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which is universal. aim and end throughout all time has been to iacite . Its contains the treasures of God's revealed will. been reproduced.PREFACE. was but just to abandon title originally To comprehend Law. but it requires an acknowledgment of the true and living Grod Most High. a thorough acquaintance with the Volume of the Sacred Holy Scriptures. since the it volume was put to the press. with such additions as English Masonry demands "Illustrations . the Editor intended to have adopted the title of Brother Preston's work. The first great doctrines held in sacred veneration by the Order axe the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. or the entire system of the Institution. and a full appreciation of the Book which are essential. has. On commencing his undertaking. pointing its votaries to that clouded canopy A 3 . but as the of Masonry" proposed. men to acts of kindness to their fellows it recognizes no sect or creed in Crafb Masonry.

by- Faith in God. and to in whatever land he may dwell. Hope in immortality. The next prominent doctrine levels all is imity of mankind .. Two of the degrees. his neighbours. the Eighteenth and Thirtieth —are of long standing. and the poorest peasant that tills the soil. all meet on equal ground. which are but an extension of the former. equally required illustration. but aU beyond is the three degrees secutive form. making no difference but personal merit. it those distinctions which wealth has created. The support which the Rite receives from the highly educated Brethren . and the young man in the prime of life. a quiet and peaceable citizen. These precepts of Craft Ineffable Masonry are more strongly enforced in the Degrees. the minister who serves at God's altar.VI PEEFACE. as weU as the Templar Degree. his God. for the first time presented in a con- The importance attached to the degrees under the Ancient and Accepted Rite. Supreme Council are now firmly established. hailing each other as " Brother " At his first step. and Charity towards man. In a Masons' Lodge the noblest peer of the realm. A considerable portion is of the illustrations of Craft Masonry derived from Preston's work. and the vast annual increase of their recipients. and himself. the father of venerable age. now Accepted Rite — a part of the Ancient and viz. the Mason ! has impressed upon his mind the practice of moral and social duties-^his duty to be. all where good Masons trust eventually to arrive. and for a considerable period have been practised in England and by the good management of the .

and with some the Egyptian mysteries. and Chaeitt.Croix is referred to. as Porta . the papal power. any one who has a key to the cyphers it contains will readily see the Eose. through Persia and Greece.PEEFACE. With reference to the Degrees referred to and their origin. throws considerable light on the Secret Societies of the middle During the middle ages. Boccaccio. Albigenses. except theology and medicine many . and in one of the earhest printed boots of the Continent. to the poets of the middle ages. following the system adopted by Gregory VII. and men of Paulicians. as Dante. prevented as far as possible the : spread of knowledge. Eosetti's work on the Anti- papal Spirit which produced the Eeformation. thence by the Manichseans. dated 1495. and Trouba- dours. science. Hope. Eelief. traced from Society. it may be observed that the transmission of the it Institution.. is by many. and Teuth —obtain Consummation in the Cardinal Virtues of Faith. not to be overlooked that the teaching of the Degrees in this Eite — ^that are practised — . of keeping the human mind in darkness. of the learned professions has -unquestionably been a means of retaining many as active members of the Fraternity who might It is otherwise — as their predecessors aforetime have ceased Membership of Lodges. when the light of learning was confined to the ecclesiastics. ^is but an ex- pansion of that of the SjrmboHc Degrees great principles and that the is upon which our Order founded their Beotheelt Love. as a secret reason. by whatever names has borne.

professed art to he engaged in discovering the metals. of course. written in the same allegorical language. of these learned priests united in the study of what was some termed occult pMlosoph/. That they succeeded in concealing their real object is proved by their printed books. but the very small number in its double sense. without number. which was a search after secret hitherto unknown.Tin rEEPACE. Egyptian and the interior had touched the gates of courts of the queen of eternal woe . this language is To the generality of readers. without key. only be understood "Dante's grand poem can initiated in the history of by those the time. and can comprehend works from each other in nothing . are unintelligible even now. an enigma. narrates that. and enter into the knowledge of things which the wise man is not permitted to manifest openly. and must have been equally so at the time of their production. of transmuting when in fact it was the Truth of which they were a in search. is who can spirit of read it and enter into the a volume which written within and without. as Eosicrucians. secret schools when the darkness of The ceremonies of the were derived from the ancient mysteries of Egypt. describing his initiation into the mysteries. John. afterwards open every seal imposed who once may by the jealous Order who forged them. which. ignorance covered the earth. and. It is a disg^uised paraphrase of the Revelation. Persia. and Greece. but appHed to a poUtical design. have thereby entered into the realm of spirits. which differ but the title. in imitation of Ezekiel and St. AllegoricaUy speaking — ^he breaks the seven seals of this fast-closed volume." " Apuleius. after he death.

So also the Mark Master has its illustrations : drawn from the Book of the showing that Ereemasonry. This new life is the Vita Nuova of Dante. {exactly Dante's celebrated the case). from age to age.^neas. according to the Roman system.) life. which in practice with the Fraternity in England. for a long period has been The Templar Degree. life " Among our ancient brethren the initiated were sup- posed to be fables bom again. called themselves tJie Sons of the Widow. and then re- turning to earth again. note Eleusinian mysteries consisted of scenical exhibitions. In a note on a character iatroduced in one of the mystical Italian poems called a Widow." xxii. The which describe Bacchus." Itosetti. Hercules. prove the encourage- ment given to the Degrees which have a bearing on Christianity. Ulysses. appear to signify those persons were regenerate. re- presenting and inculcating the expectation of ^ future after death.PEEEACE. necessarily has its colouring New Covenant altogether like every other institution. foimded by Gerard. John. Eosetti says that the sect of the Knights of St. affirms that the Darwin (Botanic Garden. The Encampments which are scattered wide throughout the realm. The end and object of the Editor is to make Free- masonry more fuUy understood by those who have been . also retains members even when they may have reUnquished attendance on Crafb Masonry. Theseus. and . Orpheus. and been its considered a step beyond the Eoyal Arch. and put on a new hfe. ix he returned to birth. descending into heU. and then happy day of his Bosetti.

London. temples . Sose Coifage. N. and Freemasonry be acknowledged to be something more than a name.X admitted into its PEEPACE. ciation of the truths it promulgates may be obtained. Slackstock Lane. and should any of the outer a better appre- world take it up to while away an hour. Seven Sisters^ Road. .

The Royal. Principles of the Institution of Freemasonry VI. The Government of the Fraternity 38 45 51 VII.. I. The Five Orders of Architecture 120 134 or the Master XIV. Religious. Mark Master XVIIL The Ancient and Accepted Rite XVL 158 188 199 XIX. The Entered Apprentice. Formation of a Lodge VIII. The Third Degree. XIII. PAGE tbe Ancient Mysteries or Associations analogous to Freetlie On masonry. publicly exposed and the Importance of those Secrets 31 demonstrated v. 139 147 XV. Mark Mason or Fellow-Craft XII. . Reasons why the Secrets of Freemasonry ought not to be . Mason . CHAP. The Ceremony of Opening and Closing the Lodge . or the First Degree 72 97 XI. The Second Degree. . Exalted.CONTENTS. and Military Order of Masonic Knights Templar 286 .. from Earliest Ages to the Subversion of the 1 II. 66 X. Koman Empire hj the Goths On Masonic Institutions of the Present Era Freemasonry in its 14 III. The Ceremony of Installation of Master of a Lodge The Supreme Order of the Holy Koyal Arch XVII. Consecration of a Lodge 56 IX. general Application 22 IV..

Hope. The Entered Apprentice The Fellow-Craft . built at the House of God which Solomon 357 Jerusalem XXII. 142 158 Royal Aich Knight Templar . .. Wisdom. 72 . CONTENTS. PAKE Rites of Freemasonry or. ... .. . ... The Name —The Sacred Elements of Consecration —The 370 Armorial Bearings of the Order of Freemasonry —The Symbolic Colours —The Dates of Masonry . The 324 XXI... XXIII..... . and Charity Index .XU CHAP. Solomon's Temple. Faith. Frontispiece.. .98 . 120 The The The The Five Orders of Architecture Master Mason ..... XX. 417 ILLTJSTEATIONS. Strength. and Beauty 382 40!) XXIV. The Consummation . 286 ..

the doctrines of patriotism and brotherly love and it its sentiments. the State and oppressive it reprobates. is clouded with darkness. All that good. In entering upon tlie task of endeavouring to illustrate and ex- plain the ceremonies and symtols of Preemasonry. be at times used. and its to a great extent.ILLUSTRATIONS OF MASONRY. and kind. — as a text-book for the Brethren to dilate upon in their various Lodges. " Although the origin of our fraternity history is. but only to bring- together the results of the labours of others in a clear and readable form. Upon these points there can be no doubt." of New York. of course. lest we should go too far. the most ancient society in the world principles are based on pure morality Christianity we can confidently say that it is and we are equally certain that its its — —that is ethics are the ethics of its doctrines. the author does not profess to present any novelties. ON THE AJSrOIENT MYSTERIES OR ASSOCIATIONS ANALOGOUS TO FREEMASONRY. and then only under circumstances well understood by Masons. the sentiments of exalted benevolence. ohscure. CHAPTER I. yet . 1824. In writing upon our ceremonies and mysteries all great caution must. for the instruction of the younger members of the Craft. . PROM THE EARLIEST AGES TO THE SUBVERSION OP THE ROMAN EMPIRE BY THE GOTHS. all encourages— that and —De Witt Clinton. and charitable cruel. Governor of is vicious. and lay bare to those who are not members of the Order. secrets only to be divulged to the Brethren.

was a great mystery. and their execution marvellous. stiU existing. as the gigantic works constructed in Their language was mys- those early ages." Tlie intent and purpose of those stupendous fabrics. are of equal. Many of the works of this ancient nation now in the British is Museum. priesthood. and the cultivation of science. if not greater age. selected first caste. in the time of Moses. The institution of a. the pyramids. All authorities who have investigated the subject concur in fixing the age of these piles at 4000 years. were proficient the arts and sciences. people who had made considerable advance in in all The Egyptians. secrets Moses was initiated into the and mysteries of the . in fact. and a mystery they stiU remain. The object being to illustrate the different degrees of Freeit masonry. oral tradition of the Pratemity refers us to the East. whilst the ordinary Masons or artificers were of an inferior caste. may naturally be expected tbat some conjectures its origin. tical. should be offered as to None of the ancient historians furnish us with actual testimony on this point . but there are traces of some such institutions long before that time. ChampoUion says " theocracy or government of priests was : A the first known to the Egyptians. being. We are told that the fraternity of ancient Egypt was denomi- nated the Hiero-Laotomi. Freemasonry undoubtedly must have been framed by science. and it is necessaay to give the voySi priests the acceptation that it bore in ancient times.i ILLUSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASOKEX. prove. when the ministers of religion were also the ministers of science and learning so that they united in their own persons two of the . or sacred builders. and traces its rise to King Solomon. and their priests secured the mysteries of their religion from the knowledge of the vulgar or uninitiated by symbols and hieroglyphics comprehensible alone to those of their order. They were a and connected with the govei'nment and Masons of the priestly order . noblest missions with which men could be invested — ^the worship of the Deity.

the fabrics they had seen in Egypt' them to attempt constructions suited to their future home. and all ingenious trinkets and toys are ascribed by him to the skUl and industry of the Sidonians. But it is evident that by the death of their great master. Homer frequently mentions the Sidonians. priestly order 3 when in Egypt.A. all All superior articles of dress. Moses. particularly astronomy and arithmetical calculation. and some have imagined that the . and were emblems of sublime truths to a civilized nation when Abraham was a wanderer colonists.U.AirCIENT MTSTEEIES. and when they became a settled people. : Tyre and Sidon were the chief of the Phoenicians the latter boasts an antiquity anterior to any other whose site can be determined. It was a place of considerable importance in the time of Joshua. and the buildings of Tyre were B 2 . and their cities were the emporia of commerce. These people were great adepts in the sciences of their time. our bibKcal chronology." who speaks of it Hence it is evident that the Phoenicians Israelites reached were far advanced in the arts of Kfe when the the promised land. —commercial communities having ever been the best promoters of the arts and sciences. had in a vision to King David directed his son Solomon to erect as we find by Holy Writ. They have the reputation of being the inventors of scarlet and purple dyes.T. as "great Sidon. remembrance of the beautiful led the Israelites were not in fiill possession of the knowledge requisite to complete the glorious fehric which the G. good workmanship.O. according to in the wilderness. The Phoenicians were an industrious people. By Egyptian age of Moses. Hebrews all assisted in the construction of the pyramids efforts but in probability these wondrous of Masonic sldll were hoary with age when the children of Israel settled in the land of Goshen.' the arts were carried to Greece two or three centuries before the ^By the Israelites the arts of building were conveyed to the promised land. that " the wisest man " needed the assistance of the cities King of Tyre.

Prom this very magnificent. in science and knowledge " Knowledge so called is power " —and Bacon —must have foremost rank. or the good principle the presiding agent of all good. which preserve the elements. the the spirits of Ariman wished eternal. Israelites also formed among the Chaldeans. the lord of evil. There were.. Hiram. all know. the creator of . the other. he affirmed. a more extensive acquaintance with one science —astronomy— we ^than they themselves were possessed of. Ormuzd sought to and the human race. Hence the Magian or Guebre. His 550 history. He appeared ia Persia or Iran about faith. all by the Greeks.C. and was alike infinity of time or space. city. (the devil). came. two principles in the universe evil : —good and Ariman the one termed Ormuzd. world. turns to the sacred . Among the most remarkable men of the early ages of the says. The angels of seasons. all things. Light was the type of the good spirit darkness disciple of of the evil Zoroaster. the widow's son. B. in after intercourse. (Grod himself). must prevail. has produced light position of these two —of generation and corruption— evil in and darkness and from the com^the com- position and decomposition of the parts of the world are affected. to destroy. but the power of good was and therefore . the when he performs his devotions.4 ILLTTSTEATIONS tlie 01' rEEEMASONET. God. or Zerdusht. by order of The his sovereign master. Of Zoroaster. can only be approached by a long study of mathematical formulas. walls teing 150 feet higl. ZoEOASTBE. when divested of extraneous matter. and with remarkable rapidity established a new The had ancient religion which lost its influence Djamshid had established in Persia over the people. There is an admixture of good and every thing created. can he reduced to this account. in every direction when He taught that God existed from all eternity. the Orientalists have the most extravagant statements. spirit. and new sects sprung up Zoroaster appeared. and this science. assist with materials to King Solomon ia erecting his temple. as the Persians render his name.

The principles of the ancient Magi. and perpetuates the works of creation. says he was the servant of the prophet EHjah. and at last the country. or Mre. are handed down . and that at the time of his birth there should appear a wonderful star. which attributed to Zoroaster and the chief doctrine inculcated and to be noticed is the eternity and self-existence of the Supreme Deity. or towards the buh when as the light hy which God sheds his Divine influence over the whole. fire 5 in the open air. to us in the Zend-Avesta. Prayer deities. Ahv^ says he was servant to Ezra. There considerable disagreement as to the era in which this philosopher flourished. his direction of it. that he ordered the fact to be "toniB^ engraven on Ms y^ is pi-o. and left a command that when that star should appear. They flnally settled in Guzerat. and driven out of Persia by the Mohammedans. and that he foretold to Magians the coming of the Messiah.^^&. is to be made to Light. and the adherents to fireis worship. [Zoroaster's fame has been transmitted to us as an astrologer and magician. who bestows consider- B 3 . they should foUow the Mohammed. where they are to this day. and go to the place and ofier gifts and adoration Eeligionis to the ChUd.^jtem from the Per sian philos opher. upon tlie altar. Syie (Veterum Persarum et Magorum Historia) refers to his being a native of Palestine. the celebrated Arabian tifies historian. left mountains. — ^not as being themselves but as conveying the sacrifice to Divine Intelligence. and we ledge are told that he communicated his knowstates that Darius by slow deg^ee^ Porphyrins iHtt1f^iff'^ 'lilip was so proud of tiaviri^JiagT] th e mvsteries of the arfc_by "Zioroaster timself. and Frideaux.. in Hindostan. Ahulfwraj. and supposes him to have been Bsdras .ANCIENT MTSTEEIES. aJfjAjvTlrl th at Pythagoras de^ed. The original purity of the religion of Zoroaster soon became corrupted. and it gradually sank into a mere idolatrous worship of the sun and fled to the fire . whose inefiable attributes are emphatically celebrated. Suet (Demonstratio Evangelica) idenhim with Moses.

from the law of Moses (Levit. viii. and chief of the Magi. and derived ix. Darius ordered him to be released and restored to his favour. or bom in their land. and led the Israelites through the wilderness by . and was early chosen to reside at the court of the sovereign. and that he served one of the disciples of the prophet Jeremiah. His doctrine for its use was not on the same grounds is often as the Persians previously held. iv. and as a reward. Now. authority for it The fire he preserved. and is led to conclude it was Daniel he served.b ILLTTSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASOITET. either canied to Babylon when an infent. as all the authorities of any value coincide in the Persian reformer being well skilled in all the learning of the East. among other captives to the Daniel was taken there when him to interpret the re- very young. he is able space to Zoroaster's history. Medes. 1160. 24). 24). Inspiration enabled markable dream of Nebuchadnezzar. and that he was thoroughly versed in the Jewish religion and in all the sacred writings of the Israelitish people then extant. he was made governor of Babylon. he was thrust into a den of lions. Fire : used in the Holy Scriptures as a tliy symbol of the Deity fire'' " For the Lord God is a consuming (Deut. and Darius. says convinced he was a Jew by birth as well as religion. The envy and jealousy of persons in authority being excited by his advancement. fire-worshippers. He was. And God appeared to Moses in the burning bush. the Mede. His explana- tion of Belshazzax's vision established his fame. in object accomplished his without disturbing their prejudices. but being found unhurt. and Zoroaster. The ancient Persians were religion.d. which must have been confined to the priests and scribes. a. the capital. he could have been no common man to have been possessed of aU this knowledge. Daniel remained in Persia. c. to Senjamin of Tudela says monument was shown reforming their him at that place.). doubtless. and is supposed to have died at his Susa ( Zflai. promoted him above all the other governors.

we may remark. and numerous difficulty. is cleared away. and we venture to suggest he could be no other than the prophet Daniel. He did not urge his religion by the sword. the state religion of Persia. because they kept their temples. what was his position ? A mean man he could not be. At Parsees. to Persia as many writers on Free- masonry point and the Magian and religion for its origin. orders. and this was part of the mysteries of the Magians. xi. 6. as Mohammed did. none else : I form the light and create darkness I make peace and create : evil. its All we think. are a rich class. says. and that he was possessed of some authority to enable binn to propagate Ms faith. and there . We think there is the strongest evidence that this great philosopher taught only that which the law of Moses sanctioned. as they are designated in India. there are but few followers of the ancient religion in that country. on the altar was kept perpetually would be just as as being worshippers it burning. a pillar of fire. and they are proprietors of the greater part are generous They and splendid in the higher and in the lower ranks of life industrious and intelligent or in both surpassing Hindoos Mohammedans. It is also worthy of remark that their private conduct in all relations of E 4 . by God's command and therefiire it reasonable to charge the ancient Hebrews of fire as the ancient Persians." this is quite consistent with what Zoroaster taught we have no right to make any observations on what fire-worship was before his time. in speaking of Cyrus. illustrations are brought forward in proof. Mohammedanism being Bombay. that when the prophet Isaiah (chap. 7 The sacred fire . burning in With reference to the next point in the religious system pro- pounded to the Persians. derivation from the Israelites is established. and God's charge to is that monarch.ANCIENT MTSTEEIES. and hence we may ask. and which they dispersed throughout the world. " I am the Lord. or how it has become corrupted since. We have been thus discursive. 7). the and powerftJ of the island.

he lived. The Manichffians believed. clothed with the shadowy form of a human body." traces the Institution of Freemasonry to the ancient mysteries of Persia. and well acquainted with the doctrines and secret practices of the Magi. one the God of good. such as to cause a blush on the Englishman's &ce the immoral and irreligious habits of his contrasted with those of the Parsees. which are respectively subject to the dominion of two beings. For this he was put to death by the King. that They believed Mani was the Comforter whom Jesus promises "should . light and darkness. It is not certain at what date but his doctrines were introduced into Europe in the third century. attempted to amalgamate the Persian religion with Christianity. in two ples. namely. to teach mortals how to deliver the rational soul from the corrupt body. and most humane among the subjects of the British Crown in India . orderly. in his " Disquisitions on the Anti-papal Spirit of the Secret Societies that produced the Eeformation. and that with view he created two sublime beings. with corrupt and mortal bodies. and the other the god of evil. but that their souls formed part of that eternal light which was subject to the object They maintained that it was the great of the government of the God of light to deliver the capof light. Sosetti. eternal princi- from which all things proceed. like the Magi. who was a native of that country. and not with the real substance. and to overcome the power of malignant matter. God tive souls of this men from their corporeal prisons . Christ and the Holy Spirit. and sent Christ into the world. that after twenty-four centuries his followers are the most peaceable.8 life is rLLTJSTEATIONS OP TEEEMASOIfET. the truly Masonic virtues of charity and beneficence are their constant practice: many Parsees are numbered among the Fraternity. Mani. when own countrymen are some testimony most for It is the simple faith taught by Zoroaster. They also believed that the first parents of the hrmian race were created by the god of darkness.

p eopl^ On cities initia. who determined any thing loftiest moral Their ethics were of the and most spiritual description: virtue was with them a harmony. seventy-two bishops. a branch of the Manichaeans. they had also The Paulicians.p Sno yaTf B. who re- presented the seventy-two disciples of Christ presbyters and deacons. The ecclesiastical constitution consisted of twelve apostles and a president who represented Christ. mnmnlofl as j.t. agt. and the other Hearers. the " Pythain. an gligPTifj..p ced state of knnwl pfl ^^ r tn wb V h tb n fiispMially .iT. and derived their name from Paul They were protected by the Emperor Constantine. one of which was called the Elect.9 lead them into all trutL" resurrection. Figyrti he ni U " nd who a others had arrived. and an : endeavour to resemble the Deity the whole life of man should be an attempt to represent on earth the beauiy and harmony .C. and enjoyments the latter were not hound to these : sensual severities. and in the eleventh and twelfth centuries spread their doctrines their teacher. and learned from them th e svinholicJang3iaee_bs_BrhialL-their proceedings were gu arde d.f. They denied the dootrhie of the and rejected the authority of the Old Testament interpolated and Mani asserted that the books of the and falsified. ^e artfal p olicy by which they governed princes a s well his way to E gypt he visited Phoenicia and was . . goreans were~ffieTrst philosophy. According to Aristotle..ed friJTit'he pyiffgfa iTit/^ their mysteries. a. The former all were hound to ahstaiu from animal food. appeared in the seventh century in Armenia. ^TTinn" thr mniTiriTit firnrilr Philnnnpbrrn whn i ir ore impr essed with ths flflva.f1oiT~aOw. we may i 7)"^^'''' ^^'^^'bpb^b.fte r He al sojyisited the noted of Greece: and. over France and Italy. visited flourished son. unity. wiue. New Testament were The disciples of Mani were divided into two classes. for we find that those countries. gained the confi dCTteg_rfjtIie4)riests. which.^ and.ta^ht his doctrines. nf ynpTiy ypara. at the same jfaae.j.

indeed. and became . the square. ahove siaoerity hy and purity of heart. The institutions of this great philosopher resembled the Masonic system in many respects. and they were also taught the science of numhers. a religious bro- therhood. the essence of light and truth . ranged due east and west. a symbol of the universe. and. . and astronomy. the right angle. a symbol of God.. instructed in the sacred things of the or a close approxi- He is said to have been either Daniel Hebrews by captivity. whose proceedings were transacted in the greatest secrecy —^perhaps more on account of its political principles. the symbol of the mind of man . he east His assemblies were said." Prom Diogenes Laertius we learn that the society was at once philosophical. in his secret instruction. seems to have heen the foundation of the society. — viz. dispersed through various made themselves known to each other at first sight. whereby his disciples. Pythagoras instituted among his disciples secret wor- ship. ar- motion began in the and proceeded to the west. Prom the great respect which he paid to geometry. are said to have been principally derived from Geometry. among them may tice be noticed what are sometimes termed the five Platonic bodies. : displayed in the order of the universe the : mind should have the gods should he all. that are ascribed to Pytha^ goras. an emblem of the divine mind the CTfJe. all Masons have ever hailed him as is an ancient Brother . and the dodecaliedron. or mysteries. geometry. as well as on after ages. and a political association. and certainly his system mation to the science of Preemasomy. because. He adopted a system of signs countries.10 ILIUSTEATIOHS OP FEEEMASOIfEX. music. the religious doctrines inculcated than of Religion. the hody and passions under perfect control worshipped hy simple pnrifications. and music. offerings. EzeHel during the Babylonish The symbols adopted by Pythagoras. The various discoveries in mathematics. are proofs of the mighty impression which he made on his contemporaries. an emblem of morality and jus- the equilateral triangle.

they might be exposed in their turn to the hatred. for it prevails — — — — over all things. being accused of impiety by the priests (which often happened). Various aphorisms and pointed replies are ascribed to Pythagoras. and so closely. What the most rapid P Wind. for it is the work of God. What the most powerful? ^Necessity. lest. for it traverses all things. their fortune. is the most ancient of beings? —God. We are indebted to these Dionysian artificers an association which possessed — the exclusive privilege of erecting temples. to institute an in- or. competence of to receive instruction. Dionysia. such as the fol- lowing : What created.ANCIENT MTSTEEIES. were then- interests united. for it contains all things. This Ionic fraternity had words and signs by which they could recognize each other. What the most extensive P Space. for he is un- What the most beautifiil? The Universe. where they introduced the mysteries of Dionysia. as we learn from Diogenes Laertius. —If we refase Who is to do ourselves what we reprehend in happy ? —He who possesses a sound body. including the magnificent temple at Teos. they were divided into Lodges. How shall we live most virtuously and justly ? others. " Toland The Pythagorean philosophers concealed sentiments of the nature of things under the veil of Divine allegories . — for many splendid buildings. which were distinguished by different ap- B 6 . if not the fury. says lamhliouB. like Freemasons. and a mind disposed says. as familiar at their first interview as if they 11 had been aoquaiiited from their birth. as they existed before they were corrupted by the Athenians. &c. of the vulgar.'' We do not deem it necessary in this place quiry into the Eleusinian mysteries. theatres. and. and united the district under the name of Ionia. the fWe find that a colony of Greeks from Attica settled in Asia Minor. to any extent. that many of them passed over seas and risked their fortune to re-establish that of one of their brethren who had fallen into distress.

on the subversion of the Bom an Josephv. they had all things in common. the Temple. . after two or more years of trial. but considered them as mystic writings. captivity. we liave every right to maintain the tra- dition of our Order. that it flourished at the hmlding of the temple. and by solemn oaths preserve the secrets : besides the laws of piety. Jos epJius teUs us that the Grecian style ofajdiitecture . and he tells us they lived in perfect union if they do not marry. . gifts to Philo informs us that they sent . they vowed fidelity to God and loyalty to their sovereign. and explained them allegorically . they pos- sessed sacred books which explained their peculiar doctrines and practices table. ate at a common they ad- and were exceedingly abstemious they were divided into . four classes.1'2 ILLUSTEA-TIOirS OP rEEEMASOTTET. and then. pellations. and modesty. with other ancient inempire by the Goths. but bring up other men's children as infuse into they were their own. justice. and spirit them very early their own and maxims. till after a probation of three those who were admitted had to take solemn oaths that . were allowed to make a profession to observe the laws of the Society. The Essenes.s in his youth passed some time among the Essenes. ' st was that adopted in building the t-p^f^" ^nd it rax be inferred that these Di onjsiac Masons assisted in r^ing that maggiificent fabric. sustained an existence until the fifth century of the present era. fell. whose similarities to and practice present many Freemasonry. but never ofiered sacrifices they held the Scriptures in the greatest reverence. . and hence distinct account of either the origin or organization life we have no of the community of the Essenes. axording to the time of their initiation mitted no one to their society years . As the Dionysia were instituted four liimdred years before Solomon's time. All who desired admittance into the sect were subjected to a year's probation. in which age they stitutions. all social order In the disastrous wars of the Jews. before and during the must have been destroyed. in spite of con- tinued persecution.

and Assidseans of the Maccabees. leads to the belief that it was a fraternity of a like character to Freemasonry. and parables after the maimer of the ancients. while others take them to be the Chasdim of the Psalms. sect of the Essenes. to speak the truth. and be just to their fellow-creatures. Suidas and some others are of opinion that the Essenes were a branch of the Eechabites. They very much used symbols. being well as the three ftmdamental maxims of their the love of God. allegories. . and never disclose the secrets and mysteries Their studies were the laws of Moses. remarks that surprising commentators and make no reference to these peculiarities in the character. of virtue. 13 they would worsMp God. and principles of the Jewish and by inference expresses an opinion that John the Baptist belonged to the Community. The charitable and peaceflil disposition of this Community. and in addition that they were a secret society. of their order. as morality. and of their neighbour. whom next to God they held in the greatest reverence. in his edition of Calmet's Dictionary of it is the Bible.A2JciEirT irrsTEErEs. Charles divines Taylor. manner. Mr.

by your renowned forefathers let it perish in it O never But piously transmit to your hands your children. own laws. But we trace the use of . and were exempted from aU kinds of taxation it and in one of these papal decrees was declared that " these . In tte dark ages of of society. conferred upon The them most extensive privileges they were to be independent of the sovereigns in whose dominions they might temporarily reside. and amidst tlie rapid transitions we have little to guide us. being their subject only to . Masonic language in the time of Charlemagne and at the close of the eighth century the Popes conceded to the Masons of Como the exclusive monopoly of erecting churches. passed into other countries whei-e churches were required. and wlich would make it appear that the Druidical system was a Masonic in- stitution. who then. save what we can gather from a few isolated cases in our own land. From age to age. history. by buUs. which they soon filled with religious edifices." associated as a Craft or Brotherhood in Art and Eriendship. ON MASONIC rNSTITUnONS OP THE PEESENT EBA.CHAPTEE II. Popes." Addison. Prom they Lombardy. ages afterwards. the law delivered dovra. . " Remember. and for when " Magistri Comacini " had long been absorbed in that of " Free and Accepted Masons. This body of the title artificers. my friends.

begun in 1277. which we from JEssai sur letter IlhtminSs. who united with the chivalrous duty of protecting the naked. published in The author of the was the Abb6 Grandidier. to serve their towers. . the operations of so peaceful a society were buried in the dust with those monuments. regulations have been 15 made after the example of Hiram." During the period when the incursions of the barbarian hordes desolated the fair fields of Greece in Italy and overthrew those glorious fabrics. predecessors. and equally susceptible of adaptation to any of the North " les purposes as Gothic cathedrals. which spread Germany and Lombardy. when he sent artisans to King Solomon of building the Temple of Jerusalem. was erected by the Society of several splendid structures Freemasons over ." Of 1786. and feeding the hungry. a learned Frenchman : " The cathedral church of Strasbourg. a holy feeble. says " A new style of Gothic appeared. King for the purpose of Tjr:e. Mr. But with the Crusades arose several communities.MASONET or THE PBESETTT EEA. unlike its in his History of Architecture. until accumulated possessions tempted their holy and regal patrons to undertake their overthrow. of one undivided people. as represented in those parUajnents of genius the Lodges of the North —an architecture peculiarly civil ecclesiastical. societies were. : when treating of that of the Middle Ages. These own purposes. the ruined fragments of which alone re- main to teU of their beauty and grandeur. these " Lodges extract we have this narrative. and hospitals. or Lodge. but of the Teutonic mind in general. clothing the vow to wrest from the hands of the Moslem the Holy City of the Hebrew and the Christian. Although each Hutten. and from it emanated other Lodges. and arose under their guidance. and also the Masonic practice of building temples. fostered and protected by the Church of Home and the their sovereigns of Europe. Mope. a masterpiece of Gothic architecture.

