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or any other means.110002 Visit us at www. . Daryaganj. Publishers All rights reserved. Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd.. microfilm. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form.newagepublishers.. PUBLISHERS 4835/24. by photostat. or incorporated into any information retrieval system. electronic or mechanical. All inquiries should be emailed to ISBN : 978-81-224-2421-8 PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED. New Delhi . without the written permission of the publisher. Ansari Road.Copyright © 2006 New Age International (P) Ltd.


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S. JAVA Programming and Computer Networks. R. Finally. Madurai. IT Managers. Sankarasubramanian. Head of the Department of English. I am thankful to New Age International (P) Limited. DDBMS. There are totally twelve chapters. Hence the need for the preparation of a textbook of this type consisting of more than 1000 questions (short answer and objective type) on various hot topics in Computer Science. The areas where the freshers or experienced professionals find it difficult are the second and third stages mentioned above. (Mrs. Students are getting placed through both off-campus and oncampus recruitment. Thiagarajar College of Engineering (TCE). which is mandatory to clear any technical test/interview. Data Structures & Algorithms. Chairman. Vice Chairman Correspondent. My wholehearted thanks and acknowledgements are due in no small measure to Dr. Publishers. V. Dr. Software Quality and Software Testing. Recruitment has become a process of rejection rather than selection due to the large output from the institutions all over the country. The book is targetted at the under-graduate and post-graduate students of any branch. Software Engineering. competitive exams conducted by State Government and the Government of India for the posts of IT officers. I would wholeheartedly accept suggestions for improvement offered by the readers. I am thankful to Prof. V. for their support and encouragement. Abhaikumar. Programmers. C++ Programming. DBMS. Kannan. A list of books that helped us to prepare this textbook is given in the Bibliography. This “Test Yourself” chapter is given to readers to test themselves after completely studying the earlier chapters. I sincerely acknowledge the support extended by my father. will find it easy to have a quick glimpse of the various concepts in Computer Science. The first eleven chapters provide short answer questions in C Programming. T. and my colleagues of the TCE. PARTHASARATHY . The last chapter provides objective type questions on the various topics discussed earlier. The recruitment process normally involves the following stages: Aptitude test → Technical Test → Technical Interview → Personal Interview Of course. and Software Engineers. they find it difficult to quickly recapitulate the basics. Though they have mastered many subjects in their graduation/post-graduation.) Radha Thiagarajan. Dr. Principal. RDBMS. If you have the patience to go through all the questions starting from the first chapter to the last chapter. Operating System.Preface The IT industry is now in boom. friends and family. who is the motivating force behind this project. even a beginner. Head of the Department of Computer Science & Engineering. This text book is presented as follows. Being the first edition. for his invaluable comments and suggestions during the preparation of this book. Rajaram. The reader can make use of the text book to prepare for technical tests and technical interviews conducted by software companies. Mr. The Madura College. I am hopeful that the purpose of the book would be served. to clear the technical part of the exams like UGC-NET. this book is prepared and presented in such a way that everybody. many companies include group discussion also. New Delhi. Computer Applications. SLET etc. Though great care has been taken in editing this book. those who aspire to enter the field Information Technology.

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Acronyms and Abbreviations 2PC 3PC 4GL ALGOL ANSI API ARP ASCII ATL ATM ATP ATR AUT AWT B2C BASIC BCNF BDK BIOS BIT BOM BPR BSC BVA C2B C2C CAD CAM CASE Two-Phase Commit Protocol Three-Phase Commit Protocol 4th Generation Language Algorithmic Language American National Standards Institute Application Programming Interface Address Resolution Protocol American Standard Code for Information Interchange Active Template Library Automatic Teller Machine Acceptance Test Procedure Acceptance Test Results Application Under Test Abstract Windowing Toolkit Business-to-Consumer Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code Boyce-Codd Normal Form Bean Development Kit Basic Input Output System Binary Digit Bill of Material Business Process Reengineering Binary Symmetric Channel Boundary Value Analysis Consumer-to-Business Consumer-to-Consumer Computer Aided Design Computer Aided Manufacturing Computer Aided Software Engineering .

x CBD CBSE CGI CMM CMMI CMOS CNF COBOL COCOMO COM COQ CPM CRC CRM CSPEC CSPM CSQA CSQE CSTE DBA DBMS DCL DDBMS DDL DES DFA DFD DHTML DLL DMA DML DNS DOM Component Based Development Model Component Based Software Engineering Common Gateway Interface Capability Maturity Model Capability Maturity Model Integration Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Chomsky Normal Form Common Business Oriented Language Constructive Cost Model Component Object Model Cost of Quality Critical Path Method Class Responsibility Collaborator Modeling Customer Relationship Management Control Specification Certified Software Project Manager Certified Software Quality Analyst Certified Software Quality Engineer Certified Software Test Engineer Database Administrator Database Management System Data Control Language Distributed Database Management System Data Definition Language Data Encryption Standard Deterministic Finite Automata Data Flow Diagram Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language Dynamic Link Library Direct Memory Access Data Manipulation Language Domain Name System Document Object Model Placement Preparation .

Acronyms and Abbreviations DPDA DRE DSN DSQI DSS DTL DVD ECL EDI EER EFT EIA EIS EPROM ERD ERP EVA FAST FDM FTP FTR GIS GNF GUI HTML HTTP IDC IIS ISDN ISO ISTQB IT ICMP JDBC JFC Deterministic Pushdown Automata Defect Removal Efficiency Data Source Name Design Structure Quality Index Decision Support System Diode – Transistor Logic Digital Versatile Disk Emitter – Coupled Logic Electronic Data Interchange Extended Entity Relation Diagram Electronic Funds Transfer Enterprise Integration Application Executive Information System Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory Entity Relation Diagram Enterprise Resource Planning Earned Value Analysis Facilitated Application Specification Technique Frequency Division Multiplexing File Transfer Protocol Formal Technical Review Geographical Information System Greibach Normal Form Graphical User Interface Hypertext Markup Language Hypertext Transfer Protocol Internet Database Connector Internet Information Server Integrated Service Digital Network International Organization for Standardization International Software Testing Qualifications Board Certified Information Technology Internet Control Message Protocol Java Database Connectivity Java Foundation Classes xi .

xii KPA LAN LOC MAC MAN MAR MFC MIS MODEM MPI MRP MRP-II MST MTBF MTTF MTTR NP NSP ODBC OLAP OLE OOAD OOPS OSI OSPF PAL PCB PCMM PDA PDL PDT PERT POP POST PRO/SIM Key Process Area Local Area Network Lines of Code Medium Access Control Sublayer Metropolitan Area Network Memory Address Register Microsoft Foundation Classes Management Information System Modulator-Demodulator Message Passing Interface Materials Requirements Planning Manufacturing Resource Planning Minimum Spanning Tree Mean Time Between Failure Mean Time to Failure Mean Time to Repair Non-Deterministic Polynomial Network Service Provider Open Database Connectivity On Line Analytical Processing Object Linking and Embedding Object Oriented Analysis and Design Object Oriented Programming System Open System Interconnection Open Shortest Path First Protocol Programmable Array Logic Process Control Block People Capability Maturity Model Push Down Automata Program Design Language Partition Description Table Program Evaluation and Review Technique Point to Point Protocol Power On Self Test Prototyping and Simulation Tools Placement Preparation .

Acronyms and Abbreviations PROM PSP PSPEC QFD QOS RAD RAID RAM RARP RDBMS RIP RIS RMMM ROM RPC SADT SAP SCM SCM SDLC SEI SGML SLIP SMS SPOOL SQA SQL SRS SSL SSPI STD TCL TCP/IP TDM TFTP Programmable Read Only Memory Personal Software Process Process Specification Quality Function Deployment Quality of Service Rapid Application Development Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks Random Access Memory Reverse Address Resolution Protocol Relational Database Management System Routing Information Protocol Risk Information Sheet Risk Mitigation Monitoring and Management plan Read Only Memory Remote Procedure Call Structured Analysis and Design Technique Systems. Applications and Products in Data Processing Supply Chain Management Software Configuration Management Software Development Lifecycle Software Engineering Institute Standard Graphic Markup Language Serial Line Internet Protocol Short Messaging Service Simultaneous Peripheral Operations Online Software Quality Assurance Structured Query Language Software Requirements Specification Secure Socket Layer Statistical Software Process Improvement State Transition Diagram Transaction Control Language Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Time Division Multiplexing Trivial File Transfer Protocol xiii .

xiv TM TQM TSL TSP TTL UDP UML URL V&V VAN VPN VRML WAN WBS WDM WFF WIDL WML WMS XML XSL Turing Machine Total Quality Management Test Script Language Team Software Process Transistor – Transistor Logic User Datagram Protocol Unified Modeling Language Uniform Resource Locator Verification & Validation Value Added Network Virtual Private Network Virtual Reality Model Language Wide Area Network Work Breakdown Structure Wavelength Division Multiplexing Well-Formed-Formulae Web Interface Definition Language Wireless Markup Language Warehouse Management System Extensible Markup Language Extensible Style Language Placement Preparation .

DBMS. Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) Bibliography vii ix 1 16 27 34 42 47 52 64 74 80 85 93 134 . Digital Principles and Microprocessor 11. Computer Applications 7. Operating System 9. JAVA Programming 8. Software Quality and Software Testing 5.Acronyms and Abbreviations xv Contents Preface Acronyms and Abbreviations 1. Data Structures and Algorithms 6. Software Engineering 4. Computer Networks 10. C Programming 2. C++ Programming 3. RDBMS and DDBMS 12.

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The storage class decides the portion of the program within which the variables are recognized. 12. it returns the number of bytes the operand occupies. int. single character constant. Who developed the C language? The main() is a special function used by the C system to tell the computer where the program starts. 6. and double 13.C Programming 1 1 Dennis M. 9. string constant. 10. A variable may take different values at different times during execution. What is a variable? A variable is a data name that may be used to store a data value. 7. How are the constants classified? Integer constants. 11. 4.Ritchie in 1972 2. What are the basic data types used in C? Char. float. What is size of operator? It is a compile time operator and when used with an operand. . What is the purpose of a comment statement? It increases the readability and understandability of the program and helps in debugging and testing. What are trigraph characters? ANSI C introduces the concept of “trigraph” sequences to provide a way to enter certain characters that are not available on some keyboards. What is main()? C Programming 1. special characters and white spaces 8. 5. digits. What is a constant? C constant refers to fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. How are the characters in C grouped? Letters. What type of language is C? Semi-high level language 3. What is the function of the ‘newline’ character denoted as \n? A newline character instructs the computer to go to the next (new) line. What is a storage class? Variables in C can have not only data type but also storage class that provides information about their location and visibility. real constants.

relational operators. What is an array? What are its types? An array is a group of related data items that share a common name. Auto. The instruction #include<stdio. static. 15. conditional operator statement and ‘goto’ statement. 20. What is the additional feature in ‘for’ loop? More than one variable can be initialized at a time in the ‘for’ statement. test condition. 21. What is an operator? Placement Preparation An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform certain mathematical or logical manipulations. What is stdio. It tests the value of a given variable (or expression) against a list of ‘case’ values and when a match is found.[px]. the ‘do’ statement and the ‘for’ statement. Two-dimensional arrays are declared as follows: Type array-name [row-size][column-size]. 17. logical operators. a block of statements associated with that ‘case’ is executed. 19. ‘if ’ statement..h> tells the compiler to search for a file named stdio. It is used to manipulate data and variables in programs. (a) While (test condition) { body of the loop } (b) do { body of the loop } while (test condition).2 14. increment and decrement operators. increment/decrement) { body of the loop } 22. 18. extern and register. What is switch statement? ‘C’ has a built-in multiway decision statement known as a switch. List the various control statements in C. List the various C operators. Give the format of program loops in C. ‘switch’ statement. Multi-dimensional arrays are declared as follows: Type array-name [p1][p2][p3]….h and place its contents at this point in the program.h? It is standard input-output header file. 16. . bitwise operators and special operators. A list of items can give one variable name using only one subscript and such a variable is called a singlesubscripted variable or a one-dimensional array. List the various storage classes in C. assignment operators. conditional operators. (c) for (initialization. Arithmetic operators. 23. What are the program loops available in C? The ‘while’ statement.

C Programming 24. fseek(). (a) Strcat() is used to concatenate two strings. opening a file. 33. 35. putw(). Any group of characters defined between double quotation marks is a constant string. In structure each member has its own storage location. fprintf(). 26. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. What is a file? List the basic file operations. What is structure in C? C supports a constructed data type known as structure. putc(). How can a function return values? A function may or may not return a value. getw(). 25. What is static structure in C? A structure must be declared as static if it is to be initialized inside a function. reading data from a file. main() is an example of user-defined function and printf. How are C functions classified? Give examples. . What is recursion? Recursion is a special case where a function calls itself. which is a method for packing data of different types. (d) Strlen() is used to find the length of a string. scanf belong to the library functions. (a) Functions with no arguments and no return values (b) Functions with arguments and return values (c) Functions with arguments and no return values 28. ftell() and rewind(). whereas all the members of a union use the same location. If it does. fclose(). List the string-handling function supported by C library. 27. (c) Strcpy() is used to copy one string over another. List the various categories of C functions. (b) Strcmp() is used to compare two strings. it can return only one value. What is a bit field? A bit field is a set of adjacent bits whose size can be from 1 to 16 bits in length. 31. What is a string? 3 A string is an array of characters. C functions can be classified as ‘library function’ and ‘user-defined function’. 34. What are the various high level I/O functions? fopen(). getc(). 30. 29. What is union in C? Unions are a concept borrowed from structures and therefore follow the same syntax as structures. The basic file operations are naming a file. writing data to a file and closing a file. 32. fscanf().

calloc(). 47. What is dynamic memory allocation? The process of allocating memory at run time is called dynamic memory allocation. . It operates under the control of what is known as preprocessor command lines or directives. How do we declare a pointer variable? Data type * pointer-name. free() and realloc() 40. # end if. #if and #else. It is placed in the source program before the main() line. What are argc and argv? The variable argc is an argument counter that counts the number of arguments on the command line. 42. List the various preprocessor directives. #ifdef. What is a null pointer? A null pointer is any pointer assigned the integral value zero. What is C preprocessor? C preprocessor is a program that processes the source code before it passes through the compiler. How are the directives classified? Macro substitution directives. What is a command line argument? Placement Preparation It is a parameter supplied to a program when the program is invoked. What is a pointer? Since memory addresses are simply numbers they can be assigned to some variables which can be stored in memory. 39. Such variables that hold memory addresses are called ‘pointers’. file inclusion directives and compiler control directives. 46. To declare a pointer to a pointer. Simple macro substitution. Example: int **q. A pointer that is guaranteed not to point to a valid object is called a null pointer. #undef. The variable argv is an argument vector and represents an array of character pointers that points to the command line arguments. #ifndef. 48. 41. 44. What is macro substitution? It is a process where an identifier in a program is replaced by a predefined string composed of one or more tokens 43. #include. precede the variable name with two successive asterisks. like any other variable. 45. This declares q to be a pointer to a pointer to an int. Name the various memory allocation functions. 38. List the various forms of macro substitution. What is meant by a pointer to a pointer? A pointer to a pointer is a construct used frequently in sophisticated programs. The size of this array will be equal to the value of argc.4 36. #define. argumented macro substitution and nested macro substitution. 37. malloc().

the preprocessor looks in the directory containing the source file. 56. The operands for all the bit-manipulation operators must be integers. 53. What is an infinite loop? An infinite loop is a loop that does not contain a terminating condition or a loop in which the terminating condition is never reached. What is masking? The bit-manipulation operators are frequently used to implement a programming technique called ‘masking’ which allows us to access a specific bit or a group of bits. function and block. ‘Continue’ statement provides a means for returning to the top of a loop earlier than normal. It is particularly useful when we want to bypass the remainder of the loop for some reason. 58. 50. What is meant by scope of a variable? The scope of a variable determines the region over which we can access the variable by name. the preprocessor looks in a special place designated by the operating system.C Programming 49. 51. << and >>. usually in a different source file. 55. What are shift operators? The two shift operators. enable us to shift the bits of an object a specified number of places to the left or the right. It should be used with caution since it forces program control to jump discontinuously to a new place. 57. There are four types of scope: program. They are especially useful for abstracting global types that can be used throughout a program. What are ‘break’ and ‘continue’ statements? ‘Break’ prevents program flow from falling through to the next statement. What is cast operator? If enables us to convert a value to a different type. 54. What is function allusion? A function allusion is a declaration of a function that is defined elsewhere. 59. What is typedef ? C language allows us to create our own names for data types with the typedef keyword. What is the difference between #include <filename> and #include “filename”? 5 If the filename is surrounded by angle brackets. If the file is surrounded by double quotes. it is called a ‘nested structure’. What are nested structures? When one of the fields of a structure is itself a structure. 52. What is bit-manipulating operator? The bit-manipulation operations enable us to access specific bits within an object and to compare the bit sequences of pairs of objects. The main purpose of the function allusion is to tell the compiler what type of value the function returns. file. Nested structures are common in C programming because they enable us to create data hierarchies. .

h extension to identify them as something different from the . 64. Traditionally. 65. stdout and stderr.h extension? No. How many bytes are occupied by near. Are the expressions *pointer++ and ++*pointer the same? No. List the standard streams in C.h> contain? (a) Prototype declarations for all the I/O functions. Is it necessary that the header files should have an . graphs and so on. far and huge pointers? A near pointer is 2 bytes long and a far pointer and a huge pointer are 4 bytes long. What is errno variable? There is a global variable called ‘errno’ that is used by a few of the I/O functions to record errors. union and an enumeration? All of them let you define new data types. 68. . ‘errno’ is an integer variable declared in the errno. 66. What does <stdio. 72. Can we use a switch statement to switch on strings? No. Why are pointers to functions considered important? Placement Preparation Pointers to functions are a powerful tool because they provide an elegant way to call different functions based on the input data. 67. 63. The cases in a switch must either have integer constants or constant expressions. *pointer++ increments the pointer and not the value pointed by it. Where do we use pointers? Some of the important areas are: (a) Dynamic memory allocation (b) call by reference (c) trees. 61. 62.6 60.c program files. 69. 71. What is the difference between a definition and the declaration of a variable? Definition is the place where the variable is created or assigned storage whereas declaration refers to places where the nature of the variable is stated but no storage is allocated. (b) Declaration of the FILE structure. whereas the ++*pointer increments the value being pointed to by the pointer. Give the equivalent pointer expression for x[a][b][c][d]. (c) Several macro constants. What is the similarity between a structure. they have been given an . stdin.h header file. I/O is performed through ‘streams’ that are associated with the files or devices. What is a stream? A stream consists of an ordered series of bytes. *(*(*(*(x+a)+b)+c)+d) 70.

} OUTPUT: ___________ 78. What is the use of bit fields in a structure declaration? Bit fields are used to save space in structures having several binary flags or other small fields. printf(“%-10d\n”. main() { extern int k.n). 74. We can also write to one field and read from another. printf(“%10d\n”.-n). we will have to write our own function to do so which carries out the comparison field by field. 76. PREDICT THE OUTPUT OR ERROR FOR THE FOLLOWING QUESTION NUMBER 76 TO 108 Note : It is assumed that necessary header files are included and compiled using the turbo C/C++ compiler. k=40. How would you check whether the contents of two structure variables are the same? 7 If we need to compare two structures.a). 75. printf(“%10ld\n”. } OUTPUT: ___________ .C Programming 73. a=A.m). while(a<N) { printf(“%d\n”.m). We can use only one field at a time. a*=a. What is the difference between a structure and a union? A union is essentially a structure in which all of the fields overlay each other. printf(“%010d\n”.m). printf(“%d”. printf(“%d\n”. long n=987654.m). printf(“%10ld\n”. } } OUTPUT: ___________ 77.sizeof(k)). main() { int m=12345. #define N 100 # define A 2 main() { int a.

} OUTPUT: ___________ Placement Preparation .b[1]. printf(“%d”. cptr=&c. if(--i) { main(). int j=0.v.i). main() {int b[5]={2. } OUTPUT: ___________ 84.b[2]b[3]b[4]).b[0]. void main() {static int i=5.v).v=0. b[j]=j++.sizeof(“xyzq”)).c. } OUTPUT: ___________ 82.j). printf(“%c%v”. printf(“%d%d%d”. char strz[]=“xyzq”.x).vptr=&v. main() { static int b[20]. void *vptr. } OUTPUT: ___________ 80. } } OUTPUT: ___________ 83.sizeof(str2). printf(“%d”. main() { int x=3. } OUTPUT: ___________ 81.c.8 79.3}. main() { char *cptr. printf (“\n%d%d%d”. c=20. main() { char *str1=“xyzq”. x=x++.sizeof(str1). printf(“\n%d%d%d”.

main() { int i=-3. } OUTPUT: ___________ 9 .n[24]=200.i. } OUTPUT: ___________ 86.j. x=40. main() { int x=2.k=0.*n. b=-2. main() { int n[25]. } } OUTPUT: ___________ 89.C Programming 85. *b=*b**b. printf(“\na=%d b=%d”. f(int x.30.*(n+24)+*(n+0)). printf(“\n%d%d”.50}.j=2. main() { int a=-5.k. n[0] *b) { a=a*a. } OUTPUT: ___________ 88.a.++x.*x). x++.b).&b). int k.20. m=++i&&++j||++k. } OUTPUT: ___________ 87. for(k=0. int y) { int x. return x. } junk(int a.40. printf(“\n%d%d%d%d”. } OUTPUT: ___________ 90.k++) { printf(“\n%d”. main() { int x[]={10.k<5. printf(“\n%d%d”.++x). junk(a.m).m.

“ask\0”)) printf(“strings are not equal\n”).2. } OUTPUT : ___________ 92. printf(“%d\n”. } OUTPUT : ___________ 93.a). } main() { int I=abc(10). for (ptr=arr+4. main() { if(strcmp(“ask”. #define MAX(x.1.--I).10 91.ptr--) printf(“%d”. int abc(int I) { return (I++). printf(“%d”. printf(“%d”.3.y) (x>y? x:y) main() { int a. a=max(3+2. } OUTPUT: ___________ 95. int *ptr. } OUTPUT: ___________ 96.ptr>=arr. main() { int arr[]={0. } OUTPUT: ___________ 94.*ptr). } OUTPUT: ___________ Placement Preparation . main() { int a[10]. else printf(“strings are equal\n”).2+7). #define ASK prog main() { printf(“ASK”).4).*a+1-*a+3).

} OUTPUT: ___________ 98.*q. while(*s) printf(“%c”. printf(“%d”. } OUTPUT: ___________ 101.sizeof(p). struct a { int y. void main() { int i=10.I). s=&str[6]-6. printf(“%d”. }. struct node *p. } OUTPUT: ___________ 11 .h” main() { struct node { int data. char *s. } OUTPUT: ___________ 102.j=2.*(s+strlen(s)). struct a x. main() { int I=300. printf(“\n%d%d”.k). p=malloc(sizeof(struct node)). struct node *link. } OUTPUT: ___________ 99. printf(“\n%d”. int k=*ip/*jp.sizeof(q)). int *ip=&i. char *ptr=&I. q=malloc(sizeof(struct node)). main() { char s[]=“abcdefghij!”. *++ptr=2. #include “alloc.*s++).C Programming 97. } OUTPUT: ___________ 100.*jp=&j. main() { char str[]=“abcdefghi”.

&I). *tt.sizeof(arr)). *tt=‘\o’. } OUTPUT: ___________ 104.I). main() { char s[ ] =“C is a philosophy of life”. main() { int arr[12]. printf(“\nvalue of I=%d”. printf(“\naddress of I=%u”.*(&I)). main() { int I=3.300). printf(“\nvalue of I=%d”. } OUTPUT: ___________ 106. p=“%d\n”. } OUTPUT: ___________ 108. printf(“\nvalueof I=%u”. printf(“\n%d”. char t[40]. printf(p-2. main() { char *p. printf(“\n%s”. char *ss. main() { int I=3. ss=s. printf(“\nAddress of I=%u”. } OUTPUT: ___________ 107.12 103. How would you declare the following? (i) An Array of three pointers to chars (ii) An Array of three char pointers Placement Preparation . } OUTPUT: ___________ 105.&I). while(*ss) *tt++=*ss++.I).p++. p++.t). tt=t.

82. OUTPUT 88. OUTPUT 2 4 16 77. OUTPUT . OUTPUT 12345 12345 0000012345 12345 987654 -987654 78. OUTPUT 0 2 0 5 0 5 80. OUTPUT 84. The output will vary from one compiler to another. 86. OUTPUT 81. since size of V is not known. OUTPUT No error. OUTPUT Compilation Error. OUTPUT ERROR in the program as the extern int k is a declaration and not a definition.C Programming 13 ANSWERS FOR QUESTIONS 76 TO 108 76. 79. OUTPUT Error message 0 0 0 1 0 83. OUTPUT 0 0 4 85. OUTPUT –2 a= -5 3 0 b= 4 1 87.

OUTPUT 300 104. 3 2 1 0 OUTPUT Placement Preparation . OUTPUT C is a philosophy of life. OUTPUT 556 103. 90. OUTPUT Error.14 89. 91. 98. 95. re-declaration of x. Improper usage of structure 102. OUTPUT ASK OUTPUT 9 OUTPUT 9 OUTPUT 4 OUTPUT Strings are equal OUTPUT 4 0 OUTPUT abcdefghi OUTPUT 2 2 100. 93. 99. 94. 92. OUTPUT 100 300 OUTPUT Error. OUTPUT Compilation error 101. 97. 96.

OUTPUT 24 106. OUTPUT Address of i = 6485 Value of i = 3 Value of i = 3 108. (ii) Char *ptr[3].C Programming 105. OUTPUT Address of i = 6485 Value of i = 3 107. 15 . OUTPUT (i) Char *ptr[3].

