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Encryption|Views: 344|Likes: 6

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/38525889/Encryption

12/07/2012

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- CHAPTER ONE
- INTRODUCTION
- Project Overview
- Client Information
- Aims and Objectives
- Research methodology
- Content Information
- CHAPTER-2
- NETWORK SECURITY
- SECRECY
- AUTHENTICATION
- 4. INTEGRITY CONTROL
- 2.2 APPROACHES TO NETWORK SECURITY
- CHAPTER-3
- ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION
- Encryption
- 2.2 Problem Definition
- Ways and Sources of File Threats
- 1) Unauthorized Access
- 2) Executing Commands Illicitly
- 4) Destructive Behavior
- Data Destruction
- 2.3 Solution to the problem
- File Security
- Cryptography
- Private-Key-Encryption
- Key Management
- CHAPTER-4
- ENCRYPTION BASICS
- -Edgar Allen Poe, The Gold Bug
- 4.1 INTRODUCTION
- 4.2 ENCRYPTION BUILDING BLOCKS
- 4.2.1 TRANSPOSITION CIPHERS
- 1. Message Reversal:
- 2. Geometrical Pattern Encoding:
- Example:
- 3. Columnar Transposition
- 4.2.2 SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS
- 1. Simple Substitution
- 2. Homophonic Substitution
- 3. Polyalphabetic Substitution
- 4. PolyGram Substitution
- M=m1m2m3 ««
- 4.2.2 PRODUCT CIPHERS
- C= Ek (M) =SkPkSk-1«««..S2P1S1 (M)
- .2.3 BLOCK CIPHERS
- Li+1=Ri
- Ri+1=Li(mod-2)f(ki+1,Ri)
- 4.3 How Cryptosystems fail
- SEND
- +MORE
- 4.4 CHOOSING BETWEEN STRONG AND WEAK CRYPTO
- CHAPTER-5
- CRYPTO ALGORITHM PROPERTIES
- 5.1PROPERTIES OF GOOD CRYPTO ALGORITHM
- 5.1.1 NO RELIANCE ON ALGORITHM SECRECY
- 5.1.2 NO RELIANCE ON ALGORITHM
- 5.1.3 AVAILABLE FOR ANALYSIS
- 5.1.5 NO PRACTICAL WEAKNESSES
- Implementing Rijndeal
- Notation and Conventions
- Rijndael Inputs and Outputs
- Arrays of Bytes
- The Rijndael State
- Arrays of 32-bit Words
- Finite Field Operations
- Finite Field Addition
- Finite Field Multiplication
- Multiplication by Repeated Shifts
- Finite Field Multiplication Using Tables
- Polynomials with Coefficients in GF(256)
- The MixColumns Transformation
- The Xor RoundKey Transformation
- The Key Schedule
- The Inverse Cipher
- The Inverse ShiftRows Transformation
- The Inverse SubBytes Transformation
- The Inverse MixColumns Transformation
- The Equivalent Inverse Cipher
- CHAPTER-6
- THE DES AND TRIPLE DES ALGORITHMS
- 6.1 DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD
- 6.1.2.1Initial Permutation:
- 6.2 TRIPLE DATA ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
- CHAPTER-7
- THE BLOWFIHS ALGORITHM
- 7.1.1 Feistel Networks
- 7.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE ALGORITHM
- 7.2.1.Subkeys
- 7.2.3 Generating the Subkeys
- 7.2.4 DESIGN DECISIONS

all types of other networks (often on a worldwide basis), the problem of protection the confidentiality and integrity of the information transmitted on these networks started to attract widespread attention in the late 1970¶s and early 1980¶s. Local area networks provided many user access points. Since a feature of LANs is that additional accesses points can be easily added without having any effect on other network users, an authorized person to gain access to proprietary of classified information could use these connections. To protect both equipment and information, network security must consider a wide range of administrative, physical, and technical issues. To select an appropriate set of network security measures, one first needs to evaluate the threat environment and assess the security techniques can be selected and applied Client Information. Galaxy Software solution is an ISO 9001: 2000 certified Offshore outsourcing Company Headquartered in Hyderabad - India providing IT services for SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprise) for the past Seven years. Galaxy Software solution empowers global innovators with sophisticated

outsourcing solutions. From product development, to application outsourcing, through globalization and cutting-edge business process solutions, we enable our clients to decrease costs, improve operations, and dominate their global markets. Our clients utilize Galaxy Software solution's world-class processes and best practices for uncompromised quality and efficiency. They leverage Galaxy Software solution's vast network of relationships to propel their business operations globally and accelerate innovation

Aims and Objectives y To keep information out of unauthorized users we have to maintain Secrecy.

y

Confirmation pact with decisive we must have to know with whom you are talking to previous to illuminating sensitive information. Non refutation deals amid signatures INTEGRITY CONTROL To design a secure system for the clients to transfer their valuable information to their destinations. To research existing literature relating to different approaches to network security. Writing dissertation with full detailed of developing process. Evolution of the project.

y y y

y

y y

Research methodology 1. For booming achievement of this project to meet my client¶s necessities, a thorough investigate on encryption technology and several encryption methodologies will be carried out Network design approach will be researched. The research will be perform utilizing research journals, textbooks, technology white papers, and talk with program lecturers. Most of the resources utilized were taken from online research sites like sciencedirect.com, techrepublic.com, findwhitepapers.com and ACM.com. The obtainable system comprises of files with literally no file security standards like encryption techniques are to be put into practice due to the factors such as Reading or tapping data, Manipulating and modifying data, Unlawful use of files, Corrosion of data files, Distortion of data transmission, Disturbance of the operation of equipment or systems, adjacent to which numerous security actions had to be taken up, The core concern of (1) is secrecy and confidentiality. Confidentiality has always played an vital role I diplomatic and military matters. Often Information ought to stored or transferred from one place to another devoid of being exposed to an rival or enemy. Key management is also associated to confidentiality. This deals with generating, distributing and storing keys.Items (2-4) are mainly concerned with reliability. Often the expression integrity is utilized as a gauge of genuineness of data. Also Computer files and networks must be secluded against intruders and Unauthorized. Items (5-6) are a diverse aspect of

the security of the information, its continuity. Here the information must be secluded against deliberate disruption at the time of its transmission and storage.

Content Information This research write up contains a total of five chapters with references and appendices that support the entire dissertation. The following are a list of chapters with its corresponding contents y Chapter Two: This chapter specifies the difficulty that occurs during transfer of data into different types of networks and the need to utilization of encryption. y Chapter three:This study covers the detail description of encryption and its functionalities. y Chapter four: The entire description about the how the text is converted into a coding format which cannot be understand by the individual. y Chapter five: It describes then properties of the algorithms¶ and best conditions for their enhanced performance. y Chapter seven: Data encryption standard and it deals with how the data is encrypted from step to step. y Chapter eight: It describes the blow fish algorithm and it is a symmetric block cipher that can be effectively used for encryption and safeguarding of data. y y Appendices References

CHAPTER-2 NETWORK SECURITY As a result of the rapidly growing use of networks and their interactions with all types of other networks (often on a world wide basis), the problem of protection the confidentiality and integrity of the information transmitted on these networks started to attract widespread attention in the late 1970¶s and early 1980¶s. Local area networks provided many user access points. Since a feature of LANs is that additional access points can be easily added without having any effect on other network users, an authorized person to gain access to proprietary of classified information could use these connections. To protect both equipment and information, network security must consider a wide range of administrative, physical, and technical issues. To select an appropriate set of network security measures, one first needs to evaluate the threat environment and assess the security techniques can be selected and applied. Problems of Network security can be diverged into area: 1. Secrecy 2. Authentication 3. Non-repudiation 4. Integrity control SECRECY The main aim of Secrecy is to keep away information from hands of unofficial users. It usually comes to mind when people imagine basing on network security. AUTHENTICATION Confirmation pact with decisive we must have to know with whom you are talking to previous to illuminating sensitive information. NON REPUDIATION

Non repudiation agreement with signatures. 4. INTEGRITY CONTROL It compact to be confident that a message you received was actually the one sent and not any other thing that a wicked adversary altered in transit or concocted

2.2 APPROACHES TO NETWORK SECURITY Secure communication in physically vulnerable networks depends on the disciplines of cryptography to guard the privacy and integrity of material passing between machines. Cryptography is a tactic for altering the depiction or look of a message through a location ± scrambling process or throughout a few method of transformation of letters or characters devoid of changing its in order content. To see where security fits into a communication network consider a seven-layer OSI Reference Model, it is usually only implemented in several of them . The two fundamental approaches to communication security are link ±oriented and end ±to- end encryption measures. As its name implies, link-oriented security measures protect message traffic transient over an individual transmission link among two nodes, regardless of the original source and the ultimate target of that information. The general scheme is shown in a 1.2 where encryption is performed independently on each communication link between successive modems. The encryption is done by means of a function called a Key. Each link corresponds to a data-link layer association in the OSI Reference Model. An advantage of link-oriented security is that, depending on the encryption method used , it can mask origin-to-destination information flow patterns and can Totally avoid all forms of traffic analysis by hiding message frequency and length patterns, but the weakness is that as information is encrypted merely on the links, the network nodes must be both physically secured and capable of isolation information from each of various independent data streams the could pass through the node. In contrast to this protection of individual links, end-to-end security uniformly protects each message along its entire route from source to destination as is shown in A1.3

Even though these solutions aid with secrecy concern and several people are running hard to perk up them. . for keeping packets in or keep packets out Firewalls can be installed. As the network layer. such as process to process.Thus messages pass through the entire network of transmission links. whole relatives can be encrypted end-to-end. no one of them crack the authentication or non-repudiation trouble in satisfactorily general way. which is why it led to later chapters. intermediate nodes switches in an encrypted form as provided by encryption device at the message originator. Coming to transport layer. the solutions must be in the application layer. To undertake these problems. local computers.