This pile. with the chapels. firmed by the Emperor Maximilian in 1498. which was named MaupteSutte. both the operative and speculative branches of the carried and home with them the principles which directed the of the age. save by the iron hand The government of Prussia. resisting. " The cathedral of Cologne is a proud monument . or Grand Lodge. as Master of the Cologne Lodge of Freemasons this and huge mass is does. had been recovered. was for of Time. completed. and were delivered over to the architect entrusted with the direction of : he has scrupulously adhered to the original designs. would be the most magnificent specimen of Gothic architecture in Europe. which. and renewed by Charles V. were taken away by the French the work in 1794. has undertaken the work there is . It is a testimony of the and perseverance of recorded that during the interval between 1248 and 1323 there were not only fifty Masters and three times as low-craft daily employed. who had come to study art. if completed. now a probability of completion. the works were suspended. and although it may its be the work of some years. five centuries untouched. which had been preserved in the church. to Gerhard. had self-goTemment. the attacks of nature slrill and the labour of its builders. which established the chief Master Mason of Stras- bourg and his successors as sole and perpetual Grand Masters of This Act was con- the Fraternity of Freemasons of Germany. but a large prentices from many fel- number of entered ap- aU parts of Christendom. yet they all recognized the authority of the original Mother Lodge at Strasbourg. leaving only the splendid choir and side aisles. however. and drew up the Act of Fraternity. division and even adopted the ancient and accepted of the . man.16 ILLTTSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONET. "We are assured that the original plans belonging to the Lodge. and his successors.'' erection of almost every Gothic monument After the secession of the fraternity from the Church. diiierent Li 1459 the several Masters of the Lodges assembled at Eatisbon.

may not communicate what The third. the membeing bers of which are divided into three classes —the first admitted. bishops. character of the fraternity it. leave licentious life off their and become altered men. ledge. the second partly initiated. sHU. taste might adorn. frater- who nity. we know.MASONET OP THE PEESENT EEA. Those admitted into the second but class may return to the first. motion when their industry and Throughout Europe (in England which especially) the fraternity continued for a considerable period to pursue their labours. but learning in those ages was almost fraternity for those entirely confined to the clergy. their chief is and the popes. and consequently the and whose cultivated their practical was compelled to seek among those men of learning whose wisdom might contrive. and refined memorials of taste as architects. they have been ever so loose in their morals. There no were operatives . suffer they have learned in the second. employment was the construction of doubt originally all chxirches. workmen into three classes 17 — ^the second and third receiving proability merit it. for this purpose were admitted as members of the Being in the first instance an ecclesiastical community. with the operative. and abbots protecting them. and their labours were superintended by nobles and eminent prelates. or death if they reveal their knowsect if become Mohammedans. and constructed many skill edifices still remain as stable monutheir ments of their as workmen. the plans which they. the members of this society. Jowett says. were to carry into Hence the germ of that speculative Masonry which. or members of any other than the Druses. they are the best . and the third completely initiated. by eflFect. once dividing the of the latter. Kings. were their patrons. now completely occupies to the exclusion If we look to the Druses —a lished from time immemorial — sect of Syrian Clhristiajis estab^we find that there still exists amongst them a society which has a secret doctrine.

and ranged from one country to Their government of the building. Heniy which. gave the materials carriages. an indenture of covenants made in the reign of Henry between the churchwardens of a parish in Suffolk and a com- pany of Freemasons. greatly impaired their organization and prosperity.. Holy Wars gave the Christians who had been there an idea of the Saracens' works. 1. The Italians (among whom were yet some Greek buUs refugees). TLey produce is ordered people in the East. that until the statute of 3rd "VI. and silk in considerable com ia their valleys. joined into a fraternity of architects. The gentlemen of the neighbourhood. which were afterwards imitated by them in their churches. by prohibiting them fi-om meeting in Chapter. c.18 ILirSTEATIONS OP rEEEMASOlTET. They styled themselves Freemasons. and Flemings. and overlooked either out of each nine. A surveyor governed in every tenth man was called a warden. They do not attempt make All tra- vellers agree in having noticed that the Druses have great esteem us " that the for Englishmen. and Those who have seen the exact accounts in records of the charge of the fabrics of some of our cathedrals near four hundred years old. quantity. cannot but have a great esteem for their economy. charity or commutation of penance.." how soon they erected such lofty struc- It has been maintained. in corroboration. and they refined upon it every day as they proceeded in building. procuring Papal for their encouragement and particular privileges. was regular. another as they found churches to be buUt. the latter stipulated that each man should be provided with a pair of white leather gloves and a white . They are industrious. they enjoyed a kind of building monopoly in this country. and their land to a reftige from Turkish proselytes. and when they it fixed upon the site they made near chief: a camp of huts. tells Sir Christopher Wren. and with them French. and show them marked attention. and hospitable. oppression. brave. Germans. and admire tures. In "VI.

a similar statement appears. which by degrees introduced a formida of initiation. about the year 1716. His story the stated days on which Wren was accustomed to inspect the progress of the building." by George Kloss. or started into : life without any preparation or foreshadowing. After a few words of introduction. in course of time. their corporate customs. (we suppose the overseer workmen.lliSONET OP THE PEEBETTT EEA. in Sir Christopher Wren. during the erection of Cathethat on dral of London. Wren had completed the building of the Cathedral of Paul in London. he remarks " When St. and a club was there formed. which are intended to show that the institution of Preemasomy. Darmstadt. gradually grown up as circumstances led to all than originated of a sudden. although very ancient. derived from the Masonic practice. for 200 years. has rather it. The religious contentions. 1852. The necessity for some place of rest. as such. of an organized system. have been and been wiped away. by the power —the non- professional members of the various grades of which had been dominant society. and thus the work-people had no centre remaining.) were accustomed to dine at a house in the neighbourhood. in 1708. would. like the common lost customs of many other bodies. bnt without stating his authority. 19 in which and that a Lodge fitted to be properly tiled. should be erected at the expense of the parish. In a " History of Preemasonry in Prance. if the brotherhood had not been of that addition. and rules for the conduct of the members expressed in symbolical language. was the cause and reason for the adoption. sustained. Paul's is. then as Freemasonry. they were to carry on their works." first appearing . were at last compelled to recede before the spirit of toleration. Free- masonry had its origin. Serder (Theological Professor at Gottingen) asserts. he and his friends. that modem European St. where political discussion might not enter. apron.

20 There ILLTTSTEATIOlfS OF FEEEMASONET. science. In a Lodge ten persons were initiated at one time. as there no doubt that Freemasonry. now known is by the name all of the Lodge of Antiquity. sion of the maul used by Wren in his capacity of the glorious structure he raised.) who had been initiated a few years following. he was set at liberty in the December In taking a retrospect of other institutions. by Wren. country it made rapid progress. so long the master Paul's Churchyard. all from warrants of the Grand Master of England Paris the Loge I'Anglaise at Bourdeanx has been working from that authority. granted 1722. which had heen dormant for some time. make a stir about and a learned civilian of Florence was by in the Inquisitor arrested in May. 1739. of Austria. all men into the The Lodge of which Wren was " Goose and Gridiron " in St. duration. and met at the was there located until a recent period . as is any rate was brought into more vigorous Freemasonry in Europe was doubtless operashown both in England and on the continent. was revived. six were Knights of the Holy Ghost. and thus to draw Institution. whether founded for the pui'poses of government. mutual security. and of these. and from this Lodge. vrith their . (afterwards Francis before. or any find they other purpose. and . The rapid strides that the Order was making caused the Papal Court to it. or at action. and by means of the Grand Duke. and orders of Wren's learning and genius enabled him to unite the speculative with the operative. is may be some truth in this Btatement. Kingdoms. we are told. I. we have reason to believe This Lodge in possesarchitect of others in England have emanated. tive. The Grand Lodge London took the matter up. and we have aU been unstable in their generally failing in the accomplishment of the design for which they were framed. The system organized or revived by Wren was speedily into France about 1720 in which — . transplanted into other lands.

amidst the deluge of Gothic gloom that overspread the earth. " Hence.MASOFET or THE PEESEKT EEA. Freemasonry appears Her towers and monuments may fede away. withstood the inroads of war. vaLa we ask who were ^the the founders of Pahnyia's hoasted temples. and wane of more deso- empires. Unhurt. and the still lating ravages of barbarous ignorance and the gloomy superstition of ancient and modem times. Masonry has witnessed the rise. the guardian that watched over. miglity founders. tave had their decline. science that all the had survived the wrecks of the Grecian and Boman empires. or the gigantic works of Egypt — wrecks of their mouldering grandeur only seeming to frown contempt on their founders' schemes. 'midst the ruin of three thousand years. unchanged. Masonry was the chief lamp of knowledge that illumined the gloom of the then degraded human mind. Through the dark ages. rise. it was the nurse that fostered. and the ark that preserved. from the sixth to the sixteenth century. Her truth and social love shall ne'er decay. revolutions. 21 and their their meridian. In. of Baalbeo's gorgeous domes." .

be will be convinced tbat Infinite Infinite Wisdom could alone design. value from its use alone Not for itself. bis mind be agitated witb the most agi'eeable sensations and would not . THE ESCELLBlfCT OP MA80NBY DISPLAYED. tbe nice symmetry. sucb amazing works. PEEEMASOlSrEY IN ITS GENEEAIi APPLICATION. tbe lofty cascades. . seemingly complete in all itself. the tbe winding his sensibility. and Power complete. —would not . placed in a beautiful garden. would not bis Were a man collections? wilds. and that end is virtue. and beautiful disposition of every part. but for a nobler end Tbe Eternal gave it. the whole variegated scene awaken and inspire bis soul with tbe most exalted ideas P When be observed tbe delicate order. mind be affected witb exquisite deligbt on a calm survey of its riob Would not tbe groves. geneeal peinciples. abundant reason to admire tbe works of nature. Whoetee will find attentively observes tke objects whicli surrotuid bim.CHAPTER III. and to adore tbe Being wbo dii-ects sucb astonisbing operations. yet reflecting new beauties on the other. opening vistas. " Like every other Derives its blessing. and contributing to make one perfect whole. tbe artful tbe floweiy parterres. streams. tbe grottoes." Johnson.

Wisdom hend. the Supreme Governor of the world. with it ? If the productions of Art so forcibly impress the mind with how much greater astonishment and reverence must we behold the operations of Nature.THE EXCELLEFCT OF MASOUrET DISPLATED. careful ant or the industrious bee all Need we which the — insects mankind has recommended as patterns of unwearied industry and prudent foresight? When we extend our ideas. beside the symmetry. and the chief of his works. the pleasing prospects that every where surround are and with which our senses every moment gratified. have. be overwhelmed in the general chaos. the cements of the rational world. the universal harmony and affection among the different in reflecting species of beings of every rank and denomination. In the whole order of beings. good order. be directed to the original source. is most strikingly conspicuous These scenes indeed. and proportion which appear aU the works of creation. more or implanted in them the principle of association with others of the same species. These are it subsists. rank in the scale of existence. ? in which Divine are. the image of his Maker. proportion to the extension of our intellectual faculties and the . Even the most name the wisest of inconsiderable fiiTiiTnals are formed into different ranks and societies for mutual benefit and protection. we shall find that the innate principle of friendship increases in . and draws its attention nearer to the Divinity that is. and by these alone When they cease. according to their less. Nature must be dissolved. something ferther attracts the mind. from the uniformity of the plan. whoever contemplates the general system must naturally. down to the meanest insect. — all. and man. 23 the view of the deKghtful scene naturally lead ^lim to admire and venerate the happy genius who contrived admiration. too expanded for the narrow capacity of man to compre- Yet. the one perfect and unsullied beauty all Beside us. which present to view utility unbounded scenes of and delight. from the seraph which adores and bums.

animal creation above the by observing the degrees of kindness and good-nature it excels. In every breast there to it a propensity to friendly acts. as extends to every branch of the human fixed race. No subject can more properly engage the attention than the These are replete with the happiest benevolent dispositions which indulgent Nature has bestowed upon the effects. where civilization and virtue are most zealously cherished under the sanction of science and the arts I THE ADVANTAGES EESUMING PEOM FBIENDSHIP. must such lessons pre- dominate in our assemblies. in which Such are the general principles which pervade the whole system of creation . it tends at least to allay the calamities Friendship to the is traced through the circle of private connexions grand system of universal benevolence. Actuated by this sentiment. which no limits its influence can circumscribe. is jealousy and suspicion prevail. is The breast which prompted to a actions. a judgment can be formed respecting tlie the superiority of one part of other is. which. as the objects it exerts its influence favours are nearer or more remote. Where unknown. then. more or less But though friendship. considered as the source of universal it benevolence. sweetens every temporal enjoyment. . how forcibly. and a and permanent union is established among men. only criterion ly wHoh. powerfully. being exerted effect. true happiness subsists. the friendship is social affections likewise arise. afford to the is and mind the most of agreeable reflections. and. each individual con- nects his happiness with the happiness of his neighbour. be unlimited. but where that virtue the is cement. disqtiietudes. although does not remove the of life.24 ILLTTSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONET. rational species. inspired with tender feelings naturaJly reciprocal intercourse rises Hnd and generous As human nature in the scale of beings.

and of the noblest kind. it shines with equal spleninto the noble dour in more tranquil scenes. aiming destruction at the heads of tyrants. and his philanthropy extends to the human race. creates the best spirit and most and that disinterested virtue. This commendable virtue crowns the lover of his country with unfading his laurels. friendship appears divine when employed it rises in pre- serving the liberties of our country. rights. but such interference apart. Where the interests of one country interfere with those of another. tin- . scious integrity supports biTm against the arm of power and should he bleed by tyrant hands. In those happy moments contracts life formed. On this general plan the universality of the system of Masonry is established. and risk our lives in its defence. gives a lustre to his actions. and gives rise to that true patriotism which fires the soul -with the most generous flame. Con. and the vacant hours of employed in the cultivation of social and polished manners. — and courting danger in defence of hours of peace. societies are instituted. he gloriously dies a martyr in the cause of liberty.THE EXCELLENCY OE MASONET DISPLAYED. Were friendship confined to the spot of our nativity. and leaves to posterity an everlasting monument Though of the greatness of his soul. its operation would be partial. Before flame of patriotism. burning with an even glow. thundering for liberty. and inspires that public heroic ardour -which enable us to support a good cause. ^we behold it calm and moderate. and imply a kind of enmity to other nations. the true Mason a citizen of the world. and the rude ravage of the desolating sword . 25 Hence the love of Mends and of country takes the lead in our affections. but the blood of thousands will not stain the hands of his country's friend. soft improving the and heightening the are are rehsh for virtue. His virtues are open. The warrior's glory may consist in murder. and consecrates name to latest ages. Nature dictates an adherence to the wel&re of our own immediate connexions is all .

common good.26 influenced ILLTTSTBATIONS OF TEEEMASONET. Masonry is a science confined to no par- but extends over the whole terrestrial globe. that in the Lodge. engage his esteem . all those disputes which embitter while the and sour the tempers of men. its utility must be sufficiently The universal bond of principles of the art unite. is zealously pursued. . of the most distant countries. his private speculative opinions are left to Grod and himself. and know. ticular coimtry. too : Wherever that arts flourish. the general object. that besides the common still ties of humanity. Abstracted from tbe pure pleasures wHch arise from friend- ship so wisely constituted as that which subsists among Masons. is which reconcileable to life. Prom this view of our system. its he knows no preference in virtue it but according to degree. there it flourishes add to this. though of a different persuasion. and of the most contradictory opinions . Such is the nature of our institution. in one inaffection. will embrace a brother Briton. As all religions teach morality. The spirit of the fulminating priest will be tajned. careftiUy preserved among hence the Fraternity. and in every ohmate a home. are avoided. Thus. obvious. by secret and it inviolable signs. for m. there is a stronger obligation to induce him to kind and friendly offices. the wild Arab. if a brother be found to act the part of a truly honest man. GENEBAL ADVAITTAGBS OF MASONET. so that in every nation a Mason may find a friend. from whatever country or clime may spring. the best policy. and the American savage. by local prejudices. through the influence of Masonry. and which it is scarcely possible that any circumstance or occurrence can erase. The distant CJhinese.utual toleration in religious opinions is one of the most distinguishing and valuable characteristics of the Craft. and a moral brother. dissoluble men of the most opposite tenets. becomes an universal language: many advantages are gained.

that by the former we allude to a proper application of the useful rules of architecture. practise charity and every other virtue that can adorn the man. the the cieerftil observance of every obliging oflSce. and inspires them with the most and convenient exalted ideas of the perfections of the Divine Creator. union is cemented by sincere attaokment. and direct our passions. wise. shines refulgent on the mind. as far as humanity will make aU around him equally happy. compound of human and moral science. — ^is wisely plaimed and adapted for is the welfare of man so Masonry. which at once constitutes our duty and It leads the contemplative to view with our happiness. application. and not only to be happy in himself. but. keep the tongue of good maintain secrecy. happy . and beauty. strength. and heightens cool approbation into warm sympathy and its cordial attention.THE EXCELLENCT OF MASONEX DISPLATED. luminous as the meridian sun. reverence and admiration the glorious works of creation. act report. dwellings. whence a structure derives figure. The teachings of Masonry in its operative and speculative departments will be treated upon in their proper divisions but admit. upon the square. and whence result a due proportion and a just correspondence in all its parts by the latter we learn to rule . to : in a general view of the institution it is necessary to state. is admirably calculated for the promotion of man's highest interests in his present as well as fiiture state. wMcli is 27 confined to no particular spot. Operative Masonry furnishes us with shelter from the inclemencies of c 2 . grand object in view. enlivens the heart. as a for as man a compound of body and soul. Freemasonry in general and universal as comprehending the two divisions of human and moral science — operative and speculative . what his Creator intended him to be — and to make him ^usefol. Speculative to lay us Masonry is so fer interwoven with religion as under the strongest obligations to pay that rational homage to the Deity. and pleasure reciprocally communicated in Virtue.

under circumstances precarious. sound from the instructive The attentive ear receives the tongue. and plumb life the speculative Mason examines every action of his by the square of morality. — ^the The operative Mason constructs stances. and the sacred mysteries are safely lodged in the reposi- tory of faithful breasts. by symbolic instruction. him to transcend the level of his allotted biTn to swerve and no vicious propensity has led from the plumb-line of rectitude. the operative Mason. the supreme tries architect of heaven and earth. the speculative his edifice of material sub- Mason is taught to erect a spiritual for the residence of buUding. ILltJSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONEX. to when . borrowing from tools the operative art its working and implements. to the holiest of purposes veneration of God. and whilst it displays the effects of human wisdom. as it is the is business of when work done. . and even adverse. unimpaired. through a succession of ages. sanctifies them. each stone and part of the building by the squaa-e. The operative Mason level. by a uniform tenor of virtuous conduct. most salutary. memory serious and solemn truths and thus the excellent tenets of the institution are transmitted. that a fimd of and industry implanted in man. and beneficent purposes. and the purity of the soul. for the best.'' so it is the object of the speculative receive. to prove every thing " true and trusty. is it demonstrates. pure and spotless. Mason. which. his lastly. architect the good. And. seeing that no presumption nor vain-glory has caused destiny. down him on the trestle board the speculative is guided by the great trestle on which inscribed the revealed will of God. as well in the choice as in the arrangement of the materials of which an science edifice is composed. . and fit Him who dweUeth only with by the board.2S seasons . Thus speculative Masonry is a science. The for is operative Mason works according to the designs laid . Tools and implements of architecture !) (symbols the most expressive to imprint on the are selected by the Fraternity.

and a considerable degree of application and industry. yea. I was eyes to the . Masonry constitutes the affectionate and indissoluble alliance which unites in cordiality warm man to man. and feet to the lame. and the cause which I knew not I The stranger did not lodge in the street. then thou shalt relieve him. When the ear heard me. no party spirit. is suffered to prevent the engagement. or c 3 . 35.'' him that had none to help The law effect. of "WeU done. the vast progress and general diffusion of Masonry throughout the habitable globe cannot but be satisfactory to every one interested in the cause of humanity and the happiness of his species. blind. but I opened my doors to the traveller." The good Mason might blessing of him that justly say with Job. nor national predilection civil policy. and him. It forms the most liberal and extensive connexions. that he XXV. his allotted course has passed.THE IXCELLENCT OF MASONET DISPLAYED. patience. may live with thee. for no one and should be admitted to the profoundest secrets or highest honours of the Fraternity morality. the inappreciable reward. till by time he has learned secrecy In our own times. as promulgated if by Moses has a clause to a like " And thy brother be waxen poor and fallen in decay with thee. no nor ecclesiastical tyranny . No private prepossession. nor dissocial passion. thou good and faithfid servant. and not to be attained in perfection excepting any degree of by time. and I caused the widow's heart to sing for joy. then it blessed me and when the eye saw me it beamed with delight. his celestial 29 from Grand Master. I was a father to the poor searched out. and the fatherless. that cried. over which it hath spread At its present. that "the to perish was ready came upon me ." —Levit. as in every former age principles. because I delivered the poor . though he be a stranger or a sojourner. Masonry is a progressive science.

distant lands it casts philajithropy's connecting zone. love. Masonry breais its social down altar. In its solemn assembly. Freemasonry would be than it is for the welfare of man.30 ILLTTSTBATIONS OP FEEEMASONBT. who were " of one heart and soul . should so much obstruct the free intercourse of mankind. which it never foils to produce. It has for ages interfere with the free exercise of that and fidelity. . patriarchal life. been lamented that petty distinctions and partial considerations. How nearly does this approach the and the state of the primitive diristians. and forming a community of interests. around meet the inhabitants of different countries with benignant of esteem. irrational prejudices and contracted sentiments." Were such the unanimity. fitmily and binds together in the same sympathies the whole Blending their resources in a on common stock. equality. relief. looks and sentiments of unfeigned friendship. these barriers. neither said ajiy of them that aught of the things which he possessed was his own. Around earth. but they had all things in common. generosity. and disinterestedness of professing Chrisless necessary tians now. each individual the object of the whole the prosperity of the whole the object of each. Preemasonry makes the prosperity of . hrotherly love.

Oira of ttie is tlie most frequent objections raised against Preeprofound secrecy observed upon certain parts of is masoniy the institution. " Damnant quod non intelligunt. every to art. To have secrets not peculiar to Preemasonry its secrets. and confided only to the trusty and the true. every statesman. aU the men were qualified to receive it and if so. AND THE IMPOETAIfCE OP THOSE SECEETS DEMONSTEATED. We [Preemasons] only claim a like indulgence. and every individual. 4 . are granted by civil governments and patents for their encouragement. So light we enjoy. Charters of incorporation for their greater security. and every occupation hss not be communicated but to such as have become proficient in the science connected with them. but our Lodge. — ^that of conducting ourselves by our own rules. and of admitting to a participation of our secrets and privileges such far as choose to apply for them on our deprive any one of the race of own terms." — VID. WHY THE SECRETS OP PEEEMASONEY OUGHT NOT TO BE PUBLICLY EXPOSED. our hearts and souls. : eveiy trade. every government.CHAPTER EEASONS IV. would be open to their c reception. and often under the guard of heavy penalties. Nay. has secrets which are concealed with prudent care. our doors would never be shut against them. we from wishing to sincerely wish . nor then but with proper caution and restriction.

escape observation.32 ILLTJSTEATIONS 05 FBEEMASOlfRT. and excite no emotion. the purposes of the institution would not only he subverted. is sure to be disregarded by the giddy and the unthinking. pass unnoticed. or peculiar forms. from either in admiration of the great Cause. But this is not the case . however nation. it may be ? asked. The most astonishing productions of Nature. they are only the keys to our treasure. and useful. however noble or eminent. Even Virtue the herself is not exempted this all unhappy bias in human frame. ajid. would lose their and sink into disregard. the sea ebbs and flows. however heauti&l. trifling or insignificant. adverts to the circumstances which . or of gratitude for the blessing conferred. Did the essence of Masonry consist in the knowledge of par- ticular secrets. indeed. magnificent. be alleged that our pursuits were trifling and superficial. rivers glide along their channels. are preserved whUe. It is a weakness in human nature. having their use. because rises common and familiar ? The sun and sets. this truth. on the same account. like other important matters. views them through a proper medium. -witli If tlie secrets of Masonry are replete such advantage to mankind. fa miliar . the well-informed struction : Mason derives in- he draws them to a near inspection. or difficult in the acquisition. being perpetually men and beasts act. yet open to view. trees and plants vegetate. it might. readily captivates the imagiis and ensures a temporary admiration. Lutrinsio value of Innumerable testimonies might be adduced to confirm Do we not find that the most wonder&l operations of the Divine Artificer. "What new. this it Whj axe they not divulged for the general good leges of To may he answered —Were the privi- Masonry to he indiscriminately dispensed. Novelty influences is our actions and determinations. . or easily attained. hut our secrets. while what familiar. from the recollection of the les- sons which they inculcate. are overlooked. these. being value. that men are generally more charmed with novelty than with the things.

5 Edw. he prizes them as sacred . or the strength of the labouring hand. and in some respects Strict rules We take the drapers' articles for instance. There is broders of thes folyship to inform any strainger of the of drapeire" (tem. the testimony of our gratitude to the bounty. ne no brother to inform any strainger. and. 33 Piiid- and dwells upon the tenets they convey. man owes his daily Industry. the alms. its increase the result of his blessing. value by It has been well said by a reverend and learned all brother. every brother has to present him to the wardens. the gazing multitude shall be astonished who have curiously inquired our secret. 4d. they were taught." secrecy was the unpublished We may further observe that the Guilds or Incorporations of Craftsmen which in the thirteenth century rose into importance." EeRef of decayed brethren. and which in our own metropolis.). was provided for by a week from the box. gave them rise. Imperfect as these institutions may have been. that bread. estimates their their utility. to those feUen in poverty.ntPOETAlfCE OF TKE SECKETS. not of our fi-ugality. Keeping the entitled. or 14(£. how much . down pay for admission of are laid members of the " Crafte :" on an ordinance forbidding " any feitz taking an apprentice. as those of our fiatemity. might be the appointed means. to know that the greatest deep of Masonic act of doing good. secrets of the Craft was provided for by an ordinance " None to betray lytel things said in conseU to other of the Crafte. altered. IV. have every one laws as stringent for their government similar. : Keligion was the foundation of the Guild divine worship was the solid band of union of the association. ing them replete with useful information. constantly reminded. but God's providence was the only source of our subsistence . " In that awful day when the secrets of hearts shall be disclosed. and 13s. that it The members were was not to the contrivances of wit. heing convinced of their propriefy. although considerably exist to this day. unmerited and undeserved. is Him from whom obtained.

and fortune. lighted their They repeated the same altar. His feelings. the companion of his employer. were they than those of our own time. all the faculties of mind and hand had been brought out to the utmost. Rtjskin. are all in opposicapitalist.34 ILLirSTEATIONS OE TEEEMASONET. in a public lecture on Socialism in Architectv/re its JEffects. equally unacquainted with the rules of the institution that they pretend to support. the workman by the was the hrother. without adverting to the propriety of one step they pursue. or possessing a single quaMoation to entitle them to advancement. So with regard to the operative Freemasons of that age. Tiews. and shadow." Many teries are are deluded by the vague supposition that our mys- merely nominal . lost in the —Hence men who are eminent ability. frequently view the . us are frivolous and that our ceremonies waived at pleasure. tells us. they consider themselves authorized to rank as masters of the art. hut all united the most kind and sociable bonds. Passing through the usual formalities. and even assume the government of the lodge. On this false basis all we find too may be adopted or many of the Brethren hurrying through the degrees of the Order. perhaps poorer in purse. younger in age. The consequence the substance for is is obvious . rank. and that nothing great in architecture had been done. creed. but where worked together with one mind. that the practices established amongst . manu&cturer and and his enemy. Me. and "that several centuries back the archithe designs did not regard the all tects who famished them as men who executed mere machines. to better calculated ameliorate the condition of the lower orders of the community The modem tion to the his tyrant operative belongs to a degraded. interests. anarchy and confusion ensue. and therefore to he considers as a hostile order. save by associated bodies. inferior in station. whom But in the old time. solicit and accept ofiSces. feasted at lamp before the same same board. and the nature of the trust which they are bound to perform.

and the more proper observance regulations. We challenge the most severe the most precise moralist. members of all the fraternity of nations communicate easily and freely with each other. Our constitutions are well known. and. The Order. —the c 6 . heart of benevolence. either accept offices with reluctance. to ameliorate the disposition adorn feithfol adherents and social virtue. their wishes. though comall posed of persons from various countries. Masonry long lahoured under zealous these disadvant^es. We do not hesitate to appeal to the world in justification of . a hos- pitable asylum. separated by natural barriers which prevent the men from combining into cohe- rent masses. and every Mend to the Order earnestly wished for a correction of late years. blies Of must be acknowledged. On every part of the globe they can make known friend. one hand. or pure religion. to point out thing in these constitutions inconsistent with good manners. morals. Thousands and thousands have but one heart. the hand of charity. We solemnly avow them as the principles by which we are governed. when their patronage is solicited. we build. We have submitted them freely to general investigation. or reject them with disdain. and be sure of finding an attentive and liberal assistance. the most perfect Christian. moral. the foundation on which and the critic. of which the good effects are sufficiently displayed in members. yet seems to be one body actuated by one soul. By the use of the unvoerrsdL language of Masons.IMPOETAKCE OP THE SECEETS. our assemthe judicious selection of our of our general have been in general better regulated . 35 honom-s of Masoniy with indifference . rules by any fair which we work. We feel assured that every one who wiU take the pains to that the institution is inquire into the subject must be convinced mankind and improve the with every Mendly its to the best interests of —well calculated character—and to natural. the purity of our moral system. it the abuse.

in their conduct. Wisdom seeks the designed for contemplation. As useful knowledge is the great object of our desire. or our share in its benignities prove inadequate to our need —^when Friendship grows us cold. usual severity. Knowledge is attained by and cannot shade. let us diligently apply to the practice of the art. There us seek her. For assuredly. will remember EEIENDLT ADMONITIOirS. Uniting in one design. degrees. us. secret and lead to pleasure. and its most zealous professor forsaies -Masowry triumphs in the exercise of its lovely charities. forget its they are men. and difficult. let it be our aim to be happy ourselves. that are without. or disgrace the institution in the eyes of the world. There enthroned she let delivering her sacred oracles. when general philamtkropy would not reach. lonely sits. bliss. pursue the real ther Though the passage he the far- we trace it the easier it will become. Let not the that . if the brethren. we have to encounter check our let progress. cell." doing nothing that should render their principles suspicious. and how unwilling it is to maike any abatement. and steadily adhere to difficulties the principles which it inculcates. It is highly incumbent on them to " wait in wisdom towards them their vices. . we enlist under that banner.36 ILLrSTBATlONS OF lEEEMASOKET. ! Sweet are tte uses of Masonry in adversity tte offices of Tken. or damp our zeal but us recollect that the ways of wisdom are beautdfol. the every where be found. the society must and private animosities give place to peace and good fellowship. the world. Union and hannony while constitute the essence of Freemasonry flourish. with they are Masons. careful not to blend with it their weaknesses nor to stain it with They should consider how much the world expects of them. The brethren should ever hear in mind that the interests of They should therefore he Freemasonry are in their hands.

the uniformity of our deportment then as citizens of the world. and never the subversion of our system. by the sincerity of our profession as Masons. us preserve an ele- vation of understanding. worthy of imitation. and improve in all that is good and amiable. equally zealous to merit. and friends to every approbation. . we stall be living examples of virtue as to obtain. let the Genius of conduct. by impairing our let feculties.rBIENBLT ABMONITIOirS. a politeness of manner. and contribute to the happiness of superiority others. 37 Let ns mark our and distinction let among men. clime. as patterns In conformity to our precepts. the respectabiKty of our character be supported by the regularity of our conduct and . let our recreations be innocent. and under ier let Masonry preside over our sway let us perform our part with becoming dignity . us cultivate the moral virtues. and pursued let irregular indulgences lead to with moderation. universal and benevolence. and an even- ness of temper. or ex- posing our character to derision.

and he rightly understand the he will never be a stupid atheist nor an irreligious libertine. but God looketh to the heart. particularly bound never to act against the dictates of his conscience. to the first two clauses of the ancient charges. as set forth in the : Book of Constitutions " A Mason if is obliged. human knowledge. but reveal Hatins stated tie nature and traced the rise and progress of an autKoritative Ereemasonry. as exponent of the principles of the Institution in England. " These men.CHAPTER Y. Let a man's religion or mode of is worship be what it may. yet they are ready to them in a proper place and irith due ceremonies to those who are deserving and worthy of being initiated. for man looketh outward appearance. So far 1 am permitted to say with respect. provided he believe in the glorious Architect of heaven and earth. we would now call attention. is. of all men. skilled in diyine and ances. and practise the sacred duties of morality. A Mason therefore. preserving a reverential silence as to what further relates to these mystic rites. PEmCIPLES or THE ESrSTITUTION 0¥ PEEBMASONET. do not disclose to the vulgar the hidden significations contained under the natural appearveil them under figures and emblems. should best understand that at the God seeth not as man seeth . hy his tenure. he not excluded fi-om the Order. He. Masons unite with the virtuous of every persuasion in the firm and pleasing . "^Hbliodortjs. to obey the moral law art.

but will comfort and assist in prosperity and adversity . nor fortune can bestow. on every occasion. is the centre of union between good men and and the happy means of conciliatuig otherwise have remained at friendship amongst those who must a perpetual distance. and promote the ties honour of the Fraternity. and stamps an mark of genuine professors.PElNCrPLES OP THE INSTITIJTION Or FEEEMASONET. and zealously promote the prosperity of his own country. so that kings have been much disposed to encourage the Craftsmen on answer the account of their peaceableness and loyalty. that will not deceive. and and renders him for the duties of society. . Thus Masonry true. life. cheerfully to conform to every lawftil authority . and to strive. and bloodshed. and live in concord and brotherly love. Masonry has ever princes. power. and oonfiision age. in every and been always injured by war. a friend. the interest of the community . circumstances. and to which recourse may be had when other earthly disregard. . 39 bond of fraternal love. it is a sure foundation of tranquUlity amid the various disappointments of life. Craftsmen are bound by peculiar to promote peace. whereby they practically cavils of their adversaries. to demonstrate the superior excellence of the faith may profess. " A Mason is a peaceable subject is to the civil powers wherever he resides or works. nor to behave himself undutifiilly to inferior magistrates. and places. cultivate harmony. When its rules are strictiy observed. and never to be concerned in plots and conspiracies against the peace and welfare of the nation. He is to uphold. comfoi-ts sink into Masonry fit gives real and intrinsic excellency to man. that will remMn with all times. It strengthens the mind against the storms of paves the way to peace. a blessing. flourished in times of peace. which neither chance. by the purity of their own they conduct." Masonry comprehends within pre-eminence on its its circle every branch of useful indelible knowledge and learning. They are taught to view the errors of mankind with compassion.

it is promotes domestic happiness. though they might be trepanned into a foolish and ridiculous society. For no combination of wicked long is . and disease have benumbed the corporeal frame. variety. said. The Eev. and rendered the an ample general union of soul and body almost intolerable. Nor would known integrity. this have sustained sacred place. which could . the doing the will of God. undoubted veracity. In youth it governs the passions and employs usefully our most active faculties. when sickness. that he who cultivates this science. strictest rules of society this being founded on the precepts of the Gospel. satisfection. and in age. and good sense. it yields fund of comfort and advantages labour. that I never could observe aught therein but what was justifiable and commendable. a subject of contemplation that enlarges the all its expands powers . soon divides and breaks of unquestionable wisdom. many of its offices. Charles Brockwell. " I have had the honour of being a member of this ancient and honourable society many years. a minister of the Church of England. the very antiquity of our institution furnishes a sufficient ground to confute all gainsayers. imbecility. and subduing the passions. and highly conducing to every sacred and social virtue. and can and do own in and before the Grand Architect of the Universe. These are its to emimerate them sepaiately would be an endless may be and sufficient to observe. improves the imderstanding . ever mind and new and always interesting. men them to pieces. according to the . and company in solitude. and gives vivacity. and energy to social conversation. But not to insist on my own experience. acts agreeably to the character of a Mason. in a sermon preached before a Grand Lodge more than a century back. on which mutual trust and confidence founded.40 ILLrSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONEX. strict honour. a theme that is inexhaustible. has within himself the spring and support of every social virtue . men for a wicked purpose ever lasted the want of virtue. It . It ameliorates the temper.