If we use the small memory model. 7. It adds to the C language the capability to implement OOP (object oriented programming). Name the header file that enables the user to use cout and cin in C++? IOSTREAM.H 8. Object-based languages support only objects and classes. Distinguish between Object-oriented language and Object-based language. 6. What are the two major components of an object? Data and the functions that act on that data. What is Data hiding? Protecting data from access by unauthorized function is called ‘data hiding’. What is a member function in C++? A function contained within a class is called a member function. Compare C and C++ programming.LIB 10. What is Inheritance? It is a process of creating new classes called derived classes from existing or base classes. Visual Basic is an Object-based language Whereas Visual C++ is an Object-oriented language. and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. 13. What are the OOPS concepts? Encapsulation. what library file must be linked to our program to provide standard library functions? CS. . 4. 11.16 Placement Preparation 2 C++ Programming 1. Inheritance and Polymorphism. 2. 12. whereas Object-oriented languages also support features like inheritance and polymorphism. 3. How does C++ implement Polymorphism? Using (a) Function overloading (b) Operator overloading (c) Virtual functions. 5. C++ is a superset of C. C is a procedural language and C++ is an object-oriented language. Which operator is related to concatenation of two strings? arithmetic operator (+) 9. What is Polymorphism? The ability of a function or operator to act in different ways on different data types is called polymorphism. What is Encapsulation? It is the mechanism that binds together the code and the data it manipulates.

19. Objects consist of both data and functions that operate on those data. (1) Unary (2) Arithmetic (3) Relational (4) Logical (5) Conditional (6) Assignment 15. What is the purpose of a class specifier (declaration)? A class specifier describes how objects of a class will look when they are created. the identifier to the left of the dot operator is called a structure variable. What is a Destructor? It is a member function with the same name as its class but preceded by a tilde (~) symbol. which is executed every time an object of the class is created. It is called when an object is destroyed.C++ Programming 17 14. Arrange in order of preference (highest first) the following kinds of operators: logical. What is the purpose of a static automatic variable? It makes a variable visible to only one function and retains a value when a function is not executing. 26. How many values can be returned by a function? One. What are a class and an object? A class is a specification for a number of objects. A constructor has no return type but can take arguments. 20. 22. What is the scope of global variables with respect to functions? Global variables can be accessed from any function. 24. What is the purpose of the enumerated data type? It brings together a group of integers with user-defined names and constant values. 27. A destructor takes no arguments and has no return value. 25. arithmetic. Constructors can be overloaded. What is a Constructor? It is a member function with the same name as its class. What is a function argument? It is a value sent to the function by the calling program. Compare Constructor and Destructor in C++. . conditional. 23. assignment. 18. 21. unary. 16. relational. 17. What is a structure variable? When accessing a structure member. What is the significance for passing arguments by reference? To change the original argument. What functions can access an automatic variable? The functions in which an automatic variable is defined.

They are stored in ‘. Private data members cannot be accessed from outside the class. 37. 31. instead of a jump to the function. 30. within the class or from outside the class. What is the difference between structures and classes in C++? Member functions and data are. . How do we create a this pointer? The ‘this’ pointer gets created when a member function (non-static) of a class is called. The first statement is creating an object ex using a zero-argument constructor. There are three access specifiers in C++ namely Public. 32. 39. public in structure but private in classes. Private and Protected. What is an Inline function? The function whose code gets inserted. The second statement is creating an object using a two-argument constructor. What are Public. (a) Call by value (b) Call by reference 33. example el(10. What is a dangling pointer? Suppose we allocate a chunk of memory and store its address in a pointer. order or types of arguments. 38. 40. What is the outcome when we call the constructor explicitly? Whenever the constructor is called explicitly a nameless object gets created. how many copies of the class’s data items are stored in memory? How many copies of member function? Three.200). The protected members of the base class are accessible only to the derived classes. 34.18 Placement Preparation 28. It can also be interpreted as a prototype of function ex( ) whose return type is example. Private and Protected? Public data members or member functions can be accessed from anywhere. List the various ways of passing variables to a function. If three objects of a class are defined. What is function overloading? Defining multiple functions with the same name is called function overloading. If this chunk of memory is freed and if the pointer continues to point to that location. by default.lib’ files that are shipped with the compiler. They can only be accessed within the class. List the access specifiers in C++. What are Library functions? Library functions are a collection of predefined functions. 35. These functions must differ in their number. at the place where there is a function call is known as an “Inline function”. the pointer is said to be a dangling pointer. 29. 36. One. What is operator overloading? It gives the capability to the operator to work on different types of operands. Compare the following two statements: example ex( ).

What is the significance of using Inheritance? Inheritance permits the reusability of software.*) 46. Show the usage of a scope resolution operator. 51. What is a static function? A static function is one that operates on the class in general rather than on objects of the class. as it is like other member functions of the class. 52. An exception alone can be thrown from within the constructor. But it will not return any value. derived classes can extend the capabilities of base classes with no need to modify or even access the source code of the base class. What is a friend function? A friend can access a class private data. length L2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. How will you sort many large objects or structures? Place pointers to them in an array and sort the array. 53. 42. 47. even though it is not a member function of the class. What is the purpose of operator overloading? It makes C++ operators work with objects and gives new meanings to existing C++ operators. How do we overload constructors and destructors? Destructors cannot be overloaded. 43. Name some operators which cannot be overloaded? (a) Member access or dot operator (. It can operate on static variables.Scope resolution operator 4. Can constructors return a value? How does it handle error values? 19 An error value can never be returned from a constructor. 50.Return type 2.C++ Programming 41. How do we create an object dynamically? The keyword ‘new’ allows us to create an object dynamically.6 – Function arguments 45. 48.Name of class of which function is a member 3. . but exists only to act as a base class of other classes. There can be no situation where we want to return a value at the time of creation of an object. 49. Constructors can be overloaded. Void length :: addlength (length L1.Function name 5. What will happen when you overload an arithmetic assignment operator? It goes in the object to the left of the operator. Constructor is called whenever an object gets created.) (c) Conditional operator (?:) (b) Scope resolution operator (::) (d) Pointer-to-member operator (. 44. What is multiple inheritance? A class that can be derived from more than one base class is called a multiple inheritance. What is an Abstract class? It is often defined as one that will not be used to create any objects.

61. The I/O specification class (ios) is at the root of the iostream class hierarchy. 56. without creating any temporary objects. 62. different streams are used. 58. }. The setf( ) function is used to set the flags of the ios but manipulators directly insert the formatting instructions into the stream. They are different except that they both create a new object. They are used for input from file. 60. output to file and both input & output respectively. When the call gets resolved at runtime it is called dynamic binding or late binding. ofstream and fstream. Why is assignment operator overloaded? Placement Preparation This is necessary when it must do more than merely coping one object’s contents into another. For different kinds of data. 57. because if in the copy constructor an object is accepted by value then the copy constructor will fall in a recursive loop. a specification system and a translation system. except that the copy constructor creates a new object. Name the three parts of an iostream system.h’ . What is a pure virtual function? It is a virtual function that has no body and is used in a base class. Manipulators are the instructions to the output stream to modify the output in various ways. The function ex ( ) is known as a pure virtual function. Is it necessary to accept a reference in the copy constructor? It is essential. They are similar. 64. ifstream. 59.20 54. 63. A buffer. List the three stream classes that are commonly used for disk I/O. Does the expression delete P delete the pointer or the object being pointed to by P? The expression delete P deletes the object being pointed to by P. Write a statement that a member function can use to return the entire object of which it is a member. return *this. Compare the operations of the assignment operator and that of the copy constructor. These classes are declared in ‘fstream. What is a stream? It is used to represent the flow of data. Compare manipulator and setf( ) function. 55. Compare static binding and dynamic binding. When a function call gets resolved at compile-time it is called static binding or early binding. 65. Example : Class example { Public : virtual void ex ( ) = 0. Give an example of pure virtual function? A Pure virtual function is a virtual function with the expression = 0 added to the declaration.

PREDICT THE OUTPUT/ERRORS FOR THE FOLLOWING QUESTION NUMBER : 76 TO 90 76. What is friend class? It is a class where all the member functions and data members of the class become ‘friends’. by throwing an exception we can pass value to ‘catch’ block. How do we get the information about the object at runtime? Using typeid( ) operator and dynamic_cast operator. supplied as a separate product.C++ Programming 66. What is the size of an object of an empty class? One byte. 69. } OUTPUT: __________ . as the constructor doesn’t have any return type. 75. we can design a single class/function that operates on many data types. cout<<str. main() { char str[ ] = “abcdef” “xyz”. What is class library? A group of related classes. 73. 74. 67. The byte location at which the next read or write operation will take place. When is a class template instantiated? A class template is instantiated by defining an object using the template arguments. How do we return an error value from the constructor? We cannot return any error value from the constructor. 70. whereas when used with classes they are called ‘class templates’. The process of moving from element to element in the container is called ‘iteration’. Define what current position means when applied to files. 71. instead of having to create a separate class/function for each type. is often called a class library. However. Compare iterator and iteration. 21 An iterator is an object that moves through the container accessing each element in the container. 72. What is the base class for most stream classes? ios. 68. When used with functions they are known as ‘function templates’. What are templates? By using templates.

cout<<ch. int *b=new int(size).*pa. print(b). void main() { char star [DAYS][MAX] = { “sun”.“mon”.5}. } OUTPUT: __________ 80.&ra.j<DAYS. void main() { int j.“fri”.j++) cout<<star[j]<<endl. print(a). void main() { for (int j=0. for ( j=0.j<80. main() { int a.22 77.j<11.“wed”.“tue”.“thur”. const int DAYS = 7.2.++j) cout<<j*j<<” “ . } void print(int ptr[size]) { cout<<ptr[0]. } OUTPUT: __________ 78. . } OUTPUT: __________ 81. } } OUTPUT: __________ Placement Preparation 79. const int size = 5.“sat”}. void print (int *ptr) { cout<<ptr[0]. const int MAX = 10.j++) char ch=(j%8) ? ‘ ‘ : ‘x’. } main() { int a[size]= { 1. for (int j=0..3.4.

int *y. } const int *example() { return (&x). x=20. cout<<x<<endl<<y. y=“example”. void main() { const int *example(). cout<<I. } OUTPUT: __________ 23 . y=example(). } OUTPUT: __________ 86. } void eg(int x=0.I<=10. void main() { for(int I=1. char *y=x. } OUTPUT: __________ 84. cout<<endl<<a<<endl<<j. j=x. void eg(int x. } OUTPUT: __________ 85. } OUTPUT: __________ &j=a. } OUTPUT: __________ 82. void main() { char *x=“hai”. ra=a. void main() { int a=5. const int x=12. cout<<“a=”<<a<<“*pa=”<<*pa<<“ra=”<<ra.C++ Programming pa=&a. cout<<endl<<x<<endl<<y.I++) cout<<I<<endl. cout<<endl<<a<<endl<< y=0) { cout<<x<<endl<<y. void main() { eg(). int x=10. int y).

cout<<endl<<str. } OUTPUT: __________ 88. } main() { //statements } OUTPUT: __________ 89. } OUTPUT: __________ 90. char *p=“examination”. } void display() { cout<<endl<<“pqr”. } sample fun(sample s) { Placement Preparation . class a { int j. cout<<endl<<“abcd”. } void calculate() { display(). class sample { public: sample() { } sample (sample &s) { cout<<“copy constructor”<<endl. } }. cout<<endl<<“xyz”.24 87. cout<<endl<<p. cout<<endl<<(void *) p. cout<<endl<<(void *)str. class control { public: control() { calculate(). void main() { char str[]=“example”. void main() { control c1.

} OUTPUT: __________ 25 ANSWERS FOR QUESTIONS 76 TO 90 76. OUTPUT: Compiler Error: ‘ra’. s3=s1. t=s. 83. void main() { sample s1. return t.s2. 82. OUTPUT: 79. 81. OUTPUT: Sun Mon Tue Wed Thurs Fri Sat OUTPUT: hai hai hai example . OUTPUT: Compilation Error: function ‘void print (int *)’ already has a body. OUTPUT: 0 x 1 x 4 x 9 x 16 x 25 x x 36 x 49 x 64 81 100 78.C++ Programming sample t. Output Displays 1 to 11 each in a new line. OUTPUT: abcdefxyz 77.s3. } }. reference must be initialized.

OUTPUT: Error 87. OUTPUT: No error class a is considered as return type of main(). OUTPUT: 10 10 10 10 85. OUTPUT: Compilation error due to type mismatch. OUTPUT: Copy constructor Copy constructor Placement Preparation .26 84. OUTPUT: pqr xyz abcd 88. 86. 89. OUTPUT: example examination 0x8fa20fea 0x8f55oo11 90.

List the umbrella activities in software engineering. What is a WINWIN spiral model? This model defines a set of negotiation activities at the beginning of each pass around the spiral. The objective of this activity is to elicit project requirements from the customer. risk management. Software project tracking and control.Software Engineering 27 3 Software Engineering 1. Process and Quality focus. the WINWIN spiral model. document preparation and production. RAD (Rapid Application Development) model. What is KPA in software engineering? The foundation for software engineering is the process layer. 2. 8. reusability management. methods and tools for the development of computer software. What is a spiral model? This model was proposed by Boehm. It is an evolutionary software process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the linear sequential model. component-based development model. What is RAD? It is an incremental software development process model that emphasizes an extremely short development cycle. measurement. Process defines a framework for a set of key process areas (KPA) that must be established for effective delivery of the software engineering technology. 3. the spiral model. 4. 7. evolutionary software process models. 9. What is a task region? A spiral model is divided into a number of framework activities called task regions. Linear sequential model. software quality assurance and software configuration management. The incremental model. . formal methods model. prototyping model. 6. 10. formal technical reviews. What is Software Engineering? Software engineering is a discipline that integrates process. List the various evolutionary software process models. 5. Methods. What are the layers in software engineering? Tools. List the various software engineering models. the concurrent development model.

integrity and usability of software are the indicators of software quality. system or product is developed and used. develop and verify a computer-based system by applying a rigorous. What are the indicators of software quality? Correctness. mathematical notation. complexity. 13. How can the integrity of a system be defined? Integrity = summation [(1-threat) x (1-security)] where threat and security are summed over each type of attack. quality. It refers to a broad range of measurements for computer software. 17. Product and Process. 12. . maintainability. Formal methods enable a software engineer to specify. It begins before any technical activity is initiated and continues throughout the definition. What is PSP? The Personal software process (PSP) is a structured set of process descriptions. 16. Indirect measures of the product include functionality. 15. execution speed. What is the difference between direct and indirect software measures? Direct measures of the software engineering process include cost and effort applied. Direct measures of the product include lines of code (LOC) produced. It is evolutionary in nature. Measures are often collected by software engineers. People. 14. Define the term “software metric”. What is software project management? It is an umbrella activity within software engineering. What is SSPI? SSPI (Statistical Software Process Improvement) uses software failure analysis to collect information about all errors and defects encountered as an application. 19. 18. and methods that can help engineers to improve their personal performance. development and support of computer software. Name the factors influencing software project management. efficiency. memory size and defects reported over some set period of time. Software metrics are analyzed and assessed by software managers. 20. What is the formal method model? It encompasses a set of activities that lead to the formal mathematical specification of computer software. measurements. reliability and maintainability. demanding an iterative approach to the creation of software. Measurements can be applied to the software process with the intent of improving it on a continuous basis. What is a CBD model? Placement Preparation The component based development (CBD) model incorporates many of the characteristics of the spiral model.28 11.

Three different sizing options available here are object points.Software Engineering 21. function. What types of risks are we likely to encounter as the software is built? Project risks. performance. 26. function points and lines of source code. 28. 31. the early design stage model and the post-architecture stage model. It describes the data and control to be processed. constraints. hardware/software tools. 29. Business risks. What is DRE? 29 DRE (Defect Removal Efficiency) is a measure of the filtering ability of quality assurance and control activities as they are applied throughout all process framework activities. . One method for identifying risks is to create a risk item checklist. What is meant by outsourcing? It is a concept where the software engineering activities are contracted to a third party who does the work at lower cost and hopefully provides higher quality. 23. A typical estimation model is derived using regression analysis on data collected from past software projects. 24. Everyone involved in the software process participate in risk analysis and management. What is the COCOMO model? The COCOMO (Constructive Cost Model) is a hierarchy of estimation models that address the application composition model. cost and schedule. 27. What are Risk Analysis and Management? Risk analysis and management are a series of steps that help a software team to understand and manage uncertainty. What is meant by software scope? The first activity in software project planning is the determination of software scope. What is software equation? It is a dynamic multivariable model that assumes a specific distribution of effort over the life of a software development project. What are the resources influencing software project? People. 25. What is meant by Risk Identification? Risk identification is a systematic attempt to specify threats to the project plan. DRE = E/(E+D) where E is the number of errors found before delivery of the software to the end-user and D is the number of defects found after delivery. Technical risks. What is software project planning? The objective of software project planning is to provide a framework that enables the manager to make reasonable estimates of resources. What is the empirical estimation model? An estimation model for computer software uses empirically derived formula to predict effort as a function of LOC or FP. reusable software components. interfaces and reliability. 30. 22.

regardless of the type of work being performed. What is a Risk table? A Risk table provides a project manager with a simple technique for risk projection. What is software configuration management? SCM (Software Configuration Management) is an umbrella activity that is applied throughout the software process. time allocation. to control change. Interdependency. The total hours to do the whole project are estimated. What is RMMM plan? The RMMM (Risk Mitigation Monitoring and Management plan) documents all the work performed as part of risk analysis and is used by the project manager as part of the overall project plan. 41. What is software safety and hazard analysis? Software safety and hazard analysis are software quality assurance activities that focus on the identification and assessment of potential hazards that may affect software negatively and cause an entire system to fail. should it occur. What is an earned value system? A technique for performing the quantitative analysis of progress does exist. 38. 36. the RIS is maintained using a database system. to ensure that change is being properly implemented and to report changes to others who may be interested. What is Risk Projection? Placement Preparation Risk projection.30 32. Why is SCM so important? It is an important element of software quality assurance. 34. defined outcomes and defined milestones are the basic principles guiding software project scheduling. 35. What is software project scheduling? It is an activity that distributes the estimated effort across the planned project duration by allocating the efforts to specific software engineering tasks. 39. It is called earned value analysis (EVA). SCM is developed to identify change. 37. effort validation. also called risk estimation. In most cases. and every task is given an earned value based on its estimated percentage of the total. List the number of basic principles that guide software project scheduling. . 33. What is RIS? Each risk is documented individually using a risk information sheet (RIS). 42. The earned value system provides a common value scale for every software project task. What are the two project scheduling methods that can be applied to software development? (a) PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) (b) CPM (Critical Path Method) 40. defined responsibilities. attempts to rate each risk in two ways: the likelihood or probability that the risk is real and the consequences of the problems associated with the risk. Its primary responsibility is the control of change. Compartmentalization.

Software Engineering 43. What is version control?


Version control combines procedures and tools to manage different versions of configuration objects that are created during the software process. 44. What is software configuration audit? It complements the formal technical review by assessing a configuration object for characteristics that are generally not considered during review. 45. What is System engineering? Software engineering occurs as a consequence of a process called system engineering. Instead of concentrating solely on software, system engineering focuses on a variety of elements, analyzing, designing and organizing those elements into a system that can be a product, a service or a technology for the transformation of information or control. 46. What is Business process engineering? The system engineering process is called business process engineering when the context of the engineering work focuses on a business enterprise. 47. What is Product engineering? When a product is to be built, the process is called product engineering. Both business process engineering and product engineering attempt to bring order to the development of computer-based systems. 48. What is Software requirements analysis? It is a process of discovery, refinement, modeling and specification. 49. What is Requirements analysis? It is a software engineering task that bridges the gap between system level requirements engineering and software design. 50. What are the various phases in software requirement analysis? (a) Problem recognition (b) Evaluation & synthesis (c) Modeling (d) Specification (e) Review 51. What is FAST? FAST (Facilitated Application Specification Technique) encourages the creation of a joint team of customers and developers who work together to identify the problem, propose elements of the solution, negotiate different approaches and specify a preliminary set of solution requirements. 52. What is QFD? QFD (Quality Function Deployment) is a quality management technique that translates the needs of the customer into technical requirements for software. QFD identifies three types of requirements: (i) Normal requirements (ii) Expected requirements (iii) Exciting requirements. 53. What types of models do we create during requirements analysis? Functional models and Behavioral models.

32 54. What is Prototyping?

Placement Preparation

Prototyping offers an alternative approach to the requirements gathering phase that results in an executable model of the software from which requirements can be refined. 55. What are the primary objectives of an analysis model? (a) To describe what the customer requires. (b) To establish a basis for the creation of a software design. (c) To define a set of requirements that can be validated once the software is built. 56. What are the elements of the analysis model? (a) Entity relationship diagram (b) Data flow diagram (c) State-transition diagram and (d) At the core of the model lies the data dictionary. 57. What is Cardinality? Cardinality is the specification of the number of occurrences of one [object] that can be related to the number of occurrences of another [object]. 58. What is Modality? The modality of a relationship is 0 if there is no explicit need for the relationship to occur or the relationship is optional. The modality is 1 if an occurrence of the relationship is mandatory. 59. What are Control specification (CSPEC) and Process specification (PSPEC)? CSPEC represents the behavior of the system. PSPEC is used to describe all flow model processes that appear at the final level of refinement. 60. What is Data dictionary? It is an organized listing of all data elements that are pertinent to the system, with precise, rigorous definitions so that both user and system analyst will have a common understanding of inputs, outputs, components of stores and intermediate calculations. 61. What are Cohesion and Coupling? Cohesion is a qualitative indication of the degree to which a module focuses on just one thing. Coupling is a measure of the relative interdependence among modules. Cohesion is a measure of the relative functional strength of a module. 62. What is Software architecture? Software architecture provides a holisting view of the system to be built. It depicts the structure and organization of software components, their properties, and the connections between them. 63. What is Architectural design? It represents the structure of data and program components that are required to build a computer-based system. 64. What is User interface design? It creates an effective communication medium between a human and a computer. User interface design begins with the identification of user, task and environmental requirements.

Software Engineering 65. When will Component-level design take place?


Component-level design, also called procedural design, occurs after data, architectural and interface designs have been established. 66. How is software reliability measured? It is measured in terms of mean time between failures (MTBF). 67. Has the software crisis been overcome? No, not yet. One of the main reasons for the software crisis is the lack of thrust for software testing. Test engineers can contribute significantly to the software quality. 68. What is CASE and who does it? CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering) tools assist software engineering managers and practitioners in every activity associated with the software process. Project mangers and software engineers use CASE.

the higher the level of quality of conformance. appraisal and failure. What are Quality of design and Quality of conformance? Quality of design refers to the characteristics that designers specify for an item. Quality cost may be divided into costs associated with prevention. What is the role of an SQA group? (a) Prepares an SQA plan for a project. 3. What is Quality assurance? Quality assurance consists of the auditing and reporting functions of management. 6. (d) Audit designated software work products. 5. (f) Records any noncompliance and reports to senior management. What is Software quality control? Quality control involves the series of inspections. . 8. and implicit characteristics that are expected of all professionally developed software. What is FTR? FTR (Formal technical review) is a software quality assurance activity performed by software engineers. How do we define Software quality? Software quality is defined as conformance to explicitly stated functional and performance requirements. reviews and tests used throught the software process to ensure each work product meets the requirements placed upon it.34 Placement Preparation 4 1. (e) Ensures that deviation in software work and work products is documented and handled according to a documented procedure. What are the components of cost of quality? Cost of quality includes all costs incurred in the pursuit of quality or in performing qualityrelated activities. It will ensure that product quality meets its goals. (c) Reviews software engineering activities to verify compliance with the defined software process. The primary objectives of FTR are: (a) To uncover errors in function. 4. What is SQA? 2. (b) Participates in the development of the project’s software process description. explicitly documented development standards. Quality of conformance is the degree to which the design specifications are followed during manufacturing. The greater the degree of conformance. 7. Software Quality and Software Testing SQA (Software Quality Assurance) is an umbrella activity that is applied throughout the software process.

17. (iv) MTTR (Mean time to repair) i. What is software reliability? It is defined in statistical terms as “the probability of failure free operation of a computer program in a specified environment for a specified time”. 10. What is software availability? It is the probability that a program is operating according to requirements at a given point in time and is defined as Availability = [MTTF / (MTTF + MTTR)] * 100% 13. The product quality metrics reflect the quality of the product whereas the process quality metrics reflect how well the process is defined. What is MTBF? MTBF = MTTF + MTTR MTBF = Mean – time between failures. What is ISO 9001 standard? It is the quality assurance standard that applies to software engineering. 11. 9. using the Pareto principle and tracing each defect to its underlying cause. 14. Compare Product Quality Metrics and Process Quality Metrics. the average time required to remove a defect after it is detected. It is carried out through information about software defects. 12.Software Quality and Software Testing 35 logic. (i) Number of defects found per KDSI (known as defect density) (ii) Number of changes requested by the customer after the software is delivered. The product quality metrics are different from the process quality metrics.e. The standard contains 20 requirements that must be present for an effective quality assurance system. Name some software quality metrics.e. 16. What is software safety? It is a software quality assurance activity that focuses on the identification and assessment of potential hazards that may affect software negatively and cause an entire system to fail. (iii) MTBF (Mean time between failures) i. MTTF = Mean – time to failure MTTR = Mean – time to repair. or implementation for any representation of the software (b) To verify that the software under review meets its requirements. Why is software quality assurance important? It is the mapping of the managerial precepts and design disciplines of quality assurance onto the applicable managerial and technological space of software engineering. . the average time between failures. 15. What is statistical software quality assurance? It reflects a growing trend throughout industry to become more quantitative about quality.

as the testing process progresses.98 There are two representations of CMMI framework namely staged and continuous. 24. Level 5 organizations have very mature processes and continuously improve their processes to improve product quality. What is PCMM level? The people capability maturity model (PCMM) was developed at the SEI to measure and improve the human resources development practices. CMM addresses the management of quality of software aspects of the project i. They do everything on ad hoc basis. What is CMM? Placement Preparation CMM (Capability Maturity Model) is a model developed by the software engineering institute to grade software development organizations based on their process maturity. The philosophy of PSP is simple: plan year work. However. What is software testing? It is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification. controlled and effective is defined as software process maturity. a software engineer performs all tests. 21. Organizations are graded from level 1 to level 5 to measure the effectiveness of human resources development practices. CMM levels indicate only the process quality and not product quality.e. Compare TQM and CMM. 23. 20. 19. Level 1 organization does not follow any processes to develop software. track your work and analyze your work so that you will continuously improve yourself. design and code generation. What is software process maturity? The extent to which a process is explicitly defined. managed. . measured. What are the levels in CMM? An organization is given one of the 5 grades or levels as level 1 to level 5.36 18. Why is PSP required? The SEI (Software Engineering Institute) developed the personal software process (PSP) which defines the processes to be followed by individuals. However. What is CMMI? The Capability maturity model integration (CMMI) for software engineering is the result of the SEI’s efforts to develop an integrated improvement framework for the following standards for quality system management: (i) CMM for software (SW – CMM) (ii) EIA / IS 731 (iii) IPD – CMM VO. Who does the software testing? During early stages of testing. 25. 26. 22. testing specialists may become involved. CMM is confined to software quality management of the organization whereas TQM (Total quality management) addresses both hardware and software quality management.

