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1 Toothpaste in Indian Market In partial fulfillment of the requirements of The Summer Internship of Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management Through Rizvi Academy of Management
Under the guidance of Prof. Rajesh Vyas
Submitted by Palak Shah PGDBM Batch: 2009-2011
This is to certify that Mr. Palak Shah a student of Rizvi Academy of Management, of PGDBM III bearing Roll No.117 and specializing in Marketing has successfully completed The project titled:
“P&G – CREST: Strategies to launch World no.1 Toothpaste in Indian Market”
under the guidance of Prof. Rajesh Vyas in partial fulfillment of the requirements of Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management by Rizvi Academy of Management for the academic year 2009 – 2011.
______________________ Prof. Rajesh Vyas Project Guide
______________________ Prof. Umar Farooq Academic Coordinator
______________________ Dr. Kalim Khan Director
I, Palak Shah would sincerely like to thank Prof. Rajesh Vyas, (Project Guide), for his help, without which this project would not have been possible. This project is the result of his constant motivation and guidance. I received great inspiration and constant encouragement from him and his support is highly acknowledged. The execution of this project could have not been possible without the valuable advice and guidance of various individuals. It is therefore only fair that their contribution does not get unacknowledged. Last but not the least; I pass my thanks to Mr. Kalim Khan, the Director of Rizvi Academy of Management for giving me a chance to make this project, leading to the path full of valuable knowledge and information.
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Executive Summary Scope of FMCG Sector in India SWOT Analysis of Indian FMCG Market Major FMCG Players in Indian Markets Toothpaste market Indian Toothpaste Market About Crest Toothpaste Need for Crest In Indian market SWOT Analysis for Crest In Indian Market 4P’s Analysis for Crest Michael Porter’s 5 force Analysis Research Plan Questionnaire Data Analysis Key Findings Recommendations Bibliography
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The main purpose of conducting this research is to understand the buying behavior of Indian consumers while purchasing toothpastes. Also the report will give a fair clue on the parameters that all potential customers see while buying toothpaste and what can influence a change to switch to other brands. In order to achieve our desired objectives I have conducted a 2 months long research, covering all the aspects of market Research. To aid in my research I also referred to many books, journals, magazines, newspapers and websites
What is the Definition of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)?
Products which have a quick turnover, and relatively low cost are known as Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). FMCG products are those that get replaced within a year. Examples of FMCG generally include a wide range of frequently purchased consumer products such as toiletries, soap, cosmetics, tooth cleaning products, shaving products and detergents, as well as other non-durables such as glassware, bulbs, batteries, paper products, and plastic goods. FMCG may also include pharmaceuticals, consumer electronics, packaged food products, soft drinks, tissue paper, and chocolate bars. A subset of FMCGs is Fast Moving Consumer Electronics which include innovative electronic products such as mobile phones, MP3 players, digital cameras, GPS Systems and Laptops. These are replaced more frequently than other electronic products. White goods in FMCG refer to household electronic items such as Refrigerators, TVs, Music Systems, etc In 2009, the Rs. 88,000-crore FMCG segment was one of the fast growing industries in India. According to the AC Nielsen India study, the industry grew 7.3% in value between 2008 and 2009.
Scope of the Indian FMCG Sector
The Indian FMCG sector with a market size of US$13.1 billion is the fourth largest sector in the economy. A well-established distribution network, intense competition
between the organized and unorganized segments characterizes the sector. FMCG Sector is expected to grow by over 60% by 2010. That will translate into an annual growth of 10% over a 5 Year period. It has been estimated that FMCG sector will rise from around Rs 56,500 crores in 2005 to Rs 92,100 crores in 2010. According to the study conducted by AC Nielsen, 62 of the top 100 brands are owned by MNCs, and the balance by Indian companies. Fifteen companies own these 62 brands, and 27 of these are owned by Hindustan Lever. Pepsi is at number three followed by Thums Up. Britannia takes the fifth place, followed by Colgate (6), Nirma (7), Coca-Cola (8) and Parle (9). Personal care, cigarettes, and soft drinks are the three biggest categories in FMCG. Between them, they account for 35 of the top 100 brands. FMCG sector includes various products of Hair care, household care, male grooming, female hygiene, and the chocolates and confectionery categories are the fastest growing segments, says an HSBC report. Though the sector witnessed a slower growth in 2002-2004, it has been able to make a fine recovery since then. FMCG sector is characterized by a well-established distribution network, low penetration levels, lo operating costs, low per capita consumption and intense competition between organized and unorganized sectors. For example, Hindustan Levers Limited (HLL) has shown a healthy growth in the last quarter. An estimated double-digit growth over the next few years shows that the good times are likely to continue. The middle class and the rural segments of the Indian population are the most promising market for FMCG, and give brand makers the opportunity to convert them to branded products. Most of the product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin care, shampoos, etc, in India, have low per capita consumption as well as low penetration level, but the potential for growth is huge. The Indian Economy is surging ahead by leaps and bounds, keeping pace with rapid urbanization, increased literacy levels, and rising per capita income.
The big firms are growing bigger and small-time companies are catching up as well. According to the study conducted by AC Nielsen, 62 of the top 100 brands are owned by MNCs, and the balance by Indian companies. Fifteen companies own these 62 brands, and 27 of these are owned by Hindustan Lever. Pepsi is at number three followed by Thums Up. Britannia takes the fifth place, followed by Colgate (6), Nirma (7), Coca-Cola (8) and Parle (9)... Personal care, cigarettes, and soft drinks are the three biggest categories in FMCG. Between them, they account for 35 of the top 100 brands.
SWOT Analysis of FMCG sector in India by P&G
Low operational Cost
Presence of established distribution networks of both urban and rural areas Presence of well-known brands in FMCG sector
Lower scope of investing in technology and achieving economies of scale
especially in small sectors Low export level
Me-too products which illegally depicts the labels of the established brands.
