


=

k 1=0.404
The code simplifies the value of k1 with /3/2=0.4 (i.e. the resultant is at the
middle of the stress block)

compressed zone

steel bars

concrete cover

cracked section A-A

Fig. 2.5 Reinforcement placement in reinforced concrete beam

The compressive stresses in concrete are replaced by a uniform stress block as


suggested by the Egyptian Code (section 4.2.1.1.9) with distance "a" from the
concrete surface as shown in Fig. 2.6.

Photo 2.3 Metl"Opolitun Govcnullcnl Building in Tokyo


38 39
The analysis of the cross section is carried out by satisfying two requirement.<i: Having determined the stress block distance a, the assumption of the tension
steel yielding can be verified using compatibility of strains as follows (c=a/0.8
and Es=200,000 N/mm2 )
• Equilibrium
I. L Forces (internal) = LForces(external) fs = Es xes ............................................. (Hook's Law)

For sections subjected to pure bending, the external forces equal to


zero. This leads to e = 0.003 d -c ...................... , (compatibility of strains)
S c . - .
L Forces (internal) = 0 ::::> T - C = 0 ::::> T = C;
2. LMu (internal) = LMu (external) (taken about 'any point in the section) f =600 d - c s,-.i.L.: .............................................. (2.10)
s c 1.15
• Compatibility of Strains ,
1. The strain at any point is proportional to its distance from the If the steel stress Is calculated by Eq. 2.10 excee41)I.I5, then the assumption of
neutral axis. the yielding of the tension steel i.s valid (fs=I!Ll5) as used in Eq. 2.9.A.

The seco~d equilibrium equation 'is used to determine the moment capacity of
Therefore, if the design problem has more than two unknowns, assumptions the section by equating the internal moment to the external applied mom~nt Mu.
have to be made to reduce them t6 exactly two. The stress in the tension steel is The internal moment capacity is computed by taking the moment of the Internal
assumed to be equal to the yield strength./;,. This assumption should be verified forces about any point. Normally, this point is taken at the resultant ?f t~e
after determining the neutral axis position. The equilibrium of the internal forces compression force C to simplify the ?alculations. ~he internal n:oment In thIS
is used to determine the stress block distance "a" as follows: case is the product of the tension force' multiphed by the dIstance ~o t~e
compression force. This distance is called the lever arm (d-al2) as shown In FIg.
C=T· ........................................................ (2.8)
2.7. The equation for the moment is:

M,,~ ~~l~' (d _·~) .....,.................................... (2.II.A)


0.67 feu b a = As fy ;.•• ;.................................... (2.9.A)
1.5 1.15
If the tension steel does not yield Eq. 2.9.A becomes
. .
If the tension steel does not yield, Eq.2.1 LA becomes
0.61 feu b a = A. xl ....................................... :.. (2.9.B)
1.5. ..:' s .'
M = A f (d-!!"')
1/ 2
................................. :........... (2.11.B)
S S

. 0.67 feu
. Compression zone b 1.5
al2 1J-·--·-J~ I 0.003 I--l
.r---------..-~_ 1
C 0.67 t·u b a 1---1--...-- C
~-----__;,--,r-"'l+--I--( -'----r- 1.5

d
Neutral axis
T=As/y ll.15
As
• • • 1._........................L---l.,...._......_.........__...._........L--l..i....
T=As f/1.15 steel yields
T=As fs steel does not yield

Fig. 2.6 Equilibrium of forces in a singly reinforced section


Fig. 2.7 Stress and strain distributions of a singly reinforced section
40 41
2.5 Maximum Area of Steel of a Singly Reinforced Cmu., = 460
d 690+ f), ................................................ (2.15)
Section
The balanced failure occurs when the concrete strain reaches a value of 0.003 at a max = 368
the same time that the steel reaches the yield strain divided by the reduction d 690+ 1;................................................. (2.16)
factor (E!Ys) as shown in Fig. 2.8.

I 0.003
b
'\ \' 0.003 'I. b

.-........- .. --.-.-...............-.~:-- .......-...:r-----~ ....-.-...-..,....


2
c max = 3 Gh

d
Asmax
As ••••
- - - -r" ." . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~==:i:===:J I-----+T I
Es>E/1.lS I T=A,max f/1.15

strains forces

Fig.2.S Neutral axis position at the balanced condition Fig. 2.9 Neutral axis position for calculating the maximum values
allowed by the code

From similar triangles shown in Fig. 2.8, one can conclude that
The ratio of the reinforcement in the concrete section (Jl) is an indication to
show if the section IS lightly reinforced or heavily reinforced and can be
=_0_.0_03_ ........................................... ,.. ;.. (2.12)
CI> expressed as:
0.003+ G)'
d
y, j.1 = :~ ............. '" ..................................... (2.17)
where Cb is the neutral axis at the balanced failure. The steel Young's modulus
Es equals
After finding the maximum neutral axis position C max , it is beneficial to compute
E, =f)' =f)'ly, ................................................ (2.13) the maximum area of steel As.max recommended by the code. To find the
Gy G)'ly, maximum area of steel, apply the equilibrium equation (C=T) with neutral axis
Substituting with steel Young's modulus Es =200,000 N/mm 2 and Ys=1.15 gives at C max as shown in Fig. 2.9.

b amax = A,.max J;. .......................................... (2.18)


~ 69~~f . .................................................. (2.14) • 0.67 fell
1.5 1.15
Diving both sides by (b x d) gives
If C < Cb, then the strain in the tension steel is greater than E.Jys and that tl).e
tension steel yields. To ensure ductile failure the ECP 203 requires that the value
of Cmax be limited to 2/3 Cb' Substitution in Eq. 2.14 and referring to Fig. 2.9
0.6~.{cu a~ax = ,u~~; ;' .......................................... (2.19)

. gives the following equation

42 43
substituting with Eq. 2.16 into Eq. 2.19 gives Defining ((I = J1 .&.
feu

189 ((1m., = J1 max f.fy ............................................. (2.22)


J-L max 690 f, + 1,; feu ............................................ (2.20)
cu

The ECP 203 limits the reinforcement ratio f.! to f.!max given by Eq. 2.20 to Substituting with the value off.!max detennined from Eq. 220 gives
ensure ductile failure. Moreover, it is a good practice, from the economic point 189 (2.23)
of view, to limit the area of steel reinforcement in beams to only 0.5-0.7 f.!max. It (j)max
690+ fy
can be noticed that steel with smaller fy will have smaller yield strain Ey leading
to larger neutral axis .distance Cmax as shown in Table 2. L Thus, the smaller the
steel yield strength, the larger. the maximum pennissiblesteel ratio f.!max as Table 2.1 Values of cmaxld, f.!mm ffi max

shown in Fig. 2.10. . .------ ---,

rom~~
Steel cb/d cmax/d amax/d Rmax R1max f.!max*
3.5
-_.

3.0 240/350 0.74 0.50 OAO 0.214 0.143 8.56x104 feu ~~05
,--..
2.5
~
0
'-'
2.0 280/450 0.71 OA8 0.38 .0.208 0.139 7.00x10-4 feu 0.196
~
E
:i
1.5 ----_._-- ---_.

360/520 0.66 OA4 0.35 0.194 0.129 5.00x10-4 feu 0.180


1.0

0.5
400/600 0.63 OA2 0.34 0.187 0.125 4.~1x10-4 feu 0.172
240 280 320 360 400
..h N/mnl
Fig. 2.10 Effect offcu and fy on f.!max 450/520** 0.61 . OAO 0.32 0.180 0.120 3.65x10-4 feu 0.164

It should be clear that if for a given section the neutral axis distance "c" is less
than neutral axis maximum value ema:" then the steel is yielded, the actualar~a of
steel As, and the applied moment Mu is less than code maximum limits as * leu in N/mm2
. indicated in Eq. 2.21. ** for welded' mesh

/;, £ < C max then J-L<J-Lma, ............................... (2.2.1)


'd d'
As <A,;ma,
'M" < M u•m""

45
44
Maximum Moment Capacity
To detennine the maximum moment for a singly reinforced section, one can 2.6 Balanced, Under, and Over Reinforced Sections
compute the moments of the tension force about the compression force (refer to
Fig. 2.9) at C=C max In general, an under-reinforced section is the one in which reinforcing steel
yields before the crushing of concrete. An over-reinforced section is the one in
which failure occurs due to the crushing of concrete in the compression zone
Mu,max = \~~5J;· (d - G;ax ) ..................................... (2.24) before the yielding of the steel. On the other hand, a balanced section is the one
in which yielding of steel and crushing of concrete occur simultaneously.
· R'
D e fiInIng 1.5 x Mu,mw<
max as Rmux = 2 According to the analysis carried out in section 2.5, one can conclude that if the
feu b d
section is reinforced with Jl. less than Jl.b (=1.5 Jl.max) it is called "under
reinforced". On the contrary, if the section is reinforced with Jl. greater than Jl.b,
Rm,,,, = !cuI: d 2 x \~u;/)' (d - a;ux J......................... (2.25) it is called "over reinforced". The under-reinforced sections are preferred
because they fail in a ductile manner, in which the member will experience large
deflections, large strains, and wide cracks. This gives enough warning so that
repair can be perfonned on that member. On the other hand, over reinforced
Rmux =1.304 JlI~UJ;· (1- 0.4 c;x ) ........................... (2.26a) sections will fail suddenly without enough warnings. Figure 2.11 gives the
strain distributions and the related values of the three sections

R m• x = 1.304 wmax (1- 0.4 d,-, J............................. (2.26b)


C
0.003
Under Reinforced I'
Substituting with the value of Jl.max calculated from Eq. 2.20 gives

R m,,-, = 69~~J;, (1_0.4C~ux ) ................................... (2.27)

Over Reinforced
RImux = M Umax2 = Rmax ....................................... (2.28) C>Cmax and ( C>Cb)
feu b d 1.5
Jl.>Jl.max and (Jl.>Jl.b)
f8<f/1.15

Fig 2.11 Strain distributions for over, under and balanced sections

46 47
2.7 Minimum Area of Steel
2.8 Factors Affecting Ultimate Strength
In some cases, and mainly due to architectural considerations, the member could There are several factors that affect the ultimate strength of a beam SUbjected to
be cho~en with con.crete dimensions bigger than those requi~ed by strength bending. These factors can be summarized as .
calculatIOns. Accordmgly, the required area of steel could be very small. This
may lead to situations where the strength of the section using cracked section • Yield strength of reinforcing steel,/y.
anal?,sis is less than the. strength Of the uncracked section computed using the • Concrete compressive strength,Jcll
tensIle strength of concrete. . • Beam depth, d
• Beam width, b
The failure· of such sections is brittle and wide cracks tend to develop. Thus, to
• Reinforcement ratio, !-t.
control cracks,· to ensure ductility, and to avoid sudden failure in tension, the
Egyptian code (4.2.1.2.g) requires that the actual area of steel As in any section The effect of steel yield strength on ultimate strength is shown in Fig. 2.12A. It
should be greater than Asmin given by: is clear that steel yield strength has a big impact on its ultimate capacity.
Increasing the steel yield strength from 240 N/mm2 to 400 N/mm2 increases the
ultimate capacity by 55%. On the other hand, concrete compressive strength has
a little effect on the ultimate strength as shown in Fig. 2. 12B. Changing concrete
. 10.225 £
A'lnin =smallerQ{ f" c" bd ~ f:.
11
bd .............................. (2.29)
compressive strength from 20 N/mm 2 to 40 N/mm 2 increases the ultimate
strength by only 5%.
1.3 A,
Comparing Fig. 2.12C and Fig. 2.12D shows that increasing beam depth affects
the ult.imate capacity more than increasing beam width. Increasing beam depth
0.25
- - b d(mild steel) ) from 500 mm to 1000 mm increases the capacity of the beam by almost three
but notless than 100 . . times. Finally, increasing steel reinforcement ratio has a significant effect on the
{ -0.15 b d (high grade)
100 ultimate capacity as illustrated in Fig. 2.12E.
2
If.fcll is greater or equal to 25 N/mm the term (0.225.JJ:: If,. b d) is bigger than
(0.25% b d) and (0.15% b d). Thus, there is no need to check the third condition
in Eq. 2.29, if 0.225 JJ::
If,. < 1.3 A, . The minimum area of steel in this case can
be simplified to: .

_0._22_5-,£"-'1<",-,,,.b d
(v ....................... (2.30)
J.3A,

Photo 2.4 Interior reading halls in the Library of Alexandria


48 49
Analysis Summary
In this type of problem all the cross section information is known including
3.5 ---_._.- 3.5 r-----,r--'--.,.-'----,----, beam cross section dimensions, steel yield strength and concrete strength. It is

--
3 3+---+---+---+--~ required to calculate the moment capacity Mu.
2.5 2.5 -1----1---+---+--------1
'\,
:E 2
'i1.5 ~ - L-- }
i
2f---f---+---+----j
1.5 4==:::==I====t:==::::j:==~ ANALYSIS PROBLEM
Given
0.5 0.5 -1----1---+---+--------1
Required : Mu
o O~--~--+_--+_-~

240 280 320 360 fy 400 20 25 30 35 feu 40 Unknowns: a, Mu'


A-Effect of fy B-Effect of feu

350
I
~ 350 Procedure
300 300 /" o Step 1: Apply the equilibrium equation T=C to find the depth of
E
Z
250 E250
V the stress block, "a" and the neutral axis depth "c"
assuming that tension steel has yieldedfs=f/I.15.
e.
'i 200
i
'i 2OO V
/ o Step 2: Check that tension steel has yielded (fs ~ f)Ll5) by
150 150 / ensuring thec<cb or by using Eq.2.1 O.

100
j--
100
/ o Step 3: Compute the bending moment capacity Mu by taking the
moment about the concrete compression force.
150 250 350 450 400 600 800 1000
b(mm) d(mm)

C-Effect of beam width (b) D-Effect of beam depth (d)

3.5
3.0
2.5
)2.0
~ 1.5
1.0
...- ----- -----
...-
--- - 1

i
0.5
0.0 I
0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20

E-Effect of reinforcement ratio l.l

Fig. 2.12 Parametric study on the ultimate moment capacity Photo 2.5 Cantilever box section in a reinforced concrete bridge
51
50
Example 2.1
Detennine whether the section shown in figure is under-or-over- Case l: As= SOO mm
2
under reinforced (As<Asb) Code limit safe (As<ASlllax)
reinforced section and check code max,imum pennissible area of
steel for the following cases ' Case 2: As=lOOO mni under reinforced (As<Asb) Code limit safe (As<Asmax)
2
2 Case 3: As=lSOO mm under reinforced (As<Asb) Code limit unsafe (As>Asmax)
1. As = 500 mm
, 2
2. As =1000 mm Case 4: As=2000 mm
2
over reinforced (As>Asb) Code limit unsafe (As>Asmax)
3. As =1500 mm 2
4. As =2000 mm2
fcu=25 N/mm 2 , fy=360 N/mm 2
b:=lSO Note 1: An alternative method for calculating the balanced area of steel is as
I follows:

c" 690 MO, , '


--=-:....:- = 0.6S7 '...,.. Cb=( 0.657 x 600)=394.2 mm
d 690+ fl" 690+360 '
o
o
.'".J!, ab=0.8cb = 0.8 (394.2) = 315.36 mm

........
As 0.67 Jr" b a"
1.5
Asb 1;.
=--
US

0.67 x 2Sx 150x 315.36 As" x360


1.5 1.15
Solution
To detennine whether the section is under-or-over-reinforced, one has to
calculate the balanced area of steel Asb .

~rom the c,ode Tabie 4~lor Table 2.1 in this,text one can, get :
~ax=5 x 10-4 fcu=5 X 10-4 x 25= 0.0125
AsmiIX =.J1max b4=0.Ol2SxlS0x600=1l2Smm 2
but Cmax= 2/3 Cb ot Asmax= 2/3 Asb
Asb = 3/2 x 1125~1687.5 mm2

.,j
A s min = smaller of
0.22Sm xl50x600=28lmm 2
360 ' =281 mm 2 ••• <As ... o.k
.1.3x(SOO) = 6S0 mm 2

Thus, all sections satisfy the minimum area steel requirements

52
53
Example 2.2 Step 2: Check f s
For the cross-section shown in figure: From Table 2.1 for/y=400N/mm 2 ~ cb/d=0.63
A- Determine the bending moment that the reinforced concrete section can carry
2 Since c/d(0.311) < cJd (0.63) then fs=f/1.15
if As=1200 mm • . . .
B- Determine the maximum area of steel that can be used m thIS sectlOn Since c/d (0.311 )<cmax/d (0.42) then the beam satisfies code requirements
c- Determine the maximum moment that can be resisted by the section
fcu=25 N/mm 2 and fy=400 N/mm
2 (As<Asmax and Mu < Mumax) as will be shown in step 4.1 and 4.2
250
I( )I Step 3: Calculate bending moment Mu

M = As 1;. (d
"1.15
_!!..)
2

M" 1200 x 400 (600_149.51) = 219.23xl0 6 = 219.23 kN.m


1.15 2
•••
Step 4.1: Calculate Maximum Area of steel As.max
From Table 2.1, f.lmax=4.31x10-4/cu
Solution
Step1: Apply equilibrium equation T=C f.lmax = 4.31xl0-4 (25) =0.01077
Assume tension steel yields
As,max= f.lmax b d =0.01077 x 250 x 600
0.67 h" b a = As i y 2
As,max = 1616 mm
1.5 1.15
0.67 x 25 x 250x a 1200x400 Step 4.2: Calculate Maximum 'Moment M u.max
1.5 1.15
From Table 2.1, Rmax= 0.187
a= 149.51 mm
2 2
M = Rmax h" b d 0.187 x 25 X250 X600 = 280,5 kN.m
!:... = a I 0.80 = 0.311 ",max 1'.5 1.5x 10 6
d d
Or, alternatively
aid = 0.249 > ald)min(0.1) .... ok
0.67 fe" = 0.67 x 25 From Table 2.1, cmax/d =0.42
1.5 1.5
I .b=250 . I 0.003 1--1 a max ,=0.8 x 0.42x 60Q == 201.6 mm
- c
uT [7 ro[~
_.. _._.- - - - -.-.-.-.-.-.-.~j.-.- .. - _._.- -'-'-'-'-'-'- M
u,max
As,max 1;. (d- a max )
1.15 2
1616X400(600_ 201.6)= 280.6kN.m
1.15xl06 2

As
••• -
T=As f/1.15=1200x400/1.l5
IFinal results Mu=219 kN.m, As,max=1616 mm 2 and Mumax=280.6 kN.1lll

Stress and strain distribution in the

54 55
Example 2.3
Step 2: Check fs
Detennine whether the cross-section shown in the figure below can withstand an From Table 2 -> cb/d=0.74 and cmax /d=0.5
applied bending moment of 80 kN.m.
2
fcu=30 N/mm and fy=240 N/mm 2 c/d = 0.173 < cJd (0.74) then fs=fJ1.15
Since c/d (0.173 )<cmax/d (0.50) then the beam satisfies code requirements
I( 150 >1
Step 3: Calculate bending moment lAo
M
u
= As 1;.
1.15
(d _!!.)2
As=600mm2
• • M = 600 x 240 (450 _ 62.3) = 52.44 x 106
"1.15 2
= 52.44 kN m
.

Since Mu(52.44 kN.m) is less than the applied moment (80 kN.m), the
Solution
cross-section can not withstand the applied moment (unsafe).
Stepl: Apply equilibrium equation T=C
Assume concrete cover of 50 mm

d = t - cover = 500 - 50 = 450 min

0.67 fe" b a As 1;.


=--
1.5 1.15

0.67 x 30 x 150x a 600 x 240


1.5 1.15

a=62.30mm c=a/0.8=77.8 mm
aid = 0.138 > a/d)min(O.1 0) ., .. ok
0.67 x 30
1.5
,0.003 I---l

o 0
,
_. -. '-. _. -.-. _.
UI
.-._.- .-. - _._. -.
~I
\0

.-.-. -.-. _. -.-.


~
- -._. -. _. _.-
o V')
V') "<t

As=600
• • A, x I, = 600 x 240
Y" 1.15

Stress and strain distribution in the beam Photo 2.6 Reinforced concrete bridge during construction

56 . 57
Example 2.4
Calculate the maximum moment that the beam shown in figure can sustain. 0.67x25
Check whether the cross-section meets the code requirements regarding the 200 1.5
maximum area of steel.
-
I" ·1 0.003 1--1
The material properties are C
fcu=25 N/mm 2 and fy=400 N/mm 2

IE
200
)1
----___iVii
§
0
I£)
('<)

~
As=1700 rnm2
• • Step 3: Re-calculate a
0.67 feu b a = A f
1.5 S S

Beam cross section


0.67 x 25 x 200 x a = 1700x 168000- 600a
1.5 a
Solution
The above equation is a second order equation, solving for "a" gives
Step1: Apply equilibrium equation T=C
a=l95.94 rom c=244.93rom --*c/d=O.69
. 0.67 feu b a = As 1;.
1.5 1.15
f
s
= 600 350 - 244.93 = 257.4 NI mm2 ...
244.93 .
« 1.15
400)
0.67 x 25 x 200 x a 1700x 400
1.5 1.15
Step 4: Calculate bending moment Mu
a=264:76mm c=330.95 mm
M= Af (d-!!:')
u 2 S s
aid = 0.756> ald)min(O.lO) .... ok

Step 2: Check f s Mu = 1700x 257.4 (350- 19~94) = 110.28 x 10 6 = 110.28 kN.m

cld =0.94 > cJd (0.63) tension reinforcement does not yield, we have to
recalculate "a" thus fs equals Note: Since the steel does. not yield, the cross-section is considered over-
reinforced. Thus, the cross-section does not meet code requirements
is"" 600 d -c= 600 0.8x350~a = 168000-600xa
c a a (c/d(0.69»c max/d(0.42».

58 59
Example 2.5 Step 2: Check cmax/d
A 3 mm steel plate with a yield strength of 400 N/mm 2 is glued to a concrete From the code cmax/d for (1;,=360 N/mm2 )=0.44
beam reinforced with steel bars (4 (fJ16, h=360 N/mm2 ) as shown in figure. = 0.44 x 700 = 308 mm .
C max
Determine the bending moment that the reinforced concrete· section can resist.
The concrete compressive strength of the beam is 20 N/mm2. c<C max ... o.k (steel yields)

IE
200
>1 The depth of the plate d p= h+tpl2=750+3/2=75 1.5 mm
. d -c
The stress in the plate = 600 _P-

f]
isl'
e
e C
0
V)
t- 751.5-285.6 2 400
iL i sl' = 600 '=978.78N Imm >-(steel plate yields
285.6 , 1.15
i
sl'
=400/1.15)
•••• 4 (fJl 6
--t;teel plate Step 3: Calculate the ultimate moment Mu
~
1:p=3mm Take the moment about the concrete force C
150mm

Solution
M=T (d -::"')+T(d
u 2 t -::...)
2 2 P

Step1: Apply equilibrium equation T=C


Area of the plate Ap= 3 x 150 = 450 mm2 M
u
= As i).
1.15
(d _::...)+
2· 1.15
AI' i>1' (d _::...)
I' 2
Area of the steel bars = 4<1>16 = 804 mm 2
C=Tl+ T~ M
u
= 8041 x15360 (700 _ 228.48) + 450 x 400 (.75 1.5 _ 228.48) -_ 247.17 kN.m
. 2 US 2
Assume that both the plate and steel bars yield
0.67 ie" b a As 1;. AI' i)7>
---"=-.- = - - + - -
1.5 1.15 1.15
!Final results Mu=247.7 kN.DlI
0.67 x 20 x 200 x a 804 x 360 450 x 400
---+---
1.5 1.15 1.15

a= 228.48 mm , C =3:... = 228.480 = 285.6 mm


0.8 0.8

~ . 200 )1 0.003

~I·
- _._0_._._.-.- _._._~. :_._ .. _._._0_._0_,
~I~C
o
o 0
V) .t-
t-

As=804
·_·.. ,"e __ ._ TI~As f/1.15
T2=Ap fyp/1.15
Ap=450

60 61
• Force in the steel
Example 2.6 since 1>.(0.005) > 0.001 then from steel curve!s=320 N/mm2
A reinforced concrete beam has a cross section of concrete dimensions • Force in the concrete
b=200mm and d=450 mm. Calculate the moment capacity and the area of steel The force in the concrete equals the stressed area multiplied by the width b.
using the idealized curves for concrete & steel, without applying safety factors The concrete area can be divided into two parts as shown in the figure below
(Ys=rc=l) for the strain distribution shown in cases A&B. The idealized stress-
0.002
strain curve for the concrete and steel is given below. x = --185.29 = 105.88 mm
0.0035
I I I

;r
200 200
I 0.0035 0.001 xl =185.29-105.88 =79.41 mm

i -~---- ---.--- o{
'"
1._
'<t --

0.005 .. . - - . - 0.0008

Case A Strain Case B Strain

320 N/mm2 23 N/mm2


1:,=0.005

Isometric for
Stress distribution
Steel Concrete
~
C
1
= 23 x 105.88 200 = 243524 N
2 .
0.001 0.002 0.0035
C2 = 23 x 79.41 x 200 = 365286 N

Solution
Case A As (320) = 243524+365286
From the strain distribution, the neutral axis depth "c" is determined as
As=1902 mm2
follows:
Note that the C.G. of force C 1 is at xl3
c __0_.0_0_3:.-5_ =0.411 Y 1= 450-79.4"105.8/3=335.3 mID
d 0.0035+ 0.005
Y2=450-79.4/2= 410.3 mm
c=O.4llx 450= 185.29 mm Mu = C 1 Y 1 +C2 Y2 = (243524 x 335.3 +365286 X410.3)/10 6 =231.53.kN.m

63
·62
Case B Example 2.7
c __ 0'_00_1_ _ = 0.5556 Find the ultimate moment capacity for the cross-section shown in the figure
d 0.001 + 0.0008 below.
c=0.5556 x 450 = 250 mm fcu=30 N/mm 2 , and fy=360 N/mm 2
• Force in the steel
1< 400 )1
since Es(0.0008) < 0.001 then find steel stress from graph

~I
/, = 0.0008 320 = 256 N / mm 2
s 0.001
eForce in the concrete
The concrete force is equal to the compressed area of concrete
multiplied by the width b.
The stress in the concrete is a triangular shape
.from the concrete curve with strain=O.OOI ~ fc=I1.5 N/mm 2 Solution
In this problem we have two unknowns a and Mu..
Step 1: Compute a.
It should be noted that the code permits the use of the stress block for
trapezoidal sections
f,= 11.5 N/mm 2
Concrete
The total compression force C equals to the concrete stress (0.67 fcul1.5)
multiplied by the compressed area Ac. Assume that tension steel has
yielded(fs=fyl 1.15)
oo N 0.0035 0.67 feu Ac As fy
o
o
o o 1.5 1.15
c I
= 11.5 x 250 200 = 287500 N
2
0.67 x 30 x Ac = 1600x360
1.5 1.15
As (256) = 287500
Ac=37378 mm2
Y 1= 450-250/3=366.667 mm

Mu= C 1 X Y 1=(287500x 366.667)/106 =105.41 kN.m

0.001
1
.c/3
~r--- T

As f yt1.15
- L - -..-..\ ... i.·······...··.I···\-···_·····£_ _ _ _l ..............._..-..·.--..-......·..··--......-.J~~~T
8,=0.0008 I· "I
s=400-2 a tan 10
200 Strain Forces

64 65
Example 2.8
400+s Find the ultimate moment capacity that this cross-section can resist. The
Ae =a - - . = a [400-a x tan(10)) material properties for the beam are
2
fcu=20 N/mm2, and fy=400 N/mm2
37378 = 400 a- 0.176 a2
~~
Solving for a 180
a=97.65 mm
200
a 97.65
c =-=--=122.06 mm
0.8 0.8
400
aid = 0.195 > ald)min(O.I) .... ok
2
• •• As=1250 mm
Step 2: Check fs
Since c/d (0.244) < cb/d (0.66), thus steel yields fs=fyf1.15 150 200 150
Since cld (0.244)<c max/d (0.44) then the beam satisfy code requirements

Step 3: Compute moment capacity, Mu


Solution
The concrete force is divided into two parts. The first is the two small Step 1: Compute a.
triangles (C I ) and the second is rectangular C2 • Assume that tension steel has yielded. Since we have two unknowns Mu
and (a), solving the equilibrium equations gives
1
C1 = 2 x-xaxa tan(10") x 0.67 x30 = 22530 N
2 1.5
0.67 x feu X Ac As fy
Taking moment about concrete force C2 (a/2 from the top) 1.5' 1.15

The distance between C I and C2 = 79.65 _ 79.65 = 79.65 0.67 X 20 X Ae _ 1250 X 400
2 3 6 1.5 1.15

1600x360 (97.65) 97.65 Ac=48670 mm2


M,,= 500--- + 22530x-- = 226.3x106 = 226.35 kN.m
1.15 2 6
Since Ac is grater than (200 x 180), thus the distance a is bigger than 180
by the distance X2 as follows

!Final Result: Mu=226.35 kN.1lll 48670 = 200x 180 + 500 x 2

X2 = 25.34 mm
a=180+ X2 =205.34

67
66
0.67 X 20 11.5
2.9 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections by First
0.67 feu /1.5 I-l Principles
To design a reinforced concrete section, the applied factored moment, concrete
strength and steel yield strength must be given. It is then required to calculate
the cross section unknowns including b, d and As.
500 If the beam supports a wall then its width is usually chosen equal to the wall
width (either 120 mm or 250 mm). The width of the beams that do not support
T walls may be reasonably assumed to meet architectural requirements.' The
assumption of the beam width leaves the designer with two unknowns (d, As). In
spite of having two equilibrium equations, one can not get these two unknowns.
This is due to the fact that the stress block depth (a) is also an unknown.
Step 2: Check steel yield stress, fs
Two alternative procedures can be followed:
c= alO.8 =256.675 mm 1. The thickness of the beam is assumed as a function of the span as will be
d=180+200+400-50(cover)=730 mm discussed in Chapter 6 in order to satisfy serviceability requirements such
Since c/d(O.35)<Cb/d(O.63), fs=f/1.15 as deflection (span/lO). This procedure is usually followed by practicing
engineers. Apply the two equilibrium equations to obtain the remaining
Since c/d(0.35)<cmax/d (0.42) then the beam satisfy the code requirements unknowns (a, As)
Step 3: Compute moment capacity 2. The area of steel As can be assumed. A reasonable assumption for such an
area can be obtained by assuming that the lever arm equals·to O.8d. Since
Taking moment about the tension force concrete compressive strength has a limited effect on the ultimate
capacity, a further simplification can be attained by assuming that /cu=25
N/mm 2 • Solving Eq; 2.9.A and 2.11.A for the area of steel As> one can get

c = 0.67 x20 200x180 321.60 kN . = 73 0 -180


---*Y - = 640 mm As =O.l1~Mufy b. ....................................... (2.31)
t 1.5 1000 t 2

c = 0.67 x20 500x25.34 113.2 KN 25.34 ..