What is control structure testing? The control structure testing completely scans all the logical conditions. Black– box testing. 30. good test should be neither too simple nor too complex. concatenated loops.I<=50.I++) { statements }. What is loop testing? It is a white-box testing technique that focuses exclusively on the validity of loop constructs. data flow testing and loop testing. It enables the test case designer to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and use this measure as a guide for defining a basis set of execution paths. The orthogonal array testing method is particularly useful in finding errors associated with region faults--an error category associated with a faulty logic within a software component. good test is not redundant. What is equivalence partitioning? It is a black-box testing method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data from which test cases can be derived. 35. In this code. 29. . The data flow testing method selects test paths of a program according to the locations of definitions and uses of variables in the program. What are Condition testing and Data flow testing? Condition testing is a test case design method that exercises the logical conditions contained in a program module. 36.Software Quality and Software Testing 27. How is basis path testing carried out? Using representations like flow graph. What is boundary value analysis? Values that are on the boundary of equivalence classes are high field test cases. What is orthogonal array testing? It can be applied to problems in which the input domain is relatively small but too large to accommodate exhaustive testing. graph matrix and software metrics like cyclomatic complexity and control structure testing. 33. good test should be the best of breed. nested loops and unstructured loops. 37 28. 34. I=50 is a boundary value. What are the attributes of a good test? (a) A (b) A (c) A (d) A good test has a high probability of finding an error. Four different classes of loops can be defined simple loops. also called behavioral testing. What is Basis path testing? It is a white–box testing technique first proposed by McCabe. What are Black–Box testing and White–Box testing? White–box testing. It is a test case design technique that complements equivalence partitioning. 31. data flow and loops through condition testing. 32. focuses on the functional requirements of the software. Example: for (I=0. sometimes called glass–box testing is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive the test cases.

42. Types of system tests include (1) Recovery testing (2) Security testing (3) Stress testing and (4) Performance testing. 40. What is smoke testing? It is an integration testing approach that is commonly used when “shrink wrapped” software products are being developed. 45. 46. What is Debugging? Debugging is the process that results in the removal of the error. The beta test is conducted at one or more customer sites by the end-user of the software. What is regression testing? In the context of an integration test strategy regression testing is the re-execution of some subset of tests that has already been conducted to ensure that changes have not propagated unintended side effects. Finally comes the system testing where the software and other system elements are tested as a whole. What are verification and validation? Placement Preparation Verification refers to the set of activities that ensure that software correctly implements a specific function. It is not testing but always occurs as a consequence of testing. Next is validation testing. It is also a good debugging mechanism. What is Alpha and Beta testing? The alpha test is conducted at the developer’s site by a customer. Then comes integration testing. What is the overall strategy for software testing? Four types of testing are conducted to the software product. Every time the user executes the computer program. What are the two levels in integration testing? Top-down integration and bottom-up integration. 44.38 37. 41. 43. where requirements established as part of software requirements analysis are validated against software. Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensure that the software that has been built is traceable to customer requirements. the program is being tested. What is system testing? It is actually a series of different tests whose primary purpose is to fully exercise the computer based system. 39. mutation testing can be done to simulate wrong inputs. 38. the burden simply shifts from the software engineer to the customer. After the software works correctly. where focus is on design and the construction of the software architecture. Unit testing begins first and concentrates on each unit of the software as implemented in source code. . What is Mutation testing? Mutation testing is required to ensure that the software does not fail. We can never say that testing is over. When are we done with software testing? There is no definitive answer to this question.

silktest has an in-built customizable recovery system. While recording. LoadRunner simulates multiple transactions from the same machine and hence it creates a scenario of simultaneous access to the application. It puts a heavy load on the server. Host software is the component that is used to develop test plans and test scripts. What is an Apache JMeter? It is an open source testing tool used to test the performance of the application when it is under heavy load. It can be used for testing a variety of applications such as VB. etc. 52. 51. What are the steps in silk test testing process? (1) Creating a test plan (2) Recording a test frame (3) Creating test cases (4) Running test cases and interpreting these results. What is Data driven testing? Data driven testing simplifies the testing process as we can just generate one test case with constants. There are four categories of TSL functions. What is LoadRunner? The Mercury Interactive’s LoadRunner is used to test the client/server applications such as database management systems and websites. and then replace these constants with variables. What is TSL? Test Script Language (TSL) is a scripting language with syntax similar to C language. What is SilkTest? To facilitate unattended testing.Software Quality and Software Testing 47. This type of testing is very important for most database applications. What are the components of Silktest? It has two components that execute as separate processes: (a) Host software (b) Agent software. The agent software is the component that interacts with the GUI of our application. What are the features of the WinRunner application? . This test script can be run automatically later on for carrying out unattended testing. (b) Context sensitive functions (d) Standard functions (b) Data driven testing (d) GUI check points 49. What is WinRunner? 39 It is a very powerful automated testing tool for functional/regression testing. ‘virtual’ users are simulated. Using WinRunner. They are: (a) Analog functions (c) Customization functions (a) Synchronization of test cases (c) Rapid testing 50. WinRunner automatically creates a test script. It can be used to test both static and non-static data. 54. 48. with minimal infrastructure and manpower. standalone JAVA. tests the performance and analyzes the results when many users access the application simultaneously. 53. databases. 55. we can record GUI operations. Using LoadRunner. Hence instead of ‘real’ users. websites. performance testing can be carried out.

Why does software have bugs? Bugs are normally found in software because of software complexity. and other factors. 66. 61. 62. usability. 57. an ability to take the point of view of the customer and a strong desire for quality. walkthroughs and inspections. 63. What is a walkthrough? A walkthrough is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. The source code is freely distributed by the author. the risks. What makes a good software quality assurance engineer? The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a quality assurance engineer. portability. The answer depends on the size and context of the project. It can be integrated with other tools such as WinRunner and LoadRunner.40 56. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. coding. changing requirements and poor scheduling of software projects. the skill and experience of the developers. unrealistic schedule. This procedure is divided into different stages such as requirements engineering design. inadequate testing. is bug free and is readable and maintainable. the test scripts generated using these tools can be incorporated in the test plan. 60. 58. and safety requirements etc. What is good code? A good code is a code that works. testing and maintenance. efficiency. delivery. programming errors. What is an inspection? An inspection is more formalized than a walkthrough. software quality assurance engineer must be able to understand the entire . 65. some projects may not require independent test staff to succeed. Little or no preparation is usually required. The TestDirector provides the features of linking the tests with the requirements. What makes a good software test engineer? A good test engineer has a ‘test to break’ attitude. and it can be redistributed without any license fee. List the non-functional requirement of a software product. What are the common problems in the software development process? Poor requirements. What is software process? The step-by-step procedure to convert a problem definition into a working software product. 67. 59. What is open source software? It is a revolutionary concept in software development. What is Test Director? Placement Preparation Test engineers need to study the requirements of the software in detail. Does every software project need testing? While all projects will benefit from testing. the development methodology. 64. Additionally. time. The requirements define what needs to be tested. Hence. Hence an SRS document gives the testing objectives. Reliability. a reader and a recorder to take notes.

to determine whether an application is working correctly. 70. CSQE (Certified Software Quality Engineer) program. or on-going long-term projects. action. 73. CSQA (Certified Software Quality Analyst). How will you carryout software testing when you don’t have enough time? One way is to use risk analysis to determine where testing should be focused. What is a test plan? A software project test plan is a document that describes the objectives. 69. the time needed to learn and implement the automated testing tools may not be worthier unless the testing team is already familiar with the tools. 68.Software Quality and Software Testing 41 software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization. ISTQB (International Software Testing Qualifications Board) certified tester. 72. these tools can be of high value. or event and an expected response. For larger projects. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? For small projects. approach and focus of a software testing effort. Name some certifications for software quality assurance and test engineers. The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. scope. What is a test case? A test case is a document that describes an input. What is Extreme Programming? Extreme Programming (XP) is a software development approach for small teams on risk-prone projects with unstable requirements. CSTE (Certified Software Test Engineer) and CSPM (Certified Software Project Manager) certifications. . 71.

3. In a queue. 4. Stacks. What is a data structure? A data structure is a way to store and organize data in order to facilitate access and modifications. as output. or set of values. What is probabilistic analysis? It is the method of using probability to analyze problems. We use probabilistic analysis to analyze the running time of an algorithm. the sort runs in O(n) time. 2. What is bucket sort? Bucket sort runs in linear time when the input is drawn from a uniform distribution. 11. Bucket sort is fast because it assumes something about the input. the policy is LIFO (Last-in. Name some elementary data structures. as input and produces some value. 6. What are stacks and queues? Stacks and queues are dynamic sets in which the element removed from the set by the DELETE operation is pre-specified. Each node of the tree corresponds to an element of the array that stores the value in the node. 9. What is an algorithm? Data Structures and Algorithms It is any well-defined computational procedure that takes some value. In a stack. First-out). . 5. 8.42 Placement Preparation 5 1. What is a linked list? A linked list is a data structure in which the objects are arranged in a linear order. each with an associated value called a key. when k = O(n). 7. What is a priority queue? A priority queue is a data structure for maintaining a set of elements. What is a randomized algorithm? We call an algorithm randomized if its behavior is determined not only by its input but also by values produced by a random-number generator. What is heap data structure? The (binary) heap data structure is an array object that can be viewed as a nearly complete binary tree. Queues 10. First-out). the policy is FIFO (First-in. What is counting sort? Counting sort assumes that each of the n input elements is an integer in the range 0 to k for some integer k. or set of values.

What is a full binary tree? It is a binary tree where each node is either a leaf or has degree exactly 2. What is double hashing? It is one of the best methods available for open addressing because the permutations produced have many of the characteristics of randomly chosen permutations. 16. Given key k. A complete k-ary tree is a k-ary tree in which all leaves have the same depth and all internal nodes have degree k. We next probe slot t[h’(k)+1] .I)=(h1(k)+Ih2(k)) mod m. 21. we put all the elements that hash to the same slot in a linked list. The dictionary operations on a hash table T are easy to implement when collisions are resolved by chaining. and so on up to slot T[m-1].…m–1} which we refer to as an auxiliary hash function. Thus. the slot given by the auxiliary hash function. What is open addressing? In open addressing. What are collision and chaining? A collision is a situation where the two keys may hash to the same slot. What is linear probing? Given an ordinary hash function h’:U→ {0. i. What is K-ary tree? It is a positional tree in which for every node. What is universal hashing? Universal hashing is a technique of choosing the hash function randomly in a way that is independent of the keys that are actually going to be stored. 17. Double hashing uses a hash function of the form h(k. What is a hash table? A hash table is an effective data structure for implementing dictionaries. The expected time to search for an element in a hash table is O(1). each key is equally likely to hash to any of the m slots. the method of linear probing uses the hash function h(k. all children with labels greater than k are missing. 22.I)=(h′(k)+I) mod m for I=0. 15. all elements are stored in the hash table itself.2.m–1. In chaining.…. 19. What makes a good hash function? A good hash function satisfies the assumption of simple uniform hashing.e.1. the first slot probed is T [h′(k)].Data Structures and Algorithms 12.2. 14. A hash table is a generalization of the simple notion of an ordinary array. or is composed of three disjoined sets of nodes: a root node. a binary tree is a k-ary tree with k=2. 18. where h1 and h2 are auxiliary hash functions. and a binary tree called its right subtree. 20. Each table entry contains either an element of the dynamic set or nil. independently of where any other key has hashed to. a binary tree called its left subtree.1. . What is a null tree? The binary tree that contains no nodes is called the empty tree or null tree. What is a binary tree? 43 A binary tree T is a structure defined on a finite set of nodes that either contains no nodes. 13.

How is dynamic programming algorithm generated? The development of a dynamic programming algorithm can be broken into a sequence of four steps:(a) Characterizing the structure of an optimal solution. How do we augment a data structure? Augmenting a data structure can be broken into four steps: (a) Choosing an underlying data structure. . Its color can be either RED or BLACK. All priorities are distinct and also all keys are distinct. 25. (b) Determining additional information to be maintained in the underlying data structure. If a child or the parent is missing. 27. 28. we maintain an extra field in each node: h[x] is the height of node x. (2) The root is black (3) Every leaf (NIL) is black. each node contains fields left. Each node x in the tree has a key value—key [x]. 31.44 23. then both its children are black. What is an AVL tree? An AVL tree is a binary search tree that is height balanced: for each node x. right and p that point to the nodes corresponding to its left child. its right child and its parent. the heights of the left and right subtrees of x differ by atmost 1. What is a binary search tree? Placement Preparation It is a binary tree where in addition to a key field and satellite data. What is an order-statistic tree T? It is simply a red-black tree with additional information stored in each node. In addition. 26. 24. What is a treap? It is a binary search tree with a modified way of ordering the nodes. and (d) Developing new operations. 30. which is a random number chosen independently for each node. What is the property of a binary-search tree? Let x be a node in a binary search tree. (4) If a node is red. To implement an AVL tree. we assign priority [x]. (5) For each node. 29. If y is a node on the left subtree of x. When is a binary search tree called a red-black tree? A binary search tree is a red black tree if it satisfies the following red-black properties: (1) Every node is either red or black. (c) Verifying that the additional information can be maintained for the basic modifying operations on the underlying data structure. the appropriate field contains the value NIL. respectively. What is a red black tree? A red black tree is a binary search tree with one extra bit of storage per node. then key[y] ≤ key[x]. The root node is the only node in the tree whose parent field is NIL. then key[x] ≤ key[y]. all paths from the node to descendant leave contain the same number of black nodes. If y is a node in the right subtree of x.

38. For the binomial tree Bk. What is amortized analysis? In an amortized analysis. Huffman’s greedy algorithm uses a table of the frequencies of occurrence of the characters to build up an optimal way of representing each character as a binary string. What are Huffman codes? Huffman codes are a widely used and very effective technique for compressing data.1. What is an optimal binary search tree? 45 For a given set of probabilities. 39. 36. there are exactly kci nodes at depth i for i=0. Define the height of a B-tree. The number of disk accesses required for most operations on a B-tree is proportional to the height of the B-tree. the time required to perform a sequence of data structure operations is averaged over all the operations performed. What is a B-tree? B-trees are balanced search trees designed to work on magnetic disks or other directaccess secondary storage devices.Data Structures and Algorithms (b) Recursively defining the value of an optimal solution. What is a binomial tree? It is an ordered tree defined recursively. . Greedy algorithms do not always yield optimal solutions. What is a Greedy algorithm? A greedy algorithm always makes the choice that looks best at the moment.k and the root has degree k. (a) Each binomial tree in H obeys the min-heap property. (c) Computing the value of an optimal solution in a bottom-up fashion. and (d) Constructing an optimal solution from computed information. 32. How will you construct a Huffman code? Huffman invented a greedy algorithm that constructs an optimal prefix code called a Huffman code. if one averages over a sequence of operations. (b) For any non-negative integer k. 37. That is. there are 2k nodes. It can be used to show that the average cost of an operation is small. which is greater than that of any other node. 35. it makes a locally optimal choice in the hope that this choice will lead to a globally optimal solution. but for many problems they do. 40. What is a binomial heap H? It is a set of binomial trees that satisfies the following binomial heap properties. 33. our goal is to construct a binary search tree whose expected search cost is smallest.…. there is atmost one binomial tree H whose root has degree k. We call such a tree an optimal binary search tree. The height of the tree is k. B-trees are similar to red-black trees but they are better at minimizing disk I/O operations. even though a single operation within the sequence might be expensive. 34.

Give an example of NP-complete.v) then u appears before v in the ordering. each pair of which is connected by an edge in E. 45. What are the methods to find MST? (a) Prim’s algorithm: O(n*n) and (b) Kruskal’s algorithm: O(e*log e) 49. MST (Minimal Spanning Tree) is a spanning tree organized so that the total edge weight between nodes is minimized.1}. What is a sorting network? A sorting network is a comparison network for which the output sequence monotonically increases for every input sequence. A clique in an undirected graph G=(V. A clique is a complete subgraph of G. 44. It says that if a sorting network works correctly when each input is drawn from the set {0. but not necessarily property 1. . What is NP-Completeness? A language L ≤ {0. All the nodes of the graph appear on the tree once. The size of a clique is the number of vertices it contains.E) is a linear ordering of all its vertices such that if G contains an edge (u. The trees in a Fibonacci heap are not constrained to be binomial trees. etc. we say that L is NP-hard. 50. What is a bottleneck-spanning tree T? A bottleneck-spanning tree T of an undirected graph G is a spanning tree of G whose largest edge weight is minimum over all spanning trees of G.E) is a subset V′ ≤ V of vertices. 48. 46.46 41. 43. Here. (b) Closed addressing (open hashing). 47. Unlike trees within binomial heaps which are ordered. If a language L satisfies property 2. What is a Fibonacci Heap? Placement Preparation It is a collection of min-heap ordered trees. What is a spanning tree? A spanning tree is a tree associated with a network. the method used includes linked lists. the method used is overflow blocks. then it works correctly on arbitrary input numbers. The clique problem is NP-Complete. 42. What is a topological sort? A topological sort of a directed acyclic graph G = (V. Name the collision resolution techniques. binary tree. Here. the trees within Fibonacci heaps are rooted but unordered. State the zero-one principle. (a) Open addressing (closed hashing).1}* is NP-complete if 1) L∈NP and 2) L′ ≤ pL for every L′∈NP.

. from the view point of the effective use of management resources. EIS and OLAP. Expand the following: ERP. how they related are. BPR. OLAP. potentially useful and ultimately comprehensible information from databases that are used to make crucial business decisions. 4.Computer Applications 47 6 1. MIS. MIS. MRP. DSS. MRPII. what their interdependencies are and so on. BPR. ERP packages are integrated software packages that support these ERP concepts. to improve the efficiency of an enterprise. SCM. TQM and EDIFACT ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning MIS – Management information system DSS – Decision support system SCM – Supply chain management BPR – Business process reengineering EIS – Executive information system OLAP – On line analytical processing MRP – Materials requirements planning MRP II – Manufacturing resource planning EDP – Electronic data processing CRM – Customer relationship management TQM – Total quality management EDIFACT – Electronic data interchange for administration. 6. EIS. Computer Applications Name some applications of computer science which enable an organization to improve its performance. CRM. 7. What is Data Mining? It is the process of identifying valid. What is a Data Warehouse? It is a database designed to support decision making in an organization. EDP. What is a Business model? A Business model is a representation of the actual business--what the various business functions of the organization are. better planning and ability to make use of the latest technology. flexibility. What is ERP? ERP covers the techniques and concepts employed for the integrated management of businesses as a whole. What are the advantages of ERP? Business integration. 2. standardization. DSS. SCM. commerce and transport. 3. novel. 5. ERP packages. It is updated batch-wise and is structured for fast online queries and summaries for managers.

Name some ERP vendors. . SAP ERP package comes in two versions: the mainframe version (SAP R/2) and the client/server version (SAP R/3). genetic algorithms and nonlinear regression methods. What is supply chain management? It is a process of managing the facilities and distribution options that perform the function of procurement of materials. What is EIA? Enterprise Integration Application (EIA) products promise to speed the work of linking applications and eliminating or reducing the need to develop a custom code. business and technological perspective. Michael Hammer defined Business Process Reengineering as the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. Baan. Manufacturing. 16. 19. quality. HR Management. What is the evolution of ERP? MRP → MRP II → ERP → SCM 13. manpower planning and quality analysis. Why is OLAP required? Placement Preparation It is used for applications such as product profitability and piecing analysis. contemporary measures of performance such as cost. transformation of these materials into intermediate and finished products and distribution of these finished products to customers. What are the techniques used in Data mining? Neural networks.48 8. What are the three ways of evaluating ERP software? The evaluation of ERP software can be done in three perspectives namely organizational. 18. Production planning. JD Edwards. SAP. case based reasoning (CBR). Materials management and Quality management. activity based costing. Ramco system and Oracle Corporation. 12. Plant maintenance. 15. 10. What are the two versions of the SAP ERP package? SAP (systems. service and speed. They are: (i) The ‘big bang’ approach (ii) Location-wise approach (iii) Module-wise approach 14. 17. rube induction. decision trees. What are the three approaches in ERP implementation? There are three different approaches to ERP implementation. 9. What is BPR? Dr. What are the business modules in an ERP package? Financial management. 11. What is BOM? Bill of material (BOM) defines the relationship of components to end items. applications and products in data processing) is the leading global provider of client/server business application solution. evolutionary programming.

What is EIS? An EIS (Executive Information System) is an information system that consolidates and summarizes the ongoing transactions within an organization. 29. collation. What is E-Commerce? Electronic commerce (E-commerce) means doing business online or selling and buying products and services through web. . 26. It is a strategic. What is EDI? EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) is the electronic communication of transactions between organizations such as orders. (a) Defining the problem (b) Defining solutions (c) Getting down to work (d) Going live. What is DSS? A DSS (Decision support system) is an information and planning system that provides the ability to interrogate computers on ad-hoc basis. What is WMS? WMS (Warehouse Management System) is a software that integrates mechanical and human activities with an information system to effectively manage warehouse business processes and direct warehouse activities. CAD– engineered designs are converted automatically into software programs for computerized production machines. 24. integrated management system for achieving customer satisfaction.Computer Applications 20. 30. 28. What is TQM? TQM (Total Quality Management) is both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization. What is CAD/CAM? 49 CAD (Computer–Aided Design) / CAM (Computer-Assisted Manufacturing) systems are computer programs or integrated packages for workstation hardware and software that allow the user to draw and easily modify product designs on a computer screen. 21. What is MIS? Management information system (MIS) is a computer-based system that optimizes the collection. transfer and presentation of information throughout an organization through an integrated structure of databases and information flow. 25. confirmations and invoices. 22. 27. 23. What are the major components of a Data warehouse? (i) Summarized data (ii) Operational systems of record (iii) Architecture of Data warehouse (iv) Archives. What are the advantages of a Data warehouse? (1) Less expensive (2) Better enterprise intelligence (3) Enhanced customer service (4) Business reengineering (5) Effective decision making (6) Increased operational and production databases. analyze information and predict the impact of decisions before they are made. Name the four basic phases in ERP implementation.

How is computer network related to E-Commerce? E-Commerce is an emerging concept that describes the process of buying and selling or exchanging of products. 33. cars. as well as individuals who seek sellers. interact with them. What is an Intelligent Agent? Intelligent Agents and their subset software agents are computer programs that help the users to conduct routine tasks. What is B2C? Business-to-Consumer EC is a situation where a business is selling online to an individual consumer. services and information via computer networks including the internet. and so on. Examples are individuals selling in classified ads and selling residential property. during and after sales. 32. The CAD technology significantly reduces the time required for product design. and provides tremendous flexibility in design. CAD systems are interactive computer graphics systems used for product design. What is C2B (Consumer-to-Business)? This category includes individuals who sell products or services to organizations. support decision making and act as domain experts. CAM can have on-line and off-line applications. 39. 36. What are the applications of Extranets? Enhanced communication. productivity enhancement. What is embedded extranet? One site connected to the Internet has an embedded extranet of another company so that the company at the back can provide information to the customers seamlessly. search and retrieve information. 41. 34. 35. 37. Agents are used to support many tasks in Electronic Commerce. 40. What is B2B? Business-to-Business EC (B2B) is an electronic trading where both the buyers and the sellers are organizations. usually stored on a smart card and/or in software called digital wallet. cost reduction and information delivery.50 31. . What is CRM? Placement Preparation Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is to add value for customers through those processes that involve direct contact with customer before. 38. CAM software integrates the operations of all computers-controlled machines. and conclude a transaction. What is C2C (Consumer-to-Consumer)? In this category consumer sells directly to consumers. What is e-cash? Electronic Cash (e-cash) is the cash in an electronic form. business enhancement. Compare CAD and CAM.

protecting intellectual property. over the virtual private network built on the internet. instead of at a physical bank location. determining jurisdiction and protecting both sellers and buyers. opportunities and threats for a company. or individuals. controlling internet indecency. which links the remote intranets. business. 45. 48. controlling gambling. What is SWOT analysis? SWOT is an acronym used to describe particular strengths. Intranet and Extranet? The Internet is a public and global network open to anybody. establishing a tax framework. What are Biometric controls? Biometric controls provide access procedures that match every valid user with a unique user identifier (UID). List the applications of extranets. virtual banking. An Intranet is a corporate network whose access is protected by firewalls. Name some commercial web servers that help E-Commerce. or on the road. What are the changes brought by E-Commerce? Everything will be changed. productivity enhancement. 50. 47. 46. What is the relationship among the Internet. starting with marketing theories and practices and concluding with product innovation and supply chain management. also known as cyberbanking. An Extranet is an extended intranet. weaknesses. includes various banking activities conducted from home. Enhanced communication.Computer Applications 42. What are the major legal issues related to EC? Major issues include privacy. and online banking. What is Electronic Banking? Electronic banking. 44. They also provide an authentication method to verify that users requesting access to the computer system are really those whom they claim to be. 51 The three servers that are more popular are: (i) Apache server (ii) Microsoft’s Internet Information Server (IIS) and (iii) Netscape’s Enterprise Server. 43. . What is DES? Data encryption standard (DES) is a published federal encryption standard created to protect unclassified computer data and communications. business enhancements. home banking. preventing fraud. 49. costs reduction and information delivery.