These products narrow the scope of FMCG products in rural and semiurban areas
Untapped rural market Rising income levels i.e. increasing purchasing power of consumers Large domestic market with a population of over a billion Export potential High consumer goods spending
Removal of import restrictions resulting in replacing of domestic brands Slowdown in rural market Tax and regulatory structure
TOP COMPANIES IN FMCG SECTOR IN INDIA
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. Companies Hindustan Unilever Ltd. ITC (Indian Tobacco Company) Nestlé India
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
GCMMF (AMUL) Dabur India Cadbury India Britannia Industries Procter & Gamble Hygiene and Health Care Marico Industries
This category has 9 major brands, aggregating Rs. 2,637 crore. Nestle and Amul slug it out in the powders segment. The food category has also seen innovations like softies in ice creams, chapattis by HLL, ready to eat rice by HLL and pizzas by both GCMMF and Godrej Pillsbury. This category seems to have faster development than the stagnating personal care category. Amul, India's largest foods company has a good presence in the food category with its ice-creams, curd, milk, butter, cheese, and so on. Britannia also ranks in the top 100 FMCG brands dominates the biscuits category and has launched a series of products at various prices. In the household care category (like mosquito repellents), Godrej and Reckitt are two players. Goodnight from Godrej is worth above Rs 217 crore, followed by Reckitt's Mortein at Rs 149 crore. In the shampoo category, HLL's Clinic and Sunsilk make it to the top 100, although P&G's Head and Shoulders and Pantene are also trying hard to be positioned on top. Clinic is nearly double the size of Sunsilk. Dabur is among the top five FMCG companies in India and is an herbal specialist. With a turnover of Rs. 19 billion (approx. US$ 420 million) in 2005-2006, Dabur has brands like Dabur Amla, Dabur Chyawanprash, Vatika, Hajmola and Real. Cadbury India is the market leader in the chocolate confectionery market with a 70% market share and is ranked number two in the total food drinks market. Its popular brands include Cadbury's Dairy Milk, 5 Star, Eclairs, and Gems. The Rs.15.6 billion (USD 380 Million) Marico is a leading Indian group in consumer products and services in the Global Beauty and Wellness space.
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Hindustan Unilever Limited
Hindustan Unilever Limited also called Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL) was established in 1933 as Lever Brothers India Limited. Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL) is India's largest Fast Moving Consumer Goods Company, with a customer base of 2 out of every 3 Indian in the category of Home & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages The company has combined volumes of about 8 million tonnes and sales of Rs. 20,869.57 crore (US$ 4.45 billion) (2008-2009) HLL is also one of the country's largest exporters; the Government of India has recognized HLL
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as a Golden Super Star Trading House. Some of HLL brands are:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Kwality Walls Ice Cream Lifebuoy Rexona Lux Liril Brooke Bond Tea Pepsodent Close Up Surf Kissan Pond's Vaseline Fair & Lovely Lakme Clinic Plus Clinic All Clear Sunsilk and Lux Shampoos
The Hindustan Lever Research Center (HLRC) was established in 1958, and now has facilities in Mumbai & Bangalore. HLRC has 200 highly qualified scientists and technologists, many of them with post-doctoral experience. In 2001, the company embarked on a programme called Shakti, through which it creates micro-enterprises for rural women. Shakti also includes health and hygiene education through the Shakti Vani Programme, which now covers 15 states in India with over 45,000 women entrepreneurs in 135,000 villages. By the end of 2010, Shakti aims to have 100,000 Shakti entrepreneurs covering 500,000 villages, touching the lives of over 600 million people. HUL is also running a rural health
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programme, Lifebuoy Swasthya Chetana.The programme endeavors to induce adoption of hygienic practices among rural Indians and aims to bring down the incidence of diarrhea. So far it has reached 120 million people in over 50,000 villages Hindustan Unilever's distribution covers over 1 million retails outlets across India directly and its products are available in over 6.3 million outlets in India, i.e., nearly 80% of the retail outlets in India. It has 39 factories in the country. Two out of three Indians use the company’s products and HUL products have the largest consumer reach being available in over 80 per cent of consumer homes across India.
• • • •
Hindustan Lever Network Ayush Ayurvedic Products & Services Sangam Pure it Water Purifiers
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• • • • •
HPC Beverages Marine Products Rice Castor
ITC was set up in 1910 by the name of 'Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited'. The company is now known as Indian tobacco Company Ltd. ITC's AgriBusiness is India's second largest exporter of agricultural products. ITC is one of the India's biggest foreign exchange earners (US $ 2 billion in the last decade). Currently companies overall revenue is US$6 billion (2009)
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ITC has its presence in Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Packaging, Agri-Business, Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Information Technology, Branded Apparel, Greeting Cards, Safety Matches and other FMCG products. ITC is a market leader in the businesses of Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards, Packaging and Agri-Exports It is gaining its market share very rapidly in the businesses of Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Branded Apparel and Greeting Cards & Stationery.
Some Facts about ITC
ITC ranks third in pre-tax profits among India's private sector corporations.
Forbes magazine has ranked ITC among the World's Best Big Companies and Asia's 'Fabulous 50'. Business World has placed it among India's Most Respected Companies. ITC has also been placed among India's Most Valuable Companies by Business Today magazine. ITC's Agri-Business is one of India's largest exporters of agricultural products. ITC is one of the country's biggest foreign exchange earners (US $ 2.4 billion in the last decade).
Some ITC brands are
• • • • • •
Minto Sunfeast Candyman Bingo Wills Lifestyle and John Players Fiama di Wills
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Nestle India Ltd
Nestle’s relationship with India started in 1912. It started its trading with India as the Nestlé Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company (Export) Limited, importing and selling finished products in the Indian market. Nestlé India is amongst India's 'Most Respected Companies' and amongst the 'Top Wealth Creators of India'.