---*Y 2 =730-180---=537.33 mm
The assumed As is approximately 0.9-1 % ofthe cross sectional area ()J.~0.009-
2 1.5 1000 2 0.01). After assuming the area of steel, one can apply the two equilibrium
equations to calculate the remaining unknowns (a, d). The procedure for using
Mu =321.6x 640 +113.2 x 537.33 =266.65 kN.m
this approach is illustrated in example 2.10.
100 1000

IFinalResult: Mu=266.64 kN.1Dl

68 69
Pro~edure
Example 2.9
o Step1: Make the necessary assumptions to keep only two unknowns
A singly reinforced concrete beam with a width of 250 mm is subjected to an
• Assume the beam depth (d) or assume f.l=0.01. ultimate moment of 270 kN.m. Find the beam depth and area of steel, then
Calculate Asmax and Mumax. fcu=30 N/mm 2 and fy=400 N/mm 2
• Or, assume area of steel, As = (0.1- 0.11) ~M u b
Solution
i).
• If"b" is not given (assume b=120, 200, or 250 mm) In this example we have three unknowns a, d, As and we have only two
equilibrium equations, thus we have to assume one of the unknowns.
o Step2: Apply equilibrium equation T=C to find the depth of the stress Step 1: Assumptions
block, "a" (Eq.2.9) I1m• x =4.3IxI0-4 x 30=0.0129

o Step3: Take the moment about the concrete force and calculate the Assume f.l<f.lmax ~~Assume f.l=0.01

area of steel or the beam depth (Eq. 2.11) As = f.l b d = 0.01 x 250 x d =2.5 d ........... (1)

o Step 4: Check minimum area of steel Asmin (Eq. 2.30) .Step 2: Calculate a
0.67 feu b a As fy
o Step 5: Check the code limits Mu,max, cm.Jd, As.max(Eq. 2.21)
1.5 1.15

0.67 x 30 x 250 x a 2.5 d x 400


1.5 1.15
a=0.2596 d
aid = 0.2596 > ald)min(O.l) .... ok
0.67 x30
250 1.5
1•
"I 0.003 I--i

._.- - ---.- - _._.-.-


ur- -
roI
- - -'---'-'-'-'-'- _.-.-
C

- -

........................ Es>Ey

Calculation of As, d

Step 3: Calculate d
M = As 1;. (d _!!:..)
u 1.15 2
Photo 2.7 Reinforcemcnt placement in a slab-bcam roof

70
71
270x 10 6 = 2.5 400 d (d 0.2596 d) --d=597mm Example 2.10
1.15 2 A singly reinforced concrete beam is subjected to an ultimate moment of 330
kN .m. Find the beam depth and area of steel.
From Eq. (1) ............. As = 2.5 d =1493 mm 2
The material rroperties are:
Rounding d to the nearest 50mm, d=600 mm and As= 4<\122 (1520 mm2) fcu=25 N/mm and fy=280 N/mm2

Step 4: Check Asmin Solution


0.22550 250 x 600 = 460 mm 2
400 Step 1: Assumptions
= 460 mm 2 <As ···o.k
In this example we have four unknowns b, a, d, As and we have only two
1.3 x 1493 = 1940 mm 2
equilibrium equations, thus we shall assume two (b, As)
Assume b=200 mm
Step 5: Check
=O.l1~Mub
Asmax, Mumax x 6
A =0;11 330 10 x200=1689mm 2
• ~ 2W
From the code ~max= 4.3lx 10-4 feu cmax/d =0.42 and Rmax=0.187
~max = 4.31xl0-4 (30) =0.01293
0.67 feu
amax =0.8 x 0.42x 600 = 201.6 mm
b=200 1.5
As,max = ~max b d =0.0129 x 250 x 600 =1939 mm > As ....... o.k
2
I" , -I 0.003 I---l

M = As.maX fy ·(d _ a max .) = 1939x 400 (600- 201.6) = 337 kN.m ________1 ___ J____~
u.max 1.15 2 · 1.15 X 106 2

...
OR
. 2
0.187 x 30x 250x 600 2
As
M = Rmax feu b d
337 kN.m
L5 , -"_._,",--"-
u.max
1.5xl0 6 Es>Ey

0.67 x30
250
1~ -I 0.003 ~

J"I J,,1
._. _. _. _. _. _. _. ._. _._.... ._. -. ._. _. -.~. _.- ".-.-
c Step 2: Calculate a

0.67 feu b a = As f),


1.5 1.15

Asmax 0.67 x 25x 200x a 1689x280


• • • -'-"'---'---- 8 ,_._----._---,---_..- 1.5 1.15
8 >_y_ Asmax f/1.l5
s 1.15
a=184.12 mm
Calculatiou of Mumax
Step 3: Calculate d
2.10 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections Using
M = As 1;, (d _~) Curves
"1.15 2
Design aids are very useful tools in designing reinforced concrete sections. To
prepare the design aids, equilibrium equations and compatibility of strains are
330X106=1689X280(d_184.l2) ---? d=895mm utilized. There are several charts that can be used in the design process. We
1.15 2
shall present several design charts followed by design examples to explain how
aid = 0.205 > ald)min(O.I) .... ok to use such design aids.
2.10.1 Design Charts (R-ll)
Use d=900 mm 1=950 mm and As= 1689 mm2
Applying the equilibrium equation for the forces shown in Fig. 2.13

0.67 Ie" b a As I),


Step 4: Check AS min
1.5 1.15
0.225.fi5 Dividing by (b x d) and noting that !-L=A/(b .d)
--":-200x 900 = 719 mm 2
280
a 1.5xJ-lxJ;, J-lxI)'
Asmin =smaller of d= 0.67 X 1.15 x Ie" =1.9468-I,-e"-·······································(2.32)
1.3 X1689 = 2195 mm 2
Taking moments about the concrete force C
Step 5: Check
M" = ~~l;' (d -%) .................................................... (2.33)
Asmaxi Mumax

Since c/d(0.26) < cmax/d (0.48) then As<Asmax and Mu<Mumax


Dividing Eq. 2.33 by b x d 2 gives
!Final design d=900 mm, t=950 mm and A.=1689 mm~
~"2.= ~.~ (l-i%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:. . . . . . . . . . . (2.34)
200
I"
i
• iI' Substituting with Eq. 2.32 in Eq. 2.34 gives

R" = MIl2
bd
= fy (1-0.9734 f.1X
f.1
1.15 feu
1,.) ..................................... (2.35)·.
o
II")
0\

•••
••• 6<1>20 (As=1885 mnl) I" b .1 0.003

Final design

Note
1. The reinforcement is arranged in two rows.
2. The depth of the beam is measured from the c.g ofthe reinforcement.
... As
.................... AJ/J.J5

Fi2. 2.13 Equilibrium of forces in rectangular sections


Substituting different values of J..L in the Eq. 2.35, the relation between Ru, J..L can 2.10.2 Design.Chart (R-ro)
be established. Fig. 2.14 shows an example of such curves. Appendix A Defining ro as
contains R-J..L design charts.
fy
W=fL-
feu
Subsisting the value of ro in Eq. 2.32 gives

.::. = 1.9468 W
d
Dividing Eq. 2.35 by feu gives
6.0
1",=4 MPa
5.5 ./ Rl= Mu =~(l-0.9734fLfy) ......................... (2.37)

r~ ~
2
.feu' OMPa fy 240 ~ feu b d 1.15 feu feu
MPa
5.0
V
4.5
fy=3 o~m jn2
/ 'C:35 Pa
~ Rl = -
W
(1- 0.9734 W) ...................................... (2.38)
.

I~ ~
) ~ 30 1.15
4.0
~5
~30 V Substituting different values of ro in the Eq. 2.3 8, the relation between Rl, co
3.6 ~ A
can be established. The curve should be terminated at the value of CO max listed in
3.0
~ ~5 ~~ Table 2.1 and Eq. 2.23. Fig. 2.15 shows an example of such curves. Appendix A

~f
~2(
~
contains Rl-co design chart.
2.5

2.0
~ 0.15 ~.-. . -.-.~ -'.~~fY~!ID~l·................ ~~ ~~.............~'.~~~ ~T'l
V
~
l-I
"'T. •• -••

0.14 ................................................................... ~ I
1.5 J fy", jlo N' fm ./ :
0.13 +:~::.,.j:~::~::t...::=::+-:=::..t:~~"4";':.vcr!;
.. ~~f:~;;"'.:..t:=::."".::=::=:""'::=::+-:~::.,.j:=::=:.~::=::+-:=::,.j,:=:~.;. ,J:V=,,,ry
.. ~+--+-+---,
1.0
V.., V A =Lxbxd±~ 0.12 +--1--1--+--+---l---l--+--+--+--+--+--+--+-V---6....q.;.-I;---+--+~-1
/y 11.15
~
.. II" .< 100 0.11 +--+--+--+-+-I-+-+---+--+--+-+-I--7"'F--+---1-=--t---+--++---j
0.5 L V '
til n~
0.10 +--+--+--+--+---+--+--+--+-+--t.-...j
..,..?-I-1-+-+--+---+-.;..r-:--t---l
0.09 +-+----1---+-+--1-+--+-+--+
V " , , : 'E <E: '6
.. VA--+---1-+--~~§-I-:-:-i'zf--+",.:j;zH::-il
I
.E>z;--l---I
0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 28 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 Ii 0.08 +-+---I---+-+--1I-+--+-¥./--I---+-+~I-+--H;0*'~°f--Ho++:~O:--l---I
Jl '/
0.07 +--1--+--+--+--+---+-/'7"F--+--+-1---t--1----iI-j--i-,g~++:.-=t--+-=;t-=:--t--1!1
b ~ r~
!:
0.06 +-+-.J--.J--j:.-/-+,..~-+-+-+_+_-I--+-.J--l-4-I+:-+--+---;-1--;-+-1\
0.05 +-.J--+--j:.-V-¥-+---+-+-+--I---I--+-+---+--I---I~c----t-:+'-:-+--l
Fig. 2.14 Example of Ru-J..L design curve
0.M+-+-4/~~~I---1-j--+-+--+--+--+--+--+--b-l;----+-+~--t

.0.03 +--/-+v~~f--+-+--+--+--+--+-+--+---1c--1-+-+-'-t---+--+~~
0.02 ~+--+--+-+-I-+-+---+--+--'+-+-I-+--I---+-+-+~---:.-t--
I
0.01 I I
+-.J...-+-~-+_L....+-..L--+---'---+---'--I-..l-..-+--->";"-f---L---;..j---:'-.I..-.....-j
I
0.02 O.M 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22
(j)

Fig. 2.15 Example of Rl-ro design curve


Summary Note 4: If the both (As and d) are not given, consider assuming 1l=0.008-0.0 1
The following table illustrates the use of the charts depending on the example and proceed as the previous procedure
information:
Note 5: It should be noted that we have to check Asmin using Eq. 2.30 even if
d is given, A. required A. is given, d required ll>!!min on the curve, because the curve tests only the value of 1.11J;,
1. Calculate Rl or Ru or Ku 1. Calculatq.l or ro Note 6: Since sometimes the beam depth is not known, a reasonable
2. Use charts (R-ro or R-l! 2. Use the charts to detennine estimation for "d" can be concluded by assuming a=O.l d and ,
or Ku-l!) to detennine l! or ro RlorRuorKu 1l=0.01 and substituting in Eq. 2.34. gives: .
3. Calculate As 3. Calculate d
4. Check Asmin and Asmax 4. Check Asmin and Asmax
d = ll~ :;)' ................................,............ (2.36)

A., d required
1. Assume Rl=1I2RmaX (R:::::O.07) Note 7: The design curves can be presented in a tabular fonn (Ru-ll) or (Ru-
2. Use the charts to detennine ro Ku) as given in appendix A
3. Calculate d, As
d2 = Mu A = (j) b d feu
feu b Rl S f
4. Check Asmin and Asmax

Note 1: Each curve terminates at the value of the maximum reinforcement


ratio !!max orm max . Thus, there is no need to check the maximum
moment,or the maximum area of steel as long as the point is less than
the maximum limit.

Note 2: It should be noted that beam depth needs to be increased if the point
is located outside the curve as shown in Fig. 2.16.

Rl>Rl max

Rl max Rwnax

llmin !!max

Fig. 2.16 Cases where the beam depth need to be increased

Note 3: For small values ofRl«0.04), m can be approximated by m=1.2 R1. Photo 2.8 Trammell Crow Center (209m ,50 stories)
Example 2.11
Step 3: Check A smin , Asmax
A reinforced concrete cross-section is subjected to a bending moment of a
factored value of 400 kN .m. The beam has a width of 200mm. It is required to
design the cross section using the (Rl-ro) curve, knowing that fcu=30 N/mm2
Asmin = smaller of
0.
225
/,.
.JJ:: bd = 0.225$0
280
X200X95. 0=836..1
. 2
and fy=280 N/mm 2 . =836mm <As····f)·k
1 l.3As = l.3x1899 = 2469

Solution Since R\<R 1•max thus A.;;<A.;;max ....... o.k.

Step 1: Assume f.1 and get Rl


Since both (As and d) are not given, then -t""'+ assume f.1=0.01 !Final Result: d=950 mm, t=1000 mm, As=1899 mm~

cv = fl iL = 0.01 280 = 0.0933


fe" 30 200
I..
~
•I
~
From the chart with ro=0.0933, Rl=0.074

o
o
o

Rl max

• • •• As=1899 mm2

Rl=0.074
Final design

0)=0.093 romax

Step 2: Compute d, .As


Rl M" 2
feu bd
6
0.074= 400x10
30 X200 Xd 2

d=949mm

A =0.0933x200x949~=1899mm2
s 280
Take d=950 mm; t=lOOOmm
Example 2.12 Example 2.13
A reinforced concrete cross-section is subjected to a bending moment of a A reinforced concrete cross-section is subjected to a bending moment of a
factored value of 350 kN.m. The beam has a width of 250mm. It is required to factored value of 290 kN.m. The beam has a width of 150mm. It is required to
design the cross section using the (Ru-Il) curve, knowing that fcu=25 N/mm2 design the cross section using the (Ru-ku) table, knowing that the material
2
and fy=400 N/mm2 . . properties are fcu=40 N/mm2 and fy=360 N/mm .
Solution
Solution
Step 1: Assume 11 and get Ru
Since both (As and d) is not given, then, Step1: Assume J.1 and get Ku
Assume R=1I2 Rmax ~-+.~ Ru=2.4
Assume J.1= 0.8% (0.008)
From the curve 11= 0.8% (0.008) From the table (Ru-ku) with fy=360 N/rrim 2 determine Ku=0.655

Step 2: ComP':lte d, As
,----,--
~Mu
6
Rumax d =K =0.655 290xl0 =910.74mm
u b 150
2 2
A, = J1 b d = 0.008x150 x910.74 = 1093 mm = 10.93 cm

d=950 mm t=1000 mm
Note: use the calculated depth (910 mm) to calculate As
Step 3: Check A smin , Asmax
1-1=0.80% Ilmax
Step 2: Compute d, As _ !0.225.J]:; bd 0.225.J]:; x150x950=563
=;
2
A,min -smaller of fy 360 . :;563cm <A, ........ D.k
R :; Mu
u b d2 . . l.3A, = 1.3 x 1093 =1421
6
2.4 = 350 x 10 ~~d=763mm
250x d 2
Since J.1 < Ilmax, thus As<Asmax ...... · ... o.k
As = J1 b d = 0.008 x 250 x 763 = 1526 mm 2 = 15.26 cm 2
Take d=800 mm, t=850 mm !Final Result: t=1000 mm, As=1093 mm~
Note: it is more economical to use the calculated depth (763 mm) not the
150
chosen depth (800 mm) to compute As I· •1
1. i

Step 3: Check A smin , Asmax


o
o
.0
_ !0.225.J]:; bd 0.22Sfis x250x800:; 563 2
.-<

Asmin -smaller of fy 400 =563mm <A, ........ IJ.k


. l.3As =1.3x1526=1983 2
... • • •• As=1093 mrn
Since 11 <'Ilmax, thus As<Asmax ........ :.o.k
Final design
Example 2.14 Example 2.15
Redesign the beam in example 2.9 using the design aids (Ru-Jl) and Determine the value of the ultimate load (Pu) that can be applied to the
assuming that d=600 mm beam shown in the figure using design aids.
fcu=25 N/rom2 and fy=360 N/rom2 (Neglect own weight of the beam)

Solution I~I
Step 1: Estimate As
Calculate Ru
R = Mu = 270x10 =3
u bd 2
250x600
6

From the chart ((y=400 N/mm 2 andfcu =30 N/mm 2 )with Ru=3~Jl=0.99
~ I 2700 I 2700 I
§ID
o
o
r--
~ ..
•••• As=1245 mm
2