Class variables are global to a class and to all the instances of the class. Secured. multithreaded and dynamic. Objects can communicate with each other using methods and can call methods in other classes. multi-threaded programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in 1991. 4. portable. 3. 9. Local variables and Class variables.52 Placement Preparation 7 JAVA Programming 1. Once the block or the method is executed. What is a class? A class defines the shape and behavior of an object and is a template for multiple objects with similar features. 2. object-oriented. Instance variables are used to define attributes or the state of a particular object. What is a Swing? It is a set of user interface components that is implemented entirely in java. What is meant by Literals? A Literal represents a value of a certain type where the type describes the behavior of the value. the variable ceases to exist. There are different types of literals. They are (a) Number (b) Character (c) Boolean (d) String 7. . List some features of JAVA. What is the purpose of this keyword? The ‘this’ keyword is used inside any instance method to refer to the current object. What type of language is JAVA? Java is an object-oriented. In Java development environment there are two parts: a Java compiler and a Java interpreter. 5. 6. The value of ‘this’ refers to the object on which the current method has been called. The compiler generates bytecode instead of machine code and the interpreter executes the Java program. What are the three different kinds of variables in Java? Instance variables. Local variables are used inside blocks as counters or in methods as temporary variables. What is a method? Methods are functions that operate on instances of classes in which they are defined. What is the disadvantage of bytecode? Execution speed. What are wrapper classes? Wrapper classes are provided for the primitive data types in order to use theses types as objects. 8. 10. robust.

18. What is String Buffer? String Buffer is a peer class of string that provides much of the common use functionality of strings. 20. 17. There are four levels of visibility that are used. replace( ). What is an abstract class? Abstract classes are classes from which instances are usually not created. 16. 13. toLowercase( ). 21. number and type of arguments. Finalizers are called just before the object is garbage collected and its memory is reclaimed. What is overriding? Overriding is the creation of a method in the subclass that has the same signature (i. What are constructors and finalizer? A constructor method is a special kind of method that determines how an object is initialized when created. What is an inner class? An inner class is a nested class whose instance exists within an instance of its enclosing class and has direct access to the instance members of its enclosing instance. toUppercase( ). It is basically used to contain common characteristics of its derived classes. Protected and Package.JAVA Programming 11. Classes can be declared as final indicating that the value of that particular variable cannot be changed. What is a package? Packages in Java are a way of grouping together related classes and interfaces. 22. trim( ). an array of arrays can be created. However. 14. What is the purpose of keyword final? The word final is used to indicate that no further alterations can be made.) name. 15. They are Public. Name some demerits of Java.e. The finalizer method functions in contradiction to the constructor method. This new method hides the method of the super class. Strings represent fixed-length character sequences. CharAt( ). Substring( ). The technique that accomplishes this is called garbage collection. valueof( ). Java does not support multidimensional arrays and operator overloading. . What is an interface? An interface is a collection of abstract behavior specifications that individual classes can implement. deallocation happens automatically. List some string methods used in Java. Private. as a method in the super class. What is garbage collection? In Java. Concat( ). What are the various levels of access control? What is the difference between them? 53 Access control is the process of controlling visibility of a variable or method. Length( ). 12. equals( ). They have the same name as the class and do not have any return type. 19. The Finalizer method is represented by finalize(). CompareTo( ).

What is Random Access File Class? It can be used for both input and output to a single file. (2) Applets cannot run any programs on the system. 26. Three types of constructors are found in the file class. 33. 32. InterruptedIOException. List the various exceptions available in Java. ArrayIndexoutofBoundsException. NegativeArraySizeException. skip( ). throws and throw. it provides the same platform – independent formatting methods as the DataStream classes. What is AWT? The Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) is an API (Application Programming Interface) that is responsible for building the graphical user interface (GUI). InvalidClassException. An applet is a dynamic and interactive program that can run inside a web page displayed by a Java – capable browser such as Hot Java or Netscape. The FileInputStream class helps in reading data from the actual disk files.54 23. Java handles exceptions using five keywords – try. (3) Applets cannot communicate with any server other than the one in which they were stored originally. What are the advantages of inheritance? Placement Preparation (i) Reusability of code (ii) Data and methods of a super class are physically available to its subclasses. FileNotFoundException. 24. available( ). What are the methods available with the InputStream/ Reader class? read( ). How are Java programs classified? Java programming is classified into two groups namely applications and applets. EOFException. which arises during the execution of a program. 29. It is a part of the Java Foundation Classes (JFC). 27. The java. What are the merits of a package? Packages contain a set of classes in order to ensure that its class names are unique. 25. Packages are containers for classes that are used to compartmentalize the class name space. 28. What is an exception? An exception is an abnormal condition. finally. SQLException and UnknownHostException.awt package contains all classes for creating user interface and for painting graphics and images. NumberFormatException. . What are the two types of file streams available in Java? File stream comprises of the FileInputStream and FileOutputStream. The FileOutputStream class helps to create a file and write data into it using the methods under OutputStreamClass. IOException. mark( ) and reset( ). catch.package. What are the restrictions associated with applets? (1) Applets cannot read or write to the file system. close( ). 30. Although it is not a stream class. How are file operations carried out in Java? File I/O operations are performed using methods found in a class file found in java.

38. and CardLayout. it is received by one or more listeners that act on that event. 41. What is a thread? Thread is a line of execution. There are two types of mouse event listeners – MouseListener and MouseMotionListener. 37. 46. What is a frame class? The frame class is used to create standard application windows independent of the browser that contains the applet. pluggable look and feel. What is a Panel? The Panel is a recursively nestable container often used to divide the screen space into a number of cells. WIDTH and HEIGHT. An interface is a collection of abstract behavior that individual classes can implement. How do we build and manage menus in Java? Java’s AWT provides three classes MenuBar. 43. CODEBASE. What are the main methods of the applet class? The main methods of Applet class are init( ). What is an event? When an event is fired.JAVA Programming 34. and 2D. 36. How will you pass parameters to an applet? 55 Parameters can be passed to an applet by using the PARAM tag. 42. Name some of the tags used inside an applet. </Applet>. GridBagLayout.html file? <Applet>. 44. What is layout manager class? The layout manager classes are a set of classes that implement the java. destroy( ). BorderLayout. It is defined like a class. 35. Give the syntax of an interface. . What are the basic layout managers? FlowLayout. Menu and MenuItem to build and manage menus. Components can handle events by themselves or can delegate it to objects called listeners. In a single threaded system there is only one execution line.Layout manager interfaces and help to position the components in a container. It consists of five major packages namely swing. drag and drop. What is an EventListener? An EventListener interface typically has a separate method for each distinct event type the event class represents.Awt. stop( ). 45. accessibility. which has two attributes NAME and VALUE. GridLayout. What is JFC? Java Foundation Class (JFC) is an extension for AWT. 40. 39. CODE. start( ). paint( ) and repaint( ).

What is a Dot operator? It is used to obtain the value of the instance variable. Placement Preparation <interface Name>{ <method Name 1> (<parameter.56 Syntax: <access> <return Type> . . lang? Cloneable. <variable Name 1> = <value>. What is JDBC? JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) is a software layer that allows developers to write real client–server projects in Java. runnable. What is the purpose of the super keyword? The super keyword allows a subclass to refer to its immediate super class. . The general form for accessing instance variables using the dot operator is given below: <Object Reference>. What is the usage of repaint( ) method? This method is used in case an applet is to be repainted. <type> . simple interface focusing on the execution of raw SQL statements and retrieving the results. What is JDBC API? It defines a set of interface and classes to be used for communicating with a database. 47. 54. 48. 51. 49. <Variable Name> Where <Object Reference> is the name of the object and <Variable Name> is the instance Variable. It was designed to be a very compact. What are the interfaces of java. What are the components of JDBC? Application. What is multithreading? A process containing multiple threads to execute its different sections is called multithreading. 50. There are four states associated with a thread—namely new. 53. } Here the access is either public or without specification. 52. Driver Manager and Driver. . These interface and classes are found in the java. What is a new operator? The new operator creates a single instance of a named class and returns a reference to that object. 55.sqlpackage. List>). blocked and dead. Comparable and Runnable. .

JAVA Programming 57 PREDICT THE OUTPUT OR ERROR FOR THE FOLLOWING QUESTION NUMBER 56 TO 80 56.j<i.println (r%2==1?“*”:“#”).i++) {System.j++){ System.println (“Centrigrade equivalent is” + C + “C”). }}} OUTPUT:______________ 60. Class one { Public static void main (String args[]){ for (int i=0.Valueof(i)+“Value is”+String. Class sample { Public static void main (String args[]){ int r = 5. Public static void main(String args[]){ for (int i=0.out. System. System.valueof(a[i])). float f = 69.out. C.9}.out.println (“Arg “+i+”:”+args[i]).out. }}} OUTPUT:______________ 59. ++C. } --r.println ().length. }}} OUTPUT:______________ . While(r<=1){ C=1.i++){ System.i++){ for (int j=0.out. C= (f-32)*5/9.6. }}} OUTPUT:______________ 57. While(C<=5){ System.out.length.print (“ “+(i*j)).i<a.5. }} OUTPUT:______________ 58. Public class sub { static int a[] = {2. Class two { Public static void main (String args[]){ float C.println (“Subscript is” + String.i<8. i<agrs. Class argu { Public static void main (String args[]){ for (int i=0.

58 61. Class first { Public static void main (String args[]) { System.out.println (“WELCOME”); }} OUTPUT:______________ 62. Class sec { Public static void main (String args[]) { x=90; short y=40; float z=10.99f; System.out.println (“Integer x is” +x); System.out.println (“Short y is” +y); System.out.println (“Float z is” + z); }} OUTPUT:______________ 63. Class count { Public static void main (String args[]) { int a=1; int b=2; int c=++b; int d=a++; c++; System.out.println (“a= ”+a); System.out.println (“b= ” +b); System.out.println (“c= ”+c); System.out.println (“d= ”+d); }} OUTPUT:______________ 64. Class bits { Public static void main (String args[]) { int a=1; int b=2; int c=3; a=a|4; b>>=1; c<<=1; a=a^c; System.out.println (“a= ”+a); System.out.println (“b= ”+b); System.out.println (“c= ”+c); }} OUTPUT:______________ 65. Class demo{ Public static void main (String args[]) { for (int j=0;j<10;j++){ System.out.print (+j+” “); if(j%2==0) continue; System.out.println (“ ”); }}} OUTPUT:______________

Placement Preparation

JAVA Programming 66. Class pr { Private int x=10; void var(){ System.out.println (“value is ”+x); } Public static void main (String args[]){ Priv p1 = new Priv(); System.out.println (“Value is ”+p1.x); p1.var(); }} OUTPUT:______________ 67. Class demo { Public static void main (String args[]) { String s1 = “Hellosir”; String s2 = “Hellosir”; String s3 = “Thankyou”; String s4 = “HELLO”; System.out.println (s1.equals(s2)); System.out.println (s1.equals(s3)); System.out.println (s1.equals(s4)); }} OUTPUT:______________ 68. Class throwexception { Public static void main (String args[]) throws ArithmeticException { System.out.println (“inside main”); int i=0; int j=400/i; System.out.println (“this statement”); }} OUTPUT:______________ 69. Class Def { Public static void main (String args[]) { int i[]={2}; i[10]=20; }} OUTPUT:______________ 70. import java.awt.*; import java.applet.*; Public class clip { Public void paint (Graphics g){ g.clipRect(10,10,150,100); g.setFont(new Font(“TimesRoman”,font.ITALIC,28)); g.filloval(100,60,80,80); g.drawString(“Happy”,50,30); }} OUTPUT:______________


60 71. Public class Fun { int g() { System.out.println(“inside g”); int n() { System.out.println(“inside h”); return 1; } return 0; } Public static void main (String[] args) {int c; c=g(); }} OUTPUT:______________ 72. Class te{ Public static void main (String args[]) { { Button b; b.setText(“Hai”); }} OUTPUT:______________ 73. Class t { Public int eg; Public static void main (String argv[]) { int i = new t().eg; System.out.println(i); }} OUTPUT:______________ 74. Class t { int s=200; t() { this(s++); } t(int i) { System.out.println (s); } Public static void main (String argv[]) { new t(); }} OUTPUT:______________

Placement Preparation

println(“Sample”).intvalue().out. Class stat { Public static void main (String[] args) { int j=getX(). System. int j=Integer.out. }} OUTPUT:______________ 77. str=“50.println(y[1]).JAVA Programming 75. double d=Double.1”.println(j).println(d).print((x= = y)+” “).out.out. Class A { Public static void main (String[] args) { int x[] = {1. Class two { void two() { System. int y[] = (int[])x. str=“50”. System. }} OUTPUT:______________ 76.out. x[1]++. } Public int getX() { return 5. System.valueof(str).doublevalue(). Class convert { Public static void main (String args[]) { String str. System. } Public static void main (String argv[]) { two ex=new two().clone().2}.}} OUTPUT:______________ 61 . }} OUTPUT:______________ 78.valueof(str).

OUTPUT Subscript Subscript Subscript Subscript is is is is 0 1 2 3 value value value value is is is is 2 6 5 9 61. OUTPUT a=2 b=3 c=4 d=1 64.out. OUTPUT ***** ##### ***** ##### ***** 59. StringTokenizer s= new StringTokenizer(x). Error: The variable x is not declared 63.hasMoreTokens()) System.StringTokenizer. }} OUTPUT:______________ 80. Error: There is no semicolon in 3rd line 62. OUTPUT Arg 1: 123 Arg 2:This is the 2nd argument Arg 3:third Arg 4:fourth 60. import java.util. Error: closing brace for the class is missing 57.555555C 58. int x=1+(int)(Math.println(s. OUTPUT Centrigrade equivalent is 20.random()*7). What does this code do? Placement Preparation ANSWERS FOR QUESTIONS 56 TO 80 56. Class test { Public static void main(String args[]) { String x= “1 2 3 4”.62 79. OUTPUT a=3 b=1 c=6 . while (s.nextToken()).

OUTPUT 1 2 3 4 80. The code always assigns an integer to variable x in the range between 1 and 7.ArithmeticException:/by zero at ThrowsException.lang.1 78. Compilation error: Cannot access a non-static member 77.ArrayIndexOutofBoundsException:10 at DefException. Compilation error 67. OUTPUT 50 50.lang. .java:4) 70. Compilation error: Cannot use ‘this’ inside the constructor 75. Compilation error: ‘void’ before two() 76. OUTPUT inside main Exception in thread “main” java. Error: The 3rd line should be as follows: Public class clip extends Applet 71. Error: 63 Exception in thread “main”java. Compilation error 72. OUTPUT false 2 79. OUTPUT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 69.JAVA Programming 65.main(defException. OUTPUT 0 74. Runtime error: NullPointerException 73.main(ThrowsException. OUTPUT true false false 68.

say typed at the terminal or embedded in a batch job. It is especially concerned with the operation and control of I/O devices. 5. What is meant by SPOOL? More sophisticated forms of I/O buffering called “Simultaneous Peripheral Operations Online (SPOOL)” use disks to temporarily store input and output of jobs. What is a distributed operating system? It is a collection of autonomous computer systems capable of communication and cooperation via their hardware and software interconnections. What are the activities of an operating system? Each type of operating system possesses the following aspects: (a) Processor scheduling (b) Memory management (c) I/O management (d) File management. Multiprogramming is an attempt to increase the CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. Two types are: (1) command language users (2) System call users. System call users invoke services of the operating system by means of run-time system calls. 6. These are usually embedded in and activated during execution of programs. 8. What are the types of operating systems (OS)? (a) Batch OS (b) Multiprogramming OS (c) Time-sharing OS (d) Real-time systems (e) Combination OS (f) Distributed OS. The key objective of a distributed operating system is transparency.64 Placement Preparation 8 1. 3. 2. 7. . Name the different views of an operating system. What is Multiprogramming? The most important aspect of job scheduling is the ability to carry out multiprogramming. must be accepted and processed in a short time or within certain deadlines. mostly external to the computer system. Command language users are those who obtain services of the operating system by means of commands. What is the purpose of Real-time systems? It is used in an environment where a large number of events. Operating System What is an operating system? An operating system is a program that manages the computer hardware. 4. 9. It also provides a basis for application programs and acts as an intermediary between the user of a computer and the computer hardware. What is meant by a control program? A control program manages the execution of user programs to present errors and improper use of the computer. Here the CPU will never be idle.

As a process executes. 15. What is swapping? Saving the image of a suspended process in secondary storage is called Swapping and the process is said to be swapped out or rolled out. What is a process? A process is a program in execution. it changes state. A multiprogramming operating system is also a multitasking operating system whereas the converse is not implied. 20. 19. What are the general categories of process states? (i) Dormant (ii) Ready (iii) Running (iv) Suspended 16. What is PCB? The operating system groups all information that it needs about a particular process into a data structure called a PCB (Process Control Block) or process descriptor. It is used in situations where high performance or explicit control of system activities is desired. What is Scheduling? Scheduling refers to a set of policies and mechanisms built into the operating system that govern the order in which the work to be done by a computer system is completed. Name the three different types of schedulers? (i) Long-term scheduler (ii) Medium-term scheduler (iii) Short-term scheduler. 11. What are the two fundamental relations among concurrent processes? (a) Competition (b) Cooperation 14. 21. 18. 12.Operating System 10. 17. What is a Scheduler? A Scheduler is an operating system module that selects the next job to be admitted into the system and the next process to run. What is Explicit tasking? This means that programmers explicitly define each process and some of its attributes. 13. What is Multitasking? 65 It denotes an operating system that supports concurrent execution of programs on a single processor without necessarily supporting elaborate forms of memory and file management. . It is used in general purpose multiprogramming systems such as time-sharing. What are the criteria followed by schedulers in their attempt to maximize system performance? (i) Processor utilization (ii) Throughput (iii) Turnaround time (iv) Waiting time (v) Response time. What is Implicit tasking? It means that the processes are defined by the system. The state of a process is defined by that process’s current activity.

Define Waiting time. (d) Round-Robin algorithms. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. 29. (b) STRT (Shortest Remaining Time Next) Scheduling. 26. (c) Preemptive algorithms. 30.66 22. It is the time that elapses from a moment the last character of a command line launching a program or a transaction is entered until the first result appears on the terminal. 25. 32. can be accessed only through two standard atomic operations: P and V. apart from the initialization. Name the various scheduling algorithms. 24. jobs are permanently assigned to a queue upon entry to the system. What are Multi-level/Multi Queues scheduling? A multi-queue scheduling algorithm has been created for a situation in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. 27. What is a critical section? It is a sequence of instructions with a clearly marked beginning and end. Only the process executing the critical section is allowed to access the shared variable. What is a mutual exclusion? It is a concept by means of which the single process temporarily excludes all others from using the shared resources. All other processes should be prevented from doing so. It is the time that a process or a job spends waiting for resource allocation due to contention with others in a multiprogramming system. 23. Define Response time. What is interprocess synchronization? A set of protocols and mechanisms used to preserve system integrity and consistency when the concurrent processes share resources that are serially reusable. It usually safeguards updating of one or more shared variables. Define the term semaphore. (a) FCFS (First-come. The classical definitions of P and V are: . Jobs do not move between queues. What is throughput? It is the number of jobs which are completed per time unit. 31. First-served) scheduling. What is Multi-level Feedback queue? Here. Define Turnaround time. A semaphore S is an integer variable that. 28. Placement Preparation It is the time that elapses from the moment a program or a job is submitted until it is completed by a system.

These are unacceptable to system programmers. What are the advantages of using critical regions? It enforces restricted usage of shared variables and prevents potential errors resulting from improper use of ordinary semaphores. (a) Semaphores are unstructured. S: = S–1. 37. What is Producers/Consumers problem? In general. 41. with possible disparity between production and consumption rates. (b) They do not support data abstraction. 36. 34. List the disadvantages of semaphores. some of which “produce” data items (Producers) to be “consumed” by others (Consumers). 35. . (c) They encourage interprocess communication via global variables that are protected only from changes of concurrency. 38. What is a monitor? It provides the synchronization mechanism for sharing abstract data types. 39. List the necessary conditions for a deadlock to take place. 33. Why is interprocess synchronization essential? It is necessary to prevent timing errors due to concurrent accessing of shared resources.Operating System Wait (S): while S<0 do skip. What is a Deadlock? A Deadlock is a situation where a group of processes are permanently blocked as a result of each process having acquired a subset of the resources needed for its completion and waiting for release of the remaining resources held by others in the same group thus making it impossible for any of the processes to proceed. such as data structures or I/O devices by contending processes. 40. What is the disadvantage of using monitors? It forces the users to live with whatever methods system designers may deem appropriate to access a given resource. Producers/Consumers may be stated as follows: Given a set of cooperating processes. 67 A semaphore mechanism basically consists of two primitive operations SIGNAL and WAIT which operate on a special type of semaphore variable. A deadlock situation can rise if and only if the following four conditions hold simultaneously in a system: (a) Mutual exclusion (b) Hold and Wait (c) No preemption (d) Circular wait. Signal (S): S: = S+1. What is a binary semaphore? A semaphore whose variable is allowed to take on only the values of 0(busy) and 1(free) is called a binary semaphore.

What is Segmentation? Segmentation is basically a multiple base-limit version of partitioned memory. 52. for allocation purposes. facilitates merging of free space by allocating free areas with an affinity to recombine. virtual memory management is referred to as demand paging or demand segmentation. Current partition status and attributes are often collected in a data structure called the Partition Description Table (PDT). What is Buddy system? An allocation-deallocation strategy. What is Non-Contiguous memory allocation? Non-contiguous allocation means that memory is allocated in such a way that parts of a single logical object may be placed in non-contiguous areas of physical memory. As such. What is PDT? Once partitions are defined. 44. each of which can be assigned a different partition of the physical memory. Sizes of free blocks in a buddy system are usually an integer power of base 2. (ii) Several different segment base addresses may have to be used for address translations. What are the merits and demerits of Segmentation? The advantages are: (a) Elimination of internal fragmentation (b) Support for dynamic growth of segments (c) Protection (d) Sharing. 49. What is virtual memory? The memory management scheme called virtual memory allows execution of processes when only portions of their address spaces are resident in the primary memory. an operating system needs to keep track of their status. called the buddy system. due to a difference in size of a partition and of the object resident within it. What is external fragmentation? Wasting of memory between partitions due to scattering of the free space into a number of discontinuous areas is called external fragmentation. such as free or in use. What is internal fragmentation? Wasting of memory within a partition. 48. What is demand paging/demand segmentation? Depending on whether paging or segmentation is used to manage physical memory. 43. What is contiguous memory allocation? Placement Preparation Contiguous memory allocation means that each logical object is placed in a set of memory locations with strictly consecutive addresses. . The disadvantages are: (i) Management of segmented memory require comparatively more complex mechanisms than for either static or dynamic partitioning of memory and thus incurs higher operating system overhead. 50. segmentation allows the breakup of the virtual address space of a process into several pieces. 45. 46. 51.68 42. is called internal fragmentation. What are the two ways of allocating partitions in PDT? (a) First-fit (b) Best-fit. 47.

55. The idea of overlays is to keep in memory only those instructions and data that are needed at any given time. Rotational latency is the time spent waiting for the target sector to appear under the read/write heads. What is thrashing? A very high paging activity is called thrashing. the physical memory is divided into a number of fixed-size slots called page frames. 58. rotational latency and transfer time? Seek time is the time necessary for the read/write heads to travel to the target cylinder. a register set and a stack. What are the basic services provided by an operating system? (a) Program execution (b) I/O operations (c) File system manipulation (d) Communications (e) Error detection . The benefits of multithreading include increased responsiveness to the user. 60. One of the primary contributions to low disk utilization is disk fragmentation which occurs when free blocks are available but the system is unable to allocate them to requesting users. Transfer time is the time necessary to transfer a sector between the disk and the memory buffer. 57. What are the characteristics of a file? Files may be characterized by (1) Volatility (2) Activity and (3) Size. What is the concept behind overlays? A technique called overlays is sometimes used to allow a program to be larger than the amount of memory allocated to it.Operating System 53. What is disk fragmentation? Disk utilization refers to the percentage of disk space allocatable to users. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. it comprises of a thread ID. Basically. resource sharing within the process. What are seek time. What is paging? 69 Paging is a memory management scheme that removes the requirement of contiguous allocation of the physical memory. They are: (1) Sequential (2) Indexed Sequential (3) Direct and (4) Partitioned. economy and the ability to take advantage of multiprocessor architectures. The virtual address space of a process is also split into fixed-size blocks of the same size called pages. 62. a program counter. What is multithreading? A multithreaded process contains several different flows of control within the same address space. 61. 59. What is meant by file organization? File organization refers to the manner in which the records of a file are arranged on secondary storage. sometimes called a lightweight process (LWP). 56. 54. What is a thread? A thread. A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. is a basic unit of CPU utilization.