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Nestle India is a subsidiary of Nestle S.A. of Switzerland Nestle India is a company that provides Indian Consumers products with global standards and is committed to constant growth and shareholder satisfaction. Nestle India has also provided opportunities of growth and employment to about 1 million people including farmers, suppliers of packaging materials, services and other goods. Today, the company operates in 86 countries around the world with revenue of Revenue CHF 107.6 billion (2009) Nestle made its first investment in Moga in 1961. In 1967 Nestlé established its next factory at Choladi (Tamil Nadu). At present, it has a number of factories in different parts of India such:
1) Punjab 2) Uttaranchal 3) Delhi 4) Gurgaon 5) Kolkata 6) Mumbai 7) Goa 8) Karnataka 9) Chennai 10) Tamil Nadu
Some of the Brands of Nestle in India
Milk Products & Nutrition
Nestle milkmaid Nestle milk Nestle slim milk
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Nestle milkmaid fruit yoghurt
Nescafe classic Nestle Milo
Prepared Dishes and Cooking aids
Maggie 2-MINUTE Noodles Maggie Vegetable Atta Noodles Maggie Sauces
Chocolates and Confectionary
Nestle Kit Kat Nestle Milky Bar Nestle Munch Polo
Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation
Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) is the largest food product marketing organization of India. It aims to provide good returns to the farmers and also to fulfill the requirements of consumers by giving them quality products.
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Amul was formed in 1946 by an apex co-operative organization, Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation AMUL means "priceless" in Sanskrit. GCMMF (AMUL) has the largest distribution network for any FMCG company. It has nearly 50 sales offices spread all over the country, more than 3,000 wholesale dealers and more than 5,00,000 retailers. AMUL is also the largest exporter of dairy products in the country. AMUL is available today in over 40 countries of the world. AMUL is exporting a wide variety of products which include Whole and Skimmed Milk Powder, Cottage Cheese (Paneer), Clarified Butter (Ghee) and Indigenous Sweets. The major markets are USA, West Indies, and countries in Africa, the Gulf Region, Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, Japan and China. Amul products are used by millions of people. Some of the Amul products are
• • • • • • • •
Amul Ghee Amul Cheese Amul Chocolates Amul Shrikhand Amul Ice cream Amul Milk Amul products are sold at reasonable prices. Amul has a revenue of Rs. 67.11 billion, $1.33 billion USD (in 2008-09)
Dabur India Ltd
Dabur India Ltd. is the fourth largest FMCG Company in India Dabur deals in Health care and Personal care products. Today, Dabur has a turnover of Rs.1899.57 crores. The market penetration of Dabur is of about 1.5 million retail outlets all over India with more than 5000 distributors. Dabur India is divided into 2 major strategic business units:
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Consumer Care Division Consumer Health Division
Dabur has 3 subsidiary group companies: 1. Dabur Foods 2. Dabur Foods (Nepal) 3. Dabur International- Further divided into Asian Consumer Care in Bangladesh, African Consumer Care in Nigeria and Dabur Egypt
Dabur has 13 ultra-modern manufacturing units in India
1. Jammu & Kashmir 2. Uttar Pradesh 3. Himachal Pradesh 4. Madhya Pradesh 5. Rajasthan 6. Uttaranchal 7. West Bengal 8. Silvassa
Vatika Hajmola Dabur Amla Real
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1. United Kingdom 2. Egypt 3. Bangladesh 4. Dubai 5. Nepal
Dabur has its offices and representatives in America, Europe, and Africa It exports Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients to Latin America, Europe, Africa, and other Asian countries Dabur also exports herbal products to Middle East, Far East, and several European countries Today Dabur is marketing its products in more than 50 countries with turnover of approximately US$ 750 Million (Rs. 3390.9 Crore FY 09-10) & Market Capitalization of over US$ 3.5 Billion (Rs 15500 Crore)
Cadbury India Limited
Cadbury entered India in 1948 by importing chocolates. And now, it has manufacturing facilities in Mumbai, Pune, Gwalior, Bangalore, and Himachal Pradesh and 4 sales offices at Mumbai, Kolkata, New Delhi, and Chennai in India. The corporate office is in Mumbai. Cadbury is into the business of Chocolate
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Confectionary, Milk Food Drinks, and Candies
Some of Cadbury's key brands are:
• • • • •
Cadbury Dairy Milk 5 Star Perk Eclairs Celebrations
Milk food drinks
Cadbury is constantly engaged in the extension of its products line to satisfy its customers. A good example of this is Bytes. Bytes were first launched in South India in 2003.
Cadbury is the largest confectionary company in the world and has its presence in Beverages in Australia and Americas. The brands that are enjoyed in almost every
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country around the world are Schweppes, Halls, Trident, Dr Pepper, Snapple, Trebor, Dentyne, Bubblicious, and Bassett. On 19 January 2010, it was announced that Cadbury and Kraft Foods had reached a deal and that Kraft would purchase Cadbury for £8.40 per share, valuing Cadbury at £11.5bn (US$18.9bn)
Britannia Industries Ltd
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Britannia Industries Limited is an Indian company based in Kolkata that is famous for its Britannia and Tiger brands of biscuit, which are highly recognized throughout the country. Britannia is one of India’s leading biscuit firms, with an estimated 38% market share with a revenue of Rs.2,200 crore The Company also deals in manufacturing and selling of bread, Rusk, cakes and dairy products like cheese, butter and milk.
The brand names of biscuits are:
• • • • •
Marie Gold Treat Maska Chaska Good Day Milk Bikis
The Company's plants are located in
• • • • • Mumbai Kolkata Delhi Chennai Uttarakhand
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• • • • • • • •
UAE Qatar Bahrain Ghana Saudi Arabia Kuwait Singapore Oman
Procter & Gamble
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Procter & Gamble is a Fortune 500 American multinational corporation headquartered in Downtown Cincinnati, Ohio. That manufactures a wide range of consumer goods. As of mid 2010, P&G is the 6th most profitable corporation in the world, and the 5th largest corporation in the United States by market capitalization, surpassed only by Apple, Exxon Mobil, Microsoft, and Wal-Mart. It is 6th in Fortune's Most Admired Companies 2010 list. Procter & Gamble is in the manufacturing of personal care products, pet food and household cleaners. P&G has an employee base of 140,000 (2009) people and earned the revenues of US$ 79.03 billion (2009). P&G is the parent company of companies such as Clairol and shaving supply company Global Gillette As of July 1, 2007, the company's operations are categorized into three "Global Business Units" with each Global Business Unit divided into "Business Segments"
• Beauty Care
• Household Care
Baby Care and Family Care segment Fabric Care and Home Care segment
• Health and Well-Being
Health Care segment Snacks, Coffee, and Pet Care segment Brands
22 of P&G's brands have more than a billion dollars in net annual sales, and another 18 have sales between $500 million and $1 billion.