Solution
As =JLbd= 0.99 250x600= 1485 mm 2
100 A =0) leu bd
Compare the previous value with As obtained from example 2.9 (1493 mm2) S I),
1245 = m ~ 200x 700
360
m=0.128
From the chart (R1-m) with m=0.128 get Rl=0.097
~~~~ __ \ - ___ _ t~u=30
Rwnax _____________________

R,,=3 1-_ _ _ _ _ _- . / Rl rnax

RleO.097

Jlmin 11=0.99 Jlmax


Rl= Mil
V m=O.128 mmax
2
feu b d
6
Step 2: Minimum and Maximum, As 0.097= M u x10
25 x 200 X 700 2
Since Ru is less than the Rumax value in the curve , thus A s<A smax
Mu= 237.65 kN.m.
0.225.Ji:: bd 0.22550 x 250 x 600 = 462 The maximum moment occurs at midspan and equals to M u = Pu 4xL
2
Asillin =smaller of f), 400 =462mm <As······ .. n.k
1 l.3As = l.3x1485 = 1930 237.65 = P" x5.4
4
P u=176.04 k.N.
3
DOUBLY REINFORCE-D BEAMS AND T-BEAMS

Photo 3.1 Edgar J. Kaufmann House (Falling-water), Frank


Lloyd Wright 1936, (6 m cantilever)

3.1 Doubly Reinforced Sections


3.1.1 Introduction
Doubly reinforced sections ate those that include both tension and compression
steel reinforcement. In most cases, they become necessary when architectural
requirements restrict the beam depth.
From the economic point of view, it is recommended to design the member as a
singly reinforced section with tension reinforcement only. If the required area of
the tension steel exceeds the maximum area of steel recommended by the code,
compression steel should be added. Adding compression steel reinforcement 3.1.2 Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections
may change the mode of failure from compression failure to tension failure or
may change the section status from over-reinforced to under-reinforced section.
Case A: compression steel yields
Compr<:?ssion steel also reduces long-term deflection and increases beam The. equilibrium of forces and strain compatibility shall be applied to analyze the
ductility. For economic considerations, the Egyptian code recommends limiting sectIOn. The strain distributions and the internal forces in beams with
the compression reinforcement amount to only 40% percent of the tension steel. compression reinforcement are shown in Fig. 3.2. The compressive force is the
sum of two parts; i) concrete force Ce, and ii) compression steel force Cs .
The compression area of steel A ~ is usually expressed as a ratio from the tension
area of steel As as follows: 0.67 fcu 11.5
1-1'
····_·.....··············T·..·r·····..···..··...,···.. ·_···..····· ...................i-- - , C = A's fyl1.15
A; =a As .•.•........•..•..••..•.•....•....•....•.•............ (3.1) s
·····,,--····..······1'···..+--!p',>e/1.I5
c d'
where a usually ranges from 0.1 to 0.4.
0.67 t;,u b a
Despite all of the aforementioned benefits, adding compression steel in
reinforced concrete beams will not increase the section moment capacity
significantly. This is because the tension force is constant (T = As f!1.15) and
the lever arm between the tension force and the resultant ofthe two compressive
d

( 1.5

forces (in concrete and in steel) is slightly affected by adding compression


T=As fy!1.l5
reinforcement. This can be noticed by examining Fig. 3.1. In this figure, the
vertical axis gives the percentage increase in the capacity of a doubly reinforced b
section as compared to an identical one without compression steel. Fig. 3.2 Analysis of sections with compression reinforcement (steel yields)
The use of compression steel is more beneficial when the tension steel provided
is near the maximum allowed percentage of steel Jinwx. Adding compression It will be ass~med that both the compression and the tension steel have yielded. The
reinforcement with a=0.6 will increase the beam capacity by 6 to 13 percent for stress block dIstance "a" is calculated utilizing the equilibrium of forces as follows
beams with 1l=0.8% and fl= f.1max respectively. Compression force = Tension force ............................... (3.2)
Ce + C s = T ........................................................ (3.3)
14

0.67 feu b a A: fy As fy
12 1.5 +l.15=l.15 ....................................... (3.4)
10
The compression steel stress f~ is checked using compatibility of strains as follows:
~=l.O%
,,-..
e's =0.003 c-d'
c'
=0003 a - 0a.8d ' ................................... (3.5)
8
'<f.
'"-'
I's =es, x E s = 600--=600
E-g" 6 =0.8% c-d'
c
a-0.8d'
a
............................... (3.6)
:::s
4 If the value ofls 'in Eq. 3.6 is less thanfJ1.15, the analysis should be carried out
acc~rding to the procedure outlined in case B. On the other hand, if.£....'ln Eq.
2 3.6. IS larger than fJ 1.15, the assumption of yielding of compression steel is
valId and the moment capacity can be determined by taking the moment of the
0 forces around the concrete force as follows:
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

a=A)As u
As Iy (d -2a) +-us-
M --T15 A; Iy (a2- d ,) .................................... (3.7)
Fig. 3.1 Effect of compression reinforcement on moment capacity
Case B: compression steel does not yield Simplified Approach for the Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Applying the equilibrium condition and referring to Fig. 3.3, one gets: Sections
The previous procedure indicates. that the compression steel strain E's is affected
0.67 (;u b a + A; 1,' = ~~ ~... ;........................................ (3.8) . by the distance d' (refer to Fig. 3.3). The compression steel yields if the distance
d' is small compared to the neutral axis distance as presented by Eq. 3.6.
0.67 feu 11.5 Setting fs = f/1.15, one can solve Eq. 3.6 for the maximum d' that ensures
al2 - d'
d' 0.003 t---l yielding ofthe compression reinforcement:
Cs~ A's f_,_ _ _ .1
0.67 feu b a
d: =1.25(1:'" ~~) ............................................... (3.12)
ax

1.5
d If the value of the actual d' /a is less than the value d'max/a, the compression steel
will yield and f~ equals to f/1.15. Table 3.1 lists the values of d'max/a that
ensures yielding. .
As
• -I
. lOs> lOy/LIS fy/l.lS
The ECP 203 presents a simplified approach for such an analysis. It permits
assuming that the compression steel yields if the ratio of the compression steel
I- depth d' to tension steel depth d is less than the values given in Table 3.1,
b
otherwise a compatibility of strains (Eq.3.6) has to be utilized.

Fig. 3.3 Analysis of sections with compression reinforcement


(steel does not vield) Table 3.1 Values of (d') to ensure yielding of compression steel
fiN/mmi) 240 280 360 400
Substituting the expression off~ from Eq. 3.6 into Eq. 3.8 gives:
d'/d at c<cmax(code-values) ~0.20 ~0.20 ~ 0.15 ~ 0.10
04466 r b a + A 600 (a - 0.8d')
, A, -
=- fJ' ............................... (3 .9)
'. J cu , a 1.15 d'fd at c""'c max (max. values) ~0.326 ~ 0.285 ~0.210 ~ 0.176

This can be reduced to a second order equation in terms of the stress block d' fa at c:S;c max ~ 0.815 ~0.74 ~0.60 ~ 0.525
distance (a), given by

0.4466 feu b a 2 -(A, fy /l.lS-600x A; ) a-480A; d' =0 ...................... (3.10)

Solution of Eq. 3.10 gives the value of "a". The moment capacity can be
determined by taking the moment around the concrete force as follows:

M=A;.{~. (d -~)+A:f/(~-d') ..................................(3.11)


n

Note that the positive sign indicates that the compression steel force C s is
assumed to be located above the concrete compression force C e·
3.1.3 Maximum Area of Steel for Doubly Reinforced
The simplified approach for the analysis of a doubly reinforced section can be
Sections
summarized in the following steps
To ensure ductile failure of a doubly reinforced section, the neutral axis distance
Given :jeu,fy, b, d: d, As and A ~ C max is limited to that of the singly reinforced section as given in Table 4-1 in the
Required :Mu code or Table 2.1 given in Chapter 2. Thus, increasing the tension reinforcement
above As,max is allowed by the code only by adding compression reinforcement
Case A: check if d'/d< code limits (Table 3.1), then compression steel yields. that keeps the same neutral axis distance as shown in Fig. 3.4.1.
• Step 1 calculate "a" using Eq. 3.4. A doubly reinforced section can be looked at as composed of a singly reinforced
concrete section and a steel section. The singly reinforced section (Fig. 3.4.II)
• Step 2 calculate Mu using Eq. 3.7. has an area of steel equal to As,max obtained from Table 2.1, and the steel section
has the same amount of top and bottom steel of area A ~ (Fig 3.4.III). Thus, the
maximum area of steel for a doubly reinforced section Asd,max is given by

Case B: check if d'/d> code limits (Table 3.1), then compression steel does not yield Asd,max = As,max +A; .................................................. (3.13)
• Step 1 calculate "a" using Eq. 3.8 or Eq. 3.10.

• Step 2 calculate Mu using Eq. 3.1l.

A sd .max = A1s ,max .........,.......................................... (3.14a)


-a

~/' = Pm., (for singly rft section (Table 2. 1) ...................... (3.14b)


',max I-a

IAsd,max = Pmax b d + A;I ................................... ·...... ·.. ·(3.15)

where J..lmax is obtained from Table 2.1.


The yielding of the compression reinforcement can be verified by comparing the
ratio d'/d and with the maximum allowed value given in Table 3.1. If the
compression steel does not yield, the maximum area of steel can be obtained
from:

A I = II bd+A' f.', ................................. (3.16)


s< ,max rmax s f y /1 •
15 .

Maximum Moment Calculation


Referring to Fig. 3.4, the maximum moment for doubly reinforced sections
Mud,max can be calculated using the following procedure
Mud,max = Mu,max +M' .................................................... (3.17)

M u<I ,max =M u,max + A; fy (d -d') .................................. (3.18)


1.15
M I = Rmax feu
bd 2 A' f
+-'-" (d -d') .............................. (3.19)
'" .max 1.5 1.15
0.003

where Rmax is obtained from Table 2.1 Cs


M ud•max d' I-----Cc
An alternative procedure to obtain the maximum moment is to take the moment
around the concrete compression force. Referring to Fig.3.4.I, the maximum
moment is given by:
d
( Asd,max
M ",I.max
= A"I.ma., i"
1.15
(d _amax2 )+ A;1.15i" (a 2 -d') ................... (3.20)
max ~.-----·-- .....---•••• - .....11·• • • • •·1-.----.---.-......- .....--....___...~__~_. __...... _ ......____
Es>Ey!1.l5
-L~____~_

T=Asd.max f/l.15
b
Note that if the calculated neutral axis location "c" is less than the maximum 1- Doubly reinforced cross-section
value allowed by the code "c max" then the following rule applies:

i, = 1;. 11.15
J1 < J1dmax M u•max
then .
[ A, < A,d.max
Mu < Mud.ma.,
d
(
~. ____· ·____·_.________II...As.max
• ._I. . . . ____,·_. . ____·_..____·.. __ . ·____· ·__. _· __·__·__·_l______-L._
~ ~

E,>E/1.15 T [=As,max f/l.15


b
11- Singly reinforced section with A. max

M' · · ]'
-.. .--..--.. . . . ..------.,...--.*. .?~. -.. . .---.. . . . . . . .-.. . .-....... ?:??!.......---.. . ...

( _________ .L________
A's t N
Cs=A's f/1.15
~~-----
~
d

A's
......... __....____ ........ _.. _......_....._.............. ___._... __.. __........_....__.. ....... _....... _........______.. ..L..---I__~~

1':,>1':/1.15
b
111- Section with A'stop and bottom

Fig. 3.4 Maximum moment and area of steelfor doubly reinforced sections
Photo 3.3 Peachtree Tower (1990), Atlanta IJSA (235m, 50 stories)
Example 3 .1 (compression steel yields)
Find the moment capacity of the cross-section shown in Figure. Assume that d' 0.67 x 25 x 200x a 402 x 400 1520x400
+ =----
= 50 mm and the material properties are: 1.5 1.15 1.15
2
feu = 25 N/mm a= 174.1 mm
2
fy = 400 N/mm
c = alO.S = 217.6 mm

• 2<D16 aid = 0.317 > ald)min(O.I) .... ok


• c/d = 217.6/550 = 0.396
o
o
\0
Step 2: Check f sand f's

• • •• 4<D22 , c-d' 217.6-50 400 .


1.= 600 - - = 600 = 462 > - .. .ok .... (compression steel yields)
c 217.6 l.l5
I. 200 .1
d -c 550-217.6 400
Is = 600 - - = 600 917> - .. .ok .... (tension steel yields)
c 217.6 l.l5
Solution OR
As = 4<D22 =15.2 -cm
2
= 1520 mm
2 • Since d'/d(0.09) <0.1 or d'/a (0.287)«0.52, Table 3.1)then
2 2
compression steel yields
A's = 2<D16 =4.02 cm = 402 mm
e' Since c/d(0.396) < (cJd = 0.63, Table 2.1) then tension steel yields
d = 600 - 50 = 550 mm
Step 1: Compute a. Step3: Compute moment capacity, Mu
d' 1d = 50/550 = 0.09 .Taking moment around concrete force C, and applying Eq. 3.7.
Since d'/d (0.09) <0.1 (Table 3.1), one can assume that compression steel
yields. This assumption will be ~hecked in step 2. Applying Eq. 3. 4 gives:
M = As 1;. (d _~)+ A; 1;. (~-d')
u 1.15 2 1.15 2
0.67 feu b a A; 1;. As 1;.
---"--=-- + - - = - -
1.5 1.15 1.15 Thus

0.67 feu M
u
= 1520x 400 (550_ 174. 1
1.15 2
)+ 402X400(174.1_ 50)
1.15 2
A's=402 0.003

Mu = 249.94x10 6 = 249.94 kN.m

!Final Result: Mu = 249.94 kN.IllI


A s=1520
••• .--'-_--1 __...._ .._._....._.. As f/1.I5=1520 x 400/1.15 I
I.
200
"I

95
I
i

I 96
Example 3.2 Example 3. 3 (compression steel does not yield)
Calculate the maximum area of steel and the maximum moment capacity that is Find the mom~nt capacity of the cross-section shown in figure.'
allowed by the Egyptian Code (ECP 203) for the doubly reinforced section feu = 30 N/mm , and fy = 400 N/mm 2
sh~n in Example 3.1. The material properties are: feu = 25 N/mm 2 and fy = 400
N/mm2 d'=100
I 250 .1

·
i :

~I-
• A's

.j!,

• • •• Asd.max • • •• 1900 mm2


,. 200 • ,

Solution Solution

Step 1: Ca'culate maximum area of steel d= 750 - 50 = 700 mm


From Table 2.1 and for fy = 400 N/mm 2 : ~max = 4.31x 10.4 feu, Step 1: Compute a.
since d'/d (0.09) < 0.176 (at c = cm•x), table 3.1, then compression steel has yielded d' 100 .
Asd.max = ~max b d + A's
d = 700 = 0.143 > 0.10 (see table 3.1) ... compression steel does not yield'
Asd.max = (4.31 X 10-4 x 25) 200 x 550 + 402 = 1587 mm2 > A.(l520) ....... o.k We can use Eq 3.8 or Eq 3.10 to calculate a

Step 2: Calculate max.imum moment capacity 0.67 feu b a + A' t: = A, fy


1.5 "1.15
From Table 2-1: Rmax = 0.187, cmax/d = 0.42 for fy = 400 N/mm 2
Using Eq.3 .19 to find Mud.max
2
0.4466fcu ba -(A, J;./1.l5-600xA; )a-480A; d'=O .- .'
M =R max
I"
J cu
bd 2 +_'_Y
A' f' (d _ d')
2
uli.ma, 1.5 1.15 3350 a - 360869 a - 24 x 10 6 =0
Solving for the only unknown "a"
2
M ud •max =[0.187X25X200X550 + 402X400(550_50)]110 6 =258.5kN.m
1.5 1.15' a =154.2 mm-"'~ c = 192.73 mm
0.67 feu
The same result can be obtained using Eq.3.20 as follows: 2S0 1.5

amax= 0.8 C max= 0.8 x 0.42 x 550 =184.8 mm


11 '1 0.003 1--1

Mud.max. = A,t1.1.15
max J;. (d _amax )+ A; J;.(a max2. -d')
2' . 1.15
.!..~s:?_~t ~-~~:~r~ ._~~.~~~~~~_._._ ~~~~~s.~:
As=1900
M '. =1587X400(550_ 184.8) 402X400(184.8_50)~2585kN
",I.max 1.15 ~ 2 + 1.15 2 ..m •• • Asf/1.1S

QR
3.1.4 Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections Using First
Step 2: Check fs and f's. Principles
The same procedure used in designing singly reinforced sections is used for the
I' 192.73-100 2 400 design of doubly reinforced sections. The unknowns in these types of problems
J s= 600 288.6 N / mm < - compression steel does not yield
192.73 1.15 are the beam depth, area of steel, neutral axis position and the ratio of the
compression steel a.
Since c/d(0.27S) < cJd = 0.63 then tension steel yields fs = fILlS
Given :!cu,/y, M u, h, d'
Step 3: Compute Mu Required : d, As and A's
Unknowns: a, d, As and A's
Taking moment around concrete force Cc
Since we have only two equilibrium equations, we have to limit the unknowns to
M = As1.15
n
I), (d -::")-A'!'(d'-::")
2 s s 2
= AJ),
1.15
(d -::")+A'I'
2 s . s'(::"-d')
2 only two. If not given, the depth of the compression steel will be assumed 0.05-
0.1 of the beam depth to ensure yielding of compressed bars for all steel grades.
The design procedure can be summarized in the following steps:
M = 1900x 400 (700- 154.2)+ 500x 288.6 (154.2 -100).= 408.3xl0 6 = 408.3 kN.m
u 1.15 2 . 2
1. Make the necessary assumptions
d' =0.05-0.10 d (compression steel yields for all fy)
Assume As = f.l b d -+(/-lmax for singly reinforced section (Table 4.1))
!Final Resnlt: Mu = 408.3 kN.1I1I Assume a=0.2-0A and
max

Equilibrium of forces gives


0.67 leu ba
----"-''''--- +
(a x As) 1;. As Iy
= --
1.5 1.15 1.15
Get a=J.d
Taking moment around the concrete force gives

M= As1.151;. (d _~)+
u
A; 1;. (!!..-d')
2' 1.15 2

Solve the above equation to determine (a, d), then calculate


As = f.lmax b d

2. Check the minimum area of steel

3. Check the maximum area steel and the maximum moment by ensuring that
(c/d<cmax/d)

00 100
Example 3.4
The doubly reinforced section shown in figure is subjected to a bending moment Step 2: Compute beam depth d
ofa factored value of200 kN.m. Taking moment around concrete force Cc
d' "" 50 mm, fcu = 27 N/mm2, and fy = 280 N/mm 2
Use the first principles to determine the required beam depth. M = As
u,
fy (d
1.15
_!!:.)+
2
A; fy (!!:.-d')
1.15 2
1< 250 ) 1

• • A's=509 mm
2
200x106= 2260x 280
1.15
(d _141.4)+
2,
509X280(141.4 -50)
1.152

d=429.5 mm
2
• • •• As=2260 mm Step 3: check f sand f's
d'/d = 50/429.5 = 0.116
Solution
Since d'/d = 0.116 <0.2 (code limit for mild steei see table 3.1), thus
step 1: Compute a.
Assume that both compression and tension steel has yielded. fs= fl1.15
This assumption will be checked later
c/d = 176.75/429.5 = 0.4115
Given : fcu,J;" M u, b, d', As and A's
Required :d From Table 2.1 cmax/d = 0048 for fy = 280 N/mm 2
Unknowns : a, d
Since we have two unknowns only in this example, nothing needs to be
assumed. Apply the first equilibrium equation:
Is = Iy /1.15
0.67 feu b a + A; fy = As f" fL <'fLdmax
.: ':"(0.411)::; c max (0.48) th en , 2
1.5 1.15' 1.15 d d As (22.6 cm ) < ASd, .m,ax ,
(
0.67 x 27 x 250 x a 509 x 280 2260 x 280 Mu(200 kN.m) < M ud .max
------+---
1.5 1.15 1.15
a= 141Amm
c =a/0.8 =176.75 mm IFinal Result: d = 450 inm and t = 500 inlDl

250

n
250 I• ~ I
1< >1 2
A ~h/l.15=509x280/1.15 . , A' s=509
r •- - - -,- ' mm

·A's=509 • (')1 0.003


o
_. ._. - ' - ' _. ---' _. .-. - ._._. . -.-. .-.-.-~.- '_._.- o
V'l

• • •• As=2260 mm2
As=2260
••• 1--""~15==2260x280/I.15

101 102
1
Example 3.5 Step 3: Apply the second equilibrium equation, Eq. 3.7
A reinforced concrete cross-section is subjected to 265 kN.m. Architectural . Taking moment around concrete force Cc
considerations require limiting the thickness of the section as much as possible.
Economic considerations limited the value of a to 0.3. According to these
M= As1.151;. (d _::..)+
II 2
A;1.15fy (::"-d')
2
constraints, design the cross section. Check the maximum area of steel and the
maximum moments allowed by the code knowing that: 265xl06 = 3.75 360 dx (d- 0.2453 d)+ 1.125 d 360(0.2453 d-0.1 d)
X

b = 250 rom, feu = 30 N/mm2, and fy = 360 N/mm 2 1.15 2 1.15 2


265 x 106 = 1037.9 d 2
Solution
. Step 1: Assumptions d= 505.29 mm
Given :/cu,/y,Mw b, a(A'J As = 3.75 d = 3.75 x 505.29 =1894.8 mm 2
Required : d, d', As A; = 1.125 d = 568.45 nim 2
Unknowns : a, d, d', As Take d = 550 mm, d' == 0.1 d = 55mm
We have four unknowns, thus we shall assume two (d' and AS(Il))
1. Assume d' = 0.10 d and t= 600mm

2. Assume 11 = Ilmax - (for singly reinforced section) Step 4: Calculate minimum area of steel
11= 5x 10-4 feu =5 x 10-4 X 30=0.015
As = Jl b d = 0.015x 250xd =3.75 d . 10.
225
.JJ: bd = 0.225.J3Q x250x550 = 470 = 470cm 2 <A s ..... 1J.k
Asmin =smaller of f J• 360
A; = a As = 0.3x3.75 d = 1.125 d
1.3As = 1.3 x 1895 = 2462
Step 2: Apply the equilibrium equation T=C Eq.3.4
Assume that compression and tension steel has yielded.
Step 5.1: Calculate maximum area of steel
0.67 fell b a A; Iy As Iy Since d'/d (0.1) < 0.21 (from Table 3.1) and even less than the code value
---=.=-- +-- =--
1.5 1.15 1.15
of 0.15, we can assume that compression steel yields.
0.67 x 30 x 250 x a 1.125 d x 360 3.75 d x 360 . -4
-----------+--------
1.5 1.15 ("1.15 A sd.max = Jlmax b d + A ~ = 5x10 x 30 x 250 (550) + 568.45
2
a= 0.2453 d A.d,max = 2631 mm > As(1895) .... o.k. ! 250.!
2
aid = 0.2453 > ald)min(O.I) .... ok • • A's=568 rnm
0.67 fell o
o
~ Step 5.2: Calculate maximum moment

=
\0
250
I" -I 0.003 A's fy/Ll5

. . .... ....
2 2
M = Rmax fell b d + A; 1;. (d -d') • • • • As=1895 rnm

.~ ~~~ ~ ~r ~ l . . ~e
",I.max 1.5 1.15
Final design
From Table 2.1 R max=0.194

... As
-....
............ As f/1.15
M.
",/.max 1.5 1.15'
2
=0.194x30 x 250x550 + 568x360(550_55) =381kN.m >M (265)

!Final Result: d= 550 mm, As =1895 mm2 and Ns =568 mmj


II
Example 3.6
Design a doubly reinforced concrete cross-section to withstand an ultimate d = 614 mm. c/d = 122.65/614 = 0.2
. moment of 265 kN.m by assuming area of steel. Check the maximum area of Since d'/d (50/614 = 0.081)< 0.15 (code limit for fy = 360 N/mm2), then
steel and the maximum moments allowed by the code. our assumption that compression steel has yielded is correct.
b = 250 mm, feu = 30 N/mm2, and fy = 360 N/mm2
Take d = 650 mm and t = 700mm
Solution
Step 4: Calculate minimum area of steel
Step 1: Assumptions
Given :.fcu,j;', M u, b
Required . : d, d', As, A ~ 0.
225
.JJ:: bd = 0.225.J30 x250x650=556
Asmin = smaller of' f, 360 = 556 em 2 < As .......,n.k
Unknowns : a, d, d', As, A's
We have five unknowns, thus we shall assume three (d' and As, A's(a)) ! l.3As =L3xI500=1950

1. Assume a=0.3, d'=50 mm


Step 5: Check maximum area of steel'
2. use the approximate relation to assume As.
Since c/d(0.2) <0.44 (code limit for fy =; 360 N/mm2), then our assumption
=O.ll~Mu b
6
As =0.11 265 X10 x250 =1492mm2 is correct and As<Asd.max. Mu<Mud.max.
1;. 360
Take As= 1500 mm2
1. 250 .1
A; =a As =0.3x1500=450mm 2 ! :

• • A's=450
Step 2: Apply first equilibrium equation T =C o
o
Assume that compression and tension steel has yielded. r-

0.67x30x250xa 450x360 1500x360


------ + =--- •• •• As=1500
1.5 1.15 1.15
a=98.12mm andc=a/0.8= 122.65mm Final design

Step 3 : Apply second equilibrium equation !,M=O NOTE: The cross sections in Example 3.5 and 3.6 are subjected to the same
Taking moment around concrete force Ce bending ~oment, however, the same capacity was obtained using different depth
and area of steel as shown in figure. For the same momel1t capacity, area of steel
M= As1.151;. (d. _!!..)+
u 2
A;1.15Ii' (!!..-d')
2
may be reduced but the beam depth has to be increased.

265x 10 6 '" 1500x 360


1.15
(d _98.12)
2
+ 450X3.60(98.12 ..: 50)
1.15 2 .
Example 3.5 (Mu=265 kN.m)
I_ 250 -I
0.003 A's f/1.15=450x360/1.15

:~_~:._~ _."._~I._·. ·._.~l'--._._.~C.e


1895 ---------
Example 3.6 (Mu=265 kN.m)

d 1500 ---------~------. ,:

... . As
...............
C: s>cyll.15
As f/1.15=1500x360/1.15 +---'-_--!.._~
505
____+
614
d(mm)

105 Hlh
Example 3.7 3.1.5 Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections Using Curves

Design a doubly reinforced concrete cross-section to withstand an ultimate The design of doubly reinforced sections from the first principles is complicated.
moment 0[360 kN.m knowing that the beam thickness equals to 650 mm. Therefore, design curves were prepared to facilitate their design.
b = 250 mm, feu = 35 N/mm2, and fy = 400 N/mm2 In developing such curves, both compression steel and tension steel were
assumed to reach yield. In addition, two values for d'/d were used in developing
Solution these curves and tables namely (0.05,0.1). These selected values were chosen to
Step 1: Assumptions satisfy code requirements and to ensure yielding of the compression
reinforcement for all types of steel.
Assume 0.=0.3, d'=50 mm, d = 650 -50 = 600 mm. Since we have two
Recalling the first equilibrium equation 3.4 and referring to Fig. 3.5
unknowns, (a and A,J, the equilibrium equations are used directly as
follows: 0.67 feu ba A; 1;. As 1;.
----""""-- + - - = - -
Step 2: Apply first equilibrium equation T=C 1.5 1.15 1.15
d' / d = 50/600 = 0.0833 < 0.10 compression steel yields Dividing by (feu b X d) and rearranging

_ _......:...._.::....:...-=:. + O.3xA s x400 = -,-s


0.67x35x250xa A x400
__ _O._67_!!.. == f.1 Iy (I-a)
1.5 1.15 1.15 1.5 d 1.15 hu .
0.67 x 35
a = 0.0623 As 250 1.5 where a. = A' /As and!J. = As I(b . d)
I- " 3
o.Or0 1· ~A's f/1.15=A's x400/1.15 = f.1 fy ............................................... (3.21 )
I
Define OJ
u C'(j F~ feu
.C= e
._. -. -....... .... _. -. .... .- ... ' - ' ' ' ' - ' - -''''-'- 0.67 xlcu

~
ill .1<. _____ L____
Es>E/1.15
A, '/1-15=A, ,400/1.15
Mu
b
0.003
1.5
t--l
A's f/1.15

Step 3: Apply second equilibrium equation l:M=O


Taking moment around concrete force Ce
(d .-.-._._ .... -

As
M = As1.151;. (d _!!..)+ A;1.151;. (!!..-d') • •• Es>E/1.15
. As f/1.15

u 2 2

360x106 As x 400 (600 0.0623 As)+ 0.3XAs X400(0.0623A s -50) Fig 3.5 Location of the neutral axis for doubly reinforced sections
1.15 2 1.15 2
Solving the above equation gives As=1904 mm 2, A; = 0.3 x As = 571 mm 2
Thus a=0.0623 X As=11S.61 mm !!.. = 1.9468 cd{l- a) .............................................(3.22)
d
Step 4: Check Asdmax and Asmin R.ecalling the moment equation around the concrete compression force
c=a/.S= 14S.267 mm
c/d=0.24 < c/d max(0.42) ....ok (As<Asdmax) M= As1i. 1(d5_!!..)
u 2
y
+- A; IJ' (!!..-d')
1.15 2
O.225.J3"5 .
- - - . - x 250 x 600 = 499
AsOlin = sma!ler 01
j 400
1.3 x 1904 = 2475
= 499 cm 2 < As ..... iJ.k

lOS
107
dividing by (feu b X d 2) and rearranging Procedure for Using Charts and Tables

The general steps for using the charts or tables can be summarized m the
following:

RI = 1~5 (1-2 d)+ ~l~ (2 d - ~'J


a a
................. (3.23) •

Assume d' /d=0,05-0.1
Assume a=0.2-0A
• Choose the highest Rl for the chosen a to get the smallest possible
To find ro max in case of doubly reinforced sections, recall equation 3.14
depth
. A,.rna., (b d "ly If.eu )
d'IVI'd'mg b y. • Compute the depth "d" from the following relation
A,d.rnax = - -,
I-a .
RI = Mil 2
feu b d
• From the tables or the charts get ro
• Compute the area of steel from the following relation
where ro max is given in Table 2.1
A = OJ feo, b d A; = a x A,
Figure 3.6 shows an example of such curves. Appendix A contains Rl-ro design , f,.
charts. Table C in the appendix gives the maximum moment index R lmax for • Notel:No need to check Asd,max because the limits are already in the charts
each values of a, rodmax' To use the table enter with a and fy and either (R lmax to Note2:No needto check As.min because we usually use J..lnear J..lmax
find rodmax) or (rodmax to find R/max). The design procedure for using Table C to
design doubly reinforced section is illustrated in Example 3.8
0.38
,pi
0.36

0
COm" fot' t~=240 N/mm'
(Omax tor fy =280 N/mm2 ~.6
0.34

0.32

A
CO,." for fy =360 N/mm'
rom" tor t~ =400 N/mm'
1...«'
0.30 7.: ~O

0.28 /. ?t
ar
e
0.26
"'b 0.24
10; 0.4
on

~ ..d ~ 1 .

fO
0."2
~
~ 0;= .3
A,
~
II 0.20 --..,
e<:
0.18 ~ 0;- .2 i d
-

,~"
0.16 .,:.-

0.14
~
0:12 A =(obdi.· +~
, i, - /,Ir,
0,10 ~

0.08 / A' = tx {o b d /."


. ' !,
0.06
V
<0
o
ci
0

ci
C\I
d
~ .~
ci 0
~
a
~
d
~ ~ ~
o 0 d
re gci
ci
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
ci ci d d ci 0 ci ci 0
gd
Photo 3.4 A reinforced concrete building during construction
Fig. 3.6 Design chart for doubly reinforced sections
lOQ 110
Example 3.8
Example 3.9
Design a doubly reinforced concrete section sUbjected to Mu = 480 kN.m using
Design a doubly reinforced section subjected to Mu = 320 kN.m using Table C.
design aids.
b = 200 mm, d = 600, feu = 25 N/mm2, and fy = 280 N/mm2
b = 250 mm,/cu = 20 N/mm2, and/y = 240 N/mm 2
Solution Solution
Assume d'/d = 0.10
Assume d'/d = 0.10
In using Table C use Mu = Mud,max
Assume a = 0.3
6
Enter the table or the chart with a = 0.3 and get the value ofRl and Ol very close R1 = MUIl.max 320x10 =0.177
max leu bd 2
25 X 200 X 600 2
to the maximum allowable for fy = 240 N/mm 2 to get the smallest possible
II

depth. :rhus get R1 = 0.2 and Ol = 0.274 From the table C with d'/d = 0.10 and Rldamx = 0.177, we can notice that the
moment capacity exceeds singly reinforced section and we must use
R1= Mu compression
2
leubd
6 reinforcement. Thus, by interpolation get
0.2 480x10
20x 250x d 2 a = 0.205 and Oldmax = 0.248

d=693 mm fy a
Oldmax M
R1 dmax = ut/.max
-- 2
leu b d
d'/d=O.05 d'/d-O.1 d'/d-O.15 d'/d-O.2
280 0,196 . OJ~O:< ;~.1;~8'i': rO,iJ$8, ·m1~~., P.1p8
0.206 0.05 0.147 0.146 0.146 0.145
0.218 0.10 0.156 0.155 0.154 0.153
0.231 0.15 0.167 0.1fi5 0.164 0.162
0.245 0.20 0.179 1(0.176' 0.174 0.172
0.21>1 0.25 0.192 1\0.189 0.186 0.184
0.280 0.30 0.207 0:204 0.200 0.197

A
s
=0.274x~x250x693=3955mm2
240 .
A s -- {()dmax.
leub d
A; = a As = 0.3 x 3955 = 1186 mm 2 IJ'
Take d = 700 and t = 750 and As = 3955 mm2 A =0.248x~200x600=2657mm2
s 280
A; = a As = 0.205 x 2657 = 544 mm 2
I_ 200 .1
Mu=480 kN'~T · • A's=1186 mm2
:.


!

• A's=544 mm2

( ~i. ·.. No3955 ='


Final design • • • • As=2657 cm
2

Final design
Example 3.10 From Table R-w design tables (d'/d=O.lO) with (0) = 0.2217 and a = 0.4)
. Find the maximum cantilever span Lc for the beam shown in the figure at section getRl == 0.17
I using R1-w design tables. The material properties are OJ
fy = 360 N/mm2 , feu = 40 N/mm 2 Rl 0.=00 0.=01 0.-02 0.-03 0.- ~ 0.-05
001 001 001 001 001 Op12 001
002 OOZ 002' 002 002 • CP24 002'
003 0031 0031 0031 0031 ICp3E 0031
004 004 OO<U 004 OO<U ICp4S 000
005 006 0061 006 0061 pel 0061
GOO 001 OOe 001 007 I( 74 007'
007 OOB! 00Bi 006 008 Opa7 008
008 010: 0101 . 0.1()( 01()( Ofl99 ow.:
'1 009 011 011! 0.11 011 Ie 12 011
010 0.13: 012! 0.12 01a IC 25 012
011 014 014< 0.14 0.14( IC 39 013!

I~ 012 400 016 01S! 0.16 0.15 I ( 52 0151


013 360 018 Oll! I ( 66

~ID
017 0161 01&
4<1> 28
014 24ll28O 019 13OOlO 019 0.18 018 Gj179 01T
015 280 020> 0.20 019 0/193 0191
016 240 022( 40036( 0.21 0211 11m 020<

2<1>2S 01£ ( 022 021


018. 240 0.25 i4()( 0.24 ['QZl6 0231
Section I

Solution
Assume cover == SOmm
d' =SOmm Rl= M" 2
fe" b d
d = SSO-SO =SOOmm
Since section I is subjected to -ve moment, the tension steel is at the top and the 0.170 = M"
compression steel is at the bottom of the beam. 40x 2QOx500 2
2
As = 2463 mm , A's = 982 mm 2 Mu = 340 X 106 = 340 kN.m (internal moment)
a = 982 = 0.398 "" 0.4 W L2
2463 .M" = ~+ p" Le (external moment) .
d' /d = SO/SOO = 0.1 200
External moment =Internal moment
'I
Mu
15 L; +80 Le -340.0 = 0

(
2
40 0
2463 = (JJ x- x 200 x 500 0
360 . on Solving the second order equation gives:
II
"0
0) = 0.2217
150
ILc = 3.256 m.1
A's T
In 1 1 LI.
3.2 T-Beams
To simplify section capacity calculations, most codes assume uniform
3.2.1 Application of T-Beams
distribution of the stress and specify a limited width of the slab to be considered