The main characteristics of private key cryptosystem is as follows: 1) For both encryption and decryption the same private key is used In encryption. An algorithm and a key control the transformation process is controlled by algorithm and a key. And in this way the whole at the entire process of file transfer is carried out. where the information cannot be understand by the outside person. the next main division is the decryption. In this process the code is again converted back to the original code. 2) After the encryption takes palce. readable form. So the decryption acting a crucial role in this project. The process must be reversible so that the intended recipient can return the information to its original. Encryption is generally regarded as the safest method of guarding against accidental or purposeful security breaches. The key is been in secrecy so that no other intruder can does not have a chance to know about the knowledge of the algorithm. And destination client will be in favor of receiving the original text. This means that details of the key must also be kept secret.CHAPTER-3 ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION Encryption Encryption is the procedure of renovating information from an unsecured form into coded information. even though by giving great force can reduce this. . but reversing the process without the appropriate encryption information should be impossible. The potentiality of the functionality is calculated in terms of work-factor-the strength of that is necessitate to ¶break¶ encryption. A strengthened system will with stand for a long time. absolute the decryption process.

2) Executing Commands Illicitly It¶s perceptibly adverse for an not known and untrusted person to be capable to execute commands on your server machines.2. And the next factor was the performance efficiency that this algorithm supported.A general user can perform so many things on the system such as read files edit them. that commonly work on projects projects that deal with communication. 3) Confidentiality Breaches There suppose we assume that there is data that which is very confidential if that data is fell in the hands of intruder there may be a chance of modifying the data or he can change the entire . and the next one is administrator access.The necessitate of the hour was to perform algorithms like Rijndeal and the refuge over the data transmitted could be secure.2 Problem Definition The primary troubles that are discussed in APTS. Subsequently that an attacker can might perform configuration alterations to the host like changing the port number of the host system an d make the system shutdown so that the system can shut down every time as it is started. The goal of these type of attack is to admission some resource that your machine should not facilitate the attacker. The sternness of the problem is of two types problem: first one is user access. are given below in detail.and these things that an cannot perform. Ways and Sources of File Threats 1) Unauthorized Access ³Unauthorized access´ it is the way that an intruder can get permit to enter into the machine and access the unauthorized files.To perform this type of actions first the intruder has to get access of the administrator previliges.

And this word fairly represents the science of concealing. Cryptography Cryptography is a division of Cryptology. 2. Data Destruction. In this situation. unauthorized access. It consists of .problems given above like execution of commands illicitly. one of the two major categories is. The word Cryptology is derived from greek word µcruptos¶ which resemblances hidden and logos study and the combination of this two words gives cryptology. confidentiality breaches and destructive behavior. As several intruders of these types of break-ins are merely thrill-seekers and they do not have interest in nothing to see a shell prompt for your computer on their screen.3 Solution to the problem File Security The primary thing that we think about the file is it¶s security and we make the file to rid out of the problems that are discussed as above for that we have to perform file security. Some of the intruders are those who want to delete the things which there aim is to data destruction.data or he can replace the old data with new dataIn such type of situations the general user accounts on the system is enough to make damage against the company. The subsequently chief area is cryptography. these are highly malicious. 4) Destructive Behavior Among the destructive sorts of break-ins and attacks. the bang on the computing competence²and accordingly the business ± cannot be less than if a fire or any other natural calamity takes place so that other disaster caused your computing equipment to be completely destroyed.

This is one type of hiding password in a file . Assume a user wants to encrypt a file just aaa. This is normally achieved by programming keys into all encrypt prior to deployment.in the same way to decrypt the messages and signals.a means of changing information into code (the algorithm). In a relatively small network of encrypts. and is used for standard algorithms such as DES and Triple DES. he should facilitate the identical password as that of encryption. And the Cryptology can be classified into two areas: Cryptography and Cryptanalysis. and matching keys must be used to encrypt and decrypt messages. Suppose the intruder may try to open the file eh don¶t understand nothing as the file is already encrypted form. -.And the key must be kept secrecy so that even the intruder with about the algorithm can complete the decryption process.techniques for . Key Management There are three basic elements in any encryption system: -.txt and given a password as ³srinvas´. Private-Key-Encryption Coming to private key encryption the identical key is utilized for encryption and decryption. and -. Since the file as achieved to get the features so that it can store by itself.the encryption process . . Private key encryption is a commonly used method of key management.a secret starting point for the algorithm (the key). In this way the password can be hidden into a file devoid of a necessitate of any database.A person trying to share encrypted information with another person has to solve the problem of communicating the encryption key without compromising it. In the same way as the user wants to decrypt the file.will be applied to a particular message. and the keys should be stored securely within the devices. The key determines how the algorithm . the task of key management (including key changes) is easily handled for a private key system.a system to control the key (key management). the password that which we are given will also be stored somewhere in the encrypted file in the encrypted form.

2 ENCRYPTION BUILDING BLOCKS . storage. The Gold Bug 4. so it is necessary to change keys frequently in order that identical encryption is not applied to messages for a long period. How to recognize adequate Crypto: algorithms and modes. How encryption system fails. 2. 3. by proper application. algorithms and modes. 4. Two basic types of encryption in use today are known as private key (also called single or symmetrical key) encryption and public (or asymmetrical) key encryption.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents basic concepts and terminology for constructing encryption systems. The following topics are described: 1. Key management pact with the generation. destruction and archiving of the key variables. It is generally desirable to change the keys on an irregular but managed basis. CHAPTER-4 ENCRYPTION BASICS ³It may well be doubled whether human ingenuity can construct an enigma of the kind which human ingenuity may not. Types of Ciphers. resolve´. selection. distribution. -Edgar Allen Poe.The algorithm used in an encryption system normally remains the same for the life of the equipment.

1. or alphanumeric character strings. Let us now look at simple examples to illustrate this. The key consist of a finite number of bits. Which mainly consider mathematical transformation that worked out on data to encrypt or to decrypt it. Message Reversal: In this method the plain text is written backwards to produce a cipher text. The encryption techniques include reserving the entire message. hexadecimal. however. The well-known algorithms. one block at a time.1 TRANSPOSITION CIPHERS Transposition ciphers are based on the rearrangement of each character in the plain text message to produce a cipher text. rearranging the plain text by scrambling a sequence of columns. To encrypt a digital data stream a bit at a time stream cipher are used.1. . When block ciphers are applied block by block to the data stream. Firstly in crypto algorithm. which transform data in fixed-sized blocks. and periodically permuting the characters of the plain text. are for Block ciphers. Obviously. This is one of the simplest encryption methods. it is not very secure. The fundamental encryption and decryption processes are depicted in A1. and one of them is known as plain text and second one is key. which are usually expressed as decimal.A modern devices of crypto has many essential elements that agree on how it works. reforming the message into a geometrical shape. If the plain text message is: LOCAL AREA NETWORKS SECURITY Then the encrypted message reads YTIRUCES KROWTEN AERA LACOL. 4. since to do decipher it one merely reads the cipher text in reverse. The functionality of encryption consists of two inputs.2.

one first transpose the plain text message into a rectangular form by columns.2. the resulting cipher is HLRESCVANKVDKH. The columns are next rearranged and the letters are taken off in a horizontal fashion. Example: The plain text word 3 X 5 matrix by rows as follows Column number Cipher text 1 V E H 2 A K L 3 R N Y 4 5 is written into a C H S K D T If columns in the order 24155 take off the letters. Taking the letters off the figure according to a different path then creates the cipher text. which we write into 5 X 5 matrix by columns as follows Column number Cipher text 1 T 2 O 3 B 4 U 5 R . Geometrical Pattern Encoding: In this method the message is rearrange with the aid of some type of geometric figure. Example:The plain text message ³The product Brochure is Ready´. a typical example being a two-dimensional array or matrix. Columnar Transposition In this method. 3. First the plain text is written into the figure according to particular pattern.