(c) The mkdir (make directory) command is used to create directories. List the various types of users in UNIX. 69. 67. 72. UNIX shell. time-sharing. What type of an operating system is the UNIX? The UNIX operating system is a multi-programming. $pwd<enter> (b) The cd (Change directory) command changes the current directory to the directory specified. Multi-user operations. Directory files and Special files. Hierarchical file system. Korn shell and restricted shell. 66. List the various types of shells. /usr/bin 73. Utilities and Background processing. 71. $ls /user/games <enter> . and multi-tasking system. Group owner and other users. 74. Name the directory in which user will be working in UNIX. List the types of system calls. C shell. UNIX utilities and application software are the components of the UNIX. What is a Shell? A Shell is an intermediary program which interprets the commands that are typed at the terminal. 64. What are the components of UNIX? Kernel. The shell runs like any other program under the UNIX system. and translates them into commands that the kernel understands. Machine-independence. List the simple directory commands in UNIX. What are system calls? Placement Preparation It provides the interface between a process and the operating system. and they are usually listed in the various manuals used by the assembly-language programmers. List the types of files in UNIX. 70.70 63. How will you list the contents of a directory in UNIX? The ls command is used to display the names of files and subdirectories in a directory. (a) pwd (print working directory) command is used to display the full path-name of the current directory. 68. (d) The rmdir (remove directory) removes the directory specified. (a) Process control (b) File management (c) Device management (d) Information maintenance (e) Communications. Some of the popular shells are: Bourne shell. 65. Ordinary files. File owner. System administrator. These calls are generally available as assembly-language instructions. What are the features of the UNIX operating system? Portability. Pipes and Filters.

Character [] ? * 79.Operating System 75. ‘d’(directory file) or special file. write ‘w’ and execute ‘x’ in the first column of output of ls-l command. 71 Column 9 Name file The first character in column 1 can be ‘-’ (ordinary file).. insert. 81. The file read permission is denoted by ‘r’. Purpose Matches exactly one of a specified set of characters. delete or change parts of text. Matches exactly one character. The ‘who am I’ command displays the name of current users.8 File size (in bytes) Day and time of last modification to the file. What is the use of who command? The who command is used to display the names of all users who are currently logged in. List the Wildcard characters in UNIX.1 games staff 12 Apr 1 10:10 abc . 80. and allows the user to add.r w x r w x r w x 1 games staff 15 Apr 1 10:11 xyz d r w x r w x r . $ cat data10 <enter> example file 77. How will you display the contents of a file? The cat (concatenate) command displays the contents of the file specified.r w – r . Matches none or one character or a string of more than one characters. What is vi editor? The vi stands for visual editor. It displays the contents of files on the screen.r .. 76. Permissions associated with a file can be changed only by the owner of the file. documents or programs.7. What is FAP? File Access Permissions (FAP) refers to the permissions associated with a file with respect to the following: (a) File owner (b) Group owner (c) Other users. What will be the output of ls –l command? $ ls –l/user/games<enter> total 3 .2 games staff 30 Feb 1 11:10 pqr There are nine columns above and they represent: Column 1 Column 2 File type Number of Links Column 3 Column 4 File owner Group owner Column 5 Column 6. What is the use of chmod command? Access permissions associated with a file or directory can be changed using the chmod command. 78. used to enter and edit text files containing data. ..

72 82. How will you invoke the vi editor? $ vi file name <enter> 83. What is a filter?

Placement Preparation

A filter is a program that takes its input from the standard input file, processes (or filters) it and sends its output to the standard output file. Examples of filters in the UNIX are: grep, cat, pg, wc, tr and cut. 84. What are the options available with grep filter? The grep command has options which alter the output of the command. These are: -n -c -v This prints each line matching the pattern along with its line number. This prints only a count of the lines that match a pattern This prints out all those lines that do not match the pattern specified by regular expression

86. What is a cut filter? It is useful when specific columns from the output of certain commands need to be extracted. Example: $ who > temp1<enter> $ tr –s “ “ temp1 > temp2 <enter> $ cut –d “ “ –f1 temp2 <enter> 87. What are the options of cut filter? Cut –d Cut –c Cut –f Specifies the column delimiter Displays the character Displays the columns specified

88. What is a Pipe? Pipe is a feature by which the standard output of a command or user program can be sent as the standard input to another command or user program. 89. What is the use of the echo command? The echo command is used to display messages on the screen. 90. How are variables handled in UNIX? Variables in shell scripts do not have associated data types. That is, they are not declared to be integers or characters. All variables in UNIX are treated as character strings. 91. How are comments used in UNIX? Comments which are required to be ignored by the shell can be included by prefixing them with the # symbol. 92. What are environmental variables in UNIX? Theses are special variables created by the shell. Examples are PATH, HOME and LOGNAME

Operating System 93. Give examples of a multi-user operating system.


UNIX, Solaris for SUN workstations, OS/2 for PS/2 machines and VMS (Virtual Memory System) for VAX machines. 94. What are the rules for handling passwords in UNIX? A user password in UNIX cannot be less than 6 or more than 14 characters, but it can contain any character in the keyboard character set. 95. What are the languages supported by UNIX? UNIX system supports a wide variety of languages namely C, PASCAL, ADA, COBOL, BASIC, LISP and PROLOG.

e. uses the connection and then releases the connection. the service user first establishes a connection. Name the two network architectures considered important. 12. What are connection-oriented and connectionless services? Layers can offer two different types of services to the layers above them. What are the two components of a subnet? (i) Transmission lines 13. What is the OSI Model? This model is based on a proposal developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) as a first step towards international standardization of the protocols used in the various layers. Each service can be characterized by a quality of service. Connectionless service is modeled after the postal system. What is internet? A collection of interconnected networks is called an internetwork or just INTERNET. A set of layers and protocols is called a Network Architecture. They are: (a) Connection-oriented service (b) Connectionless service Connection-oriented service is modeled after the telephone system. The hosts are connected by a communication subnet or just subnet. one protocol per layer. To use a connectionoriented network service.e. What is the purpose of the physical layer? It is used to transport a raw bit stream from one machine to another. (ii) Switching elements.) the systems that are open for communication with other systems. (a) OSI Reference Model 17. . The model is called the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model because it deals with connecting open systems (i. Various physical media can be used for transmission namely (a) Magnetic media (b) Twisted pair (c) Baseband coaxial cable (d) Broadband coaxial cable (e) Fiber optics (b) TCP/IP Reference Model. 14. application) programs. What are the layers available in the OSI model and the TCP/IP model? The seven layers of the OSI model are (1) Physical layer (2) Data link layer (3)Transport layer (4) Session layer (5) Presentation layer (6) Application layer (7) Network layer 20.Computer Networks 11. A list of protocols used by a certain system. 15. 18. 19. What is a protocol? A protocol is an agreement between the communicating parties on how communication is to proceed. These machines are called Machine hosts. 16. is called a PROTOCOL STACK. What is a host? 75 A WAN consists of a collection of machines intended for running user (i. What is the TCP/IP model? The TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) Reference Model is the architecture which has the ability to connect multiple networks together in a seamless way.

Various kinds of ATM switches exist including knockout switch. A NULL MODEM looks like a short cable. Name the various framing methods. (a) Character count (b) Starting and ending character with character stuffing (c) Starting and ending flags with bit stuffing (d) Physical layer coding violations. Circuit switching and Packet switching 26. the switching equipment within the telephone system seeks out a physical copper path all the way from the telephone line to the receiver’s telephone. 29. What are the various multiplexing schemes? FDM – Frequency Division Multiplexing TDM – Time Division Multiplexing WDM – Wavelength Division Multiplexing 25. What is meant by a communication satellite? A communication satellite can be thought of as a big microwave repeater in the sky. This technique is called the ‘circuit switching’. 30. and then rebroadcasts it at another frequency. to avoid interference with the incoming signal. and the Batcher-Banyan switch. Name the two switching techniques. . 28. It contains several transponders. A device that accepts a serial stream of bits as input and produces a modulated carrier as output (or vice versa) is called a MODEM (Modulator-Demodulator). allowing packets to be buffered in router main memory instead of on disk. Packet switching networks place a tight upper limit on block size. It also crosses some of the other lines in a similar way. What are the major problems in transmission lines? (i) Attenuation 22. When a computer places a telephone call. since it is based on cell switching ATM technology. This switching network is well suited to handle interactive traffic. amplifies the incoming signal. What is broadband ISDN? It represents a paradigm shift. each of which listens to some portion of the spectrum. 27. Compare Circuit switching and Packet switching. What is a MODEM? (ii) Delay distortion Placement Preparation (iii) Noise. 23. A Broadband ISDN is a digital virtual circuit for moving fixed size packets from service to destination at 155 Mbps. What is Narrowband ISDN? It is a circuit-switched digital system that is an incremental improvement over the current system. 24. What is a NULL MODEM? A MODEM is called NULL MODEM which connects the transmit line of one machine to the receive line of the other.76 21.

the key issue is how to determine who gets to use the channel when there is competition for it.4 = Token Bus IEEE standard 802. amplifies and retransmits signals in both directions. 39. What are wireless LAN protocols? A system of portable computers that communicate by radio can be regarded as a “wireless LAN”.2 = Logical Link Control 40. These LANs requires special MAC (Medium Access Control) sublayer protocols. What is MAC? The protocol used to determine who goes next on a multi-access channel belongs to a sublayer of the data link layer called the MAC (Medium Access Control) sublayer. Slotted ALOHA requires global time synchronization.5 = Token Ring IEEE standard 802. 34. What are the three classes of traffic supported by a protocol? (i) Constant data rate connection-oriented traffic (ii) Variable data rate connection-oriented traffic (iii)Datagram traffic 38. IEEE standard 802. What is a carrier sense protocol? Protocols in which stations listen for a carrier (i. transmission) and act accordingly are called carrier sense protocols. (a) An Unrestricted simplex protocol (b) A simplex stop and wait protocol (c) A simplex protocol for a noisy channel 32. Compare pure ALOHA and slotted ALOHA. The best we hope for channel utilization in pure ALOHA is 18 percent. 33. What is Piggybacking? 77 The technique of temporarily delaying outgoing acknowledgements so that they can be hooked onto the next outgoing data frame is known as Piggybacking. What is the key issue in broadcast network? In any broadcast network.Computer Networks 31. Name the elementary data link protocols. For slotted ALOHA. . Broadcast channels are sometimes referred to as multiaccess channels or random access channels.6 = Distributed Queue Dual Bus IEEE standard 802. A repeater is a physical layer device. The MAC sublayer is important in LAN. 35.3 = Ethernet IEEE standard 802. frames are transmitted completely at arbitrary time. What is a Repeater? To allow larger networks. it is 37 percent. Name the IEEE standard 802 for LAN and MAN. It receives. 36. In pure ALOHA. which uses broadcast networks. 37. multiple cables can be connected by repeaters.e.

whereas adaptive ones do. What is Cryptanalysis? The art of breaking of ciphers is called Cryptanalysis. 48. the call is actually made to a local stub. (v) The session layer allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them. and ensure that the pieces all arrive correctly at the other end. (vi) The presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. 49. In this model. What is a Client-server model? Communication always takes the form of request-reply pairs. always initiated by the clients. isolated and distributed. What is flooding? It is an extreme form of isolated routing. robustness. in which every incoming packet is sent out on every outgoing line except the one it arrived on. pass these to the network layer. What is Manchester Encoding? Placement Preparation The receiver should determine the start. when a client calls a remote procedure. 42. What is RPC? Remote Procedure Call (RPC) can be viewed as a kind of connectionless session. never by the server. stability.78 41. (iii) The network layer is concerned with controlling the operation of the subnet. is then transmitted. Two such approaches are called Manchester Encoding and Differential Manchester Encoding. Adaptive algorithms can be further subdivided into centralized. What are Plaintext and Cipher text? The messages to be encrypted known as the plaintext are transformed by a function that is parameterized by a key. The art of devising ciphers (Cryptography) and breaking them (Cryptanalysis) is collectively known as CRYPTOLOGY. end or middle of each bit without reference to an external clock. Non-adaptive algorithms do not base their routing decisions on measurements or estimates of the current traffic and topology. 46. When the message arrives. 43. . simplicity. What are the functions of various layers in the OSI reference model? (i) The physical layer is concerned with transmitting raw bits over a communication channel. known as the Cipher text or Cryptogram. (iv) The basic function of the transparent layer is to accept data from the session layer. fairness and optimality. In the client-server model. What are the properties required for a routing algorithm? Correctness. the client sends a request and the server sends a reply. How are routing algorithms classified? Routing algorithms are classified into two major classes namely non-adaptive and adaptive. The output of the encryption process. (vii) The application layer contains a variety of protocols that are commonly needed. often by messenger. (ii) The main task of the data link layer is to take a raw transmission facility and transform it into a line that appears free of transmission error to the network layer. This stub marshals the parameters and transmits a request message to the server. the parameters are unmarshalled and the server procedure is called. The result traces the same path in the reverse direction. This model is called the client-server model. It provides two services namely token management and synchronization. 45. 47. split it up into smaller units if need be. 44.

60. 56. Compare gateway and router. Name the various topologies for networks. FTP. What is a brouter? They are hybrid devices that have the capability to combine the features of both bridges and routers. RARP. OSPF. Ring topology and Mesh network. Star topology. 58. 52. Bus topology.File Transfer Protocol OSPF – Open Shortest Path First Protocol SLIP – Serial Line Internet Protocol RIP – Routing Information Protocol 57. What is multicast routing? Sending a message to a group is called multicasting and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing. Define bandwidth. What is a Subnet? It is a generic term for a section of large networks which are usually separated by a bridge or router. 59. TFTP. web servers and object servers. ARP. 51. data link and network layers. Half-duplex and Full-duplex. 79 Gateways operate in all seven layers of the OSI model. File servers. Bandwidth is the amount of information that can be sent over a given transmission channel. 54. 55. SLIP and RIP. Expand the following: ICMP. . transaction servers. Name the various types of servers. ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol RARP – Reverse Address Resolution Protocol TFTP – Trivial File Transfer Protocol FTP . database servers. Routers operate in the physical. 53.Computer Networks 50. What are the three ways of data exchange? Simplex. What is the special feature of anonymous FTP? Anonymous FTP enables users to connect to a host without using a valid login and password. Why is the HELLO protocol preferred? The HELLO protocol uses time instead of distance to determine optimal routing.

11. Define a Truth Table. Almost all digital circuits are designed for two–state operation. State the Double–Inversion rule. How will you execute dual property? The dual property is obtained by changing the OR sign to an AND sign. 10. 9. What is a gate? A digital circuit with one or more input voltages but only one output voltage. Define AND Gate and OR Gate. What are the two fundamental approaches in logic design? Sum–of–products method and product–of–sums method. What is the main difference between analog and digital operations? The difference between analog and digital operations is the way the load line is used. Digital circuits are different. 6. A gate with two or more inputs is called OR gate where the output is high when any input is high. and by complementing the 0 to get a 1. which shows that the double complement of a variable equals the variable. A table that shows all of the input–output possibilities of a logic circuit. With analog circuits. The output is high only when all inputs are high. 5. It states that A = A. 8. Define a Nibble. What is timing diagram? The picture that shows the input–output waveforms of a logic circuit is called a timing diagram. so that the output voltage is continuous. 3. What is a Karnaugh map? A Karnaugh map is a visual display of the fundamental products needed for a Sum–of– products solution. . A gate with two or more inputs is called AND gate. A Nibble is a binary number with 4 bits. adjacent points on the load line may be used. 2.80 Placement Preparation 10 Digital Principles and Microprocessor 1. 7. What is an inverter? A gate with only one input and a complemented output. 4.

18. The circuit adds 3 bits at a time. 17. giving a sum and a carry output. A demultiplexer is a logic circuit with one input and many outputs. 15. What is Demultiplexer? Demultiplexer means one into many. Name the MOS families. What are Decoder and Encoder? A Decoder is similar to a demultiplexer. What is a bus? A bus is a group of wires that transmit binary data. What is Full–Adder and Half–Adder? Full–Adder is a logic circuit with three inputs and two outputs. What is PAL? Programmable Array Logic (PAL) is a programmable array of logic gates on a single chip. What is a Strobe? An input that disables or enables a circuit. State the Don’t care condition. . 20. What is a Multiplexer? Multiplex means many into one. What is noise immunity? The amount of noise voltages that causes unreliable operation. 14. It adds 2 bits at a time. The following families belong to the bipolar category: (1) DTL (Diode–transistor logic) (2) TTL (Transistor–transistor logic) (3) ECL (Emitter–coupled logic). 19. 81 An input–output condition that never occurs during normal operation is called Don’t care condition. 13. 21. producing a sum and a carry output. Name the Bipolar families. These families are in the metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) category: (a) PMOS = p-channel MOSFET (b) NMOS = n-Channel MOSFET (c) CMOS = Complimentary MOSFET MOSFET stands for MOS field effect transistors. 16. It is different from a PROM because it has a programmable AND array and a fixed OR array.Digital Principles and Microprocessor 12. A multiplexer is a circuit with many inputs but only one output. An Encoder converts an active input signal into a coded output signal. What is a Quad? A quad is a group of four one’s that is horizontally or vertically adjacent. 22. with one exception–there is no data input. 23. Half–Adder is a logic circuit with two inputs and two outputs.

only one of which is stable. A counter driven by a clock can be used to count the number of clock cycles. Define Edge Triggering. What is a flip-flop? An electronic circuit that has two stable states is called a flip-flop. What is Dynamic memory? Dynamic memory is a memory whose contents must be restored periodically. Soft saturation means the transistor is barely saturated. Edge Triggering is a circuit that responds only when the clock is in transition between its two voltage states. What are Field-programmable and Mask-programmable? A PROM that can be programmed by the user is called field–programmable and a PROM that can be programmed only by the manufacturer is called mask–programmable. 33. 32. 34. 26. What is a shift register? A group of flip–flops connected in such a way that a binary number can be shifted into or out of the flip–flops is called a shift register. 28. . 31. What is a clock? A clock is a periodic waveform that is used as a synchronizing signal in a digital system. What are Hard saturation and Soft saturation? Hard saturation means the transistor has sufficient base current to be saturated under all operating conditions. Define Hold time. What is a counter? A counter is probably one of the most useful and versatile subsystems in a digital system. What is CMOS? Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices are chips that combine p-channel and n-channel MOSFETs’ in a push–pull arrangement. Define a ring counter.82 24. 36. What is saturation delay time? Placement Preparation The time delay encountered when a transistor tries to come out of the saturation region. The base current is just enough to operate the transistor at the upper end of the load line. 30. The minimum amount of time that data must be present after the clock trigger arrives is called Hold time. What is Monostable? A Monostable is a circuit that has two output states. 25. 29. 27. 35. A ring counter is a basic–shift register with direct feedback—such that the contents of the register simply circulate around the register when the clock is running.

(1) DI (2) EI (3) RIM (4) SIM. What are HOLD and HLDA signals? The HOLD and HLDA signals are used for the DMA (Direct Memory Access) type of data transfer.Digital Principles and Microprocessor 37. The stack pointer contains the address of the last data byte written into the stack. What is stack pointer? The stack pointer is 16 bits long. This instruction reads the contents of the accumulator and enables or disables the interrupts according to the contents of the accumulator. 46. The master is clocked during the positive half cycle of the clock and the slave is triggered during the negative half cycle. 44. 45. All stack operations with the 8085 microprocessor use 16 bit register pairs. 43. 42. What are the advantages of RIM instruction? RIM instruction can be used to read the interrupt pending bits in the accumulator. What is TRAP? TRAP is a nonmaskable interrupt. The SID signal can be input into the most significant bit of the accumulator. 40. The HOLD function is acknowledged by the 8085 by placing a HIGH output on the HLDA pin. The SOD line can be used to output the most significant bit of the accumulator. 38. (i. What is program counter? The program counter is 16 bits long to address up to 64 k of memory. What is Master–Slave triggering? A type of triggering using two cascade latches called the Master and the Slave. What are SID and SOD? The Serial Input Data (SID) and Serial Output Data (SOD) lines are associated with the 8085 serial I/O transfer. What are the merits of SIM instruction? SIM is a 1 byte instruction. The microprocessor has a set of instructions designed internally to manipulate data and communicate with peripherals. 41. These bits can then be checked by software to determine whether any higher priority interrupts are pending.e. It usually addresses the next instruction to be executed. 47. What are the addressing modes of 8085 microprocessor? The 8085 microprocessor has the following five addressing modes: (1) DIRECT (2) REGISTER (3) REGISTER INDIRECT (4) IMPLIED OR INHERENT (5) IMMEDIATE.) it cannot be enabled or disabled by an instruction. 39. Name the four one–byte 8085 interrupt instructions. The TRAP has the highest property. designed with registers. flips–flops and timing elements. . What is a Microprocessor? 83 A Microprocessor is a programmable logic device.

The 8086 is Intel’s first 16bit microprocessor. zero flag and sign flag. Auxiliary flag. Its design is based on the 8080 but it is not directly compatible with 8080. (e) Implied Addressing mode. labels. The situation. Name the three control bits flag of the 8086 microprocessor.84 48. the DMA is generally used. Interrupt flag and Trace flag. Specify the general features of INTEL 8086. 51. . 49. where the microprocessor controlled data transfer is too slow. (d) Relative addressing mode. (a) Addressing modes for accessing immediate and register data. (b) Addressing modes for accessing data in memory. (1) SEGMENT (2) ENDS (3) ASSUME (4) DUP 56. The 8086 is designed using the HMOS technology and contains approximately 29000 transistors. 53. Direction flag. 54. parity flag. An assembler is used to convert the assembly language into a machine language program. What is String Addressing Mode? The string mode uses index registers. and names to refer directly to their binary equivalents. overflow flag. carry flag. What is Assembly Language Programming? It is a programming language in which the programmer can use mnemonic instruction codes. (c) Addressing modes for accessing I/O ports. 50. What is DMA? Placement Preparation The Direct Memory Access (DMA) is a process of communication or data transfer controlled by external peripherals. 52. What is ASM–86? The ASM–86 is the assembler written by INTEL for the 8086 microprocessor. Name the six one bit flags of the 8086 microprocessor. 55. Name the 8086 Addressing modes. Name the ASM–86 assembler directives. It allows string memory operations.

6. What are the three levels of data abstraction in DBMS? Physical level. Object-based logical model. There are two other systems to manage database namely RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) and DDBMS (Distributed Database Management System). What is the difference between the instance of the database and the database schema? The collection of information stored in the database at a particular moment is called an instance of the database. and view level. logical level. What is an E-R data model? It is an object based logical model.DBMS. Record-based logical model and Physical model. . data relationships. contains information about one particular enterprise. 5. data semantics and consistency constraints. usually referred to as the database. 2. 8. 10. Name the various data models. 9. What is the primary goal of a DBMS? The primary goal of a DBMS is to provide an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use in retrieving and storing database information. RDBMS and DDBMS 85 11 1. There are two levels of data independence: (1) Physical data independence (2) Logical data independence 7. What is DBMS? DBMS. 4. RDBMS and DDBMS A Database Management System (DBMS) consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access those data. What is data independence? How it is classified? The ability to modify a schema definition at one level without affecting a schema definition in the next higher level is called data independence. What is a database? The Collection of data. The overall design of the database is called the database schema. What is a Data model? Underlying the structure of a database is the data model: a collection of conceptual tools for describing data. 3. It is based on a perception of a real world that consists of a collection of basic objects called entities and of relationships among these objects. What is mapping cardinality? It expresses the number of entities to which another entity can be associated via a relationship set.

It contains metadata. 21. schema and physical organization modification. What is a storage manager? A storage manager is a program module that provides the interface between the low-level data stored in the database and the application programs and queries submitted to the system. What is the role of a DBA? The functions of the DBA (Database Administrator) include the schema definition. Network model and Hierarchical model. 22. Name the three most widely accepted record-based data models. 13. What is a query? A query is a statement requesting retrieval of information. Each transaction is a unit of both atomicity and consistency. Name the storage manager components. . Relational model. Transaction manager. 15. 20. The portion of a DML that involves information retrieval is called a query language. 19. Procedural DML and non-procedural DML 17. Name the query processor components. Application programmers. access rights and integrity of data. 12. Name the two basic types of DML. Name the four different types of database system users. Embedded DML pre-compiler. How do we handle a database system? Placement Preparation A database system provides two different types of languages: one to specify the database schema and the other to express database queries and updates. specialized users and naïve users. Authorization and integrity manager. sophisticated users. 14. 23. What is a transaction? A transaction is a collection of operations that performs a single logical function in a database application. File manager and Buffer manager. 18. DDL interpreter and Query evaluation engine. What is DML? A data manipulation language (DML) is a language that enables users to access or manipulate data as organized by the appropriate data model.86 11. What is DDL? A database schema is specified by a set of definitions expressed by a special language called Data Definition Language (DDL). What is a data dictionary? The result of compilation of DDL statements is a set of tables that is stored in a special file called data dictionary or data directory. 16. DML compiler. storage structure and access-method definition.

Specialization and Generalization define a containment relationship between a higherlevel entity set and one or more lower-level entity sets. allows us to identify uniquely an entity in the entity set. 29. Null attributes and Derived attributes. because they operate on one relation. therefore. taken collectively. What forms the basis for deriving a relational-database design from an E-R diagram? Converting of database representation from an E-R diagram to a table format is the basis for deriving a relational-database design from an E-R diagram. What is relational algebra? Relational algebra is a procedural query language. relationship sets and attributes. Union. A primary key is used to denote a candidate key that is chosen by the database designer as the principal means of identifying entities within an entity set. project and rename operations are called unary operations. An entity set may not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key. Distinguish between Specialization and Generalization. 33. Specify the distinctions among the terms primary key. there are other operations like set intersection. A super key is a set of one or more attributes that. 27. Generalization is the result of taking the union of two or more disjoint (lower-level) entity sets to produce a higher-level entity set. Such an entity set is termed as a weak entity set. candidate key and super key. 31. 30. division and assignment. Compare a Weak entity set and a Strong entity set. 34. 26. Specialization is the result of taking a subset of a higher-level entity set to form a lower-level entity set. It consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as input and produce a new relation as their results. The solution is to use aggregation. allows us to identify uniquely an entity in the entity set.DBMS. 28. How are attributes classified? 87 Simple and Composite attributes. The other three operations are pairs of relations and are. Name the fundamental operations in the relational algebra. Name the three basic notions that the E-R data model employs. The entity sets. 32. What is the drawback of the E-R model? One limitation of the E-R model is that it cannot express relationships among relationships. . called binary operations. natural join. An entity set that has a primary key is termed a strong entity set. Cartesian product and Rename. Single-valued and Multivalued attributes. What are unary operations and binary operations? The select. Project. taken collectively. Select. 25. What is a Super key? A Super key is a set of one or more attributes that. Super keys for which no proper subset is a super key is called candidate keys. Set difference. RDBMS and DDBMS 24.