Brother Dr. benevolence and love . pretend to nothing valuable." Again. deserves highly of the community . " I think we are warranted in contending that a society thus constituted." The Eev." He also writes. in that capacity. the Eev." The Eev. in opposition does it whose honour.PMNCIPLES OF THE rPTBTITTTTIOIf OF FEEEMASONET. fills the heart with an unlimited goodwill to man. nor does it tolerate the detestable principles of infidelity. question. to the salvation of souls table. When the lawyer commandment asked the subtle 'Which is the great of the law?' Jesus . and which may be rendered so admirable an engine of improvement. by recommending and enforcing the duties of the second and by demanding an acquiescence in the doctrines of the And this course of discipline is perfectly consonant with the teaching of Christianity. government. who has lahoured earnestly in is the cause of the institution. and whose praise would he censure. from those. and that the ridicule and affected contempt which it has sometimes experienced can proceed only fine. says. i\s principles. Brother Thaddeus Mason Harris says. Milne. in 1788. ever continue in or contribute towards supporting and propagating it to posterity. its intention is peace on earth and its disposition good- will towards men. " Freemasonry neither an exclusive system of religion. first. truth . Its laws are reason and equity. Oliver. 41 it. in a sermon before the Grrand Lodge of England. purity and . " It interests us also in the duties and ei^agements of humanity produces an affectionate concern for the welfare of all around us and. raising us superior to every selfish view or party prejudice. Dr. whose censure is panegyric. It is a teacher of morality. and religion. ' the true and accepted have been found to conduct themselves as peaceable citizens. fer from meriting any reproachfiil or contumelious treatment. and its religion. and acknowledged to he the firm and decided supporters of good order. Grand Chaplain. says. and con- tributes its powerful aid. from ignorance or from arrogance. " In all countries and in all ages.

in whatever greatest nation. situation they are placed. This last duty is forcibly inculcated liberally by the his example of the beneficence to Deity himself. They are exposed to similar dangers and misfortunes. therefore. breathes nothing but the spirit of love and charity to all kind. in a great measure. in restraining the passions.42 ILLrSTEATIONS OF rEEBMASONET. This virtue includes a supreme degree of love to the great Creator and Governor of the universe. plenty and want. Lord thy God with all all thy heart. of every branch of this amiable virtue briefly state the we shall. in the other. they hang. and thy that is neighbour as thyself:' required in other words. is the greatest pleasure m. and harmonizing the it discordant interests of men. exerted on proper objects. therefore. the same. the evils incident to wisdom to foresee. sickness and health. as were. human species are. cannot circumscribe the generosity of a liberal mind. the liberal offerings of universal characteristic of our institution The distinguishing charity in its most ample sense — ^that charity which has been justly described as the chief of all the social virtues. It is not particularly our province to enter into a disquisition . Thou all shalt love the soul. is . they have not prevent." All the plans and ceremonies of Freemasonry axe pacific. The bounds of the Men. in a perpetual suspense between hope and fear. or power to it human nature . and show that charity. It co-operates with true religion It man- in reg^ulating the tempers. who dispenses unnumbered worlds. ' said unto him. of all characters and of every denomination. subsists throughout the A mutual chain of dependence All of the animal creation. In one hand holds the olive- branch of peace charity. or the most extensive empire. . this is all hy the Jewish law for the salvation of man. proper objects for the exercise of charity. only happy effects of a benevolent disposition toward mankind . are stUl. and an unlimited affection to the beings of his can possibly enjoy. or. and with thy and with thy mind .

and which not only rivals. . every heart . the tongue mitigate the pain of the unhappy and make pity is relieve . this godlike disposition. is more than the name. the distress. but compassion the affections. and which we shall ever labour to developed by our benevolent institutions. when he that propriety of the title we fly to his relief. under every form and appearance. tend to promote some useM purpose . toward proper objects is the most beneficial of all and excites more lasting degrees of happiness. mind is capable of enjoying. look gay. when directed by the superior principle of reason. with manly is and enlivens that spirit of compassion which the glory of the human All frame. and to restore peace and tranquillity to agitated spirits. this generous disposition. he is hungry. among Masons. Masons are shocked at misery. constitute the general and great ends of the Masonic system. feelings. Hence. Possessed of this amiable. we bear and convince the world Bkothee. when we clothe him Thus we confirm the moved at large The attain. and an asylum in the decline of for . even adversity. to soothe the nnhappy by sympathizing with their misfortunes. When they behold an object pining under the miseries of a distressed body or mind. When is Mason will assuage and cheerfully If a Brother be in want. It is not necessary for us to allude to these institutions further in this article than to say that they provide for the exigencies of every life . we feed him is when he is naked. the healing accents which flow from sufferer. but outshines every other pleasure that the human passions. principles above enunciated are. grief. though not to the extent we desire. we provide annuities. in trouble. to a great extent. its dismal state. stage of through them we educate and clothe the young life.PEINCIPLES OF THE INSTITXTTIOIT OF FEEEMASONET. in excited. and alleviates the infirmities and evils which are incident to human existence. 43 Beings who partake of one common nature ought to be tuated ac- by the same motives and interests. fires the breast This humane. as it extends to greater numbers.

the connexion between Masonry and Eeligion is absolute. Brother Pawcett consistent thing. and the third just. the Brethren are enjoined. because the practice of every social and moral virtue.44 ILLirSTEATIONS OF rEEEMASONET. inculcated. the dictates of brotherly love. We niay with truth say. . we shall heremind and act upon . all. and cannot be destroyed. their centre . that without bias to any particular creed. receiving its every colour. by the practice of moral virtue. ever to bear in relief." ftdl In carrying out the principles of charity to their legitimate extent. is an essential condition of salvation. from God. they go forth not only in one. and clime. so flicting if there be any in which the con- elements of society have not yet subsided into calm and . if there be any country on the globe in which the proportions of the social edifice have not yet been harmoniously adjusted. . a year. mankind compose their circumference tions. and truth the first render- ing us affectionate. It must not be forgotten. but in all direc- towards the production of others' good. for the relief we have an income administered through the Board of Benevolence. and creed. the doctrines of brotherly forbear- ance and Christian peace . the distressed lirethreii and their widows of casual and sudden calamity. and politics. but a all evrcle. Eeligion gives us happiness in a future state. whilst. tion as ours. social happiness of Masonry contributes to promote the mankind in this world. tions stream says. — —of to hear there and see practised. The Eev. of something like 4GO01. Hence Masonry must be considered the handmaid of Religion. the second generous. unruffled repose of what inestimable value and inviting within is such an institutemple. " Charity is a complete and Its affec- It is not a segment. as after and show in OUT lectures. though it cannot absolutely save.

instituted by virtuous men. Here human reason is cultivated. while the mind and philosophy. by a due exertion of the intellectual powers and feculties nice and difficult theories are explained . whom . and application. prepared for a regular progress ia the principles of knowledge —Diligence. *' Freemasonry is a moral order." Arnold. is and the duties of morality are inculcated. The privileges of each class are distinct. years and whom truth and fidelity have distinguished. and charity. Honour and probily are recommendations is in which the practice of virtue enforced. with the praiseworthy object of recalling to our remembrance the most sublime truths. in the midst of the most innocent pleasures. brotherly love. and those already known beautifully is restricted to embellished. . of govemment observed by the Eratemity the best idea of the nature and design of the Masonic insti- Three classes are established among Masons. . founded on liberality. —The Third Class a selected few. are quali- fications for the Second Class in which is given an accurate elucidation of science. new dis- coveries are produced. and particular means are adopted to preserve those privileges to the just and meritorious.CHAPTER VI. under different appellations. to the First Class . will give The mode tution. assiduity. both in theory and practice. THE GOVEENMENT OE THE PBATEENITY.

Hall. or the Grand Festival or Listallation of the Grand St. Lincoln's Trm Fields. the months Grand Lodge are held on the first of March. in Great tiie The Supreme Grand Lodge is permanently Freemasons' also established in the extensive premises known is as Queen Street. and ingenuity encouraged. beyond ten miles from the metropolis. are each governed in like manner. and wliom merit and abilities experience have improved. true friendship is cultivated among different ranks of men. where transacted. in his province seriatim. hospitality promoted. Jxme. The supreme power is vested in the Grand Master. the members of the Grand Lodge being the Masters. The Provincial Grand Lodges The rule ought to be. held on the Wednesday following Day or the 23rd of April. as the is elected organ of the Grand Lodge by which he annually. By this judicious arrangement." The Free the style and title of the institution is "The aucient The word was free of Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons. the Provincial Grand Master being the Deputy of the Supreme Grand Master. held annually." originally signified that the person so called or guild of incoi-porated company Masons . i. industry rewarded. which dignify the and and qualify the pro- fessors to illustrate its exceUenoe utility. Such is the estahlished plan of the Masonic system. and those opera^ . and Past Masters of the several Lodges. is to visit each The laws title for government are printed and published under the of " Constitutions of the Ancient Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons. at such place as the Provincial Grand Lodge Master may please to appoint.46 ILLTJSTEATIONS Or rEEEMASONET. September. With them the ancient landmarks of and from them we learn the necessary art. The provinces. have the Order are preserved instructive lessons . e. entitled to preferment. executive business of the Fraternity The regular meetings of the Wednesday in and December Master is . George's are. Wardens..

who a Freemason. jiigt. or attainments.THE GOTEENMENT OF THE FEATEElflTT. Our lectures define a Lodge to be an assembly of Masons. to ratify being virtually present by proceedings . under the Grand Mastership of the Earl of made in St Albans. The term is also used to designate the collection of Masons thus assembled. and it doubtless alludes to the ouiceptance into their society. of persons who were not is operatives. hy many authors." And again : — shall be made is or accepted a Freemason. This is evident from the regulations 1663. as well as the congregation itself. unto the Master of that limit or " 'So person division where such Lodge is kept. shall be admitted into any Lodge or assembly. just as we use the word " church " to signify the building in which a congregation of worshippers meet. until he has brought a certificate of the time and place of his acceptation from the Lodge that accepted him. fi-om its warrant of con- . first We are told. to expatiate on the beauties and mysteries of the it It is just. used in the tenth century. and has received the freedom of the society. shall be accepted Thus —" No person hereafter. from numbers. because contains the volume of the Sacred its its Law unfolded confirm its perfect. every order of Masons representatives. tive 47 Masons wlio were not free of the guild were excluded from worting with those who were. when the masons of Lombardy were incorporated by the Soman Accepted we take to he equivalent to the term initiated. and regular. which signifies the world. who are met together Order. in the same manner as the freedom of the city of is now bestowed as a mark of honour on persons of distinguished rank. An Accepted Mason one who has been London adopted into the Order. Sagon says that the word " Lodge " is derived from the Sanscrit loga. : where the word is repeatedly used in this sense. and and regular. by operative masons. A Lodge generally understood to be the room in which a regularly constituted body of Freemasons assembles for the purposes connected with the Institution. that this term was travelling pontiff. perfect. unless " &c. . valour.

IlLTJSTEATIONS OF TEEEMASONET. whose principal rounds are The sun fountain of light. be and west. square.48 stitution. And. which. SymboUcalhi. implies that it meets and works under the Grand Master of the country in which the Lodge A Lodge-room should always. as the most pure. And as the presence of the Almighty illuminates with refUgent splendour the most distant recesses of the universe. charity. There should be two ante-rooms adjoining the one nearest being the preparation room. of all lights And hence the Bible. and truth. but that its foundations were laid in wisdom. so is the Lodge enlightened by it is the presence of His revealed will. vast in its extent and complicated in motions. theological ladder. with unceasing complacency. the efforts of His creatures to do His will. governed and regulated with unceasing concord and harmony. is to the Mason most indispensable. if possible. charity. a Mason's Lodge world. we are taught that the vast universe over which this omnipotence presides. emanating from the exercise of brotherly love. Its situated due east form should be that of a parallelogram or oblong for Oliver says. and the outer the Tyler's room. Here. Lodge. a bright exponent of the great Creator's power the moon —the glorious orb of night — while of ^repeats the lesson Divine munificence. The approaches should be angular. supported by strength. relief. — so is the Lodge controlled and directed by the same spirit of peace. by the hope. too. reaps its fruits in universal . the unwearied ruler of the day — eternal —shines in the ^the . whose all-seeing eye beholds. as this is world. and adorned with beauty. while the path is indicated faith. was no work of chance. "A straight entrance is un-Masouic. To that abode of the blessed the Mason and is taught to aspire. wUch sanction of the is held. Its clouded is a representation of the canopy is an emblem of those mansions of unutterable bliss where the Grand Master of the universe for ever reigns." it. its finally.

THE (JOTEEiniEITT OF tear. Some Lodges provinces have halls of their own. but the great majority are held at taverns. when we are human life . place. The Mosaic pavement of a Lodge vicissitudes of placed there to show the may favour how long it will continue to bless us. provincial GraiLd Lodge meetings are generally held in the Town Halls. sweet Charity Revealed to us from heaven. The naked clothe. the Eomans especially most ingeniously decorated their floors in this manner. it is uncertain most unfit to encounter it . Several have been discovered in various parts of England. we may be compelled again to encounter the burden and heat of the day. which consists of innumerable little stones of different colours. All wants our ready hands supply. that however prosperity us with smiles to-day. The latter period of life may be subjected to want and misery. so as to imitate a painting. 49 " Tlie widow's the orphan's cry. and the term Mosaic supposed to have been derived from the feet that Moses so paved the floor of the Tabernacle. and instead of resting in peace after a long and troublesome journey. As far as power is given. which has in a blazing is star. flooring of the In memory of the is Temple and Tabernacle the Mosaic pavement its centre always preserved as an ornament of the Lodge. The floor is said to be paved with Hosaic wort. Mosaic or tessellated pavements were very common among the ancients . THE TEATEENITT. in the tessellated border. closely unit«d together." The is place of meeting is named in at the Warrant of Constitution. . These are thy works. The floor of is Solomon's Temple was thus constructed. unless its and the Lodge can be held sanctioned no other removal in the by the proper The authorities. the prisoner free. and penury and distress may follow joy and pleasure. Adversity may come when we least expect it.

which might justly claim more noble devices at the same time they are used either as emblems or indications of the simplest and most important moral truths. brethren make to render their Lodges perfect. " Human life is chequered at the best. which serve to characterize an institution . And joy and grief alternately preside." This tessellated ornament or symbol at present exists only in the tracing board. but the important lesson to be lost sight of. The good and evU demon of mankind. All the decorations and symbols of Rreemasonry are borrowed from the Tabernacle and Temple. and it conveys ought not we trust among the many attempts the ere long. a tessellated carpet or floor-cloth will be in every Lodge .50 ILLUSTEATIOWB OP rEEEMABOlTET. and the phraseology from the art of architecture.

and the pleasures arising in company. finding themselves members of the Order. ofier they are led to form one that shall their feelings. and there being no Lodge D 2 . more to our mind. or whose habits and pursuits are not congenial with their own." Socrates. a prospect agreeable to Or it does happen that two or three in a town or neighbourhood meeting in promiscuous intercom-se. or whose conversation does find the not reach the standard of their own perfection. and that and we fix our resort where the society Hence it follows men occasionally enter the institution. Eqitamty is one of the landmarks of Ereemasonry.CHAPTER YII. and In the promiscuons concourse of of selecting many. and if there is not in their own locality a suitable Lodge. These and various other causes will occur to withdraw brethren from their mother Lodge . social position they hold. We turn away from those who do not engage us. members of the Lodge do not occupy the same position in the social scale as themselves. necessarily fonn commmiities adapted to the the means at their command. but as social distinctions of the we cannot Masons alter the cotmtry we inhabit. their sense of mutual benefits. FORMATION OF A LODGE. their mutual compassion. " There are some circumstances in the lot of mankind that show them to he destined to friendship and amity : those are their mutual need of each other. and the peer and artisan acknowledge the Bentiment by meeting on the square and parting on the level. it is sufficient that we have an opportunity is our company.

which requires a progress of study and application we can arrive at any degree of perfection. according to the general acceptation of the term. the and improvement of the human mind. namely. are to be discouraged in their endeavours to gain a knowledge of Masonry. struggle on arrive at and never generally those Lodges have readily. or to partake of its privileges. veiling itself under the terms of the former. in any mart in the Order. IHtrSTEATIONS OP rEEEMASONET. may with more propriety be called a science. In every art there is a mystery. inas- much as. as expert and for years we have seen Lodges formed in haste. although its lessons are for the lAost part veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols.52 near. tion is an art founded on the principles of Geometry. amd directed to But Freemasonry. or whose sphere of life requires assiduous attention to business or useful employment. embracing a wider cultiva- and having a nobler object in view. Masonry before is an art useful and extensive. who may have leisure and opportunity Masonry. range. . To qualify an individual to enjoy the benefits of the society at large. Without much instruction. detennme on founding one. without an skilfiil Past Master united with them. and more exercise. the service of manldnd. it incul- cates piindples of the purest morality. and shown signs of progress most entrusted with the warrant is which the Master first a weU-sMUed Past Master. Prom this remark it is not to be inferred. that those who labour under the disadvantage of a confined education. without aa assiduous application to the various subjects treated in the different lectures of Masonry. be sufficiently acquainted with the true value of the institution. it is not absolutely necessary that he should be acquainted with : all the intricate parts of the science these are only intended for to indulge the persons pursuit. no man can be sMlful in any art no person can in like manner. Now it is very desirable that among the founders should be a brother of some experience in the craft.

And it must also be admitted. bind us to love one another. one plan D 3 . as well as our consciences. aside this veil. must submit to learn. Masonry . may prove advantageous to the community . or to penetrate through its mysteries. or whose circumstances and situation in life render them independent. all All men are not blessed with the same powers and talents . howwhose early years have been dedicated to literary pursuits. Mason may hope ultimately to become acquainted with mysteries. according to his station and ability. but in their different spheres. more properly 53 speaking. best preceptor. every all its Some may be more some more useftil . is men and every brother. the ofSces of the Lodge restricted. so as to discharge the duties of the Lodge with propriety. and by a feithfol and appropriate attention to them. and no one can be qualified to support the higher offices of the Lodge. all. and class with his equal. is the object of the Lectures. may be employed in the Lodge. that those who accept offices and exercise authority in the Lodge o%ht to be men of prudence and address. able than others. ever.FOEMATIOK To draw 01' A LODGE. Experience the Everyman may first by gradation. ought principally to be The rudustrious tradesman proves himself a valuable member confer . and worthy of every honour that we can but the nature of every man's profession will not admit is of that leisure which necessary to qualify official bim to become an expert Mason. no disquietude is found among the professors wisely instituted for different ranks and degrees of of the art. Actuated by the best principles. men. enjoying the advantages of a well- cultivated mind and retentive memory. therefore. Each all class is happy in its particular association and when the classes meet in general convention. and our necessities. some more eminent. equally qualified to govern. who has not previously rise discharged is the duties of those which are subordinate. therefore. To persons. are not He who wishes to teach. of society. but merit and industry are the steps to preferment.

will throw all prospective harmony into discord. is unfit for a seat in our Lodge. witii gambling propensities. the Provincial Grand Master may a dispensation. in which case be sent to him or to his deputy. . The selection of men in the founding . the petition be granted. OP C01fSTirUTIlf& A Every application for NEW LODGE. with his recommendaIf the prayer of issue tion or opinion thereon. and be transmitted to the Grand Secretary. or debauchee of any kind. of a Lodge is a task of considerable nicety hence it is essentially necessary the brother who undertakes it should be conversant with the habits and opinions of every one he purposes to connect himself with. ill-tempered. who is to forward it. a scoffer at religion. unless there be a Provincial Grand Master in the district or province in it is to which the Lodge is proposed to be holden. they belong. One who addicted to intemperance. : regulates the whole neither arrogance nor preBuinption appear diffidence on the one hand. nor nor incivility on the other . as one ill-mannered. or contemptuous person. is unworthy of admittance within our portals. and the Lodges to which specified. or formerly belonged. signed by at least Masons. hnt every brother vies to excel in promoting that endearing happiness which constitutes the essence of civil society.54 ILLrSTEATIONS OE FEEEMASONEX. authorizing the brethren to meet as a Lodge. It should ever be borne in whom we domestic introduce into a Lodge mind we ought to be as carefdl as to our own fireside. a warrant to must be by petition to the seven regularly registered hold a new Lodge Grand Master. must be petition The must be recommended by the oflScers of a regular Lodge. and one we would not admit to intimate intercourse with our own is circle. to the Grand Master. The necessary measure defined in to accomplish this object is thus The Booh of Constitutions.

having the prosperity of the craft at heart. P. are anxious to exert our best endeavours to promote and diffuse the genuine prindples of the art. promise strict The prayer of this regulations of we mands of the Grand Master and the laws and the Grand Lodge.] [C. empowering us to meet as a regular Lodge. new Lodge. Brother Senior Warden. and. being regular registered Masons of the Lodges mentioned against our respective names. D. he named In consequence of this on the we of pray for a warrant of constitution.] to be the first Junior Warden of the said Lodge. and Brother [E. the undersigned. obedience to the com- The warrant some sVilfiil or dispensation being granted. Grand Master !Pree of the United Fraternity of Ancient and Accepted Masons of England " We. or Provincial Grand Master. and there to discharge the duties of Masonry. until a warrant of constitution stall be signed 55 by tie Grand Master. at every month. to open and consecrate in solemn form the new Lodge. for the conveniency of our respective dwellings and to other good reasons. according to the forms of the Order and the laws of the Grand Lodge : and we have nominated and do first' recommend Brother [A. we are desirous of forming a . in a constitutional manner. B. desire.] to be the first to he the Master. W. D 4 .FOBMATION OP A lODGE. it is entrusted to brother." petition being granted. Tbe following is the form of petition : "To the M. who is specially deputed by the Grand Master.

the Consecration ceremony commences. The ment deputy of tlie Grand Master being ready. odes. on his right. a procession is is arranged from the ante-room. Brother Preston says. and forthwith opens the Lodge is in the three degrees. to fin . Cihaplain on his left ters. and the he directs two brethren. officers." universal Lord adored By Heaven and Earth All hail! great God! . M. he takes his position in the east. Prom the mass of we give one written by Brother Dxmokerley. and his panied accom- by some dignified clergyman." Although the is practice is not universal. and an ode sung. being covered with all white satin. a as the air is patent to : Mason of great and deserved celebrity. which placed in the centre. an extemporary prayer generally adopted at the opening of the ceremony. and he in which the Lodge is to conducted into the apart- be held . devoutly and the preparatory prayer is rehearsed. being Past Mas- the Wardens' chairs. " The Master. having a representative D. and the Lodge. kneel.CHAPTER VIII. is having taken their stations. and the British people. it is easy of adoption Tune Hail ! —" God save the Queen. CONSECEATION OF A LODGE. G.

relief. To us Thy grace extend. and. and truth. the Grand Geometrician and Great Architect of the Universe. next. the Deputy Grand Master deKvers an address on the nature and design of the Institution suitable to the time or : locality. above of devotion to Thee. We these walls may be ever endued with the lofty principles of brotherly love. the ear to bear. All hail! great God! The Beputy Grand Master is then informed by the Secretary {pro tern) that the brethren present desire to be formed into a new Lodge. the compasses within whose haEowed D 5 . firom whom we have received the heart to the hand to labour. glory.CONSECEATION OF A LODGE. And to our prayer attend. the eye to behold. through whose bounty our cups overflow with com. The Chaplain then ofiers a prayer Almighty Father. pray constituted in ancient and solemn form. who then This being signified. we implore Thy blessing with every confidence in Thy providence and protection upon this Lodge. which done. and these are to be approved and confirmed. which has been grajited. convened for the sacred object of solemnly dedi- cating its House of Assembly all to pray most fervently that Thy honour and who meet within all. and all the faculties which make us susceptible of every moral and natm-al good. the tongue to proclaim. and oil in plenteousness feel. the minutes of the proceedings of the petitioners are to be read. . May the blessed volume of Thy matchless wisdom be the square to regulate all our conduct. may be The Deputy Grand (or Master orders the petition and the warrant the dispensation) to be read . God Most High. or it Charter of Constitution. and. having presented a petition for a warrant. and signed by the Deputy Grand Master. inquires of the brethren approved of the officers nominated in the warrant to preside over them. wine. Before 57 Thy name we bend.

there to behold that bright Morning Star. 1 : are diffused by " Glory be to the God on high. by amiable attention to all the sweet and life. oil ves- being prepared. will towards men." in At Union Grand Lodge. to the grand and perfect Lodge above. and three Past Masters.with integrity and honour to win the love of our as fathers. endearing charities of human —and Mends. Good Grand honours. the infallible plvml-lme of rectitude and truth. we are told there was a piece of furniture constructed under the direction of Brother John Soane Treasurer Superintendent of Works. wine. which in the Con- Ceremony is denominated 2%e Zodffe\ and covered with a sels fair linen cloth. — ^All Glory be to God on high. beseech Thee to bless the his representatives at Grand Master of our native and home and abroad. is The consecrating sung. we pray Thee. husbands. Enahle us to . saying 1st. in this world with peace. So mote it be. let Thine arm that XDaj at and Thy wisdom counsel them in : all tend to the furtherance of all noble principles and when here. And while we invoke Thy heavenly grace in behalf of our Order. an ode or anthem Then to slow and solemn music the com. Peace on Earth. honour. . and length of days protect them. to represent the Ark of the Covenant. is now unveiled. ever walk with peace and safety. and Masons to exalt the profession in which we glory.58 circle ILLUSTBATIONS we may 01' FEEEMASONET. and this was denominated Tlie Lodge. we especiaUy land. endue them . ield 1813. which now veUed in clouds and darkness at the summit of the ladder. Thy summons they is shall lay down the gavel of Masonry admit them. Omnes. fill each sphere of duty. whose auspifaithftil cious rising brings peace and salvation to the and obedient of the human race. personal associates. The tracing board lying in the secration centre. wherever established on the fece of the globe.

) how pleasant and how as we. and halting in the east gives prayer. love. Por there the Lord of light and A blessing sent with power Oh may we ! all this blessing prove. 'Tis like the oil on Aaron's head. For Brethren such Of the "Accepted" Brotherhood. Our hands now plighted with hearts In peace and unity. " So mote it be.CONSECEATION OF A LODGE. to Masonry. 2iicL " Peace on earth. Behold ! (Psahn cxxriii. in course of D 6 . Lord. The Hallelujah Chorus that closes the ceremony. 53." 3rd. On fiiendship's To live in love. It is customary at Consecrations is the distinguished Brother to whom the duty entrusted should. 43. The Deputy cation." to end of ver. AIJTHEM. Kings "Lord God of Israel. E'en life for evermore. dedicates the and to benevolence and universal and constitutes it in form." 59 Sancius. To dwell in xmity. altar rising here. 1 Gtrand Master then delivers Solomon's LivoviiL 23. good. " Glory be to Thee. so richly shed On Zion's sacred hills. sincere. 49 to end of ver. The Deputy Grand Master then solemnly Lodge to God. and ver." Omnes. " Grood win towards men. be. charity. distils "Which to his feet Like Hermon's dew." The C!haplain then takes the censer three times ronnd the Lodge.

This Hall. adore. In its prosperity we find ovir joy. Brother Thaddeus hy the accomplished and Mason Harris : Beetheen. in which Masonry is an enlightened. The address which eloquent Eev. a safe. human Our march round the Lodge reminds us of the travels of life. then. Following our ancient constitutions. me to point it out to you. designed and huilt by wisdom. rites. eternity. with mystic dedicate this Hall to the honour of Masonry. to put our trust in TTi-m while passing and to Him for the reward of its ! labours. its But worth transcends our encomiums. and its lofty arch resound with his praise May the eye which seeth in secret witness here the sincere and unaffected piety. in His feax to enter the door of the its trials. hope in It reminds us. pavement of Mosaic work inti- mates to us the chequered diversity and uncertainty of affairs. also. our progression. The address is generally adapted to the circumstances or lofollows is cality.60 ItLTJSTEATIOMS OP FBEEMASONET. its altar be devoted to his service. and praise. and adorned in beauty. which withdraws from the engagements of the world to it silence and privacy. the ceremony. we are first to consecrate in the name of the great Jehovah . that may be exercised with less interruption and less ostentation. supported by strength. and to prepare your minds for those important sentiments they are so weE adapted to convey. and a Its tessellated pleasant path. glory will out- sound our . Lodge. Let. its and in paying it honour we honour ourselves. Our best attachments are due to the Craft. are about to perform are not un- nor the amusing pageants of an idle hour . The ceremonies we meaning rites. human we Om- step is time . address tie brettren present on the occasion. which teaches us in aU our works begun and finished to acknowledge. hut Suffer have a solemn and instructive import. and magnify Him.

that while he displays a those warm and cordial affection to who axe of the fiatemity. are is the significant meaning of the solemn we now to perform. so we dedicate this HaU to universal benevolence . Our private assemblies are . in the assurance that every Brother will dedicate his affections and his abilities to the same generous purpose . I need not enlarge upon them now. rites my Brethren. to engage in the plans and to perfect the designs of individual and social happiness. it is 61 our pride that we Lave our names on the records of MaBoniy. As Freemasonry aims to enliven the spirit of philanthropy and promote the cause of charity. to imlife. nor show how they diverge. contentions. This worthy appropriation will always be dnly regarded while the moral dntiea which onr sublime lectures inculcate with affecting and impressive pertinency. attend the present interview Whilst in almost every other part of the political animosities. and to cheer the whole circle of their application is familiar to their exercise Their import and you alL In their knowledge and may you fulfil the high purposes of the Masonic Institution How many world pleasing considerations. May it be onr high ambition that they Bhonld shed a lustre on the immortal page The HaU is also to be dedicated to virtue. Such. in this country. distinguished privilege. are cherished in our hearts and illustrated in our lives. to enlighten. because such are the peculiar duties of every Lodge. Brethren. in tlhia our happy region of Uberty and Whilst in other nations our peace. Order is viewed by pohticians with suspicion.CONSECBATION OP A LODGE. ! my Brethren. members are too much respected at d its principles too well known. he will extend his benevolent regards and good wishes to the whole &imly of mankind. and by the ignoits rant with apprehension. to make it the object of jealousy or mistrust. and wars interrupt the it is progress of humanity and the cause of benevolence. prove. as rays from a centre.

and long a monument of their attachment to Masonry! May flourish. To bless and praise this light divine. as well as the highest credit to the respectable Lodge for whose accommodation and at whose expense it is erected. any of the fol- lowing may be used : ANTHEMS. We offer their zeal. And gave the planets birth ! In choral numbers Masons join. is essential. evidence of tbe increasing affection of its friends and this noble apartment. are advancing to a beigbt age. . fraternity. and Members of the Lodge. benevolence! remain their May their HaU be the happy resort of piety. Besides those Anthems introduced. the aid of music. ' Let To there be light !' — ^ihe Almighty spoke. eternal in the heavens At Consecrations. and May it be protected from accident. our best congratulations to the worshipftJ Master. its and we trust in usefulness. Eefiilgent streams from chaos broke illume the rising earth Well pleased the Great Jehovah stood The Power Supreme pronounced it good. and they aud their happiness to abound And when we all shall be removed from the labours of the earthly Lodge. unknown any former Tbe present occasion gives fresb . unmolested. OfScers. Wardens. its importance. virtue. in the building of God. the Hall not made with hands. and our public celebrations attract a more general approbation of the credit.62 ILLTJSTRATIOKS OP rEEBMASOFET. their ! Lodge continue to union to strengthen. may we be ad- mitted to the brotherhood of the perfect. does honour to Masonry. fitted up iu a style of elegance and convenience which far exceed any we have among us. Vocal and Listrumental. We commend and hope it will meet with the most ample recom- pense. its Indeed.

. &c. rites to bigots may with And fools But worth pretend thy blame. Parent of light ! accept our praise 63 Who shedd'st on us thy brightest rays. a social hand That love — ^ihat aid mankind In choral nnmbers. To polish and adorn mankind Sprightly pleasures. and sweetly sing. social love. anger gaze. As far as power The naked clothe is — given prisoner free ^the These aie thy works. And Pallas' self will speak thy feme. And all the hiUs with Paeans ring. Blest Masonry ! thy arts divine With light and truth inform the mind. The virtues in thy temples shine. and cheer the night. The widow's tear — ^the orphan's cry- All wants our ready hands supply. In thy triumphant domes imite 'Tis these thy gallant sons improve. The music sound from every lyre. lo we stand. &c. By Friendship join'd. is still deserving praise. light that fills The this ! mind. By choice selected. sweet Charity Eeveal'd to us from heaven In choral numbers. Apollo bids the tuneful choir Prepare their songs. And Dark gild the day.OONSECEATIOir OF A LODQE.

love and PriendsHp 'mongst us reign We taniali Discord far."'] Architect. ! and strife. And Let consecrate to Hiram's laws all unite.64 iimsTEATioNS oy peeemasott-et. So order sanctifies the soul. And truth and candour warm the heart. The pirre unriTall'd joys of life. Hail to the Craft at whose serene command The gentle Aiis in glad obedience stand ! Hall. Nor guUt nor faction can divide The faithful and illustrious band. Masons united ever stand. the temple raise. : Unerring sov'reign of th' uneriing line . As in fair nature's works. This night another dome we raise. sacred Masonry ! of soui'ce divine. OHOEtrS. your voices raise. gratitude be given Who deign'd the human soul to raise By mystic secrets sprung from heaven. Sing triumph to the glorious cause. We scorn the blind's censorious pride. To Heaven's high All praise. . . all aU praise. Sound aloud the great Jehovah's praise To him the dome. Prom Masonry thy blest domain. the whole Is moved with harmony and art. [Tune —" Sule Britannia.

She regulates the morals. TiQ all the peopled world ber laws approve. To works of Art her merit not con&ied. Whose plumb of truth. go band in band. join'd.CONSEOEATION OT A LODGE. And gives imperial cities glorious birth. Makes the join'd parts of symmetry obey Whose magic stroke bids fell ooufiision cease. O may ber social rules instructive spread. 65 And to the finish'd Orders gives a place Who caJls vast stmctures from the womb of earth. And Till Sense and Science. M. . Then follows the installation of the W. squares the mind Corrects with care the sallies of the soul. race are And Adam's bound in Brothers' love. And points the tide of passions wbere to roll On virtue's tablet marks ber moral rule. Truth erect ber long-neglected deceitfiil bead Till througb night she dart ber ray. with never-feilmg sway. And beam fiill glorious in the blaze of day Till men by virtuous TnaTiTna learn to move. And forms ber Lodge an universal scbool Where Nature's Mystic laws unfolded stand.

CHAPTER IX. In all THE regular assemblies of men wHcL. they are interesting These purposes are effected when judicious ceremonies are regularly conducted and properly arranged. The ceremony of opening and and decorum is closing the Lodge with solemnity therefore universally adopted among Masons and though the mode in some meetings may vary. little more than visionary but their effects are sometimes important. the practice prevails. by external forms. that when order and method axe neglected at the beginning. and attract the attention to solemn rites objects. and abo- the refined improvements of it. simply considered. is To is the most likely means to end well: and it justly remarked. begin well. modem times have not Ceremonies. are delusions . CLOSINGf THE CEREMONY OP OPENTNa AND LODGE. they will be seldom found to take place at the end. they have received the sanction of the wisest all and consequently could not escape the notice of Masons. On this men in ground ages. When they impress awe and reverence on the mind. In every country of is tbe world and deemed essentiaL it is Erom lished the most remote periods of antiqtiity traced. and in every . are convened for wise and nsefnl purposes tte commencement and conclusion of business is accompanied with some form.