Reinforced concrete buildings usually consist of beams and slabs that were cast when analyzing the beam capacity called the "effective width" as shown in Fig.
monolithically. Thus, slabs and beams act together in resisting the applied loads. 3.8. For T-sections, the Egyptian code ECP 203 section (6-3-1-9) requires that
As a result, the beam will have an extension concrete part at the top called the effective width does not exceed the following
"flange", and the beam is called a T-beam. The portion of the beam below the
slab is called the "web ". The stress distribution in the slab will vary according to 16 ts +b
the ratio between the thickness of the slab and the overall thickness. B si2.+b forT -sections ......................................... (3.25.a)
5
3.2.2 Effective Flange Width C.L to C.L
The distribution of the flexural compressive stresses in the flange of the slab is 6 ts +b
shown in Fig. 3.7. The compressive stress is a maximum at the beam locations,
and minimum between the beams. The concept of replacing the non-uniform B si2.+ b forL-sections .............................. , ......... (3.25.b)
10
stresses over the width Bo to uniform stresses over a width B is called the C.L to edge
effective width. The compression force developed in the reduced width B equals where
the compressive force in the. real compression zone·of width Bo.
L2 = L simple beam
L2 = 0.8 L one end continuous
Magnitude of compressive
L2 = 0.7 L continuous beam
stress in flange

in which L is the effective span (explained clearly in Chapter Six)

!l>l-.

- I--b
lE: '-1 lE:
II ~
~ :;:!
~
..!;)
~
~ I
Eo!. '-1
a) Distribution of maximum flexural compressivE) stresses ~

C.L. to edge C.L. to C.L.


for L-beam for T-beam
I '

B=6ts +b B=16ts +b t
.~
_~f!f~7/I~;;m~ .~U
I--l I ·IS

,
L-sectio~~~
--Z 1..-.1 I - T-section
b) Flexural compressive stress distribution assumed in design

Fig. 3.7 Distribution of compressive stresses across the flange Fig. 3.8 Definition of T and L-beams in the ECP 203

115 116
When designing a T-Sec., the neutral axis could be located inside the flange
(Fig.3.10.A) or outside the flange (Fig. 3.10.B). Each case shall be analyzed in
detail in section 3. 2.3
The direction of the bending moment distinguishes between rectangular and T-
sections. If the flange participates in resisting the compression stresses resulting compression
from the bending moment, then the section acts as aT-section. On the other zone
hand, if only the web of the beam resists the compression stresses, then the
section acts as a rectangular section.
Consider for example the simply supported beam with cantilever shown in Case
lof Fig. 3.9. According to the given schematic bending moment diagram, d
section A-A acts as a T-Sec., while section B-B acts as a rectangular-section.
Case II, on the other hand, shows a simply supported beam with cantilever, in
which the slab is located at the bottom part of the beam (called an inverted
( As
beam). In such a case, section C-C acts as a rectangular section while section D- •••
D acts as aT-Sec. I---l
b
Case I Case"

A-Neutral axis inside the flange,

~Slab

Bending Moment Bending Moment


C web

B B
Mu
B-Neutral axis in the web
(
Fig. 3.10 Location of the neutral axis for T -sections.
b.
I-'-f ~ B B

T-Section
I R-Section
I R-Section
I T-Section I
Section A Section B Section C Section D

Fig. 3.9 Compression zone for T-beams


118
3.2.3 Analysis of T -Beams two parts. The first part is in th~ flange with. a wid~ (~:b!, and thic~~~~ o~ 1,;
(Fig. 3.l2.C). The second part is III the web wIth a WIdth b and depth a (FIg.
Case A: Neutral axis inside the flange (a:S t s ) 3.12. B).
The details of this case are shown in Fig. 3.11. Applying the equilibrium The force in the flange C r equals:
equation gives:
T=C e c = 0.67 feu (B -b) ts ...................•................... (3.28)
f 1.5
0.67 feu B a = As ~......................................... (3.26) The force in the web C w equals:
1.5 1.15
After calculating the stress block distance "a" the nominal moment can be c = 0.67 fe" b a ............................................. (3.29)
computed by taking the moment around the compression force Cc : w 1.5

M" = ~s. ~. ( d - %) ....................................... (3.27.A)


B 0.67 feu 11.5
In some cases the depth of the neutral axis (a) is very small and less than the j+---+l
minimum required by the code (0.1 d). In such a case, the stress block distance
is assumed to bea=O.l d. Thus Eq. 3.27.A becomes
c
Mu = As J;. (0.826 d) ....................................... (3.27.B)
d
0.67 feu
c B a
0.67 feu B a
T=As f/l.l5
1.5 I. .1
b

d A- Equilibrium of forces for the complete cross section

As

T=As flUS I----~ ........... I.


I
I' b .\ J
IIIIIIII'-+--C w

d-a/2
Fig. 3.11 Neutral axis located in the flange (a<ts)

••• T=As f/1.15


Case B: Neutral axis outside the flange (a >ts) r-LJ
If the external moment is large enough, the neutral axis will be located outside
the flange(Fig. 3.12.A). The ECP 203 permits the use of the stress block in the B- Force in the web C- Force in the flange D- Forces in the cross section
case of T -beams as stated in clause 4.2.1.1. For the sake of simplicity and for
comparison with rectangular sections, the compression zone will be divided in Fig. 3.12 Analysis of T -beam for the case of neutral axis outside the flange

119 120
3.2.4 Minimum Area of Steel for T -sections
The minimum area for T -sections is the same as the rectang~lar sections as
Applying the equilibrium equation
stated in the ECP 203 section (4-2-1-2-g). The minimum area IS related to the
T = Cr +Cw •••.••.•••••••••••••.••.....•.•..•••••.••.••••• (3.30) web width "b ", not to the flange width ~'B" as shown in Fig. 3.14.

As Iy =0.67 leu (B - b) ts + 0.67 leu b a ........................... (3.31) A . = smaller 01


smm
{0.22; ,K b d > ~~ b d ............................... (3.34)
),}
1.15 1.5 1.5
1.3 As
Solving Eq. 3.31 gives the equivalent stress block distance a.
The moment of the internal forces may be taken around any point such as the but not less than
0.25
100
b d(mild steel) 1 ........... _..................... (3.35)
location of the tension steel as follows: {0.15
100
b d (high grade) .

Mu = C f ( d - t~ J+ C w( d -~) ....................................... (3.32) B

For the sake of simplicity, the code (Section 4-2-1-2---'» permits neglecting the
r I
compression part in the web and calculating the compression force as if it is· in
the flange only as shown in Fig. 3.13. In this case, the ultimate moment is taken d
the smaller of the following two equations: \
Mu = ~~I~' (d -~J......................................... (3.33a) b
Fh!. 3.14 Calculation of A.min
M = 0.67~~5 Bts (d -~) ..................................... (3.33b)
u

B 0.67 xlcu
I'" "I
--11.5 t-- C _ 0.67 leu B ts
r 1.5

part to be
_! _______ c _______________ _ neglected
d

---------------"-------------'11-.-t.--4.1--·------1- - - ' - - -
T=As f/1.l5
b
·1
Fig. 3.13 Calculation of the ultimate moment using Code simplifications
Photo 3.5 A Dart of an art museum (USA)
, ... , 177
I
~
3.2.5 Maximum Area of Steel for T -sections
~h~ maximum area of steel allowed for T-sections is usually several times the
I The maximum area of steel can be calculated by applying the same principle
used in rectangular sections. The cmaxld values listed in table 2.1 are used to
lImIts for rectangular sections. Thus, it is rare that aT-beam can exceed the
determine the maximum area of steel. Referring to Fig. 3.15 and observing the

I
maximum area of steel. It should be mentioned that, whether the neutral axis is
notations used in that figure, one can drive the following equation:
located inside the flange (case A) or outside the flange (case B), the ECP 203
uses the same procedure for calculating the maximum area of steel.
C = 0.67 feu b a max ................................................... (3.36)
wmax 1.5
B 0.67 feu 11.5
t--1 Applying the equilibrium equation Twmax= C wmax gives
Cfillax
Cma 1..-_1+--- C wmax A f), = 0.67 feu b a max .......................................... (3.37)
swmax 1.15 1.5
d The procedure for calculating the maximum area of steel for section B is
equivalent to that of rectangular section, thus
A bxd ........................................................ (3.38)
••• .15
swmax
=/1
rmax

where llmax is determined from Table 4-1 in the code or Table 2.1 in Chapter 2.
I-
b
C = 0.67feu (B-b)ts ............................................... (3.39)
A- Complete cross section f max 1.5

I Applying the equilibrium equation Tjmax= C jmax, gives

C
ma
r-----
IL ____ _
- - - - - ....---,.-"'::=::::""'--':"--.

-----"
I Af
max
fy = 0.67feu (B-b)ts ...................................... (3.40)
1.15 1.5

d
A =0.5136 feu (B-b)ts 1
::e-X
feu (B-b)ts ................... (3.41)
f~ h 2 h
••• Twmax=ASW1l13X fyfl.15
Ast.max=Asw.max+Aif.max ......................................... (3.42)

b .

B-forces in the web A = II bd+ feu (B-b)ts ................................... (3.43)


. sf.max rmax 2 X fy

-
/_ (B-b)/2 OR
'I

,
I
A
sl,max
= C wnrdX + C fmax
f), 11.15
.......................................... (3.44)

d
I
The maximum area of steel allowed for aT-section is much bigger than that for
I I
I A sf,max II a rectangular section especially when the section has a wide flange. Figure 3.16
I
,.!-~!, presents the maximum area of steelfor T-sections. It is clear from the figure that
Tfinax=Asfinax fyfU5 the maximum area of steel can be as high as 6-8%(about five-six times more
C-forces in the flange I- b -I
than the maximum allowed for rectangular sections). .
Fig. 3.15 Calculation of the maximum area of steel and moment for T -sections
l'JA
123
1,
8 /l.l1ax (%)
3.2.6 Design of T -sections Using First Principles
7 feu = 25 N/mm 2
J;, = 360 N/mm 2 Given :/cu,/y, Mu. b. B '
6, Required : As and d
Unknowns: a, As, d
5t------T----~~~~~~----~~~~ The design procedure can be summarized in the following steps:
4t------r--~~~~~~~--~~~~
3t-----~~~~~~~~--~~+_----~ 1. Make the necessary assumptions (either)
i. Assume d

2~~~~~
-F= rect ngular section Ib=1 ii. Or, estimate J.l or As as discussed in Chapter 2(see example 3.13)
2. Assume that the neutral axis is inside the flange then determine the
O~-----+---- __+-____-+______+-~__~ depth of the stress block a using the equilibrium equation:
o 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.67 feu B a As 1;,
0. 25 1 =--
t,;/d 1.51.15
3.Calculate the beam depth using the moment equati.?~ as fo~lows:

Fig. 3.16 Maximum area of steel for T-sectious


I ts
I B
la
ts
B

Maximum Moment For T -sections IJ 1 Mu


1 I~
a
i
T T
Referring to Fig. 3.15 and summing the moment of the forces around the tension
steel
i
J
( As
•••
IT T
M Uf.max = C Wmax (d - a max
2 ) + CI max (d - Is)
- ....................... (3.45)
~
, 2 1--1
b
The part in the web is equivalent to a singly reinforced section, thus'
if a < ts then calculate the depth using Eq. If a> ts calculate the depth
Rmax~; b d ~) ............................ (3.46)
2

= + C/max (d - 3.27.A or Eq. 3.27.B using the simplified Eq. 3.33


'Mur,max
M = As fy (d _!:) a>O.ld (3.27.A) M = As fy (d _ ~ )
Not~: It should be clear that if the calculated neutral axis depth c is less than the u 1.15 2 u 1.15 2
maxImum allowed value Cm•x, then there is no need to check the maximum area M u = O.826AJy d a<O.ld (3.27.8)
of steel or maximum moments

3. Determine As (only if you uS,~d l-i, skip this step if you used l-ii)

[
j>~.11.15 As = f.l b d , A; = 0
If ~::; Cmax then f.l < f.ltmax 4. Check minimum area of steel
d d As < Ast~max ............................... (3.47)
Mu < M u, .11l<IX , 5. Check maximum area steel andm~xi"mum moment (c/d<cmax/d)

125
Example 3.11 Step 3: Calculate d
The figure shows aT-section that is subjected to an ultimate moment of a value Mu= As I), (d-!!") = 0.826 As I. d
1.15 2 )
of 220 kN.m. Using the first principles, calculate the required depth and area of
2 220 x 106 = (0.826) x 1.2 d x 360 x d = 356.86 d 2
steel. The material properties are feu = 25 N/mm and fy = 360 N/mm2
d=785.2mm
1500mm
~I---~-"'-\ a = 0.1 d = 78.5 mm < ts (our assumption is correct a<ts)
100 As = 1.2 d =942.2 mm2
T Use d = 800 mm , As = 982 mm2 (2<1>25)
As
•• Step 4: Check Asmin

1120 1 0.225 55 120 x 800 = 300 mm 2


.Solution 360
Step 1: Assumptions Asmin =smaller 01 = 293.33 mm 2 <As · .. o.k

In this example we have three unknowns a, d, As and we have only two 1.3 x 942.2 = 1224.8 mm 2
equilibrium equations, thus we shall assume one unknown (As)
Assume As = 0.01 b d = 0.01 x 120 x d= 1.2 d
Assume that the neutral axis inside the flange (a<ts) Step 5: Check A st.max , Mut.max

Step 2: Determine a From the code cmaxld = 0.44


,
ald= 0.1 ~ c/d=0.125
0.67 feu B a = As f)'
1.5 1.15 Since c/d (0.125) <c max/d(0.44) then Mu<Mumax and As<Asmax
0.67 x 25 x1500x a 1.2 d x 360
1.5 1.15 !Final design d = 800 mm, t = 850 mm and As = 2<1>25 (9.82 cm2)1
a =.0.0224 d
aid = 0.0224 < ald)min(O.l)
usea=O.l d 1500 mm
c 1500mm a ~I •I
1--
100 I
\ T 0
tr)
00

d As=2 <P 25 ••
'---

li20 I
As
----------------------------,--- • • I -_ _ _ _ _ _ _..L._ _~ Final Design
T=As f/1.15

127 128
Example 3.12 To find the maximum area of steel, apply the equilibrium

Calculate the maximum area of steel and maximum moment for the section
given in example 3.11. feu = 25 N/mm 2 aQd fy = 360 N/mm 2

A =377344+1541000 6128mm 2 >A ... ok


1500mm st,max 360/1.15 s .
~I'-----~.I
100 OR use Eq. 3.43

T From Table 2.1, Jlmax = 5 X 10-4 leu


4
As /1n.ax = 5 x W leu = 5 x 10-4 x 25 =0.0125
••
A = b d +feu (B -b )ts = 0.0125x120x800+ 25(1500-120)100 "" 6000mm 2
SI,max P max 2xf . 2x360
y .

Solution Step 2: Calculation of Maximum Moments


Step 1: Calculation of Maximum area of steel To find the maximum moment take the moment around tension steel
From Table 2.1 cmax/d=0.44 for fy = 360 N/mm 2

amax = 0.8 c max = 0.8 x 0.44 x 800 = 281.6 mm

c . = 0.67 feu barna., = 0.67x25x120x281.6 =377344N


M _ax = 377344 (800- 281.6)
2 + 1541000(800- 100)
2 = 1404.5 kN.m > M" ... ok

wmax 1.5 1.5


OR use Eq. 3.46
0.67feu (B-b) ts 0.67x25x (1500-120) 100
-~)
2
C[ max;= ;= . = 1541000 N M Rmaxfeu b d + C . (d
1.5 1.5 . . ul.max = 1.5 [max 2

= 0.194x 25x 120x800 + 1541000x(800- 100) ~ 1404 kN.m


2
M
u,.max 1.5 2
1500 0.67x 25 /1.5
J.... r-f

100 Cfmax
I....----l._- Cwmax i
T J
1
I
,
1
T max=Ast,lllax .15

Ii
!
ii
1 no
Example 3.13 T Sections (a <t s)
The figure shows a T-section that is subjected to an ultimate moment of a value
of 280 kN.m. Using the first principles, calculate the required depth and area of
1 Step 3: Calculate d
Assume a<O.ld, thus use a = O.ld
use Eq. (3.27.B)
steel. Check the code limits for maximum and minimum area of steel and Mumax
2 Mu = As fy (0.826 d)
t;,u = 30 N/mm and fy = 400 N/mm 2 6
280x 10 = 0.826 x 1127 x 400 x d
d= 751.8 mm
1200
120
1 1-1-----1
a (24.38 mm)< 0.1 d (75.18 mm) our assumption is correcta<O.ld
Use d = 800 rom , As = 11.27 cm2
T Step 4: Check Asmin

0.225 .J3o 150x 800 = 370 mm 2


1-/ 400
Solution 150 A s min = smaller of =370mm 2 <As ···o.k
2
Step 1: Assumptions l.3x1127=1465mm

In this example. we have three unknowns a, d, As and we have only two


equilibrium equations, thus we shall assume one (As) Step 5: Check Astmax, Mut.max
1. Assume that a<ts
2. The area of steel may be assumed as From the code cmax/d = 0.42
aid = 0.1 ~ c/d = 0.125
~Mu b = 0.11
6
As = 0.11 280x10 x 150 = 1127 mm2 Since c/d (0.125) <c maxld(0.42) then Mu<Mul,max and As<AsI,max
fy 400

Step 2: Calculate a
0.67 hu B a As~.
----"--=-- = - -
1.5 1.15
0.67x30x1200xa 1127x 400
1.5 1.15
a=24.38mm ~-+ Our assumption is correct a<tg

-----------------------~~I------T~11'i
T=As f/1.15
'/ Photo 3.6 Testing of simply supported reinforced concrete beam under flexure
150
Example 3.14 (a>ts) 380xl06 0.67x22.5x42{)x80 (d _80)
Compute the depth for the T -section shown in figure if it is subjected to an 1.5 2
ultimate moment of 380 kN.m using first principles. d = 1165 mm ~~~(2)
Take the largest d from (1) and (2) ~~d = 1200 mm
feu = 22.5 N/mm2 and fy = 400 N/mm 2
420 nun
O.67x22.5

80

d
2
•• As=1175 mm
"'---
I+--l
120 nun T=As f/1.15
Solution I- ~I
b
Step 1: Assumptions
Step 4: Calculate Asmin
In this example we have two unknowns a, d (As is given). Thus the calculation
of a can proceed immediately
.!.:£ 120x 1200 = 396 mm

l
2
Step 2: Calculate a 400
Asmin = smaller 01 =396mm 2 <A;... o.k
Assume that a<ts 1.3 x 1175 = 1526 mm 2
0.67 leu a B = As Iy
1.5 1.15 * 1.1 is bigger than 0.225.Ji::
0.67 x 22.5 x420x a 1175 x 400 Step 5: Check Astmax. Mut.max
1.5 1.15
a=96.82mm To determine the exact position of the neutral-axis, assume (a>ts).

Since a > ts we can use the approximate equation (Eq.3.33) to find "d" As Iy 0.67 leu (B - b) ts 0.67 leu b a
--= +--'--'~-
1.15 1.5 1.5 -
Step 3: Calculate d
1175 x 400 0.67 x 22.5 x (420-120) 80 0.67 x22.5x 120 a
M = As 1;, (d
u 1.15
_!.L)
2
....... (3.33a) 1.15
-----~--~-+-------
1.5 1.5

380xl06 = 1175x 400


1.15 .
(d _80)
2
a= 138.9 mm

~= 138.9/0.8 =0.179
d = 969.8 mm ............... (1) d 969.8

Mu 0.
67
1eu B ts (d -~) .......(3.34a) 2
For fy = 400 N/mm it can determined from Table 2.1 that cmaxld = 0.42
1.5 2
Since c/d < cmaJd, thus steel yields, As<Ast,max and Mu<Mut.max ........ o.k
Example 3.15 Step 3: Compute As
The figure below shows a simply supported in which the midspan section has a The critical section is at mid span
T-shape. Compute the area of steel for the T-section shown in figure. feu = 30
2
N/mm and fy = 360 N/mm 2 30x5 2 5
M =--+80x-=193.75kN.m
u 8 4
Pu=80 kN
Assume a<O.ld, thus use a = O.ld, use Eq. (3.27.B)

~ w?30kN/m' Mu = As f), (0.826 d)

193.75 xl 0 6 = As x 360 x 0.826 x 600

As= 1086mm2
2500mm 2500mm
a = 0.019 (1086) = 20.6 mm
I' 'I

I'
'"
1200mm
,1
a (20.6) < ts (100)
a (20.6) < O.ld (60)
our assumption is correct a<ts
our assumption is correct a<0.1 d
L I
T
§ IOOmm
Step 3: Check Asmin

0
0 0.225.J30 120x 600 = 246 mm 2
\0
360
...L------J-e • As Asmin =smaller of
'---
1---1 Ux1085 = 1410 mm 2
120mm

Step 5: Check Ast.max, Mut.max


From Table 2.1 cmaxld = 0.44
Solution ald=O.l --+ c/d= 0.125
Step 1: Assumptions Since c/d (0.125) <cma xld(0.44) then Mu<Mut,max and As<Ast,max
Assume that the neutral axis in$ide the flange (a<ts)
Step 2: Compute a
0.67 feu B a As
=--
J;,
1.5 1.15
0.67 x30 x 1200x a = As x 360
1.5 1.15
a= 0.019 As
Example 3.16 T Sections Step 3: Calculate Mu
For the neutral axis position given in the figure below, calculate the required
area of steel and the ultimate moment. Check the code limits for maximum and M• =cf (d-~)+C
2 w
(d-!!")2
minimum area of steel and Mumax
2 M = 0.67x2Sx (lOS0-120) 100(SSO_100)+ 0.67x2Sx120xl92 (5S0_ 192 ) = 636.0S kN.IT
feu = 25 N/mm and fy = 360 N/mm 2 u 1.5 2 1.5 2

1050
Step 4: Check Asmtn

600
'-----, . -. _. _. _. .: ...I~~?_ Neutral axis 0.22S .J25120xS;0=206mm2
360
A,min = smaller 01 = 206 mm 2 < As .. ·o.k
•• As=? 1.3 x 4139.30 = S~81 mm 2
I--l
Solution 120
Step 1: Assumptions Step 5: Check Astmax, Mut,max

Given' :/cu,J;" Mw B. b. d. a ::... = 240 = 0.436


Required : As. Mu d 5S0
Unknowns : As .Mu
From the code cmax/d = 0.44
Since we have only two equilibrium equations and two unknowns (As .M,).
we can proceed directly without any further assumptions Since c/d (0.436) <c max/d(0.44) then Mu<Mut,max and As<Ast.max
Step 2: Calculate As
d =t -cover=600-50=SSO mm

a =0.8 c=O.8x240=192 mm

As Iy 0.67Ic. (B-b)ts 0.67Ic. ba


-- = + -"""::"'!"---
I.1S I.S 1.S
As x 360 0.67 x 2Sx (lOSO -120) 100 0.67 x 2Sx 120x 192
~---= +-------
l.lS I.S I.S
2
A, = 4139.30 mm

O.67x 25 11.5
1--+1
,. · - - Cr

T=Asx360 IUS
I. "
120
137 l'J.Q
3.2.7 Design of T -sections Using Curves
3.2.7.1 Development of the Curves Substitution in equation 3.51 gives
Equilibrium equations are used to generate design aids for T -sections. Assume
that the neutral axis is inside the flange (a<ts) feu~' d2 = o~~ ~~9 ~ (1- 0.4~) .................................... (3.53)
Taking moment around the concrete force and referring to Fig. 3.17
M
Define R = "
0.67 x feu T feu B d 2
B
= 0~~~~9 ~(1-0.4~)
a 1.5
~----------------~
-I I-C RT ........................................... (3.54)

d = Cl~ f:"B .................................................... (3.55)


d Comparing Eq. 3.53 with Eq. 3.55 gives

..........................- . -••1 - - - - - - - . - ' - - - - - - ' - 1 -


CI"J;f" ~(1~:4~) .......................................... (3.56)
I' T =As f/1.15
b It can be determined from Eq. 3.49 that the area of steel equals

Fig. 3.17 Equilibrium of force for T -section As = f~ud ........................................................ (3.57)


. yl
Equations 3.50 and 3.53 are the basis of design aids (CI-J) and (RrJ)
Mu = ~~j' (d -~) = ASl.~J~ d (1- zad ) ........................ (3.48) Figure 3.18 shows an example of(CI-J). Appendix A contains (CI-J) and (RrJ)
design charts.
we can also express the moment as the tension force (As fy) multiplied by the

;~f I I I I I I 0= I
lever arm Gd). Note that the factor 1.15 is included in the coefficient "J"
Mu = As 1;. j d ............................................... (3.49)

Comparing Eq. 3.48 and Eq. 3.49, one can determine J as I 4.8
'\ ./ 0.72 I
:\ /
j = ds(1-~X~) = ds(1-0.4~) .............................. (3.50) 4.6
4.4
·\ J/ 0.74
V
Dividing Eq. 3.48 by (fcu B cf) and noting that in case ofT-section As=f..L B d
0
4.2
4 .0 · " C1
'\.
v
/' 0.76'

=~(1-0.4~)
3.8 ·· /'
M" 2
feu B d 1.15 feu' d
From the equilibrium of forces (C = T) Fig. 3.17 we can determine that:
.................................. (3.51) 3.6
3.4
V "" /> t'-....
............
0.78

-
3.2 0.80
/' "- Cm.x/d ( able 4-1
0.67 feu B a As fy
----'--"=----=--
3.0
2.8
·· , / .............
g'u"" 0.82
1.5 1.15 2.6
./ : <0: ~

2.4
V b:bi .b:$ 0.84
!!.. = 1.9468 p,x J; . ............................................. (3.52) 0.10 ~ 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50
d f~ & ad

Fig. 3.18 CI-J design chart


139 140
3.2.7.2 Using the Design Aids (charts C1-.J and Ky -"')
Substituting with the minimum amin/d allowed by the code (c miJd=0.l25) in Eq.
3.56 gives Cl=4.85. Thus any value for Cl above 4.85 will lead to c/d below the
minimum code value. In this case use cmin/d=0.l25 and J=0.826.

Fig 3.19 presents different design cases when using (Cl-J) curve. In normal Step l:If"d" is not given, assume Cl=5-10 for T-sections and C1=3-
design situations, case I is the most frequently used. When using chart C, the 4 for R-sections and determine d from the relation
same rules apply, if RT<0.042 then; use J = Jmax , if RT> 0.042 then determine J
from the curve, and ifRT > RTmax increase d. d=C
I
~ fellMuB
Ife l in (CI-J) > 4.85 or RTin (RrJ)<O.042 then, use J=J max=O.826 and
I gotostep 4
I II
Step 2: From the curve determine J value
5.4
If c/d < cmin/d, then use J=Jmax=O.826
4.85 4.85 If c/d > cmaxfd change the cross section (increase d)
Step 3: calculate a=O.8 c
check whether a<ts or a>ts
Step 4: Determine As
IfCI under the curve,
IfCI>4.85 use cmin/d IfCI<4.85 det~nnine J increase d .

Fig 3.19 Different cases for Using C1-J curve

Note1: The code minimum value for the depth of the stress block ratio "a" is Step 5:Check As,min
O.ld. Thus substituting with aid = 0.1 in Eq. 3.50 gives jmax
0.225 .JJ: b d
fy (use b not B in this relation)
l.3A,

Note 2: To estimate the depth of the beam, assume Cl equals


Cl=3-4 for Rectangular beams
Cl=4-5 for slabs Note: Both (Cl-J) and (Ri'-J) can be used for designing a rectangular section by
Cl=5-10 forT- beams replacing B with b

lAl 142
Example 3.17 (a<ts)
Step 2: Determine J and check c/d limits
The figure shows a T-section that is subjected to an ultimate moment of a value
of220 kN.m. Using CI-J, calculate the required depth and area of steel. Use cmin/d and J = J max = 0.826
2
feu = 25 N/mm and fy = 360 N/mm 2 because c/d <cmax/d, the condition that As<Asmax is satisfied

Step 3: Compute "a"


I 1500 mm
-1...'1------ a = 0.8 (0.125) 800 = 80 mm < ts(IOOmm) a<ts
100
Step 4: Calculate area of steel, As
T The stress block is located inside the slab, continue using the following
As relation
••
A=~
1;. J d
S

Solution 6
As = 220 X 10 = 924.8 mm 2 (2<1> 25)
Step 1: Determine d 360 x 0.826 x 800
Assume C I = 10 mm as a first trial
Step 5: Check Asmin
d=CI~ feuM"B
0.225.J2s 120x800=300mm 2
360
220xl0 6 Asmin=smaller of
2
=300mm <A s ···o.k
d = 10 = 765 mm say d=800 mm and t=850 mm
25x1500 1.3 x 924.8 = 1202mm 2
Using CI-J, one can find that
C 1 = 10.0> 4.85 (out side the curve)
I 1500mm
i.. 11
--------------
1

J 100 1-'-
T ...----' o'£)
00

4.85
As=2 Cl> 25 • •
'---
1---1
120
....jo£_ _ _~::--_ _ _ _ _-+IJmax
Final Design

0.125
Example 3.18 (a>ts) Step 2: Determine J and check c/d limit
Compute the depth and area of steel for the T -section shown in figure if it is Use cmin/d
subjected to an ultimate moment of 380 kN.m using CI-J curve. c/d = 0.125
feu = 22.5 N/mm2 and fy = 400 N/mm2 . Because c/d <cmaJd, then As<Asmax and Mu<Mutmax
420mrn
Step 3: Compute "a"
11..--'_ - , ' j
Mu=380kN.m 80mrn a = O.S (0.125) 1000 = 100 rum > t.(SOmm) ............ (a>t., outside the flange)

( T
As
Step 4: Calculate area of steel. As
Since the neutral axis is outside the flange, the part of the compression
force in the web will be neglected and code approximate equation as
•• follows.
~ 6
120 mrn Mu 380x10 =1138mm2
As fy /1.l5x(d -ts /2) 400/1.15x(1000-80/2)
Solution
Step 1: Determine d Step 5: Check Asmin
Assume that Cl=5.0

d ';'Cl~ Mu .!.:£.120X 1000 = 3.30 mm 2


400
feu B
A s min = smaller of
1.3xl138 = 1479 mm 2
d = 5X
380x10
22.5x420
6
= 1002 mm say d= 1000 mm and t= 1050 mm 1
Cl = 5 > 4.85 (outside the curve), use c/dmin *Note that 1.1 is greater than 0:225..)22.5

4.85

0.125 c/d

1Ll;;
3.3 Design of L-Sections
L-sections are often encountered in external beams of reinforced concrete
structures. If such a beam is connected to a slab it will be only allowed to deflect
in the vertical axis and the neutral axis will be very close to horizontal as shown
Fig 3.20A. The analysis in this case is the same as T-beams except with smaller
width Eq. 3.2S.B. However, if the beam is allowed to deflect in both vertical and
horizontal directions (isolated beam), the neutral axis will be inclined as ~03
indicated in (Fig. 3.20B). Since the applied loads do not cause any moments ".
0.67 feu
laterally, the compression and tension forces must be in a vertical plane as the
1.5
applied loads as shown in Fig. 3.20B.

c b
"

Fig. 3.21 Stresses and strain for isolated L-section


As T
- - -I-----
b Example 3.19 illustrates the calculation of the ultimate moment capacity of L-
A- L-section connected with slab B-Isolated L-section section using the first principle, while example 3.20 shows the simplified
procedure using design curves.

Fig. 3.20 Neutral axis position in L-sections

Fig. 3.21 presents the forces and strain for a reinforced. concrete isolated L-
section. It can be easily determined that the distance Xl equals 1.5 b. The force
in the compression zone equals the area of the compressed zone multiplied by
the concrete stress as follows

c = O.61~:cU ( X ~ 1'; ) ••••••...•.•.•...•.•.•.••.•..••.•••.••.••••. (3.58)

T = As 1;. .................................................... (3.59)


1.15
The second equilibrium equation can be computed by taking the moment around
the concrete force. The lever arm in this case is the vertical distance between the
tensile force and the center of gravity of the compressed triangle. Thus, the
internal moment equals

M" = ~:j' (d- i) .............................................. (3.60)


Photo 3.7 Beam-column structural system

147 148
Example 3.19 Step 3: Check steel stress
For the L-section shown in figure determine the capacity of the section
0= tan- I (224) = 36.74"
knowing that the beam is not laterally supported (isolated), knowing that 300
fe,! = 25 N/mm2 , fy = 360 N/mm2 .
c, = J::L
= 224 x 'cosO = 224 4 mm
'O.S O.S .
100 mm 1 - 1_ _ _ 7.:..:0:.:0~rnm=~-I di = d cos 0 = SOOxcos 0 = 641 mm
or directly c/d=Y l /d=280/800=0.35
I Since c/dj (0.35)<cmax/d(0.44), fs = f/1.15 and As<Asmax ... o.k

o
o00 X I =300rnm
200 100 I
2
• • • As=1200 mrn

200rnm

Solution o
o00
Step 1: Compute Y1 ~ 0.67 feu
From the geometry XI = 1.5 b = 300 mm u
C = 0.67 feu (XI 1';) •
1.5 2
,I
200 rnm
T = A fy = 1200 360 = 375652 N
s 1.15 1.15
Since C=T

375652 0.6~.: 25 C 1'; )


00 x
2

Y I = 224 Inm Forces and strain distributions

Step 2: Compute Mu
Take the moment around the compression force C
M = As fy (d _1'; )
u 1.15 3

M u == 1200)( 360 (SOO - 224) = 272.5 x 10 6 N.mm = 272.5 kN.m


, 1.15 3· .

lAO
Example 3.20 Step 3: compute "a"
Compute the area of steel for the L-section shown in the figure if it is subjected a = 0.8 (0.125) 400 = 40 mm < ts(100mm) a<ts
to Mu = 120 kN.m using R,J curve.
feu = 35 N/mm2 and fy = 400 N/mm2 Step 4: Calculate area of steel,As
The stress block is located inside the slab, thus
600mm
-.--_ _ _+1,_ _:...-__.,I 1
1
.-----' T100
6
A = 120xl0 . =908 mm 2
s .400xO.826x400
As
..1.-_ _ _ _+,..
.... 120 mm 2
Choose 4 <D 18 =1018 mm
----l
Solution
Step 5: Check Asmin
Step 1: Assumptions
Assume that the neutral axis inside the flange (a<ts)
0.225 .J35 ~20x 400 = 160 mm 2
Step 2 : Determine RT 400
6 A.min =smaller of =160mm 2 <A.···o.k
120xl0 =0.0357 1.3 x 908 = 1180mm 2
35x600x400 2 .,
.: RT <0.042 use c/d min

~------------d 0.826 600mm .


I" -I
-,-

J
I
~
0
0
"<t
0.0357

c •• •• .4 <D 18

1• "I
120mm
Step 2: Determine J and check c/d limits
Use cmin/d=0.125 and J = Jmax = 0.826 Final Design

because c/d <cmaxfd, the condition that As<Asmax is satisfied


4
SHEAR IN RIC BEAMS

Photo 4.1 Yokohama Landmark Tower, Japan.


4.1 Introduction
Reinforced concrete beams resist loads by, means of internal moments and
shears. In the design of reinforced concrete members, moment is usually
considered first, leading to the dimensions of the cross-section and the
arrangement. The beam is then proportioned for shear.
Because a shear failure is sudden and· brittle, the design for shear mu:st ensure The compressive forces on the hatched area in Fig. (4.1d), whic~ a~e the
that the shear strength equals or exceeds the flexural strength at all points of the resultants of the normal stresses induced by the bending moments, are mdlcated
beam. This chapter presents the. shear behavior and design of relatively slender by the two forces C and C+de. Investigating the equilibrium. of the. upper