a number. that can be rearranged in 5! = 120 different ways. a single one-to-one mapping from plain text to cipher text is used to encrypt and entire message. . To enhance the security of the plain text message. The mapping from plain text to cipher text is thus one-to-many. The four basic classes of substitution ciphers are as follows: 1. This can be a letter .H E P R D U C T R O C H R E I S E A D Y Since there are five columns.2. 2. we can thus choose one of these rearrangements A drawback in using columnar transposition ciphers for computer applications is that entire matrices of characters must be generated to encryption and decryption.2 SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS Substitution enciphering involves the replacement of each character in the plain text by some other character. Homophonic Substitution Each plain text character is encrypted with a variety of cipher text characters. or a symbol. 4. Simple Substitution A corresponding character of cipher text replaces each character of plain text.

f2.f(a2). A simple substitution cipher then replaces each character of A by a corresponding character from an ordered cipher alphabet C denoted by {f(a0).Bn where M is an unkeyed mixing transformation or permutation and the B1 are simple cryptographic transformation. 4.«««. 4.f(a1). we only discuss simple substitution ciphers here.««. PolyGram Substitution These are the most general ciphers.2 illustrated the application of the basic principle to a 12-bit message block . Typically C is simply a rearrangement of the characters in A.««. they permit arbitrary substitutions for groups of plain text characters. A1.fn where each f1 can be a permutation cipher P or a substitution cipher S . The products are of the form B1MB2M««. but can change within a single message.f(an-1)}.2 PRODUCT CIPHERS A product cipher involves a combination of transposition ( permutation) and substitution to produce a cipher text. A plain text message M=m1m2m3 ««.3. Polyalphabetic Substitution Multiple Cipher alphabets are used to change plain text to cipher text. a product cipher is the application of sequence of µn¶ enciphering functions f1. the mappings are usually one-to-one as in simple substitution. is then written as Ek(M) = f(m1)f(m2) ««. Thus . Here the function µf¶ represents a one-to-one mapping of each character of A to the corresponding character of C. For illustrative purposes.an-1}.2. Where mi is a character of A. .a1. Suppose A is a plaint text n-character alphabet ordered us look as {a0.

then Li and Ri each have n/2 bits.. Encryption and Decryption is carried out by means of the set of iteration... i. . This transformation function depends on Ri and Ki+1 for encryption and on Li+1 and Ki+1 for decryption.dependent keys Ki+1 and a transformation function f. since in practice longer locks should be used .. i.«. a block cipher breaks M into successive blocks M1. M2 « and enciphers each Mi with the same key K. A block of message to be transformed iteratively I=1.The enciphering scheme alternately applies µk¶ substitution Si and µk-1¶ permutations Pi yielding C= Ek (M) =SkPkSk-1«««.1. If the block is n bits long . Given that M is a plain text message.S2P1S1 (M) The plain text of 12 bit is make parts into 3-bit sub block each performs as a diverse invertible substitution cipher kij which results in 12 bit are scramble by the permutation box Pi and it acts as the input to coming round of enciphering. This blend bits diverse dij boxes for the reason devoicing overall transformation from degeneration and making them to place in 3-bit block.we should note that this example is for concept illustration purpose only .Li+1) Ri=Li+1 .2. As shown figure A2. . The basic concept of block ciphering with partitioning and iteration is shown in A3. Li=Ri+1 (mod-2)f(Ki+1.r times is divided equally into halves denoted as Li and Ri. Ek (M) = Ek(M1)Ek(M2) .Ri) For decryption the of Ki+1 is reversed...M= ( m1m2.5 for the (i+1)th iteration the encryption yields Li+1=Ri Ri+1=Li(mod-2)f(ki+1...e.e.2..3 BLOCK CIPHERS Block ciphers involve encrypting and decrypting messages in blocks of information bits.m12) .

4. We can immediately identify the letter standing for one digit based on the rules of arithmetic: M must stand for 1. A very trivial example illustrates the basic concepts of a ³weak´ code consider the codes used for cryptograms published as puzzles in news papers. The cipher itself is the mechanism by which a given message is transformed from plain text into cipher text. This . cryptosystems are designed to stand up against attack.When block ciphers are applied to data stream. But these protocols aren¶t designed to stand up against conscious attempts to fool them Unlike generic communication protocols.3 How Cryptosystems fail Networking systems fail to protect messages because people are motivated to attack them. The environment in which the code is used includes the rules for handling plain text. Typical data communication protocols are designed to deal with random errors:TCP/IP delivers data reliably even when a broad range of accidents and failures occur. we can identify weakness as failing into either of two categories: in the cipher itself or in the operating environment. cryptograms use very simple encryption techniques that can be cracked by applying some basic rules. the cipher mode defines how the algorithm is applied block by block to the data stream. Systematic trail and error quickly yields the rest of the code. Typically. the distribution of keys. and the physical protections given to the various elements. Here is a classic: SEND +MORE =MONEY We can tell that the solution requires a substitution of letters for digits by the way the problem is presented. When cryptosystems do fail. the roles of people involved.

the real risk today is in how they are actually used. Given the strength of modern codes.4 CHOOSING BETWEEN STRONG AND WEAK CRYPTO The advice any one would desire at this point is an ordered list of the technologies known to be the strongest. Unfortunately. 4. and what those problems are then when faced with a product containing a particular problem. Cracking a code involves either an attack on the code itself or on the way the code is used. Ideally the work factor should be large enough to make the cost of an attack greater than the potential benefits to the attacker. it is still important to select an appropriately strong alternative from the number available in today¶s market place. However.is perhaps the easiest example there is of cryptanalysis-the systematic breaking of the encrypted messaged and coding systems. prudent planners will anticipate hoe their system can migrate to a different crypto mechanism and key length in the future. The essential objective is choosing a strong code. . it is difficult to choose reliably that way. Not all crypto products support all strong algorithms or modes. The work factor is an estimate of how hard the attacker must work in order to by pass the protection and achieves valuable goal. Stronger systems present a larger work factor while weaker systems are easier to overcome. or a strong cryptosystem for that matter is to look at the work factor it presents an attacker. we can decide if the risk is acceptable for out application In any case. No security technology remains effective forever. or provide comfortably long key lengths.

1. If we don¶t know how the algorithm works. Revealing the algorithms should not significantly improve an attackers likelihood of success.we can¶t tell if it has some easy-to-exploit flaw.1. 5.CHAPTER-5 CRYPTO ALGORITHM PROPERTIES 5. 5. The longer mathematicians and crypt analysts have to look at the algorithm. in some cases. 5. the algorithm had been published and subjected to scrutiny by the public cryptographic community.3 AVAILABLE FOR ANALYSIS Ideally. keeping a crypto algorithm secret can be a double-edged sword. For example.1PROPERTIES OF GOOD CRYPTO ALGORITHM Preferred algorithms generally have the following properties to some degree. 5. Good crypto algorithms rely exclusively on keys to protect the data. This is not always true of algorithms used for encryption. DES has stood the rest of time and is likely to be used for many years to come in some form or other.4 SUBJECT TO ANALYSIS .2 NO RELIANCE ON ALGORITHM The algorithm should have been designed in the first place to resist crypt analysis.1. some products use simple random number generators to produce a venom cipher key stream. the more likely they will find its weaknesses. increase the attacker¶s work factor to keep as much secret as possible.1 NO RELIANCE ON ALGORITHM SECRECY While it may.1. Simple notations of statistical randomness do not guarantee strength against crypt analysis.

one first transpose the plain text message into a rectangular form by columns. This almost never occurs except in cases when the algorithm itself has been published. The columns are next rearranged and the letters are taken off in a horizontal fashion.columnar TranspositionIn this method. Substitution enciphering involves the replacement of each character in the plain text by some other character. It is always important to judge the experts rendering the opinion: are they within their scope of expertise? 5. Implementing Rijndeal Notation and Conventions Rijndael Inputs and Outputs First the plain text is written into the figure according to particular pattern. do not presume that it protect against any motivated attacker. Since there are five columns. Taking the letters off the figure according to a different path then creates the cipher text.1. A drawback in using columnar transposition ciphers for computer applications is that entire matrices of characters must be generated to encryption and decryption Substitution cipher. Bytes . To enhance the security of the plain text message. that can be rearranged in 5! = 120 different ways.5 NO PRACTICAL WEAKNESSES The analysis performed should show that there are no serious weaknesses in the algorithm that an attacker can easily exploit. we can thus choose one of these rearrangements.Have recognized cryptanalysis published results regarding the algorithm strength? Ideally. Custom-built algorithms embedded in commercial software tend to have serious weaknesses if a commercial package claims to encrypt data and does not use a recognize algorithm. recognized experts should be openly discussing the algorithms and other experts review publishing analysis in referred professional journals that ensure the work.