Billion dollar brands
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Ariel is a brand of laundry detergent/liquid available in numerous forms
Bounty is a brand of paper towel sold in the United States and Canada. Crest is a brand of toothpaste and teeth whitening products. Duracell is a brand of batteries and flashlights. Fusion is a brand of men's wet shave razors and is the quickest P&G
brand to have reached $1 billion in annual sales.
Gillette is a brand of safety razor and male grooming products. Head & Shoulders is a brand of shampoo and conditioners. Olay is a brand of women's skin care products. Oral-B is a brand of toothbrush and oral care products. Pampers is a brand of disposable diaper and other baby care products. Pantene is a brand of hair care products (conditioners/styling aids). Rejoice is a brand of hair care products, mostly sold in Asia. Tide is a brand of laundry detergent. Wella is a brand name of hair care products (shampoo, conditioner,
styling, and hair color).
Always/Whisper is a brand of panty liners sold primarily in Asian
Most of these brands, including Bounty, Crest, Pringles, and Tide, are global products available on several continents. Procter & Gamble products are available in North America, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand.
Manufacturing operations are based in the following regions:
United States Canada
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• • • • • •
Mexico Latin America Europe China (31 wholly-owned factories) and other parts of Asia Africa Australia
Marico Industries Ltd
Marico is a leading Indian group providing consumer products and services in the areas of Health and Beauty based in Mumbai.
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During 2009-10, the company generated an annual Revenue US$600 million (2010) with a turnover of about Rs.26.6 billion (USD 600 Million), in respect of its food, hair care and skin care related activities. Marico's own manufacturing facilities are located at Goa, Kanjikode, Jalgaon, Saswad, Pondicherry, Dehradun and Daman
The organization holds a number of brands which are
• • • • • •
Parachute Saffola Hair Care Medicare Revive Black Chic
Exports Markets are
• • • • • •
USA UAE Bangladesh The Middle East Egypt. SAARC Countries
India has a population of more than 1.150 billion which is just behind China. According to the estimates, by 2030 India population will be around 1.450 Billion and will surpass China to become the World largest in terms of population. FMCG
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industry which is directly related to the population is expected to maintain a robust growth rate
Major factors which would be beneficial for the growth of FMCG sector in India are:Spending Pattern
An increase is spending pattern has been witnessed in Indian FMCG market. There is an upward trend in urban as well as rural market and also increase in spending in organized retail sector. An increase in disposable income, of household mainly because of increase in nuclear where both the husband and wife are earning which leads to growth in FMCG growth
Changing profile and mindset of consumer
People are becoming conscious about health and hygienic. There is a change in the mindset of the consumer and now looking at “Money for value” rather than “value
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for money”. Consumers are switching from economy to premium product. Findings according to A.C. Nielsen shows about 71 percent of Indian take notice of packaged goods labels containing nutritional information compared to two years ago which was only 59 percent. At present, urban India accounts for 66% of total FMCG consumption, with rural India accounting for the remaining 34%. However, rural India accounts for more than 40% consumption in major FMCG categories such as personal care, fabric care, and hot beverages. In urban areas, home and personal care category, including skin care, household care and feminine hygiene, will keep growing at relatively attractive rates. Within the foods segment, it is estimated that processed foods, bakery, and dairy are long-term growth categories in both rural and urban areas. As we can see the tremendous growth for FMCG sector in coming years, let us take a product category – Toothpaste from the sector and understand what the trends in toothpaste market, who all are the major players, etc. To begin with let us understand the following-
What is toothpaste?
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth
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Why toothpaste is termed as a basic necessity globally?
Toothpaste is used to promote oral hygiene: it acts as an abrasive that aids in removing the dental plaque and food from the teeth, assists in the elimination and/or masking of halitosis, and delivers active ingredients such as fluoride or xylitol to help prevent tooth and gum disease (gingivitis) To strengthen the cavities & teeth To give a fresh breathe To keep our teeth strong, clean and white
What are the various types of toothpastes available?
Natural Toothpaste Striped Toothpaste Herbal Toothpaste Ayurvedic Toothpaste Gel toothpaste White toothpaste
Clear gel toothpaste Mint toothpaste
Sensitive care toothpaste SLS free toothpaste
100% Vegetarian toothpaste
Market Trends in toothpaste
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Toothpaste is one of the most dynamic segments of the oral care market. The frequency of product launches in existing segments of the market and genesis of new product segments contributes to continuous evolution of the toothpaste market. Increase in sales of oral hygiene products in major markets worldwide has largely resulted from growing awareness of hygiene and product innovation. New advancements have led to the launch of a variety of high-priced, value-added multifunctional products in several oral care categories such as toothpastes and toothbrushes. Whitening toothpastes and products offering multiple functions are driving growth in the dentifrices segment. Currently, for major toothpastes, averting tooth decay is not sufficient, which usually guarantee benefits such as fresher breath, healthier gums and whiter teeth. Technological advancements in recent years have altered the toothpaste segment to one that offers additional benefits besides just fighting cavities to customers. This made manufacturers to roll out products with a lot of additional features that were not available previously. Europe is the largest toothpaste market in the world and is projected to be worth US$5 billion by the year 2012, as stated by Global Industry Analysts, Inc. AsiaPacific represents the fastest growing toothpaste market globally and is projected to register a compounded annual growth rate of over 4% during 2001-2010 periods. Numerous product launches in the oral care market in general, are expansions of recognized brands. Marketers realize that there is more demand for products that provide whitening and odor-fighting benefits. Taking advantage of recognized brand names is one strategy through which oral care marketers can bring innovative and novel products into the market.