(shallQw) beams. More advanced topics related to the strength and behavior of portion of the infinitesimal slice, it is evident that there should be honzontal
slender beams can be found in Chapter (7). The behavior of deep beams is shear stresses in order to equilibrate the force de.
presented in Volume (3) of this text. .
dC=qbdx ...................................... ;............ (4.1)
4.2 Shear stresses in Elastic Beams
The beam shown in Fig. (4.1) is acted upon by a system ofloads which lie in a dC =qb ....................................................... (4.2)
dx
plane of symmetry. The infinitesimal slice of length dx· is bounded by the two
sections 1-1 and 2-2 which are subjected to bending moments M and M+dM
The normal flexural stressfxequals
and shearing forces Q andQ+dQ (Fig.4.1c), respectively.
Ix = ~ z ................................................... (4.3)

z But, the compression force C equals


z
C=v dA = JMI zdA = M S ................................. (4.4.a)

~-'-'-'-'-'-'-'''''-'~-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-l'- ~ffiY ~
x .. I Y

Hence,
i
.~ ~= ! Jf dA= S; a: . . . . . . :. . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
(4.4.b)
(a) (b)

Substituting from Bq. (4.2) and noting that dM/dx = Q, one gets

q= Q Sy ........................................ ,............. (4.5)


Ib

where
Q = shear force acting on the cross section.
I =mome~t of inertia ofthe cross section.
(c) (d) Sy = the first moment of hatched area about the y~axis.
b = width of the member where the shear stress are being calculated.

.Fig. 4.1 Shear stresses in an elastic beam For an uncracked rectangular beam, Eq. (4.5) gives the distribution of shear
stresses shown in Fig. (4.lb).

I
C.L
Considering the equilibrium of a small element in the beam, it follows that the
horizontal shear stresses should be accompanied by vertical shear stresses of the

,--~::: -~--I
same magnitude as the horizontal shear stresses. The elements in Fig. (4.2-a) are
subjected to combined normal stresses due to flexure, J, and shearing stresses,
q. The largest and smallest normal stresses acting on such an element are
referred to as principal stresses. The principle tension stress, !tman and the
principal compression stress, !cman are given by:
~------------~--~q~-m~~ ~
(b) Distribution of shear
=f+~(fr+q2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4.6)
(a) Flexural and shear stresses acting on beam elements
itm.. and normal stresses

lernax =; -~(~r +q2 ................................................ (4.7)

The inclination of the principal stresses to the beam axis, 8, is determined by: -¢~
-1------.-------.-.-.-.----.---.-.--.-

" b-
'). f t
28= tan-I (/~2) ......................................................... (4.8) ! ~

If the principle tensile stresses exceed the tensile strength of concrete, cracking (c) Principal stresses on beam elements
occurs. The direction of cracking at any point is perpendicular to the direction of
the principle tensile stress at that point. Fig.4.2 Normal, shear and principal stresses in homogenous uncracked beam

Obviously, at different positions along the beam the relative magnitudes of q


and f change, and thus the directions of the principal stresses change as shown
in Fig. 4.2c. At the neutral axis, the principal stresses'will be equal to the shear
stresses and will be located at a 45° angle with the horizontal. Diagonal
princip!ll tensile stresses, called diagonal tension, occur at different places and
angles in concrete beams.

I
156 I Photo 4.2 Burj-Dubai during construction
Then one should have
4.3 Shear Stresses in Cracked RIC Beams
dC=qrnax bdx .............................................. (4.10)
The general formula that gives the distribution of shear stresses in homogeneous Noting
sections subjected to simple bending may be applied to reinforced concrete
M
sections. If one considers the virtual area of the section which consists of the C=- ................................................... (4.11)
area of concrete in compression plus n-times the area of the steel reinforcement. jd
Where jd is the arm of the internal moment. Then one gets
q= Q Sny .................................................... (4.9) dM
lny b dC=jd ................................................ (4.12)

where Sny is the first moment of area , lny. is the moment of inertia of the full Substituting Eq. (4.10) into (4.12) and noting that dM/dx=Q, one obtains
virtual section about the center of gravity and b is the width of the cross section. Q
qrnax = jdb ............................................. (4.13)

It may be observed that, on the tension side of the section, Snv is calculated The distancejd may be :taken to be approximatelyO.87d.
using the equivalent area of the tension steel reinforcement only.
For routine design, shear strength in reinforced concrete beams is commonly
Consider an infinitesimaf portion of length dx of a reinforced concrete beam
quantified in terms of a nominal shear stress, q, defined as
with rectangular cross section subjected to simple bending, where the bending
moment is M on one side and M+dM on the other side, as shown in Fig. (4.3). q = l .............. :.................................. (4.14)
The corresponding compressive forces, which are the resultants of the induced bxd
normal stresses, are C and C+dC, respectively.
4.4 Behavior of Slender Beams Failing in Shear
z 4.4.1 Inclined .Cracklng
Two types of inclined cracking occur in concrete beams; web shear cracking and
flexure-shear cracking. These two types of inclined cracking are illustrated in
Fig. (4.4). Web-shear cracking begins from an interior point ina member when
the principal tensile stresses due to shear exceed the tensile strength of concrete.
Flexure:-shear cracking is essentially an extension of a vertical flexural cracking.
The flexure-shear crack develops when the principal tensile stress due to
combined shear and flexural tensile stress exceed the -tensile strength of

1
IZ concrete. It should be mentioned that web-shear cracks usually occur in thin-

~i
C dC walled I beams where the shear stresses in the web are high while the flexural

4 MfUM
lQ+<lQJ + - .. ------
stresses are low. .

...---. T+dT ....


dx b qmax

Beam segment Cross section Shear stress


Web- Flexural and Web- end
distribution Shear Flexural-Shear . Shear support

Fig..4~3 Shear stresses· in cracked reinforced concrete b~ams


Fig. 4.4 Types of crackinginreinforced concrete beams .

l'iR
iS9
4.4.2 Internal Forces in B .
. eams without stirrups Traditionally, Qc is taken equal to the failure capacity of a beam without
T?e forces·transferring shear forces across . . stirrups. Since beams without stirrups will fail when inclined cracking occurs,
stirrups are illustrated in Fig (4 5) I h. an InclIned crack in a beam without Qc is equal to the inclined cracking load of the beam without stirrups.
. . . ntIS figure Q . h
across th e crack by interlock of the : a IS t e shear transferred
crack. Qax and Q are the h· aggregate partIcles on the two faces of th In general, the inclined cracking load of a beam without stirrups, and
• ay onzontal and rf I e consequently Qc , is affected by:
respectIvely. The shear force is resisted by: ve Ica components of this force,

Qcz th h . • The tensile strength of concrete: the inclined cracking load is a function
, e s ear In the compression zone
of the tensile strength of concrete. As mentioned before, the state of
Qay, the vertical component of th h stress in the web of the beam involves biaxial principal tension and
e s ear transferred h
of th e aggregate particles on the tw Co across t e crack by interlOck compression stresses as shown in Fig. 4.2b (see Section 4.3). A similar
Qd 0 laces of the crack
, the dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement . biaxial state of stress exists in a split cylinder tension test (Fig. 1.7).
This indicates that the inclined cracking load (or the shear carried by
concrete) is related to the t~nsile strength of concrete.

r - - - - - - - -__ (i) • Longitudinal reinforcement ratio: tests indicate that the shear capacity
of beams without stirrups increase with the increase of the longitudinal
reinforcement ratio. As the amount of the steel increases, the length and
the width of the cracks will be reduced. Hence, there will be close
contact between the concrete on the opposite sides of the cracks;
improving the shear resistance by aggregate interlocking.

• Shear-span-to-depth ratio (aid): the shear capacity of beams without


r=========1=--- T stirrups is a function of the shear span, a, to the depth, d, of the beams
(see Fig. 4.6). In general, concrete beams can be classified into slender
i (k) JQd
I.. d
beams and deep beams. Deep beams are those having small (aid) ratio.
They are much stronger than slender beams in shear. Detailed
discussion related to this subject can be found in Chapter (7) in this
volume and in Volume (3) of this text.

Fig. 4.5 Internal forces in a cracked beam without stirrups p p


a a

It is difficult to quantif!., the contrj·b t.


~y u IOns of Q Q d
are lumped together as Q fI cz, ay,an Qd· In design, these
c , re erred to as shear carried by
concrete. 1d
Qc = Qcz + Qay + Qd ·•••••· ••••.••••..•..••...•.••.•.•.•••
. (4.15) ______1 1.__;_
Fig. 4.6 Shear span -to-depth ratio (a/d)

160
161
4.4.3 Behavior of Slender Beams with Stirrups The shear transferred by tension in the stirrups is defined as Qs . Assuming that n
is the number of stirrups crossing a crack, s is the spacing between stirrups, the
The purpose of web reinforcement is to prevent sudden shear failure and ensure crack angle is 45 degrees, and that the stirrups yield, then
that the full flexural capacity can be developed. Web reinforcement may either
be consisting of vertical stirrups, inclined stirrups or bent bars as shown in Fig. n=!!.- .................................................. (4.16)
s
(4.7).
Qs=nAstfy=Astfyd .................................... (4.17)
s
s where
14 ~I
As! area of stirrups
Shear stress carried by stirrups qs
(i)
n n . q =~ ............. ;......................................... (4.18)
II II ·c s bxd
II II
II
II (j) Substituting with the value of Qs in Eq. 4.17 gives
II d
II Ast fy q = As, xly xd/s = As, xi), ........................ (4.19a)

"
II
II
s bxd bxs

II q = As, xly (4.19h)


=======u=== S [Jxs
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

t (k)

14 d
~I

Fig. 4.7Ifit~iial~rces in a cracked beam with stirrups

Measurements have shoWn that web reinforcement is almost free from stress
prior to the formation of diagonal cracks. After diagonal cracking, web.
reinforcement affects the shear resistance of the beam in three separate ways:

Part of the shear force is resisted by the web reinforcement traversing the
crack.
2 The presence of web. reinforcement restricts the growth of diagonal .
cracks and reduces their perietration into the compression zone; and
hence increases the part of the shear force resisted by the compression
zone.
3 The presence of stirrups enhances the dowel action.

ThefQrces in a beam with stirrups and an inclined crack are shown in Fig. (4.7) .
•~ • • <. "

Photo 4.3 Diagonal cracking in the shear span


3 If a concentrated load acts within a distance (a) where a<dJ2, the criti~al
4.5 Egyptian Code's Procedure for Shear Design
~ection (A-A) is taken at the face of the support. Th~ co.dt';~llows a reductIon
4.5.1 Critical Sections for Shear of the effect of this force on the shear design by multlplymg Its effect by (a/2d)
as shown in Fig. 4.8c.
The critical sections for shear design are as follows:
1. The critical section is taken at a distance (dJ2) from the face of the
column provided that column reaction introduces vertical compression in the reduce the effect of this load (p x a/2d)
p
support zone and no concentrated loads act closer to the support than half the
beam depth (Fig. 4.8.a). In such a case, the shear reinforcement obtained for
the critical section shall be kept constant through the distance from the critical section
critical section to the support.

A d/2

Ai
i
critical section

Fig.4.8c Case of concentrated load (a<dJ2)

Fig. 4.8a Critical section for shear (general case) 4. The critical section is taken directly at the face of the column in ca~e t?e
column reaction introduces vertical tension in the support zone as shown ill Fig.
4.8d.
2. If a concentrated load acts within a distance (a) where (d / 2:<; a :<; 2d), the
critical section (A-A) is taken at (dJ2) the face of the support. The code
allows a reduction of the effect of this force on the shear design by
multiplying its effect by (a/2d) as shown in Fig. 4.8b. Tension
member A

p reduce the effect of this load (p x a/2d)


a
dJ2<a<2d critical section critical section
A

critical section
Fig. 4.8d Case of a beam supported by a tension member

Fig.4.8b Case of concentrated load (d /2:<; a:<; 2d)

164 165
4.5.2 Upper limit of Design Shear Stress
Equations 4.22 and 4.23 indicate that the ECP 203 considers the effect of the
In or?er to avoid she~r. compression failure and to prevent excessive shear
axial force when calculation the shear strength provided ·by concrete. An
cracking, the ECP 203 limits the design ultimate shear stress to the value given
by: externally applied axial compression force will result in large compression zone
leading to enhanced qcu, The opposite would be true for a beam subjected to
axial tensile force plus shear and bending.
iJum.., ~OJ Vr:
IE: :s; 4.0 N Imm 2
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• (4.20)
4.5.4 Shear Strength Provided by Shear Reinforcement
The upper limit ofqumax in Eq. 4.20 is 4 N/mm 2
The design ultimate shear stress (qu ) is compared with the nominal shear
If the ultimate shear stress qu) qu m>X' the concrete dimensions of the cross ultimate shear strength provided by concrete (qcu). Two cases are possible:
section must be increased. a) qu:S; qcu , then provide minimum web reinforcement.
b) q u ) qcu, then provide web reinforcement to carry qsuo
4.5.3 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete
The code evaluation for the shear strength provided by concrete is as follows: q", =qu - 0.5 qcu········································,·:·(4.24)
No axial force .
The code allows the use of three types of shear reinforcement:

qcu =0.24 Jf· · · · ·:· · · ·. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4.21)


1. vertical stirrups
2. inclined stirrups
.3. bent up bars
Combined shear and axial compression These types are shown in Fig. 4.9
Applying compression force on the cross section will increase the area of
c?ncrete inco~pression and thus enhancing the shear capacity. The ECP 203
gIves the followmg equation

Vertical stirrups Inclined stirrups Bent bars


qcu =oc x 0.24 [l; ........................................(4.22)
V~
,
Combined shear and axial tension . Fig. 4.9 Web reinforcements of reinforced concrete tieams
Applying tension force on the cross section will decrease the area of concrete in
comp~ession and speeds up concrete cracking. The ECP 203 gives the following In case of using inclined stirrups or bent up bars, the inclination angle with the
equatIOn
be~ axis shall not be less than 30° .

The amount of the shear reinforcement is computed according to the


arrangement of the web reinforcement as follows:

qcu = Of xO.24 ~ ..................... : .................. (4.23)

166
A: Shear stress provided by vertical stirrups
~ C: Shear stress provided by vertical stirrups and two rows or more of
ASI V;. /Ys)
qsu b .s ·····;·········.··
. ........................... (4.25) bent-up bars
where: In case of using two rows of bent-up bars inclined at angle a with axis of the
AS! = area of all vertical legs in one row of stirrups. For two branch stirrup member accompanied by vertical stirrups, then the calculation is as follows:
(AS! ) is twice the area of one bar. 1. Calculate the total design shear stress qsu given by:
= yield strength of stirrups.
= beam width. qsu = q" - 0.5 qcu ............................................ (4.30)
s = spacing between stirrups (:S 200mm)
Assume the vertical stirrups area (AsJ and spacing (s) then calculate the
contribution of the vertical stirrups qsus as follows
The previous equatio~ contains two unknowns, As! and s, thus either one should
be assuI?ed to determme the required shear reinforcement.
If the stIrrUPS spacing are assumed, then Eq " 425 becomes q,us ASI y./y,) ............................................ (4.31)
.s
2. Calculate the amount of remaining shear stress that should be carried by
q", xbxs
/;. I Y •••••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• (4.26) the bent-up bars qsub as follows
s
qsu', = qsu - qsus ............................................... (4.32)
The area of one branch is determined by
3. Calculate the required cross sectional area of the bent-up bars Asb
A _ ASI
. sl(on.hranch) - ~ ............................................. (4.27) qsuh xbxs (433)
where n IS the number of branches (/;.IyJ(sina + cosa) ........................... .

If the stirrups area is assumed, then Eq. 4.25 becomes


If the angle (a) is 45°, Eq. 4.33 becomes

s
ASI xly IrS < 200
qsu xb - mm ...... ·............................... (4.28) ASh = r£'~;Y.h ...................... (4.34)

B: Shear stress provided by inclined stirrups D: Shear stress provided by vertical stirrups and one row of bent-up bars
In case of using one row of bent-up bars inclined at angle a with axis of the
In case of using stirrups inclined at angle a with axis of the member
member, then the previous procedure is followed. However, the required cross
sectional area Asb is calculated from the following equation
qsu ASI ~.jys)
.s
(sin a + cosa) ........................ (4.29)
qsuh xbxd
ASh = . .. ...................................... (4.35)
lylYsxsma
in such a case

qsuh :s; 0.24 rz:, If the angle (a) is 45° , Eq. 4.35 becomes
VY:
.fiXqsUh xbxd
ASh = . .. ................................... (4.36)
. Iy Iys

168
169
3- For beams with web width equal to or greater than 400 mm, and in beams
4.5.5 Code Requirements for Shear Reinforcement of web width exceeding their height, stirrups of at least four branches
shall be used. The maximum distance between branches should be less
1- A minimum amount of shear reinforcement is required by the code. It is given than 250 mm as shown in Fig. 4.11.
by

Stirrups
ASI(min) =
. fy
0.4 b .S •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• (4.37)
l
~ /) /}
./
/)
I
where b is the width of the section as defined in Fig. 4.10. t
But not less than .
_l...-
Ast(min) =0.0015 b. s for mild steel 24/35 I I I--l
250mm(max) 250 mm (max)
Ast(min) =0.0010 b. s for ribbed high-grade steel
·b
but notIess'1han 5 <I> 6 1m'

Fig. 4.11 Stirrups arrangement for beams having b>t or b> 400 mm
-

4- For reinforced beams of depth of not more than 250 mm, the code
ASI requires that the design shear stress be resisted by concrete only
according to the following r~lation
---- qcu :O;O.16~ ................................................ (4.39)

b
.j
5- The maximum spacing between vertical stirrups shall riot exceed the
a-solid section b-box section following value
Smax ~ 200 mm .......................................... , .....(4.40)
Fig. 4.10 Definition of b for solid and boxed sections
. 6- The maximum spacing between rows of bent up bars is as follows:

2- The area of steel Ast(min) calculated using Eq. (4.37) may be reduced for Smax :o;d
beams of width exceeding their depth as follows: :0; l.5d -provided qu :0; 1.5 qcu
or -:<:;2d provided q u <
ASI(min) reduced= ASI(min) x!b... .................................. (4.38)
qcu 7- Construction joints should be generally avoided at location of high shear
where !b...< 1 stresses. OtherWise precautions related to shear friction should be followed.
qcu'

170 171
Example 4.1
Step No.1: Determine the design shear force
Figu~e (EX. 4'.1) ~hows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that can"ies The critical section for shear is located at d/2 from the face of the support.
a umfonnly dIstrIbuted load having a factored value of 60 kN/m and a central
concentrated
. load of a factored value of 100 kN . It's . d t0 carry out a
I reqUire Assuming concrete cover of 50 mm
sh ear deSIgn for the beam according to the following data: d = t - cover = 700 - 50 = 650 mm
- Beam width = 300 mm The critical section is located at a distance that is equal to 325mm from the face
Beam thickness = 700 mm
of the support.
feu =30Nlmm 2 and 1;. = 240Nlmm 2 . . wxL P 60x7.5 100
ReactIOn at the support =--+- = - - - + - = 275kN
2 2 2 2

. (d col. Width) = 275 - 60 x (0.65


- +0.5)
- = 2405kN
Qu = ReactlOn-WX -+ .

IL--~-J1
2 2 2 2

Step No.2: Check the adequacy of the concrete dimensions of


the section
10.501 3.50 m I' • 3.50 m .1 0 .50 1 The concrete dimensions of the section are considered adequate if the shear
stress due to the design shear force is less than the ultimate shear strength.
(a) Beam Layout
~= 240.5xl0 =1.233N Imm 2
3

I
=
q" bxd 300x650
100 KN 60 KN/m .
qum", =0.7 if::o; 4N Imm 2

fr:
~
o I
qumax =0.7 -=3.13N mm <4.0 N Imm
2 2

1.5

Since qll (qllmax the concrete dimensions of the section are adequate.

275 KN
Step No.3: Determine the shear stress carried by concrete

qcu =0.24 rr: = 0.24 Vu


Vr:- f30 = L073 N I mm 2

Since the shear stress is greater than the shear stress carried by concrete, web
(c) Shear Force Diagram 275KN reinforcement is needed.

Step No. 4 Design the web reinforcement

Fig. EX. 4.1

1 '7")
q,u = 1.233 - 0.5 x 1.073 = 0.697 N / mm 2
Qeu =q xbxdl=1.073x30qx650=209.3kN
eN i I
I
q,u xbxs
~. /r, ~i------~i----------------------i~ V
I I :3
"i !5 B
Assume that the stirrups spacing is 150 mm
A
s/
0.697x300x150 =150.2 mm2
240/1.15

:.Required area of one branch = 150.2 = 75.1mm 2 , choose ~ 10 =78.5 mm 2


2 ~.a:==
q.Ii
i !j'i
I
3.50

3.75
.i"i ~
j' ;

Use{610@150mm (7~ 10m') Y I .

Check min shear reinforcement


Pmin
0.4 0.4
=-=-=0.
~, 240
0017> 0.005
1 ....ok 275~50
As/(min) = Pmin xbxs = 0.0017 x300x150 = 76.5 mm 2 < (As!, provided= 2 x 78.5) ..... ok y
I· x
I
i I Shear force diagram
i I
i
i~ ~ . Referring. to the ,above shear force diagram and similarity of triangular
!j ~
I <>
r-----~~~---- ____________________~i I B
~
x
3.75
209.3-50
275-50
I I l1
0.50
I
i •
i~
! <> 3.50 ,I
a
..0 x=2.65m
-~~ y = 3.75-2.65 ~ 1.09m '" 1.25m

The calculated stirrups (7 ~ 10m') is provided in the distance y, while a


assumed constant shear stress provided I minimum stirrups (s=200 mm) is provided in the distance x
by stirrups shear stress provided
1.233 by concrete As/(mm) II .. x b x s = 0.0017 x250x 200 = 85.0 mm 2 (for two branches)
. = .r-mm

0.6~ Area of one branch =42 mm2 (use ~ 8 =50 mm2) .

Use (5 ~ 8 m').
(7 ~ 10m') (5 ~ 8 m')
I
-i
It should be mentioned that using the amount of stirrups obtained from the
design of the critical section along the whole span is not economic. A practical
approach to get an economic design is to use the minimum required amount of
stirrups starting from the section at which the shear stress .equals qcu' To . 1.25 2.25

compute the location ofthis section, the following calculations are carried out 0.50
.. 3.50
-I
The shear force carried by concrete equals
Final shear design
Example 4.2 Step 1: Determine the design shear force
Due to the fact that the girder has a variable crosS section, the designer has to
~!~:e (EX .. 4.2) sho.ws. a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that check its shear capacity at more than one location. In this example two sections
. s.a umformly dIstnbuted load having a factored value of 140 kN/m It shall be examined as follows:
IS re':Ulred to ~arry out a shear design for the beam according knowing that The critical section in the solid part is located at d/2 from the face of the
feu - 30 N / mm and fy = 360 N I mm 2 for the stirrups. support.
Assuming a concrete cover of 100 mm
d =t - cover = 1100-100 = 1000 mm
. wxL 140x12
ReactIOn at the support = - - = - - - = 840kN
2 2
.
Qu I = ReactlOn-w x (d
-+ COI.Width) = 840 - 140 x (1.0 - = 700kN
- +1.0)
2 2 2 2

The critical section at the hollow part (the box section) is located at the section
where the hollow part starts (x=I.5m).
E E
o 0.175 0.175 0
~ Qu2= R· .
eactlOn-W x (COI.Width)
x + 2 = 84 0 -lOx
4 (5 6 kN
1.0) =50
1. +2

Step 2: Check the adequacy of the concrete dimensions

I. 0.60
qumax=0.7 l1: s 4.0 N I mm
Sec2-2
(a) Beam Layout
Secl-I fY: 2

~
o 2 2
qumax=0.7 -=3.13Nlmm <4.0Nlmm
1.5

2i! :l
140 KN/m

J J J J J JJ J JIll J II J JJ J lJ J J JJ H H I qumax =3.13N l.mm2

t840kN

I' 12.00 m
t.,
. 840kN

Critical section 1-1
For the critical section at dl2 from the face of the column

QUI 700xlOOO =1.17 N Imm 2


(b) Statical System quI bxd 600xlOOO
840kN :. The concrete dimensions of the section are adequate.

Critical section 2 - 2
Section 2-2 has a boxed shape and resistance to shear comes from the two webs
each having a width of 175 mm
(c) Shear Force Diagram QU2 560x 1000 1.60 N I mm 2
840kN qu2 bxd (2x175)xl000
':Qu2 squmax :. The concrete dimensions of the section are adequate.
Fig. EX. 4.2

1'7'7
1'7'<;
Step ~: Determine the shear stress carried by concrete Check min shear reinforcement
qcu =0.24 rz;; = 0.4 = 0.4 = 0.00111 > 0.0010....ok
Vr:- II.
r"m," i y 360 .
. ,fff0
=0.24 - =1.073Nlmm 2
Astl(mm)
. =11.
rrom xbxs=0.00111x600x200=133mm2 «A.!,provided=4x78.5) ..... ok
1.5
Ast2(mm)
. =11.
rmm xbxs = 0.00illx(2 x175)x 200 = 77.7 mm 2 «As!,provided=4x78.5) ..... ok
Step 4: Design the web reinforcement for each section
For Sec. 1-1
·qsul =qul -0.5qcu

qfUI = 1.17 -0.5xl.073 = 0.635N 1mm 2

A = q,ul xbx's
Sf fy 1y,
Assume that the stirrups spacing is 200 mm
0.635x 600 x 200 2
AS( 360/1.15 = 243.4 mm

The width of the section is more than 400mm, thus requires more than two
branches.

Assuming 4 branches, the area of one branch = A" = 243.4 = 61 mm 2 Sec 1-1 Stirrups Details
n 4 2+10@200mm
(L.ongitudinal Rft.
Use <I> 10=78.5 mtn2 is not shown)
Use <i>10@200mm 4-branches

For Sec. 2-2


I"
'1
cp 8@200mm
Q,u2 =: 1.60 -0.5x1.07 = 1.065N Imm 2
A = q'U2 xbxs
" 1;.1 y, q.1O@200mm cplO@200mm

Assume that the stirrups spacing is 200 mm


cp 8@200mm
A _1.065x(2x175)x200 -23 2
" - 360/1.15 - 8.14 mm 1'1
Each web is provided with one stirrup that has two branches. Sec 2-2 Stirrups Details
Thus, the area of one br:anch = AS! = ~ = 59 mm2 (Longitudinal Rft.
n 2x2 is not shown)
Use <I> 10=78.5 mm2
Use ¢10@200mm 4-branches

178 179
Example 4.3 Step 1: Determine the design shear force
The critical section for shear is located at d/2 from the face of the support.
Figure (EX. 4.3) shows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that carries
a uniformly distributed load having a factored value of 80 kN/m'. Assuming concrete cover of 50 mm
It is. requi.red to carry ?ut a shear design for the beam using bent-up bars and d = t - cover = 800-50 = 750 mm
vertIcal stIrrUpS accordmg to the following data: . wx L 80x6,4
Beam width = 250 mm ReactIOn at the support = - - = - - = 256kN
2 2
Beam thickness = 800 mm
fcu = 25 N I mm 2 , ~, = 240 N / mm 2 for the stirrups and h =400 N/mm2 for the
u
.
Q = ReactlOn-wx -+
(d2
col. Width)
2
= 256 - 80 x (0.75
- +0.4)
2
- = 210kN
2
bent-up bars
Step 2: Check the adequacy of the concrete dimensions

IL--l1 6.0m
The concrete dimensions of the section are considered adequate if the shear
stress due to the design shear force is less than the ultimate shear strength.

qu
=~= 21Oxl0
bxd

qumax =0.7
250x750
3

fl: s 4N Imm
=1.l2Nlmm2

(a) Beam Layout VYc


m
5 2
qumax =0.7 - = 2.86N I mm <4.0 N I mm
1.5
2

22 80 KN/m
J JI J J J J JIll J II J I J J I J Jill J J JJ J I ~
qumax =2.86N I mm
2

Since qu (qumax the concrete dimensions of the section are adequate.


t 256 KN . t 256 KN
. Step No.3: Determine the shear stress carried by concrete
I.. 6.40m .. I
(b) Statical System qcu =0.24 fl: = 0.24 f25 = 0.98 N I mm 2
VYc V1.5
256 KN
Since the shear stress is greater than the shear stress carried by concrete, web
reinforcement is needed.

Step 4: Design the web reinforcement


The web reinforcement consists of two parts: a) vertical stirrups; b) bent-up bars
(c) Shear Force Diagram

2
qsu = 1.12 -0.5x 0.98 = 0.63 N I mm
Fig. EX. 4.3

180
lRl
Step 4.1: Shear stress carried by vertical stirrups Example 4.4
Assume that a minimum area of stirrups shall be provided Figure (ExAA) shows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that carries
0.4 0.4 a unifonnly distributed load having a factored value of 70 KN/m and a
JLmin =- =- = 0.00166 > 0.0015 ....ok
i y 240 concentrated load of a factored value of 90 KN. It is required to carry out a shear
Assume s=200 mm design for the beam according to the following data:

A,,(min) =JLmin xbxs =0.00166x250x200=83.3 mm 2


Beam width = 250 mm
Beam thickness = 700 mm
Area of one branch=41.65 mm 2, choose <jl8=50 mm2
leu = 25 N Imm2 andh = 240 N Imm 2
AS! l.h,/y') = (2 x 50) 2401 l.l 5 =0417 NI 2
q.us b.s 250x 200 . mm

Step 4.2: Design of bent-up bars


. qsuh =qsu -q.us =0.63-.417=0.21 Nlmm 2

Using one row of bent-up bars and noting that the yield strength of the flexural
steel is 400 N/mm2, the area of the bars equals

.fixq.uhxbxd .fix0.21x250x750 2
fJ-aU--J
10 .50 I 1.00m . 5.50m
(a)8eam Layout
I 0.50 I

A.b= = =160mm
1;,1 Y. 400/1.15
90KN
Use 2<1> 12 (=226 mm 2)
agO 1I11! II jilL III III I !III j III 1111 JII if ~01!!!
I I J J!! II Jill jlllllllI III II 11b
t 1.25 I 5.75. =r
""~ ________ ~2~<1>~1~2~ ________
Ra=318.93 KN
(b)Staticai System
Rb=261.07 KN

318.93 KN
2<1> 12

3.00
(c)Shear Force. Diagram
'0
'c:
i. '-e.,
261.07KN

I",
Fig.Ex.4.4
shear stress provided i""
.e.>

by 12) .I ·c
'.0 shear stress provided
Ie.> shear stress provided
I by concrete'

lQ'}
182
Step 1: Determine the design shear force Step 4: Design t~e web reinforcement
The critical section for shear is located at d/2 from the face of the support. q =q -0.5q =1.32 -0.5xO.98=0.83N Imm 2
Assuming concrete cover of 50 mm
~~su;e that the stirrups spacing is 150 mm
d = t - cover = 700 - 50 = 650 mm
_ q,,, xb xs 0.83x250x150 =149.14 mm2
A,,- 1)"lr, 240/1.15 .
The critical section is located at a distance equal to 325mm from the column
face. To get the reaction at the support take LM" =0 :. Required area of one branch = 14~ 14 = 74.57 mm 2, choose <I> 10 =78.5 mm