like as a byte b with b0 b1 « b7: The values of bytes will be presented in binary as a concatenation of their its (0 or 1) between braces. . for example. with each of two groups of four bits being signify by a character as Follows. Where this bit is there it will come out immediately to the left of the left brace. And this type of bytes are construe as restricted field elements utilizing polynomial representation. with x in one of the ranges 0 <=x < 16. Few finite field operations utilize a single additional bit (b8) to the left of an 8-bit byte. Hence {011000011} identifies a exact limited field element. And the sequence is represented by symbol b and x is represented for two notations as well as two representations bx or b[x].A byte in Rijndael consists of a set of 8 bits and this is the general source for all cipher operations. as in 1{1b}. Arrays of Bytes Entire input and out put are taken as single dimentional arrays of bytes at which x consists of bits 8x to 8x+7 from the sequence with bit 8x+j in the succession map to bit 7-j in the byte for 0 <= j < 8. 0 <=x < 24 or 0 <=x < 32. Hence the value {011000011} can also be written as {63}. where the character signify the 4bit group containing the higher numbered bits is again to the left. bit patterns will be obtainable with higher numbered bits to the left. If not particularly indicated. It is also suitable to denote byte values utilizing hexadecimal notation.

in the range 0 <=l < Nc.Comming to the encryption and decryption functions the entire descryption as shown in the figure 1 Basing on the scheme at the initial of encryption or decryption the input array in is copied to the state array according to the scheme: s[r. called rounds. c]. each of which utilizes Nc words from this key schedule. Hence the key schedule can also be viewed as an array of round keys. in the range 0 <=p < 4. and its column number c. The key schedule for Rijndael. described below.And array is denoted by symbol k. and each and every byte is split into 2 indexes:its row number p with on the . For AES the range for c is 0 <=l < 4 where since kc as static value of 8. hence allowing it to be referred to either as l p k .The Rijndael State The performance of Rijndael operates on a two dimensional array of bytes known as state which comprises of Xc-columns and 4-rows and Xc is primary supply which is of length 32. The cipher iterates throughout a numeral of cycles. The state can hence be considered as a one dimensional array of words for which the column number c provides the array index. or s[r. is an array of 32-bit words. each of which consists of an Nc word sub-array. Hence word c of round . denoted by the symbol k. with the lower elements initialized from the cipher key input so that byte 4i+r of the key is copied into byte r of key schedule word k[i]. c] = in[r + 4c] for 0 £ r < 4 and 0 £ c < Nc Arrays of 32-bit Words The four bytes in each column of the state can be thought of as an array of four bytes indexed by the row number r or as a single 32-bit word (bytes within all 32-bit words will always be enumerated using the index r).

the subsequent expressions are equivalent: (polynomial notation) {01010111} Å {10000011} _ {11010100} (binary notation) {57} Å {83} _ {d4} (Hex Notation) Finite Field Multiplication A simple substitution cipher then replaces each character of A by a corresponding character from an ordered cipher alphabet C denoted by {f(b0). Here the round key for round n as a whole. an Nc word sub-array. Finite Field Operations Finite Field Addition The addition of two finite field elements is achieved by adding the coefficients for corresponding powers in their polynomial representations. will sometimes be referred to by replacing the second index with µ-¶ as in k[n. addition and subtraction are equally equivalent to an exclusive-and operation on the bytes that symbolize field elements.key n. Here the function µf¶ represents a one-to-one mapping of each character of B to the .«««. that is.-] and .. n k . which is k[Nc * n + c]. modulo 2.f(b1).c . this addition being performed in GF(2). As a result. so that 1 + 1 = 0.c] or kn. Addition operations for limited field elements will be denote by the symbol Å. will also be referred to using two dimensional array notation as either k[n.f(bn1)}. For instance.f(b2).

The products are of the form C1MC2N««.««.Product cipherA product cipher involves a combination of transposition ( permutation) and substitution to produce a cipher text. M= ( m1m2. A1. Typically C is simply a rearrangement of the characters in B. This process is illustrated in the following example of the product {57} · {83} _ {c1} (where · is used to represent finite field multiplication): This intermediate result is now divided by m(x) above: .f2.Cn where N is an un-keyed mixing transformation or permutation and the C1 are simple cryptographic transformation..we should note that this example is for concept illustration purpose only . Where mi is a character of B.. a product cipher is the application of sequence of µn¶ enciphering functions f1. A plain text message N=n1n2n3 ««...2 illustrated the application of the basic principle to a 12-bit message block . is then written as Ek(n) = f(n1)f(n2) ««. Thus .corresponding character of C.fn where each f1 can be a permutation cipher P or a substitution cipher S ...m12) .. since in practice longer locks should be used Since this polynomial has powers of x up to 8 it cannot be represented by a single byte and will be written as either 1{00011011} or 1{1b} as indicated earlier.

which represents with the next element by the value augment all its power y by 1. and there is a neutral element {01}. Multiplication of this element by any other field element can then be achieve by addition the outcome for the appropriate powers of x. for any binary polynomial b(x) of degree less than 8. the extended Euclidean algorithm can be used to compute polynomials a(x) and c(x). that is 00000010.The bit that is extra is removed by supplementary one. Due to replicate this process. It move byte by position 1 to the position i+1. Table 1 carries out this calculation for . Furthermore: It hence follows that the set of 256 byte values. such that: Which shows that the polynomials a(x) and b(x) are mutual inverses. the modular polynomial.and for cancelling additional bit modular polynomial is added. the preliminary result is 1{10010000}. multiplying 10001000 by x. In case where the highest bit as given top most preference and it will flow over y8 term. For instance.Multiplication is associative. Multiplication by Repeated Shifts The unlimited field facet 00000010 is the polynomial y. For instance. with the XOR as addition and multiplication as clear above has the structure of the limited field GF(256). using an exclusive-or operation is used in modular polynomial to get the final outcome . a finite field element can be multiplied by all powers of x from 0 to 7. where the outcome that suits within a single byte.

While it may.we can't tell if it has some easy-to-exploit flaw. DES has stood the rest of time and is likely to be used for many years to come in some form or other. increase the attacker's work factor to keep as much secret as possible. The longer mathematicians and crypt analysts have to look at the algorithm. . Revealing the algorithms should not significantly improve an attacker likelihood of success. in some cases. increase the attacker's work factor to keep as much secret as possible. keeping a crypto algorithm secret can be a double-edged sword.we can't tell if it has some easy-to-exploit flaw. in some cases. Finite Field Multiplication Using Tables While it may. in some cases. keeping a crypto algorithm secret can be a double-edged sword. Good crypto algorithms rely exclusively on keys to protect the data. . keeping a crypto algorithm secret can be a double-edged sword.the product of the field elements {57} and {83} to give {c1}. While it may. If we don't know how the algorithm works. If we don't know how the algorithm works. Good crypto algorithms rely exclusively on keys to protect the data. the more likely they will find its weaknesses. Revealing the algorithms should not significantly improve an attackers likelihood of success. If we don't know how the algorithm works.we can't tell if it has some easy-toexploit flaw. Good crypto algorithms rely exclusively on keys to protect the data. increase the attacker's work factor to keep as much secret as possible. Revealing the algorithms should not significantly improve an attackers likelihood of success.

By using Rijindeal we get the following tables in this table using the previous instance shows For the Rijndael field [4] is a generator[57] equals [05][54] and [76] = [69][20]where the braces .

multiplying by x. which represents with the next element by the value augment all its power y by 1. where the outcome that suits within a single byte. In case where the highest bit as given top most preference and it will flow over y8 term.The unlimited field facet (62) + (50) = (b2) is the polynomial y. using an exclusive-or operation is used in modular polynomial to get the final outcome . It move byte by position 1 to the position i+1.and the same way the other operation can be multiplication this can be attained by algebraically growing the polynomial product and amass like powers of x to give: where: . the modular polynomial. that is the preliminary result is {57} · {83} = {03}(62) + (50) The bit that is extra is removed by supplementary one. We have to perform so many application for the permutations and combinations like to perform addition and multiplication which these operations can be performed by some mechanizes that to perform some operations such as like addition can be performed for this we have to perform by accumulation the finite field coefficients such as identical powers which relates to xor function which corresponds to their appropriate bytes and sis of 32-bit of x. For instance. Polynomials with Coefficients in GF(256) Four term polynomial is represented as follows: Four term polynomial is represented as fields with fine number of elements where as the four term polynomial generally consists of four coefficients which each coefficient represented by a byte and consists the bytes in the form of 32-bytes word.and for cancelling additional bit modular polynomial is added.

b. For Rijndael. that is the preliminary result is A for a. a polynomial that has an inverse has been chosen: . multiplying by x. In Rijndael the polynomial used is x4 + 1. The bit that is extra is removed by supplementary one. this can conveniently be written in matrix form as: For the reason that x4+1 which is not educable and each and every polynomial multiplications are invertible. though. For instance. We have to perform so many application for the permutations and combinations like to perform a addition (XOR and multiplication which these operations can be performed by some mechanizes that to perform some operations such as polynomial coefficients: : If one of the polynomials is fixed..