At opening the Lodge. and the brethren of the homage and veneration due to him in their sundry stations. This is the first re- quest of the Master. To an adherence to order in the is detect impostors among ourselves. every eye is directed for regularity of conduct and be- haviour. than every officer repairs to his station. character of Masons ensues. however. and the prelude to business. is These. two purposes are efiected : the Master reminded of the dignity of his character. may naturally expect to derive instruction. The intent and the mind of the meeting becomes the object of attention is drawn fi:om the indiscriminate subjects of con- versation which are apt to intrude on our less serious mo- ments. . and the variation any) is solely oc- casioned by a want of method. less informed. we are taught to adore the Great Architect of the universe. which a this little application will easily remove. it is a must assist. in which all . execute the trust with fidelity. No sooner has it been signified. and the brethren rank according to insensibly their degrees. peculiar study of all honour to rule in our To persons who are thus dignified. From a share in tTiis ceremony no Mason is exempted general concern. To conduct ceremony with propriety ought to be the Masons. . especially of those who have the assemblies. and by their example other brethren. mony. and the Lodge opened or closed in solemn form.OPENIKG JJTD CLOSHTG THE LODGE. prevails in tlie still 67 an uniformity in the general practice (if Lodge . Our first care is and the officers. directed to the external avenues of the Lodge whose province intimated that it is to discharge that duty. . it is By certain mystic forms. a reverential awe for the Deity on that object from whose Hence. in this cere- and the eye is fixed radiant beams alone light can be derived. recent date. Degree must vary. of no we may safely proceed. are not the only advantages resulting from a due observance of the ceremony is inculcated.

pleased with his reward. order. and to supplicate that the labours then begun in continued in peace. may be At less closing the Lodge.] Masons employ themselves tions. and extended to the whole Fraternity. for favours already received. and conform with cheerftdness to the reside. and may to support our Order He continue with every by cementing and adorning So mote it he. they are too valuable to be lost sight as they form an invaluable code for our moral government. the fruits of his labour and industry in the Lodge. government of the country in which they . ON THE MANAGEMENT OP THE CEAPT IN WOEKING. It was the custom some yeajs back to read the ancient charges and although the practice does not hold at of. and closed in harmony. live diligently in their sundry voca^ creditably. and disseminate circle among the private of his friends. at every meeting. place in the The necessary degree of subordination which takes government of the Lodge is peculiarly marked .68 ILLTJSTEATIONS OP FEIEMASOWET. THE ANCIENT CHARGES.'' faithflilly locks it moral and social virtue. a similar form takes place. and. the present time. Here the important duties of the Order are not passed unobserved. Each brother then up in his own repository the treasure which he has acquired. thus " Brethren. and are moreover not unfrequently referred to. let us express our gratitude to the Great Architect of the universe. [To be rehearsed at opening the Lodge. up to the beneficent Author of whose blessing : is invoked. and distinguishes all their meetings. while the proper tribute of gratitude is offered life. These are faint outlines of a ceremony which universally prevails among Masons. retires to enjoy.

is true to Master and Fellows. he in the Mrst or Second Degree hut never put that work to the First which has heen appropriated to the Second Degree. and the hrethren ohey him. or derogating from that respect which is due to a gentleman were he not a Mason . if he he capable to finish it. The Master. is 69 The most expert Craftsman the work. the work they hegin. without encroaching upon each meet other. and use no disobliging name. as brethren we oi on a level. The Master. They behave courteously within and without the Lodge. knowing himself qualified. A Craftsman who is appointed Warden of the work. finish the work which has heen begun by another. . and Brethren. agreeably to the forms established among Masons . or put out of his work. and never desert the Master till the work be finished. hut rather adds to his honour. not being overseen or overheard. with equal advantage to the Master. you are freely to give such mutual instructions as shall be thought necessary or expedient.OPEKTlfG Am) CLOSHfG THE lODSE. Neither envy nor censure hrother is is discovered among Masons. undertakes the government of the Lodge. and careftilly fiTiish are just and it faithftd. especially if he have deserved well of the Fraternity. Wardens. LAWS FOB THB GOTTEEITSIENT OF THE LODGE. whether . You are to salute one another in a courteous manner. yet Masonry deprives no man the honour due to his rank or character. " Brother " is the appellation they bestow on each other. for he who is not perfectly skilled in the original design. No supplanted. and truly dispenses his rewards according to merit. can never. under the Master. and is chosen or appointed Master of duly honoured in that character hy those over whom he presides. as Masons. An employed in Masonry meekly receive their rewards. careftilly oversees the work. for though.

and.70 ILLTJSTEATIONS OF PEEEMASONET. friends. in your several neighbourhoods. you are to enjoy yourselves with innocent mirth. irre- that your families may not be neg- and injured. and you are to be- have as wise and moral men. and a proper respect paid to the Masofficers. CHAEGE ON THE BEHATIOUE OF MASONS. that harmony may be on with order and the business of the Lodge be So mote it he. by avoiding gularity and intemperance lected . and avoid ill- wlio always render honour to wliom it is due. Tou are to be cautious in your words and carriage. but. but enjoy a and easy conversation. consult yovir own honour. strictly enforced. and manage it prudently. on every occasion. or acquaintances. or separate conversa: tions encouraged the Master or Wardens are not to be inter. but carefully avoid excess. the private transactions of our different assemblies . manners. or yourselves disabled from attending to your life. not proper you are to waive the discourse. No private committees are to he allowed. all Ton are to avoid immoral or obscene discourse. At home. that the is most penetrating stranger may not discover what to be intimated . and at times sup- port with propriety the dignity of your character. and the reputation of the Fraternity at large. Tou are never to communicate to your families. You are to study the preservation of health. for the honour of the Fraternity. rupted. [To be rehearsed at closing the Lodge. Ton are not to com- any brother to act contrary to his inclination. if necessary. necessary employments in . carried and regularity. and presiding These laws are to be preserved. or any brother who is speaking to the Master hut due decorum ter is to he observed.] When the Lodge pel is closed. or give offence jfree by word or deed.

wrangling on every and quarrelling. may not whom you Le imposed upon by an ignorant are to reject with contempt. without prejudice. occasion. slandering and as backbiting.OPKNTNG AITD OLOSUfa THE LODGE. method as prudence may preoi and agreeably to the forms established among Masons that you tender. but defending their characters. . in suck a direct. before any other person in the same (nrcumstances. true Masons have done from the beginning of the world. and doing them good far as offices. but no all farther. . however. Mse and beware if you discover bim to be a true and genuine brother. who a good man and true. the foundation and cope- stone. These rules you are always to observe and enforce. cultivating brotherly love. and also the duties which have been communicated in the lecture. avoiding. Hence may see the benign influence of Masonry as aU. you direct are. and will do to the end of time. or relieved . the cement and glory of this ancient Fraternity . you are to respect bim if giving secret hints of inowledge. : him how he may be to you are to employ biTn^ or recommend him to do is employment ability . not permitting others to slander honest brethren. 71 If a stranger apply in the cLaracter of a Mason. may be consistent with your honour and safety. you are cautiouBly to examiae 'h^m. to relieve him. Finally. you are never charged beyond your only to prefer a poor Jifason. bim any But he be in want.

and injury having been brought upon our ancient and honourable Fraternity from admitting members and receiving candidates. Ancient are Craft Masomy consists of but three degrees.CHAPTER DEGEEE. AND EAISING. PASSING. and the test the character of object of these steps of probation the aspirant. and at the same time by gradual revelations prepare the final him for the important knowledge he was to receive at moment of his adoption. X. OE THE EIEST " Know that they are neither public nor private. Eellow-Craft. and the degrees all vary in number. seeing they are only intelligible to those who have been my AULUS Gbllius." Matt. In ancient mysteries there were progressive degrees. and from passing and raising Masons without due instruction in the respective . and Master Mason. Gtreat discredit MAKING. but they all commence with these was to three. OF PEOPOSING MEMBEES. There many rites connected with Freemasonry. and it shall be given to you . or inquiry made into their characters and qualifications. viz. THE ENTERED APPEENTICB. and you and it shall be opened unto you. neither puhlished nor unpublished . seek. vii. without due notice being given. Entered Apprentice." — shall find . listenere. The laws regaj-ding the admission of persons into the Fra- ternity are very stringent. 7. knock. " Ask.

.The Entered Apprentice.


meet. on producing a certificate from the Grand Secretary. if it be proper. occupa- tion. the brother's Grand Lodge his former and also the certificate of Lodge is to be produced. and the decision of the brethren ascertained by ballot. stating the fact and specify- ing whether the brother has been registered and his quarterage duly paid. shall notify the same to every .justification. it is dedared that a violation or neglect of any of the following laws shall subject the Lodge offending to erasure. propose. and place of abode. &c. addition. is Tn cases of emergency. and if the candidate be then approved. nor until his name. and no emei^ency can be allowed as a. and place of abode in the shall have been sent to members summons. Any two members of a Lodge may transmit in writing to the Master the name. member of his Lodge and may summon a Lodge to meet at a period of not less than seven days from the issuing of the summons. or was last a member. or proall fession.THE EKTEEED APPEENTICE. of any candidate whom they may wish to . as well as the name and number of the is Lodge of which he initiated.] cannot be granted except in cases specially provided 1. for the purpose of balloting for the candidate . and the circumstances which cause the emeigency and the Master.a Ifo brother shall be admitted a member of a Lodge without regular proposition in open Lodge. 2. he may be initiated into the . any former When a Lodge has ceased to member thereof shall be eligible to be pro- posed and admitted a member of another Lodge. No person stall be made a Mason without a regular pro- position at one Lodge. 73 degrees. at which meeting certificate. the following alteration allowed. and a ballot at the next regular Lodge the which shall not take place unless his name. or in which he was all shall for the have been sent to the members in the summons next regular Lodge meeting . [A dispensation for. .

Witness 4. and of the No. worthy motive. to be recorded in the minute-book of the Lodge. can be made a Mason in. at the time of initiation. know- ledge . on the ballot. Every candidate shall. and. 3. on his initiation. this . No man sbaJl be made a Mason in any Lodge under the age of twenty-one years. . viz. I freely oflEer myself a candidate for the mysteries of Masonry that I am prompted by a favourand a desire of all able opinion conceived of the institution. in reputable circumstances. and to conform to Craft. Every candidate must be a free man. 5. degree. solemnly promise all to submit to the constitutions. and Members Lodge of being a free man. and emergency. of the Officers. Witness my hand. previous to the ballot being taken. and uninfluenced by mercenary or other unand voluntarily . three black balls appear against him but the bye-laws of a Lodge may enact that one or two black balls shall exclude a candidate. Wardens. or Provincial Grand Master. unbiassed by the improper solicitation of friends. cause the proposition. Previous to his initiatiou. do declare. he must subscribe his name at full length to a declaration of the following import (any individual who cannot write is consequently ineligible to be admitted into the Order). and that I will cheerfully conform to day of the ancient usages and established customs of the Order. I full age of twenty-one years. unless by dispensationfrom the GrandMaster. The Master shall.74 first ILLUSTEATIONS OF I'EEBMASOBTET. To the WorsHpful Master. his own master. No person if. that. the usages and regulations of the . or admitted a member of a Lodge.

nor until he has passed an examination in open Lodge in that degree. If. and. for less than three guineas exclusive of the registering nor sbaU. or by dispensation from the Grand Master. No Lodge shall confer more than one degree on any brother on the same day. unless by a dispensation. the Lodge for The member who proposes a candidate must be responsible all the fees payable on account of the initiation. which shall specify the total nmnher to be initiated. except as a serving brother. or Provincial Grand Master. which shall be specified in the return tary . 75 No Lodge five shall on any pretence initiate into Masonry more than persons on the same day. 9. nor shall any Lodge initiate any military person below the rank of a corporal. 7. a Lodge on any pretence remit or defer the payment of any part of this sum. No other Lodge shall initiate any non-commissioned officer or corporal belonging to a regiment or battalion to which a military Lodge is attached. This is to not to extend to the malring of serving brethren. provided no fee or reward be taken. but a brother so initiated made to the Grand Secrecannot be a member of the Lodge in which he was initiated. he is entitled to the privileges and benefits of the Craft. and that a dispensation from first the Grand Master or Provincial Grand Master be obtained. however. upon being registered as a of such other Lodge. 6. who may that be initiated by the Lodge which they are to serve.THE ENTEEED APPEEKTICE. nor shall a higher degree be conferred on any brother at a less interval than fonr weeks from his receiving a previous degree. though eligible to become a subscribing member joining of member any other Lodge. No person shall be made a Mason fee. there be no other Lodge in the vicinity of his s 2 . 8. and paying his con- tributions in like all manner with other members.

The beauty of holiness and charity are depicted in emblematic modes. stronger and more lasting is than mere language can express . candidate is On the threshold. It is remarkable for the beauty of the morality which it inculcates.76 IIiLPSTEATIONS OF lEEEMASONET. The degree remarkable for the beauty of the morality which practical lesson enforced exercise of Beneficence it inculcates. dwelling of wMch he can become a member. initiated the quarterly dues to the fond of benevolence and after having served the Lodge and paid such dues for four years at least. upon which he charged to erect a superstructure alike honourable to himself and to the and Fraternity into which he is admitted. and for the on the mind of the neophyte in the degree in Masonry. and the convert directed to is lay a comer-stone of virtue and purity. he to may be permitted pay through the Lodge in which he was . the for the mysteries privileges of Freemasonry required to declare that he pre- sents himself of his own free will and accord. is The Entered Apprentice the first although it supplies no historical knowledge. it is replete with information on the internal structure of the Order. that it is under no influence exercised by others to enter the Order. and he promises . As it generally happens that first impressions are too power- ful to be obliterated by time or circumstances. a lesson of humility and contempt of worldly — riches and earthly grandeur. and entitled to as if he the other privileges of the Craft in the same manner had been a regular subscribing member. it is of vital importance that the most reverential attention be paid by every brother in the Lodge during the ceremony of initiation therefore ought to preside who has not a : no one and clear enunciation is ready and reverential delivery. and and Charity. by symbolic ceremonies too important in their character ever to be forgotten. may be con- sidered eligible to be relieved in case of distress. In this degree the neophyte has impressed on his mind.

were enjoined on the is 25th chapter of Jjevitieus. And though I have the gift of prophecy and understand aU. or year of liberty. to explain the nature of . and have all faith. mysteries and knowledge. BEKEncENCE and Chaeitt. and have not charity.'' z 3 . The Divine aid in his favour is thus invoked " Vouchsafe thine aid. to the honour and glory of thy Holy Name ! So mote it he. his solemn engagements and in a manner peculiar to Masons. though he be a stranger or sojourner. when care ceased and labour fallen was suspended. The first sound the aspirant then hears : is prayer. he of thy Divine wisdom . which was to be a season of national rest. that he may live with thee. and grant that dedicate this candidate for Masonry may and devote his hfe to Brother amongst us thy service. are the distinguishing Israelites in the to require his cheerfal acquiescence to the tenets of the Order." The eminent Apostle of the CShristian Cihurch reiterates the sentiment of the Jewish legislator in the language that demonstrates this virtue to be the cementing bond of Ereemasonry. yea. "1£ thy brother be waxen poor and into decay with thee.THE ENTEEED APPEENTIOE. that by may the better be enabled to display the beauties of godliness. " Though I speak with the tongue of men and of angels. 77 that if admitted he will submit to the laws and constitutions of the Order. before the ceremony of initiation takes pui-pose place. so that I could remove mountains. which characteristics of Masonry. Almighty Father and supreme Euler of the Universe. wherein the law for the institution of ths jubilee. and have not charity." It is a duty incumbent on the Master of a Lodge. I become as sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal. festivity.) am nothing. and joy. tiiou shalt relieve him . xiii. I (1 Cor. and become a true and faithfdl Endue him with a competency the secrets of this Art. to tTiia our present convention. to inform the candidate of the and design of the Institution .

He will all not open his ear to slanderers. may find in every benevolent signification forms the basis of the clime a brother. tution. he wiU love and cherish all who it is sit beneath the broad canopy of our Universal Lodge. The destitute orphans of deceased brethren are placed in schools. but extending them throughout the globe. not alone that sentiment of com- miseration which leads us to assist the poor with pecuniary donations. and !Preemasonry has especial regard to the three stages of destitution — ^infancy. and afterwards placed in situations where their previous training will make them good and worthy members of society and for our aged brethren who have passed their lives in the practice of . mercy will ascend to Jehovai for his brother's Nor will these sentiments of beneficence be to confined to those who are bound him by ties of kindred or worldly friendship alone. or for the assistance of a is Foreign Mason whose case properly vouched for. taught. at hand. is This charity of which our Order boasts. and upon it to he erected a superstructure of all the other virtues. The true Mason will he slow to anger and easy to He will stay his falling brother by gentle admonition. they are entitled to the provisions of an Asylum and an Annuity Fund. Masonic principles. where they are brought up in the practice of religion and virtue. relief and extreme old &ge is : for all these.78 Charity is is ILLtTSTBATIONS OF FBEEMASONEX. Charity in its Masonic Institution. and will close his lips against reproach. forgive. His faults and his for follies will be locked in his and the prayer sins. when proved worthy. the chief comer-stone of our Temple. unavoidable misfortune. and fed . . and in every land a home. a large fund for immediate relief to the distressed brother or his widow and children. where they are clothed. and warn him with kindness of approaching danger. destitute and worthy. which make the good man and the good Mason. breast. that a For the boast of our insti- Mason. and in the decline of life misfortune over- takes them. there is For sudden misfortune or calamity.

the centre. gains its due effulgence in the south. Lodge. Sub- — ordinate to these great lights there are in lights. the Square. and the Master of the Lodge as the instructor of the brethren these lights from their position have also an astronomical reference. necessarily follows that sun must always be at its meridian with respect to Preemasoniy. the glorious luminary being. which by their emblematic teaching instruct man in the great duties of life. his neighbour. as showing the course of the sun. and hence. as the ruler or iHmninator of the night. who is represented by the Master of the The descriptive language is derived from the Sacred of Gieometry is highly beneficial to the free Yolume. viz. to his God. and the Compasses. principle inculcated is the perfect spirit of The first Hquality among the is brethren. according to the Copemican system. E 4 . A knowledge study. The xmiversality of Masonry illustrated by the sun. and Freemasonry being universally spread over the its surfiice. the representatives of the Masonry three lesser Sun as ruling or enlighten- ing the day . the earth constantly revolving round on its axis it .THE ENTEEED AIPEENTICE. as having its origin in an association of builders. Masons meeting on the Sqnare ought to part on the LeveL The neophyte enters the institution to seek a master. To the operative is Mason live it is an essential as Much of the teaching by geometrical rule. the Moon. which. The first objects to which the eyes of the newly admitted brother are directed are the tiiree great emblematic Ughts of Masonry. lines and accepted Mason. and sets in the west. and from hitn to gain instruction. by right and angles Masons are taught to upright lives and practise well-squared actions. A thorough make a cally knowledge of the Holy Scriptures is requisite to perfect Mason. the Volume of the Sacred Law. To use the symbolic 79 lai^nage. the construction of a Lodge is symboli- a rebuilding of the glorious Temple erected by the Grand Master. rising in the east. and himself. Eing Solomon.

unstained with sin and unsullied with vice. And he made chains as in the pillars. 15 five —17 : " He made before the house two pillars of thirty and cubits high. it is only worn when love and all harmony prevailed. and made Hierophantes or High It Priest. and the innocence of the animal admonished to preserve that from which obtained. one on the right left . and more worthy of regard than the sovereign Order of the Garter. and the name of that on the Boaz. hand. but we. use it for a more noble purpose. oracle. placed at the grand entrance.80 As on his ralities ILLTJSTEATIONS OF EBEEMASONRT. we are blameless purity of heart and conduct. as described in 2 Chron. as speculative Masons. skin. truly .: and put them on the heads of the and made an hundred pomegranates. reared And he up the piUars before the temple. apron worn by the operative Masons to preserve their garments. instituted the lamb-skin as a symbol of peace and good insisted Hence our ancient brethren on our badge being and the practice Thus.'' The badge of the Entered Apprentice Mason more valuable for its antiquity is by its whiteness a symbol of purity. Eumolpus of Thrace was at Eleusis (1350 B. which will alone enable us hereafter to present ourselves before the Grand Master of the Universe. huUding the Temple is to the curiously constructed piUars iii. and the chapiter that was on the top of each of them was five cubits. was he who will.). first admission tlie young Mason has hut gene- presented to his attention. and the ofiice remained in his family for 1200 years. the highest prized order of knighthood in the world.the only reference to the of. has been held through time to this day. or white leather apron is the first gift The lainb- bestowed by the It resembles the Master on the newly initiated apprentice. and the other on the and called the name of that left on the right hand Jachin. . initiated in the mysteries of Ceres. By the whiteness of it is its colour. and put them on the chains. and has ever been esteemed as than any other badge.C.

or symbol of conscience or man's know- ledge of his thoughts and premeditated actions. and the chisel. which should curb aU vanity ahd worldly-mindedness which interfere with that purity of heart essential to a good Mason. and honourable must be acknowledged conduces to its to be. allow of your me to congratulate you on being admitted a Ancient. labour and and service to his brother necessary refreshment." The is initiation of the Apprentice Mason being completed. supported lives The strength he gains is from the embrace he gives. no institution can E a . and divides : stone. no member doubt. Indeed. which enables man cultivate his inteRectual powers. with repose or neighbour in time of need. of our ancient and tonourable society. as it is termed.THE ENTEEED APPEENTICB. asserted. it immemorial . he then further instructed in Masonic requirements with the : following charge Beothee. These are used to measure his work. As you have now passed through the ceremonies initiation. the hammer. which throughout the whole human scheme are ever presented to view — prayer to the . it is 81 more ancient than the Eoman Eagle or Gtolden Meece. " Man. and thus fit hiTn for society. to knock off all superfluities. The speculative Mason by the 24-inch rule he measures the it in portions for the three great duties of Ufe. is a The stone-mason's hammer. The jSrst tools put into the hand of the young operative Mason are the 24-inch rule. and to smoothen the surface of the morally uses them thus natural day. like the generous vine. as having subsisted from time it is. because by a natui-al tendency it make all those honom-able who are strictly obedient to precepts. Most High. The chisel is an to emblem of the advantages of education. gavel.

have not thought it derogatory from their dignity to exchange . I am any next to enjoin you to be civil duties. but with that awe and reverence which are due from the creature to his Creator . ia similar cases. . corporeal and mental faculties in their fbllest energy thereby enabling you to exert the talents wherewith God has blessed you. as to the welfiire of your fellowcreatures. by never prohave a ten. every emergency for comfort and support. and to yourselE To God. and by looking up to To your neighbour. or at all countenancing. As a Mason. And by such a prudent and well-regulated course of discipline. and even joined in our assemblies. the sceptre for the trowel have patronized our mysteries. boast a more solid foundation than that on which Freemasonry rests — ^the practice of social its credit and moral virtue : and to so high an eminence has been advanced. protection by never losing sight of the allegiance due to the . exemplary in the discharge of your posing. and by doing to him.82 IIITTSTEATIONS OF rEEEMASONEX. and to regulate your actions by the divine precepts it contains. to yourself. Therein you will be taught the important duties you owe to God. you would wish he should do to you. by imploring his aid TTinn in on all your lawful undertaJdngs. or afford you and above all. distresses and soothing his afflictions . as may best conduce to the preservation of your . I would consider it first recommend to your : most serious contemplation the volume of the Sacred Law charging you to as the unerring standard of truth and justice. as. by never mentioning his name. to your neighbour. as well to his glory. that in every age monarohs themselves have become the promoters of the Art. As a citizen of the world. by acting with him upon the square by rendering Tii-m every kind ofSce which justice or mercy may require by relieving his . act that may dency to subvert the peace and good order of society due obedience to the laws of any state which by paying for a may its time become the place of your residence.

by a strict observance of to the ancient extort. or . honour on our choice. 83 Sovereign of your native land . never improperly to reveal any of those Masonic any to fiiture all secrets which have now been. as a Mason. those truly Masonic ornaments. So must your Obedience be proved by a dose conformiiy our laws and regulations . and Obedience. the secrets of a superior degree and by refraining to recommend any one to a reflect participation of our believe that secrets.THE ENTEEED AJPEENTICE. which have already been amply illustiated. the constitutions of the Fraternity by adhering landmarks of the Order. ever remembering that nature has implanted in your breast a sacred and indissoluble attacbment to that country from which you derived your birth and infant nurture. Let Prudence direct you! Temperance chasten you! Fortitude support you! and Justice be the guide of all your actions. or may at time be. to maintain. and cautiously occasions which shun might inadvertently lead you so to do. may be peculiarly and forcibly Among may be the foremost of these are. by never attempting to otherwise unduly obtain. Secrecy. Tour Fidelity must be exemplified . Still. to by prompt attention to all signs and by modest and correct demeanour whilst in the by abstaining from every topic of religious or poKtical discussion. in their fiillest Be especially careftil splendour. I am ftirther to recommend the practice of every domestic as well as public virtue. entrusted to your keeping . and by perfect submission to the E 6 . Secrecy said to consist in an inviolable adherence to the obligation you have entered into. unless you have strong grounds to he will ultimately by a similar fidelity. Fidelity. however. by ready acquiescence in all votes and resolutions summonses . Benevolence and Charity. there are other exceUencies of character to which your attention directed. duly passed by the brethren . Lodge . As an individual.

the first degree. the sentiments of each member on any either to the Craft generally or the particular Lodge. as a recommendation. and a supplication to the same high ficence Power that He will by his bene- continue his support to the Order. you would consider yourself called upon to make a daily advance- ment in Masonic knowledge. Havmg illustrated the ceremony of opening and closing the on those occasions. And. by cementing its them with all the Divine EEMAEKS ON THE FIEBT LECTTEE. "Whatever business ever degree the may have been entered upon. useful to mankind. Mason his share in the proceedings of the meeting solicits and the Master invariably point of interest.8i Master and ILLTTSTEATIOKS OE I'EBEMASONET. sciences that. Ms Wardens. let me exhort you to dedicate yourself to such pursuits as at once respectable iu your rank of may enable you to become life. and inserted the Prayers and Charges usually rehearsed in our regular assemblies on a disquisition of the different Sections of the Lectui-es which . and an ornament to the Society of which you have this day been admitted a member . last general whilst acting in tte discharge of their respective offices. that you would more especially devote your leisure hours to the study of such of the liberal arts and . as may lie within the compass of your attainment and without neglecting the ordinary duties of your station. we shall now enter Lodge. the in order to give the Apprentice . or in whichfinal close is in Lodge may have been opened. love and unity. adorning members in virtues. and all offering concludes the meeting by one and up their thanks to the Great Architect of the Universe for favours received.

particulars to . which the Section By these means industrious Mason will be better instructed in the regular arrangement of the Lectures. but com- municate useful and interesting knowledge when they are duly investigated. . will be found to carry weight with them. of the propriety of our rites strates to the sceptical whilst it demon- and hesitating mind their excellence and utility. Here we are taught such wise for a regular . us. which. qualify us to try and examine the rights of others to our privileges. though they be short and simple. It consists of general beads. and the duties of moralily are strictly enforced. are appropriated to the three Degrees of the. The First Section of this Lecture is suited to all capacities. virtue is painted in the most beauti&l colours. beyond the power of . contradiction.THE ENTEEED APPEENTIOE. and each Section subdivided into Clauses. They not only They serve as marks of distinction. and be enabled with more ease to acquire a competent knowledge of the Art. which are more amply explained in the following The Second didates into Section makes us acquainted with the and convinces peculiar forms and ceremonies which are adopted at the initiation of can- Masonry most . and useftJ lessons as prepare the principles of knowledge mind advancement in the and philosophy and these are imprinted on the memory by lively and sensible images. well calculated to influence our conduct in the proper discharge of the duties of social life. while they demonstrate our own claim and as they induce us to inquire minutely into other particulars of greater importance. they serve as a proper introduction to subjects Sections. The is First Lecture is divided into Sections. and may. Order brief sninmary of the whole. Li tbis Lecture. and ought to be known by every person who wishes to rank as a Mason. 85 ^ving a the and annexiiig to every Semark the alludes.

The Fourth Section accompany a feithfiil rationally accounts for the origin of our hieroglyphical instruction. certain particulars. Masons have. also. at the same time. indeed.86 The ILLUSXEATIONS OF rEEEMASONBT. allegoiicaUy described as the three principal staves of the Masonic ladder. and can be more expressly required by our general laws. and points out the advantages which observance of our duty. daily progress in the To make Art is a constant duty. memory serious and solemn truths. It illustrates. to which. they bear a near affinity. hope. as Masons. from whom they might not receive due veneration. Those philosophers. It illustrates. . the symbolic pillars is by which the Lodge supported. strikes the eye more immediately engages the and imprints on the therefore. universally adopted the plan of inculcating the tenets of their Order by typical figures and allegorical emblems. we are indispensably bound to know. and the moral virtues of faith. and expressed their notions of government by signs and symbols. and charity. proves the regularity of our initiation. and which. concealed their particular tenets and principles of polity and philosophy under hieroglyphical figures . which they communicated to their Magi alone. Tliird Section. and inculcates those necessary and instructive duties which dignify our character in the double capacity of Men and Masons. our ignorance of which might lead us into error. by tte reciprocal oomimmication of our marks of distinction. to prevent their mysteries from descending within the familiar reach of inattentive and unprepared novices. The usages and customs of Masons have ever corresponded with those of the ancient Egyptians. What end noble than the pursuit of virtue P what motive more alluring than the practice of justice ? or what instruction more beneficial than an accurate elucidation of symbols which tend to improve and embellish the mind? Every thing that attention. unwilling to expose their mysteries to vulgar eyes.

Here. deriTJng it. and our jewels and furniture is while a proper attention patron. our ornaspecified ments are displayed. I AM. too. and opinion and conciliates true friend- 1 Pythagoras used the triangle as a symhol to administer the oath of secrecy. paid 'to our ancient and venerable To explain the subjects treated in this Section. and assist the industrious Mason to acquire them. as every character. but the most figure. we can only recommend a punctual attendance on the duties of the Lodge. is Masonry. doubtless. from the Jews. species as one fiimily. .. in the most engaging manner. as a perfect symhol. not only the most ancient. the high and low.. however. . support. . and to cha- enforces. 87 Pythagoras Ms system on a similar plan. This Section forcibly inculcates the most instructive lessons. The Sixth racter Section strengthens those which precede. On this principle . who were bound hy oaih^ seems to have established never to reveal them.. • . and ever shall be. Relief. and teaches us to discharge with propriety the duties of the different departments which we axe appointed tq sustain in the government of the Lodge. as children of the same Parent. • lettered name YHVH. The Pifth Section explains the nature and principles of our Institution.THE ENTEEED ABPEENTIOE. and a diligent application to the lessons which are there inculcated. in public as well as well as in the general life. Masonry unites men of every country. each side answering to the four- . in the Lodge commerce of society. the rich and poor who. a due regard as in private and behaviour. —^By the exercise of IBrotTierly Love we taught to regard the whole human . sect. tends to inculcate the practice of virtue on those and emblem depicted in the Lodge has a moral meaning. who used this form. and inhabitants of the same planet. and protect each other. and Truth are themes on which we are here expatiate. Brotlierly Love. are to aid. was. and who behold it. and many Orders of a more recent date have copied the example. moral Institution that ever subsisted .

subject him to the contempt of all good Masons. and restore peace to the troubled mind. sin- cerity and plain-dealing distinguish us while the heart and tongue join in promoting the general welfere. paui. deceit are this principle. Temperance the is passions which renders the body tame and governable. and.Fortitude is that noble and steadypurposeof the soul. Poetitudb. and rejoicing in each other's prosperity. hypocrisy unknown . man to undergo necessary. tliose wlio sHp among though to it is migM otherwise have remained at a per. Tempeeance. equally distant from rashness and cowai-dioe. dictates On and this theme we contemplate. in the Lodge. Peudbnce. Seliefis the next tenet of the profession and men. who are linked together by an indissoluble chain of sincere affection. and the foundation of is every virtue. To be good and true the first lesson we by are its taught in Masonry. this basis is the grand aim of the true Mason. and that due restraint upon our affections and Justice. On he establishes his friendships. and by Influenced endeavour to regulate our conduct. as he thereby taught to avoid excess. consequently. To this illustration succeeds an explanation of the four cardinal virtues. teaches us to regulate our lives and actions by the . and forms his con- nexions. relieve the distressed is a duty inoumbent on all more particularly so on Masons. any labour. compassionate misery. or when thought By fortitude we Prudence are taught to resist temptation and encounter danger with finnness and resolution.88 ILLTJSTBATIONS OP FEEEMASONET. petual distance. it enables a difficulty. alleviate misfortune. danger. or contract any licentious or vicious habit. the indulgence of which might lead him to disclose some of those valuable secrets which he has promised to conceal and never reveal. and vice. To soothe calamiiy. frees mind from the allurements of That virtue should be is the constant practice of every Mason. Truth is a divine attribute.