The study also analyzes market data and analytics in value sales for regions such as United States, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East, and Latin
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America by the following product segments - Regular, Anti-Caries, Whitening, Children's, Desensitizing, Gum Protection, Multi-benefit, Tartar Control, and Others. Key players dominating the global toothpaste market include Church & Dwight, Colgate-Palmolive, GlaxoSmithKline, Henkel, Johnson and Johnson, Procter & Gamble Company, and Unilever
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Indian toothpaste Market History
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Today’s companies are operating in macro-level environment forces. They are facing the toughest competition ever. So, all the companies are involved in winning customers and performing competition. India toothpaste market is one of the country largest markets. Large number of manufacturer is present. They are trying to go at top most position. The toothpaste history in India can be tracked back from 1975 with 1200 tones of toothpaste produced by the toothpaste industry. Prior to the toothpastes Oral Hygiene was the domain of local homemade powders and ayurvedh practitioners? With the entry of Colgate in Indian marketplace the awareness about Oral care and the importance of oral care in recent years the Industry has shown impressive growth rate of 18.6% (this growth is calculated in terms of value growth in Rs.) The growth in the urban market has been largely by the Gel Segment. Presently, a large chunk of the Market is still held by Colgate. The major players in the toothpaste Industry being Colgate Palmolive and Hindustan Lever Limited and several minor players like Balsara hygiene, Dabur etc.
Presently Colgate Dental Cream holds 52% of market share. HLL’s Close up lies far behind with 23% of the existing market share. The third player in the marketplace in terms of market share is Colgate Gel with 10.5% of the market share. That leaves 14.5% market share for other Brands like Pepsodent, Pepsodent G, Promise, Babool, Sensofoam, Forhans, Cibaca, Neem, Vicco etc. The toothpaste market is presently valued at Rs. 750 crores out of which the Gel segment has already bagged 1/3rd portion of it. The Gel segment presently stands at Rs. 248 crores and is growing at a rate much faster than Cream. In India toothpaste usage as compared to other countries is very low which signifies about the potential of the market. In Urban India the usage of toothpaste per person per year is just 190gms. Where as it is 200gms of toothpaste per person per year in developing countries as Indonesia and Thailand. In developed countries as USA and other European countries the toothpaste usage is 375gms per person year. In India the toothpastes companies are going in for advertising on a heavy note, on an average the
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companies managing this FMCG category are spending 9.15% of their sales on development. This is because 74 percent of our population live in rural areas and are not well versed with personal health and hygiene. As the penetration level of this rural segment is at a low of 30 percent, this means that only 200 million of our 740 million rural populations use toothpaste.
Product Launch for CREST in India
What is Crest?
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Crest, launched globally in 1955 as the world's first fluoride toothpaste, is a part of P&G's global healthcare business unit and sold worldwide. It is currently one of the leading toothpaste brands in markets like North America, Western Europe and China. The Crest product line includes toothpaste, toothbrush, dental floss, whitening products & mouthwash In a developing market plan, there are several questions that P&G need to ask themselves in order to get their product to the correct customer. These include identifying your target audience, identifying your competition, deciding where to make your product available, the price in which to sell it, and the means of which to promote the product. Offering a product of oral care, the target market is very broad. Crest offers a complete product line including items for children, which expands their target market, therefore, the audience that crest needs to reach would be all people, regardless of age, gender, income-level, ethnicity, education, occupation or geographic location as long as they do have teeth and have need of oral care. With any product comes the possibility of competition. Procter & Gamble should closely keep an eye on the competitors of crest product line, so that they are able to counteract the activities that the competition may do. Competition for crest in Indian Market includes Colgate, HUL, AIM, Dabur, etc
Why is there need for Crest in Indian Market?
It’s one of the biggest leading toothpaste brands in markets of North America, Western Europe.
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Cavity Protection Toothpaste was the first ever to be accepted by the American Dental Association. Crest – as a toothpaste brand has good global image as it was world’s 1st toothpaste with fluoride which is highly recommendable by American Dental Association Indian Market & China Markets are huge which includes 40% of world’s entire population Population of Indian market is approximately 118 crores which is 18% of entire world’s population Indian GDP is growing at very good rate which indirectly improves the per capita & standard of living of consumers which will directly reflect to good market for new toothpaste CREST under its renowned brand name of P&G Indian consumers are more brand conscious rather than price difference P&G already has a good strong distribution network so there would not be any problem in Market penetration for CREST Indian Rural Market is still needed to explore which has a customer base of over 750 million which can be tapped This growth has been largely driven by a consumer shift in rural markets from toothpowders to toothpastes. This growth has been largely driven by a consumer shift in rural markets from toothpowders to toothpastes. Wide variety of products available under 1 brand name “CREST” which would attract the Indian buyers easily by giving choice options P&G is already present in the market with its toothbrush brand, Oral-B, one of the largest-selling brands in the country.
Before penetrating into any market P&G needs to understand various things which are stated as under
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1) What is Company’s motive behind CREST launch in Indian
To add a billion new customers from countries like India and China to the company’s existing customer base of 5 billion
2) Who all are the competitors in toothpaste market of India?
Colgate – 50% HUL – 27% Dabur – 10% Others 13%
3) What is the annual value of toothpaste market in India?
The current value of toothpaste market for the year 2009 was recorded at
17800 crore of which market of 16000 crore was captured by the top 3 key players Colgate (50%) HUL (27%)
SWOT ANALYSIS FOR CREST IN INDIA
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• • • • •
P&G brand one of the biggest MNC brand World No.1 in US, Europe and China markets Wide distribution Network Broad portfolio of products at multiple price points Strong brand portfolio
• • •
Strong competitors Substitute products No advertisements
• • • •
Huge untapped rural market Increasing the volume of production Has the potential to become the market leader Toothpaste consumption very low in India at 92gms per household
• • • • • •
Strong competition from already existing brands Emergence of small but strong regional players Economic crisis Chances of Price War Increase in labor production cost Political Effects
4 P’S ANALYSIS for Toothpaste CREST
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Clearly, Toothpaste is more than just toothpaste when P&G sells it. P&G’s great success in the toothpaste world comes from developing an innovative product concept. An effective product concept is the first step in marketing-mix planning.