. 2

70x(7·W +90x1.25-7R =0 Use ¢10@150mm or (7 <I> 10 m')


2 2
:. R2 = 261.07 KN
It !
. -w u x (d"2+ cotWidth)
Qu = ReactIOn 2

Qu = 318.93 -70X( 0;5 + 0~5) = 278.68KN

Step 2: Check the adequacy of the concrete dimensions


The concrete dimensions of the section are considered adequate if the shear
stress due to the design shear force is less than the ultimate shear strength.

~= 278.68x10 =1.71N Imm 2


3
=
qu b xd 250x650

(c)Shear stress Distribution

qumax =0.7 fg = 2.86N 1min 2 < 4.0 N 1mm 2 ---+---+---+qumax =2.86N 1mm 2
Check min shear reinforcement
Since qu <qumax the concrete dimensions of the section are adequate.
According to code; since the load is at distance "a = 1000mm" between A'I (mlO) 0.4 xb xs
. =1 240 x 250 x 150 = 62.5 mm 2 < (As~ provided= 2 x 78.5) ..... ok
= 0.40
)"
d/2(325mm) & 2d(1300mm), therefore shear stress can be reduced as follows:
(74) 10 m')
q =q x.!:...=1.71x 1000 =1.32N Imm2
ur u 2d 2x650 . I

Step 3: Determine the shear stress carried by concrete:


qcu =0.24 Ii: =0.24 Vu
Vr: {25 =0.98N Imm2

Since the shear stress is greater than the shear stress carried by concrete, web
reinforcement is needed. --0.50 ' - _ - - - - -_ _3..:..25.:....-~---------JJ
._._._.'-.-
Final shear design

184 185
5
BOND, DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND SPLICING
OF REINFORCEMENT

Photo 5.1 ReiIiforced concrete high rise building (San

5.1 Introduction
One of the fundamental assumptions of reinforced concrete design is that at the
interface of the concrete and the steel bars, perfect bonding exists and no
slippage occurs. Based on this assumption, it follows that some form of bond
stress exists at the contact surface between the concrete and the steel bars.

186
dM ................... (5.3)
Bond· strength results from several factors, such as the adhesion between the dT=-·······································
concrete and steel interfaces and the pressure of the hardened concrete against YCT

the steel bar.


From Eq. 5.3 and 5.1, one can get
In a reinforced concrete beam, the flexural compressive forces are resisted by ................................... (5.4)
concrete, while the flexural tensile forces are provided by reinforcement as dT= T2 - Ti·····················
shown in Fig. (5.la). For this process to exist; there must be a force transfer, or
. e uilibrium the change in the force dT should b.e
bond between the two materials. In order for the bar to be m q l' redby the surface area as shown m
The forces acting on the bar are shown in Fig. (5.lb). For the bar to be in equal to the average bond stress fb mu tip 1
equilibrium, bond stresses,j/" must exist. If these disappear, the bar will pull out
of the concrete and the tensile force, T, will drop to zero, causing the beam to Eq. S.5 dT = fb . L O . dx ...............................•............ (5.5)
fail.
dT ...........................(5.6)
fb -dx--=L"-O- ....................... .
c
where b
----------- .T
L0 = the sum of the perimeters of all tension ars
----------- fb = average bond stress
y = the lever arm of the internal forces C and T.
CT ... rfonal to the rate of
..t- Equilibrium of a beam · (5 6) means that average bond stress IS propo 1
Equat IOn . . ' I
change in the tension in the remforcmg stee . .

~:c
........-- . ;~
-......-- - ~ ...........--
- - -...r-
____ ~,:,~----...
____ T

b- Forces acting on a bar


(a) Beam

Fig. 5.1 Bond stress development


i

5.2 Average Bond Stresses in a Beam


Consider the equilibrium of a segment of a beam of length dx as shown in Fig.
(S.2).
(b)""'mm,di,,,,," ~ ,
I
,
,
I
I
I fb '
'~

dM=M 2 -Mi .......................................... ;........ (S.l) (c) Bar forces T-~-T2


1 ~
, I
I ,
Noting that the tension in the reinforcing steel, T, equals i I

Then
M
T = -c-
Y",
.•••••.•....•.•.....•...••••.••.•••..•.•.•.....•..•••. ...•.... (S.2)
. M, (1 L)M2
.Fig. 5.2 Average flexural boud stress

187
188
5.3 True Bond Stresses in a Beam
~t the location of the crack, the steel reinforcement carries the tension force 5.4 Development Length
,,:,ay ~m cracks, concr~te c.an pick up part of the tension (T) through bond
5.4.1 Theoretical' Considerations
act~ond onsequentl~, tensIon In steel is reduced between cracks by the amount
resiste by the tensIle stresses in concrete It. It is only at the locations of the The development length of the bar (L d ) is the necessary embedment length of
cracks that the stee~ i~ sub~ected to tension (T) predicted by Eq. (5.2). Fi ure the bar in concrete in order to ensure that the bar is securely anchored by bond
(5.3) shows the varIations In the tension force in steel (T) the . t' .gh to develop its maximum usable strength. For a bar stressed to its yield strength,
tensile str . , varIa IOn In t e
esses In concrete (It), and the variation of the bond stress (jj ) for a the development length is the shortest length of bar in which the stress can
segment of a beam subjected to a constant bending moment (M). b increase from zero to yield strength, f y . If the distance from a point where the
bar stress equals fy to the end of the bar is less than the development length, the
bar will pull out ofthe concrete.
Crack The concept of development length is demonstrated by a bar embedded in a
mass of concrete as shown in Fig. (5.4). Equilibrium between internal and
external applied forces leads to:
Tension in the bar = Bond force ................... (5. 7a)
(a) Beam segment
(fJ2 fy .
I, ,
7f - - = fb (7f (fJ) Ld ................................. (5.7b)

(b) bond stresses on bar


__ L--. __ .-1. __ 4 rs

~··L·~··
, (fJljyjrs) . ( )
Ld = ................................................ 5.8
,I 4 fb
I I

~
where (fJ = the bar diameter
(c) steel tension stress (fs) fb = the average bond stress
Ab = cross sectional area of the bar
i i fy =steel yield stress
i i Ld = Development length

(d) concrete tension stress (f


t
)
~
i .i
i, I'
(f) bond stress (f )
b ])J LrN
\JJY 'QJ
I- .. I
Fig. 5.3 True bond stresses in a beam

Fig. 5.4 The concept of development length for bars in direct tension
189
100
5.4.2 Development Length According to ECP 203
Another approach to understand the concept of development length is presented
by considering a beam subjected to two-point loads as shown in Fig. (5.5). In order to develop a tension or a compression force that is equ~l to the b~r yield
Assume that the design tensile force in steel is equal to h at point (0). This force force at any section, the Egyptian Code present the followmg equatIon for
is transferred progressively from concrete·to steel over the length L. If the length calculating the development length Ld
(L) is equal to or larger than the development length Ld calculated from Eq. 5.8,
no premature bond failure will occur. L a fJ'7 If),/rs) <1> ••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••• (5.9)
,/ 4/bu

where
<I> = nominal bar diameter
'7 = 1.3 for top reinforcement bars below which the concrete depth
is more than 300 mm
o o fJ = coefficient depending on bar surface condition as defined by
Table (5.1)
= coefficient depending on bar shape as defined by Table (5.2)
I
I
a
r = ultimate bond strength calculated from the following equation
I Jbu

f.
~
=0.30
~~
rz: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
(5.10)

The development length for reinforcing steel bars subjected to tension or


compression shall not be less than:
35 $ or 400 mm - whichever is bigger- for smooth bars with hooks
40 <t> or 300 mm - whichever is bigger- for deformed bars

Table 5.1 Values of. the correction coefficient (13)

Design tensile M (3
forces in steel J d Surface Condition Compression
Tension
1.00 0.70
1 Smooth bar.
Fig. 5.5 The concept of development length for bars in beams 0.75 0.45
2 Deformed bar.

The necessary devel6pment length depends on the following factors: The development length for bundled bars shall be calculated from equation (5.9)
considering the bundle as an individual bar having an equivalent. diameter <Pe'
• The bar diameter.
The equivalent diameter of a bundle consisting of bars of equal dIameter shall
• The conditions of the bar ends.
• The condition of bar surface. be calculated as follows:
<Pe = 1.4 <P
• The position of bar in the forms during construction. _ In case of using a two-bar bundle
• The yield strength of steel. <Pe=1.7<P
_ In case of using a three-bar bundle
• The characteristic strength of concrete.

192
191
The increase in the value of the factor (1J) from (1.00) to (1.30) for top bars
Table (S.2) Values of the correction factor a.
below which more than 300 mm of concrete are placed is justified by test
Factor a results. These results showed a significant loss of bond strength for bars with
Type End Shape 300 mm or more of concrete beneath. This loss is attributed to the tendency of
Tension Compression
excess water and air in the concrete mix to rise up and accumulate to some
extent on the underside of the bar, thus, resulting in weaker bond on the lower
1.0 1.0 part of the bar perimeter (see Fig. 5.6).

2- Hook of a 180 ~end

0.75 1.0 Zones. of possible accumJation


"fI-......,,>--~
of water and air during vibration

3- Hook of a 90 gend

0.75 1.0

Fig. S.6 Weak bond strength for top bars


0.75 1.0

The Egyptian Code d9,es not deal explicitly with cross sections that are provided
with reinforcement in excess of that required by calculations. However, the first
1- Straight bars with no transversal clause of the code's section regarding development length states that steel bars
barinLd
must be extended on both sides ofa section by a length that is proportional to
r"'L:" ""'r!"H<I> 1.0 1.0
the force in the bar at this section. This statement, effectively, permits reduction
of the development, length when the provided reinforcement exceed that
2- Straight bars with one' transversal required by calculations.
bar in Ld
For simplicity, the Egyptian Code allows the use of the development length
iUd·," ,,!. ""!~i=f<I> 0.7 0.7
(L d ) as given in Table (5.3) instead of using Eq. 5.9 for values ofJcu greater than
I Ld I . or equal to 20 N/mm 2• It is to be noted that this length should be incr~ased by
2- Straight bars with two transversal 30% for top reinforcing bars. .
bars in Ld

dt""....!. ". ·,·.··."t4<I> 0.5 0.5


I Ld I
D=44> for steel 240/350.
D= 64> for (4)=6-25 mm)
D= 8 4> for (4)>25 mm)

194
193
Table (5-3) Development length (Ld ) estimated as multiplier of bar diameter(l1=l) *
5.5 Bar Cutoffs in Flexural Members
Reinforcement Type
Concrete 5.5.1 The Moment of Resistance of a RIC Beam
Deformed bars /y= 400 N/mm2 Smooth bars /y= 240 N/mm2
GradeN/mm2 The moment of resistance of a RIC section is the maximum moment that can be
Tension Compression Tension Compression resisted by the section according to its concrete dimensions and steel
18 65 40 40 35 reinforcement. In other words, it is a property of the cross section. According to
the preceding definition, it follows that the moment of resistance of a reinforced
20 60 40 38 35 concrete beam at any section depends on the concrete dimensions and the
25 55 40 36 35 amount of steel at that section.
The tension force in steel (T) is related to the design bending moment (M) by
30 50 40 35 35 the relationship (T=M/YCT ). For shallow (slender) reinforced concrete beams,
35 45 40 35 35 the lever arm (YCT) could be considered constant. Therefore, it could be
40 assumed that the required areas of steel at various sections in a beam are
42 40 35 35 proportional to the bending moments at these sections.
~45 40 The simple beam shown in Fig. (5.7a) is subjected to a uniformly distributed
40 35 35
load that results in the bending moments shown in Fig. (5.7b).
* In case of using deformed bars with hooks, multiply the previous numbers by 0.75
* The use smooth bars without hooks is not allowed. wkN/m
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII t
(a)

Bending moment Moment of resistance


(b) diagram for 4'122
diagram

ill 0
I tt I
2 ,2

E" !
i
4¢22
III
(c)
1.1-
II
I
4¢22

Sec. 1-1

Photo 5.2 Bridge deck during construction


(notice the shear connectors in the beam
Fig. 5.7 The concept ofthe moment of resistance
195
196
Assuming that the design of the critical section at mid span, which is subjected
5.5.2 Curtailment of Bars in Beams
to a factored moment M u' results in a required amount of steel As (req) of a value
2
of 1440 mm . Four bars of diameter 22 mm are chosen to reinforce the critical The maximum required area of steel is needed at the section of maximum
section. The area of the chosen reinforcement is 1S20 mm 2 • Since the chosen bending moment. This amount of reinforcement may be reduced at sections of
area of steel is larger than the required area of steel, the moment of resistance of smaller moments. As a general rule, bars may be cut-off where they are no
longer needed for flexural strength. Figure (S.8a) shows a better detailing for the
the section M r shall be higher than the applied factored moment M u' The
simply supported beam shown in Fig. (S.7a), where two bars of diameter 22mm
moment of resistance of a reinforced concrete section can be obtained from are extended past the center-line of the support and two bars of diameter 22mm
are stopped exactly at the theoretical cut-off points. The moment of resistance
Mr =Mu' As(chosen) ....................................... (S.11)
As(req) diagram for the detailing that involves curtailment of bars is shown in Fig.
(S.8b).
If the required area of steel for the section of maximum moment were used
along the beam, as shown in Fig. (S.7c), the moment of resistance of the beam
sections would be as shown in Fig. (S.7b). At low moment regions, the detailing
shown in Fig. (S.7c) results in an uneconomic design, since the moment of 1 !
resistance of the four bars is much larger than the bending moment diagram.
Hence, curtailment of bars should be carried out.
2<$>22

(a)

Theoretical
cut-off point Mrof 4<$>22
(b)

Fig. 5.8 Curtailment of bars in beams

There are practical considerations and sound reasons for not stopping bars
exactly at the theoretical cut-off points. These reasons are:
• The bending moment diagrams may differ from those used for
design due to approximations in loads and supports.

Photo 5.3 Failure of a beam-column connection due to inadequate


anchorage of the reinforcement.

197 lQR
• After diagonal cracking, the steel tensile force at a crack is
governed by the moment at a section not passing vertically 5.5.3 Egyptian Code's Requirements for Curta~lment
above the crack intersection with the steel as indicated in Fig.
(5.9), where the tension force (T) at section (1-1) is governed To take into account the considerations mentioned in section (5.5.2) of this text,
by the moment at section (2-2). the Egyptian Code sets requirements for bar curtailment as follows:
• It is necessary to develop the calculated stress in bars by 1- At least one':thirdof the positive moment steel must be continued
providing adequate embedment length before the strength of uninterrupted along the same face of the beam by a distance of 150 mm
the bar can be achieved. past the centerline of the support.
2- At least one-third of the total reinforcement for negative moment must be
Diagonal tension extended beyond the extreme. position of the point of inflection (zero
crack moment) a distance (La) not less than the greatest value of:
• d
• 0.3d + 10 <I>
• O.3d + (L/20)
1 where
d is the effective depth of the beam,
J
<I> is the bar diameter and
" L is the clear span

O.3d 3- Every bar should be continued at least a distance (La)· equal to the
rt effective depth (d) or (0.3d+ 10 <I» as shown in Fig. 5.10, whichever
/'
/' is larger, beyond the point at which it is theoretically no longer
/'/' needed.

nil
- ........w..J............ . . - - - .- .- ' \ Shifted bending
moment diagram

~n
moment diagram
I
f----l
La I I La
I
I
Part ofbeam at
Diagonal tension I
diagonal tension crack
crack

T
I_ ~d .1 Theoretical
21 j1 cut-off point

Fig. 5.9 The idea of shifted moment diagram Fig. 5.10 Bar extension beyond the cut-off points (La)

199 200
ECP 203 requirements for curtailment of bars are summarized in Fig. 5.12
4- The full development length (L d ) plus the moment shift i.e., (Ld +O.3d)
must be provided beyond critical sections at which the maximum stress
exists. These critical sections are located at points where adjacent
terminated reinforcement is no longer needed to resist bending moment.
5- No flexural bar shall be terminated in a tension zone unless one of the
,"
'C >07dor10
following conditions is satisfied:
• The shear at the terminated point does not exceed two-thirds
that the shear strength of the cross section including shear
strength of shear reinforcement qsu \ >0.7d or I ~\
I: 10 ~ : ~
qll : :; ~ (q~u + qSII) ......................................... (5.12) I I
I
I
• Stirrups in excess of those normally required are provided BarsC I
I I
over a distance equal along each terminated bar from the point -1,,--1-------, I
of cut-off to (0.75 d) as shown in Fig. (5.11). The area of the Bars D
I
additional stirrups is not less than;

As(<u",.) = 0.40b.s ............................................... (5.13)


iy Bars A
The spacing between these stirrups shall not exceed (d18 fJ) where fJ is
the ratio of the area of reinforcement cut-off to the total area of tension
reinforcement at the section.
Shifted bending
Bars B
moment diagram
s::s;~
8 fJ
.....•....•....••............••.•.....••.....•..••...•.••.. (5.14)
. .

Moment of
0. 3d l--t
I
Cuttoff S*d/8~ resistance

~
point _I s I ..

I ~ addi tti anal stirrups


} } Ld =Developmentlength of bar
d = Beam's effective depth

Tension
zone
/ I· O 75d
. -I
\ Shear stirrups
<l> = Bar diameter
As = Area of steel, (-)ve for top steel & (+) ve for bottom steel

Fig. 5.12 Egyptian Code requirements for bars curtailment


Fig. 5.11 Additional stirrups at cut-off points
202
201
5.6 Beams with Bent-up Bars 5.8 Splicing of Reinforcement
Bars may be cut-off where they are no longer needed for flexural strength or
may be bent to participate in shear resistance and can be extended furthet to The need to splice reinforcing steel is a reality due. to the .limited lengths of steel
provide tensile top reinforcement as shown in Fig. (S.13). In some cases, available. Typical diameter bars are readily avaIlable m ~engths up !2.0 m.
particularly for relatively deep beams, it may be impossible to make use of bent- Splicing may be accomplished by welding, utilizing mechamcal connec~lOns, or,
up bars. The cost of labor involved in fabrication and erection of bent-up bars most commonly for bars having diameter 32 mm and smaller, by lappmg bars.
limits their use. There are general requirements for proper splicing such as:
(i) Splices in reinforcement at points of maximum stress should be avoided.
(ii) When splices are used, they should be staggered.

5.8.1 Lap splices


In a tensile lapped splice, the force in one bar is transferred to ~he co~crete,
----------- which transfers it to the adjacent bar. Bars are lapped a suffiCIent dIstance
known as the lap length as shown in Fig. (S.15). The lap length shall not ~e less
than the development length. If, however; the ratio of area of steel prOVIded to
the required area (As(provided)j As(required) is less than 2.0, lap length shall be
increased by 30%. If~ars of different diameters are lapped, lap should be based
on the larger diameter. Lap splices for tension steel should be. staggered such
Fig. 5.13 Beams with bent-up bars that not mo~e than 25% of total area of bars is lapped at one sectlOn.

5.7 Anchorage of Web Reinforcement In a compression lap splice, a portion of the force transfer ~s through ~earing of
the end of the bar' on the concrete. This allows compressIon lap splIces to be
As mentioned in Section S.6, bars may be bent to participate in shear resistance. much shorter than tension lap splice.
In this case, the bar must be extended beyond the point of maximum tensile
stresses due to shear. This point may be taken at mid-depth of the beam as
. shown in Fig. S.14-a. When stirrups are used as shear reinforcement, they must
be properly anchored in the compression zone of the beam. To satisfy this
requirement, stirrups are provided with 900 or ISO° hooks as shown in Fig. I•
S.14b.
Anchorage
length :x X;
Anchorage
length

\(. . . ---_-.Jy I
i
. i·
a- Bent-up bars i
I I i

splice centerline

Fig. 5.15 Lap splices

b-Stirrups
Fig. 5.14 Anchorage length for shear reinforcement
203 204
The following conditions are also applied 5.8.2 Welded and Mechanical Connections
a- Lap splices are not permitted in tension tie members. Splices in such The code permits the use of welding according to the relevant Egyptian
members shall be made with a full welded splice or a full mechanical specifications. However, welded connections are not allowed for dynamically
connection and splices in adjacent bars shall be staggered by at least 750 loaded structures. Welded bars should maintain their axes collinear. The welded
mm. The provisions of Section (4-2-5-4-3) of the ECP 203 shall be satisfied. connection shall develop at least 125 percent of the specified yield strength of
b- When splicing bars having different diameters, splice length shall be the bar. This insures that an overloaded spliced bar would fail by ductile
computed based on the larger diameter. yielding away from the splice location.
c- Lap splices of bundled bars shall be ba~ed on the lap splice length required The following conditions must be also satisfied:
for individual bars within a bundle calculated in accordance to Section (4-2- a- Welded splices or mechanical connections not meeting the requirements
5-4-2-c) in the ECP 203, increased by 30%. It is not permitted to splice all of Section (4-2-5-4-3-b) of the ECP 203 may be used provided that the
the bars in the bundle at a certain section. distance between splices shall not be less than 600 mm and the splice
d- Lap splices shall not be used for bars having diameter more than 28 mm. For strength in tension or in compression is not less than the yield strength.
such diameters, welded splices or mechanical connections shall be used. b- Only electrical welding is permitted in applying welding.
e- When splicing welded mesh in tension the splice length shall not be less c- Welding is not permitted within a distance less than 100 mm from the
than the following values: point atwhich the bar is hooked provided that internal radius of the hook
1- For deformed bars, the lap splice length shall be equal to 1.3 Ld but not less is not less than 12 times the bar diameter.
than 150 mm (Fig. 5.16a). d- It is not permitted to splice cold-treated bars except after hot-treating the
2- For smooth bars, the lap splice length shall be equal to 1.5 Ld but not less weld zone.
than 200 mm (Fig. 5.16b). e- It is not permitted to splice bars by welding in structures subjected to
dynamic loads.

: min50mm :
! • .. I


I I


• I

(a) •
I' max. of 1.3 Ld •\
or 150mm

: min50mm :
j ..
.• I
• • •
I
I


I
(b) • •
max. of 1.5 L d
I .. ..\
or200mm

Fig. 5.16 Lap splices for welded mesh

205 206
REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

Photo 6.1 Skeleton reinforced concrete structure

6.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the analysis and design of reinforced concrete beams. It
.starts with introducing the reader to the statical system of RIC beams. Types of
loads on beams and method of calculations of such loads are presented. Design
of RIC beams to withstand ultimate limit states of failure by flexure, shear, or
bond is illustrated. Reinforcement detailing is also presented. The chapter also
contains numerous illustrative examples.

207
6.1 Statical Systems of RIC Beams 6.2 The effective span
Dep~nding on the cond~tions at the supports, RIC beams may be classified as: The span used in the analysis of a reinforced concrete beam is referred to as the
a- SImple beams, whIch can be monolithically cast with columns or effective span, LetT. The value ofthe effective span may be taken as follows:
supported on masonry walls (Figs. 6.1 a and 6.1 b).
For simply supported beams, (refer to Fig. 6.2), the effective span equals to the
I I

t Ma'"~j
least value of:

~~mJII
*
• The distance between the center-lines of the supports (L)
wall • 1.05 times the clear span(Lc) between the supports

L i i'
L ,j • The clear span between the supports plus the depth ofthe beam (Lc+d)
(a) (b)
For cantilevers, the effective length.equals to the lesser value of:
b- Simple beams with cantilevers (Figs. 6.1 c and 6.1 d).
• The length of the cantilever measured from the center of support
• The clear projection of the cantilever plus its largest depth
li',r-----------~:
.JtL lU-r----' For continuous beams monolithically cast with supports, the effective span may
I L 'j S
be taken equal to the lesser value of:
(c) (d)
• The distance between the center-lines of the supports
c-. Continuous beams, which can be monolithically cast with columns • 1.05 times the clear span between the supports
(FIgS. 6.1e and 6.1f) or supported on masonry walls (Fig. 6.1g).
(e) For continuous beams supported on masonry walls; the effective span may be
I I I I taken equal to the lesser value of:
I

Jli
i
L W L .ur L JIl
• The distance between the center-lines of the supports
• The clear span between the supports plus the depth of the beam

i
i . .
d i
i
----------------------~----------.
J
il il
! !

%
1

i L,
i L2 i L, ill
i
1
i
i
Lc

L
i
i
_I
i.
I

t f~oory i i
Fig. 6.2 Calculation of the effective depth

L, i wall L2 L1
i i i
(g)

Fig. 6.1 Statical systems of reinforced concrete beams

'}{\Q
209
6.3 Loads Acting on Beams 6.3.2 Slab loads
A reinforced concrete beam carries the following loads: The slab load (kN/m2) consists ofa dead load gsand a live load Ps' The dead
• The own weight of the beam. load on the slab consists of its own weight and the weight of the flooring above.
• The loads transmitted to the beam from the slab. Dead load of the slab gs is calculated from:
• The wall loads. gs =ts x Yc + Flooring .......................................... (6.3)
• Any other loads that can be directly transmitted to them. 2
The floor covering (flooring) is usually taken from 1.5 to 2.5 kN/m depending
6.3.1 Own weight of beams on the used materials.
The live loads Ps on the slab depend on the usage of the structure as given in
The own weight of a beam is usually calculated per unit meter of its length as Chapter 1.
shown in Fig. 6.3. .
Own weightojthebeam(o.w.) = Yc b t ............................... (6.1)
In cases where the slab is supported on all four sides and the ratio of length to
width is larger than 2 (Fig. 6.3), the short direction of the slab is stiffer than the
where long one. In such a case, the slab carries the load in its short direction and acts as
b = beam width a one-way slab. Accordingly, only the beams (AB and CD) of long spans
t = beam thickness support the loads from the slab.
y c = density of reinforced concrete (for normal weight concrete =25 kN/mJ)

Fi2. 6.3a Calculation of the own wei2ht of rectan2ular beams

For slab-beam systems in which the slabs are cast monolithically with the
beams, the own weight of the beam is calculated as follows
D 1t:::===::::::::::=:::::::hI c

111111111111 I
o.w·=Yc xbx(t-ts ) ................... ; ......................... (6.2) .

where L,/2
ts = slab thickness

(g or r» x L1/2 kN/m
s s

L
.j

Fi2. 6.3b Calculation of the own wei2ht of T - beams Fig. 6.3 Loads on beams supporting one-way slabs L1L1>2

210 211
In cases where the slab is supported on all four sides and the ratio of length to Equivalent uniform load for shear (gst. or Ps,,): a uniform load that replaces the
width is smaller than or equal to 2 (Fig. 6.4), the load is carried by all the beams triangular or trapezoidal loads and gives the same maximum shear.
surrounding the slab and the slab is called a two-way slab.
gsh = f3 g, x ......................................................... (6.4)
For two-way slabs supported on relatively similar beams on the four sides, the
lines defining the slab area associated to each beam bisect the corner between Psh = f3 Ps x ......................................................... (6.5)
the two edges and are inclined 45° to either edge. Such distribution means that
the loads on beams supporting tyrO-way slabs are either triangular or trapezoidal. where gs is the slab dead load given by Eq. 6.3 and Ps is the live load.

L
Equivalent uniform load for bending (gb or p,J: a uniform load that replaces the
triangular or trapezoidal loads and gives the same maximum bending moment at
midspan.
gh =a gs X .......................................................... (6.6)

Ph =a Ps x .......................................................... (6.7)

Alnl~x A} I. span =L1 .1


loads for bending

Psh = f3 Ps x

I. x .j ~:_X_-I loads for shear


1 span=L

gs or Ps gh·=a gsx Ph =a p,x


. Fig. 6.4 Loads on beams supporting two-way slabs 1:S; L / L\ :s; 2

Al IIl~hJ
£llllll~
loads for bending
In case where the triangular or tt:e trapezoidal load satisfies the following
conditions:
~ i i
• The triangular or the trapezoidal load has a symmetrical distribution 1 x! i x gsh =f3 g, X Psh =f3 Ps x
with the maximum intensity at the mid-span of the beam. I I
1 span =L ~llll+l~
• The triangular or the trapezoidal load covers the span and vanishes at
loads for shear
the supports.
Then, the triangular or the trapezoidal load can be replaced by uniformly
distributed loads along the span of the beam, except for cantilever beams.
Referring to Fig. (6.5), the following definitions are recalled: Fig. 6.5 The concept of equivalent uniform loads

212 213
In order to show the way in which this is done, consider the case of a beam In case one of the conditions mentioned before is not met, as shown in Fig. 6.6,
supporting a triangular load with maximum intensity Ws at the middle as shown one should not use the coefficients a and p. In such a case, the non-uniform
in Fig. 6.4. The values of a and 13 for a triangular load can be easily derived. load could be approximated to an equivalent uniform load for calculating both
Consider a slab load of an intensity w" then: the shear and the bending moments. The intensity of this load w is given as:
The maximum shear force due to the triangular load.at support = w,LJ4
W=W, (loaded area/loaded length) ........................ (6.9)
The maximum bending moment due to the triangular load at midspan = W ,L/ /12
If the triangular load is replaced by a uniform load ofintensityw~ that gives the
Loaded area
same value of maximum shear, then:

W, Ll = wp Ll
or Wp =0.5 w, p = 0.5
4 2
If the triangular load is replaced by a uniform load of intensity w a ' that gives
the same value of maximum bending moment at mid-span, then:
2 2
~L = Loaded Length
12
Wa
8
Ll or a = 0.667 ,I
In case of trapezoidal loading, it can be easily shown that:

1
a =(1--)
3r 2 Equivalent uniform load Loaded area
........................................................ (6.8)
1 w
P=(I--)
2r

where r = Long direction = ..£ = ~ ;?1


Short direction L1 2x
Loaded Length

The coefficients a and P for are given in Table 6.1 for different values of Ll2x.

Loaded area
Table 6.1 Coefficients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0

a. 0.667 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.870 0.885 0.897 0.908 0.917
I.. Loaded Length. .1
~ 0500 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.706 0.722 0.737 0.750

Fig. 6.6 Examples of cases where coefficients a and p can not be used.

,)lA 215
6.3.3 Wall loads For calculating wall load on beams we consider the arch action of the wall by
considering a triangular part of wall load to be carried by the column while the
Figure 6.7 shows an elevation of a skeletal concrete structure in which the remaining part of the wall load (trapezoidal part) is carried by the beam (refer to
simple beam with cantilever (beam B) supports a masonry wall having a clear Fig. 6. 7b). Hence, when calculating loads on columns the triangular part of the
height hw. Foro t~e wall panel bounded between two columns, only wall loads wall load must be added to columns loads.
?ounded by 6~ hnes from columns cause bending moments and shearing forces
m the beam (FIg. 6.7.b). This is mainly due to arching action of the wall. wall load forbending(gwb) = a hw gw ............................. (6.11)

The trapezoid~l wal~ load can be replaced by an equivalent uniform load giving wall load for shear(g w.s) = (J hw gw ................................ (6.12)
the same maXImum mternal forces. The coefficients a. and 13 depend on the ratio
Lo/2x, wherex=h).f3 and can be determined from Table 6.1. It should be
Referring to Fig. 6.7, assume that the hw=2.4 m and the clear distance between
mentioned that for walls supported on cantilever beams no arching action occurs 2
the supports is 5.0 m and the own weight of the wall, g .. , equals 4.75 kN/m •
and the total wall load is transmitted to the beam.
For x=h).f3 = 2.4/.f3=1.39 m L o/2x = 1.80 a= 0:897 ,{J=0.722
g w = rw x tw + plastering weight ........................... (6.10)
Wall load for calculating bending moments for the part ofthe beam between the
where supports = a x g w x hw = 0.897 x 4.75 x 2.4 = 10.23 kN/m
rw = specific weight of wall material ranges between (12-19) kN/m2
tw = thickness ofthe wall Wall load for calculating shearing forces for the part of the beam between the

plastering weight from two sides can be assumed (0.8-1.0) kN/m2 supports ={Jxgwxhw= 0.722x4.75x2.4 = 8.23 kN/m

The weight of the part of the wall supported on the cantilever beam is totally
I_ X I' X _I transmitted to the beam and is used for calculating the shear and the moments
= gw xhw = 4.75 x2.4 = 11.4 kN/m

l~
l
Note 1: Figure 6.8a shows a case in which the wall dimensions result in
triangular load on the beam. In such a case, the equivalent wall load is caiculated
"1
as follows: .
0
wall load for bending = 2/3 (Lo /2 tan 60 )gw
'\. beam B 0
wall load for shear = 1/2 (Lo /2 tan 60 ) gw

La

I I I

(a) (6)

Fig. 6.7 Wall loads Calculations

216 ""''"7
6.4 Slenderness limits for beams
Note 2: In case of walls containing openings, the arch action is not fully
developed and the total value of the wall load should be transferred to the beam The compression zone of a reinforced concrete beam is normally laterally
(see Fig. 6.Sb). restraint against sideway buckling. This lateral restraint is maintained by floor
slabs attached to the compression zone (see Fig. 6.9a).
Figure (6.9b) shows a case in which the compression zone of the beams is not
laterally supported against sideway buckling by the floor slabs. In such a case,
]-L and in other cases where the floor slabs does not exist, the code sets the
'0 p: following limits on the clear distance between points of inflections in the lateral
(0
;::r
.,
c
J9 / direction:
~
o (a) For simply supported or continuous beams, the lesser of 40 b or 200 b 2/d
....J Open~
(b) For cantilever beams with lateral restraint only at support: 20 b or SOb2/d

a. Short span walls


r
b. Walls with openings
. whichever is less:

1
Fig. 6.8 Calculation of wall loads for some special cases

n+
2
~I C An inverted beam

-rl-
F#,f~~~p~,;oo
r.n,nnr·p""cinn
zone

zone

~
Sec. 1-1 Sec. 2-2

(a): Laterally supported beam (b): Laterally unsupported beam

Fig. 6.9 Lateral restraint against sideway buckling

Photo 6.2 Typical Slab-beam structural system


219
21R
6.5 Linear Elastic Analysis of Continuous Beams 6.6 Reinforcement Detailing in RIC Beams
The ECP 203 adopts linear elastic analysis for the determination of bending The effective depth, d, of a beam is defined as the distance from the extreme
moments and shear forces in continuous beams. Critical load arrangement compression fiber to the centroid of the longitudinal tensile reinforcement
normally requires that alternate spans are loaded and adjacent spans are
(see Fig. 6.11).
unloaded.
The ECP 203 permits the calculation of bending moments and shear forces
based on the assumption of rigid knife-edge supports. This assumption may lead
to very conservative values of the bending moments especially when the
columns are stiff and beam to column joints are monolithic. It should be
mentioned that for exterior columns moments induced by column restraint must d
be taken into account.
d
A further simplification is offered by the Code for continuous beams of nearly
equal spans and depths under uniformly distributed loads, provided that
variations in spans do not exceed 20% of the longest span, bending moments
and shear forces may be estimated as shown in Fig. 6.10. The bending moments
obtained using the coefficients of Fig. 6.10a should not be redistributed. For
cases of particularly heavy live loads, the coefficients of the figure may not be Fig. 6.11 Effective depth for a reinforced concrete beam
applicable; an analysis of the continuous beams as being supported on knife-
edge supports would be required.
6.6.1 Concrete Cover
1- Moment = w x L2/km
It is necessary to have a concrete cover (a) between the surface of the beam and
the reinforcing bars (refer to Fig. 6.12) "for three reasons:
-24 -9 -24
Two spans 1. Tobond the reinforcement to the concrete so that the two 'elements
11 A 11
act together. The efficiency of bond increases as the cover
increases. A cover of at least one bar diameter is required for this
-24 -10 -12 Three spans or more
purpose in beams.
12 16
2. To protect the reinforcement against corrosion. In highly corrosive
environments such as beams constructed near ocean spray the cover
Fig. 6.10a Moment coefficients (km) for continuous beams should be increased.
3. To protect the reinforcement from strength loss due to overheating
11- Shear = k. x w x L in the case of fire.
Table 6.2 summarizes the requirement ECP 203 regarding the value of the clear
0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 Two spans cover

0.45 0.6 0.5 0.50.5 Three spans or more


,A, A zt

Fig. 6.10b Shear coefficients (k.) for continuous beams


220 221
Table (6.2) Minimum concrete cover** (mm)
6.6.3 Egyptian Code Recommendations
Category of All element except walls Walls and Solid slabs The ECP 203 requires when bars are placed in two more layers the bars in
structure - and slabs the top layer must be directly over those in the other layers, to allow the
Table (4.1) feu $25 hu) 7,5 concrete and vibrators to pass through the layers.
fcu $25 fcu )25
2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm 2
N/mm 2 If the drop of the beam below the slab exceeds 600 mm, longitudinal skin
One 25 20 reinforcements (shrinkage side bars) are to be provided along both side faces
20 20
of the beam. The area of this reinforcement should not be less than 8% of the
Two 30 25 area of the main reinforcement; the spacing should not exceed 300 mm (see
25 20
Fig. 6.13).
Three 35 30 30 25
Beam flange should be built integrally with or effectively connected to the
Four 45 40 web to justify the design of the beam as having a flanged section. Also, top
40 35
reinforcement (normal to the beam axis) should be provided in the flange as a
I
** The concrete cover should not be less than the largest bar diameter condition of utilizing the monolithic action between flange and web. The area
of such reinforcement should not be less than 0.3% of flange's cross section.
6.6.2 Bar Spacing It should be extended to cover the total width of the effective flange. This
transverse reinforcement shall be space not farther apart than 200 mm.
The arrangement of bars within a beam must allow: Stirrups in the web should extend to the top of the flange to ensure
1. Sufficient concrete on all sides of each bar to transfer C • t monolithic action between the flange and web.
out of the bars. lOrces In 0 or

2. Sufficient space so that the fresh concrete can be placed and


compacted around the bars.
3. Sufficient space to allow a vibrator to reach through the bottom of
the beam.
shrinkage
Referring to Fig. 6.12, the E~tian code requires that the distance b should be side bars> 8% As

b -- Largero f {Largest used b;;lr diameter in


1.5 max. aggregate size
.... max II
v
As

drop.::; 600 mm drop> 600 mm

a
Fig. 6.13 Provisions for shrinkage reinforcement

Fig. 6.12 Spacing between individual bars

222 223
Example 6.1 Solution
Figure (EX. 6.1) shows a plan and two sectional elevations of a reinforced concrete Step 1: Statical System of the Beam
structure. It is required to calculate the loads acting on the simple beam B1. Live Load
= 2.0 kN/m 2, Flooring =1.5 kN/m2 and own weight of brick wall = 4.5 kN/m 2 . Assume Simply supported beam having a span of7.0 m
the thickness of the slabs = 150 mm.
A
5500mm J iB
5500mm
C
,t;;
I. 7.00m
;A.
.1
-r-W Statical system of the beam
0

~
"<t
A
Bl Step 2: Calculation of Loads
.-
g
~ Step 2.1: Own weight of the beam
The width of the wall on axis (B) is 250 mm, accordingly the width of the beam
'"
N
is taken as 250 mm. For simply supported beams, it is reasonable to assume the
(a) Plan 3
thickness of the beam as (span/lO).
Thus the cross sectional dimensions of the beam = 250 mm x 700 mm

{ Own weight of the beam = width x (beam thickness - slab thickness) xYc
= 0.25 x (0.70-0.15) x 25 = 3.44 kN/m

Step 2.2: Loads transmitted to the beam through the slab


~ Dead load of slab, gs = Own weight of the slab + Flooring
2
~ .~ = 0.15 x 25 + 1.50 = 5.25 kN/m
2
(b) Sec. A-A I I I I I.. I Live load of slab, Ps = 2.0 kN/m

II
The slab load distribution is shown schematically on the plan. Slabs Sl and S2

[
are classified as two-way slabs. Slab S3 is a one way slab that transmits its load
o
o00 to the long span beams located on axes 2 and 3. Slab S4 is a cantilever slab that
N
transmits its load directly to the beams on axis (1).
II

The slab load is transmitted to beam B 1 in two parts; the first part is transmitted

(c) Sec. B-B


.~

I
I I I
I ~

I
directly and is composed of a trapezoidal load and a triangular load while the
second part is transmitted indirectly as a concentrated load through the beam on
axis (2).

Fig. EX. 6.1 Skeletal structure

')"1 A
Equivalent uniform live load for shear = 2.00 x 0.605 x 2.75 = 3.33 kN/m'
The slab triangular load does not have its maximum value at the middle of the
span and it does not vanish at the support. Hence, it will be considered with its
average value both for calculating the bending moments and shearing forces.

. . g x loaded area
EqUIvalent umform dead load for the loaded part of the beam = .:::.!!-s- - - -
loaded length
= 5.25 x (0.5x4.5x2.25) 5.9 kN/m
4.5
Ps x loadedarea
Equivalent uniform live load for the loaded part of the beam
loaded length
2.00 x (0.5x4.5x2.25) = 2.25 kN/m
4.5

Step 2.3: Wall Load

(jlllllllll~
Load distribution of the slabs

I '.1 7.00m

Direct wall load on the beam

Direct slab load on beam B1 From the figure the height of wall = 2.80 m
In order to simplify the analysis, the trapezoidal wall load is transformed into
The trapezoidal load has its maximum value at the mid-span and vanishes at the equivalent uniform loads for calculating the maximum bending moment and the
. supports. Thus, it can be replaced by uniform loads covering the whole span and maximum shear force .
giving the same maximum value of the internal force under consideration. The
L L
coefficients a and f3 are obtained as follows: . 7.00 = 2.16 ) 2.0
2x 2(hw tan30) 2 x 2.8xtan30°
~= 7.0 = 1.27 a=0.793 and /J=0.60S
2x 5.S Since Ll2x > 2, the equivalent uniform wall Load for calculating the bending
Equivalent uniform dead load for bending = 5.25 x 0.793 x 2.75 11.45 moment or the shear force of the beam
kN/m' gw/I =g,,,, = gwxhw =4.5x2.80=12.6kN/m
Equivalent uniform dead load for shear = 5.25 x 0.605 x 2.75 = 8.73 kN/m'
Equivalent uniform live load for bending = 2.00 x 0.793 x 2.75 = 4.36 kN/m'

226 227
Summary
Step 2.4: Calculation of the concentrated load Equivalent dead load for bending
In addition to the previously calculated equivalent uniform loads, beam B 1 Part ab
supports the reaction of the secondary beam on axis (2). gh = o.w + slab load for bending + wall load for bending
The beam on axis (2) supports loads from the slab and its own weight. Assume gb = 3.44 + 11.45 + 12.6 = 27.5kN I m
that the dimensions ofthe beam are 120 mm x 700 mm.
Part be
Own weight of the beam = width x (beam thickness - slab thickness) x Yc
gb = 3.44 + (11.45 + 5.9) + 12.6 = 33.4kN I m
= 0.12 x (0.7-0.15) x 25 = 1.65 kN/m
The concentrated load is the reaytion due to dead load as calculated from the
The slab load is transmitted to the beam on axis (2) directly and is composed of analysis of the beam located on axis (2)
a rectangular uniform load and a trapezoidal load. Since we are interested in the
maximum reaction of the beam on axis (2), only loads for shear are calculated.

~=~=1.22 fJ=O.589 41.7kN


2x 4.5
27.5 kN/m

f f I I ! b
IIII!!!!!
33.4 kN/m

~c
~L]JIIIIIIIIIIIIIII!l + ~
2.50m .1.. 4.50 m .1
It... X ~ ~
X I. 5.50 mil. 5.50 m 1 Equivalent dead load for shear
Part ab
gsh =ow + slab loadforshear+wall loadforshear
Slab load on the secondary beam on axis 2
gsh =3.44+8.73+12.6 = 24.8kN 1m

Part be
It is clear from sec. B-B that no wall is present on the beam. Thus, wallload=O
gsh =3.44+(8.73+5.9)+12.6=30.7kN 1m
Slab dead load = g. x XI + gs X X 2 X fJ = 5.25 x 1.25+ 5.25 x 2.25 x 0.589= 13.52 kN/m
The concentrated load is the reaction due to dead load as Galculated from the
Slab live load = P. XXI + P s X X 2 X fJ = 2.0 x 1.25+ 2.0x 2.25 x 0.589 = 5.15 kN/m analysis of the beam located on axis (2)
Total equivalent uniform dead load gsh = OW.+ Slab load =1.65 + 13.52 = 15.17 kN/m
41.70 kN
Total equivalent uniform live load Psh = slab load = 5.15 kN/m

Reaction due to dead load (0)= gsh xL = 15.17x5.5 41.7 kN


2 2

Reaction due to live load (P)= Psh xL = 5.15x5.5 14.2 kN


2 2
I.. 2.50 m 4.50m
.. I

??R 229
Equivalent live load for bending Example 6.2
Part ab
Pb ==slab live load for bending Figure EX. 6.2a shows an architectural plan of a typical story of an office
building. It is required to:
Pb == 4.36kN 1m a- Propose the structural system of the floor as a slab-beam type system.
Part be b- Draw the load distribution from the slabs to the surrounding beams.
Pb ==4.36+2.25 == 6.6kN 1m
Solution
The concentrated load is the reaction due to live load as calculated from the The structural engineer works very closely with the architect when proposing the
analysis of the beam located on axis (2) structural system of the floor in order to meet the architectural requirements.
Generally, one provides beams at the locations of the masonry walls. The width of the
14.2kN beam is usually equal to that of the wall. Beams are also provided in order to get

!I I I
reasonable slab dimensions.
6.6 kN/m
4.36 kN/m

.t}lll I J ! JJJJ
AccordIng to the previously mentioned points, the structural plan of the floor is shown
in Fig. EX. 6.2b. The following points can be observed:
b
1- There are two terraces in the floor plan. They are both cantilever slabs since
I.. 2.50 m .. I.. 4.50m the span of the cantilever is relatively small (1.2m). For spans of about 2.0m,
cantilever slabs can be economically utilized. For longer spans, deflection
considerations limited the use of cantilever slabs.

2- In the corridor area, no walls exist on axes 3, 4 and 5. Hence, we can either
Equivalent live load for shear provide beams between the columns on axes C and D or leave the corridor area
Part ab beam free. If it is architecturally accepted, then providing beams improves the
framing action of the building.
P sh == slab live load for shear
3- The slabs of the structural plan of Fig. EX. 6.2b have relatively reasonable
Psh == 3.33kN 1m
dimensions. No need to provide beams to reduce the area of such slabs. For
Part be example, the floor slab of the meeting .room has dimensions of 4.0m x 7.6m.
Psh ==3.33+2.25==5.6kN 1m
The area Of such a slab could be divided into two parts if one provides a beam
on axis E, between axes 5 and 6. However, such a beam is not architecturally
The concentrated load is the reaction due to live load as calculated from the acceptable. Accordingly, the structural engineer should provide the required
analysis of the beam located on axis (2) thickness and steel reinforcement of such slab of dimensions 4.0m x 7.6m in
order to preserve the architectural requirements. The same observation applies
to the floor slab of room (5), where a beam could have been provided on axis 7
14.2 kN between the columns located on axes A and C.
3.33 kN/m

~"""""'tr--Tt---"'t-r-l--'-l-.l.b I! I I I I I I I I !1
5.6 kN/m 4- Most of the floor beams are supported directly on columns. In some cases,
however, beams can be supported on other beams. For example, the beam
located on axis 8 is supported on cantilevers extended from the beams located
on axes A and C.
L 2.50m .. I.. 4.50m .. I The load distribution from the slabs to the surrounding beams is shown in Fig. EX.
6.2c.

230 231
Ii
f 1'100-' 3700
tool
' 1000 ' 'i1.00·
i
1

- I ---~--r8
----'=- -@
84

~
()
o
:;0
ۤ ROOM (2)
---~ -8
o
~
:;0

~ 0
0

- N
t-

-- ----- f- -e
ROOM (3) iN11
"::
1:::: rx
! ! III
III
w
~
ROOM
--~
MEETING
ROOM (5)
III ~
'" 85
--
-- , I, ,
81
I
I
I I
I,
I 14800rrun
I
, I, I I
; I
~ ' 1'100

1
3700 I 2000 I
I
I I
';200
14800rrun r,
2400
,

Fig. EX. 6.2a Architectural plan for a typical floor of an office building

Fig. EX. 6.2b Structural plan (slab-beam system)

232 233
Example 6.3
It is required to calculate the loads acting on the simple beam with cantilever B2

i shown in Fig. (EX. 6.2b).


Data
Live Load = 2.0 kN/m
Flooring = 1.5 kN/m
2
2

Floor Height = 3.50 m.


3
Specific weight of the brick wall is 14.8 kN/m

Solution
Step 1: Statical System of the Beam:
Simple beam with a cantilever

-8

1,,"',"',,""''''''11111'' """'i"'"f"'U' '


A: zs;
I. 5.30m .1.1.20 .1
Statical System

Step 2: Calculation of Loads


- . -I------t------; Step 2.1: Own weight of the beam
I
I
I
I
I
I
Assume that slab thickness is equal to 150 mm.
Assume that the thickness of the beam in the range of (span/l 0) (t == 600 mm)
II
I
I
I
I
Thus the cross sectional dimensions of the beam = 250 mm x 600 mm
Own weight of beam = width x (thickness of beam-thickness of slab) x y c
= 0.25 x (0.60-0.15) x 25 = 2.81 kN/m
I I

~ ~
Step 2.2 Loads transmitted to the beam through the slab
2
Own weight of slab = thickness of slab x Yc = 0.15 x 25 = 3.75 kN/m
2
Dead Load, gs = Own weight of slab + Flooring = 3.75 + 1:50 = 5.25 kN/m
2
Fig. EX. 6.2c Load distribution from the slab to the surrounding beams Live Load Ps = 2.0 kN/m

234 235
The slab load is transmitted to beam B2 in two parts; the first part is transmitted Step 2.3: Wall Load
directly and is composed of a trapezoidal load and the second part is transmitted
indirectly as a concentrated load through the secondary beam B 1.

5.30m .1.1.20 .1
Wall load transmitted to B2
5.30m 1.20

gw =r w x t", + plastering weight = 14.8 x 0.25 + 0.8 = 4.5 kN t m 2


Direct slab load transmitted to B2
Height of the wall = floor height - beam thickness = 3.5 - 0.60 = 2.90 m
The slab trapezoidal load does not have its maximum value at the middle of the
span and it does not vanish at the support. Hence, the loads will be calculated h h 2.9
x=--=-=-=1.67 m
using the area-method for calculating the bending moments and shearing forces. tan 60 ..J3 ..J3
(gs or Ps) x loaded area
Average uniform load
loadedspan ..!:...-=~=1.58
2x 2x1.67
1. Between supports
a=0.867 and (3=0.684
Ioaded area= 2.6x2.6
2 +2. 6 x1.3+ (2.6+L2)
2 x1.4=9.42m 2
1. Between supports
Thus, the um·fionn deadid
oa = gs x loaded area = 5.25 x (9.42) = 933
. kNtm '
loaded span 5.30 • Equivalent uniform wall load for bending (gwb)
gwl, = a xgw xhw ";'0.867x4.5x2.9 = 11.31kN I m'
and t he um·fionn 1·lve 1oad = Ps x loaded area = 2.0 x {9.42} = 355
. kNtm '
loaded span 5.30 • Equivalent uniform w::tllioad for shear (gws)
2. Cautilever part
g,,,, = pxgw xhw = 0.684x4.5x2.9 =8.93kN 1m'
2
loaded area = 1.2 = 0.72 m 2
2 2. Cantilever part

Thus, the unl·fionn deadid


oa = gs x loaded area = 5.25 x (o.n) = 3.15 kNIm' • Since the wall load is rectangular, the equivalent uniform wall-load
loaded span 1.2 for bending equals the load for shear.

andt·he um·fionn 1·lYe 1oad = psxloadedarea = 2.0 x (o.n) =.


12 kNlm' gwh =gws =gw xhw=4.5x2.9=13.05kNtm'
loaded span 1.2
== 0.5 x 2.0 x 2.6 + 2.0 x 1.2 == 5.0 kN/m'
Step 2.4: Calculation of the Concentrated Load (Beam B1)
In addition to the previously calculated average unifonn loads, beam B2 Wall load
supports the reaction of the secondary beam on axis (8) (B 1). Height of the wall = Floor height - Beam thickness= 3.5 - 0.60 = 2.90 m

Beam B I supports loads from the slabs, the walls, and its own weight. When h" 2.9 -1 67 ~==~==l.SS
x==.J3==-Jj-' m 2x 2x1.67.
calculating its reaction, it should be analyzed for the load for shear. The slab
load is composed of a unifonn rectangular load and a triangular load.
a==0.862 and \3=0.678
2

g IV == rw xt w + plastering weight == 14.8xO.2S +0.8 == 4.5kN 1m

~IA+ l!111ll111l1ll11~
Equivalent unifonn wall load for calculating the shear (gws)

g ws ==f3xg xh =0.678x4.Sx2.9==8.8SkNlm'
W W

Total load
I 5.20m I I 5.20m I Total equivalent unifonn dead load for shear (gsh) =
g sh == 0 .w + slab load fior shear + wall load for shear

Direct slab loads on Bl gsh ==2.81+13.12S+8.85==24.79kNlm


Total equivalent unifonn live load for shear (Psh)= 5.0 kN/m'
/ r\ Reactions
/ 1\ . _ gsh xL _ 24.79xS.2 - 64 4kN
/ \ ReactIOn due to dead load (G)- - 2 - - 2 -.

~
11 ~
~
. . _ PShxL_S.OxS.2_130kN
ReactIOn due to lIve load (P)- -2- - 2
-.

.1 Step 3: Total loads acting on the beam B2


I 5.20m
Step 3.1: Equivale'nt dead load for bending
Direct wall load on Bl
between supports
g" == o. w + slab load + wall load for bending
Self weight
Assume the concrete dimension ofBI as 250 mm x 600 mm g" ==2.81+9.33+11.31 == 23.46kNlm'

Own weight of the beam = width x (beam thickness - slab thickness) x Yc cantilever part
== 0.25 x (0.6-0.15) x 25 == 2.81 kN/m gb = 2.81+3.15 +13.05 =19.0kN 1m 64.4 kN
Slab load
19.0 kN/m'
Slab dead load for shear load from triangular part + load from one way slab
r11 ! 1 1~l ! ! t 1 ! 1 IT 1 -~
= 23.46 kN/m'

==f3·gs ·X, +gs 'X 2

== 0.5 x 5.25 x 2.6 +5.25 x 1.2 = 13 .125 kN/m'


A zs;
Slab live load for shear == f3. P s • x, + P s •X2
5.30m \ ,1.20 • \
\

239
238
Example 6.4
Step 3.2: Equivalent dead load for shear
It is required to find the loads acting on the beam B3 shown in Fig. (EX. 6.2b).
between supports
Live Load = 2.0 kN/m 2, Flooring = 1.5 kN/m 2, Floor Height = 3.50 m.
gsh = o.w+ slab load + wall load for shear Specific weight of the brick wall is 14.8 kN/m3•
gsh = 2.81 + 9.33 +8.93 = 21.07 kN 1m'
Solution
cantilever part Step 1: Statical System of the Beam:
gsh =2.81+3.15+13.05 = 19.01kN 1m' Continuous beam with four equal spans

64.4 kN

I I I I
,A :A
I. 5.30m .11.20 .1 4.00 rn 4.00 rn 4.00 rn 4.00 rn

Statical system
Step 3.3: Equivalent live load for shear and bending
Step 2: Calculation of Loads
Since the slab load is calculated using the area method, equivalent live load for
shear equals equivalent live load for bending Step 2.1: Own weight of the beam
between supports
Assume the cross sectional dimensions of the beam = 0.12 m x 0.60 m
Ph =slab live load Assume that average slab thickness is120 mm.
PI> =3.55 kN 1m' Own weight of beam = width x (thickness' ofbeam':"thickness of slab) x Yc
= 0.12 x (0.60-0.12) x 25 = 1.44 kN/m
cantilever part
Ph =1.2kN 1m' Step 2.2: Load transmitted to the beam through the slab
Own weight of slab
13.0 kN = 0.12 x 25 = 3.00 kN/m 2
Dead Load, gs = Own weight of slab + Flooring
2
= 3.00 + 1.50 = 4.50 kN/m

, The continuous beam supports two-way slabs from one side and one-way slabs
5.30m .11.20 ./ from the other side. The two-way slabs transmit triangular loads to the beam,

240 241
while the one-way slabs transmit uniform loads. In order to simplify the beam
analysis, the triangular loads are transformed into equivalent uniform loads. Step 2.3: Wall Load

gw '= Yw xtw + plastering weight = 14.8xO.12+ 0.8 = 2.58kN 1m 2

Height of the wall = Floor height- Beam thickness= 3.5:- 0.60 = 2.90 m

x=~= ~ = 1.67 m

~=~=1.19
2x 2x1.67
+
a=0.766 and 13=0.581

3L] IIIIIII YlIIIIIII[IIIIIIIIID IIIIIII 11 Equivalent uniform wall load for bending (gwb)
g"b = a xg" x hw = 0.766 x 2.58 x 2.9 = 5.73kN I m'

I. 4.00 m 1 4.00 m 1 4.00 m 1 4.00 m 1


Equivalent uniform wall load for shear (gws)

Slab Loads g ... = j3xgw xhw = 0.581x2.58x 2.9= 4.34kN I m'

Equivalent uniform slab dead load for bending


gb = triangular load from two way slab + load from one way slab
=a'g s 'X j +gs 'X 2
= 0.67 x 4.50 x (4.0/2) + 4.50 x 2/2 = 10.53. kN/m'

Equivalent uniform slab dead load for (he shear


gsh =j3'gs'x j +g s ,x2
Wall load
= 0.5 x 4.50 x (4.0/2) + 4.50 x 2/2 = ~.O kN/m'
Equivalent uniform slab live load for bending
Ph =a'ps ,xj +Ps'X2
= 0.67 x 2.0 x (4.0/2) + 2.0 x 2/2 = 4.68 kN/m'

Equivalent uniform slab live load for the shear


Psh =j3'Ps'x j +Ps,x2
= 0.5 x 2.0 x (4.0/2) + 2.0 x 2/2 = 4.0 kN/m'

242
243
Step 3: Total loads acting on Beam
Step 3.1: Equivalent Dead Load for bending Example 6.5
g" =o.w+slabload + wall load for bending It is required to carry out an integrated design for the simple beam shown in Fig.
gb = 1.44+1O.S3+S.73 =17.7kNlm' EX. 6.5a. The beam is arranged every 5.0 m. The beam carries a uniformly
distributed unfactored dead load (including its own weight) of a value of 20
I I I I I I I I 1·1 I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I kN/m and unfactored live load of a value of 15 kN/m. This uniform unfactored
load could be considered for the bending and shear designs. The characteristics
,A. }AO }AO }AO ~ compressive strength of concrete feu = 30 N/mm 2• The yield strength of the
I. 4.00ml 4.00m 1 4.00m .1. 4.00m .1 longitudinal steel fy = 360 N/mm2 and for the stirrups = 240 N/mm •
2

Step 3.2: Equivalent Dead Load for Shear wkN/m'


g sh = o.w + slab load + wall load for shear
gsh =1.44+9.0+4.34 = 14.78kN 1m'
gsh=14.78 kN/m' ~ lO.12
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII II UJ°.58
++0.25
,A. }AO }AO }AO ~
1 4.00m 1 4.00m 1 4.00m I 4.00m I

Step 3.3: Equivalent Live Load for bending


Fig. Ex-6.5a Simple beam
Pb= slab load =4.68 kN/m'

Pb=4.68 kN/m'
Solution
I! ! I ! I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I I I I I ! I I I I I I I I I I I ! ! ! ! ! I Step 1: Flexural design
,A. }AO }AO }AO ~ Step 1.1: Calculation of maximum moments
I 4.00m .1 4.00m I· 4.00m 1 4.00m 1
Factored design load, Wu = 1.4 D.L. + 1.6 L.L.
= 1.4 x 20 + 1.6 x 15 = 52 kN/m
Step 3.4: Equivalent Live Load for shear For obtaining the maximum moments, one needs to calculate the effective span.
Psh = slab load=4.0 kN/m' Assume a concrete cover to the C.L. of the steel of 50 mm
Psh=4.0 kN/m'
d= 700- 50 = 650 mm

IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII II
LetT = The smallest of:
,A. }AO }AO }AO ~ • distance c.L. to c.L. between the support = 7000 mm
1
4.00m 1 4.00m .1 4.00m I 4.00m I • clear span + d = 6600 +650 =7250 mm
• 1.05 x clear span = 1.05x6600 =6930 mm

244
1
The bending moment diagram is shown in the figure below I Assume that the neutral axis is inside the flange (a < t5)

d=Cl~ MuB
104 kN.m
I: fcu

~llllillll~
6
650 = C 312 X 10
I 30x1650

312 kN.m The point is outside the C1-J curve :. ~ < (~)min

c c
Take -=(-)min =0.125 C=0.125x650=Slmm and J =0.S26
Bending moment diagram . d d

a = O.SOxSI = 65mm < 1. (as assumed)


Maximum positive bending moment at mid-span
6.93 2 A=~
Mumax(+ve} = 52.0x-- = 312 kN.m s fy.j.d
S
6
Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation) A = 312xl0 =1614mm 2
2 s 360xO.S26x650
M umax(-ve} = 52.0 X 6.93
24 = 104 kN.m
(As)min = the smaller of:

Step 1.2: Design of Critical Sections 0.225$: xbxd = 0.22550 x250x650=556mm2


fy 360
The critical sections are shown below
1.3 A5(required) =1.3x1614=2098nim2
but not less than
0.15
- 0.15
x b x d =--x25 0 x 65 Q=244mm 2
100 100
2
(A5)min. = 556 mm <
2
Section at midspan (Sec 1): - T -section Choose A5=5<l> 22 As(chosen) =1900 mm
BelT = The smallest of: M =M x As(chosen) = 312x 1900 = 367kNm
• 16ts +b = 16x120+ 250 = 2170mm r u As(reqUired) 1614 .

L 7000 Stirrup hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrup hanger is
• -+b =--+250= 1650mm
5 5 10 % ofthe main steel (Use 2cj>12).
• c.L. to C.L. between the beams on plan = 5000 mm
Bef"F 1650 mm Be.
·r

,}A'7
Section at support(Sec 2): - Rectangular-section
For bars in compression:-
b=250mm
0.=1.0 (Straight Bars) and 13=0.50 (deformed bars)
d=C ~ Mu
, feu b