An Assertion is a predicate expressing a condition that we wish the database always to satisfy. ‘From’ and ‘Where’. Maximum. 42. Thus Integrity Constraints guard against accidental damage to the database. Minimum. An embedded SQL program must be processed by a special preprocessor prior to compilation. What is the use of check clause in SQL? The check clause permits the schema designer to specify a predicate that must be satisfied by any value assigned to a variable whose type is the domain. Create assertion <assertion-name> check <predicate>. Domain constraints and Referential-integrity constraints are special form of assertions. Define the term Integrity constraints. 40. SQL offers five built-in aggregate functions: Average. Give the syntax of an assertion. 39. Define a host language and embedded SQL. The Union operation. The Intersect operation and The Except operation. 43. What is a trigger? A trigger is a statement that is executed automatically by the system as a side effect of a modification to the database. 41. What is Referential Integrity? Referential Integrity is a condition which ensures that a value that appears in one relation for a given set of attributes also appears for a certain set of attributes in another relation. What are the three clauses supported by SQL? ‘Select’. 37. Define a view. What is QBE? Query-by-Example (QBE) is the name of both a data-manipulation language and the database system that included this language. What is an aggregate function? Aggregate functions are functions that take a collection of values as input and return a single value. 46. Placement Preparation Any relation that is not part of the logical model but is made visible to a user as a virtual relation is called a view. . Integrity Constraints provide a means of ensuring that changes made to the database by authorized users do not result in a loss of data consistency.88 35. Define the term Assertion. A language in which SQL queries are embedded is referred to as a host language and the SQL structures permitted in the host language constitute the embedded SQL. 36. 44. 38. 45. Total and Count. Name the various kinds of set operations.

it is also the case that t1 [B] =t2 [B]. A decomposition {R1. 48. 56. RDBMS and DDBMS 47.….Rn} of a relation schema R is a lossless-join decomposition for R if. What are the requirements for trigger mechanism? (a) Specifying the conditions under which the trigger is to be executed. 50. When is a relation called legal? We say a relation is legal if it satisfies all rules or constraints that we impose on our database. the DBMS can reduce the amount of work to be done during restart in the event of subsequent crashes. for all relations r on schema R that are legal under C. What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)? A relation schema R is in BCNF if and only if it is in 3NF and satisfies additional constraints that for every functional dependency X→A. 57.e) simple. State the rules of inference for FD. 55. It is a generalization of the notion of key: Let ACR and BCR. in any legal relation r(R). indivisible values. How is checkpoint useful in DBMS? By taking checkpoints. When is FD said to be trivial? Some FD is said to be trivial because they are satisfied by all relations. R2. 51. The FD A→B holds on R if. 52. Normalization applies functional dependencies and primary key to reduce redundancy. insertion. for all pairs of tuples t1 and t2 in r such that t1 [A] =t2 [A]. 49. What is Normalization? Normalization is a process of analyzing the given relation schemas. 58. What is Functional Dependency (FD)? 89 Functional Dependency (FD) is a particular kind of constraint. r = πR1(r)XπR2(r)X⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅Rn(r) 54. deletion and updation anomalies.DBMS. Functional dependencies allow us to express constraints that we cannot express using super keys. . (a) Reflexivity rule (b) Augmentation rule (c) Transitivity rule. What are the pitfalls in Relational-database design? (a) Repetition of information. (b) Inability to represent certain information. (b) Specifying the actions to be taken when the trigger executes. 53. X must be a candidate key. What is 1NF (Normal Form)? The domain of attribute must include only atomic values (i. What is Lossless-join decomposition? Let C represent a set of constraints on the database. What is 2NF? A relation schema R is in 2NF if and only if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute A in the relation schema R is fully functionally dependent on the primary key.

There are two basic kinds of indices: (1) Order Indices (2) Hash Indices. failed. 64. which store maps and associated information. Define object-relational systems. What is object-oriented data model? Placement Preparation It is an adaptation to database systems of the object-oriented programming paradigm. 61. Active. 67. What are the steps involved in processing a query? Parsing and translation. Define an Index of a file. 68. The database system maintains the following properties of transactions: (a) Atomicity (b) Consistency (c) Isolation (d) Durability. Such languages are called Persistent programming languages. List the various states which a transaction can occupy. 69. and the code that operates on those data. 62. What is Data Mining? The term Data Mining refers loosely to finding relevant information. partially committed. Persistent programming language. 66. An existing object-oriented programming language can be extended to deal with databases. The reverse process of transforming a first normal form into a nested relation is called nesting. Define Persistent programming languages. What is Nesting and Unnesting? The transformation of a nested relation into the first normal form is called Unnesting. optimization and evaluation.90 59. and computer-aided design databases. which store information such as integrated-circuit or building designs. Nesting can be carried out by an extension of grouping in SQL. Systems that provide object-oriented extensions to relational systems are called Objectrelational systems. Data mining attempts to discover statistical rules and patterns automatically from data. What is Query processing? Query processing refers to the range of activities involved in extracting data from a database. or discovering knowledge. . What is a spatial database? Spatial databases include geographic databases. 65. It is based on the concept of encapsulating in an object the data. Out of these a transaction must occupy one of the states. 63. Name the languages used to implement object orientation. aborted and committed are the various states. 70. 60. Data manipulation language. An Index of a file in the system works in much the same way as a catalog for a book in a library. What is a transaction? What are its properties? A transaction is a unit of program execution that accesses and possibly updates various data items. from a large volume of data.

74. distributed databases. The issues to be addressed in building a warehouse are: (a) When and how to gather data (b) What schema to use (c) How to propagate updates (d) What data to summarize. . maintenance and testing the software of the database application. Name the two types of spatial databases? Design databases and Geographic databases.DBMS. List the advantages of distributed database. at each level. Catalogs of distributed databases store all the information which is useful to the system for accessing data correctly and efficiently and for verifying that users have the appropriate access rights to them. 72. What are the four phases in the design of a distributed database? (1) (2) (3) (4) The design of the global schema The design of fragmentation The design of allocation The design of physical structures at each site 79. at a single site. 78. 73. 80. What is DDBMS? A Distributed Database Management System (DDBMS) supports the creation and maintenance of distributed databases. different aspects of the real distribution of data are hidden from the application programmers. Name the three classes of concurrency control algorithms. Different levels of distribution transparency can be provided by a DDBMS. control. stored under a unified scheme. 81. 76. 75. whose distribution and allocation are not constrained. RDBMS and DDBMS 71. What are the two important classes of problem in data mining? Classification and Association rules. What is meant by a Data Warehouse? 91 A Data Warehouse is a repository (or archive) of information gathered from multiple sources. The main advantages are: (a) Organizational and Economic reasons (b) Interconnection of existing databases (c) Incremental growth (d) Reduced communication overhead (e) Reliability and availability. (a) Two-phase locking (b) Timestamps (c) Optimistic methods. An important property of DDBMS is whether they are homogeneous or heterogeneous. 77. What is distribution transparency? Distribution transparency provides the independence of programs from the distribution of the database. A distributed database is a collection of data which belong logically to the same system but are spread over the sites of a computer network. What is a catalog? Catalogs are small. Define a distributed database. What is Database administration? It refers to a variety of activities for the development.

Alter. Save point. (c) Transaction Control Language (TCL)--Commit. (b) Data Manipulation Language (DML)--Insert. PRODUCT and JOIN operations are not the same. PROJECTION and SELECTION. 85. 87. What is SQL *PLUS? SQL *PLUS is an oracle specific program which accepts SQL commands and PL/SQL blocks and executes them. Concatenation of every row in one relation with every row in another is PRODUCT operation. a transaction T must either commit at all sites. What are the approaches to store a relation r in a distributed database? (1) Replication (2) Fragmentation (3) Replication and Fragmentation are the three approaches for storing the relation ‘r’ in the distributed database. What are the rules to be observed for the successful concurrent execution of transaction? (a) Transactions are well-formed. List the tools of ORACLE. 89. 84.92 Placement Preparation 82. 83. 92. What are the two types of transactions supported by a multidatabase system? (1) Local transactions (2) Global transactions. What is the usage of commit protocol? To ensure atomicity. SQL (Structured Query Language). Name the oracle internal data types. Compare PRODUCT and JOIN operations. Drop commands. 91. 86. 88. SQL *PLUS enables manipulation of SQL commands and PL/SQL blocks. (a) Char data type (b) Varchar2 data type (c) Long data type (d) Number data type (e) Date data type (f) Long raw data type (g) Raw data type . (i) SQL *PLUS (ii) PL/SQL (iii) Forms (iv) Reports. Name the unary operations in relational algebra. 90. (c) Each transaction does not request new locks after it has released a lock. Concatenation of rows from one relation and related rows from another is JOIN operation. The two types of commit protocols in practice are: (1) Two-phase commit protocol (2PC) and (2) Three-phase commit protocol (3PC). Name the Oracle’s database language. Select. (b) Compatibility rules for locking are observed. (d) Data Control Language (DCL)--Grant and Revoke commands. the transaction coordinator of T must execute a commit protocol. Update and Delete commands. To ensure this property. Rollback commands. or it must abort at all sites. What are the commands supported by SQL? (a) Data Definition Language (DDL)--Create.

MAX(++x. red. } . Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER #define MAX(x. p=&values[0]. } The output of the program is: (a) 7 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) none of these Given the following definitions. r. }while(0<i--). #include <stdio. int values[30]. y=5. blue. white}. main() { int sum=0. printf (“%d”. orange. What will be the output of the program? #include <stdio. printf (“%d%d”. sum).red). printf (“%d”. do { sum+=(1/i).Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 93 12 1.++y)). what will be the value of r? int *p. *q. } (a) sum of the series is printed (c) runtime error (b) compilation error (d) none of these 4.h> static int =5.y) ((x)>(y)?(x):(y)) main() { int x=5. 3. main() { green = green+1.h> enum mode={green. r=++q-p. (a) address of q minus p (b) number of elements in the array (c) (value pointed by q)+1-(value pointed by p) (d) none of these q=values+29.

7 (c) 4 (c) 7. 104 (d) 2. for (i=0. What is the output of the following program? #include <stdio. for (j=0.i. struct x *ptr2. 8. (a) 5.6. error in compilation 5.7 (b) 3 (b) 6.1 (d) none of these Placement Preparation (d) 5 (d) 6.j=%d\n”. 4 (b) 0. Unsigned I.j++). } The output of the program is: (a) 1 7.square(4+5)). }. printf(“i=%d.6 If i=5. . ++i. int *ptr1. undefined for memory is not allowed 6.i++)? For the following code.j). (a) 81 (b) 4 (c) 29 (d) none of these 9. case 2: ++i. i++).j<=10.h> main( ) { int i=0.1 (c) no output.5 (b) 2.i. switch(i) { case 0: i++.94 The output of the program will be: (a) 1.i++). case 1: i++2.i<=10. } printf (“%d”.6. What is the size of ptr1 and ptr2? Struct x{ Int j. (a) same (c) 2. (a) 121 (b) 11 (c) 10 (d) none of these What is the output generated for the following code? #define square (a) (a*a) printf(“%d”. what is the output for printf (“%d%d%d”.6.5.j. how many times is the printf function executed? int i. Char k[100].

i++. q=1.i<j.a). y=x*x. The statement “The size of a struct is always equal to the sum of the sizes of its members” is (a) valid (c) can’t say 14.2 11.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 10. }} int func(int x) { int y. p= – –q. X=malloc(Y). int func(int). count. p=++q.0 (c) 3. int p=0.2 (d) 1. return (y). for(count=1. (a) 1.j=10. p=q++. How many X’s are printed? for (i=0. Which of the following statement is correct? (a) X is the size of the memory allocated (b) Y points to the memory allocated (c) X points to the memory allocated (d) none of these (b) invalid (d) depends on struct . printf(“%d”.++count) { a=func(count).j– –) printf(“X”). C programming allows (a) only call by value (b) only call by reference (c) both (a) and (b) (d) only call by value and sometimes call by reference 95 13.count<=5. (a) 10 (b) 5 (c) 4 (d) none of these 15.h> main() { int a. p=q– –. For the following statement. find the values generated for p and q.1 (b) 0. } (a) 1234567 (b) 2516941 (c) 9162514 (d) 1491625 12. What is the output generated by the following program? #include <stdio.

3 (c) 2. printf (“%x”. int *i. (d) typedef struct {int i. (b) typedef struct in {int i. #define max(a. max(i. char *c. } change (char *name) { char *nm=”newname”.}.2 17. printf(“%d%d”.3 (d) 2.}in. int i=2. How many variables are required to swap two numbers using a temporary variable and without using a temporary variable? (a) 3. (c) #typedef struct int{int i. Which is the valid declaration? (a) #typedef struct {int i. float *f. j=3. Which of the following is valid? (a) Pointers can be added (b) Pointers can be subtracted (c) Integers can be added to pointers (a) all are correct (b) (a) is correct 18. } What is the output? (a) name (c) name=nm is not valid 21. int i=20. Which are the valid castings? (a) (int ) &c 19. What is the output? (a) 32 (b) 23 (c) 31 (d) 13 22. square(k)).2 (b) 3. change (name).}.96 Placement Preparation 16. main() { char *name = “name”. (b) newname (d) function call invalid (b) 14 (c) 20 (d) none of these (b) (float ) &c (c) (char ) &ib (d) none of these (c) (a) and (b) (d) (a) and (c) .j). k=1. What is the output? (a) x14 20. printf(“%s”.b) (a>b?b:a) #define square(x) x*x. i).}in.

while (– –count+1) printf(“count down is %d\n”.10.200 (c) 80. How many times is the printf statement executed? (a) 11 (b) 10 (c) 8 (d) none of these 31. main() {char a[2]. } The output is: (a) 1 (c) 2 25. How many bytes of memory will the following arrays need? Char s[80]. The output is: (a) error (a) a function (a) no (c) depends on ‘i’ (a) 3 (a) *(a+i) (b) 4 (b) (*a+i) (b) 10 (b) a procedure (c) i (c) a declaration (b) yes (d) depends on the program (c) 2 (c) (a+*i) (d) 1 (d) (*a+*i) (b) illegal initialization (d) none of these (b) 2 multiplications.15 . int *p.20.20.800.i<10.50 (b) 80. printf(“%d”. *a[1]=5.80. char s[80][10]. 2 additions (d) 4 multiplications.&a[1]-a). Is main() in C programming 27.++i) ? 28. *a[0]=7. i=10. int d[10]. Is there any difference between for(i=0. printf(“%d”.count).Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 23. What is the optimum number of operations for 2*(X**3)+3*(X**2)+5*X+5? (a) 3 multiplications. p=i.800.i<n. How will you represent *a[i]? 30.10. int count=11. How many ‘for’ loops are required to carry out a matrix multiplication? 29. 3 additions 97 (d) none of these (d) a header file 26. 4 additions 24. float d[10][5] (a) 80.i++) and for(i=10.*p).200 (d) 80. 3 additions (c) 3 multiplications.800.

Which of the following operators is not related to a friend function? 39.strcat (b) stringlen. Which of the following operators cannot be overloaded? 38. strcat (d) strlen[]. string copy and string concatenation. strcpy. Which of the following access specifiers are accessible from own class.stringcopy. string compare.0 (c) & (c) [ ] (d) i=(2*j)/2 (d) none of these. Which of the following represents scope resolution operator? 35. strcmp.4.strcompare.strcat[] 33. Which of the following is used to represent an object that invokes a member function? 41.2. from derived class and from objects outside the class? (a) public (c) private (a) ~integer(){} (a) instantiation (c) function template (b) ~integer{}() (b) protected (d) private and public (c) ~integer (d) integer() 42. Find the value of i for the following expressions: (a) i=2*j-2*j/5 (a) 8.strcpy[].0. The process of creating a specific class from a class template is called (b) instant class (d) template instantiation . A function declared in a base class that has no definition relative to the base class is called (a) pure virtual function (c) friend class (a) ‘this’ (c) #symbol (b) virtual function (d) friend function (b) scope resolution operator (d) assignment operator 40.4. strcat (c) strlen. stringcmp. Which of the following is called a class member access operator? 36. A constructor that accepts no parameters is called (a) default constructor (c) overloaded constructor (a) dot operator (a) = (b) + (b) + (b) parameterized constructor (d) implicit constructor (c) (c) (d) * (d) * 37. Give the name of the standard library function for the following: string length. The destructor for the class integer can be defined as: 43. Suppose i and j are both integer type variables.2 (a) :: (a) & (b) i=j/2 (b) 8. strcmp[].5 (b) * (b) dot operator (c) i=2*j/2 (c) 8. and j has been assigned a value of 5.2.0. (d) none of these (d) ** 34.98 Placement Preparation 32. (a) strlen. strcpy.

Which of the following involves context switch? (d) none of these (d) 24 46. B should not have the same name 2 member in class A. Piggybacking is a technique for (a) flow control 50. In the following statement.j<i.h (c) iomanip. In a signed magnitude notation.n.k). for(j=1. main() { int i=20.h (c) thread (c) 22 99 45. The declarations for the manipulators are available in: (a) iostream. Which holds true for the following statement? Class C: Public A.k=0. Semaphore is used for (a) synchronization (b) dead-lock (c) exception (d) (b) and (c) 48. What is the output for the following C program? i=20. For 1MB memory. Find the output: int i=10. what is the value of may? Enum = {jan=1.h (d) conio.j=1+4*(i/j)) { k+=j<10?4:3. for(n=0. C should not have the same name both a & b none of these (b) error control (c) acknowledgement (d) (a) and (b) (b) processor (b) 16 (b) stdio.april.may} (a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) none of these 52.feb=4. Public B (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 member in class A.) { (b) 4 (c) 3 (d) none of these .n<=i. } printf(“%d”. what is the minimum value that can be represented with 8 bits? (a) –128 (b) –255 (c) –127 (d) 0 51.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 44. (a) k=4 53. the number of address lines required is: 49.h (a) SPOOL (a) 11 47.

(d) printf(“%d”. return(x). y=0. u=5/9*(t-32). (c) a line can contain comments without any language statements. (b) printf(“sqr(a)”). (a) i=20. return (u). else y=1. (c) return(a*a*a). Write one statement equivalent to the following two statements: x=sqr(a). (a) 7 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) none of these 60. } printf(“%d”. The main() in C must be (a) The first function in the program (c) Written anywhere in the program (b) 20 (c) 10 Placement Preparation (d) none of these 54. 59. . What value is returned by the following function? Conver(int t) { int u. if(x=6) y=7. (d) comments can occur within comments.sqr(a)). Which of the following about the C comments is INCORRECT? (a) comments can go over multiple lines. What is the sizeof(long int)? (b) 2 bytes (d) depends on compiler (b) The first statement in the program (d) None of these 56. (a) 4 bytes (c) 8 bytes 55. Which of the following is INCORRECT? (a) automatic variables are automatically initialized to 0. } (a) 15 (b) 0 (c) 16. (b) comments can start anywhere in the line.i).1 (d) 29 61. Which of the following about automatic variables within a function is correct? (a) its type must be declared before using the variable (b) they are legal (c) they are not initialized to zero (d) they are global 57. i++.100 int i=10. 58. (a) return(sqr(a)). What is the value of y in the following code? x=7.

Consider the following program: main() { int a[5]={1. What is the output? main() {int x=5.3. } (a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 0 (d) none of these (b) 3 (b) %o (c) –6 (c) %x (d) none of these (d) %u 69.i+=2) printf(“hai”). 62.a++). Find the odd one out among the following. The format used for hexadecimal is (b) is equivalent to a loop (d) does not have a return value at all . (a) malloc() (b) calloc() (c) free() (d) realloc() 68. How many times does the following loop occur? for(i=0. Which of the following is INVALID? 64. How many times does the following loop occur? a=0. p=&x. Which of the following is INCORRECT regarding a recursive function? (a) calls itself (c) has a termination condition 67.0}.7. The operator used for exponentiation is (a) ** (a) a+=b (b) ^ (b) a*=b (c) % (c) a>>=b (d) # (d) a**=b 63. (a) 10 (b) 2 (c) 5 101 (d) none of these 66. while(a<5) printf(“%d”. (d) static variables cannot be initialized with any expression. b=&a[2]. int *b.6. printf(“%d”. } The value of b[–1] is (a) 1 (a) %d 70.++*p).Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) (b) static variables are automatically initialized to 0. (a) infinite (b) 5 (c) 4 (d) 6 65.i=10.*p. (c) the address of a register variable is not accessible.

the control returns to the next instruction depends on operating system the same instruction but the program halts the same instruction but the program hangs 80. Which of the following is not a group function? 73. Which of the following is not a feature of a cursor FOR loop? (a) record type declaration (c) fetches records from cursor (a) open (a) (b) (c) (d) It It It It (b) fetch (b) opening and parsing of SQL statements (d) requires exit condition to be defined (c) parse (d) none of these 77. The UNIX operating system is based on (a) monolithic (a) (b) (c) (d) (b) micro-kernel 82. What is the CPU scheduling algorithm used by the UNIX operating system? . int *a[5] refers to (a) array of pointers (c) pointer to a pointer (a) avg() (b) sqrt() Placement Preparation (b) pointer to an array (d) none of these (c) sum() (d) max() 72. how long will a variable remain so in SQL *PLUS? (a) until the database is shutdown (c) until the statement ends (b) until the instance is shutdown (d) until the session ends 74. DESC (b) DECODE (d) ROWIDTOCHAR (c) ABS. Which procedure can be used to create a customized error message? (a) RAISE_ERROR (c) RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (a) preemptive (c) preemptive with dynamic priority 81. ASC (b) ASC.102 71. What happens when rows are found using a FETCH statement? causes the cursor to close causes the cursor to open loads the current rows values into variables creates the variables to hold the current row values (b) SQLERRM (d) RAISE_SERVER_ERROR (b) non-preemptive (d) preemptive with static priority (c) multithreading (d) multitasking 79. Which of the following two orders are used by ORDER BY clause? 76. Once defined. After serving a page fault. DESC (d) none of these 75. The command used to open a cursor FOR LOOP is 78. Which function below can best be categorized as similar in function to an IF-THEN-ELSE statement? (a) SQRT (c) NEW-TIME (a) ABS.

Web client talks to web server through (b) hash queue (d) priority lists 89. PL/SQL supports datatypes(s) (a) scalar datatype (b) composite datatype (c) both (a) and (b) . What is SQL*FORMS? (a) (b) (c) (d) It is a 4GL tool for developing and executing oracle based interactive applications. A Transaction ends (a) only when it is committed (c) when it is committed or rolled back 94. DLL stands for (a) dynamic link library (c) dynamic load library 88. A program written using the data structure ………… results in minimum page faults. none of these (b) set of segments (d) none of these (b) only when it is rolled back (d) none of these (d) none of these (b) CLEAR-BLOCK (b) MESSAGE (b) key trigger (d) none of these (c) EXECUTE_QUERY (d) USER-EXIT (c) BREAK (d) EXIT_FORM (b) dynamic language library (d) none of these (b) CISC (b) TCP port 21 (c) both (a) and (b) (c) UDP port 80 (d) none of these (d) UDP port 21. SQL*FORMS is a reporting tool.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 103 83. Virtual memory is implemented by (a) simple paging (b) demand paging (c) static partitioned memory management (d) dynamic partitioned memory management 85. (a) stack (c) priority queue 84. Which of the following packaged procedure is UNRESTRICTED? 90. POST-BLOCK trigger is a (a) navigational trigger (c) transactional trigger (a) CALL_INPUT (a) USER_EXIT 91. 86. Identify the RESTRICTED packaged procedure from the following: 92. What is a DATABLOCK? (a) set of extents (c) smallest database storage unit 93. WINDOWS NT is designed as (a) RISC (a) TCP port 80 87. SQL*FORMS is a 3GL tool for connecting to the database.