Philip Kotler defines product as
“Anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that might satisfy a -want or need It includes physical objects, services, persons, places, Organizations and ideas.” Product planners need to think about the product on three levels. The most basic level is the core product, which addresses the question: What is the buyer really buying? Theodore Levitt has pointed out that buyers” do not buy quarter-inch drills; they buy quarter-inch holes'. Thus when designing products, marketers must first define the core of benefits that the product will provide to consumers
The product planner must next build an actual product around the core
product. Actual products may have as many as five characteristics:
Styling a brand name Packaging.
Product is more than a simple set of tangible features. Consumers tend to see products as complex bundles of benefits that satisfy their needs.
We will now discuss our product CREST under the follow Form:
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The CREST has whole range of toothpastes with different features. These are –
Crest kid’s Sesame Street Toothpaste - Fun flavor encourages kids to brush Crest Pro-Health Night Toothpaste - Clean Night Mint – Spearmint flavor Crest Sensitivity Extra whitening toothpaste – for fresh breathe Crest Sensitivity Whitening Plus Scope Toothpaste - Minty Fresh flavor
SIZE OF PACKAGE
It would be available in the packs of different sizes that is
Small packs - 135gm, 200gm Medium packs – 300gms Large pack – 500gms
Crest is a brand that has continually pushed to improve oral health since its inception in 1955. Today, Crest is among the most trusted household brands, a value reinforced by the continued recognition of many of its products by the American Dental Association. Crest’s dream is to lead the way in the passionate pursuit of perfect oral health so that everyone can have a healthy, beautiful smile for life.
4P’s of Crest
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Crest 3D white Advanced Vivid Toothpaste
Crest kids sesame street toothpaste Crest pro-health night mint toothpaste – clean night mint Crest pro-health toothpaste – clean cinnamon Crest pro-health whitening gel toothpaste – Fresh clean mint Crest Sensitivity extra whitening toothpaste Crest Tartar protection toothpaste – regular
Crest would enter Indian market with aggressive price strategy to gain a
higher market share in the initial days
Crest would enter the market with price range of Rs 25 for 150gm and Rs 45
for 300gm pack
Crest toothpaste would also be made available in sachets packs at Rs. 3 for
10gms for the lower segment market
Brand analysis of pricing of competitor brands
Brand Oral B Colgate Feature Specially for children Paste Gel Weight 100gm 100gm 100gm Price (Rs) 55* 35 24.50
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Pepsodent Aguafresh Close up
Ultra Sensation Calciguard Germicheck 2 in 1 Gel
whitening Paste whitening Paste Paste Paste Paste+ gel Paste + gel
150gm 150gm 100gm 200gm 150gm 100gm 100gm
39 39 24.50 49.90 45.10 25 33
* The price of a paste and brush The brands in the market offer basically two types of toothpastes - one is in the form of the conventional paste and the other is the gel. Colgate Total, Pespodent Germicheck, etc are examples of the former type. They offer clean teeth and a safeguard against cavities. The Close up range, Promise Gel, Colgate Gel, etc promise fresh breath. Aquafresh and Pepsodent 2-in-1 combine the two types by having both gel and paste together. Oral B is specially formulated toothpaste for children in India. It comes in one flavor - mint. Though the children like the mild flavor the paste it self does not foam. Also the paste comes along with a brush making it an expensive buy if you are not interested in using their brush.
Initial stage Crest would be launched aggressively in markets of Metro cities
such as Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, etc
Later Crest would be made available in other parts of the country with the
help of wide range company’s distribution network
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Heavy promotional campaigns would be conducted across the country Celebrities endorsement and panel of doctors would be used in TV
commercials to get the maximum target audience reach
Promotions would include Print and Television Advertisements which would
be in top non-business newspapers and general entertainment channels in prime-time
Free-sampling would be conducted at initial stage at various malls across
India to get feedback
Mobile promotional campaigns would be done in towns and villages in India
Porter five force analysis
A graphical representation of Porters Five Forces
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A MODEL FOR INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
Michael Porter provided a framework that models an industry as being influenced by five forces. The strategic business manager seeking to develop an edge over rival firms can use this model to better understand the industry context in which the firm operates.
For P&G - CREST
A) Key Industry Rivals
Dominated by large multi-national companies Colgate, Hindustan Unilever Limited A few Indian companies such as Dabur, Anchor, babool
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Bargaining power of Buyer
Bargaining power of Supplier
Most of the companies in the Industry are integrated Backward Manufacturing is largely outsourced
Future Group – Sach Sector is not Capital-intensive
Threats from Substitute Products
Traditional products like twigs of the neem, salt, ash and other herbal items Toothpowders with 23% market share can act as a threat to toothpaste market
After identifying all possible threats from all competitors of industry an exclusive research was conducted in order to understand the buying behavior of Indian customers 1) What
is Market Research?
Market Research is a systematic and objective identification, collection analysis and dissemination of information for the purpose of assisting in management in decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing.
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Why Market Research is important?
Managers need information in order to introduce products and services that create value in the mind of customers. But the perception of value is a subjective one, and what customer’s value this year may be quite different from what they value from next year. Accordingly, the attributes that create value cannot be deduced from the common knowledge. Therefore, data must be collected and analyzed. The goal of market research is to provide the facts and directions that managers need to make their decisions more important.