L ={1.0 x 0.50 x l.O x (360/1.15)} '" = 29'" (642 mm) for <l> 22
l/(bonom) . 4 x l.34 ''1' 'I'
6
650 = C !104x 10
, 30x 250
L = {1.0x0.50X1.3 x (360/1.15)}.", = 38'" (456 mm) for <l> 12
4 x l.34
The point is outside the C1-J curve :. ~ < (~) .
d(top) 'I' 'I'
d d mm

Take ~=(~) . =0125 Or we can directly use the coefficients from Table (5.3) with/cu = 30 N/mm2
d d mID •
For Tension: Ld(bottom)=50<l>, Ld(top)=65<l>
C = 0.125x650 = 81mm J =0.826 For Compression: L d(bottom)=40<l>, Ld(top)=52<l> '

A = ~ = _~1-=-04-=-x..:..:l:..:0_6_.= 538 mm 2 Step 2: Shear Design


S f), .j.d 360 x 0.826 x 650
The shear force diagram is shown in the figure below
2
(A s ) mm. =556 mm > A s(reg) ., ••• use A smin
Choose As=3<l> 16=600.0 mm2 180.2 kN

-M As(chosen) 600·
M r- u X = 104x- = 116.0 kN.m
As(requirlUl) 538

Step 1.3: Calculation of :the development Length

I.
fy 180.2 kN
a·/J·TJ·(-)
Ld ={ Ys }.¢ .1
4fbu
Shear force diagram
fbu = 0.30~fcu = 0.30 {30 = 1.34 N Imm 2

Yc 1/15
l'\bottom=1.0 -1 .3
·,top-
1'1
For the case of uniform load, the critical section is at d/2 from the face of support.
Q = Reactionatthesupport (R) -w u (d 12+ half column width )
u
For bars in tension:-
0.=1.0 (Straight Bars) and 13=0.75 (deformed bars) R = 52 x 6.93 = 180.2kN
2

L _ {OxO.75X1.0x(360/1.15)
(962 mm) for <l> 22
Qu =180.2-52X(0.~5 +0.20)=152.88 kN
d(bonom) - 4 x 1.34 }.¢ = 44 ¢
152.88x103 2
0.94 N Imm
L _ {1.0x 0.75x 1.3 x (360/1.15) 250x650
t/(top) - 4 x 1.34 }.¢ = 57 ¢ (912 mm) for <l> 16
1
qU(mllX)=0.7ll:=0.7 [30=3.13 Nlmm 2 <4.0Nlmm 2
Vr: Vl.5
f
I
~Ld+ O.3d
I
I ~ I
qu(max) = 3.13N 1mm 2
I
I
~.7dor
~O¢orll2(
¢8@100mm i ¢8@200mm
<.5 I
I
qu :5: qll(max) :. Concrete dimensions of the section are adequate for shear. 1
~ I
/

qcu = 0.24 fl: I " I


Vrc I
I
I
I
I
[30 I I
Vl.5 = 1.07
q cu = 0.24 N 1mm 2 ~ I , i

Use minimum stirrups 3 ¢I> 22


,/ I ~
I
I
~O.7d or l
According to the ECP 203, J.Lmin = 0.4 =~= 0.00167 (not less than 0.0015) - .- - 10¢ 1I ~Ld+ O.3d
fy 240 I
I I
Ast(min.) = J.Lmin h.s : ~Ld+ O.3d
I
:
I
Take s=200 mm I I
I I
I Moment of resistance I
=~.00167x250x200 = 84.0 mm
2
(for two branches)
Ast(min.)
2
I' of 3¢1>16 I
I
.Area of one branch = 42 mm ....-+....-+Use Stirrups 54>8/m ~ I
I I
~I ------ I
I I
Curtailment check for bottom straight bars
-~
I
O.3d .i1 -__ _____ I B.M.D.
At the cut~off locations, ECP 203 requires that the spacing between the stirrups I _ I
(s) should be greater than d 18/3 where /3 As (cut)
As (total)
= 2<1>22 = 0.4
5<1>22
I
f J I-- -_
I
I
S:5:
650
0.8.x0.4
=203 mm ~~m'__ of 3¢1>22 Shifted B.M.D.
//,/ to.3d}
Additional stirrups is added (4)8 @200 mm) in a distance of 0.75 d. Thus the Moment of resistance I
final spacing is decreased tol 00 mm for the distan~e of 0.75 d. of 5¢1>22 I
I
Step 3: Reinforcement detailing I

Figure EX. 6.5b shows the curtailment of bars and the moment of resistance
3¢1>16
, 2¢1>12
I

[,
/ I
diagram as well as the original bending moment diagram for the case of straight I
longitudinal bars. T4e rules mentioned in Chapter 5 were followed for bar I
curtailment.
, 2 ¢I> 22
I
3¢1>22 .
I.
Complete reinforcement detailing for the beam is shown ~n Figs EX.6.5c and
I
.EX. 6.5d for the case of straight and bent bars, respectively.
Fig. EX. 6.5b Curtailment of bars for beam B 1
(Case of straight bars)

251
2 1t
I!~
_
t \POWIVUIIIIII
r .---- @200 'P u """ IUVIIIIII
3~16
r-i
1

, ... I' "-


1 1

1 1

1 1

--1_k
_L._
. 2 LI-
~
_U_
l' ,
3~16 3~16

- 2~2

-~
N
J
" 2_22 "
, - 3~22 ,

2¢,!112 3¢,!116

f------.,nr-,- - I
~ ~
¢8@100
~
¢8@200
~

5¢,!I 22 3¢,!122

Fig. EX. 6.5c Reinforcement details for beam Bl ~ ~


Sec. 1-1 Sec. 2-2
(case of straight bars)

t
2 1t
.- ....... --_ ......
1
I L 1
1

~ /
1

i
,i - 1
I
I
)'
3~22

_ L.k~ LI-
~

2~12
1
1
_____ -1 __

"

~
N
VI
W

,
[ 2."
3~22
/ ]
,

2~12 2~22

~
~ ~l ,nr-,--
E
E ~
~
8 ¢8@200 ¢8@200
'"
5~22 _ _ IL • JI 3~22

Fig. EX. 6.5d Reinforcement details for beam B 1 ~ ~


_(case ofbent-up bars) Sec. 1-1 Sec. 2-2
applied between the support, while only 0.9 D.L. (minimum dead load required
Example 6.6 by the code) without live loads are applied at the cantilever part.
It is required to carry out an integrated design for the simple beam with
cantilever shown in Fig. (EX. 6.6a). The beam is arranged every 5.0 m. The The calculations of the loads are carried as follows:
unfactored dead and live loads acting on the beam are also given. The cube Between the supports: Cantilever loads:
compressive strength of concrete feu = 30 N/mm2 and the yield strength of steel
Wu =1.5x(D.L.+L.L) Wu = 0.90 x D.L.
fy = 360 N/mm2•
Wu = 1.5 x (20.0+ 10.0) = 45.0 kN I m WU = 0.90x 20.0 = 18.0 kN I m
p" = 1.5 x (34.0 + 14.0) = 72.0 kN p" = 0.90x 20.0 =18.0 kN

I
.L
.-----------+----------.
i 18 kN

a,!} 1 ! ! 1 1 1i1 ! ! ! ! 1 -if


72 kN
45 kN/m 18 kNI
0.50-r-+--~~~----r_--~~~~+_~~~~~
2.75 m 2.75 m rl-II-II-lItll-ti=~-!rl=t-~~~m~
bI , , -

a) Simple beam with cantilever I .. , 3.0 m • 1• 3.0 m , I. 2.0 m .1


Load case 1

~
34kN ~20 kN
20 kN/m _
~~:'l'l-l~l'l-l~lhl~l~l~I~I~I~I~1i-:~~I~I-l~ M = WXL2 + pxL -M
2
=(45x6 + 72x6)_ 72 = 274.5kN.m
u(+ve) 8 4 Io(-v,) 8 4 2

I.. 3.0 m • 1. 3.0 rn , I. 2.0m


Maximum -ve moment at the cantilever
b) Unfactored dead loads
For obtaining the maximum negative moment at the cantilever
Between the supports: Cantilever loads:

,lil 1I 11111I 1I 1I
~ 14 kN
10 kN/m

':hI 1 ,r I
Wu =0.90xD.L
Wu =0.90x20.0=18.0 kN 1m
Wu = 1.5 x (D.L.+ L.L)
Wu = 1.5 x (20.0 + 10.0)= 45.0kN I m
p" = 0.90 x 34.0 = 30.6 kN Pu = 1.5 x (20.0 + 8.0) = 42;0 kN
I.. 3.0m -I . 3.0m ,I 2.0m ,I

!
c) Unfactored live loads 30.6 kN 42 kN

It
Fig. EX. 6.6a Simple beam with cantilever
18 kN/m' 45 kNlot

Solution
,£} I I I I I I I I I I !2S} 111 ,
Step 1: Flexural design
Step 1.1: Calculation of maximum moments I. 3.0m .1. 3.0m ,I 2.0 I
Maximum +ve moment at mid-span
Load case 2
Since the live loads is less than 0.75 D.L., the ultimate factor of 1.5 may be
used. For obtaining the maximum moment at mid-span, the full live load is

255
254
. 45x22 a=0.80x81.25=65mm < ts=120mm (as assumed)
Mu(-ve)@cantilever=42x2+--=174.0kN.m
2
274.50x106 =1420mm 2
. 30.6x6 18x62 174 360xO.826x650
Mu(+ve)@lTI1dspan= - - + - - - - = 39.9kN.m
4 8 2

Step 1.2: Design of critical sections (As )min = the smaller of:
The critical sections are shown in the figure below
0.225.Ji: xb xd = 0.22550 x 250x650 = 556mm 2.J
fy 360
3 1 2 1.3 As(required) =1.3x1420=1846 mm2
,d I ;d 2
(As)min. = 556 mm < (As)required
\. 6.0m \. 2.0m .1
Choose As=6<D 18

Mr =Mu X As(chosen) = 274.5x 1524 = 294.6 kN.m


Section No.1 T-section As(required) 1420

Mu = 274.50 kN.m
Section 2: Rectangular section
BelT = The smallest of: b= 250 mm
• 16ts +b=16x120+250=2170mm
• .!2...+b= 0.8x6000 +250=1210mm
5 5
• c.L. to c.L. between the beams on plan = 5000 mm
Note: The factor 0.8 is used because the span is continuous from one end.
Mu=174.0 kN.m

d=Cl~ Mu
feu b
--)
6
Ben= 1210 mm 650 = C 174.0x10
1 30x250
Assume beam thickness(t) = span =700 mm
10-12 q =4.26 & J =0.81
d = t ~ cover = 700 - 50 = 650 mm
A =~= 174.00x106 918mm2
Assume that the N.A. is inside the flange (a < ts) s fy.j d 360xO.81x650

Hfi;
d=C1. - -
. leu
u
B
Choose 4<D 18 As(chosen) = 10 16 mm
2

6
650 =C 274.5 x 10
1 30x1210
C1 =7.47 & J= 0.826 Mr =Mu X As(chosen) = 174~Ox 1016 = 192.6 kN.~
As ("",ui,",l) 918
The point is outside the curve :. :... < (:"')min
d d
c c
Take -=(-)min =0.125
d d
C = 0.125 x650 = 81.25mm
Step 1.3: Calculation of the development length
Section No.3: Rectangular section
b= 250 mm
Iy
a.p.1].(-)
At the simple support, the Code requires a design for the moment that develops due to Ys }.¢
41bu
partial prevention of the beam rotation. For a beam that carries a uniformly distributed
load kNlm, the Code gives the moment at the simple support as wxL2 /24. This value
rt: {30 =
equals to half the fixed end moment. Extending this concept to our case, one could
Ibu = 0.30
vY: = 0.30
Vu
1.34 N I mm 2

assume that the moment that shall be developed is equal to half the value of the fixed
end moment developed for a beam that carries a uniformly distributed load plus a T1bottom=l.O T1top=1.3
concentrated load at mid-span.
For bars in tension:-
Fixed end moment at simply supported span
a=1.0 (Straight Bars) and (3=0.75 (deformed bars)
2 2
=wxL +PxL=45x6 +72x6=189kN.m
12 8 12 8 L = {1.0xO.75x1.0x(360/1.15)} <1> = 44<1>
d(oo((o,") 4 x 1.34 .
M atsection3= 0.5xI89=94.50 kN.m
L = {1.OXO.75x1.3x(3601l.15)}.<1> = 57<1>
({(top) 4x 1.34

For bars in compression:-


6
650 = C /94.5 X10 a=1.0 (Straight Bars) and (3=0.50 (deformed bars)
I 30x250
q = 5.79 & J=0.826
L - {1.0xO.50x1.0X(360/1.15)} <1>-
({(oo((om) - • - 29<1>
6 4xL34
M 94.5 X10
A =--u-=------=489mm 2
s ly.jt1 360xO.826x650
L = {1.0XO.50X1.3x(360/1.15)} <1> = 38<1>
d(rop) 4 x 1.34 .
(As)min = the smaller of:
Or we can directly use the coefficients from Table (5.3) with/cu=30 N/mm 2
0.225 K. xb xd 0.225.J30 x 250 x 650 = 556 mm 2.J
IJ' . 360 For Tension: Ld{top)=65ct>
2 For Compression: L d{bottom)=40ct>,
1.3 As(required) =1.3x489=635.7 mm L d{top)=52<1>

2
Asmin=556 mm Step 2: Shear design
Choose As=3ct>16 (or 2<1>18+2<1>12 in case ofbent bars) For calculating the design shear forces, the total dead and live loads have to be
placed on the beam as shown in the figure below
Wu = 1.5 x (20.0 + 10.0) = 45.0 kNI m
Pul = 1.5 x (34.0 + 14.0) = 72.0 kN

P"2 =1.5 x (20.0 + 8.0) =42.0 kN


Maximum shear force is at dl2 from the left of the intermediate support.

259
R = 72x3+ 42x 8 +45x 8x 4 = 332 kN
b 6 q cu = 0.24 rz:
vY: = 0.24 [30 = 1.07N I mm 2
V1.5
Qb = 332-42-45x2 = 200 kN
Since qu =qcu, one has to use the minimum stirrups

According to the ECP 203, J1 m in = 0.4 = 0.4 = 0.00167 (not less than 0.0015)

11 1 11 111!1 1111 II];} I 1 1


fy 240
72 kN !42 kN
45 kN/m
take s=200 mm
Ast(min.) = 0.00167 x 250 x 200 = 84.0 mm 2 (for two branches)
I... 3.0 m .. 1.. 3.0 m • I. 2;0 m .1
Area of one branch = 42 mm2
Load case 3
Use 5 ~ 81m'

Curtailment Check for bottom straight bars


At the cut-off locations, ECP 203 requires that the spacing between the stirrups
(s) should be greater than d 18/3 where /3 As(cut) = 2<1>18 =0.33
As (total) 6<1> 18
s < .650 = 244
8x0.333
Additional stirrups is added (~8 @200 mm) in a distance of 0.75 d. Thus the
Shear force diagram final spacing is decreased to 100 mm for the distance of 0.75 d.

Step 3: Reinforcement detailing .


Qu = Qb - Wu (d/2 + half the column width)
Fig. EX. 6.6b and EX. 6.6c shows the moment of resistance diagram as well as
Q . = 200.0 -45.0x (0.65 + 0.25)= I74kN the originat' bending moment diagram for the case of straight and bent-up
• 2 longitudinal bars receptively. The rules mentioned in chapter 5 were followed
3 for bar curtailment.
Q. l74.00xl0 L07N Imm 2
qu =b xd = 250x650 Complete reinforcement detailing for the beam is shown in Figs EX. 6.6d and
EX. 6.6e for the case of straight and bent bars, respectively.
•qu(max) -07ficu
- •
. Yc

qu(maxj=0.7 [30=3.13 N Imm2<4.0N Imm 2


V1.5
2
qu(max) = 3.l3N Imm

qu ::; qu(max) the' concrete di~ensions of the section are adequate for shear.
~Ld ~d

ri1
'I
;.i.d+ O.3d ~+O.3d ~+O.3d 1

.f.
'I
pO.7dO\1 ~>O.7d 01
1
O~orU2 10~orlJ2! O~orlJ2(
O.. 7.d.. 0.. r.
3~16 2~12 4¢18i

,I

6~18
,,I.
"

,1
,29110
1
, ,
~Ld
~O.7¢0~
10 ~Ld+O.3d 'ITor
I
,"L. + 0.3d
O.7d or
10'
"L" + 0.3d ,
,
._1_.
i
._1_.
,I

tv 0.3d·
~ _-!'r~'r~~~~~~'~>JI
i< 1<
____l-____________L--1~==<~~~~~f:-~~____~V.~~U;'r~'r~~
>r
__~I~·__________~:-::-~-==~~~~I-L
__S'l 5'

3¢f16 2¢f18
[""2 2#1. , )1
, . 21P 18 , 2¢f10
4~18

Fig. EX. 6.6b Curtailment of bars for beam B2 (straightbars)

cp8@>~vvmm 1
4~18
!2~18+2~12 2~12 2~18
, I,
1, ,
/l
....
I
~
I

,
I
I I
i
,, ,I : 2~10
i

l.J._.
i

.-
,
I
,
I
I
I
,,
I

I
6~18

I
I
I
I
I
I
,
I
,
,
I
I
,
I
I
I
__ Jl O.3d
,
,
I
I

~
0.3d

tv
0\
V>

2¢P18
,-----_
"" 2¢p12 ,==----------::.:..:.=-------
2<'1·-1
l 2<".
4¢P18
/ 2<'10 ' 1

Fig. EX. 6.6c Curtailment of bars for beam B2 (bent-up bars)


1--+ 2,
¢8@100mm ¢8@200mm
i
I
3~16 2~12 4~18

ill1JJJ
]1'1111 1t 1
t l t ttl
11 1 1 III III J
T1 '#16 I i
2~10

_.~._J_ ! .._ 1-1- __ .J.._._ 2-1-

3~16 '2,18
IV
~
[ '2#12 2#16) I
2~18 2~10

4~18 ,

I 2~12

r ~~ I Inr-,----1
r ~~! In~..-~_18_-i
~ ¢8@200mm o
o
I"-
¢8@200mm

" It '16~18 J IL 1)11 2~10


, ~ , ~

Fig. Ex. 6.6d Reinforcement details (straight bar,s)


Sec. 1-1 Sec. 2-2

.-------------------~----------

" .~
1-+
2~12
(/) 8{Q)A:::UUmm
2~18
I
4~18
2,
/
I I
i I
i i 1.

JJ_ 1-1.
6~18

JJ1_ 2-1.
2~10

2~18

2~12 -I
~
Vl [ "" 2#16 / 2#16 2#10 1
49'.618

¢8@200mm
~
8I"- ¢8@200mm

6~18 2~10

~ ~
Sec. 1-1 Sec. 2-2
Fig. EX. 6.6e Reinforcement details (bent-up bars)
Example 6.7
It is required to design the continuous beam shown in Fig. EX.6.7a. The
5.00m 6.00m 6.0m
characteristics compressive strength of concrete feu = 30 N/mm2~ The yield
strength of the longitudinal steel fy = 360 N/mm2 and for the stirrups = -24 -10 -12
2
240N/mm . The applied unfactored dead and live loads on all spans are 40 kN/m ,4
and 15 kN/m, respectively. These loads can be used for designing the beam for +12 +16
bending as well as for shear. Assume also that the spacing between the beams on
plan is 4.0 m. 12 52
Sec. 1 Mu(+ve) = Wu x...L=82.5x-=171.9 kN.m
-- 12 12

Sec.2 M (-ve) = W x ((II +12)/2)2 82.5)(5.0+6.0)j2Y 249.7 kN.m

_.~r-.~-.5-0-------_"""_~~50
u u 10 10

12 62
Sec.3 MuC+ve) = Wu x...L=82.5x-= 185.6 kN.m
I. 5.00 m .1. 6.00m
• • I
16 16

Sec.4 M (-ve)=w x((l2+ /J/2)2 82.5x C(6.0+6.0)/2)2 =247.5kN.m


u u 12 12

= 15 kN/m
D.L.=40 kN/m, L.L. ! Step 1.2: Design of critical sections
1111111 II 1 ~f 1 II
5.00m
II 1 III II 11: 111
6.00 m
q
6.0 m !
Assume beam thicknessCt) = span ~600 mm
. 10-12
d = t -cover = 600-50 = 550 mm

Fig. Ex 6.7a Continuous beam Section No.1 T-sec


Beff = the smallest of:
Solution 16ts +b = 16x120+ 250 =.2170mm
Step 1: Flexural Design
!:2.+b 0.8 x 5000 +250=1050mm
5 5
Step 1.1 Calculation of maximum moments
CL. to C.L. between the beams on plan = 4000 mm
Wu = 1.5 (W D .L. +WL.LJ

Wli = 1.5(40+ 15) = 82.5kN I m

Since spans variations in the continuous beam do not exceed 20 %, the bending
moment and shear forces may be estimated using the coefficients given by the
Egyptian Code. The critical sections for flexural design are shown in figure 6
below. 550=C . 171.88x10 C( = 7.44. & J=0.826
I 30x1050
Note that the actual span was used to calculate the positive bending and the
average length was used to calculate the negative bending over the support. 'The point is outside the CI-J curve :. Use'£=('£)min'= 0.125
d d

266 267
C = 0.125x550 = 68.75mm

a =0.80x68.75 =55mm < ts=120mm


6
550 = C r185.63 x 10
=~=
6
As 171.9x10 = 1051 mm 2 :. C1 = 7.3 & J=0.826
I 30x1090
Iy .j.d 360 x 0.826 x 550
(As)min = the smaller of:
The point is outside the CI-J curve :. Use .E.. = (.E..)min = 0.125
. d d
0.225JJ:: 0.225../30
-----""--':!!.., xbxd x250x550=471mm2 C = 0.125x550 = 68.75mm
Iy 360
a =0.80x68.75 =55mm < ts=120mm
1.3 As(required) =1.3x1051=1366mm2
2
(As)min. = 471 mm < (As)required
A =~= 185.6xl06 = 1135.0 mm 2
, Iy .j.d 360 x 0.826 x 550
Choose As=5<1> 18 As(c;'o,"n) =1272mm2
Choose As=3<1>20 + 2<1>18 -> A,(cM,en) = 1451mm 2 (bent bars Fig EX~.7c)

Section 2 Rectangnlar Section Choose As=5<1>18 -> A,(cho,en) = 1272mm 2 (straight bars Fig EX 6.7b)
b= 250 mm d = 550 mm Mu=249.56 kN.m
Section No.4 Rectangular Section

b= 250 mm d = 550 mm Mu=247.50 kN.m

6
550 = C /249.56 X 10 6
I 30x 250 C] = 3.0 & J=0.74 550 = C /247.50 X 10 C] = 3.0 & J=0.74
I 30x 250

A =~=
6
249.6 x 10 2 M 247.50x106
S I y.j .d 360xO.74x550 1699.0 mm > As minimum A = ----1!....- = - - - -__ = 1685 mm 2
, Iy.j.d 360xO.74x550

Choose As=3<1> 18 + 3 <I> 20 As(chosen) = 1704 mm 2


Choose As=3<1>18 + 3<1>20 = 1704 mm2

Section 3 Section T-Section 1


Mu=185.63 kN.m

Beff = smallest of:


16t, + b = 16x 120+ 250 = 2170mm
-¥-) +t;+
L2 +b= 0.7x6000 +250=1090mm
5 5
The factor 0.7 is used because the beam is continuous from both ends.
Step 2: Check of shear
--
O.~4~5_ _ _ _~0.:.:.:.60~0~.5::.;;0:...-_ _ _ _0;;.;. ;;;.;50;,.:0;;.;. ;;..;.50
-r--
Shear E
factors A A A C\I
2> co
,'(i ~

~ to
'§,
to
C\I

l]
Maximum Shear force at 1st span = 0.60x Wu x I,

nd
Maximum Shear force at 2 span = 0.50 x Wu x 12
= 0.60x82.50x5.0 = 247.5KN
-' - - - -
0
r J
<.5
Q)
(J)

= 0.50x82.50x6.0 = 247.5KN
For the case of uniform load, the critical section is located at dl2 from the support
-~- --
Qu = 247.5 - 82.5(0.55 12 + 0.25) = 204.2 KN
m
=~= 204.2 x 10
3
=1.49 Nlmm2 090
qu bxd 250x550
C\I III
0

g'" -- - --
qu(rnax) =0.7 IZ: =0. 7 Vu
vr: (30 = 3.13 N 1mm 2 < 4.0N 1mm 2
E
0 C\I
~
or> E
I cO 2> co
~

,'(i '§,
2 to
q,,(rnax) = 3.13N Imm co
C}l
C\I
qu ~ qu(max) the concrete dimensions of the section are adequate for shear. o
Q)
(J)

(30 = 1.07 N Imm 2 o


o vTc
qcu = 0.24 (t:= 0.24
Vu C\I
~
+
web reinforcement is required III

~
<')
qsu =q" -0.54c" =1.49-0.50x1.07=0~955Nlmm2
zro
I1=Ast=~ 09'0
b.s· fylYs

2xAS' 0.955
11=--= As=0.572 S
250xs 240/1.15
E
For q, = 10 mm As=78.5 inm2 s=137mm E
0
tri
0 g C\I
Using q, 10@ 125 mm ~
III

or> C\I ~
Check for minimum stirrups or>

As/(mino) = I1minh.s =0.00167x250x125 =52.0 mm 2 < 78.50 mm2 •••• ok.


Step 3: Reinforcement detailing
III
Complete reinforcement detailing for the beam is shown in Figs. EX. 6.7.b and ~
<')
EX. 6.7.c for the case of straight and bent bars, receptively.

no ?071
--------- ex)
---
ex)
- Example 6.8
C')
()
...J '@: i:
N
0)
It is required to design the continuous beam shown in Fig. EX. 6.8a. The beam
E (')
~ is arranged every 3.25 m on plan. The characteristics compressive strength of
0 C\I
It)
to E + concrete fcu = 30 N/mm 2 • The yield strength of the longitudinal steel fy = 360
g M C\I
0 0
C\I N/mm 2 and for the stirrups = 360 Nlmm 2• The applied unfactored dead and live
()
...J
~
i: '@:
It) (") loads are also shown in Fig. EX. 6.8a.

, ,
C\I
,-
-----~
...J I
(,)----
I
d
Q)
(f)

-
_h !
It)
v
~
...J

-- - -- I
_..LU. _
I
I _..LU. _
I
_. L1
I

ZI"O . Io.~ . 2.00 m.lo.§ • 3.25m .1. 3.25m • Io.~ • 2.00 m.lo..§ •
09'0

~D,l)=60 kN
i
N C\I
10 g E
..- 0 ex)
'@: N
0 C\I '@: ~ -- - -- ~l.l) =20 kN
to (') N D.L.=40 kNlm, L.L. = 15.0 kNlm
r
..- --E
,....
0
0)
£1 I I I IE! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l2* J I **1"
0
'@:
0)
i:
C\I

I· .j'
C\I
2.50 m 3.50 m 3.50 m 2.50 m
'@:
(")

+
·1· ·1· ·1·
It) 0)
..-
'"
()
...J
'@:
(")

I Fig. Ex. 6.8a


,.-...
-----~, Solution
~
-
It)

g
,I
C\I
-- - --
ero
.D

5
§'
I
Step 1: Flexural design
Step 1.1: Calculation of maximum moments
09'0 e
,$ In order to get the design bending moments and shear forces, one has to consider
'a
-+-' the cases ofloading that give the maximum straining actions.
CI)
"0
E
0
Lti N ex)
5 Case 1: maximum positive moment at the central span
0
~
ex)
...J
~ i: In order to get the maximum positive bending moment at the central span, one
N ~ N U
(') I-<
has to use the following loads:
<8
.S Uniform load at central span =1.4DL+1.6LL
CI)
~ = 1.4x40+1.6x15=80 kN/m
U
t- Concentrated load at central span =1.4DL+1.6L.L.
..0
= 1.4x60+1.6x20=1l6 kN/m
~ Uniform load at end spans = 0.9 DL = 0.9 x 40 = 36 kN/m
I 00
---- --- -------+ r.t:
I
I

272
273
The beam is twice indetenninate, however, because of symmetry only one
unknown needs to be detennined.
Mb=Mc
Applying three moment equation at b 36 kN/m JIl
I IlIA
r- L3 + Wbc x L3 + Px L2)
0+ 2(2.5 + 7) M/) + 7 Mb = _6(Wa/)
24 24 16
I· 2.50 m .1. 3.50 m .1. 3.50 m .1. 2.50 m .1
3 3
26M =_6(36X2.5 +SOx7 +116X72) I
b 24 24 16 344.8 kN.m 358.7 kN.m

Mb =351.23 kNm
2
WbcXL2 PXL) (SOX7 .116X7)
Me = ( --8-+-4- -M b ·= - S - + - 4 - -351.23=341.76 kN.m

1 341 .3 kN.m
The loading and the corresponding bending moment diagram are shown in the
following figure.

P=116kN! The calculations are carried out using a computer program. The loading and the

a£,*
36kN/m
**I I
12 I I I I I I I IIIIIII
80 kN/m
36 kN/m
:!:* *I *12d
corresponding bending moment diagram are shown in the following figure.
M/) =-344.S kN.m Me =-35S.7kN.m
b . e
I· 2.50 m .1. 3.50m .1. 3.50 m
'c
.1. 2.50 m .1
'
Another way for solving the indetenninate beam is to use the 3 moments
equation twice (which gives very close solution)
351.23 351:23
Applying three moment equation at b:
3 3
0+2(2.5+7)M +7M =_6(36 x 2.5 + SOx7 + 116x72)
/) c 24 24 16
19M/) +7Mc =-9132.12 ......... (1)
Applying three moment equation at c:
341.76
3 3
0+2(2.5+7)M +7M =_6(SOX2.5 + SOx7 + 116x72)
e b 24 24 16
19Me +7M/) =-9304 ......... (2)
Case 2: Maximum negative moment at the support
Solving eqs. (1, 2) gives Mb and Me
In order to get the maximum negative bending moment at the support, one has to
2
use the following loads: M. =(SOX7 + 116X7)_ 344.S+35S.7 =3413kN
mulspWl S 4 2 ..m
Unifonn load at central span and one end span =1.4D.L.+1.6L.L.
=1.4x40+1.6x15=S(} kN/m
Unifonn load at other end spans = 0.9 D.L. = 0.9 x 40 = 36 kN/m Note: Case 2 will also be used to get the maximum design shear forces at the
internal supports.

274
?7C;
Step 1.2: Design of critical sections Section No.2 Rectangular section
The critical sections are shown in the figure below b= 250 mm

A- zs;
I 2.50m I 3.50m
L
I 3.50m
zsJ2
I
L~
2.50m ./
d=650mm
Mu=35 1.23 kN.m Case I
Mu=358.7 kN.m
Use Mu=358.7 kN.m from case 2
Case 2
--)
Section No.1 T-section d =CI~ Mu
lell b
BelT = smallest of:
-16t, +b = 16x120+ 250 = 2170mm 650=C 358.7x106 :. C 1 = 2.97 & J=0.74
I 30x250
_ L2 +b = 0.7 x 7000 + 250 = 1230mm
5 5
-C.L to C.L. between beams = 3250 mm A =~= 358.7x106 =2071mm2 ..•..••• >Asmin
, Iy.jd 360xO.74x650
BelT = 1230 mm
Choose As= 3<1>22 + 3<1>20 A,(cho,en) = 2082mm
2
Assume beam thickness(t) = span =700 mm
10-12
d =t-cover=700-50 = 650 mm
Section No.3
u
d=C j
~--
Icu B Section No. 3 is subjected to negative moment less than that of sec. 2. Thus, all the
negative reinforcement over section 2 will continue over section 3. Moreover, the code
6 also requires for each exterior panel to carry a positive bending equals to wL2/16.
650=C !341.76x10 :. C1 = 6.75 & J=0.826
I 30x1230 2
M =w u L2 80x2.5 =31.25kN.m
The point is outside the C(-J curve :. ~ < (~)min u 16 16
. . d d
C = 0.125x650 = 81.25mm B =L z +b = O.8x2500 +250=650mm
5 5 ·
a = 0.80x81.25 = 65mm < ts=120 mm
C1=15.6 -+J=0.826
6 6
341.76 X 10 =1768mm 2 A =~= 31.25 X 10 =161mmz
360xO.826x650 , I),.jd 360xO.826x650

(As ) mill = the smaller of: 0.22550 250 x 650 = 556 mm 2


360
Asmin =smaller 01
0.225.JJ:: xbxd 0.22550 x250x650=556mm2
IJ' 360 1.3 x 161 = 210 mm 2

1.3 As(required) = 1.3 x 1768 = 2300 mm 2

(As)min. = 556 mm
2
< (As)required
But not less than A, = 0.15 250x650 = 244mm z
100
2
Choose As=6<1>20 As(chosen) =1885 mm Asmin =244 > As -+ use Asmin (3<1> 12)

276
277
Step 1.3: Calculation of development length Step 2: Check of shear
The loading and shear force diagram (obtained from the computer program) for
fy
a.{J.7J.(-) case 2 is shown below
Ys }.¢
4fbu
80 kN/m
JI1 1
fbu = 0.30 rz:- = 0.3'0 V1.5
fr:- {30 = 1.34 N I mm 2
36 kN/m
IIIIZS;;- 111111 1
2.50 m .\. 3.50m .\.
llbottom=l.O lltop=1.3 critical ectlOn

For bars in tension:-

a=l.O (Straight Bars) and ~=O.75 (deformed bars)

L - {1.OxO.75x1.Ox(360/1.15)} '" = 44'"


(/(bollom) - 4 x 1.34 .'1' 'I'

For the case of uniform load, the critical section is located at d/2 from the support
L = {LOx 0.75x 1.3 x (360/1.15)}.", = 57'"
d(rop) 4 x 1.34 'I' 'I'
Qu =Qc -w u (d 12 + half column width)
For bars in compression:- Qu = 340 - 80 x (0.65 I 2+ 0.50 12) = 294 kN

a=l.O (Straight Bars) and ~=O.50 (deformed bars) 3


=ib....= 294x10 =1.81Nlmm 2
qu bxd 250x650
L = {1.0xO.50xl.Ox(360/1.15)} '" = 29'"
d(bollom) 4 x 1.34 .'1' 'I'

qU(rnax)=0.7fl:=0.7 {30 =3.13 N Imm 2 <4.0N Imm 2


VY: V1.5
L = {1.0xO.50x1.3 x (360/1.15)}.", = 38'"
d(rop) 4 x 1.34 'I' 'I'

Or we can directly use the coefficients from Table (5.3) withfcu=30 N/mm2 qu :::; qu(max) the concrete dimensions of the section are adequa~e for shear.
For Tension: Ld(bottom)=50<l> , Ld(top)=65<I>
qcu = 0.24 fl: = 0.24 {30 =1.07 N I mm 2
For Compression: Ld(bottom)=40<l>, Ld(toP)=52<I> vY: V1.5
web reinforcement is required

2
q,u =1.81-0.50xl.07 =1.275Nlmm

,)7Q
Ji=A s1 =~ ---- ---- ----
b.s iy Irs
E
2 x As 1.275 0 N
Ji=--=
250xs 360/1.15 0
C\I
'§:
C\I
C\I
'§:
......
i:
M
C') ~ E C\I '§: N,

3
C') 0 C\I
For <t> = 10 mm A!';=78.5 mm s=154 mm 2 + It) C') N
C\I N 0
C\I C\I
'§:
C')
0(])
Using 7 <t> 101m (s=142 mm ... o.k) C')
'§:
C') C/)

Check for minimum stirrups

. = 0.4 = 0.4 = 0.0011 (not less than 0.0010 for high grade steel)
Jim," 1;. 360

<!
Asi(min.) = Jimin xbxs
WWOOL
-....I
2 2
ASf(min.) = 0.0011 x 250x 142 = 39.7 mm < (2x 78.5 mm ) o.k g "
"
Step 3: Reinforcement detailing E
0 N
0
N ~

0 '§: '§:
Complete reinforcement detailing for the beam is shown in Figs. EX. 6.8b and C\I
'§:
i:
M
...... m
EX 6.8c for the case of straight and bent bars, respectively. ,

]
~
to
E
2> 0(])
~ C\I
'§:
r--. E '§: C/)
0
1- -t 0
r.:
C') 0
C\I
'§:
0
C\I

C\I C') C')

~
C')

wWOOL """'
fIl
lil
,D

~i
'@
./:l
,,-g 0
...J
fIl
'-"
fIl
.-<
'@
....
" ci
G)
'0
---- _._--j 1:1
G)
0
C\I
0
C\I S
G)

~ 0
....
+ <2
C\I
C\I E
C')
C\I .E
1-
'§:
C') C\I -t a
It) '§: ~
C\I
~
C\I N C') ,D
'§: 00
C')
.-0

~
----
-----j ~
00
---- --~-
----1 g
Example 6_9
It is required to design the continuous beam with unequal spans shown in Fig.
,.... C\J
'§: ~ EX. 6.9a. The beam is arranged every 2-75 m on plan. The characteristics
...... 2
C\I
C')
compressive strength of concrete feu = 30 N/mm . The yield strength of the
]~
E 2
e
C\I '§:
(')
0
It) C\I
C\I
~

lO •
longitudinal steel fy = 360 N/mm2 and for the stirrups = 360 Nlmm . The applied
~
C\I
N '§: (') C\I 0 unfactored dead and live loads are shown in Fig. EX. 6.9a. These loads can be
OJ
+ (') C/).
C\I
C\I
used for designing the beam for bending as well as for shear.
'§:
(')
, ,
---- --~-
----1
~ WWOOL
_.fH._
~I

JlL
.Io~d
_.~L
lo'.d
_..L~. _
I' 19.5
-
"<t
0
-'
g 0.51 5.50m 2.00m 5.50m

""
E
25 0
C\J
C\J
'§: '§:
e
~ ...... CD D.L.= 50 kN/m' . L.L.=15 kN/m'
JJ II 1 lEI 1 1 l l ; b ! l l ! ! l ! ! ! t t t t l l ,
C')

]~
C\I
£1 I 1
'§:
CD lO •

C\I
C\I 0
OJ
C/) I· 6.00m
I 2.50m
\. 6.00 m
.\
"- 0
E
~ e
C\I
0
C\I

t C\I
-t 0
r-..:
(')

(') (')
Fig. EX. 6.9a
~

'§:
(')

Solution
wWOOL
,.-...
rIl
Step 1: Flexural design
t;:J
..c Step 1.1: Calculation of maximum moments
-
"<t

g
§< I

"" -
It)

g
5
e
Wu = 1.4DL+ 1.6LL = 1.4x50+ 1.6x15 = 94kN I m'

The absolute bending moment diagram (the envelope of the bending moment)
.$
.~
..... that is obtained from two cases ofloading is obtained using a computer program .
----1
Q)
~ The results are shown below.
C\I 5
~
C\I
e '§:
C\I
.~ (') g 306.6 kN.m

4ID11111111111~
+
C\I 0
E <@
t C\I
'§: ~-t It)
N
C\I
~

~
~ ~
(')
C\I
'§: '§:
(')
(') 0
00
. .
\Ci
301 kN.m

---- ----
----1 ~
oil
~

')~') 283
Step 1.2: Design of critical sections (As)min = the smaller of:
The critical sections are shown below
0.225JJ:: xbxd 0.22513Ox250x550=471mm2
f), 360

.~ L zst 13 :z;s; A 1.3 As(required) =1.3x1841=2393 mm 2


2
~1_ _ _ _ _ _~6~.O~O~m____~~2~.5~O~m~I______~6=.O~O=m______1 (As)min. = 471 mm <
2
Choose A s=3<l>22+3<l>18 As(Chosen) = 1902 mm
For Section 1-1 Mu(+ve) =301kN.m
For Section 2-2 M u (-ve) = 306.6kN.m
Section No.2 Rectangular section

Section No.1 T-section Mu(-ve) =306.6 b=250mm d=550mm


Beff = smallest of:
• 16t$ +b = 16x 120+ 250 = 2170mm d=CI~ Mu
feu b
.12.+b = 0.8 x 6000 +250=1210mm
5 5 550 = C /306.6 X 10
6

.c.L. to c.L. between beams = 2750 mm :. Cl = 2.72 and J= 0.71


I 30x250
6
Beff = 1210 mm 306.6x10 =218lmm 2
360xO.71x550

Choose As=6<l>22 2
As(chosen) =2281 mm

Section No.3
Assume beam thickness(t) = span ~600 mm Section No. 3 is subjected to negative moment less than that of sec. 2. Thus, all the
10-12
negative reinforcement over section 2 will continue over section 3. Moreover, the code
d =t-cover= 600-50 =550 mm also requires for each interior panel to carry a positive bending equals to wL2/24.
2
M = w u L2 = 94x2.5 = 24.5kN.m
u 24 24
6
550=C 30lxl0 B =L 2 +h = O.7x2500 +250=600mm
:. Cl = 6.04 & J=0.826 5 5
I 30x12l0
Cl=14.9 ~J=0.826
The point is outside the C1-J curve:. ~ < (~)min Use ~ = (~)min = 0.125 24.5xl06 = l49.8mm 2
d d d d
360xO.826x550
c = 0.125 x 550 = 68.75mm
0.225130 250x 550 = 470.7 mm 2
a=0.80x68.75=55mm < tg=120mm 360
A $ min = smaller of = 194.8 mm 2
6
A=~ 30lx10 =184lmm 2 1.3 x 161 = 194.8 mm 2
$ f)'·j.d 360xO.826x550

284
2R5
But not less than As = 0.15 250x550 = 206mm 2 Step 2: Shear design
100 The shear force diagram is shown in the following figure
A,min =206 > As ---+ use A,min (2 <I> 12)
I 333 kN
Step 1.3: Calculation of the Development Length
fy
a.J3.1].(-)
IillJIDDW""'"
~4
UJllO"'..,-...mi1!HIfl1JlI
Ld = {
4fbu
Ys }.¢
238 kN
~
critical section 215 kN

Ibu = 0.30
Fi
-E!...
Yc m
= 0.30 - o = 1.34 N 1mm 2
1.5 For the case ofunifonn load, the critical section at d/2 from the support.
Qu = Q!> -w u(d 12 + half colunm width)
T\bottom=l.O T\top=I.3
Qu =333-94x(0.55/2+0.50/2) = 283.65kN
For bars in tension:- 3
u=l.O (Straight Bars) and 13=0.75 (defonned bars) Qu 283.65x10 =2.06N Imm 2
qu =b'd 250x550

L = {1.0xO.75xl.Ox(360/1.15)} '" = 44'" qu(max)=0.7 fJ: =0.7 (30 = 3.13 N Imm 2 < 4.0N Imm 2 ---+---+qu(max) = 3.13N Imm 2
tI(!>.II.m) 4 x 1.34 ''f' 'f' VY: Vu
qu ~ qu(max) the concrete dimensions of the section are adequate for shear.
L = {1.0xO.75 x 1.3 x (360/1.15)} '" = 57'"
tI(,.!') 4 x 1.34 ''f' 'f'
qcu =0.24 a: =0.24Vu
Vr: {30 = 1.07 N Imm 2
For bars in compression:-
u=l.O (Straight Bars) and 13=0.50 (defonned bars) web reinforcement is required

L = {1.0xO.50X1.0x(360/1.15)} '" = 29'". . qsu =qu -0.5qcu = 2.06-0.50xl.07 =1.53KN 1m 2


tI(!>.lIorn) 4 x 1.34 .'f' 'f'

2x As . 1.53
P=250xs 360/1.15
L = {1.0xO.50Xl.3x(360/1.15)} '" = 38'"
,1(101') 4 x 1.34 ''f' 'f'
For $ = 10 mm As=78.5 mm
2

s=128 mm . ---+Using <I> 10 @ 125 mm (8 <I> 101m')


Or we can directly use the coefficients from Table (5.3) withlcu=30 N/mm 2
For Tension: L d(bottom)=5O<I>, Ld(top)=65<I> Check for minimum stirrups
For Compression: L d(bottom)=40<I>, . = 0.4 = 0.4 = 0.00111 (not less than 0.0010)
Pmm Iy 360
ASf(rnin.) = Pmin .b.s = 0.00111 x 250 x 125 =34.7 mm 2 «2x78.5 ... ok.)

Step 3: Reinforcement detailing


Complete reinforcement detailing for the beam is shown in Figs. EX. 6.9b and
EX. 6.9c for the case of straight and bent bars, respectively.

2'(1.7
8~10/m 11 Ii;r ~ LC 14 • i 8~1 O/m
,I' ;.LC/4 ,. 'I
, '

6~22
3~12 3~12

r-
3~22 __ _
.)
o 3~18 3~18
o
3~12 __

E E
E E
g o
o
co 8~10/m co 8~10/m

,---- , 3¢P12

Fig. EX. 6.9b Reinforcement details (straight bars)


W
Sec. 2-2 Sec. 1-1