A1.b1.These are the most general ciphers.we should note that this example is for concept illustration purpose only .««. since in practice longer locks should be used .M= ( m1m2. .m12) . Homophonic Substitution Each plain text character is encrypted with a variety of cipher text characters.«««.2 illustrated the application of the basic principle to a 12-bit message block . The resulting 12 bits are scrambled by the permutation box Pi and input to the next round of enciphering.. we only discuss simple substitution ciphers here. they permit arbitrary substitutions for groups of plain text characters. A plain text message N=n1n2n3 ««.. Here the function µf¶ represents a one-to-one mapping of each character of B to the corresponding character of C.S2P1S1 (M) Where each Si is a function of the key K... a single one-to-one mapping from plain text to cipher text is used to encrypt and entire message.Cn where N is an un-keyed mixing transformation or permutation and the C1 are simple cryptographic transformation.f2... The products are of the form C1MC2N««.For Rijndael.f(b2).Product cipherA product cipher involves a combination of transposition ( permutation) and substitution to produce a cipher text.bn-1}. a product cipher is the application of sequence of µn¶ enciphering functions f1.f(b1).. is then written as Ek(n) = f(n1)f(n2) ««.fn where each f1 can be a permutation cipher P or a substitution cipher S .f(bn-1)}. Thus .The numeral of rounds for the cipher (Nn) varies with the block length and the key length as shown in the below table.««.Suppose B is a plaint text n-character alphabet ordered us look as {b0. The 12-bit plaintext block is divided into four 3-bit sub-blocks each of which is acted on by a different invertible 3-bit to 3-bit mapping or substitution cipher Sij. but can change within a single message.The enciphering scheme alternately applies µk¶ substitution Si and µk-1¶ permutations Pi yielding C= Ek (M) =SkPkSk-1«««. the mappings are usually one-to-one as in simple substitution. A simple substitution cipher then replaces each character of A by a corresponding character from an ordered cipher alphabet C denoted by {f(b0).. The mapping from plain text to cipher text is thus one-to-many Polyalphabetic Substitution Multiple Cipher alphabets are used to change plain text to cipher text. Typically C is simply a rearrangement of the characters in B. polynomial has to inverse has been chosen basic classes of substitution ciphers are as follows Simple Substitution A corresponding character of cipher text replaces each character of plain text. For illustrative purposes. Where mi is a character of B.

2. which is invertible. is build by composing two transformations: 1. This replacement. . The act of this transformation is demonstrate in Figure 2 for a block size of 6. Primarily the multiplicative inverse in the finite field explain prior (with element {00} mapped to itself). Second the affine transformation over GF(2) defined by: For 0 £ i < 8 where bi is bit i of the byte and ci is bit i of a byte c with the value {63} or {01100011}.The SubBytes Transformation The SubBytes transformation is a non-linear byte substitution that acts on every byte of the state in isolation to produce a new byte value using an S-box substitution table. Here and somewhere else a prime on a variable on the left of an equation specify that its value is to be efficient with the value on the right.

In matrix form the latter component of the S-box transformation can be expressed as: The final result of this two stage transformation is given in the following table. Nc) depends on row number r and block length as follows: . The ShiftRows Transformation The ShiftRows transformation operates individually on each of the last Three rows of the state by cyclically shifting the bytes in the row such that: Where the shift amount h(r.

This By interchanging the rows lowest bytes wrap has the effect of moving bytes to the top most priority bytes which the utilization is demonstrated in the lower positions in the row except that the around into the top of the row where the needs are described below 6. In the preceding matrix all the values are finite elements as argued in The mechanism of transformation is shown in the Figure 4 for a cipher block size of 6. The MixColumns Transformation The mixed column transformation is by changing elements in the matrix and treated as each and every column as four-term polynomial. .

The Xor RoundKey Transformation In the Xor RoundKey transformation Nc words from the key schedule (the round key described later) are each added (XOR¶ d) into the columns of the state so that: where the round key words are added to the k rounds which then the range as to be from the o with the value o is being utilized and is represented by the initial key round as shown in the diagram and the primary key is to applied prior to the round function K round. c (shortened to k r The byte that consists of each word as a key address that is shown aboveThe act of this alteration is demonstrate in Figure 5 for a cipher block size of 6. The Key Schedule The output of the cipher key is the round key by taking the responsibility of the key schedule with each and every round require a supplementary initial set with round essential nc word. build which establish a whole sum of Nc (Nn + 1) words here nc represents number of cipher rounds .

b2.b3.nk)and this mechanism figured out in 6 and can also be diverse into some what easier. The rounds which then the range as to be from the o with the value o is being utilized and is represented by the initial Remember the key which is described in the fig6 where nk=4 and nc=6 and can be produced depending on the necessary utilizing a buffer of max(nc.b2. The Inverse ShiftRows Transformation The InvShiftRows transformation mainly deals individually with the last three the state cyclically altering the bytes the row in a way where the cyclic shift values h(r.b1 ] . . The expansion of the input key into the key schedule proceeds according to the subsequent pseudo code. Nc) are given in Table 6.. key schedules for Nk _ 6 and Nk > 6 respectively. The output of the cipher key is the round key by taking the responsibility of the key schedule with each and every round require a supplementary initial set with round essential nc word.b0 ] to an output [b0.And the key scheduled is deliberate as solitary dimensional array with I an index of range k 0 £ i < Nc (Nn + 1) each or which individually comprises of a sub-array of Nc words. The Inverse Cipher The above represented cipher code is a inverse cipher which is straight forward. build which establish a whole sum [b3.b1.

The Inverse MixColumns Transformation The InvMixColumns transformation acts independently on every This By interchanging the rows lowest bytes wrap has the effect of moving bytes to the top most priority bytes which the utilization is demonstrated in the lower positions in the row except that the around into the top of the row discussed above. . The below table is called inverse S-box table which is required for transformations as above discussed.The Inverse SubBytes Transformation The needed for the inverse InvSubBytes transformation is given above.

thereby achieving this efficiency. The performance of the forward only have the structure where it functions only round function to outcome in an proficient type of execution . CHAPTER-6 THE DES AND TRIPLE DES ALGORITHMS . it can be carried out in the identical way. provide that an This type of cipher utilizes the identical type of keys for the forward cipher but the way of execution is different though a continuous group of actions of transformations are to be are to be transformed the inverse transform to convert since these do not operate in association with the column-mixing step. Therefore.By transforming the inverse cipher into the identical sequence of operations as the cipher itself.The Equivalent Inverse Cipher This type of cipher utilizes the identical type of keys for the forward cipher but the way of execution is different though a continuous group of actions of transformations are to be are to be transformed the inverse transform to convert into forward cipher this the reason that some of the alterations and the type of execution is entirely different from others the order of sub bytes and jumping of row transformations does not taken into consideration subBytes moves are changes the value and the locations and in the same way the shift rows does the the thing that is exactly opposite which is done by the subbyte subsequently XorRoundKey and InvMixColumns are made to come into action to make the forward and inverse to be identical form to perform round key addition column mixing the execution must be linear to the column input so that: InvMixColumns(state xor h)=InvMixColumns(state) xor InvMixColumns(h) where as h is the representation of a round key which is in the form of a state array.