To maximize the benefit of market research, it is very important for
the managers to understand the research process and limitations
Once the need for market research has been established, most market
research involve the following steps
Define the problem Determine research design Identify data types and resources Design data collection forms and questionnaires Determine sample plan and size Collect the data
Analyze the data
Prepare the research
In this project we are trying to figure out the criteria that consumers use in evaluating toothpastes and to evaluate crest toothpaste on those mentioned criteria using the above mentioned steps in order to identify the buying habits of individual people. This will help us to understand the behaviors and preferences of consumers
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2) Problem definition
Market research can help Crest to increase its market share by understanding what perceptions consumers have of toothpaste products and how consumers Develop preference towards their products
a) Management decision Problem :
• Is Crest toothpaste satisfying our customer need or not
b) Marketing Research problem
To identify the criteria used by customers to purchase a toothpaste and evaluate it on Crest toothpaste
3) Approach the problem (objectives & hypotheses)
1. To know about the factors that influence the consumers decision to buy a particular brand of toothpaste 2. To know about the product / alternatives which consumer might prefer to brush their teeth other than a toothpaste
3. To know about the attributes that consumers look for in a toothpaste brand
when he/she buys for himself/herself 4. To evaluate crest toothpaste on the above mentioned criteria
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1. Fresh breathe is the main factor that males evaluate in a toothpaste
2. Whiteness of the teeth is the main factors that females evaluate when
Purchasing toothpastes 3. Customers purchase Crest toothpaste for its cavity and gum protection 4. Customers purchase Crest toothpaste because of its Brand Positioning in Global Toothpaste Market
4) Research Design
A) Type of a Research design
Descriptive Research will be helpful in figuring out factors that affects consumer preference towards Crest toothpaste and how those factors affect their Brand Loyalty
B) Specialization of information needs Table 1:
H1 Variable Type of Data
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Fresh Breath is the main Factors used in evaluation : factor that males evaluate in a toothpaste Price, taste, cavity and gum protection, whiteness of the teeth and freshness
H2 Variable Type of Data Primary (survey) Price, taste, cavity and gum protection, whiteness of the teeth and freshness Secondary data data
Whiteness of the teeth is the Factors used in evaluation : main factor that females evaluate toothpaste when purchasing
H3 Variable Type of Data
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Customers purchase Crest for Differentiation Factors : its cavity and gum Price, taste, cavity and gum protection, whiteness of the teeth and freshness protection
H4 Customers toothpaste purchase because VARIABLE Crest Differentiation Factors : of its Price, taste, cavity and gum protection, whiteness of the teeth and freshness Secondary data Type of Data Primary (survey) data
Brand Positioning in Global Toothpaste Market
C) Data collection from secondary sources:
We used the internet search engine to find appropriate information about
P&G Products, its market share and information about direct competitors.
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D) Data collection from primary sources:
Our team designed 5000 samples of the questionnaire and was distributed to
our Target Sample.
E) Scaling techniques:
We will use non-comparative scaling techniques like the Likert scale. We also used comparative scaling techniques like interval and rank order
F) Questionnaire development and pre-testing:
We took in consideration that every question should contribute to the
Information needed or serve our specific purpose.
G) Sampling techniques:
Target population: People using toothpaste regularly Sampling frame: People at malls Sampling unit: Individual consumers at malls Sampling technique: Quota, Non-Probability Sampling Sample Size: 5000 Duration: 2 month
Select specific shopping malls judgmentally. Set quotas by Gender (50% male and 50% Female) Use quota sampling to select mall Customers and interview them.
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H) Field Work:
We went to supermarkets and asked about the factors related to consumer preferences of toothpaste listed below. We used a personal survey method and precisely it was the mall-intercept personal interviews as it will be more efficient for the respondent to be available, also as we are restricted with a minimal time frame and costs therefore mall intercept interviews would be the best method. I would also be able to control the data collection environment and to control the field force which is important in to our survey.
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Questionnaire The questionnaire is held in order to know customer preferences towards toothpaste, please helps by filling this survey
1) Do you use toothpaste on a regular basis? a) Yes b) No If you answer no, please do not answer the remaining questions
2) Which toothpaste are you aware of? a) Colgate b) Pepsodent c) Close-up d) Amar e) Babool
3) How do you come to know about the toothpaste that you are currently using? a) TV advertisement b) Print
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c) Radio d) Others
4) How frequently do you purchase toothpaste a) 2 weeks b) 4 weeks c) 6 weeks d) 8 weeks
5) Do you buy the same brand of toothpaste most of the time? a) Yes b) No
6) Please rank the importance of the following factors in your selection of a toothpaste brand? a) Price ______ b) Whiteness of the teeth _____
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c) Fresh Breathe _____ d) Taste _____ e) Cavity Protection _____ f) Sensitivity _____ g) Brand Name _____
7) Please evaluate Crest toothpaste on the following Factors? Very high 1 1 1 1 1 1 High 2 2 2 2 2 2 Neutral 3 3 3 3 3 3 Low 4 4 4 4 4 4 Very Low 5 5 5 5 5 5
A) Price b) Whiteness c) Fresh Breadth d) Taste e) Cavity Protection f) Sensitivity
8) Please evaluate Colgate toothpaste on the following Factors? Very high 1 1 1 1 1 1 High 2 2 2 2 2 2 Neutral 3 3 3 3 3 3 Low 4 4 4 4 4 4 Very Low 5 5 5 5 5 5
A) Price b) Whiteness c) Fresh Breadth d) Taste e) Cavity Protection f) Sensitivity
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9) Please evaluate Pepsodent toothpaste on the following Factors? Very high 1 1 1 1 1 1 High 2 2 2 2 2 2 Neutral 3 3 3 3 3 3 Low 4 4 4 4 4 4 Very Low 5 5 5 5 5 5
A) Price b) Whiteness c) Fresh Breadth d) Taste e) Cavity Protection f) Sensitivity
10) Please evaluate Close-up toothpaste on the following Factors? Very high 1 1 1 1 1 1 High 2 2 2 2 2 2 Neutral 3 3 3 3 3 3 Low 4 4 4 4 4 4 Very Low 5 5 5 5 5 5
A) Price b) Whiteness c) Fresh Breadth d) Taste e) Cavity Protection f) Sensitivity
11) Please evaluate Amar toothpaste on the following Factors?
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A) Price b) Whiteness c) Fresh Breadth d) Taste e) Cavity Protection f) Sensitivity
Very high 1 1 1 1 1 1
High 2 2 2 2 2 2
Neutral 3 3 3 3 3 3
Low 4 4 4 4 4 4
Very Low 5 5 5 5 5 5
12) Please select the most preferred toothpaste brand? a) Crest b) Pepsodent C) Amar d) Colgate e) Babool f) Close-up
13) What is your Gender?