104 95. Find the odd datatype out of the following (a) VARCHAR2 (a) OPEN (a) (b) (c) (d) (b) RECORD (b) CLOSE (c) BOOLEAN (c) INSERT

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(d) RAW (d) FETCH

96. Find the ODD one out of the following 97. Which of the following is NOT CORRECT about cursor? cursor is a named private SQL area cursor holds temporary results cursor is used for retrieving multiple rows SQL uses implicit cursors to retrieve rows (b) Update (c) Create (d) Delete

98. Which of the following is NOT VALID in PL/SQL? (a) Select…into (a) yes (c) depends on data (a) INSERT (a) $$dbtime$$ (a) (b) (c) (d) 99. Is it possible to modify a datatype of a column when the column contains data in a table? (b) no (d) depends on datatype (b) SELECT (b) $$time$$ (c) UPDATE (c) $$date$$ (d) all of these (d) none of these

100. The DML statements are 101. What is the SYSTEM VARIABLE used to refer DATABASE time? 102. The sequence of events that takes places while starting a database is database opened, file mounted, instance started instance started, database mounted, database opened database opened, instance started, file mounted none of these

103. The status of the rollback segment can be viewed through (a) DBA_SEGMENTS (b) DBA_ROLES (c) DBA_FREE_SPACES (d) 104. What file is read by ODBC to load drivers? (a) ODBC.INI (b) ODBC.DLL (c) ODBCDRV.INI (b) It is flexible (d) It supports CRM (b) Entire resource planning (d) Enterprise resource programme (c) PATNI (d) CTS (d) none of these 105. Which of the following is a feature of ERP software? (a) ERP is packaged software (c) It integrates information 106. ERP stands for (a) Enterprise resource planning (c) Enterprise requirements planning 107. Identify the ERP vendor (a) SAP (b) TCS DBA_ROLLBACK_SEG

Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 108. SAP stands for (a) System, Applications, Products in data processing (b) Software, Applications, Products (c) Software, Applications, Projects (d) Software administration programme 109. How many layers are in the OSI reference model? (a) 7 110. JAVA is a (a) pure OOPS language (b) object based language (c) script language (d) hypertext language 111. Scheduler in an operating system is (a) an operating system module (c) a compiler (d) a system call (a) atoi() (a) rand( ) (b) itoa() (b) random( ) (b) a loader (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 4


112. Which of the following is used to convert a string to an integer? (c) govt() (c) randomize( ) (d) strcmp() (d) r( ) 113. Which of the following returns a random number? 114. The page fault frequency parameter ‘p’ is usually measured in (a) number of page faults per millisecond (c) number of page faults per minute (a) SIGNAL & WAIT (b) BUSY & WAIT (c) FREE & SIGNAL (d) WAIT & FREE 116. Name the operator which is automatically overloaded in JAVA. (a) + (b) – (c) * (d) none of these 117. JAVA provides two different string classes from which string objects can be instantiated. What are they? (a) String, StringBuffer (b) (c) Strobj, String() (d) none of these (a) try (b) static Strcmp, Strlen (b) number of page faults per second (d) none of these

115. What are the two primitive operations of semaphore?

118. Which of the following is a keyword for handling exception in JAVA? (c) obj (d) final 119. What method of which class would you use to extract the message from an exception object? (a) (b) (c) (d) The getMessage() method of the Throwable class The Message() method The GetMessage() method None of these


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120. What is the name of the method that can be used to determine if a thread is alive? (a) isAlive() (a) Count (a) 1 (a) SDK (a) abstract (a) interface (a) break (a) ASCII (a) SDK (a) .icon (a) void (a) AddListItem (a) overloading (b) Alive() (b) ListCount (b) 2 (b) JDK (b) final (b) class (b) switch (b) BYTECODE (b) AWT (b) .ico (b) dynamic (b) AddItem (b) overriding (c) islive() (c) CountList (c) 3 (c) JAVA API (c) public (c) methods (c) if (c) UNICODE (c) JAVA BEANS (c) .ino (c) static (c) ListItem (c) ADT (d) none of these (d) none of these (d) 4 (d) JVM (d) all of these (d) all of these (d) if-else (d) none of these (d) none of these (d) .inc (d) constant (d) AddList (d) none of these 121. Which of the following counts the number of current items in the list? 122. The value returned by the MsgBox function when VbAbort is clicked is 123. StringBuffer class belongs to ………… 124. Which of the following creates a class that cannot be extended? 125. Multithreading is implemented in JAVA through 126. Which of the following statement can be used to come out of indefinite loops? 127. The character set of JAVA is called 128. Which of the following in JAVA allows you to build GUI? 129. The extension for icon files is 130. A function that does not return a value is called 131. The method used to add items to the listbox control is 132. In JAVA, Polymorphism is implemented by a technique called 133. The three attributes that should be compulsorily used with <Applet> tags are (a) Code, Name, Width (c) Code, Height 134. The method used to start the applets is (a) Void start() (a) Thread (a) destroy() (b) Start() (b) Runnable (b) start() (c) Void() (c) Start() (c) init() (d) none of these (d) Init() (d) stop() 135. Multithreading is implemented in JAVA through an interface called 136. Which method is executed only once at the start of Applet execution? (b) Name, Code, Height (d) Name, Align

Which one of the following is a combination of NOR gate? 140.B (a) flip-flop circuit (c) logical circuit (a) NAND (a) 2 (a) cycle time (b) 148.B (c) ABC (c) A + B = A.B = A.B (d) ABC (d) A. Which one of the following is also called a flipflop? (d) tri-stable gate (d) hybrid (d) a & b (d) none of these (d) C (d) 2 141. can data be transmitted in one direction? 143.B 147. which one of the following is the prompt for the root user? 145. Which of the following is an example of sequential circuit? (b) digital circuit (d) combinational circuit (b) XOR (b) 3 (b) memory time (c) NOR (c) 4 (c) access time (d) NOT (d) 6 (d) time 149. In LINUX. Which one of the following gates is called logical inverter? 150. The term ‘bit’ stands for (a) byte digit (c) boolean digit (a) hardware (c) boolean algebra (a) NOT & OR (c) AND & OR (a) stable gate (a) star (a) simplex (a) shell (a) $ (a) 3 (b) binary digit (d) byte information transfer (b) software (d) integrated circuit (b) NOT & AND (d) AND. How many modes of operation are there in vi editor? 146. The boolean expression ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC after simplification will be (a) B (b) A A + B = A. In which mode. are computers connected to a central hub? 142. Which one of the following is known as response time or latency? . How many types of users are in the LINUX operating system? 151. Which one of the following is called ANSI standard of LINUX? 144. Which one of the following is used for designing digital circuits in a digital computer? 139. OR & NOT (b) logic stable gate (b) bus (b) half-duplex (b) kernel (b) @ (b) 6 (c) bi-stable gate (c) ring (c) full-duplex (c) C language (c) # (c) 4 107 138. Which one of the following establishes De-Morgan’s first theorem? (a) A+B= A. In which network.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 137.

The device that accomplishes the modulation-demodulation process is called (b) MODEM (b) resident monitors (d) multiprogramming (b) group message (d) multicast routing 159. An open source testing tool used to test the performance of the application when it is under heavy load is (a) Apache JMeter (a) O(1) 163. Sending a message to a group is called 161.B=A+B (c) chip (d) A. The expression XYZ + XYZ + XYZ is called (a) canonical sum (b) sum of standard product terms (c) sum of minterms (d) all of these 157. What type of language is Visual Basic? (a) object-based (c) pure OOPS language (b) Loadrunner (b) O(2) (c) TSL (c) 0 (d) PSP (d) None of these 162. DeMorgan’s second theorem is (a) A.B = A + B (a) flip-flop (a) SPOOLING (c) time-sharing (a) multitasking (c) routing (b) A. How many stable states are there in a simple flip-flop? 154.B (c) A.B =A+B (d) CPU 158. How many bytes of memory are required to store an integer? 156. The COCOMO model deals with 165.108 Placement Preparation 152.B = A. The Clique problem is (a) NP-Complete (a) software cost (b) NP-Hard (b) software risk (c) NP-Soft (c) scheduling (b) object-oriented (d) hypertext (d) MST (d) testing 164. Which one of the following circuits is capable of storing one bit of information? (a) full adder (c) flip-flop (a) 5 (a) cat (a) 8 (b) half adder (d) combinational circuit (b) 2 (b) man (b) 2 (c) 3 (c) pwd (c) 4 (d) 4 (d) echo (d) 1 153. Job scheduling led to the concept known as the 160. Which command is used to show the contents of the file on the screen in LINUX? 155. The expected time to search for an element in a hash table is .

How many bytes are occupied by the far. (d) none of these. The time complexity for Binary search algorithm is (a) logn (a) mounting (a) 0 and 1 (a) 0 to 32767 (a) fork (b) O(logn) (b) paging (b) 0 and 10 (b) 0 to 128 (b) nice (c) O(1) (c) process (c) 0 and 2 (c) 0 to 256 (c) exec( ) 109 (d) none of these (d) buddy system (d) 1 and 10 (d) 0 to 1024 (d) brk( ) 167.&int).*int). functions are (a) declared (b) defined (c) called (d) overloaded 173. In header files. Which of the following allocates the requested size of bytes and returns a pointer to the first byte of the allocated space? (a) malloc (b) calloc (c) realloc (d) none of these 174. 177. The function atoi() (a) converts a string to an integer (b) converts an integer to a string (c) converts a floating point number to a string (d) none of these . far and huge pointer – 4 bytes (d) near pointer – 4 bytes. What is the system call to create a new process? Which of the following allocates space for an array of elements. How will you declare an array of three function pointers where each function receives two integer values and returns a float? (a) float (*arr[3](int.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 166. The mechanism by which two different file systems can be combined together is called 168. A binary semaphore can take only one of the following 2 values: 169. far and huge pointer – 2 bytes (c) near pointer – 4 bytes. (b) float(arr[3](*int. far and huge pointer – 4 bytes (b) near pointer – 2 bytes. huge and near pointers? (a) near pointer – 2 bytes. A Local variable which exists and retains its value even after the control is transferred to the calling function is called (a) static variable (c) temporary variable 172. (c) float (*arr[3])(&int. initializes them to zero and then returns a pointer to the memory? (a) malloc (b) calloc (c) realloc (b) a(*i+*j+*k+*l) (d) a[*i][*j][*k][*l] (d) none of these 175. What is the range of values ProcessID (PID) can take? 170. far and huge pointer – 2 bytes 178. Write down an equivalent pointer expression for referring to the same element a[i][j][k][l] (a) *(*(*(*(a+i)+j)+k)+l) (c) *a[i][j][k][l] (b) global variable (d) constant variable 176.

Name a special bit pattern that circulates around the ring whenever all stations are idle. Which of the following is used to control concurrent access of data between users? (c) views (d) none of these 188. . The function itoa() (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d) converts a floating point number to a string converts an integer to a string converts a string to an integer none of these converts a string to an integer converts an integer to a string converts a floating point number to a string none of these (b) 0 (b) memory bus (b) stack pointer (c) –1 (c) I/O bus (c) bus Placement Preparation 180. Name the database object which is used as an alternative name for a table. Which of the following stores the result of each arithmetic or logical operation? 184. A Bus which carries the data to or from memory is known as a 183. (a) manchester encoding (b) (c) transponders (d) multiplexer (a) locks (b) forms modulator 187. The wasted bytes allocated to keep everything in units of blocks (instead of bytes) are called (a) partition (b) external fragmentation (c) internal fragmentation (d) deallocation 186. view or sequences. The rand() function returns a (a) random number (a) data bus (a) accumulator (d) garbage value (d) none of these (d) CPU 182. The function govt() 181. sequential integer values. A solution to the problem of indefinite blockage of low priority jobs is (a) aging (b) simulation (c) event-driven programs (d) none of these 185. Name the database object which can generate unique. Name the technique of dividing each bit period into two equal intervals. (a) synonym (a) sequence (a) token (b) sequences (b) synonym (b) token ring (c) index (c) view (c) token bus (d) none of these (d) index (d) bridge 189. 190. They are also used to simplify SQL statements.110 179.

Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 191. When does software testing end? (a) when we run out of time (c) when there is no error (a) basis path testing (c) smoke testing 196. The process of encrypting and decrypting messages is called……………. (a) cookie (a) cryptography (c) cryptanalysis (b) website (c) server (b) authenticity (d) authentication (d) datastore 202. Software configuration management deals with (a) change management (c) risk analysis 200. . MTBF is equal to (a) MTTF-MTTR (c) MTTF*MTTR (b) MTTR-MTTF (d) MTTF-2*(MTTR) (b) when we run out of memory (d) verification & validation are completed (b) regression testing (d) mutation testing (b) system programming (d) reengineering 195. (a) extreme programming (c) application programming 194. Name the software development approach that deals with risk prone projects and unstable requirements. Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric dealing with 197. PAR stands for (a) Positive acknowledgement with retransmission (b) Program access registers (c) Program address register (d) Positive acknowledgement without retransmission 192. A web server sends a program to be stored on the user’s hard drive called a ……………frequently without a disclosure or the user’s content. (a) QFD (a) LOC (c) NOC (b) SRS (c) CSPEC (d) PSPEC 198. How are the risks documented in SDLC? (a) using RIS (b) using Risk Table (c) RMMM 201. Name the quality management technique that translates the needs of the customer into technical requirements. Which of the following is an OOPS metric? (b) cyclomatic complexity (d) comment % (b) requirements specification (d) reengineering (d) KPA 199. Which of the following deals with software cost estimation? (a) COCOMO model (b) spiral model 111 (c) prototyping model (d) RAD model 193.

The processing time of a business process from beginning to end is 205. A network that links the intranets of business partners using the virtually private network on the Internet is (a) Extranet (b) Intranet (c) VAN (d) MAN 207. (a) geosynchronous and low-orbit (c) geosynchronous and trunks (b) synchronous and orbit (d) trunks and tunneling . Which of the following is not an element of C? (a) tokens (a) tokens (b) identifiers (b) identifiers (c) datatypes (c) variables (d) structures (d) constructors 213. A B-Tree of order m is an m-way search tree with (a) all leaves of the tree on the same level (b) each node.112 Placement Preparation 203. A situation where a business is selling online to an individual consumer is (a) Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce (c) E-Business (a) cycle time (c) lapsed time (a) EDI (Electronic data interchange) (c) Electronic distributor (b) Business-to-Business E-Commerce (d) banner (b) lead time (d) process time (b) EFT (Electronic Fund transfer) (d) e-broker 204. A browser is a software tool that helps (a) linking of application program modules (b) viewing of application information (c) developing application programs (d) debugging of application software 212. except for root and leaves. having less than m/2 subtrees (c) the root of the tree having more than m subtrees (d) all its leaves connected to form a linked list 211. Name the two communication satellites. Computer-to-Computer direct transfer of standard business documents is 206. The concept of delivering the ordered items at a designated time is (a) JIT (Just-in-time) (b) ontime shipping (c) online delivery (d) none of these 209. Which of the following is not an element of C++? 214. A network node consisting of both hardware and software that isolates a private network from public networks is (a) firewall (b) fare tracker (c) intermediary (d) internet mall 208. Which among the following is not a structured data type in C? (a) union (b) pointer (c) string (d) boolean 210.

(b) one or more source files (d) two or more source files 223. Which of the following is CORRECT? (a) Java does not support ICMP (b) Java does not allow you to send raw IP packets (a) (a) is true (c) (a) and (b) are true (a) only one source file (c) depends on functions 224. Every C program must have a (a) main() (b) void main() (c) conio. The Max-Flow-Min-Cut theorem deals with (a) network flow problem (c) matroids (a) webcasting (c) webhosting (b) LPP (d) non-linear programming (b) webonomics (d) web content design (b) matroids (d) assignment problem 220. Which of the following algorithm deals with deadlock? (a) Banker’s algorithm (c) RR (a) Big ‘oh’ (b) Omega 217.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 215. Internet-based broadcasting of audio and video content is 221.traversal . Depth-first traversal of a graph is roughly analogous to………..-tucker conditions deal with (a) non-linear programming (c) LPP 219. A free tree is defined as a connected undirected graph with 227. Which of the following is not a memory management scheme? (a) paging memory (b) lock (c) mutual exclusion (b) Bakery algorithm (d) Priority algorithm (c) Theta (d) Alpha 113 (d) critical region 216.h (b) separator (d) new line generator (c) 3 cycles (c) level-by-level (d) no cycle (d) postorder (d) getch() 225. the semicolon is used as (a) statement terminator (c) null statement (a) 1 cycle (a) preorder (b) 2 cycles (b) inorder (b) (b) is true (d) depends on data. Kuhn. In C. Which of the following is not an asymptotic notation? 218. The placement of the website on a certain server and providing the necessary infrastructure for its operations is (a) web hosting (b) webcasting (c) webonomics (d) webserver 222. A typical C program is made up of several functions which may be contained in 226.

Which of the following is used to determine prime implicants and minimal forms for Boolean expressions? (a) karnaugh map (c) gate (b) truth table (d) inverter (b) recursive descent (c) pruning (b) >1 (b) method (b) int getDescent (d) int getAscent (b) documentation (b) 128 (b) 1 (c) debugging (c) 129 (c) 2 (b) high level language (d) machine language (d) bug (d) 130 (d) 3 (c) negative (c) objects (d) token (d) >=0 (d) constructor 232. 230.. In Java. remove an item having the largest or smallest key (b) inserting and ordering the items (c) removing and ordering the items (d) inserting and setting priority value to existing items 231. or after them. n>=0 has exactly…………NULL links. 236. How many characters are there in the ASCII characters set? 237. The size of the applet viewer window can be determined by using the method 235. The subscript of an array must be 233. Instance variables are the variables that are declared within a …………. A linked binary tree with n a class modifier 241. ……………. The subscript cannot be (a) an integer (a) final (b) positive number (b) public (c) negative number (c) private (d) equal to 0 (d) abstract 240. the index number of a string always starts with 238. The method of writing all operators either before their operands. The process of splitting a text or expression into pieces to determine its syntax is called (a) parsing (a) >0 (a) class (a) getSize() (c) int getHeight() (a) testing code (a) 127 (a) 0 (a) algorithm (c) assembly language 239. The process of removing errors from a program is called ……………. is called (a) polish notation (a) n (b) infix (b) n+1 (c) postfix (c) n–1 (d) prefix (d) n+2 229.114 Placement Preparation 228. 234. Mnemonics are provided by . A priority queue is a data structure with only two operations (a) insert an item.

*. In solving a problem. Which of the following is INCORRECT? (a) Validation takes place after verification (b) Verification takes place after validation (a) a (c) depends on software (b) b (d) depends on data 251.. The method which returns the current capacity of the stringbuffer object is 115 245. Karnaugh map involves atmost……….Applet class…………. The AWT is a package of classes that helps in .applet 247. 246.keyword halts the execution of the current loop out of the loop 254.applet. The destructed object is ………………and ……………… (a) memory reclaimed and garbage collected (b) destroyed and thrown away (c) reused and implemented (d) none of the above 252.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 242.variables (a) 6 (a) code base (a) capacity() (a) start() (a) java. Which one of the following is not a method included in java. Find out the super class of all applets. (d) 2 (d) code (d) capa() (d) end() 243. the sequence of steps to be carried out is called………… (b) two values (c) only one value (b) 4 (b) height (b) length() (b) stop() (c) 1 (c) width (c) buffercapacity() (c) destroy() (b) java.Applet (d) java. (d) three values (d) an algorithm (c) java.. A function can return……………… (a) many values 248.awt.applet. Which attribute is not compulsory with the applet tag? 244. Find the odd one out: (a) class diagram (a) a program (b) activity diagram (b) a flow-chart (c) sequence diagram (d) DFD (c) a pseudo code 249. the inheritance is called……… (a) single inheritance (c) multiple inheritance (a) continue (c) sleep (a) writing character based applications (c) creating networking applications (b) double inheritance (d) none of the above (b) break (d) none of the above (b) creating GUI based applications (d) none of the above 253. The ………. When a subclass is derived from a single super class.awt. used to find the length of an array.. 261. To import a class. recursively nestable container. 259. 262. (a) Struct (c) template (a) Event source (c) Event class (b) Class (d) none of the above (b) Event listener (d) none of the above. The keyword…………is used to enable synchronization. The…….defines the shape and behaviour of an object and is a template for multiple objects with similar features. (a) attribute (c) variable (b) instance (d) none of the above (b) read(byte[]) (d) none of the above (b) import (d) none of the above (b) Length (d) none of the above (b) javac (d) none of the above (b) synchronized (d) none of the above (b) HTTP (d) none of the above (b) panel (d) none of the above 258. The……. A……. The………keyword indicates that it is a class method and can be accessed without creating an object.. Each property is treated as……. (a) static (c) extern (b) local (d) none of the above . The most commonly used protocol of the web is 263. 265. 256. which is a part of the JDK.of the class. The……class is a non-abstract. the……….116 Placement Preparation 255. An applet can also be executed using……application. (a) read[] (c) read[byte b()] (a) new (c) static (a) Dot operator (c) new keyword (a) Appletviewer (c) javacc (a) runnable (c) throwable (a) SMTP (c) NNTP (a) button (c) list 264. An EventListener interface defines one or more methods to be invoked by the 257..keyword should be b.length bytes into the array b and returns the actual number of bytes successfully read..

…………….……. 269...lays out components in a way very similar to a spreadsheet by rows and columns. A hyperlink can be…………. 276.. The default alignment of a line is………. 272. The……. The…….Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 266. ……. 268.are used to destroy the objects created using constructors. (a) low (c) bottom right 274.*/ (a) GET (a) buttons (c) grid (b) POST (b) ** (d) none of the above (c) SEND (b) panel (d) none of the above (d) END (b) image only (d) none of the above (b) bottom left (d) none of the above (b) multiprogramming (d) none of the above (b) finalizers (d) none of the above (b) setBackground() (d) none of the above (b) Flowlayout (d) none of the above (b) Syste..error (a) Usenet (c) FTP (a) FTP (c) Archie 273. ……………method sets background color of the applet. 271.. (a) multithreading (c) multitasking (a) deletors (c) final (a) Background() (c) setbackground() (a) Gridlayout (c) Borderlayout (a) System.err (d) none of the above (b) Finger service (d) none of the above (b) Telnet (d) none of the above 117 a program or a tool that helps in locating a file anywhere on the net. (a) text only (c) text or image 275.method is used to print error messages. The tag used for comments in java is (a) // (c) /*….……allows division of a document into distinct sections. a program that helps us log on to other networks. Two or more processes running concurrently in a computer is called…………. .out (c) System. The default method to submit data to the server is………… 277. . .

variables can be declared as final used to define the name and properties of the object. 282.. .……...networking (a) temporary (c) global (a) get() (c) GetClass() (a) IP address (b) URL Placement Preparation (b) strings only (d) none of the above (b) #define (d) none of the above (b) a string (d) pseudo-compiled byte code (b) object-oriented. 288. Parsing involves evaluating each line of the script code and converting it to……. . 289. To find out what class the object belongs to.. 286. The object class has a subclass called…………to handle exceptions and (c) Java. . 287. 281.……. 285.……. Java is an……and ……. multi-tasking (d) script and web design (b) inputstream (d) none of the above (b) Java. The following datatypes are supported by the Javascript (a) number only (c) both Null and Boolean (a) destructor (c) constructor (a) an integer (c) bytes (a) object-oriented. Which two files are used during operation of the DBMS? . .networks (d) none of the above (b) auto (d) none of the above (b) Get() (d) none of the above (c) DNS (d) FTP 279.layout is often used along with panels to divide the screen space into number of cells. The……class accepts input by using a buffered array of bytes that acts as cache. multi-threaded (c) structured and procedural (a) buffer (c) outputstream (a) Java. Networking in Java is possible through the use of 284. 280.language developed by Sun Microsystems in 1991..118 278.……is a 32 bit number which has four numbers separated by periods. the……can be used. (a) FlowLayout (c) BorderLayout (a) Throwable (c) Throwing (a) SQL and PL/SQL (c) Data dictionary and transaction log (b) GridLayout (d) none of the above (b) ThrowEnabled (d) none of the above (b) DML and query language (d) Data dictionary and DDL. 283.

The hexadecimal digits are 0 to 9 and A to…….Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 290. A constraint that does not affect the feasible solution region is known as 302. In compilers.. Hungarian method is a way of solving operations research problem in 295.. BCD numbers express each digit as a …………. (b) assignment (d) project management (b) simplex method (d) transportation method (b) slack variable (d) optimality 294. 301.. PERT and CPM are………. (b) syntax analyzer (d) code generator (b) 0 to 0. the syntax analysis is done by (a) lexical analyzer (c) parser 298. An information system that supplies information specifically to aid managers with decisionmaking responsibilities is called a (a) DBMS (a) critical path (a) network (c) project evaluation (a) LPP (c) assignment method (a) redundant constraint (c) surplus variable 296.1 (d) depends on the sample space (b) MIS (b) activity path (c) DSS (c) complex path (d) ERP (d) PERT 292. An XOR gate recognizes only words with an……….gate followed by an inverter.. 293. Binary means…….number of 1’s. (a) two (a) D (a) byte (a) odd (c) depends on input (a) OR (b) AND (b) three (b) E (b) nibble (c) four (c) F (c) bit (b) even (d) none of these (c) NAND (d) XOR (d) five (d) Z (d) integer 299.path. The longest sequence of events in a project is called the.techniques.……….. . 300. Probability normally range from (a) 0 to 1 (c) 1 to 100 297. The EXCLUSIVE – NOR gate is equivalent to a…….. A data dictionary is a special file that contains (a) the names of all fields in all fields (c) the widths of all fields in all files 119 (b) the data types of all fields in all files (d) metadata 291.