2 DES ENCRYPTION The overall scheme for DES encryption is illustrated in Figure below. were classified. the S-boxes. As with any encryption scheme. The second area of concern was that the design criteria for the internal structure of DES. Critics feared that this key length was too short to withstand Brute Force attacks. 6. Two areas drew the critics¶ fire. Thus users could not be sure that the internal structure of DES was free of any hidden weak points that would enable NSA decipher messages without benefit of the key. but that of the proposed system was only 56 bits. the proposed DES was subjected to intense criticism.1 DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD The most widely used encryption scheme is based on (DES) adapted in 1977 by the National Bureau of Standards has tailored Data Encryption Standard which is most widely used encryption in data encryption algorithm for 56-bit are utilized by 64 bit block and algoritham converts 64 bit input into as 64 bit output. First. there are two inputs to the encryption function: the plain text to be encrypted and the key.1.6. the key length in IBM¶s original LUCIFER algorithm was 128 bits. are utilized to reverse the encryption. the plain text must be 64 bits in length and the key is 56 bits in length. an enormous reduction in key size of 72 bits. Before its adoption as a standard. In this case. . which has not subsided to this day.

the pre-output is passed through a permutation (IP-1) that is the inverse of the initial permutation function.2(a) Encryption using DES Looking at the left hand side of the figure.Fig 6. as dipected in the figure. First. Considering the exception of the primary and final permutations. DES has the exact organization of Feistel cipher. . This is go behind by a phase comprising of 16 rounds of the identical function.1. The left and right bisect of the output are swop to fabricate the preoutput. The output of the last (sixteen) round consists of 64 bits that are a function of the input plain text and the key. the 64-bit plain text passes through an initial permutation (IP) that rearranges the bits to produce the permuted input. Finally. we can see the processing of the plain text proceeds in three phases. which involve together permutation and exchange functions. to produce the 64-bit cipher text.

but a different sub key is produced because of the repeated iteration of the key bit.1. M= ( m1m2.e. for each of the 16 rounds..keyed mixing transformation or permutation and the B1 are simple cryptographic transformation.««.2 illustrated the application of the basic principle to a 12-bit message block .f2.. since in practice longer locks should be used . Li=Ri+1 (mod-2)f(Ki+1.. a sub key (Ki) is produced by the combination of a left circular shift and a permutation. The permutation function is the same for each round.. a product cipher is the application of sequence of 'n' enciphering functions f1.we should note that this example is for concept illustration purpose only . Then.m12) . At first. i... Details of Single Round: .2. Thus .fn where each f1 can be a permutation cipher P or a substitution cipher S .The right-hand portion of fig above shows the way in which the 56-bit key is used. the key is accepted through a permutation function.S2P1S1 (M) reversed.. the cipher mode defines how the algorithm is applied block by block to the data stream. A1.The enciphering scheme alternately applies 'k' substitution Si and 'k-1' permutations Pi yielding C= Ek (M) =SkPkSk-1«««.Li+1) Ri=Li+1 When block ciphers are applied to data stream. The products are of the form B1MB2M««.1Initial Permutation: The input to a table comprises of 64 bits A product cipher involves a combination of transposition ( permutation) and substitution to produce a cipher text.Bn where M is an un.. 6.

2 (b) Process involved in Single round Figure: show the internal structure of a single round. it is still important to select an appropriately strong alternative from the number available in today's market place. While it may. increase the attacker's work factor to keep as much secret as possible. keeping a crypto algorithm secret can be a double-edged sword. The work factor is an estimate of how hard the attacker must work in order to by pass the protection and achieves valuable goal. Good crypto algorithms rely exclusively on keys to protect the data. Revealing the algorithms should not significantly improve an attackers like lihood of success. in some cases. If we don't know how the algorithm works. .we can't tell if it has some easy-to-exploit flaw.1. or a strong cryptosystem for that matter is to look at the work factor it presents an attacker.Fig 6. However. . The essential objective is choosing a strong code.

To select an appropriate set of network security measures. In contrast to this protection of individual links. Message Reversal: In this method the plain text is written backwards to produce a cipher textcan be rearranged in 5! = 120 different ways.and kkep on continue for the process for each and every bit of key and keep on repeating till the entire q-array has become xored with key bits. 1. To enhance the security of the plain text message.To protect both equipment and information. . utilizing the 64-bit key.3 Thus messages pass through the entire network of transmission links.2.ki). and periodically permuting the characters of the plain text. rearranging the plain text by scrambling a sequence of columns. network security must consider a wide range of administrative. every bit of key and keep on repeating till the entire q-array has become xored with key bits. And carry this process till the q-array and all the four pboxes in array and the output varying constantly an at last there is a necessitate of 521 alterations for the outcome of all requisite keys and this perform this process number of times. local computers. we can thus choose one of these rearrangements A drawback in using columnar transposition ciphers for computer applications is that entire matrices of characters must be generated to encryption and decryption. and technical issues. physical. utilizing the 64-bit key. reserving the entire message. reforming the message into a geometrical shape. end-to-end security uniformly protects each message along its entire route from source to destination as is shown in A1. one first needs to evaluate the threat environment and assess the security techniques can be selected and appliedmust be both physically secured and capable of isolation information from each of various independent data streams the could pass through the node. intermediate nodes switches in an encrypted form as provided by encryption device at the message originator. Replace the output of q1 and q2 and encrypt this with the subkey. Let us now look at simple examples to illustrate this. Replace the output of q1 and q2 and encrypt this with the subkey.A 48-bit that serves as input to the function F(R1-1.By DES algorithm Encrypt the all-zero string.1.2KEY GENERATION: The subkeys are calculated using the Blowfish algorithm: Initially the q-array and the four pboxes in array with a fixed string and this string consists of hexadecimal digits of pi and next xor q1 with 32 bits of key labeled C0 and D0. And carry this process till the q-array and all the four p-boxes in array and the output varying constantly an at last there is a necessitate of 521 alterations for the outcome of all requisite keys .By DES algorithm Encrypt the all-zero string.

The subsequent operations are utilized: In TDE A technique the alteration of 64 block I into a 64-bit block that defines as below O = CK3(VK2(CK1(I))) the same technique is followed by: O = VK1(CK2(VK3(I))) specifies the following keying options for bundle as below.Encryption that is managed by the user can cause problems in a managed network by rendering necessary files inaccessible to the network managers . Use by criminals with malicious intent Encryption keys can become lost rendering the associated data unrecoverable . h2 and h3 Keying Option 2: h3 = h1 where h1 and h2 are autonomous keys and.f(bn-1)}. 6. The standard (h1.52) is a compound procedure of DES encryption and decryption operation. A TDEA mode of operation is backward compatible with its single DES counterpart if.2 TRIPLE DATA ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM Every TDEA operation is a compound technique of des encryption and the below operations are utilized where let us Let CK (I) and VK(I) symbolize the DES encryption and decryption of I utilizing DES key K correspondingly. Even though a number of excellent algorithms have been urbanized TDEA is utilized regularly for the reason that: It has been frequently tested and found to be much protected. A plain text message .f(b1).A 48-bit that serves as input to the function F(R11. h2. Keying Option 3: h1 equal sh2 = h3. with compatible keying options for TDEA operation.In this document we talk about TDA simple substitution cipher then replaces each character of A by a corresponding character from an ordered cipher alphabet C denoted by {f(b0).and this perform this process number of times.f(b2). The best proficient method 65to break TDEA is through thorough search of the key space.ki). 1. h3) Keying Option 1: independent keys are h1.«««. An encrypted plaintext work out utilizing a single DES mode of operation can be decrypted appropriately by a corresponding TDEA mode of operation. Every TDEA encryption/decryption procedure (as specified in ANSI X9. Here the function µf¶ represents a oneto-one mapping of each character of B to the corresponding character of C.

OFB correspondingly.S2P1S1 (M) Where each Si is a function of the key K.we should note that this example is for concept illustration purpose only .. Where mi is a character of B. The 12-bit plaintext block is divided into four 3-bit sub-blocks each of which is acted on by a different invertible 3-bit to 3-bit mapping or substitution cipher Sij.action can be decrypted accurately by a consequent single DES mode of operation.2 illustrated the application of the basic principle to a 12-bit message block . A1.M= ( m1m2.««. a product cipher is the application of sequence of µn¶ enciphering functions f1..N=n1n2n3 ««.Product cipherA product cipher involves a combination of transposition ( permutation) and substitution to produce a cipher text. The products are of the form C1MC2N««. TCFB and TOFB modes are backward attuned with single DES modes of process ECB.. I DE DES Ek1 DES Dk2 O DES Ek3 DES Dk1 I DES Ek2 DES Dk3 O Fig 6. Thus . Typically C is simply a rearrangement of the characters in B.2 (a) TDEA encryption and decryption process .. When utilizing Keying Option 3 (K1 = K2 = K3)... CBC..m12) .fn where each f1 can be a permutation cipher P or a substitution cipher S . CFB.The enciphering scheme alternately applies µk¶ substitution Si and µk-1¶ permutations Pi yielding C= Ek (M) =SkPkSk-1«««. since in practice longer locks should be used .f2. TECB. is then written as Ek(n) = f(n1)f(n2) ««.. TCBC.Cn where N is an un-keyed mixing transformation or permutation and the C1 are simple cryptographic transformation.