So. lawless force would overcome the principles of equity. which is nsefol in exigencies. and level them with the most ignorant . or a sceptre the hand. an uniformity of opinion. and social intercourse no longer exist. may impmr their faculties. the chief jewel that can adorn the human &ame. and better t^a-" senator. and that without dis- This virtue is not only consistent with divine and moral law. by nature. Justice is that station or boundary of right which teaches us to render to every tinction. and promotes tie. as the practice of justice in a great measure constitutes the real good man. universal confdsion woxild ensue. 89 and is that habit of mind by which men wisely judge on happiness. exposed to infirmity and disease. man is his just due. love and esteem. no invidious distinctions exist merit being always respected. it therefore. they are. teristic of all things relative to their temporal and eternal It should therefore be the distinguishing charac- every Eree and Accepted Mason. but sodety. strengthens the ties of friendship. . artist — is no ^The statesman. due.THE ENTEEED APPEENTICE. that of the meanest subject. and that an unforeseen misfortune. On this virtue all others depend. The explanation of these virtues is accompanied with some general observations on the equality observed among Masons. the and the are there taught that. dictates of reason. and honour rendered to whom honour is — ^A Ving in the Lodge is reminded that. but be just and upright in things. Influenced by the same principle. is. and pleasing in familiar life. Masons are brethren by a double and among them. as brothers. likewise the standard and cement of civil "Without the exercise of justice. although a crown may veins adorn the head. In the Lodge no estrangement of behaviour is discovered. it ought to be the invariable habit of every Mason never from it to deviate all in the smallest way. equally with others. uni- versally prevails. the blood in the is derived from the common parent of mankind. or a disordered frame.

and beauty of the soul. harmony. the private . and indtes courtesy of beof inferior talents. Every approach towards this standard is . — ^In perusing the records of ancient Eome. Yvrtue. the public with justice. in the hadge of innocence and trace bond of Mendship. the health. to wisdom and follow virtue. and just balance of affection. when they discover them volunand conare of a tarily divested of the trappings of external grandeur. the integrity. with in a temperance. Virtue true nobility. that the Consul MarceUus intended to erect a temple to be dedicated both to Virtue and Honour. axe instructed to regard iheir superiors with peculiar esteem . assisted is by those who rank beneath them. an elucidation of the two The Seventh and last Section is denominations of Masons. and the whole of them with prudence that is. —^Men who are noi? placed by fortune in such exalted stations. and he afterwards founded two temples. but was for a time prevented carrying the project into execution. and Operative. descending.90. Smowt.. due proportion to each other. with an examin2. havionr. ILLUSTEATIOirS OF rEEEMASONET. to exercise tbe defensive talents with fortitude. and we find ViETUE. thereby leaving an ex- Honour was through that cellent moral to posterity. perfection of Virtue is to give dictates of conscience The Eeason its fall scope. or of tkeir species. every Free and Accepted Mason. with a calm and diffusive benevolence. and channel by which Virtue Virtue only is directed Wisdom is the and conveyed Wisdom and . to obey the with alacrity. strength. so situate. mark distinction among Masons. and to acquiesce in all the dispensations of Divine Providence with cheerful resignation.tion in detail of the points which peculiarly mark the former . the only avenue to the temple of of Virtue. to love and adore our Creator with sincerity. and concluding with the of what is following illustration characteristics of and ought to be the distinguishing viz. Vvrtue is the highest exercise and improvement of reason. Free and Accepted. This checks pride. 2£ercy.

to do an ill the one considering vice as beneath him. As . the characteristics of a Mason. as it implies the united sentiments of Paith. adds a biilliancy to every gem adorns his crown it gives glory to his ministers. the maTi of honour scorns. when enthroned. shield of on whose bench. ajid 91 a step towards pezfedioii leads to vice happiness .. although a fer beyond the moral from obligations which the laws of our country which produces similar require. the other as offensive to the Deity forbidden. and we good men. HoiroiTB is of the sonl which Virfcae can inspire and the actions of all good as it renders unneces- men are regnlated by Honour. a deviation there&om and misery. the other as that which is Thus Honour may be justiy considered the noblest branch that can spring from the glorious stoci of virtue . terminate in the Eeligion embraces Yirtue as it is enjoined same point. inasmuch sary the forms that are found requisite to bind those destitute of this refined principle. and he forgives where he might with strict justice resent. Thus "Virtue and Honour united have hitherto been. THE ENTEEED APPEEHTICE. for a man it of honour will not content himself with a literal discharge of his duty as a man and a citizen. or can punish the violation o£ Bfiligion. for the lines of action. : Honour religious as it is gracefol and ornamental to human nature the act man fears. but he exalts and dignifi es to magnanimity: he gives where he might with propriety refuse. If posthat trust will continue to be. is that different principle effects . . and Justice. It is the companion of true honour and the ameliorator of justice. . the one as unbecoming. she interposes a defence on behalf of the victim impenetrable to the sword. although differentiy drawn. Truth. Meect sessed has ever been held sacred by it all by a monarch. and an un- ceasing freshness to the wreath which decks the warrior's brow. the most manly and dignified sentiment or impulse . carried by an enlightened mind Honour. who are It Is also the highest in- centive to the performance of the most heroic and disinterested actions. by the laws of Gkid.

by its warmth restores perverse nature to its original source in purer streams. on whom the best as well as the wisest of us must rest his hopes and dependence. Masons cannot elevate themselves in the scale of intellectual beings. for they shall obtain mercy. better to and become members of society. connected with the the by a strict attention to and the principles of Truth and Virtue fail which are inculcated in the Lecture. laugh. comprehends the whole of the First Degree. and although justice may demand the doom. when exhilarating its vital fluids are condensed by revenge. our wine has a spring Here's a health to an Accepted Mason. so Mercy. resting on the heart of man. but at the final day of retribution. when summoned this life before God's awfcd tribunal. and sing . let us hope His mercy will avert the awful Such is the arrangement of the Sections in the First Lecture. which. let us prepare. including the forms adopted at opening ajid closing the Lodge. Come." not only in this transitory life. fiat. SONGS APPEOPEIATE TO THE ENTEEBD APPKBNTICE. and that tenets of the Order. It is the chief attribute of that Deity. forgiveness is are told that highly pleasing in the sight of our Creator we " blessed are the merci&l. is it will be apparent that the cause of Freemasonry best interests of mankind. On taking a retrospective view of this Lecture. when the actions done in are unfolded to view. To show mercy and . we Brothers for that ai-e Assembled on meiry occasion. To drink. the vernal showers descend from heaven to enliven and invigorate the vegetahle world. .92: ILLUSTEATI0K3 OF PEEEMASONET.

and make themselves one With a Free and an Accepted Mason. they cannot teU what.THE ENTEEID APPEENTICE. And TiU still let they're them wonder and gaze on shown the Light. The world is 93 in pain. We're true and and just to the fair. The name of an Accepted Mason. Our myst'ry to put a good grace on And thought themselves !Free &med to hear themselves named With a and an Accepted Mason. . . 'tis and that. dukes. from the king on the To bim that is meanest of station. Antiquity's pride we have on our side. If he can contend to have lawfully gain'd throne. Who will trust us on any occasion No mortal can more the ladies adore Than a Free and an Accepted Mason. merry and put a bright fiice on 1 Chorus J 3 times. To keep up our old reputation There's nought but what's good to he understood By a Free and an Accepted Mason. have laid hy their swords. What mortal can boast so noble a toast As a Free and an Accepted Mason ? Hebe's a health to each one. our secrets to gain. sincere. and lords. Then join hand in hand. theyTl ne'er know the right Word or 'Tis this. Great kings. by each Brother firm Let's be stand. of the nation Nor why the great men Should aprons put on. sign of an Accepted Mason.

disarm. What's true or false in the relation Let's drink his health round that is secret And a Paithfttl and Accepted Mason. and on heaven rely For strength to support the occasion With the blessing of pray'r he banishes fear. . It is ancienter far than other arts are. he cannot perceive How he Then lie'U came to be made a Freemason. His eyes cannot search out the way of his march. Though empires they have If void of the fame of that noblest of names. kings are poor empty things. their wonder raised To see such concurring relation : Among us they cry.94 The IlItrSTEATIOlTS OF glories of rEEEMASONET. The devil is nigh When one is accepted a Mason. But let them say on. is And undaunted made a Freemason. Surpassing all other profession There's none can pretend to discover a fiiend Like a !Pree and an Accepted Mason. A Free and an Accepted Mason. to us 'tis well known and sound. in possession. Nor yet where his steps he must place on When him we receive. danger defy. Just straight from his home see yon candidate come. Prepared for the time and occasion Of all that can harm we wiH him That he no ways may hurt a Preemason. is The world is amazed.

95 When ie makes Ms demand. by the Master's command. by the help of the square. Now. To know if he's fit ior the station. that workmen Ton are going to make a Freemason.THE ETTTEEED APPEEKTICE. To illumine the works which we on view And now. ere he get what he sought From a Free and an Accepted Mason. while to him are rehearsed The mysteries of a Freemason. The emblem of truth and of reason. Trusty Brother. ! When a Lodge of Freemasons are cloth'd in their aprons. In form he is placed. as his due. take 'Tis a just care. are plying their station While CraflBmen The Deacons do stand right for the command Of a Free and an Accepted Mason. and his officers too. may know The Master stands due. of eaves-droppers beware. and a solemn occasion Give the word and the blow. he's cloth'd in With the badge of an Accepted Mason. Tti order to make a new Brother. Then ftdl in his sight doth shine the grand trace full light. With firm hearts and clean hands they repair to their stands. . When girded with care. hark we enlarge on the duties and charge. Where his conduct and walk he must place on Then a bumper well fill. Aronnd he is hronght. And justly support one another. and show our good wiQ To a Free and an Accepted Mason.

your ground. first Now traverse And revere Of the Here Here That leads to the way. Be just. and lines. the Craft and the both duty and choice in a Mason. In this form of our high instaUation to Tet I challenge a man know what I mean. our utmost we'U try Lodges for lady Freemasons. their hearing still. The ladies claim right to come into our is light. and kind bear in mind At all times that you are a Treemason. Can they subject their will. Hieroglyphics shine bright. Unless he's an Accepted Mason. here are signs. To To TUl secuie us on sundry occasions When with this they raise comply. this can be done. are words. fair must each Brother be mum. as in duty you're bound.96 ILLirSTEATIONS OF rEBBMASONET. they say. here are problems And room virtue too for deep speculation and truth are taught to the youth is When first he bound to a Mason. . What's said or is done is here truly laid down. and proves the light of an Accepted ray Mason. King. true. but still Though the ' one should wheedle and teaze on . can they keep their tongues And This let talking be changed into hearing ? difficult task is the least we can ask. Since the apron. and light reverts light On 'Tis the rules and the tools of vocation We work and we sing. the authentic oration.

" Thns lie showed me and behold the Lord stood upon a wall made by a plumb-line. science. : A Behold. THE SECOND DEGEEE. MASOlfET is a progressive science. what seest thou ? And I said. the philosopber and mathe- matician may experience equal satis&ction and delight. or degrees. 8. but the may man of more enlarged faculties nseftil will consider them in the highest degree and interesting. and the man of wisdom wiU not check the progress of his abilities. however. talents. And the Lord said unto me^ Amos. and is divided into different classes. I will set a plnmb-line in the midst of my people Israel : I will not pass by them any more. with a plumb-line in his hand. F . the institution well suited.CHAPTER XI. which oompreiend a regular of its illustrations system of virtne and Many appear unimportant to the confined genius. we attain to a lesser or greater degree of perfection. To please the accomplished scholar and is ingenious artist. To exhaust the various subjects of which Masonry : treats. plumb-line. 7. According to the progress we make. in proportion to onr we limit or extend onr inqniries. for the more regular advancement in the knowledge of its mysteries. and in the investigation of its latent doctrines. would transcend the powers of the brightest genius still. OE FELLOW-CEAPT. nearer approaches to perfection may be made. Then said the Lord. and. polite learning Masonry inclndes almost every branch of under the veil of its mysteries." Amos vii.

the Second Degi'ee extends the plan. to qualify the industrious to share the pleasm'es sarily affords. and the intellectual faculties promoting the glory of God and the good of mankind. under a solemn promise of secrecy. the experienced men on important mind of the Craftsis man is gradually familiai-ized to useful instruction. and also what Ereemasonry was. and comprehends a more diffiisive system of knowledge. and imprint on the memory the noblest principles which can adorn the human mind. with proofs. DEffEEE. it Perseverance and application will remove each difficulty as occurs . entrusted with a password to enable him to present himself at the portal of a EeUow-Craft's Lodge. and he soon enabled to investigate truths of the utmost concern in the general transactions of life. he then. inquiries. The First Degree being intended to enforce the duties of morality. is any other method of proof deemed necessary. the tendency op am the iiLtrsTEATioifs isr EKVBEBNCE EOE THE DEITY AND GEATITTTDE TOE BLESSINGS OF HEAVEN AEB INCULCATED IN ETEEY is This is the plan of our system and the result of our The Entered Apprentice duly ration for being initiated. The candidate having or satisfactorily replied to these inquiries. Such THE MASONET.98 ILIUSTEATIONS OE PEEEMASONET. though the task he attempts may at first seem insunnountahle. new pleasures will open to his view. his knowledge of what he had been entrusted with. While the . and instruction of the noblest Hnd attend his researches. Prom this system proceeds a rational amusement. Mason which an advancement in the art neces- Listening with attention to the opinions of subjects. Practice and theory are united. every step he advances. qualified by time is thus in open Lodge required to undergo an examination as to his prepa- when and where he underwent the ceremony. are wisely employed in In the diligent pursuit of knowledge great discoveries are made.

The Fellow Craft. .


OK EELLOW-CEATT. and angles of their work. and that bear in progression by it is equally his duty to mind and practise the moral virtues inculcated in the First Degree. and grant that the work to be done in thy glory. and as this degree pariicnlaily devoted to science. and to adjust with precision the edges. O Lord. The Master then admonishes him on the which he had been advanced. to enlighten us in the paths of nature and of science. a continuance of thy Divine aid in behalf of the brother who now kneels before Thee .THE SECOITD DEQEEE. if So mote be- On he is the Entered Apprentice being admitted into the Lodge. Their operative and speculative uses are thus described is an important implement to operative Masons. as well as those demonstrative sciences which are the objects of the Second Degree. mental powers are folly employed. and estimate the wondrous works of the Almighty Creator. and thus assist in bringing rude matter into due form. name be continued to thy So Tnote it he. directed is by the Master to kneel while the blessing of Heaven thus invoked : " We supplicate. vies is 99 properly a spirit of emulation prevails. The p 2 . by it they are enabled to correct the errors of the eye. : the blessing of the Creator is thus invoked " We supplicate the Grand Geometrician of the Universe that the rays of Heaven may shed their benign influence over us. During the Lodge of Fellow-Crafts is opened. sides. The working The Square for tools of a Craftsman are then presented to him. that he may be the better enabled to discharge his duties as a Mason. and every brother Insti- who shall most excel in promoting the design of the candidate's ahsence a is tution. tte judgment exercised." The brother who has been admitted into the Second Degree is informed by the Master that as a Craftsman he is expected to make the liberal arts and sciences his fiitore study.

and zeaL The Second Degree devoted to science. and whUe they continue to act as PeUow-Craft Masons. it is to be observed. The Level is an instrument hy which Masons' work is adjusted in the same line or plane. or Master Mason's Degree was an ordination of the New Covenant. particularly The lessons or instructions in the First Degree are entirely given to piety. and that the Third. nor shall a higher degree be confeiTed on any brother at a less interval than four weeks from his receiving a previous degree. The Lodge in this degree is closed by the Master exhorting is the brethren to remember wherever they are. the aU-seeing eye of the Grand Geometrician that ever over all." The Lecture of this degree is divided into five Sections. upright intentions. morality. work in true horizontal The Plvmb is an instrument made use of for the purpose cS erecting perpendicular lines. To the speculative Mason the square teaches morality. the beauties of which. and actions: and thus hy square conduct. whatever they do. In the Second Degree the Craftsman's attention is directed to the study of science. and brotherly love. and we hope to ascend to those immortal mansions whence all goodness emanates. are by degrees unfolded to his view in the Many Masons are of opinion this degree completed ancient Jewish Masonry. and stones are fitted their destined positions. — ^the life level equality. and the wonders of nature and Lectures. art. " No Lodge shall confer more than one degree on any brother on the same day.100 IlLUSTEATIOira OP TEEEMASOITEX. or to try and adjust all uprights while fixing on their proper hasis. they must discharge their duties with fervency is. The Booh of Constitutions declares. nor until he has passed an examination in open Lodge in that degree. and . or to lay the level. and the pT/wmh justness and uprightness of level steps. nicest joints are "witt accuracy to by fill its means adjusted.

as your own experience must have established their value. Besides the ceremony of passing to the Second Degree. and convinces him of the necessity of adhering to all the established usages of the Order.THE SECOND DEfiEEB. It may be sufficient to observe. will consequently improve in As you It is increase in knowledge. and in your new character it is erpected that you wiU not only conform to the principles of the Order. him to judge of the importance of those rites. the following charge was delivered to the Craftsman on passing this degree : Beothbe. as wiU always distinguish the talents of able Craftsmen. and to trace the goodness his works. mod^ of introduction into this class and instructs the diligent Craftsman how to proceed in the proper arrangement of the It enables ceremonies which are used on that occasion. Formerly. we congratulate you on your preferment. well-informed brethren. that your past behaviour and regular deportment have merited the honour which we have conferred . the whole are devoted to 101 human sdenoe. but steadily persevere in the practice of every virtue. with which no of the Lodge should be unacquainted. and not the external. are what Masonry regards. qualifications of a man. to prove his tTiis title to the privileges of for ttieir origin. are illustrated. F 3 . and satisfactory reasons are given The which cement. unnecessary to recapitulate the duties which. social intercourse. Here he is entrusted with particular tests. you are now bound to discharge . and majesty of the Creator by minutely analyzing The First Section of the Second Degree elucidates the . as a Mason. this Section contains officer many important particulars. or enlarge on the necessity of a strict adherence to them . and an opportunity is given to make such advances in the Art. Being advanced to the Second Degree of the Order. you The internal. in the firmest union. OE FELLOW-CEAPT. degree duties .

inasmuch as they consist with our professed principles. you are to preserve our ancient usages . arts. you are duly to honour. . is ear- nestly recommended to your consideration especially the science of Geometry. You are to encourage industry and reward merit of brethren ability . judge with candour. which is established as the basis of our Art. you may offer your sentiments and opinions on such subjects as are regularly introduced in the Lecture. in the decision of every trespass against our rules. the offences of your brethren. to hold them in due veneration. As the solemnity of our ceremonies requires a serious deportment. and punctually obey. and view their interest as insepai-able from your own. or aggravate. Tke study of the Kberal that valuable branch of education. and customs sacred and inviolable and induce others. qualify yourself to become an useful member of society. you are to be particularly attentive to your behaviour in our regular assemblies . in our private assemblies As a Craftsman. or Masonry. superintendence of an who will guard the landmarks against encroachment. Geometry. given and received. strive to excel in what is good and great. The laws and regulations of the Order you are strenuously to support and maintain^ You are not to palliate. and enriched with the is of a most useftil knowledge. . friendship. admonish with and reprehend with mercy. divine and moral nature. by your example. •which tends so effectually to polish and adorn the mind. demonstrates the more important truths of morality. to the utmost of your power and and on no account to wrong them. All regular signs and summonses. . "Whilst it it proves the wonderful properties of nature. but. originally synonymous terms. and.102 ILLTTSTEATIONS OT lEllMASONEX. under the experienced Master. but timely to apprise them of approaching danger. or see them wronged. By this privilege you may improve your in- tellectual powers. like a skilful brother. supply the wants and relieve the necessities and fellows.

Here we find employment . Such is the nature of your engagements these duties you are abserve. He is recorded to have made many physical discoveries. and when in S^ypt taught the people how to measure the pyramids. having their landmarks yearly destroyed by the inundations of the Nile. superficial. or solid. as a Craftsman . who is enumerated among the Seven Wise Men. The various as they will is operations of the mind are demonstrated. as &r admit of elucidation. by the most sacxed ties. the mind is is filled with rapture and delight. we may rank as the first natural philosopher. and a fimd of extensive sdence throughout. contemplate with admiration the won- works of the Creator. at Miletus iu Ionia. but without any proof that they were more of Geometers than Astronomers. Thales. . science explored . He deterr 4 . The history of the rise of this science. Thales. 103 and to now bound. to the erperienced artist and the sage moralist. The Second the Section of this degree presents an ample field for man of genius to perambulate. fications for and explains the preferment in each. Geometry the science which investigates the relations ex- isting between parts of space. being obliged to invent the art of land-surveying in order to preserve the memory of the bounds of property. toric evidence of the knowledge We bom have no his- and practice of this science by any people earlier than the Gtreeks. of Phoenician parents. It cursorily specifies the requisite quali- particular classes of the Order. by the Egyptians. with all powers and properties and in the disquisition of this science. Gfeometry displayed.THE SECOND DEGEEEj OB PELLOTr-OEAET. many remarks are introduced. travelled in pursuit of knowledge. He founded the earliest school for Geometry and Astronomy. In the explanation of our which are equally usefiil usages. by drawing the is attention to the derful its sum of perfection. whether linear. for leisure hours trace from its original source and. is transmitted to us by tradition.

our admiration cited. every flower that displays and beauties or breathes its sweets. beauty. The symmetry. order.104 ILLXrSTEATIOIfS 01' TEEEMASONET. for it is God's creation. and the on which the structure of Freemasonry is erected. Cyrus and Alyattes were engaged in one of his sayings : —" The most ancient of things He after." died about B. we are equally struck mth astonishment. Pythagoras. and every insect which wings way in the bounds of expanded space. is the first and noblest of sciences.C. is justly exits Every plant that grows. dicted the great eclipse He pre- which took pla^ when the armies of battle. gave Geometry the form of he was followed by other eminent men. affords instruction delight. Diogenes records existing is is God. When we extend our views to the animal creation. Every blade of grass which covers the its field. how exalted is our conception of the heavenly work ! The . 548. every flower that blows. and yields pleasure to the intelligent mind. When we bring within the focus of the eye the variegated oaxpet of the terrestrial creation. The contemplation of sive this science in a moral and comprehen- view fills the mind with rapture. displayed in the various and inanimate creation are pleasing and de- and naturally lead to the source whence the whole is derived. among particularly whom may be more Geometry named Plato and Euclid. and when we trace the linesof Geometry drawn by the Divine pencil in the beautiful plumage of the feathered tribe. and parts of animate lightful themes. and contem- plate the varied clothing of every species. and fixed the length of the year at 365 days. for He is uncreated . proves the existence of a First Cause. The mathebasis matical works of the latter are in use to this day. surrounded afford ample the regions of matter with which he scope for his admiration. and survey the progress of the vegetative system. mined the magnitude of the sun to be 720 times that of the moon. some few years a science . while they open a sublime field for his inquiry and disquisition. is To the true Geometrician. the most beautiftil thing the Uni- verse.

THE SECOND DEGEEE. and explores fossils. and directs his atten- tion to the wonders of the deep. contemplation. as far as they exceed till. the wisdom. to her most concealed recesses. then. When he exalts his view to the more noble and elevated parts of Nature. on which he fondly dwells while the symmetry tints. his pride lost in awful admiration. with all the inhabitants of the ocean. the moon. his astonishment ! how much greater is I^ on the principles of Cieometry and true philosophy. The scales of the largest whale. OE FELtOW-CEAFT. When he descends into the bowels of the earth. Intelligence. every gem and every pebble proclaims the handy-work of an Almighty Creator. bodies. and the infinite number of fibres and vessels which run through the whole. and which continues to govern the system. 105 admirable stmctare of plants and animals. and he finds the same mstanees of Divine wisdom and goodness displayed in their formation and structure . he contemplates the sun. When mighly he surveys the watery element. who. human comprehension. through her various windings. and surveys the celestial orbs. a perpetual subject of study to the true Geometrician . and the whole concave of heaven. and. shell of the most diminutive equally yield a theme for his . he perceives emblems of the same Supreme and the pencilled fish. evince to his of their formation. By it we discover the power. minerals. the regularity and rapidity of and the vast extent of space through which they move. while he adverts to the changes which all undergo in their progress to maturity. the kingdom of ores. By GSeometry. is lost in rapture and veneration of the Great Cause that produced the whole. lost in the immensity of the theme. are equally inconceivable baffle his . most daxing ambition. we curiously trace Nature. the stars. he sinks into his primitive insignificance. with is the apt disposition of one part to another. is humbled. and the delicacy of the discerning eye the wisdom of the Divine Artist. and the goodness of the Great P 5 . and he is The immense magnitude of those their motions.

and are all conducted by the same unerring law. The Second Section concludes with of the six days' work of Creation : this eloquent illustration 'When we consider that the formation of the Universe. and the variety of scenes which each season displays to the discerning eye. He distinguished it by a name.106 ILLTTSTEATIOlfS OP rEEEMASONBT. and demonstrate their various revolutions. The Almighty. . produced works which have been the admiration of every age. and study symmetry and order. This gave rise to sodeties. and caused this world was the work of that Divine Being who created the beautifdl system of all nature to be under his supreme command. Artificer of tlie Umverse. and the dai'kness He called night. the second period was employed in laying the foundation of the Heavens. was pleased to it be six days in commanding first perfection. how ought we to magnify and adore his Holy for his goodness to the children of Name men ! Before the Almighty was pleased to command this vast whole into existence. In order to keep this new-framed matter within just limits. By it we acconnt for the return of seasons. improved by experience and time. calling the light day. planets By it we discover how the move in their different orhits. and the Spirit of God moved on the surface of as tlie waters. which roll through the vast expanse. and the observation portions. A survey of Nature. an example to mam that things of from chaos to moment The should be done with due deliberation. Numberless worlds are around us. and architect The began to design . and -new with delight the proportions which coimect this vast machine. aJl framed by the same Divine Artist. first determined of her beautiful pro- man to imitate the Divine plan. darkness was on the face of the gi-eat deep. the elements and materials of the Creation lay blended together without form or distinction. was made manifest this by commanding Being pleased with new operation. birth to every useful art. and the plans which he laid down. instance of his supreme power light. which He called firmament.

word. And the they were ordained for signs. as yet. And here we may plainly perceive the wisdom. He produced what efiiects He pleased without the aid of natural causes. such as giving light to the world before He had created the sun. were — ^the sun to rule the day. 107 designed to keep those waters whici were within the clouds. and the sacred historian informs us moon to govern the night. shrubs. OB FELLOW-CEAET. and making the earth firuitful without the influence of the heavenly bodies. multiplied exceedingly after their kind. He did not create the beasts of the field until He had provided them with sufficient herbage F 6 . grass. irregular. and others for their melodious notes. which of the on the which dry He called earth. third period those waters retreat of were commanded into due limits land appeared. power. and the reptiles that crawl on the earth. caused the birds to fly in the air. On the fourth period those two grand luminaries. for days and years. and was immediately covered with a beautiful carpet of Trees. and perfection. variety of fish for our use reverential and in order to imprint on man a awe of his Divine omnipotence. On the . On the sixth period He created the beasts of the field. his majesty might contemplate thereon. and uncnltiTated. maturity. that man. and justly admire glory. and goodness of the Grand Gfeometriciau of the Universe made manifest throughout the whole of his proceedings. for seasons. together with other inhabitants of the great deep. The Almighty was also pleased to bespangle the ethereal concave with a multitude of stars. designed as pasture for the brute creation.THE SECOND BEGEEE. which. sun and moon. that On the same period He man might delight his eyes and ears. whom He intended to make. and flowers of all sorts succeeded in ftdl growth. with some for their beautiful plumage. asnnder. He created great whales. The earth God spake the it being. and the gathering together mighty congregated waters He called seas. the created. barren. and those beneath them. and On the fifth period He caused the waters to bring forth a .

The Almighty as his last and best gift to man created woman under his forming hand a creature grew. and sanctified He has therefore taught man to work six days industiiously. who a single command. —^formed on biTin after the imme- image of God. in Let us make man. Heaven in her guided by his voice. thereby intimating to him that integrity and uprightness should ever influence him to adore his Divine Creator. six days' The Almighty having finished his blessed. different in sex. pomp than any creature that had preceded him. all tender and divine. adorned with make her amiable. and it was done hut at we are told. and further endued him with that noble reason. hallowed." To mend our faults and mould us into On to she came.108 for their ILLTTSTEATIONS OP lEEEMASOlf KT. on the seventh it. and every thing requisite for and pleasure. the understanding of angels. which God said. the sense of beasts . such as the quality and suhstance of an animate being. neither did He make man until He had life still provided him with a dwelling. led by her Heavenly Maker. God spake the word. the life of plants. work. though unseen yet all that Heaven could bestow was in aU her steps. They came with only . virtue. and creature the hreath of life was hreathed into man heoame a living souL Now in this one was a comhiaation of every thing that was excellent throughout the whole creation. He rested. but. He was immediately formed . but . who had so liberally bestowed the faculty of instinct called speech. out of the dust of the earth his nostrils. man like. and in every gesture dignity and love. above diate all. support. " All kind and soft. the formation of man. there was a consultation. but strictly commanded him to rest on the seventh. the better to contemplate on the beautiful . Grace eye. Then to dignify the works of his hands caane into the world with greater more He made man.

. after illustrating the formation of The Fourth FeUow-Craft's Lodge. in architecture. the entrance. learn that they first planted trees on end. and Composite . to support a covering. men- tions as being in the Cabinet of Curiosities at Dresden a model of the Temple of Solomon cut in cedar. Doric. and in times it earlier may be affirmed the Orders in architecture marked their growth and progress. published in 1753. The Sanctum Sanctorum.THE SECOSD DESEEE. This Section but of great importance the Craftsman. or a regular arrangement of the projecting parts of a building. Ionic. the Ark. Hanway. it is almost entirely derived from the historical books of the Old Testament. a &c. The Third Section has reference to the btulding of King Solomon's Temple. and then con- laid others across. OH riLLOW-CEATT. pillars that stood at to. which. the first Order in architecture may be tiaced from formation of society. and bx the history of mankind there Civili- few things more remarkable than that Masonry and zation have ever gone hand in hand together. in fact. By Order. When the rigour of seasons obliged men we to contrive shelter from the inclemency of the weather. The infor- mation it contains is founded on reason and sacred record . particiilaily detailing the constmction of the two remarkable is short. and offer praises for and eveiy blessing he so amply enjoys at his aH-hountifal hands. it is proportions. form a beautiful. and the seven liberal arts and sciences. perfect. according to the description in the Book of Kings. in his Journal of Travels. The are Five Orders in Architecture are the Tuscan. and complete whole. The bands which nected those tiees at top and bottom are said to have suggested . united with those of a column. Section. Corinthian. and ornaments of columns and pilasters . works of the creation. to go life into his sanctuaries. is meant a system of the members. describes the five foble oedees op AECHrrECTTJEB. axe all represented. to 109 adore "Hfim as their Creator.

which is plain and natural. and a noble but rough solid The Ionic bears a kind of mean proportion between the more and delicate orders. as the It is said famous Temple of Diana at Ephesus was of this order. the masterpiece of Its art. and where ornament would be superfluous. and the cornice . which was formed after that of a strong robust man. . Corinthian. and its capital. as a contrast to the Doric order. and entablature have but few mouldings. Ionic. whence is name. base. order. with her hair dressed. There is both delicacy and ingenuity displayed in this piUar. richest of the five orders. The five Orders are thus classed: the Tuscan. and the triglyphs compose the ornaments of the frieze. its capital is column is ten diameters high. Its column is nine diameters high adorned with volutes. of an elegant shape. frieze is ornamented with curious devices. The solid composition of this order gives it preference in structures where strength simplicity are chiefly required. and its its capital is cornice has denticles. Doric. is the Its most eight and was invented by the Greeks. is deemed a and was invented at Corinth by Callimachus. The Doric ancient. is the invention of which attributed to the lonians. which sustain the abacus. except has seldom any ornaments on base or is mouldings. and adorned with two rows The of leaves and eight volutes.110 the idea of ILLUSTEATIOlfS tlie 01' TEEEMASOlfET. and Composite. and capital. The simplicity of the construction of this column renders it eligible where solidity is the chief object. The Tuscan column is the most simple and solid of the five orders. base and capital of pillars and from tMs simple hint originally proceeded the more improved art of aioMteoture. The Corinthian. it column is diameters high. though the frieze distinguished by a triglyphs and metopes. to have been formed after the model of an agreeable young woman. it derives its It was invented in Tuscany. Its seven diameters high.

and direct our inquiries after truth. rise by consulting the works of the best writers on the As the tion. till the point in question is finally determined. superb structures. and beauty are united. and progress of These observations are intended to induce the industrious Craftsman to pnrsne his researches into the Architecture. and that excel- lency of pronnnciation. Arithmetic teaches the powers and properties of numbers which is variously effected by letters. Shetoric teaches ns to speak copiously and fluently on any subject. and disposing. and condude. leaves of the Corinthian. figures. which enables ns to speak or write a language with accuracy. according to it certain premises laid down. it seven liberal arts and sciences are illustrated in this Sec- may not be improper to give a short explanation of them Grwmmar teaches the proper arrangement of words. agreeably to reason and correct nsage. whether to entreat or exhort. Ill This order is nsed in stately and contrived The Composite is compounded of the other orders. tables. judging. and cornice has denticles or simple This pfllar is generally found in hxdldings where strength. It consists of a regular train of argument. its ten diameters high. and instru- . to admonish or applaud. according to the idiom or dialect of any particular people . with denticles and modiUions.THE BECOITD DEGEEE. all the advantages of force and elegance wisely contriving to captivate the hearers it by strength of argument and beauty of expression. which are naturally led on from one gradation to another. not merely with propriety. elegance. reasoning. Its is oohmm has modiUions. but with . and in are employed the fiieulty of conceiving. subject. the quarter-round z& the Tuscan and Doric orders. OE EELIOW-CEArT. deduce. whence we infer. admitted or granted . be Logic teaches us to guide our reason discretionaUy in the general knowledge of things. and was by the Bomans. Its capital has the two rows of and the volntes of the Ionic.

and thickness are considered. and specify the divisions of empires. By this art. to dimensions of the world. the general. the geographer. reasons and demonstrations are given for finding out any certain ntunber. And nightly. short. Confirm the tidings as they roU. where length. spread the ti-uth from pole to pole. Bepeats the story of her birth " While all the stai-s that round her burn. kingdoms. . a shining frame. Geometry is the foundation of architecture. Their great Original proclaim. " Soon as the evening shades prevail. delineate the extent of seas. ILLTJSTEATIOKS OF PEEEMASONET. to the listening earth. and the root of the mathematics.112 ments. " Th' unwearied sun. and fix the duration of times and seasons. With all the blue ethereal sky. And spangled heavens. powers and properties of magnitudes Geometry treats of the in general. also. and In by it. And publishes to every land The work of an Almighty Hand. whose relation or affinity to others is already known. By this science the aichiteot is enabled to construct his plans . the astronomer is enabled to make his observations. Does his Creator's praise display. breadth. from day to day. And And all the planets in their turn. to give mark out ns the ground for encampments. and provinces . and the basis on which the superstructure of Freemasonry is erected. " The spacious firmament on high. years and cycles. The moon takes up the wondrous tale. to arrange his soldiers the engineer.

and spoils The motions of his spirit axe as dull as night. And ' utter forth their glorious voice shine. the celestial hemispbere. discords. creation ti-ace .THE SECOHD BEGEEE. grave. and through the whole of the glorious Author by his works. " The man is that hath no music in himself. Nor Is not moved with concord of sweet somids. fit for treasons." Let no such man be Astronomy is that art by which we are taught to read the wonderful works of the Almighty Creator in those sacred pages. In praise of this science Shakspeare says. By it we learn the use of the globes. measure the distances. While we are employed in the study of this science. is and mixed sounds. And his affections dark as !Erebus trusted. stratagems. so as to compose deligbtftil harmony. is Eor ever singing as they The hand that made us Divine. and calculate the periods and eclipses of the heavenly bodies. OE TELLOW-CEAFT. with respect to tones and the intervals It inquires into the nature of concords and of sound only. comprehend the magnitudes. we perceive unparalleled instances of wisdom and goodness. by a proportional arrangement of This art by a series of acute.' M/usic teaches the art of forming concords. and enables us to find out the proportion between them by numbers. the system of the world. and the primary law of nature. we observe the motions. experiments reduced to a science. " What ihougli in solemn silence all 113 Move round the dart terrestrial ball What though nor voice nor minstrel sound Among their radiant orbs be found " With saints and angels they rejoice. Assisted by Astronomy.

physics. See where she comes. bring Truth. and may he said especially to payment of the workmen there employed. Constant our sacred Wbile we adore thy peaceful reign Bring with thee Virtue. with power to bless. and the period that remartahle building was constructing. the historical information relative to the house of God erected by King Solomon. descend. To smooth the wrinkled brow of care. The Fifth refer to the Section has reference to the institution at the time of building the Temple of Solomon. and established on the firmest foundation. which. and and a regular system of demonstrated on the clearest principles. With open hand and tender heart. with goodness crown'd. the government and division of classes among our ancient hrethren. and its final completion and dedication. brightest maid. ofJEase. Which wounded feels at man's distress. Charity. And bleeds at every human smart. Bring Love. To every comer of the globe. Encircled in thy heavenly robe. Come." And with thee bring thy spotless train rites attend. SONGS APPKOPEIATE TO THE PELLOW-CEAPT. contains a complete theory of philosophy science. Ttjne—" Goddess Gbnitts of Masonry.114l rtLTTSTEATIOSrS OP PEEEMASONET. besides Thus ends the Lecture in the Second Degree. Diffuse thy blessings aU around. . bring Priendship here While social Mirth shall lend her aid.