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A) Male b) Female
14) What age range are you in? a) 18-24 b) 25-30 c) 30-35
15) What is your marital status? a) Married b) Single
16) If you want to purchase toothpaste of 1 brand from where would you like to purchase? a) Retailer b) Malls c) Hypermarkets
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Thank you for your time
6) Data analysis:
Babool 4% Amar 6% Close-up 20% Colgate 45%
Colgate Pepsodent Close-up Amar Babool
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We have found that nearly half of our sample is highly aware as Colgate as their Toothpaste Brand with Pepsodent as Brand awareness is 25% with Close up at 20% and Amar and babool at 6% and 4% respectively
radio 2% Others 8% Print 12% Television Print Others radio Television 78%
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We have found that more than 75% of our sample is aware of their toothpaste brand due to television commercials whereas Product awareness by Print Media is 12% followed by others (Posters @ Retail Stores) is 8% and awareness via Radio is 2%
Duration of purchase
8 weeks 30%
2 weeks 14% 2 weeks 4 weeks 22% 4 weeks 6 weeks 8 weeks
6 weeks 34%
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More than 60% of our respondents purchase their toothpaste after 6 weeks. Respondents who purchase toothpaste after 4 weeks are the ones who are brushing teeth twice a day and respondents who purchase every 2 week are the ones who buy smaller packs.
No 34% Yes 66%
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More than 65% of our sample is Brand Loyal, remaining sample size are satisfied with Any given brand of toothpaste
Very Low 4% Low 8%
Very High 18%
Very High High Neutral Low Very Low
High 16% Neutral 54%
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We have found that more than half of our sample doesn’t pay a great attention to the price as a factor while purchasing Crest Toothpaste.
Whiteness of teeth
Very Low 7% Low 14% Neutral 20% High 26% Very High 33% Very High High Neutral Low Very Low
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The respondents have evaluated Crest toothpaste as very high concerning its ability to whiten their teeth, however more than 50% of respondents highly rated Crest for whitening their teeth
Very Low 22%
Very High 12% Very High High 22% High Neutral Low Very Low
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Concerning Crest toothpaste taste 50% of the respondents agreed that they dislike its taste, and are not satisfied with its taste, on the other hand they preferred Close-up toothpaste taste as it provides different kind of toothpaste tastes that it satisfies the needs of maximum respondents
Very Low 2% Low 8% Neutral 18% Very High Very High 42% High Neutral Low High 30% Very Low
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A great percentage of our sample (72%) has been satisfied with Crest toothpaste ability to give them a fresh breath
Very Low 2% Low 4% Neutral 18% Very High 46% High 30% Very High High Neutral Low Very Low
Cavity & gum protection
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More than 70% of the respondents very highly agreed that Crest toothpaste helps in cavity & gum protection
Babool 10% Crest 6% Amar 14% Colgate Pepsodent Amar Crest Babool Pepsodent 30%
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The majority of respondents agreed that Crest toothpaste does not help in maintaining of sensitive teeth. Colgate is most preferred toothpaste with 40% respondents whereas Pepsodent is preferred with 30% of respondents with Amar and Babool with 14% and 10% respondents respectively
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Majority respondents with 34% answered that they prefer Colgate toothpaste at 1st place followed by Pepsodent’s preference at 22%, Crest-Close-up, Amar and Babool
Retailer Malls Hypermarkets Supermarkets
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Out of all respondents of our sample size, 40% of them preferred to buy toothpaste from nearest retailer whereas 30% preferred to buy from supermarkets due to availability of discount on MRP whereas 20% preferred to buy from Hypermarkets and remaining 10% preferred from malls.
The research is limited to Malls of Mumbai only
It was conducted on 5000 respondents
8) Key Findings
People in India are strongly aware of products 2 major rival competitor (Colgate-Palmolive & Hindustan Unilever Limited)
Product Awareness among the Indian masses by Television Media is
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Maximum Indian Family brush their teeth once a day so approximate
purchase of toothpaste is every 6 week to 8 week
Price of a toothpaste is not of much importance for Indian Buyers
Whiteness of teeth, Fresh Breath, Taste are very important Factor for Indian Mass Cavity & gum protection, Sensitivity also required in a toothpaste Most preferred location for purchase of toothpaste is Retail outlets
The results supported our hypothesis as we found respondents ranking
cavity and gum protection as number 1 in their evaluation for Crest toothpaste
Decision maker at Crest should add more tastes categories to their
Toothpaste in order to satisfy the needs of those customers whom are Concerned with the toothpaste taste.
Crest should produce new special toothpaste targeting those with sensitive
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P&G should introduce Crest toothpaste with low price to target C-class who uses local powder instead of paste whereas shampoo type packed toothpaste to be introduced for D-class with a new low cost packaging. This will lead to a huge coverage of rural market
National Brand Awareness should be done extensively with a famous
Bollywood Star (Katrina Kaif) as Brand Ambassador with an excellent TV Commercial which to be telecasted during prime time in all General entertainment Channels (GEC)
Heavy Promotions should be done across Nation in all metro cities pre and
post of official launch of toothpaste with hoardings, Road-shows, Freesampling at malls along with TV commercials aired at prime-slots simultaneously
Product should me made available at all regular retail outlets, supermarkets,
hypermarkets, malls with the help of strong existing distribution network.
Taste should be changed according to Indian Standards.
Sensitivity factor should also be strongly taken into consideration and should overcome the barrier required by Indian masses in their toothpaste by focusing strongly R&D Enter the Indian Market with aggressive pricing strategy with discounted offers which kills the competitors which will lead to generate Brand equity for Crest among Indian masses
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Come up with a Combo pack offer with every 300gms of Crest 1 Oral-B toothpaste Free or a Combo pack offer with small 50gm Crest toothpaste being given away with other strong P&G product such as Pantene or Gillette
www.crest.com www.thehindubusinessline.com www.financialexpress.com/news www.findarticles.com www.allbusiness.com
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