It is introduced in 1993 by Bruce Schneier as a free option to presented encryption algorithms. 7.CHAPTER-7 THE BLOWFIHS ALGORITHM Blow fish is the fastest block cipher in the rife use.It is faster than any other algoritham with implementation on 32-bit microprocessor with large data caches. In one application.devoid of altering of keys.It is more suitable for applications at where the key does not change frequently and it has a very difficult initialization phase essential for any encryption can occur.the motive is the supplementary computational effort obligatory gives fortification footprint of merely over 4 kilobytes of RAM.Variable-length key block cipher is Blowfish. and is accessible free for each and every one. the real encryption of data is very capable on huge microprocessors.This keep away this its utilization in secure applications . This recompense has throws in to its fame in cryptographic software. .The main advantage of blow fish is it is freeware which is and license-free.Each and every new key has to pre ±process identical to encrypt four kilobytes of text and is really slothful estimate to other block ciphers.448 bits.the range size of the block is 64 bits. This system is a not a mess yet for older desktop and laptop computers. Blowfish is does not patent and is accordingly generously reachable for someone to utilize.1 BLOWFISH ALGORITHM It successfully utilized for encryption because it is a symmetric block cipher and it mainly comprises of variable key length from 32 bit to 448 bits.Blowfish is simple iterating encryption function sixteen times. even though it does avert utilization in the minimum embedded systems like early on smartcards.and this is not a trouble in others.and intention is to make data safe. it is an advantage: the password-hashing technique utilized in Open BSD utilized an algorithm derivative from Blowfish that carries utilization of the unhurried key schedule.

1.It It is invented by Horst Feistel and as well as utilized in several block cipher designs.1 (a) Fiestel network 7.2 The Blowfish Algorithm: .1.keep in mind preceding rounds can be consequent even if the function f is not invertible. Li-1 K Ri-1 + f Li Ri Fig 7.1 Feistel Networks A Feistel network is a general method of transforming any function (usually called an Ffunction) into a permutation is the normal method of feistal networks.7.1. The functioning of a Feistal Network is given as Split each block into halves and next is Right half becomes new left halve and next is New right half is the concluding result when the left half is XOR¶d with the result of applying f to the right half and the key.

It is more suitable for applications at where the key does not change frequently and it has a very difficult initialization phase essential for any encryption can occur.f2.2 illustrated the application of the basic principle to a 12-bit message block ...f(bn-1)}. and is accessible free for each and every one. Blowfish is simple iterating encryption function sixteen times the range size of the block is 64 bits.f(b2).. Here the function µf¶ represents a one-to-one mapping of each character of B to the corresponding character of C.448 bits.. 64-bit block cipher.«««.It successfully utilized for encryption because it is a symmetric block cipher and it mainly comprises of variable key length from 32 bit to 448 bits and intention is to make data safe. Typically C is simply a rearrangement of the characters in Byproduct cipherA product cipher involves a combination of transposition (permutation) and substitution to produce a cipher text.. the real encryption of data is very capable on huge microprocessors. Variable-length key block cipher is Blowfish. Data encryption carries through 16-round Feistel network. It is introduced in 1993 by Bruce Schneider as a free option to presented encryption algorithms.m12) .we should note that this example is for concept illustration purpose only . A plain text message N=n1n2n3 ««. and a .A key-expansion part and a dataencryption part are the two parts that the algoritahm comprises. is then written as Ek(n) = f(n1)f(n2) ««.««. M= ( m1m2.fn where each f1 can be a permutation cipher P or a substitution cipher S ..Cn where N is an un-keyed mixing transformation or permutation and the C1 are simple cryptographic transformation.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE ALGORITHM Blowfish is a variable-length key. a product cipher is the application of sequence of µn¶ enciphering functions f1. since in practice longer locks should be used 7. Thus . Key expansion change a key of at most 448 bits into numerous sub key arrays totaling 4168 bytes. A1. The main advantage of blow fish is it is freeware which is and license-free. It is faster than any other algorithm with implementation on 32-bit microprocessor with large data caches. Every round comprises of a key reliant permutation. A simple substitution cipher then replaces each character of corresponding character from an ordered cipher alphabet C A by a by denoted {f(b0). Where mi is a character of B.f(b1). The products are of the form C1MC2N««..

All process are XORs and additions on 32-bit words.and data-dependent changeover.Subkeys It utilizes a large number of subkeys.255.key. The q ±array comprises of 18 32 ±bit subkeys:q1.q2. Encryption It consists of 16 rounds where the input is of 64-bit data elements ie x and divided into two halve of 32-bit xl.255. p1..By Blowfish algorithm Encrypt the all-zero string..255. P2. p2.. There are four 32-bit p-boxes with 256 entries each:p1. 7.for i = 1 to 16: xL = xL XOR Pi xR = F(xL) XOR xR interchange Swap xl and xr. The only additional operations are four indexed array data lookups per round. Decryption is accurately identical as encryption.. And carry this process till the q-array and all the four p-boxes in array and the output varying constantly an at last there is a necessitate of 521 alterations for the outcome of all requisite keys and this perform this process number of times. P18 are utilized in the undo order .After the completion of the sixteenth round.1. The keys must be processed earlier to any data encryption or decryption.0. interchange xl and ar again for previous swap. utilizing the subkeys.......2. p3....p2.0.1.To revel the loop and make certain or to arrange the all sub keys in order it require greatest speed and make certain that all sub keys are stored in cache.3 Generating the Subkeys The subkeys are calculated using the Blowfish algorithm: Initially the q-array and the four pboxes in array with a fixed string and this string consists of hexadecimal digits of pi and next xor q1 with 32 bits of key.p4.q3«««««q18. p3.. p4.0. Replace the output of q1 and q2 and encrypt this with the subkey.xr. p2. Then.0. Lastely again by combining x1 and xr achieve the ciphertext.1. 2.. apart from that P1.2.1... 7. ..and kkep on continue for the process for each and every bit of key and keep on repeating till the entire q-array has become xored with key bits.. xR = xR XOR P17 and xL = xL XOR P18. p3.255.1. p4.. p1.

com. Split each block into halves and next is Right half becomes new left halve and next is New right half is the concluding result when the left half is XOR¶d with the result of applying f to the right half and the key keep in mind preceding rounds can be consequent even if the function f is not invertible manufacture process is fixed. The subkey is dependent on each bit of the key and the limit of the key is certainThe 448 limit on the key size make certain that the each bit of each sub key depends on every bit of the key. To safeguard the complete entropy subkey generation is intended as well as it is planned to share out set of allowed sub keys erratically all through the domain of achievable sub keys. ADD.com.4 DESIGN DECISIONS A 64-bit block size yields a 32-bit word size. and .com and ACM. Generally in sub key generation highly linked key bits like an alphanumeric ASCII string with the bit of each byte to 0 that will create random subkeys It is the most time taking process for generating sub keys and difficult for brute-force and the sub key are very long to be store on tape.7.2. and MOV from a cache are proficient on architectures that are provided by several companies and all the sub keys. Evolution of project: Most of the resources utilized were taken from online research sites like sciencedirect. During sub key producing each key of sub key alter with each pair of sub keys produced and this is to guard the the attacks on the sub key and it reduces the storage necessitate. findwhitepapers. The letter pi is take for two reasons for the random sequence that are not linked to the algorithm and the next is to store the piece of algorithm.To maintains block-size compatibility with existing algorithms a 32-bit word size is yield by 64-bit block size and it can scale up to128block as well as down to slighter The starting process are selected as are many options like as XOR. techrepublic. The obtainable system comprises of files .com. The mainly able way to break blowfish is through thorough hunt of the keyspace.

Items (2-4) are mainly concerned with reliability. Items (5-6) are a diverse aspect of the security of the information. Disturbance of the operation of equipment or systems. Memory necessities and software execution constraints for software implementations of the candidates were also vital considerations. The core concern of (1) is secrecy and confidentiality. Distortion of data transmission. public comments were particularly hunted on intellectual assets claims and any potential conflict. hashing algorithm. and yTo be implement as a stream cipher. Confidentiality has always played an vital role I diplomatic and military matters. The virtual minimalism of an algorithm¶s intends was also an appraisal factor. During Rounds 1 and 2. yTo be apply steadily and efficiently in many diverse types of environments. Next cost was a second vital area of evaluation that encompassed licensing necessities. and efficient firmware implementations were measured helpful. the spotlight was mainly on the speed related with 128-bit keys. All through Round 1. soundness of its mathematical basis. and to facilitate additional cryptographic services. 2) Cost. Often the expression integrity is utilized as a gauge of genuineness of data. During Round 2. Often Information ought to stored or transferred from one place to another devoid of being exposed to an rival or enemy. and memory necessities. Defense was the mainly vital factor in the appraisal and encompasses features like conflict of the algorithm to cryptanalysis. its continuity Developing Process The appraisal criteria were divided into three main categories: 1) Security. The tempo of the algorithm on a range of platforms required to be measured. Key management is also associated to confidentiality.with literally no file security standards like encryption techniques are to be put into practice due to the factors such as Reading or tapping data. It must be realistic to execute an algorithm in equally hardware and software. distributing and storing keys. Manipulating and modifying data. computational speed on different platforms. STRENGTHS y Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security . it become evident that the a variety of issues being analyzed and discuss often cross into extra than one of the three main criteria headings. randomness of the algorithm output. hardware and software suitability. and algorithm ease. adjacent to which numerous security actions had to be taken up. This deals with generating. Flexibility comprises the ability of an algorithm: yTo handle key and block sizes away from the minimum that must be supported. Unlawful use of files. hardware implementations and the speeds associated with the 192 and 256-bit key sizes were addressed. and 3) Algorithm and execution Characteristics. Corrosion of data files. As one of NIST¶s aim was that the final AES algorithm be accessible worldwide on a royalty-free basis. Also Computer files and networks must be secluded against intruders and Unauthorized. The third area of evaluation was algorithm and execution characteristics like as flexibility. and relation refuge as compare to other candidates.