That they adom'd the universe. met npon the Bid love and friendship jointly reign. Britannia. stiU shalt towering And sink thine adversaries low Thy well-huilt pile shall long endure. who can rehearse." craft divine Masonry. May all our glorious And say. Tmra "FT AT T.Tme SECOITD BHaEEE. Behold the planets how they move. In nervous prose. were so great. Nor break the adamantine chain. when they meet. or flowing verse ? . thou Glory of earth. Upon a rock it stands secnre. Prom all but Masons' eyes conceal'd Thy praises due. from heav'n reveal'd Which doth with jewels precious shine. And shine resplendent as the snn That fnture Masons. rise. Tet keep due order as they run Then imitate the stars above. their fethers deeds rehearse. Eriendship. And felsetood be thy deadliest 115 foe. Be peace and harmony your care. Thou. —" Sule.. And braves the rude assaults of time. who With here extend. Throngli rolling years preserve its prime. Te happy few. east to west. In perfect lines from fervent zeal the Lodge defend. Envy may every ill devise. its secrets And look Since ye are in each breast square. OB FELIiOW-OEATT.

. let us celebrate the praise Of all who have enrich'd the art raise. the faithful heart. All Craftsmen true distrngnisli'd are Our code all otter laws excels And what's in knowledge choice and raie. Art's J&ee-bom sons such toys disflain Ennobled by the name they Distinguish'd bear. Let gratitude our voices And each true Brother bear a part. for ages past lasted. whose roar the forest rends Prom the assaults of warriors bold. Let cheerful strains their fame resound. Preserve the secrets of the Prom scorching heat and piercing cold. by the badge they wear. Ensigns of state that feed our pride. By Masons true are laid aside . Be to this art due honour paid. WitMn our breasts securely dwells. free. The Mason's art mankind defends. Sweet fellowship. And living Masons' healths go round. and shall ever last. Which has Has Then for ages firmly stood. Prom which mankind receives such aid. from envy Priendly converse of brotherhood The Lodge's lasting cement be. art.lis ILIiUSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASOITET. Prom beasts. A Lodge thus built. Distinctions troublesome and vain. The sUent breast.

as wild as these. thickets. To wash remotest That Virtue has not land. Par as the miglity waters roll. side to side shrine. Let Masonry increase A glorious pillar raised on high. OB EEHOW-CBAFT. And spread its To dens and For praises wide. . celebrate the Mason's art. Binds up sad huts with boughs of trees. Her social masdms prove love. the Mason's love. Integrity its hase. And reel from The Let lovers kneel at beauty's sport of female pride Be To ours the more exalted part. dark and rude. Peace adds to oUve boughs. shelter beasts repair With sticks and straws the feather'd brood air Suspend their nests in And man And untaught. For stamp'd upon the Mason's mind Are unity and ' Ascending to her native sty.THE-SECOITD BEBEEE. . entwined. 117 TuiTB— In Infancy'' Let Masoniy from pole to pole Her sacred laws expajid. An emhlematio dove. left majJdnd. As stamp'd upon Are unity and mind Let drunkards boast the power of wine. feeds on wretched fere.

But teach men how within to live. and roar Their noisy revels Still when no more. All party quarrels they detest Por Virtue and the Arts. while Masons square their minds. When columns grace the haU. IFreemasons will remain Mushrooms. quarrel. And yield to Reason's caU. We owe to Masons all Nor buildings only do they give. When Bucks and Albions are forgot. spring up and While oats Let others stretch o'er the plain rot. While they our rules pursue . rant. When stately palaces arise. Masonry shall reign. and houses rear'd— No storms nor tempests now are feai'd Within Hs well-framed doors. When towers and spires salute the sMes. The state no better subjects finds. Our leathern aprons garters red we compare and blue With Princes and Kings our brothers are. But seienoe dawning in his mind.118 ILLrSTEATIOirS OF FEBEMASONET. explores The quarry he Industry and the Arts combined Improved aE nature's stores Thus waJls were built. each day. By these. None act more upright parts. Lodged in each true Ereemason's Unite and rule their hearts breast.

level so must poise thy mind. The compass t'other two compounds. And thou a Thus symbols of our Order are The compass. Keep your passions within bounds.THE SEOOND BEGEEE. That satis&ction thou shalt When to another Fortune's Mnd And that's the drift of Masonry. And says. To be true. OE EELIOW-CEAET. upright. and the square Which teach us to be just and feir And that's the drift of Masonry. all though anger'd on just grounds. . level. Then diini success and health to all The Craft around this earthly ball 119 May Brethren still prove true In all your dealings take good caxe. !Fellow-craffc shalt be. just. And The thou a Pellow-oraft sbalt be. find. Instructed by the friendly square. and feir.

AssociATBD as tie eymbolic degrees are with tie building of the House of Grod at Jerusalem. *' First unadom'd. Architeetv/re is sometimes defined to be the art of building. such mounds of earth as that of Alyattes or of Silbury Hill. And nobly plain." the . The rich Corinthian spread her wanton wreath. 986). Presuming that the pyramids are of a date long prior to any other structures existing.C. or those remarkable monuments like Stonehenge. now we find at the enti-ance to the great pyramid a proof that the method of constructing an axcb was known to these . Egyptian architecture is so purely monumental or historical as to be of little use to the student. and our aEegorical instruction in tte tools used earliest time. from the dif- have ever required some explanation of the ferent styles of Architecture. Her airy pillar heaved luxuriant. manlj Doric rose The Ionic then. He Ehoecus.CHAPTER XII. with decent matron grace. Leaving out of our inquiry the earlier constructions. by operative Masons. . we briefly notice the characteristics that distinguish the different styles of Architecture. and we find the Greek term apxtrfKrav (arcbitecton) ployed by Herodotus as the word Architect is is emsays. our Lectures. THE FIVE OEDEES OF AECHITECTUEE. last. now. a Samian. was the arcbitecton of the great Temple of Samos (buUt B.



The Tuscau. The Composite. .The Coriittblan. OP ARCHITECTURE.


121 people. the immensity of utterly devoid of beauty of proportion. Kamak. and the prodigious solidity of the materials and mode of construciaon employed. whereas the great pyramid earlier. to the eye accustomed to Grecian and modem architecture. &c. only about six centuries before Christ.THE riTE OEDEES OF AECHITECTUEE. as four enonnous masses of stone. At Thebes there are arches formed of four courses of bricks. Of tians. which are laid in without order above. which are astounding both for their gigantic vastness. placed thus. These masses. as far as can be judged by com- parison. the pyramids. These wondrous structures. as well as the temples in I^ypt. which G is 340 feet by 170 in extent it has 134 columns disposed in nine parallel . support the stupendous pile of rude stones. was constructed above according to the account of Herodotus. Some writers have claimed for the Etruscans the invention of . are not less than twenty-five feet by twelve. The date of 300 years these people however. the arch it is found in their sepulchral monuments. is. and uncouthly sublime. gates. are. all the structures of the ancient Egyp- we only notice the vast hall of .

of Palestine were less durable than those of Of this we have a course striking proof in the House of Dagon. Hiram. In Asia. In the oldest ruin existing in Asia —Persepolis— ^the marble columns ev:.122 ILIiTJSTEATIONS OF rEEEMASOlTEX. just architectural notions are preserved of Solomon's Temple. that was much employed in the most sacred and important buildings for though few details capable of giving any this material . Hence the temples Egypt. the land of the accordingly wood was abundant. In Egypt. both for roof ^that is. — evinces the taste of the former bondsmen of Pharaoh. a country destitute of wood. — ^these latter the work of our Master. There appears. being In comparison with such enormous dimensions. Temple were placed a pair of or Architecture. and were in imitation of the natural caves shelter. wilderness to the twelve oxen of the molten sea. and we find from the descriptions in Holy Writ. is it plain that cedar and columns — wood was the chief material. in which the rude inhabitant had sought a wretched Israelites. and the larger eleven feet. or the lions of the throne of Solomon. from the calf of the But every description in the sacred records. and doubtless supported a roof of the same . in every respect structure extended several thousand feet — ^for the whole —aU other works of ancient and modem architecture shrink into insignificance.dently bear marks of having been connected with cross-beams of wood. one peculiarity which identifies Egyptian architecture with that of the Israelites before the obelisks. pillars rows one way. which was wholly overturned by Samson pulling down two pillars. the smaller nine feet in diameter. and sixteen the other. Of such a catastrophe could not have occurred with a structure of stone. the are the sculptured transcripts memorials ia existence on the Arch of Titus at Bome. for supported and supporting members. as fax as we can judge. even the most ancient erections are of stone. colossal pillars or Of Jewish Art beyond the descriptions of the sole Books of Kings and Chronicles.

which distinguished as belonging either to the Doric. also. the latter. the uppermost luember. but supported by a very el^. The capital consists of a solid-looking abacus. and without ornament the triglyphs are invariably placed over the centre line of the column. 123 Hence the easy conflagration of this abode of the Mngs in a debanch of Alexander. and the horizontal mass supported by the former being divided into Sase. which swells gradually out of the line of the sbaft. arrangement accepted by of and the height This is fol- of the columns according to the universal mode. The Qreele. the flutings of the shaft are twenty in number. We first describe Architecture artists according to the sdentific all countries. having three annulets or rings at the bottom. or Corinthian. except the columns at the angles. without a moulding. where the shaft rests unmediately upon the flooring) . the upright support. and Cornice. the column generally executed without a base . lowed by noticing the most remarkable samples of the Orders whose remains exist . or Ionic. very shallow and without fillets but some examples are fluted only at the upper and lower extremities. and Coital it. —What is termed an Order consists of two principal divisions. Architrave. being plain . The features of the entablature are very simple. styles Without farther specalation on the of Architectnre of other ancient nations. or Composite. is fiirther These together constitute an Order. Shaft. — L e. Orders in Architecture. and we close our narration by a popular account.THB FIVE OEDEES materiaL Persian OI' AECHITEOTUEE. Frieze. and afterwards enlarged by the Somans. chiefly derived from Brother Preston. Of the Doric of which is there are two kinds.ant echinus moulding. a£ first framed by the Greeks. Other triglyphs are placed in the centre between those before men- G 2 . or Tuscan. into three parts. as Babylonian or Hindoo. (except in the Doric Order. we shall enter on a rather brief description of the Sdence of Architecture. the Column and the Entablature. when the triglyphs form the extremity of the frieze.

composed of a fiUet and astragal small ring moulding). it consists of a square plinth. with fillets. forming the bed-mould of the fillet. divided into compartments The Frieze is by a triglyph over each column. The cornice consists of an ogee. shaft springs from it by a small curve manner. The architrave is divided into The frieze is usually plain. a fillet. an ovolo. as at others fillet. which consists also of the corona and surmounted by a cymatium. The Ionic has an Attic The (a flutings of the shaft are capital is distinguished spiral scroU) twenty-four in number. and the volutes aie connected by and curved lines. cornice itself with a small ogee and on which is placed a cyma recta. Doric Sase tlie is sometimes only a simple . with a broad The frieze also is a plain face. ILLTJSTEATIOMS Or FEEEMASONET. of which the are a cavetto (or hollow) frieze. like and from which the shaft springs in The Shaft is termi(a nated by a neck moulding. base. straight. hori- zontal. has a base formed of a plinth or squared piece of stone as a foundation. a torus moulding. faciae. The fillet. a corona and bed moulding on the of which are enriched or plain. The Cornice completes the Order. fillet . which are not needed in our The Tiiscan Order. The by being formed with two volutes two two faces. consists of a corona. The architrave is a plain face. on a cyma all recta. with guttse under the triglyph. front kind of on and back. according to the width between them. com- mencing with a neck sometimes enriched with pateras and buds. and from this springs the Coupital.124 tioned. There are sundry minor description. and they differ only in their mouldings . cornice. which a torus above is simple in its design. The ArcMtrame consists of one or more plain feces separated from the frieze above. The general proportions of the Corinthian and Composite columns are the same. The cornice is supported by an ogee and other enriched mouldings. and it surmounted with a fillet. fillet. and principal features one or more between. The Soman. details.

Of the Temple of Minerva or Parthenon. Eichness of decoration distinguishes both these Orders. in Sicily. and whose buried materials swell into hills. as its it name implies. four spiral volutes in each rise out of two bunches of the acanthus leait and two of these on each iacia are connected at the angles. 331 feet in length. erected about our present era. are the ruins of the Temple of Juno. and the latter by an ogee and astragal enriched. erected from the designs of Sir Eobert Smirke. is a correct copy of the Attic Ionic Order. London. or make the traveller ignorant whether he Gtela. There all these is also at the Temple of Apollo. one of subside into valleys. It is found that enormous piles arose in litfle more than a century. the Coimthiaji 125 . which consist of no less than six Temples. The &ce by its modillions and dentils.THE Frra OEDEKS OP AEOHITEOTUEE. The fiieze is enriched with figures or ornaments. also in Sicily. the chief difference between is. —Of the remains of this style may be noticed the ponderous ruins at Selinus. tread upon the prostrate labours of man. The capital of is composed of two rows of acanthns leaves. must have presented one of the sublimest objects ever reared by human art. the former are supported by an enriched echinus and astragal. most picturesque now. composed of a double peristyle of columns sisty feet high. and the upper row is placed between and oyer the divisions of the lower row . and support the abacas. and early part of the fourth century before at Athens. eight in eadi row. At Agrigentum. so as to the most stupendous buildings of the ancient world. G 3 . and the Corinthian the Ionic Order. The base of both same is occasionally Attic the flutings of the shaft are the as the Ionic. is a compound. and eniickments. that the volutes have the characteristic of The General Post Ctrecian Doric. embracing the greater part of the fifth. one of whidi. and of concord most perfect : there are also the ruins of the grand Temple of Olympian Jove. or the workings of nature. Office. cornice is distinguished The Composite.

of unknown date . in Ionia. the Temple of Apollo at Priene. Ionic Order. few remains of the Order now but we extant in Greece. near Miletus. The magnificent columns which " Crown Sunium^s laarble steep. Polias. and a model.C. by Brother Hardwick. or her colonies may notice the Temple of Juno.'' ruins of the Temple of Minerva. The circular erection of Lysiorates. in the Peloponnesus. in its perfect state. raised about eight centuries before the present era. of which Scopas was the architect : it was erected about 400 B. London. was buUt under the direction of Phidias. belong to the same era. the St. Eailway Terminus. mains of In other parts of Asia Minor this Order. and which ported to have been one of the most splendid buildings of the Peloponnesus. by Ictinns.. one of the most exquisite and perfect gems of archi- tectural taste. —The earliest building of this Order is the magnificentTemple of Minerva. at Tegea. The propylaum erected of Grrecian Doric.126 450 B. as the Corinthian Order. —There are but . is and Erectheus. at the on an imposing scale. another city of Ionia. to whom most perfect vestige of antiquity in existence. is re- also is ascribed the the Temple of Apollo Epicurus in Arcadia. names and dates of which cannot be copy of Erectheum Ionic. and which in the age of Herodotus was the grandest building in Greece. called the Choragic is Monu- ment. the British It we may form some judgment by the remains now in Museum. and the purest specimen of the Order which Its minuteness has reached our time. erected about 440 are the At Athens remains of the Temples of Minerva . ascertained. its model was the entrance to the market-place at Athens. is finest worthy of notice. Panoras Church. and unobtrusive beauty . is a also are re- Temple of Minerva. is the grandest architectural specimen in England . erected about 1819. reduced. Euston Square. in the Isle of Samos. The earliest example of the Temple of Bacchus. ILLrSTEATIONS Or rEEEMASOKET. true Ionic was the B.C. at Teos.C.

though the distinguished by triglyphs and metopes. classed. The solid com- position of this Order gives it a preference in structures where strength and a noble but rough simplicity are quired. which was more ornamental than the Corinthian. The Doric. with an elevation of nearly 60 and helong to an edifice 400 feet long. agreeably to earliest date. is modem proportions. are of the hest age of they are composed of the finest white marhle. column is seven diajneters and entablature have but few mouldings. frieze is eight diameters high. chiefly re- The Ionic bears a kind of mean proportion between the more solid and deKcate Orders.C. most perfect workmanship. Doric. Ionic. the Tuscan. although of the Its column. and has no ornament except mouldings on either base or capital. Corinth- ian. Also may he noticed at Athens the magnificent ruins of the Temple of the Olympian Jupiter. all of Grecian origin essentially the Doric. and Its is placed first in order. and Corinthian. eli- The simplicity of the construction of thiR columcn renders it gible where solidity is the chief object. and where ornament no other than the would be superfluous. capital. and Composite. is placed second. Ionic. is The Tuscan high . distinct styles of composition. the As now Five Orders are. on account of its plainness. these the and can. Its column is nine diameters high G 4 . the oolimms of which Greece . particnlar character. and the Composite. To Eomans added the Tus- which they made plainer than the Doric. They exhibit three and they alone show invention. and of the feet. and the cornice by mutules.THE I'm) OEDEES OE ABOHITECTrEE. It may be said to be Doric more deprived of ornament. has preserved piles of it 127 almost entire amid the : min of the mightiest Athenian axt it was erected 342 B. base. the the most simple and solid. Originally there were hnt three Orders.

ing leaves. which was formed after that of a strong The Corinthian.'' and re- presents a vase of bronze." The Meze of the Corinthian capital covered with ornamental devices. is compounded of the Its capital has two rows of the acanthus leaves of . which. arriving at the met with an as a obstruction. elegant sliape with her hair dressed. and when pure indeed most elegant. as a con- trast to the Doric Order. but the plant was always a favourite with the cup Theocritus. describing a of . and the cornice with den- tils and modilUons. tile placed over an acanthus. has denticles. the vase of the capital repretile. He observed on the grave of a young lady recently interred a basket of toys as a tribute by her nurse —covered with till — ^left a . a herb with broad prickly leaves as the plant tile grew they the leaves encompassed the basket. on which was carved the scene of Orpheus enchanting the trees. covered with acanthus leaves wrought in gold. volutes. if not true. in the following anecdote. and in the Bucolics describes two beechen cups. and. the richest of the Eive Orders. It is Vitruvius who tells story.Sltolian manufacture. There is something stately in this column. it struck with the object. poetically suggested to have been formed after the model of a young female of robust man. as its name imports. is generally considered to be a masterpiece of art. says. a its capital is Hud of spiral seroU. set about imitating and was adopted new Order in architecture . There is botli delicacy it is and ingenuity displayed It is in this column. CaUimachus. is too pretty to be thrown aside. all " The plant acanthus is expanded round the cup. sented the basket. with " the soft acanthus folded is round the handles. other Orders. The Composite. it. the abacus the and the volutes the bendthis pretty traditional poets.128 ILItrSTEATIONS OF rEBEMASONBT. its cornice which is the characteristic ornament of the Order. and bent downwards. and its invention attri- buted to the poet CaOimachus. adorned with. VirgU mentions the plant in several places .

IS 129 The column ten diameters high. honour. eloquence. and the volutes of the Ionic Order. the Corinthian. hope. relief and truth. justice. and poetry lent their aid. beautifying fortitude. . and its cornice has dentils and simple modillionB. This style is adapted for buildings where strength.THE FITE OEDEES OF AECHITECTUEE. music. . united with bro- therly love. for. beside splendour however of all many other Masonic emblems the was eclipsed by the double triangle. and mercy.Five Orders. while the curious had ta- hand designed the ftimiture and pestry . and beauty are sought Painting and sculpture strained every nerve to decorate the buildings feir science raised. and adorning them with temperance. virtue. on which were exhibited feith. and chariiy. elegance. Selative Frqportions of the .

and that those architects were members of the religious and military is. Sir Christopher the Society of Wren thinks it was invented by Freemasons who travelled throughout Europe entire erecting churches. orders. and it appears. was brought in by the Crusaders. own land. cori-esponding with the and fashion of the central tower. ending by a comthe bination of open arches outline tracery. The Freemasons invented the evidence that the style in question. we have it consulted awairds to any one a Hence Walpole has been a matter of dispute among first \mters on the subject of architecture. which Abbey Church of Ouen may claim pre-eminence for lightness and elegance over every other structure. St. we think the we shall arrive at that Sir Christopher Wren's theory the true one. and died when the building had only advanced as far as the transept. as to whence this style was derived. which gi'eatly to adds the magnificence of the building. claims it as English. the first And if we allow that examples were in England. as its adoption was in the cathedrals of our difficult to displace this claim. : by the introduction of the lancet or sharply pointed and as several churches were erected almost simulta- neously. to flank the western front by two magnificent towers. no authority priority of date. . Bemeval intended. was designed by Alexander de Bemeval "the Treemason." He began the building in the early part of the twelfth century. Peterborough is only English cathedral possessing this feature. We have undoubted in Eouen. he would necessarily have seen his opponent's views were equally correct as bis own. twelfth century first appeared an innovation of the rounded or circular arch. and it is but he oflFers no suggestion as to who the builders were. Now had either of these commentators reviewed the subject impartially. Lord Aberdeen maintains that the and that it style is of Oriental growth. that the designers derived the idea firom something they had seen in the East during the conclusion is holy wars.130 ILLtrSTEATIONS OF FEEBMASOHET.

it cannot belong to the fine arts. is certain. There are also in Britain remains of a like disposition to erect stately structures in the Hospitallers . Some vestiges of the fortresses erected by the Templars and Hospitallers are now in existence in the Holy Land. successive vandals —we do not refer to the barbariaas so but the Venetians as well as the Turks. and at Marienburg and left Thorn in Prussia. the loftiness of meditation set free from earth. before it was despoiled by called. are indeed denied to this eldest and most sublime of all the arts. It is this and proceeding itself unfettered to heaven. its The first and greatest of objects is to express the elevation of holy thoughts. which have defied the hand of time. with wonder at the magnificence displayed in the bnUdings. as they did the Turks. of which now only mined fragments remain. By whatever name it is was were perfected designated. but perhaps the feelings which it does excite are All architecture is symbolical. The Church of the Templars in London. if it be destitute of meaning. But whoever might be all the builders. The proper It display of purpose. the inmiediate expression of feeling. must excite the feelings through the medium of thought. —many of the pleteness. 131 must have gaaed as. ratively brief space of time. closely connected by a small who with each other. but none so much as the Chris- tian architecture of the middle ages. on that account only so much the more powerful. the Teutonic Knights have permanent records of their capabilities as builders. but they had thoughts which they meant to embody in their labours.THE rrVE OEDEES OE AECHITECTUEB. were in some state of comnot perfect. in -visiting Constantinople. as also some few others in our own land. remain to skill testify the architectural of the soldier monks. The Crusaders. this much that they were not mere heapers together of stones. if glorious structures of Asia Minor. which stamps on the G 6 . Let a building be ever so beautiful. this system of architecture all and diffused over Europe within a compasociety of artists.

pinnacles —every thing like the minarets . and the three great visitors fi:om entrances are meant to express the conflux of aU the regions of the earth. is always ooiTect it is in this instance. a temple the shape of the cross in common with the Christian churches even of the earlier earlier Christian times. this style came into general use shortly but surely after the great Cru- We do not say that the dogma. doors. . may himself be capable when he gazes on those fin-stretching columns and airy domes. hoc. ' Why t>iis is just what we see throughout the East . the freedom. but laid aside on account of the superior grace- fulness supposed to result from the crossing of arches. and towers it. The round arch was adopted in the architecture. A writer in the "Builder. and the solemn glories of eternity. the aspiring character of Mussulman architecture. ergo propter . may be traced to as well as the accompanying decorations of flowers and leaves. rose is The the most essential part of . While noticing the various be out of place to refer to existence styles of architectm-e. " I Oeiental souECB OF Westben aechitbcttjee. earthly death leading only to the fiilness. however Kttle he spirit of the beholder. Three towers express the Christian rises like mystery of the tritme Godhead. with redoubled loftiness is . it may not — what may be considered the and oldest in ^the pyramidal : as belonging to that character. directed towards the rising of the sun. when he . all the ornaments of this architecture even the shape of the windows. with an old Indian remember once standing before the magnificent front of Peterborough Cathedral of&cer.' And sade. . post hoc. But this is notable every part of the structure is as symbolical as the whole and of this we can perceive many traces in the writings of the times. said. huge pointed portals running up to the top of the building spires." in referring to the says. When we it is view the whole structure from impossible to resist the idea of the crypt to the choir. the choir within a temple. The altar is of analyzing his feeHngs .132 ILLTJSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASOITET.

" Of Masonic symbols we may notice Tomb of Solon at Dagon Lu. Feegtjson.THE riTE OEDEES OE AECHITEOTtJfiE. at least as great a number of on followers as religion that exists the face of the globe. among any its votaries. there can be no question of their historical value. says. ia Hs HandbooJc of Architectmre. still wHcb. . Of the having been constantly in it is use for more tian 2000 years .C. and the style of a religion. styles BtUl practised it is the oldest. 133 Mr. Solon flourished 600 years one on the front of the B. " Wliatever value may be placed upon the Buddhist monuments as works of art. if not the greatest. even now when reckons its greatest glory has passed away.

^^ Mark Masons^ View there all appear Before the chief overseer tlie stone. which had been . The Mark Degree has. they all differ But in the ritual. and the chief distinction between the and Scottish practice — Man and the Master—or the Irish is is. and Prance. the Mark Master. however. It has always been practised in Ireland. that the ceremonial of the former made the legend in the latter. and the This is called ceremonial is of that country's practice. or lay between it and tbe Master Mason. to a certain extent been restored to English Masonry. but not formally. Grand Lodge does not at present acknowledge This restoration has been brought about by warrant of constitution from Scotland. For a long period ever has been abandoned by believe it is out of use in tbe Grand Lodge of England.CHAPTER XIII. Scotland. On which That appears the name raises high the fame the same Of all to whom Is truly hnovm^'* This rank brethren or degree waa unquestionaHy among our ancient >iiTin atfcaolied to tte Fellow-Craft. The legend narrates the dis- covery of the missing key-stone of the arch. and America. as the it. if even it we was practised in that country. MAEK MASON.

when the arch. and it. one.. Astronomy. it was consequently and its artist treated with contumely. tried by the square . fece symbols now referred The stone in question The bears also on its which seem to show Astrology was included in the angelic influences on the actions of system of instruction. contained illustrations of the seven Grammar. Log^c. — master overseer having given out the work. at one period with the Jews. was near completion. that during the building of Solomon's Temple. Some time after. when made known by Ms mwrjc. on presenting the result of his labours to the overseer. liberal sciences. Arithmetic. among the workmen employed. viz. diligent search the stone —until after which the assistant overseer had rejected was discovered to be that wanting. by the Cabala. its ^the a. its contriver being known by craftsman. rative. The degree of the Isle of Marh Man its is practised nnder the Irish Constitution only. which are the Second Degree.MAEK rejected stone. and the Albany Lodge at Newport in the Wight holds warrant ffom the Irish Lodge. . it his mark being cut upon ritual is strictly in its was honoured and this nar- rewarded. had the stone rgected when cast aside. but strictly in harmony with Craft Masonry. The legend is exceedingly interesting. to in Music. the key-stone or centre could not be found. and proclaimed entitled to the degree of a skilled The all harmony with and who have witnessed performance acknowledge to be not only interesting. as far as can be learned from a cubical stone over a century old. men formed a portion it is of belief with prominent in the many nations and religions Mohammedan faith. the work on which they were then employed. The Mark Degree. 135 by the assistant overseers. was rewarded and honoured. and. Khetoric. ItASOK. as not being a tmly squared The workman. The historical legend shows. and it is very desirable the Mark should be restored to the Pellow-Crafl. and Greometry.

among the ruined structures in Syria a traveller copied as called the many and jRirther. constructed of square blocks of hmestone. for this.136 ILLUSTEATIONS OF TEEEMASONEX. There is ahundant evidence of the use of the Mason's mark in ecclesiastical strucmiddle ages and after the Crusades. symhoUc implement put into the hands of the young Mason. Eite. tures all over the world. upon in Scotland hut the former seek to connect it hy illustration with the Tessera Sospitalis of the ancient Eomans. when the capahility of writing their names was confined to the we may say to the learned clerks. and those who entered the higher degrees always accompanied their signa- ture of attendance with their Mason's mark. The evidence ftimished hy the stone in out . each marked with a Mason's monogram. Thus it must be conceded that the Mark was the operative eai-ly part of Craft Masonry. for in times the architects were . and as we well know. a distin- totally different matter to each selecting a peculiar and guishing mark of his own. he says. appears no where heyond the degrees. hut without logical argument. and especially those erected during the More than thirty different marks were found on the various huUdings in Malta. in high estimation. We have heen told that this degree was formerly in practice in England." The use of the mark was general in Great Britain. the first question. originated few. and the use of one of the working implements of the hears it Mark Mason. is his Mason's mark. "This is a large and imposing quadrangular hmlding. as with the die in ancients the practice was the hreaking a two parts. Our and so transatlantic hrethren hold the also it is looked mark . On the Bible last which Robert Burns gave to his Highland Mary at their parting. 28° of the Ancient and Accepted officers. In the degree of the Knight of the Sun. . of a huHding Old Khan. some of which are in the alphabet character . these same celestial names appear as junior and they have a mallet in one hand and a sword in the other.

this father. certainly points its construction. circle. Mark The practice of this science which is now confined to the impostors belief who pretend to reveal the future. Astrolc^y formed part Degree. with a Mason at work on the Cathedral of Canterbury. it was that the glorious structures to Gtod and his service. 1844. in his notice of the dty of Al Hadha.MAKE MASON. in reference to its plan of construction says. as onr celebrated conntryman William of Wykeham. man had mark from his and he received it from his grandMher. he found that all many masons. had their mystic marks handed down from generation to generation. not as in these latter times in distinct classes and by this unity and brotherhood . and the record of his labours was preserved in his mark on the stone. This science is based upon the supposition that the heavenly . In those days the architect and the workman worked with one heart and one mind." out that a system was observed in Mr. whose walls are covered with Masonic Marks. who were his Ereemasons. that cover our own and other lands. of. migbt assist in connecting the various bands operatives. spread themselves over Europe during the middle ages. and that in bis opinion. It has been noticed that by the evidence of the Cubical or was connected with. Godwin. were constructed. that in conversation in September. in Mesopotamia. these miarks. and they were the Master Masons. Mr. if collected and compared. Ainsworth. and especially high dignitaries. 137 generally ecclesiastics. and prevailed through the whole world during the middle ages. in a paper read in great abundance on all before the Antiquarian Sodeiy. the Stone. referring to this subject. "A square within a and in its exact centre. The sHEed artisan or workman was not slighted or neglected. and are known as Ereemasons." He observes also. says " that these marks axe to be found the ancient buildings of !EingIand and France. under the protection of the Church mystically united. of who. found universal among all the nations of antiquity except the Greeks.

" of tbe Tbe Jewel Mark Degree is a Key-stone. even to tbe tbrone of God Himself. may properly be tbeir taken to mean tbe science of tbe order and arrangement. in wbicb tbe brother's mark ought to be engraved. wberein you and trace tbeir development tbrougb tbe patbs of beavenly are enabled to contemplate the intellectual faculties. and tbe two sciences were practised by tbe same men. giTing tbem different powers according to tbeir different positions. day.138 bodies axe ILLTJSTBATIOlfS OF ttie rEEEMASONET. . and Astronomy Tbese sciences were studied in tmison by tbe learned matbematicians of bygone times. In tbe ritual of tbe present Astronomy is alluded to as tbe " mirrored study. and Cicero uses tbe word Asfrologia Astrology stars. Tbere was doubtless in Astronomical and Masonic symbols mucb in common. tbem from science. instruments by wbich tbe Creator regulates tbe course of events in tbis world. AsTEONOMT and AsTBOLOGT seem to express astronomical knowledge. witb initials of a sentence running around tbe centre. to bave been used by tbe Greeks in tbe same sense. as tbe books of tbe Kosiorucians sbow.

it is necessary to covirse. presents a TTiaTi Hutchinson says." Ancibnt MS. has to submit himself to an examination of his qualifications as a Craftsman. which is the perfection of symbolic or ancient Craft Masonry. that not only tends to modify the manners and disposition of man- kind in this world. proves that Freemasonry embraces a fond of information. but possesses a direct influence on their preparation for the world beyond the grave. " Every one tered? How assoile these. he Master Mason.CHAPTER XIV. and raised to the feith of salvation. as the . when taken into connexion with the other two. In the former degrees we have reca- pitulated the contents of the several sections rather fully. and honoured. Thb Pellow-Craift who is dtdy qTialified by time. saved from the grave of iniquity. observe a regular In treating with propriety on any subject. Tti duly admitted as a this degree. OR THE MASTER MASON. " The Master Mason under the Christian doctrine. the purest truths are unveiled amid the most re- awfdl ceremonies. he may he raised. answer these three questions : How hast thou enHow hast thou lived? and if he can and hath laud therein. on presenting himself as a candidate for the Third Degree. is which examination proving satis&ctoty." The Third Degree. THE THIRD DEGEEE. and shall hast thou wrought? rewarded.

indebted to others for the preservation of his And it further symbolizes the principles of active benevolence for relief and consolation in the hour of Architect of the Universe affliction. he was taught to bend with humility and resignation before the Great . violates maMng them known no rule of the Order . and life. to purify his heart from the operation the reception of of passion and prejudice. and ritual. The candidate is instructed that his admission in a state of help- less indigence was emblematic of the birth of man. to His glory and the good of his fellow-creatures. for the purpose of impressing upon hiTn a just estimate . The Lecture in this degree has now hut three sections. that by the Second dis- Degree of Masonry he was enabled to contemplate the high tinction at which he might arrive by the application of his heavenly science . it has conducted him through the chequered scenes . Above all. When his Third mind has thus been modelled to virtue and Degree presents him with another great and knowledge of himself. of care cultivating them with unremitting and attention. It prepares . they are exclusively devoted to illustrating the A most is impressive lesson on the duties Masons owe to each other. this degree illustrated in a in manner calculated to imprint it indelihly on the mind of every one to whom it is administered. intellectual faculties to the study of and that the secrets of nature and the principles of moral truth were unveiled. and hence must he concealed from the outer world. He is further told. hut the sections in this degree embody the most important points of the institution. the useful lesson — ^ihe him by contemplation for the closing hom-s of existence and when. by means of that contemplation.140 ILLtrSTEATIONS OF rEEEMASONEX. of those wondrous faculties with which he was endowed that he may feel the duty which is thereby imposed upon him. that he may become an useful and happy member of society. and to prepare it for truth from the precepts of wisdom. who at his is entrance into this mortal existence equally helpless. science.