Which is the earliest and most widely used shell that came with the UNIX system? 307. The comments in C language are placed between (b) call by reference (d) address value . (a) NOT gate (a) encoder (c) data selector (a) C shell (a) printf() #inlcude <stdio. f=10/3. The C language was developed by (a) Marting Richards (b) Dennis Ritchie (a) /* and *\ (b) /* and */ (c) Brain (c) //*and *// (d) Kanitkar (d) # and # known as universal gate.33333333333 (c) getw() (b) Korn shell (b) scanf() (b) NAND gate (c) OR gate Placement Preparation (b) serial to parallel conversion (d) all of these (d) NOR gate 305. A shift register can be used for (a) parallel to serial conversion (c) digital delay line 304.0 (d) 3. ………. Enumeration is (a) a set of integers (b) a list of strings (c) a set of legal values possible for a variable (d) a list of operators 312.. printf(“%d”.f). } (a) 3.3 (c) 3 (a) fseek() (b) ftell() (b) 3.120 303. A single character input from the keyboard can be obtained by using the function 308. What will be the output for the following? 309.h> main() { float f. A multiplexer is also known as……… (b) decoder (d) data distributor (c) Bourne (c) getchar() (d) Smith shell (d) putchar() 306. The function that sets the position to a desired point in the file is (d) putc() 310. The process of calling a function using pointers to pass the address of variable is known as (a) call by value (c) pointer argument 311.

in C programming language (a) label (a) 1. End-to-End connectivity is provided from host-to-host in……… 323. Which of the following TCP/IP protocol is used for remote terminal connection service? 326.. goto is a………. Which of the following is used to minimize data errors when data is transferred? 329. .language.234560 (a) \n (a) unary operator (c) digital operator (a) C (a) network layer (a) modem (a) transport layer (a) bit stuffing (c) character stuffing (a) bridge (a) TELNET (a) computer (a) handshake (a) checksum (a) algorithmic (b) hub (b) FTP (b) serial port (b) debugging (b) check bit (b) assembly (b) C++ (b) transport layer (b) demodulator (b) physical layer (b) keyword (b) 1. 1. the routing is performed by (d) physical layer (d) simplifier (d) hub 321. ALGOL is a…………. Method of detecting and correcting transmission errors in data is known as 328.234 (d) \t 316. ‘5’ represents (a) an integer (c) a character 315.23459). A device that converts digital signals to analog signals is 322. The statement printf(“%5. In OSI network architecture.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 314. in C prints the following: 317. In C language. The bitwise OR operator is a (b) a string (d) alphanumeral 121 319. The null character is represented by 318. Which of the following deals with error detection at a data link layer? (b) hamming codes (d) cyclic redundancy codes (c) router (c) SLIP (c) parallel port (c) hamming code (c) transmit (c) machine (d) repeater (d) TFTP (d) adapter (d) checksum (d) patching (d) low level 324. A MODEM is connected in between a telephone line and a 327. A device that links two homogeneous packet-broadcast local networks is 325. Which programming language was used for writing the UNIX operating system? 320.4f”.2346 (b) \0 (c) function (c) 1.2345 (c) \o (b) binary operator (d) logical operator (c) PASCAL (c) sessions layer (c) converter (c) router (d) BASIC (d) procedure (d) 1.

The principal of ‘locality of reference’ justifies the use of 339. The range of frequencies available for data transmission is known as 333. The term ‘process’ in operating system refers to 336. thus increasing the distance with which the signal can be sent? (a) amplifier (c) multiplexer (a) aspect ratio (b) assembler (b) regulator (d) analog transmitter (c) attenuation (d) appletalk 342. The time required for the fetching and execution of one sample machine instruction is 332. Which of the following is used to change the shape of an object? . The symbols used in assembly language are (a) codes (a) throughput (a) baud (b) mnemonics (b) CPU cycle (b) bandwidth (c) # (c) access time (c) byte Placement Preparation (d) 0 and 1 (d) seek time (d) bits 331. Banker’s algorithm deals with (a) deadlock avoidance (c) critical region (a) program in execution (c) set of jobs (a) FIFO (a) cache memory (c) paging 338. The Round Robin scheduling is essentially the preemptive version of 337. Name the interface card that allows the PC to connect to peripheral? 341. CAD/CAM is the inter-relationship between (a) (b) (c) (d) design and manufacturing design and marketing design and management engineering and materials management (b) LIFO (b) deadlock prevention (d) segmentation (b) sequence of events (d) segments (c) SJF (b) virtual memory (d) segmentation (d) SSTE (b) million instructions per minute (d) megabytes of instruction per system 335.122 330. Name the register or storage location that forms the result of arithmetic or logic operation? (a) accumulator (a) adapter (b) adapter (b) MODEM (c) memory registers (d) processor (c) connector (d) cell 340. The term MIPS refers to (a) million instructions per second (c) million information per second 334. Name the device which regenerates an analogue signal.

is a declaration of a function type (what it returns) and the number and type of arguments. Which of the following is not a reserved word in C? 355. The information we pass to the function is called………. Name the electronic tube with a screen upon which information may be displayed? (a) carrier (b) screen (c) monitor (d) CRT 123 343. The degree of dependence of one module upon another is called (c) data independence (d) modularity (b) simplex transmission (d) full-duplex frame (c) histogram (c) process cycle (d) PERT (d) instructor 345. 353. Which of the following is related with operating system? 351. Which of the following is used when dereferencing a pointer to a structure? (b) dot operator (d) member name as declared in structure .. Internet is a (a) VAN (c) network of network (a) paging (a) CRT (b) segmentation (b) SPOOL (b) set of computers (d) collection of routers (c) demand paging (c) multiplexing (d) thrashing (d) crashing (b) gantt chart (b) instruction set 346.……………. Which of the following is not a memory management technique? 350. This is called a ……………… (a) class (c) self-referential structure (a) for (a) arrow operator (c) & (b) goto (b) nested structures (d) pointer to structure (c) if (d) newline 354. . The provision of a direct. if any. An element of a structure can be a pointer to another structure of the same type.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 343. The fetch and decode steps in the process of performing an instruction is called 349. physical path between two communicating devices is referred as (a) circuit switching (a) coupling (b) packet switching (b) cohesion (c) diode (d) cabling 344.. that the function expects. dedicated. Name the bar chart that depicts the timing of completion of a series of tasks? 347. The simultaneous sending and receiving of data over a communication path is called (a) full-duplex transmission (c) half-duplex transmission (a) pie chart (a) instruction cycle 348. (a) function prototype (c) function declaration (a) argument (c) parameter (b) function call (d) function definition (b) reference (d) function prototype 352.

first-out where the unvisited elements are kept. then E must satisfy the following condition…………. A forest ‘F’ is a set of (a) rooted trees (a) an ordered tree (a) two cycles (b) nodes (b) B-tree (b) only one cycle (c) B-tree (c) subtree (c) no cycles (b) ring (c) mesh Placement Preparation (d) square (d) set of subtrees (d) rooted tree (d) three cycles 358. first-in. All internal nodes except the root have at most ‘m’ children. (a) race condition (c) quadratic formula (b) running-sum condition (d) polish notation 363.124 356. Translation of an expression by recursive descent is called…………………. (a) depth-first search. If E is a properly formed expression in postfix form. Which of the following is not a network topology? (a) star 357. and at least %m/2% children is the property of (a) B-Tree (c) AVL tree (a) parsing (c) pruning (b) forest (d) binary search tree (b) top-down parsing (d) polish notation 361. (a) stack (a) tree (b) queue (b) inverted tree (c) linked list (c) stack (d) list (d) queue 368. 366.. The predecessor pointers of the breadth-first search defines ___________ . 362. Generally two traversal techniques are used for the graph______________. In order to traverse a graph we have to process every node exactly __________. A free tree is defined as a connected undirected graph with 360. Every branch of a spanning tree defines a ______________ 365. The Breath-first search maintains a _________. breadth-first search (c) greedy and dynamic strategy (b) top down and bottom up (d) depth and best-first search 367. (a) edge-labeled tree (b) tree (a) unique fundamental cut-set (c) cut-vertex (a) once (b) twice (c) rooted tree (b) cut-set (d) tree (c) thrice (d) at least twice (d) AVL tree 364.. An orchard ‘O’ will consist of 359. A tree with n vertices is an __________ if each edge is assigned a unique positive integer between 1 and (n-1).

Whenever depth-first search applies on any graph. then ‘T’ is said to be a ______. it yields a ____________.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 369. A _______ is a weighted graph or a weighted digraph. A project is divided into many well-defined and non overlapping individual jobs. (a) tree (a) no weight (b) spanning tree (c) cycle (d) AVL tree (d) none of these 371. Network – flow problems can be formulated and solved using ______ 379. A _________ is a digraph whose underlying graph is a forest 376. (a) heuristic algorithm (c) MST (a) MST (a) tree (a) every edge (b) network (b) directed forest (b) every vertex (b) floyd-warshall algorithm (d) graphs (c) connected graph (c) MST (c) every tree (d) cut-set (d) inverted tree _________ (d) any vertex 374. 375. it has an arborescence rooted at 377. Let a graph G = (V. The ________ is based upon dynamic programming technique in which the key part is to reduce a large problem into smaller problems. (a) breadth-first and depth-first (c) breadth-first and best-first (b) Kruskal’s and Prim’s (c) Kruskal’s and Dynamic programming 373. if ‘T’ is a sub-graph of G and contains all the vertices but no cycle circuit. The number of fundamental cycles of a connected graph with respect to a spanning tree is _____________ (a) 0 (c) 1 (a) tree (a) IC (b) MST (b) OR (b) based on vertices & edges (d) none of these (c) graphs (c) graphs (d) None of these (d) stack 378. The max-flow min-cut theorem is related to 380. A minimum spanning tree (MST in short) is a spanning tree of _________. A _______ can be drawn to depict the project . If a graph is strongly connected. For computing the minimum cost spanning tree there are two algorithms ______________ which are based on greedy technique. (b) minimum weight (c) large weight 372.E). called _________ (a) events (a) graph (b) path (b) tree (c) activities (c) weighted graph (d) subnet (d) PERT 381. (a) tree (c) list (b) depth-first tree (d) best-first search 125 370.

The graph will assist in identifying those loops that need to be tested.Number of vertices and E. The vertex denoting the termination of the project must have _________ 384. 385. The basis path testing method can be applied to a ___________ 390. The longest directed path is called a _________. is defined as __________. Cyclomatic complexity. _________ is white-box testing technique first proposed by Tom McCabe. _________ is software metric that provides a quantitative measure of the logic complexity of a program. Which of the following is not a part of SDLC? 394. connected digraph representing activities in a project is called an _________ (a) forest (a) zero in-degree (a) path (a) flow graphs (a) switch statement (c) class (b) CPM (b) null vertex (b) longest path (b) decision tree (c) activity network (c) zero out-degree (c) critical path (c) basis path testing (d) network (d) null tree (d) directed graph (d) smoke testing 383. 386. To develop a software tool that assists in basis path testing. can be quite useful. (N. (a) control testing (a) decision table (c) DFD (a) analysis (c) design (a) fixing bugs (b) debugging (b) smoke testing (c) regression testing (d) loop testing (b) decision tree (d) structured chart (b) software cost estimation (d) SRS (c) V&V (d) fault tolerance 392. Which of the following is not a part of software testing? . V(G). ________ can also be applied at the behavioral (black-box) level. _____________________helps in analyzing the intrinsic parallelism of a program. A weighted. a data structure called a ___________. (a) stack (b) queue (c) linked list (d) graph matrix 391. for a flow graph. A flowchart is used to depict _________ (b) structure (d) program control structure 387. G.Number of edges) (a) V(G) = E+N+2 (c) V(G) = E*N+2 (a) source code only (c) class (b) V(G) = E–N–2 (d) V(G) = E–N+2 (b) structure (d) procedural design or source code 389.126 Placement Preparation 382. (a) WMC (c) DIT (b) LOC (d) cyclomatic complexity 388. 393.

Which of the following can be quite complex to test? 406.………………. is a count of the methods implemented within a class or the sum of the complexities of the methods. (a) test document (a) use risk analysis (c) use test budget (a) open systems (c) packaged software (b) test case (c) test plan (b) use SCM (d) reduce test cases (b) OOPS (d) C/S application (d) test file 404.………….. .. and focus of a software testing effort..Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 127 395. Which of the following addresses both software and hardware quality management? metric deals with counting all physical lines of code. (a) software test case (c) TSL (b) software test plan (d) test design 403.…………. FTR (Formal technical review) is a ………………performed by software engineers. How many classes of loops are there? 399..……. scope. action. approach.. is a document that describes an input. Which of the following testing tool is used to test client/server applications? 401.. (a) weighted methods per class (c) CC (b) DIT (d) NOC .… is an umbrella activity that is applied throughout the software process. Which of the following is an approach of integration testing? (b) performance testing (d) V&V (c) Win Runner (c) review (d) TSL (d) testing a document that describes the objectives. . A ……………….. 397. (a) line count (b) CC (c) WMC (d) DIT 407. . the number of statements and the number comment lines. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes? 402.. or event and an expected response. .………….. . (a) SQA (c) configuration management (a) software quality assurance activity (c) change management activity (a) CMM (a) 1 (a) stress testing (c) smoke testing (a) JMeter (a) inspection (b) Load Runner (b) walkthrough (b) PCMM (b) 2 (b) V&V (d) change management (b) software testing activity (d) configuration management activity (c) TQM (c) 3 (d) CMMI (d) 4 396. What to do when there is no enough time for thorough testing? 405.

of a tree is the maximum level of any node in the tree. A tree having ‘m’ nodes has exactly ………. . (a) binary tree (a) (m-1) 420. 411. Which one of the following is related to recursion? 413.…………..…………. High cohesion indicates ……………. . (a) good class subdivision (c) complexity of a class (a) coupling between object classes (CBO) (c) LCOM (a) number of children (NOC) (c) coupling between object classes (CBO) (a) stack (a) enqueue (a) dequeue (b) queue (b) dequeue (b) enqueue (b) poor class subdivision (d) reliability of a software module (b) DIT (d) cyclomatic complexity (b) LCOM (d) RFC (c) linked list (c) inqueue (c) delete (d) tree (d) insert (d) delqueue (b) weighted methods per class (d) cardinality ratio 410.128 Placement Preparation 408.. In a tree. ………….. (a) terminal nodes and non-terminal nodes (c) root and leaf (a) ancestors (a) height (b) path (b) weight (b) non-terminal nodes and terminal nodes (d) leaf and root (c) depth (c) depth (d) height (d) length 416. .and the nodes other than these nodes are known as ……………. The insertion operation in a queue is called 414. A tree is a ……………. is a count of the number of other classes to which a class is coupled. (a) non-linear data structure (c) circular data structure (b) linear data structure (d) rooted structure (b) heap (b) (m+1) (c) sparse matrix (c) (m-2) (d) AVL tree (d) (m+2) 419.………. 417. . is the cardinality of the set of all methods that can be invoked in response to a message to an object of the class or by some method in the class.. 418. The deletion operation in a queue is called 415.... 412. The …….is the number of immediate subclasses subordinate to a class in the hierarchy.edges or a special class of data structure in which the number of children of any node is restricted to atmost two. The …………. nodes having degree zero are known as ………….of a node are all the nodes along the path from the root node to that node. (a) response for a class (c) mapping cardinality 409..

right subtree (c) depends on root’s value (a) P=NP (b) P≥NP (b) right subtree.1. Which of the following is true with respect to circular linked list? (a) Last node points to the first node (b) Last node contains null pointer (c) If last node contains value.2} (b) O(log n) (b) O(log n) (b) binary tree (b) {0.. left subtree (d) depends on height of the tree (c) P>NP (d) P<NP 431. (a) binomial tree (c) fibonacci heap (a) O(n) (a) O(n) (a) AVL tree (a) {0. every node’s value is greater than its ……and lesser than its …… an ordered set of elements which is defined recursively.1} (b) binomial heap (d) binary tree (c) O(log n*n) (c) O(log n*n) (d) O(n log n) (d) O(n log n) 129 422. A……………. An edge to a black node in Red-Black tree is called (a) red edge (b) black edge (c) black level (d) edge point 428. In Binary search tree. Which of the following was introduced by Adelson-Velskii and Landis in 1962? (c) binary search tree (d) balanced tree (c) {0.1} (d) {-1. then 432. Which of the following deals with minimising collision? (b) closed addressing (c) sorting 430. (a) hashing (a) open addressing (b) chaining (c) red-black tree (d) AVL tree (d) linear probing 429.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 421. (a) left subtree.…… provides the direct access of record from the file no matter where the record is in the file..-1.1} 425. Which of the following reflects the balance factor for a node in AVL tree? 426. The running time for merge sort algorithm under best case is 424.………. The running time for insertion sort algorithm under best case is 423.0. Which of the following is not a property of Red-Black tree? (a) the root node is coloured black (b) the root node contains a value (c) a red coloured node has no red coloured children (d) every leaf node is coloured black 427. . If any NP-complete problems belong to class P. then it will not point to first node (d) The first node and last node must contain the same value ...

in-order and post-order (a) space complexity (c) algorithm validation (a) fault (a) testing (b) error (b) debugging Placement Preparation (b) prefix.130 433. What are the different events in Triggers? (a) Define.RDX file & . Can we write a function similar to printf()? (a) YES (c) depends on scanf() (a) malloc() (b) sprintf() (b) NO (d) using pointers only (c) typecasting (d) string() (b) unstable requirements (d) LOC is high 439.RDF file 441.RPX file (c) . An incorrect step. The basic tree traversal techniques are (a) breadth-first. SHOW_ALERT function returns (a) boolean (c) character 442. depth-first and heuristic (b) time complexity (d) execution time (c) failure (c) error fixing (d) None of these (d) fault tolerance 434.. Which of the following adversely affects software testing? (a) poor project scheduling (c) complexity in design 438. Create (c) Insert. and correct faults in a computer program is called 437. depth-first and best-first (c) pre-order. infix and postfix (d) breadth-first. Delete (b) number (d) none of the above (b) ..RDF file (d) none of these . Update. Delete 443. To detect. into (b) Updates (c) Create (d) Deletes 444.REP file & . Comment (d) Update. The amount of time needed by an algorithm to run to completion is referred as 435. or data definition in a computer program is termed as 436. Which of the following is VALID in PL/SQL ? (a) Select . locate. Name the function which can be used to convert an integer or a float to a string? 440. Which of the following is CORRECT about Cursor? (a) Cursor is a named PL/SQL area (b) Cursor cannot holds results from a query (c) Cursor is used for retrieving multiple rows (d) SQL uses implicit Cursors to insert rows (b) Drop. process. What are the different file extensions that are created by Oracle Reports? (a) .RDF file & .

the term PL stands for (a) procedural language (c) procedural latex (b) programming language (d) packaged language (b) internal and external cursors (d) user defined and built-in cursors . Name the error handling part of PL/SQL block? (a) exception (b) bug (c) trigger (d) debugging 449. Which of the following is not correct about User_Defined Exceptions ? must be declared must be raised explicitly raised automatically in response to an oracle error none of these 131 447.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 445. In PL/SQL. (b) procedure definition and procedure body. Find the ODD one out? (a) DDL (a) (b) (c) (d) (b) DML (c) DCL (d) PL/SQL 446. Name the two types of cursors in PL/SQL? (a) implicit and explicit cursors (c) lower and higher level cursors 450. Name the two parts of the procedure in ORACLE? (a) procedure specification and procedure body. (d) none of these 448. (c) procedure declaration and procedure body.

104. 189. 183. 228. 180. 91. 256. 141. 144. 179. 214. 129. 225. 109. 219. 12. 193. 140. 75. 196. 53. 19. 194. 96. 10. 181. 233. (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (b) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (d) (a) (a) (a) (c) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (b) (d) (a) (b) (d) (d) (a) (a) 216. 208. 101. 150. 6. 190. 198. 37. 223. 151. 247. 237. 160. 90. 165. 2. 221. 103. 89. 110. 218. 24. 131. 250. 102. 249. 147. 167. (c) (d) (d) (a) (d) (c) (c) (c) (c) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (c) (b) (d) (b) (c) (c) (c) (d) (c) (d) (c) (c) (a) (b) (a) (d) (b) (d) (a) (b) (a) (c) (d) (c) (c) (b) (c) (a) 87. 164. 30. 3. 26. 145. 155. 188. 244. 192. 42. 18. 186. 95. 34. 124. 114. 46. 108. 56. 231. 21. 69. 135. 80. 154. 73. 50. 254.132 Placement Preparation ANSWERS 1. 49. 52. 97. 210. 66. 31. 252. 195. 28. 9. 142. 14. 236. 224. 98. 47. 51. 85. 136. 133. 163. 32. 92. 113. 251. 13. 41. 62. 68. 157. 23. 20. 45. (a) (a) (d) (d) (a) (c) (c) (c) (b) (c) (b) (c) (b) (d) (a) (b) (d) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (d) (a) (b) (a) (a) (a) (b) (b) (b) 130. 54. 126. 227. 93. 197. 119. 76. 211. 209. 132. 255. 100. 11. 242. 172. 86. 57. 84. 149. 71. 245. 116. 16. 81. 74. 27. 169. 77. 15. 148. 36. 203. 207. 60. 241. 156. 215. 200. 153. 64. 184. 137. 232. 248. 7. 229. 199. 217. 61. 177. 258. 112. 152. 43. (a) (b) (a) (c) (d) (b) (c) (b) (c) (a) (c) (a) (a) (d) (a) (d) (d) (b) (a) (d) (c) (c) (d) (b) (a) (b) (a) (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (d) (a) (a) (a) (d) (d) (a) (c) (c) (a) (b) 173. 174. 127. 29. 246. 122. 118. 139. 191. 123. 22. 25. 83. 240. 166. 138. (c) (b) (b) (c) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (b) (b) (a) (a) (d) (d) (b) (b) (d) (b) (b) (b) (a) (a) (a) (a) (c) (a) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (a) (d) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) 44. 105. 17. 5. 202. 230. 55. 170. 106. 8. 168. 143. 134. 58. 107. 253. 204. 4. 206. 220. 59. 115. 239. 88. 175. 205. 238. 171. 111. 39. 65. 78. 67. 187. 63. 212. 226. 234. 33. 243. 158. 94. 146. 40. (a) (d) (a) (a) (a) (a) (c) (b) (a) (a) (a) (d) (a) (a) (b) (a) (a) (d) (a) (c) (b) (a) (c) (c) (d) (a) (a) (a) (a) (d) (b) (c) (d) (d) (b) (a) (a) (b) (b) (b) (c) (d) (a) . 176. 125. 120. 48. 182. 159. 162. 99. 35. 117. 201. 121. 235. 128. 79. 70. 185. 257. 222. 161. 178. 38. 213. 82. 72.

271. 424. 319. 442. 336. 329. 446. 437. 283. 274. 389. 310. 278. 346. 441. 356. 364. 313. 396. 391. 413. 418. 397. 394. 287. 295. 385. 405. 327. 342. 445. 347. 281. 323. 384. 309. 289. 332. 300. 334. 264. 296. 379. (a) (b) (a) (c) (d) (b) (a) (a) (c) (d) (a) (d) (a) (a) (c) (a) (b) (b) (a) (a) (a) (a) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (d) (d) (d) 388. 414. 408. 306. 305. 362. 373. 304. 292. 268. 404. 398. 286. 308. 440. 433. 370. 353. 324. 401. 272. 434. 365. 315. 450. 436. 359. 337. 270. 412. 407. 291. 282. 330. 333. 371. 438. 376. 363. 341. 279. 263. 340. 447. 366. 344. 403. 307. 261. 311. 322. 427. 294. 368. 381. 415. 355. 343. 393. 350. 383. 325. 432. 419. 280. 293. 361. 378. 318. 284. 338. 409. 390. 349. 422. 380. 298. (d) (d) (b) (c) (c) (c) (b) (a) (b) (c) (b) (b) (c) (b) (b) (b) (b) (a) (a) (a) (a) (d) (a) (a) (a) (c) (a) (a) (b) (b) (b) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (d) (a) 345. (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (b) (d) (a) (a) (c) (a) (d) (c) (b) (b) (b) (a) (d) (a) (a) (b) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (d) (a) (d) (b) (b) (a) (d) (a) 431. 312. 260. 317. 429. 301. 360. 399. 277. 372. 444. 425. 275. 386. 267. 265. 435. 351. 348. 439. 402. 420. 400. (a) (a) (C) (b) (a) (b) (b) (a) (b) (c) (b) (c) (a) (c) (d) (c) (a) (a) (a) (a) 133 . 316. 423.Test Yourself (Objective Type Questions) 259. 285. 369. 299. 410. 321. 448. 357. 411. 269. 417. 416. 358. 331. 375. 288. 266. 377. 392. 328. 374. 449. 273. 314. 367. 290. 443. 320. 426. 339. 262. 297. 406. 335. 326. 276. 428. (b) (a) (b) (b) (b) (a) (a) (b) (d) (b) (a) (c) (d) (a) (d) (c) (b) (b) (d) (d) (b) (b) (a) (d) (a) (d) (d) (a) (b) (a) (c) (d) (b) (a) (c) (c) (a) (a) (c) (a) (c) (b) (a) 302. 382. 303. 421. 387. 354. 430. 395. 352.

1995. “An Introduction to Database Systems”. “Java 2: The Complete Reference”. Michael Chung. Darnell. E.V. Kanetkar. Prentice Hall of India. 1998. 1996. Narosa Publishing House. H. Tondo.. 7.134 Placement Preparation Bibliography 1. S. Jae Lee. 2004. Peter A. 2002. 1991. 6. “C Programming Language”. “Enterprise Resource Planning”. 3.Kanetkar. 5. Efraim Turban. “Electronic Commerce – A Managerial Perspective”. . “Introduction to Algorithms”. Tata McGrawHill. Donald P. Date C. Prentice Hall of India. “Test your C++ skills”. 18. Tata McGraw-Hill.K. 2001. Tata McGraw-Hill. 2003. Kanetkar. Tata McGraw-Hill. Bruce P. 13. BPB Publications. “Programming in ANSI C”. 11. 1997 16. Balagurusamy. Yashvant P. 1998. Kernighan and Dennis M. 15. 2002. “Software Testing Tools”. 1995. NewDelhi. 8. 1998. Robert Lafore. Alexis Leon. Leach. Yashvant P. Robert L. 1997. “Database System Concepts”. “Understanding Pointers in C”. Prasad. 2002.K. K. Albert Paul Malvino. Tata McGraw-Hill. 17. Sudharshan. 2000. 10. “C – A Software Engineering Approach”. Dreamtech. Herbert Schildt. Philip E. 2004. Korth. Clovis L.Ritchie. 12. Yashvant P. “Object-Oriented Programming in Turbo C++”. Pearson Education. BPB Publications. Abraham Silbertschatz. Margolis.J. Thomas H. Kruse. Roger S. David King. Pressman. Addison Wesley Publishing Company. 4. “Operating System Concepts”. Cormen. “Data Structures and Program Design in C”. 1997. 14. Abraham Silberschatz. “Digital Principles and Applications”. Dr. “Test Your C Skills”. Leung. Henry F. Galgotia Publications. John Wiley & Sons. 1996. “Computer Networks”. Brain W. Prentice Hall of India. BPB Publications. Prentice Hall of India. Tata McGraw-Hill. Andrew S. 9. 19. 2. “Software Enginnering”. Tenanbaum.

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