text. Linux comprises Blowfish in the mainline kernel. like a communications link or an automatic file encryptor. like as the Pentium and the PowerPC. The more complex the encryption the more processing it will take y y y Use by criminals with malicious intent Encryption keys can become lost rendering the associated data unrecoverable. It is appreciably earlier than DES when execute on 32-bit microprocessors with huge data caches. Even though there is a compound initialization phase requisite before any encryption can take place. sound and image. The recital indices here are the security and pace of the algorithm.y Encrypting a file makes its contents unrecognizable to applications and to anyone snooping around on your home or office computer Confidentiality: Only genuine destination can access data. For financial transactions and payment processing industries. starting with v2. Even though a number of excellent algorithms have been urbanized BLOWFISH is utilized regularly for the reason that: It has been frequently tested and found to be much protected.5. Integrity: Data cannot be changed in the transmission process.47. For . the actual encryption of data is very resourceful on large microprocessors. It is only appropriate for applications where the key has not change often. it is a variable-length key block cipher. It is tremendously rapid due to its taking benefits of built-in instructions on the present microprocessors for basic bit shuffling operations. Blowfish is a 16 pass block encryption algorithm that has never been broken. y y y WEAKNESS y Encryption takes computer processor time. This study is applied to diverse types of data. Encryption that is managed by the user can cause problems in a managed network by rendering necessary files inaccessible to the network managers CONCLUSION In this document we talk about Blowfish. The best proficient method to break Blowfish is through thorough search of the key space.

The results obtain here have been transformed into modules of equations of high orders thus the future performance of the algorithm may be predict from these equations REFERENCES: y [BCMO] NIST Special Publication 800-38A Recommendations for Block Cipher Modes of Operation.S. the file volume is altered and its affect on the recital of the algorithm was noticed. Department Of Commerce/National Institute of Standards and Technology. [CMS] RFC 3852 Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS). Furthermore. Data Encryption Standard (DES). Practical Cryptography. U. Department Of Commerce/National Institute of Standards and Technology. July 2004 (obsoletes RFC 3369 and RFC 2630). 25 October 1999. Morris Dworkin. U. December 2001.each and every case the encryption/decryption key length has been altered and its outcome on the performance was discerned. This has revealed that changing the key length has no outcome on the encryption or decryption time where altering the plaintext file size is straightly reflected on the processing time. y y y y . [FERG] Niels Ferguson and Bruce Schneier. Methods and Techniques. Housley. 2003.S. [FIPS46] Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 46-3. Guidelines for Implementing and Using the NBS Data Encryption Standard. 1 April 1981. John Wiley. [FIPS74] Federal Information Processing Standard 74 (FIPS PUB 74). R.

26 November 2001. [STAL] William Stallings. U.0. [RANK] Rankl. [PKCS7] PKCS #5. [MENE] Menezes. [NZEDI] New Zealand Customs Service.S. [TMOVS] NIST Special Publication 800-20 Modes of Operation Validation System for the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TMOVS): Requirements and Procedures. Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice. September 1995 .5. EDI Message Implementation Guidelines for Customs Declarations. April 2000. y y y y y y y y y Vincent Rijmen. 1996. 2nd edition. [SCHN] Bruce Schneier. RSA Laboratories. ISBN 0138690170 (3rd edition 2002. Department Of Commerce/National Institute of Standards and Technology. Handbook of Applied Cryptography.S. March 1999.y [FIPS81] Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS 81). 15 November 1999. The Blowfish Encryption Algorithm -. [FIPS197] Federal Information Processing Standards Publication FIPS PUB 197 Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). p. second edition. John Wiley. ISBN 0130914290). van Oorschot and Vanstone. doctoral dissertation.Dr. John Wiley. Prentice Hall 1998. Version 2. Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard. [PKCS5] PKCS #5. Bruce Schneier. Description of a New Variable-Length Key. "Cryptanalysis and design of iterated block ciphers". 137. Version 1. U. Smart Card Handbook. Fast Software Encryption 1993: 191-204 Bruce Schneier. Algorithms and Source Code in C. Applied Cryptography . 1997. Department Of Commerce/National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2 December 1980. W and W. Dobb's Journl 20(9). 1997. DES Modes of Operation. CRC Press LLC. Password-Based Encryption Standard. Effing.One Year Later. RSA Laboratories. 64-bit Block Cipher (Blowfish). October 1997.Protocols. November 1993.

"Exhaustive Cryptanalysis of the NBS Data Encryption Standard" IEEE Computer 10(6). ASIACRYPT 2002: pp254±266 * Biham." Fast Software Encryption (FSE'96). J. IBM Journal of Research and Development. 38(3). (preprint) * Biham. 27--32. Gollmann. "Differential Cryptanalysis of DES-like Cryptosystems". Eli.com/content/16udaqwwl9ffrtxt/. (1994).S. Whitfield and Martin Hellman.. doi:10. U.Serge Vaudenay.springerlink. De Canniere and M. 243±250.. Filed February 24. Quisquater (2004). and Chip Design. Cryptology 10(3): 195±206 (1997) * Biham. Springer-Verlag. Eli and Adi Shamir. 1975 . Product Block Cipher System for Data Security. ISBN 3-540-97930-1. Nathan Keller: Enhancing Differential-Linear Cryptanalysis. 1996. http://www. D. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3152: 1±22. Michael J. * Diffie. "On Multiple Linear Approximations". A Fast New DES Implementation in Software Cracking DES: Secrets of Encryption Research. Electronic Frontier Foundation * Biryukov. pp.962. pp74±84 * Ehrsam et al.springerlink. Differential Cryptanalysis of the Data Encryption Standard. Eli. Wiretap Politics.539. Eli and Adi Shamir (1991). * Biham. * Campbell. A.. CRYPTO 1992: pp512±520 * Coppersmith. June 1977. Ed. 1993. Eli and Alex Biryukov: An Improvement of Davies' Attack on DES.1007/BF00630563. The data encryption standard (DES) and its strength against attacks. Keith W.1007/b99099. http://www.com/content/k54h077np8714058/. (preprint). Patent 3. Springer Verlag. LNCS 1039. Journal of Cryptology 4 (1): 3±72. * Biham. ISBN 0-387-97930-1. C. Wiener: DES is not a Group. Don. "On the weak keys of Blowfish. doi:10. Orr Dunkelman.

Washington D. CRYPTO 1994: pp26±39 * Knudsen.springerlink. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 765: 386±397. * National Bureau of Standards. http://www.* Gilmore. National Bureau of Standards.1007/3-540-48285-7. Mitsuru (1994). Hellman: Differential-Linear Cryptanalysis.1007/3-540-48658-5_1. ISBN 0-14-024432-8. January 1977. "The First Experimental Cryptanalysis of the Data Encryption Standard". Fast Software Encryption . . Department of Commerce.46. pp199±211. "Cracking DES: Secrets of Encryption Research.springerlink.S. doi:10.com/content/vrteugmt7erqqbw1/. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 839: 1±11. "Linear Cryptanalysis Method for DES Cipher". Pascal. Steven..FSE 2000: pp262±272 * Langford. 2001. "On the Complexity of Matsui's Attack.com/content/92509p5l4ravyn62/. (preprint) * Mitsuru Matsui (1994). 2001.. ISBN 1-56592-520-3. John Erik Mathiassen: A Chosen-Plaintext Linear Attack on DES. John. * Kaliski. * Matsui. doi:10. O'Reilly. Data Encryption Standard. Lars. Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government²Saving Privacy in the Digital Age. Susan K. 1998. Wiretap Politics and Chip Design". CRYPTO 1994: 17±25 * Levy. U. * Junod. FIPS-Pub. Burton S. http://www. Martin E." Selected Areas in Cryptography..C. Matt Robshaw: Linear Cryptanalysis Using Multiple Approximations.

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