Hutchinson says. the resurrection of the body to life eternal. that the degree must have been framed under the Covenant . and he was said to be bom again or Hence. are ad- monished to let the light which that their good works tha. Masons. or pentalpha. from which was In the ancient mysteries there was a period of darkness in placed. and the aspirant them. OE THE MASTEE MASOlf. was unknown to the Jews. "With Freemasons at the present day it represents the Five Points of Fellowship. The Divine cc'nstruetion put upon this emblem is intended. the act of regeneration.THE THIED DE&EEB. and to have constituted the seal or signet of our Soyal Grand Master. It figure representing an endless was by Pythagoras used as an emblem of health . this degree is the five-pointed which is a geometrical triangle. -{- J^oskevm says that in chemical language the was an em- blem of light. Thus it will be seen that death and the resurrection to life eternal. as promulgated by never who spake man is its all spake. and the Crreat Fountain of be glorified. rememin them so shine before all men. it of prosperity and adversity. The most prominent symbol in star. are the objects symbolized in the Master Mason's Degree. for its honours is invited to reflect on these awfnUy important subjects . the allegory has direct reference to fa-il Such teaching cannot to suggest to the attentive Mason. because it the three letters of which the Latin contans within its figure the forms of LYX (Light) was composed. bering that they are brought out of darkness into light. New as for besides the forcible illustration it contains of the TTith duty to our neighbour. it is also called the pentangle of is said Solomon. his release called which the aspirant was raised from the dead. incident to this mortal instructs Tiiin finaEy how to die.t light is may be seen. which crowning object. is not only to teach the Master Mason the principle by which he . 141 life.

little thinking its ancient signification the entire figure representing the Greek characters uyeia. Mephistophiles to enter his dwelling. but forgetting injuries and selfish feelings. not encumbering or injuring our families or fortunes. "When man. The pentangle of Solomon was used chus Soter. Jiealth. but to do that which good." The riVB points of fellowship First. and in ancient times all as the banner of Antio- over Asia was employed as a charm against witchcraft. or wrath turn our steps out of the way . which. threshold of a newly buUt house by the He makes Paust replies. as we learn from Goethe that tell this figure was scratched on the builder. That aid." It among the Jews in use as a symbol betoken- — this day the English shepherd cuts it on the grass in the green sward. indolence should not persuade the foot to halt. by enforcing that brotherly which every man should extend to his neighbour. tbe pentangle of Soloit is mon is delineated on the body of a supposed to point out the five places wherein our Saviour was wounded. to strengthen. . The Master Mason imposes a duty on virtue himself. and this belief extended to Europe. and execute benevolence. to save.142 raised ILLTJSTEATIOirS OF rEEEMASONEX. the latter " "Why you must device upon the threshold and to was in early times ing safety . own we should be swift to have mercy. when the calamities of our brother call for our sinldng we should not withdraw the hand that might sustain from but that we should render him those services. charity and religion may dictate for the saving of our fellow-creature Second. so it is also professed by tbe Mason. fall of moral love and Christian charity. the emblem of moral duties re- from darkness . . Eor which purpose. and not for his is enjoyments only. are these. wbicli in aU ages have been most ligiously performed. Third. know I am hindered egress by a quaint ^that five-toed damned spell. Bishop Kennett says. As the good things of this life are partially dispensed. and remembeiing that man was born for the aid of his generation.

The Master Mason. .


principle is never to injure the confidence of your by revealing his secrets . are required of him. Intimately associated as the Master Mason's Degree the Holy Boyal Arch. and preserved they cannot to distinguish the Fraternity from those who are strangers to the institution. it necessarily is with follows that some of the . TnainfitiTiiTig a heart void of xmcharitableness. as his communing in charity and love. thus demonstrate to the world that the term "Brother" something more than an empty name. and 143 such some are opulent wlulst others are in distress. oflFence The tongue of a Mason should be void of and without itself g^e speaking truth with discretion. for perhaps that were to rob him of the guard which protects his property or Ufe. and as the breathings of a contrite heart are heard in the celestial regions. A Mason should regard a brother's do so. he should not attacks wrongfiilly revile him himself nor it. that instances of very rare. The Fourth brother.THE THIED DKGEEE. OE THE MASTEE MASOK. virtue : and benerolence the walks of opulence the rich maiij from the many talents no excuse for en- trusted to his charge. respected aU the near and dear relatives and connexions of his This last and great social duty is so well its violation are by the Eratemity. principles also enjoin a Mason. as the voice of babes and sucklings reacheth the throne of God. an omission of that exercise for as the cry of innocence ascendeth up to heaven. By these sacred admonitions Ereemasons are linked affection together in an indissoluble bond of fraternal fiiil and and is brotherly love. be he ever so poor. if character as sacred own . to testify his good will towards his brother. is required to make extensive works under is the principles of virtue . and keeping within the rule of judgment. so a Mason's prayers devoted to the welfere of his brother. suffer another to in his power to prevent but should repel all on his good fame. £iches alone do not allow the are not confined to means of doing good . locking up secrets and Fifth. and yet poverty . He is bound to respect the chastity of brother Masons.

winged another rod. as it — ^had astronomical and other meanings. In course of time the symbol it is became with astronomers a representation of the sun. four of the faces are oblong squares. symbols belong to both . and equal is and the angles all right angles. and to this day the chemical symbol of gold. Besides the well-known symbol of the serpents twined around it. In the Eoyal Arch. The POINT WITHIN a ciecle representing — —although now explained as ^the point the individual brother. as the perfect ashlar. CeBsar in his Commentaries informs us. and belongs especially to Crafb Masonry. had a single stone erected in the centre. which were circular. with an elevated seat for Odin in the centre. the cube It was a most important symbol in the teaching of Pythagoras. Eose Croix degrees. and is referred to. consisting of feces or sides. the hall of Odin contained twelve seats disposed in the form of a circle for the principal gods. The ciTBE which now appears and every Mason. since they were polished squares on every side equal. way . and were intended as expressive emblems of the God of eloquence and truth. These cubical statues were placed in the vestibules of their temples. was by a cubical figure of marble. and it is conjectured that the temples of the Druids. which soever they were turned. as he advances beyond the Third Degree. In what termed (incorrectly) a double cube. in the Knight Templar. that the Druids worshipped Mercury. tbe more noticeable are the ciecle and the CUBE. With the Egyptians represented the phallus as the symbol of fecundity. will observe that this important geometrical figure becomes of considerable use. is found in the it rites of very ancient times. with the there was It mode of representing Hermes among the Druids. Among the Scandinavians. has ever been a Masonic symbol.144 ILlTTSTEATIOirS OF FEEEMASONET. The Cube six square is defined to be a regular solid body. and the circle the boundary of his duty.

deposited in a square vault. on The custom of planting an a grave amongst the Hebrews.THE THIED BEGEEE. erected in the forum of that city thirty cubes of polished marble in honour of that deity. human hands. The cohens or priests were forbidden to cross a grave. and at the rebuilding of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus. as was the case in the Temple of Vulcan at Memphis. " A cubic stone was the Druid's symbol for Mercury. around the statue of their principal divinity Mercury. or sprig of that shrub. The ancient pagan altars were of a cubical form and it was customary among the ancients to engrave the names of the architects who built their temples upon cubical pedestals. Borlase. OE THE MASTEE MASON. Pausamas tells 145 us that the iahabitants of Phaxes in Achaia. engraved on a cubical pedestal. or symbol. exactly under the most sacred place of the Another emblem is temple. whose symbol was a cube. architects found the names of the who first built the first temple. and they therefore placed the Acacia to The species called mark the spot where a body was interred. characteristics of the One of the the sensibility of its leaves to the touch of signifies innocence. arose from this circumstance." . and the Jews always avoided doin<' so from a belief that evil would happen. in his account of Cornwall. the name of the architect was engraved in a similar manner. always like itself. says. This custom explains our adoption of the plant. was esteemed the index. the labourers. who. the Acacia. The Greek word (Spirit of aKwcla and JETutcMTison Masonry) sup- poses the Third Degree to be Christian. when digging two principal for the second foundation. mimosa nilotica grows profiisely about genus is Jerusalem. as it is with a cube. Agreeably to their laws no dead bodies were allowed to be interred within the walls of their cities. as the messenger of the Gods. of truth. built by Menes. exemplifying the rise . Acacia. whose name was placed on the cubical pedestal of the altar : also in the Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens.

Brother H." is in the ancient Jewish custom for the adoption of the Acacia. humility. with steps of innocence." on the most solemn and sacred principles of . and she was There sufficient authority only to he found where innocence survived. be divested of every degree of arrogance. and the myrtle by the Greeks. and devotees of the Jewish altar. so the Mason who would prepare himself for this third stage of Masonry. had hid religion from those who sought her. and come as a true Acacian. whose institutions arise religion.wtchmson in his summary of the Third Degree says. " feet As Moses was commanded to pull his shoes from off his on Mount Horeb. of the Christian dispensation after the destruction of the Mosaic. the palm by the Egyptians. and under the hanner of the Divine Lamh. because the ground whereon he trod was sanctified by the presence of the Divinity. and virtue. Alluding to this Greek meaning of Acacia he says. implies that the sins and corruptions of the Old Law. to challenge the ensigns of an Order. as the mistletoe by the Druids. It is to he ohserved that in all the andent mysteries some plant was adopted for a symhol. should advance in the naked paths of truth. " The word signifying innocence or heing free from sin. without Brother Hutchinson's theory.146 ILITJSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONET.

the brethren not pat to shame. to whom is entrusted for one year the entire r^ponsibility of government. and at being. yet die most perfect equality of rights can never prevent the ascendancy of superior minds. members who have passed the H 2 . pletion of his year of ofSce On the com- he falls into the ranlss of the Past Masters. THE CEEEMONT OF rNSTALLATION OF MASTEE OF A LODGE. bnt althongh each brother has equal pretensions to power. This striMngly illustrated in the system certain of Freemasonry. that the grounds of distinction and advancement heing chiefly personal qualities. displayed (according to the Masonic theory) in those ordeal of the chair. This mler is the Master.CHAPTER XV. assisting the Master in the general control of the a&irs and accounts of the Lodge. therefore no Master or Warden is chosen by seniori^. abilities men are classed according to their individual is and merit. yet to every Lodge there mnst of necessity be a head. nor the rojal craft despised." Ancient Cecargbs. that so the Lord may be well served. but for his merit. " Ail preferment amoDg Masons is grounded upon real worth and personal merit only . who may be all considered a select council. which to a extent inculcates the doctrine of eqnaliiy. It is a prominent advantage of the popular form of government. although the democratic principle to a certain extent allowed. times exercising a vigilant care over is its well- Thus.

" All Lodges have a fixed day for the when more than ordinary exertions are made to do honour to the occasion all the members generally endeavour to be present. easy in address. There must also he a Treasurer and Secretary. That he should be well . when the minutes his are confirmed. with their assistants the two Deacons. and Tyler. Wardens and other is officers. true and trusty. he shall be duly installed in the chair according to ancient usage. its Master and Treasurer by ballot. and imparts to hiTn the necessaiy of a Master : —That he should be of good report. That he should be exemplary in conduct. declares : The Book of Constitutions " The officers of a Lodge are the Master and his two Wardens. The by Lodge being opened id due form. and. The installing Master informs the Master elect that the choice of the brethren has been approved qualifications and confirmed. afber shall which he the appoint . at the next meeting after his election. but steady and fii-m in principle. and Stewards " Every Lodge shall annually elect may he appointed. That he must have been regularly initiated. passed. the (as Master elect is presented a Past Master of the Lodge duly elected) for installation. such Master having regularly served as "Warden of a warranted Lodge for one year . Inner Gruard. Lodge. and the brother who undertakes the performance of the ceremony (not necessarily a member of the Lodge) ought to be well skilled in the craft. and visitors invited. from other Lodges are There must be at least three Past Masters present at an installation. A Chaplain. courteous in manner. except Treasurer the Tyler to be chosen by the members of the installation. and be held in high estimation by the brethren.148 ILLTTSTEATIONS OF EEEEMASOHET. and raised in the several degrees of Freemasonry. Master of the Ceremonies. and have served the office of Warden in a warranted Ledge for twelve months. his office merit and services being his recommendation for the high of a ruler in the craft. and possess a thorough acquaintance with all the ceremonies.

apparent contradictions. so &r as the meeting his decision to concerned. nothing to learn. and presented before a board of installed Masters.THE CEBEMOKT Or HfSTAtLATlCOT OF MASTEE. He should be not only to instruct the younger brethren. and fa- miliarize it with Masonic discussions and illustrations. he is the arbiter on all questions of order.9 and able and •willing to undertake the work. in the presence of the office The Master installing Lodge. conthe sented to undertake the with all its responsibilities. Brother Oliver says. Tou promise not to be concerned in plots or conspiracies H 3 . skilled in the science. ballot of the brethren in He must have been duly elected by open Lodge assembled. Tou are to be a peaceable subject. before a brother can be pronounced competent to undertake the arduous duiy of governing a Lodge. He should be well versed in the ancient charges and landmarks of the Order. Master directs the Secretary to read the ancient charges and regulations from the Book of Constitutions. 14. to each clause of which the future Master gives his assent : "1. by whom the choice of the brethren must be approved. as well as to answer the objections. He is amenable for his conduct to the Grand Lodge alone. " 2. and cheerfully to con- form to the laws of the country in which you " 3. reside. but to resolve the doubts of those who are more advanced in Masonic knowledge. Tou agree to be a good man and true. and strictiy to obey the moral law. — —and to reconcile to eluci- date obscure facts or m. to expand the mind. nor can any appeal be made from that of the Lodge. and to render pointless the ridicule of our uninitiated adversaries. A master of the work ought to have Mly qualified. general knowledge is —" I am decidedly of opinion that much necessary.ythie legends. elect having. — ^to settle chronologies." The power of a Master supreme is in his Lodge is absolute .

and to propagate the knowledge of the mystic art as far as your influence ajid ability can extend. upon receiving proper and to pay attention to aU the duties of Freeoccasions. Tou admit that " 12. supreme and subordinate. to Tou agree to pay a proper respect to the civil magistrate. but patiently to submit to dedsions of the supreme legislature. Tou promise to pay homage to the Grand Master for the time being. and that no public processions of . and act honourably by all men. and to submit to the awards and resolutions of your brethren in general Lodge convened in every case consistent with the Constitutions of the Order. 5. and to his officers strictly to when duly installed. " 4. "9. Tou agree to promote the general good of society. and their regular successors. tlie against govenmieiit. according to their stations. and to guard against intemperance and excess. live creditably. "10. and that no countenance ought to be given to any irregular Lodge. and to discountenance impostors and dissenters from the original plan of Preemasonry. work " diligently. " 8. to cultivate the social virtues. or to any person initiated therein. Tou promise to respect genuine and all true brethren. tions not in the power of any man or body of men to make innovation in the body of Masonry. it is "11. "6. Tou agree to hold in veneration the original rulers and patrons of the Order of Freemasonry.150 iiLrsTEATioirs of feeemasohet. Tou agree to be cautious in your carriage and behaviour. and conform to every edict of the Grand Lodge. Tou admit that no new Lodge can be formed without permission of the Grand Master or his Deputy. and faithfol to your Lodge. courteous to your brethren. Tou agree to avoid private piques and quarrels. " 7. masonry upon proper and convenient " 13. Tou promise a regular attendance on the communica- and committees of the Grand Lodge. notice thereof.

or until a new Master shall have been duly elected and installed in his stead. having retired. except installed Masters.THE CEEEMONT OE DfSTAIiLATIOir OF MASTEE. Tou promise that no visitor shall be received into your liodge without due examinatioa. "14. on the contrary. by solemn obligation. judgment to define." At the conclusion the Tiifdalling OflScer addresses the Master elect as follows: —"Do you submit to and promise to support all these chaises and regulations as Masters have done in ages ?" Upon his answering in the affirmative the ceremony of installation proceeds. and grant that the worthy and is distinguished brother who amongst the rulers of the craft. and Most High to this Gcod. and the ceremony of installation proceeds. but. Lodge according to the laws of the Grand introduce. neither himself to any deviation and landmarks of the Order. vouchsafe thine aid our solemn rite. nor to allow in irom. Sanctify H . 151 Masons dothed with the badges of the Order can take place without the special licence of the Grand Master or his Deputy. to accept the his office and to govern others. You admit that no person can regularly be made a Freemason or admitted a member of any Lodge without previous notice and due inquiry into his character and that no brother . The Lodge Masters is then opened in the superior degree. as a mler. and on this solemn occasion the Divine ^d is thus invoked : " Almighty. strengthen to comprehend. can be advanced to a higher degree except in strict conformity with the laws of the Grand Lodge. a board of installed is declared. and in all respects feithfully to is discharge his duties This obligation undertaken for one year. the ancient usages Lodge of England. and all. now about to be numbered may be endowed with wisdom him with thy 4 grace. He is then required. and producing proper vouchers of his having been initiated in a regular Lodge. and firmness to enforce obedience to thy law. Eternal. " 15. to preserve the same in their integrity .

never be effected by the its —an operation which could or mallet. Next liiraim. that it may be used to break off the comers of rough stones. that of the old gable or gavel end of a house. and enrioh he Ms mind with. The distinction between this implement and the settingmaul is understood by every Master Mason. by the symbolic meaning of the square upon his breast. It is to be made with a cutting edge. so does aid of the gavel.-— and also with the jewel of the Master of the Lodge. The true form of the gavel is that of a stone-mason's hammer. nor can which cannot extend beyond two years in the same brother be Master of more than one Lodge at the same time. is The Master which is then entrusted with the Warrant of the Lodge. that may he enabled to enlighten the brethren. committed to his keeping during his period of office succession.152 him -with. Master of the Lodge admonished. of the profession. thy power. It derives common hammer name from its shape. and any ill-feeling or exert his authority to prevent angry discussion arising to impair the harmony of their meetings. so the that is all the parts may properly agree. . genuine know- ledge. and consecrate our meetings to the honour and glory of thy most holy Name. So mote is it be.'' The Master next invested with the badge of a Past Master — the highest honour in the power of the Lodge to bestow. which is also called the because as Solomon controlled and directed the workmen in the Temple by the assistance of the Master preserve order in the Lodge Hiram the by the builder. emblematical of our conduct in this occasion and upon they are carefully enumerated. ILLUSTEATIOKS Or lEEEMASONET. is presented to him the gavel. This jewel represents the square. He has then his attention directed to the various implements life. because as the square is employed operative by Masons to fit and adjust the stones of a building. to preserve that moral deportment among the members to of his Lodge which should ever characterize good Masons.

153 —^wiU guide yon to man The square line. D.. and also in token of respect as a master of arts and sciences. which he are presented the Book of Constitutions as his guide at all times in cases of difficulty. as an installed Master. great light direct in. as duly installed. coTttipass principles of mora]it3- and The teaches us to limit our desires in every station. the board of installed Masters is closed. : and invest you with the ensign of your office —the level —which H 5 . regretted. invests his immediate Past who . chair are then admitted —^Master and the others in succession. the installing Master east. and is required to cause to be read once in the year. we may live respected. who are separately conducted to the pedestal generally by the installing brother. may plead ignorance of their The Worshipfiil Master then Master.THE OEEEMOirr OF IWSTAI-LATION OF MASTEB. After being saluted. so that none contents. The Worshipful — Master then invests each newly-appointed brother with the collar and jewel of his office in the foEowing form " Brother C. acts as his assistant in his absence as well as in it his presence is being the established custom. Tile volume of the Sacred all Law—that . and die Enally to the "Worshipful Master the By-laws of the Lodge. yonr path to the temple of happiness. The new Master enters immediately on the duties of his office by appointing his officers. The brethren below the Masons first. and point out to you the whole duty of teaches us to reg^nlate our actions by rule and and to harmonize our conduct by the virtue. I appoint you Senior Warden of the Lodge. that rising to eminence by merit. Masonry truth it mU. west. when the Master unable to be present that his immediate predecessor should preside. proclaiming the Worshipfiil Brother in the south. with grand honours.

Your regular attendance is particu- and I have no doubt that you wiU. particularly in the introduction of visitors. the Worshipful : Master thus addressing him " I appoint you. integrity. I appoint you Junior Warden of the Lodge. tlie summonses Your good inclinations to Masonry and the . indispensably neces- sary that you should not only he temperate and discreet in the indulgence of your own inclinations. emblem of uprightness and of you the peculiar correctness conduct that is expected from you. It is your province to record the minutes and issue for our meetings.154 will ILLTTSTEATIOUS OP TEEEMASONET. faithfully execute every duty. without which. the chief support of our institution. larly requested. and invest you with the the plumh-rule being an will teach collar and jewel of office. but carefblly note that none others be suffered to convert the purposes of refreshment into intemperance and excess. my presence to assist me government." The Secretary then presented and invested. H. duties of the oflSce. Brother J.. " Brother E. the hours of refreshment it is. who has been invested with the jewel of his elected by the Lodge. your duty to see that every brother meets upon the is and that the principle of equality preserved during the work. remind you.. K. that jewel. the Worshipful Master thus addressing him : " Brother G. cannot he preserved. I firmly rely on your knowledge of the Art for the faithful discharge of the and attachment to the Lodge. as in Tour regular attendance on our my absence you and in may he in its called to rule the Lodge. and I am is sure you will do honour to their selection. To you is committed the superintendence of the brethren during . P. therefore. stated meetings is essentially necessary. I have the pleasure of investing you with the jewel of the office to which you have been elected by the brethren ." The Treasurer. is next office. harmony.. Secretary of the Lodge. wMle presiding over the labours of the Lodge. it is that level.

-y fc i 7^ The Holy Royal Arch. .


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and for its regal splendour and unparalleled lustre far transcended aU ideas that it we can form of at the present period. human nature. God of their fathers and followed the false gods of their heathen neighbours. constantly with them. his kingdivided . ten of the tribes of dom. the Almighty was pleased to grant them many by pre- signal instances of his divine favour and protection. but forsook the when they Isaiah. but depravity of but the proof of the when iu Egypt. by the Most High. —when. by the prophet complains. as God. that his favoured people. for their wicked apostasy and blind it is idolatry. 159 R. the Judah and Benjamin. the visible symbol of his presence. "they forsook the fountains of living waters." lence of his magnificence and who heard the Almighty speakfire. for whom. Having tried the patience and long-suffering . In the preceding degrees we learn how Solomon huUt that magnificent Temple which was justly esteemed as the most wonderful structure ever inown. however.THE STTPEEMB OEDEE OF THE HOLT EOTAL AECH. and hewed out for themselves broken cisterns that could hold no water. continued of David. Whilst the Jews continued to serve God with that purity of worship and sincere devotion which characterized their early progenitors. — ^that they should have debased themselves by idolatry and polluted their worship by the adoration of false gods. God wrought by the hand of Moses a series of the most astonishing miracles. It almost exceeds the power of belief. and the excel. was tribes of Israel revolted from his son Eehohoam . Mason will perceive when te has attained the rank of Past First Principal of a Chapter." they were justly punished for their perverse and rebellious spirit. ing with an audible voice out of the midst of the and who had also the glorious Shechiuah. to whom He displayed from Mount Sinai " the Divine Majesty of his glory. serving their holy city from the horrors of war. and were ruled faithful to the house by the descendants of Solomon. A. as threatened After the death of Solomon.

and the instructor of his disobedient but people. who succeeded to the govern- ment of the whole country. the sound of the miU-stones. when seventy years are accom- plished. now repentant Daniel in his youth was taken amongst his countrymen into captivity. during wHoh they had declared for divers warnings of his displeasure. and Cyrus.160 ILIiTJSTEATIONS Or FEEEMASONET. and the light of the candle. After this Babylon fell into the hands of the Persians. I will take from them the voice of mirth. and the voice of the bride. saith the Lord. ajid will it make perpetual desolations. on the waU of his banqueting-room. king of Babylon. and against the inhabitants thereof. the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet. razed and cairied away the whole population. God raised up Daniel prophet. empowering him to declare the vengeance of the Lord of Hosts. of tie Most Higli for many ages. by being enabled to inter- pret the handwriting exhibited to Belshazzar the king. for their iniquity. and became one of the king's chief officers. and the voice of gladness. its captured the and having plundered the holy Temple of to the ground. king of Judah. " Because ye have not heard my words. sacred vessels. After the death of Jeremiah. that I will punish the king of Babylon. I will send Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon against this land." (Jeremiah xxv. was by Daniel made acquainted with . And this and years. whole land shall be a desolation and an astonishment. the voice of the bridegroom. except a few of the menial tribes left to till who were to be his the land. verified in the eleventh year when the armies city. it of Nebuchadnezzar.) This threatened of the reign of judgment was Zedekiah. was exalted to favour. Behold. and the land of the Chaldeans. In the fourth year of the reign of JehoiaMm. their nation shall serve the king of Babylon for seventy And it shall come to pass. and in course of time. prophet He at length by his He would execute summary punishment their wickedness.

permission to the Jews to return to their Besides giving the captives their liberty. he fiimished them with money to prosecute the great and glorious undertaking. Cyrus. and also restored aU the vessels of gold and silver belonging to the house of God." He has charged me He accordingly gave own land. the prophecy of Isaiah. represented to Cambyses (who succeeded his father Cyrus). was a remarkable patriarchs. which had been taken by ISTebnchadnezzar." be bmlt . whose right hand I have holden. "He all saith of Cyrus. Thy foundation Daniel. hindered by the Samaritans.. has been assumed by Dr. : He is perform my pleasure even saying to Jerusalem. however. Thou shalt shall be laid. and to build Him a house at Jerusalem. concerning Giod which it contains. and to the Temple. saith the Lord of Hosts . is described name more than 200 foretold with years before his birih.. 161 by —wherein he. not for price nor reward. who." and shepherd. to subdue nations before bixn and I will loose the loins . and I shall build wfll direct all his ways . and who.THE BTTPEEME OEDEE OP THE HOLT EOTAL AECH. and the restoration of the Jews. he my my city and let go my captives. and shall farther. has given me all the kingdoms of the earth. that the Jews were a seditious and rebellious . not being allowed to participate in the work. it it is evident. . the Grod of heaven. and issued his proclamation: —^"Jehovah. who. Hales. and the drcmnstances of the taldng of Babylon. to Cyrus. Jbsephus tells us. worshipped the one true Cfod as known to the adopted the ofSce designed for him. are wondrous minnteness and accnracy. who directed the attention of Cyrus to this grand prediction. could not fiil to enforce and explain those declarations Cyrus. readily character. I have and the gates r^ed biTn up in righteousness. of kings. " Thus saith the Lord to Ms anointed. " that the number of those who came out of captivity to Jerusalem was foriy-two thousand four hundred and sixty-two." The progress of the restoration of the Temple was. to open before him the two-leaved gates shall not be shut .

first the East was and between these dates we find a difference of sisty- nine years.162 people. a nohle Persian of the family of Achaefirst menides. The conduct of the proceedings was entrusted who. The Boyal Arch Degree refers especially to the second Temple. The three degrees of Craft Masonry the first refer to the building of Temple erected by Solomon. the prophet Haggai aiding by his eloquent appeals to the people. Haggai the prophet.o. who introduced the learning and mysteries of India . and Joshua the High Priest. 536. Zeruhbahel reminded him of the vow he had made to rebuild Jerusalem and its Temple the result was that the : Mng issued a decree to effect this purpose without delay. had the Hngly office in his person. the result is sufficiently satisfectory. But when Darius Hystaspes' ascended the throne. and as they tried the merits of those participation in that great who sought to be admitted to a it is and glorious undertaking. The accuracy with which this prophecy was fulfilled is shown by the logy: — respective dates according to the best received chrono^the Jews were subjected by Nebuchadnezzar. prince and governor of Judea. and joined with him was Joshua the High Priest. 605. and therefore allowing for any inaccuracy of current and complete years. and the B. and the crrcumstances connected therewith. Judah. doubtless in imitation of the great councU of elders who were appointed by Grod to assist Moses in the discharge of his judicial functions. was th. as a prince of the tribe of to Zerubbabel.C. It was then the Sanhedrim of the Jews was first instituted. ILLTTSTEATIONS OF rHEBMASONET. Thus the Chapter is a representation of the great Sanhedrim convened for the purpose of building the second Temple . Over this Sanhedrim presided Zerubbabel. and he ordered all his subjects to give every assistance to the work. so the ^ Hystaspes. the father of Dtiriua. into Persia. year of the reign of Cyrus over all b. and a descendant of David.

in the very centi-e of the place where the sanctuary of the solemn Sanhedrim was afterwards erected. engraved by the bands of the Most High. For these reasons we denominate Hiram was this the First. Aholiab. viz. and foot of Mount Horeb in and thanksgivings where the host of Israel pitched their tents and assembled to offer up their prayers for their signal deliverance from the hands of the Egyptians. the king of Abif. The exaltation mto this degree is conclnded by explanations of the three Principals. —There are three epochs in Eoyal Arch Masoniy which especially merit attention. narrative The legend of the degree is framed in consistency Tvith the we derive from the Old Testament. the Second. 163 province of members to examine the qualifications of those who seek admission to this sublime degree. with those sublime and comprehensive precepts of religious and moral duty . On this spot Abra- ham proved his intuitive &ith by leading his only and beloved . or Sacred and the Third. and Solomon. the king of Tyre. Holy Lodge. or Israel. or First. Holy Lodge. The Slstorieal (by Joshua).l.l. and the Ark of the Covenant. presided over the Second or Sacred Lodge. the history of the three ancient Lodges or Chapters which we com- memorate: the Lodge . which held. "the wilderness of Sinai. The First. 2992. or Grand and Boyal Lodge. and of freedom and salvation to the bouse of Jacob . in the bosom of the Holy Mount Moriah. at the by Moses. this place the iaithfril In Almighty had before revealed Himself to his servant Moses. Hiram. here were delivered the forms of those mysterious prototypes.. or a. a.THE StrPEEME OEDES OE THE HOLT EOTAIi AECH. conse- crated Israel a chosen vessel for his service. was opened Bezaleel. 2515. on consecrated ground. and also the Sacred Law. by separating his &vourite people from all other nations. the Tabernacle. Holy Lodge. and here also were dictated those peculiar forms of dvil and religious polity which. when He commissioned hiTn his high ambassador of wrath against Pharaoh and his people.

3469. or Sacred Lodge. I. pleased the Almighty to provide a also. Zerubbabel. viz. Haggai. and where God had declared for ever. after the return of the Israelites &om the Babylonish captivity. or To commemorate this Grand and Eoyal Lodge. whose names they also bear. are represented the grand originals. in the seventieth year of the present era . Here. the selectors and expounders of the Sacred Law. nor a lawgiver from between his come. The Third. is called feet. The people are represented by the rest of the companions. and Joshua the son of Josedecli the High Priest. by Zerubbabel. Yourselves represent the three sojourners who. of these are we cannot here enter further than to remark." (Gen. David offered stayed .. when it son Isaac a destined victim to the altar of his God. that " the sceptre should not depart from Judah. and the attendants on the grand Sanhedrim. among them the ensigns of the twelve tribes. restoration. David and princely house of Judah and thus it re- mained until the destruction of Jerusalem by the Eomans under Titus. The symbols are described by the Second Principal . was holden at Jeru- salem. figuratively denoting the pecu- . on the threshing-floor of Arannah the Jehusite..164 II/LTJSTEATIONS OF PEEEMASONET. Now in the person of Zerubbabel was the royal line of restored. by whose names they are also designated. up that mediatorial prayer hy which the plague was and here had revealed to him in a vision the plan of was afterwards erected by his that magnificent Temple which illustrious son. until Shiloh xlix. this In all well formed and regularly constituted Chapters. thereby verify- ing the prediction of Jacob. Haggai the prophet. were awarded seats in the august assembly. The two Soiibes represent Ezra and Nehemiah. the prince of the people. and Joshua. 10. more fitting sacrifice. A. for their zeal and fidelity in discovering and preserving the secrets of the Sacred Ai-ch. He would estahlish his most holy Name We therefore designate this the Second. or Grand and Eoyal Lodge.) the Third.

and British palace. JBochart (Hierozoicon. Jndah a lion. iv. therefore God chose to sit signify npon cherubims bearing the forms of these animals. God in Heaven rested on the bodies in a word. where resided the Magi of old. in his criticism on the Apocalypse (ch. and Dan an eagle. —by the lion's form is signified their strength. sent by Layard. had not the erect bodies of human beings. while they had each a particular lace mentioned. suggests that the Throne of of the four living things . to He was the Leader and King of the cohorts of the Israelites. by that of the ox. that the Kving creatures. their humanity and kindness their agility and by that of the and speed. but that of brutes. as . and which tomb of Gyms. This we must consider a representation of the celestial figure which Cyrus had derived from the captives. 165 liar blessings bequeathed to each by the patriarcb Jacob. the eagle. This very closely approaches the gigantic forms we bave received fix)m the excavations at Nineveh. by their human eagle. or horizontal . and majesty. their constancy . the wings of an eagle. a lion. which is supposed to be the ancient sacred city Pasargada. Hebrew Moses Stuart. They guarded the portals of the temple and At Mourg-Aub contains the in Persia. on the animals mentioned Bible) says that they represented the nature in the and ministry of gene- Angels rosity. These four composed a cherubim. shape. recorded in the forty-ninth chapter of Genesis also the stan- dards of the four leading divisions of the devices being those of a man. 7). now in the Museum. and the legs and feet of an ox. Sphraim an ox. !Prom the traditions of the Hebrews we leain that the standard of Keuben bore a man. and assiduity in executing the commands of God . the back and mane of a Hon. an ox.THE STJPEBltE OEDEB OF THE HOLT EOTAIi ABCH. Spencer and other authorities say that the cherubim had the fece of a man. is the soulptnred figure of a man with four large wings. army and an of Israel.

is In the works of TJiilo-JuAcBibs there an express dissertation asserts upon the Cheettbim. This stupendous appearance of the gloiy of Jehovah. as. we can only state the outlines. who It must be supposed ftdly to know. of which. wiiile the heads of the creatures projected beyond the throne. while a brightness issued from the centre of amber. is. whose appearance fi-om his loins upwards. and then advert to what PMlo and Josephus. and on which sat the likeness of a man. have observed upon this subject.166 ones . when to his astonished view the heavens were opened. in the opinion of the great critic Longimis. and that it -was upon ttese bodies tliat tlie tlirone rested. the account which Moses gives of the Creation does Cosmogony. and he saw visions of God. in which that writer repeatedly that those two powers in God. the sentiments of their nation. and from his loins downwards. spiral). howfirst ever. exhibited to Ezekiel . and the most celebrated Gentile authors. in the first place. the prophet represents himself as sojourning amidst the sorrowful captives of Judah on the banks of the Chebar. the loftiest strains of surpasses Homer. in allusion to which the cherubim. place. such as are visible in the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain. " God dweUeth between Let us. is represented which immediately took by him as preceded by a whirlwind from the a fire north. attentively consider what is related concerning the cheruhvm in the prophetic nsion of Enehiel. are symbolized by the cJieruhie figures of the ark. and accurately to report. which the Paraphrasts denominate the two hands of Grod. was like that of an ardent flame encircled with variegated splendours. vivid and transparent as the colour of The four sacred animals that supported the everlasting throne which resembled the sapphire. that in it as fex grandeur of idea and energy of expression. may be truly said of the description in EzeJciel. attended with a gi-eat cloud. since it extends through nearly the whole of the chapter of that prophet. and unfolding itself (that it." it is said. II/ltrSTEATlONS OT I'EEBMASOirET. all their relations of the At the commencement of this sublime book.

who of the tribe of Judah. and their wings. that their emphatically called the Lion this prophet it is In another chapter of whole body. all-seeing and about. Thus are the three Persons in the Holy Trinity Tn'ng of shadowed out under the similitude of the three noblest ammals in nature the forest —the —and the bull. and their hands. ^they four also of an eagle. and the noise of those wings when they moved was loud as the noise of great waters.THE SUPEEME OEDEE Or THE HOLT EOXAI. that their circumference was so vast as to raise terror in the prophet is who beheld them. —and those wheels had rings or is. and their backs. and who. were fall of eyes round This must be considered as a striking and expressive emblem of the guardian vigilance of Providence. . But though each of the sacred cherubic figures had the aspect of those august animak. ialf human. 167 a fourfold aspect likewise the fece of a lion and the had the fece They had each the fece of a man. that they were dreadM. they had &ce of an ox. AECH. the lord of the plain —the Hon. in that appearance exhibited to the fiivoured prophet the mystery of the foture incamation of the Aoyos. while the multitude of wings with which they are adorned exhibits to us as direct symbols of that powerfiil. or the colour of the sky. awM as the voice of the Almighty and the likeness of the firmament upon the This magnificent heads of the living creatures was as the colour of the terrible crystal stretched forth over their heads above. wheel within wheel. so high. They had each four wings which were — joined one to another. that . Such the lofly description of the chariot that conveyed the personified Shechinah in the likeness of the rainbow sat — ^the God-man —who upon the sapphire throne. strakes Ml of eyes. half divine. the sovereign of birds. as well as the wheels. azure. said. or (as Jonathan's paraphrase translates the word OphanTiim) sphere within sphere. omniscient . to denote that the human nature was blended with the divine in that particular is Person of the Divine Triad. the eagle. tbat is. chariot of the Deity is likewise said to have wheels of the colour of a beryl. they had likewise the fiice of a man.

while it darts tirougli nature witt a glance. speaks of the Word of God. In the splendid vision also which Ezekiel was permitted to old. the book of the generation of Jesus Christ. have of the new Temple to be formed upon the model of the it is said that the walls were adorned with carved work of cherubim and palm-trees. The first face. in which is heard the voice of the lion roaring in the desert. whicli. who. which continued many ages the delight and boast of the Hebrew nation. the Son of David. John. that of the Luke the Evangelist commencing his history . from the traditions of his time. the second.168 ILLTJSTEATIOHS OF FEEEMASONET. So attached to this heavenly symhol were the Jews. the Evangelist St. Mark. and no satisfiictory solution of the mystery has been arrived figures. which appear in so many places in the Old and New Testament. who begins to write. " Precalf. loftier having taken the wings of an eagle. that of a man. in their separate at. as of a man. we are told that he carved all the walls of the house round about with sculptured figures of cherubim. pare ye the figures way of the Lord. is a. and they have for a very long period formed the four quarters on the dexter side of the armorial bearings of the Fraternity. are and natural symbols of the four Evangelists. the sinister side being occupied by the bearings of the City of of (Operative) Masons. that when for so Solomon erected that stupendous Temple. These symbolical representations of the cherubim. have been the subject of endless doubt. is every where present to protect and defend us. Their introduction into Masonry strong proof of the intimate connexion of our Order with the Holy Scriptures. and hastening to things. represents them as . the son of Abraham . all-pervading Spirit. signifies Matthew. London Company The description which Josephus gives of the nature of the cherubim. With the early Christians the four state. pre- fi:om the priest Zechariah and the fourth." the third.

— ^the Master Mason being only in possession of a substituted . there are also a the serving com- panion without. Lord. The ostensible object of the degree is to recover the lost word. the lion eagle among the wild beasts. and the Third Principal. are in precisely the same manner as in a Lodge. the ox among the tame. the Scribes. all desires known. The officers of a Chapter are the Krst . entertaining propositions. and the eagle. the terrible. High Priest one representing Ezra." Name and Word- So mote The Chapter is opened in solemn form. The cherubim tradition as of the ark were also creatures.THE STJPEEME OEDBE OF THE HOLT EOTAIi AECH. as an assemblage of the great. and from whom secrets are hid. cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit. that we may per- fectiy love Thee. who repre- sents Zerubbabel the prince of the people the Second Principal. O Omnisdent and Almighty whom no all hearts are open. We may observe to this effect : — that there an ancient Hebrew apothegm ^There are four superb creatures in the world. Haggai the prophet. they bore some resemblance of the man. as fer as the poets could pourtray. inown to the Arabians by winged something like the is human form. and the other Principal Sojourner and his named Nehemiah two assistants . and the maTi who surpasses them alL is At opening a Chapter none but Frindpals can be present. it preceded by the Holy Communion Prayer. is denominated the Janitor. and who performs the duties of Secretary. The formulas of reading and confirming minutes. addressing the Most High in his triform attributes : " O Omnipotent. the the bull. and the other com- panions are admitted. 169 winffed living animals. who who two represents represents Joshua the son of Josedech. and worthily magnify thy Holy it he. &c. . or the artists execate these subjects. and the wonderfiiL It is however manifest that lion. of a fomi and aspect different from every thing that had been seen by man. the among the birds.. Principal. unto O Omnipresent.

and brought to light by the sojourners who were sent to prepare the foundation for the second Temple. with symbols and inscrip- It is only when he has passed is a companion obtains another jewel. the apron being bordei-ed with the same. emblematic of their respective offices. all of gold. blematic of the regal. that this is another degree. The aim and end of this degi'ee appears to be the bringing in ti-aditional history one view before the Master Mason the of the . The badge of the Royal Arch consists of a sash and apron. The three Principals bear sceptres. the triple Tau being delineated on both. emoffices. it being beneath the first Temple. which for a period of five centuries were buried in darkness. These however. it. —and tliis is discovered in a secret vault which for a period of nearly five centuries was unknown. are not enforced in the formation of a legislative Although the wisdom that ' new Chapter. is double triangle within a tions engraved on chair. the prophetic purple. framed the Book of Constitutions declares there are but three degrees and no more. suspended The jewel worn on the (Principals left tf a the first by a white ribbon circle wear red). The other chairs can restric- only be attaiaed after iutervals of twelve months. and he must also have served the ofBce of Scribe or Sojourner. tions. breast. and the priestly blue. The officers of a Chapter wear collars. to which are suspended jewels. emblems of that purity of that mind should ever distinguish those who are admitted into this supreme order. and on the celestial whole a crimson crown. the former being radiated with purple and crimson. and sacerdotal The kingly robe is red. Thus it may be said that in this degree are brought to light the essentials of Masonry.' we must insist. ILIUSTEATIONS Or rEEBMJLSONET. prophetical. of gold. which a circle having on it a triangle.170 word. A companion must have attaiaed the rank of Master of a Lodge to be eligible for the Third Principal's chair. the back centre being a glory of rays. and that each of the Principals takes a new degree as he advances. The other heart and officers wear white robes.

We cannot conceive that it was this Temple of which the prophet Haggai says." Tacixts calls it immensce opulemtiai tenvplitm. which in having the presence of the Lord." It wanted the five Temple with glory. saith the Lord of Hosts. and preached the " some spake of the temple. in the which there I 2 . but of course nrach larger. for these things which ye behold. increased population) laid the third. The historical portion of the Lectore makes mention of three tabernacles designed for the dwelling-place of the Most High. viz. Gkid Himself (it the second. the . must have than those buildings which preceded it. larger than the Temple of ZerubbabeL It was built of white marble. and all the Jewish writers praise it for its Josephus says. and the formation of a Lodge by Moses to the era of the Tebnilding of the Temple by order of Cyrus. with BoHd plates of gold. and the Spirit of But we may rather conceive it referred to the third the liad greater glory Temple. Lord taught the people in the sacred GSospel unto them. 171 first Tbub Woed. principal things viz. so that when the sun it reflected upon it. It was considerably beauty. Holy Fire on the Prophecy. a temple of immense opulence. such a strong and dazzling efiulgence its from that the eye was no more able to withstand radiance than the splendour of the sun. " The glory of this latter house shall be greater than the former. that of Solomon the whole plan and model of which was laid by the same Divine was built of the same form as the first. according to Josephus. On one of those days when our Blessed edifice. but larger. for it was covered on every rose side it. as providing for a greatly . "Its appearance had every thing that could strike the mind and astonish the sight . first of which was by his own command delivered to Moses Architect. how As it was adorned with goodly stones and He said. the foundations of which were by Zerubbabel. the altar. gifts . the Divine the Ark and Presence. the days will come. or Herod's Urim and Thummim.THE StrPEEMIE OBSEB OP THE HOLT EOTAIi AECH. ihe transmisBion of Masoniy firom. which invested Solomon's Mercy-seat. or visible glory of the Shechinah. was similar to that of Solomon.

6. and its inhabitants slaughtered or carried away into captivity. is and the Chapter properly arranged. that the Royal Arch does contain every thing useful also all the and proper. the various practices embodied. which and diligence. and to a certain extent this has been the practice in all the rituals. was It was entirely de- accomplished. every principle of the old practice is included in the modem and now established custom. We have reason to believe that formerly the degree contained matter which. shall not be shall not be left one stone upon another that thrown down. and so-called higher degrees. and hence the desu-ability of having regularity. would be decidedly objectionable. When every officer is in his place. month that Solomon's Temple The entire city was razed to its foundations. is not attained by all. and A perfect knowledge of the degree can only be attained by a chairs. the ceremony impressive. consists in brethren having seen exaltations inefficiently and imperfectly rendered. and the an newly-exalted companion figuratively admitted through arch of Masonry. molished by the Eomans under Titas. But independently of this. We have heard objections raised to the alteration of the ritual. a. . Another fiict they are igno- rant of is. and this splendid building. 5. at once the envy and admiration of the world.) Within forty years this important prediction. but also instructive. not only not so and the reason it is universally held in esteem. companion passing regularly through the three making himself a thorough master of the necessarily requiring time entire ritual. at the present day. are arranged in the is The companions form of an arch. 70. passed away.d. in the same month and the same day of the was destroyed by the Babylonians.172 ILLUSTEATIONS 01' rEEEMASONEX. and perfect in the business." (Luke xri. degi-ee will pass Hence a perfect acquaintance with this a Mason into any degrees on the Continent. but such brethren were not acquainted with the fact of there having previously been no established rule. which foretold the destniction of the Holy Place.

One we remember it to have inspected would have hours to give perfectly . • 173 In like maimer. approach more to the system formerly in use among us. required period. and the United States of America. but it was the custom of the and was when the author was exalted by the officials to read the ritual. or. equilateral triangle. delivery of The old ceremonial began with the first The Woed to Moses at the Burning Bush.T1 AECH. All the old rituals were very long. and its perfection in the New Covenant. the Trinity in Unity. Ireland. six. in other words. and the equilateral triangle the New Testament. although not quite alike. but more particularly that superior light which shone forth in the Grospel revelation. The reason why we and the interlacing law. which enter the Chapter upon the Holy Bible. its loss and recovery in the Old Covenant. This roU represented the Old Testament. The present ritual of the EoyaL Arch that of any other country. Thus in the old lectures the three great lights represented the sublime word in three different points of view. OTir ancestors were accustomed to witneBs in the miracle-plays sacred subjects treated with a familiarity that now could not he tolerated. ^ <s> o^ r I 3 . . In the original formula of the Order we find it thus given : In the beginning was ilie Word.THE BUPEEME OEDEE OP THE HOLTEOTA. in England differs from Scotland. when the mysteries of the Trinity were publicly displayed at the baptism of Christ. refers to the roU of the was found at the time of building the second Temple.

lay as fer as can be learned different it dormant for a very long period. Hence tHs degree was in the strongest sense Trinitarian Christianity. Webb says. manifested and brought out again in the days of the Messiah. the prophetess. At the union of the two Grand Lodges. but it must be observed. it. than all which precede and is the summit and perfection of ancient Masonry. for this is the ne plus ultra of Masonry. and. and reminds us of the reverence due to his Holy Name. It has been suggested. being foretold by Huldai. to put the Josiah directs " the Levites Holy Ark in the house that Solomon did build . that that worthy brother terms the Lodge in the Third Degree A CHAPTEE. that the Jews have a that King Josiah. and can never be excelled by any tion. Laurence Dermot " the root. sublime. foreseeing the destruction. 2) which they interpret to mean the sacred and from thence shall be vault. we receive a wonderful accession of knowledge. that from the practice and legend the name was Arh. does not appear in Preston's volume . that the death." humam from institu- The Royal Arch Degree. where it remains to this day. which Solomon. and discovered. brother Oliver. "This degree is indescrihahly more august. tradition the Ark of the Covenant is the sacred thing Prom Buxtorf we learn. formed a part of.174 ILLTJSTEAXIONS OS ITEEEMASONEX. in his " If we pass on to the Royal Arch. All tlie old writers are loud in praise of the Royal calls it Arch. unless of. caused the Temple would be destroyed soon after his Ark to be put in a vault underground. it is to be re- . and find every thing made perfect ." lectures. and was the perfection the Master's Degree. xxxv. without beginning of days or end of years. had caused to be buUt for the purpose of preserving the Ark. It impresses on our minds a belief of the being and existence of the supreme Deity. says. heart. authorities. and important. (3 Chron. and marrow of Freemasonry.

s (Cancer) being tbe centre or key-stone." Srother Fellowes. all time to come to be placed before the " The two Grand Masters placed the act of union iu the interior of the said ark. sbows the arch with those seven signs upon it. This was when the degree was reformed. in measuring the celestial globe. R.THE SUPREME OEBEE OP THE HOLT KOTAI AECH. the Grand Chapter of !Ejngland preserves and exhibits some evidence of an acknow- ledgment of its astronomical origin in the carpet presented to the Grand Chapter by H. allow to have been a most profoundly learned Mason. the signs through which he passes in forming t^is semicircle. Among the more prominent symbols of this degree are to be noticed the circle and triangle.A. and in throne. No reference to this astronomical t^bis symbol was made in the ritnaL of the degree is But although theory of the origin denied by modem Masons. grand snperintendent of the works for the edifice of the union.A. 175 memWed. in treating of the Egyptian Theology. Ciultoortk. whose . being seven. owes its title to the imaginary arch made iu the heavens by the course of the sun {Osiris) from the vernal to the autumnal equinox. prepared under the direction of Brother John Soane. made acquainted with a very extraordinary application of the Tau figure. including those of the equinox. aU of which had astronomical reference and he shows this degree . the author was whom all Further. The old emblem of the E. R. that in the centre of the hall was the ark of the Masonic covenant. insists on Ereemasonry being derived from the mysteries of ancient times. the or steps required to be taken number of grades entitle by the Mason to him to the honours of this degree. and no arch now appears on the jewel. surof wisdom mounting the abolished pillars and strength. says the is following sublime definition of the Deity to be found in the is writings of Hermes Trismegistns I 4 : " God a circle. in his elaborate inquiry. the Duke of Sussex. H.. the cardinal point being the Dog-star.

spirits .176 ILLTISTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONET. spirit of the living the and the word . the spirit. which formeriy were a marked feature in Eoyal Arch Masonry.alBO a geometrical figure. that nearly the Egyptian hieroglyphics illustrative of the Divine nature were adorned with circular all emblems." This geometrical figure was considered as the most perfect of all those made use of in that science. or the Deity in his threefold it is In one of the ancient books of the Hebrews asserted that the three branches of the letter ty (scMn) are a proper emblem of the three persons that compose the Divine essence. who wrote God. and still are in Scotland and America. at other times the three Avva/ieis or jpowers. and of the veUs." sixteen centuries ago. at once emblematic of the perfection of the Deity. is as well as the Eibbon around the composed of two of the colours of which the veil of the Temple was interwoven. Josephus. he says farther there is one spirit of the living God. were emblematic of . is centre is every where. of which the three sides are equal in quantity. — Holy composed of four different materials. " voice. Badge of this degree. in describing the Tabernacle. we have another symbol handed down to us from the Egyptians. and the word. is as quoted in the Jeteirah. and as comfigures prehending in itself all other imaginable all whatever. the voice. and that almost the temples of Egypt were sculptured with this symbol. and this is Holy The Ribbon. In the Equilateral Tria/>iffle. They sometimes call these three Sephiroth. or Sash. Numen triplex. the Spirit. the spirit. Hence it arose. in God. says that the veils of the Place. and the pv/nfied light . as well as possibly allusive to the rapid circular motion by which all nature revolves. which was by them used to describe the character. purple and scarlet. says in almost similar tei-ms. which are There one one. and at other times the three lights. but whose circumference no where to he found. Babbi Aiiba. — Sahhi JELagahon affirmed there were three lights ^the a/iuAent light. the jpwre light.

fi'om those who are ignorant of that august mystery. 177 the four elemeniB ." it was marked upon the body of the candidate at his show he was it as set apart for the sacred mysteries. the pnrple tinge shadowed ont the sea. as well as exhibiting one of the most complete mathematical figures. T was among the ancients a hieroglyphic of eternal life. Among antiquity. a mysterious and powerfid amulet endowed with astonishing once both length and breadth. CUm-Jce says it was the monogram of Thoth. adopting the prophet EzeMel's mention of the symbol. and is repre- sented by the learned as a most sublime hieroglyphic. through the midst of the set through the midst of Jerusalem. The Dr. or the air . inkhom. for the fine linen which was made of flas. writer's Tan was the mark alluded to in "And the Lord said unto the (Jo man which had city. the deep blue was symbolical of the cerulean sky. to in Hindostan. from those who. I 5 . under the name of " tiluh. we take a mark distinguishing those who were to be saved on account of their sorrow for their sins. as idolaters. In this degree. virtue. typified the earth. because stained of that colour by the blood of a shell-fish . were to be slain. the symbols descended to us from times of remote and which prevailed throughout the East. initiation.THE SUPBEME OEDEE O^ THE HOLT EOTAI AECH. T- This emblem occurs Tery frequentiy on the Egyptian obelisks. the produce of the land. possessing at Most the commentators agree that the JEzehiel. It therefore may be assumed that the triple Tau is used in the Eoyal Arch Degree. and a 3Ca/rh upon the fi)reheads of the men that sigh and cry for all the abominations that be done in The Vulgate gives this version. and more was the tatt or letter particularly in Egypt. the symbolical name of hidden wisdom among the Egyptians. and the scarlet is a natural emblem of fire. " mark them on the forehead with the letter Tan" which affords room the midst thereof" — — to suppose it was a symbol of more sacred import in the early patriarchal ages than is generally supposed. as desig- nating and separating those who know and worship the true name of God.


said it was the

Some have
it is

the initials

monogram of Hiram of Tyre, others TH, Templvm Sierosoh/mcB, and it has

heen suggested to he a representation of three




alludes to the three

Grand Masters, heing




The government of a Royal Arch Chapter
three Principals,


entrusted to the


united form one triune head.




of the installation of the Principals is most impressive,
historical information.

and emhodies much
Boyal Arch Mason


illustration of

important events in the career of the Israelites, hy which the



progressive steps to a



knowledge of the wisdom, truth, and justice of the Most High,

such as cannot


to impress every one admitted to the

highest rank in the degree with awe and reverence for the
great Jehovah.

His majesty, might, and power,

as well as his

power to punish, are amply displayed in the Volume of the
Sacred Law, and portions of the Scsriptures are introduced at

each step in the Supreme Degree, illustrative of the grade to

which the companion



In the ceremonial attached to the Third Chair, reference


to the

punishment of a reheUious people, when, under

Korah, Dathan, and Ahiram, they resisted the authority of
God's chosen servants, and, led

by "two hundred and


princes of the assembly, fitmous in the congregation,

men of renown, gathered themselves against Moses and Aaxon." " And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying. Get you up from among this congregation, that I may consume them as in a moment. And they fell upon their faces. And Moses said unto Aaron,
Take a

and put


therein from off the altar, and put

on incense, and go quickly unto the congregation, and malie an



for there


wrath gone out from the
took as Moses comand,



the plague


And Aaron

manded, and ran into the midst of the congregation;
behold, the plague

was begun among the people


and he put on


and made an atonement

for the people.




between the dead and the living ; and the plague was stayed.

Now they that died

in the plagae were fourteen thousand and

seven hundred, beside them that died about the matter of

And Aaron

returned unto Moses unto the door of the

tabernacle of the congregation

and the plague was stayed."

It is to be observed, tha,t upon ordinary occasicms incense

could only be offered on the golden altar in the Holy

Hace but



extraordinary occasion an extraordinary remedy was

provided; and Aaron went out into the camp with the incense,

and placing himself in the part where the destruction
that which



might not have yet reached, the plague ceased on

his offering the incense and

m airing

an atonement.



have stayed the plague without the intervention of Aaron
in this time of discontent,


pleased TTiTn to afford another

convincing testimony, that the



was acting in his


his appointment

and by his



illustration of the priestly office is read,

"And the Lord

spake unto Moses, saying. Take Aaron and his sons with

and the garments, and the anointing oil, and a bullock for the sin offering, and two rams, and a basket of unleavened bread

and gather thou


the congregation together unto the door of

the tabernacle of the congregation.

And Moses

did as the





and the assembly was gathered together unto

the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

And Moses

unto the congregation. This


the thing which the Lord com-

manded to be done. And Moses broi^ht Aaron and his sons, and washed them with water. And he put upon him the coat, and girded biTn with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod upon him, and he girded him with the curious girdle of the ephod, and bound it unto him therewith. And he put the breastplate upon him also he put in the breast:

plate the

Urim and



And he

put the mitre upon
forefront, did

his head ; also

upon the mitre, even upon his



plate, the

put the golden

holy crown


as the

Lord commanded
and anointed the

And Moses

took the anointing

tahemacle and

that was therein, and sanctified them.
altar seven times,


he sprinkled thereof upon the
the altar and
sanctify them.
all his vessels,

and anointed
foot, to

hoth the laver and his

And he

poured of the anointing

upon Aaron's

head, and anointed him, to sanctify him."

AU-mercifiil Father,
this our


hast assisted us this day to


companion among the rulers of the Order, grant that his

and actions may be guided by thy holy will and power.


and thy laws

him and us with humility and a ready obedience to Thee and let that mercy shown to thy earlier people

not he withheld from us, so that after the closing hours of existence

we may be numbered among

those elected unto the

temple of eternal



In the introduction to the Prophetical

the Second

Principal, the following passages of Scripture are read

And the child Samuel ministered unto the Lord before EU. And the word of the Lord was precious in those days there was no open vision. And it came to pass at that time, when Eli was laid down in his place, and his eyes began to wax dim, that he could not see and ere the lamp of God went out in the temple of the Lord, where the ark of God was, and Samuel was



to sleep


that the Lord




and he

And he ran unto EH, and said. Here am I for thou caUedst me. And he said, I called not lie down again. And he went and lay down. And the Lord called yet again, Samuel. And Samuel arose and went to Eli, and said, Here am I for thou didst call me. And he answered, I called
answered. Here













Samuel did not yet know

the Lord, neither was the word of the Lord yet revealed unto



the Lord called Samuel again the third time.



arose and went to EK, and said,


am I



thou didst




Eli perceived that the Lord had called the child.

call thee,


said unto Samuel, Go, lie


it shall be, if he

that thou shalt say. Speak, Lord; for thy servant

So Samuel went and lay down in his place. And the Lord came and stood, and called as at other times, Samuel, SamueL Then Samuel answered. Speak ; for thy servant heareth.


the Lord said to Samuel, Behold, I will do a thing in

Israel, at

which both the

ears of every one that heareth it shaU.


In that day I

will perform against



things which

I have spoken concerning his house

when I

begin, I will also

make an

For I have told him that I will judge his house

for ever for the iniquity

which he knoweth; because his sons

made themselves


and he restrained them

And there-

I have sworn unto the house of EK, that the iniquity of

EK's house shall not be purged with

nor offerings for

of the

And Samuel lay until the morning, and opened the doors house of the Lord. And Samuel feared to show EK the



Samuel, and

said, said.




And he

answered. Here


And he

What is

the tbiTig

that the Lord hath said unto thee ?

I pray thee hide
also, if




Gtod do so to thee, and

thou hide any

thing from


of aU the things that he said unto thee.

Samuel told


every whit, and hid nothing from him.

And And

said. It is

the Lord : let

And Samuel

grew, and the

him do what seemeth him good. Lord was with him, and did let

none of his words

to the ground.


all Israel

from Dan

even to Beersheha knew that Samuel was established to be a prophet of the Lord. And the Lord appeared again in Shiloh
for the

Lord revealed himself to Samuel in Shiloh by the word of
ninety years old and nine, the Lord

the Lord."


And when Abram was
Abram and

appeared to

said unto him, I

am the Almighty


walk before me, and be thou





" Wherefore I say unto the oLildren of Israel, I

am the


and I will hring you out from under the burdens of the Egypand I win rid you out of their hondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm and great judgments." "And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea: and the

Lord caused the sea


go back by a strong east wind



and made the

sea dry land,

and the waters were


And the

children of Israel

went into the midst of the sea upon

the dry ground : and the waters were a wall unto

them on


hand and on

their left.


the Egyptians pursued, and

went in


to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's

horses, his chariots,

and his horsemen.



came to


that in the morning watch the Lord looked unto the host of the

Egyptians through the p illar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians, and took off their chariot
wheels, that they drave


heavily: so that the Egyptians
for the

Let us


from the face of Israel ;

Lord fighteth



against the Egyptians.


the Lord said unto the waters

Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the

sea, that


come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots and upon
their horsemen.

And Moses

stretched forth his
his strength

hand over the
the morning

and the sea returned to



and the Egyptians

fled against it:

and the Lord

overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea."



of this extraordinary exhibition of the Divine

power upon the Hebrews, proves the miraculous character of the


they saw the great work which the Lord

had done

to seal their redemption

from Egypt, they believed in

Him; and

in after times, its stupendous and undoubted cha-

racter occasioned their successive historians,

prophets, poets,

and didactic writers, more fi-equently to

refer to tliis


than any other of the extraordinary manifestations of Divine

power which the Sacred Volume records.



Almi ghty Father, who in the hour of perplexity

assistedst the

people of Israel, and subduedst their enemies, bestow on ns the

contumance of thy kindness and protection ; let the knowledge of thy goodness and power inspire tis with gratitude for thy

manifold blessings which we have already


and grant

that dnring our sojonm in this world of sin,

we may overcome

the powers of darkness, and live according to thy will and com-

mandments, to the hononr and glory of thy most holy Name.


reaching the exalted position of Zerubbabel, the Com-

panion elected to kingly power has his attention directed to
the Lord's election of the youth David to

the throne Saul was

no longer worthy to occupy, as described in the Holy

" And the Lord said unto Samuel,
for Saul, seeing I have rejected hiTn

How long wilt thou mourn
from reigning over
Israel ?

thine horn with



go, I will send thee to Jesse the

for I have provided me a king among his sons. And Samuel said. How can I go ? if Saul hear it, he will kill me. And the Lord said. Take an heifer with thee, and say, I am come to sacrifice to the Lord. And call Jesse to the sacri-



and I wiE show thee what thou shalt do


and thou shalt

anoint unto

me him whom


name unto


that which the Lord spake, and came to
elders of the

And Samuel did Beth-lehem. And the
and said, Comest thou

town trembled

at his coming,



And he


Peaceably :


am come

to sacrifice

unto the Lord

sanctify yourselves,

and come with me to the

to the sacrifice.

And he sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called them And it came to pass, when they were come, that

he looked on EUab, and

Surely the Lord's anointed is before

But the Lord
for the

said unto Samuel,

Look not on

his coun-

tenance, or on the height of his stature

because I have refused



Lord seeth not





looketh on



the outward appearance, tut the Lord looketli on the heart.

Then Jesse

called Ahinadab,

and made


pass before Samuel.

And he said, Neither hath the Lord chosen made Shammah to pass by. And he said,
Lord chosen

Then Jesse

Neither hath the

Again, Jesse made seven of his sons to pass

And Samuel said unto Jesse, The Lord hath not chosen these. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children ? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse,
before Samuel.

Send and fetch him:



will not sit



he come

And he


and brought him

Now he was ruddy,
to. is

and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look


the Lord said. Arise, anoint him: for this



Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of
his brethren

and the

Spirit of the

Lord came upon David from

that day forward.

So Samuel rose up, and went to Eamah."


in farther illustration of the knowledge of the will of the

Most High,

"And God

said unto Moses, I




and he


shalt thou say unto the children of Israel,

AM hath
God of



unto you."

" Moreover he





of thy father, the

Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the Grod of Jacob.
hid his face

And Moses


he was

afraid to look

upon God."


I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob,

by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them." The ritual of this Supreme Degree, when fuUy carried out, is
not excelled by any other in the whole Masonic system.
spires its

It in-

members with the most

exalted ideas of God, and leads

to the exercise of the

most pure and sublime piety and reverence

for the incomprehensible

Jehovah, the Eternal Ruler of the
all its all its virtues.

Universe, the Elemental Spring and Primordial Source of

the very Fountain of






When orient Wisdom beam'd serene.
And piUar'd And
Strength arose

When Beanty tinged the

glowing scene.

Faith her mansion chose

Exulting bands the fabric Tiew'd,
Mysterions powers adoied.

And high the


union stood.

That gave the mystic Word.

Enyy wither'd

at the sight,

And, fi-owning


the pUe,

Murder np from realms of night.

To blast the glorious toiL With rufiBan outrage join'd in woe. They form the league abhorr'd

And wounded

Science felt the blow

That crush'd the mystic Word.
Concealment, from sequester'd cave,

On sable pinions flew, And o'er the sacrilegious


veil impervious threw.

Th' associate band in solemn state
awfiil loss deplored

And Wisdom moum'd the

ruthless fete

That whelm'd the mystic Word.


length through Time's expanded sphere

Pair Science speeds her


And, warm'd by Truth's refulgence
Eeflects the kindred ray.



A second fabric's to-wering height
Proclaims the sign restored

Prom whose


—^brought to


drawn the mystic Word.
fevour'd Trine

To depths obscure the

A dreary course engage,
Tin through the arch the ray divine
Illumes the sacred page

Prom the wide wonders

of this blaze

ancient signs restored

The Eoyal Arch alone displays
long-lost mystic



—" Rule, Brita/nnia."



our heavenly King,

Before whose sacred

Accept the praises which

name we bend, we sing.

And to

our humble prayer attend

All hail, great Architect divine

This universal frame

is thine.



didst Persia's king


A proclamation to extend.
Israel's sons

might quit his

Their holy temple to attend.
All haU, &o.

That sacred


where three in one

Comprised thy comprehensive name

And where the bright meridian sun Was soon thy glory to proclaim.
All hail, &c.

. great God thy powerM aid To guide us through this vale of tears is display'd. of care. a length of time. ! Graaat us. 187 Thy watchfol eye. On thy omnipotence we rest. &c. &c. AH hail.THJ! STTPEEME OEDEE OF THE HOIiT EOTAl AECH. and Pleasure cheers. Inspire us with thy grace divine. Which shall from age to age descend. All hail. From every evil keep us ' All hail. When we have left this world All hail. &c. The wondrous circle did attend The glory and the power he thine. free. &c. Thy sacred law our g^de shall he To every good our hearts incline. For where thy goodness Peace soothes the mind. Secure of thy protection here And hope hereafter to he hlest.

In Scotland considerable importance is attached to the Mark Master in connexion with the Eoyal Arch." Euripides. that the candidate should be a certified duly Master Mason. who. which. is Master is styled 'Eight Worshipfdl.' which that of the Deputy Grand Master of England Grand Master of a Pro- . the first we conceive to be a shown by the legend of the Mark Man being given in the shape of a necessary prelude te the latter. did was not required in England. as is to a certain extent lecture. not exist. when the Mark Its The Mark Master never can its be restored to English Masomy by or Grand Lodge. from the erudite Brother elaborate than our own. Mackay. It is to be regretted that the brethren who revived the degree did not take both the Jifark fi)r Jfan as well as Ma/rl. tlie Mark Degree altogether a distinct institu- the only qualification being. " Blessed is the man whose God is good . appear. its place being supplied by the Installed Master. The ritual would siderable favour. MAEK MASTER. hallows his life hj is rule. In England tion. to be much more The was in Mark Master practice. Master .CHAPTER XVn. Our transatlantic brethren also view the degree with con- The Maris Master is designated the first degree of American Capitular Masonry. initiated in divine cere- monies.

and when it was framed was. and ought not to have been introduced into English Masonry. T. pass'd the square. March with the just and true Wages to you are due. we pre- sume. He wiU approve. . [AlE— " &od save the Q.S. where it can never be of any use. vince. You who have For your rewards prepare. 17.MAEK MASTEE.ueen. and one party has created itself a Grand Lodge. him the distinguishing symbol of the degree. adopted in the ceremonial of THE ANTHEM. which mony. a discourse by the Eev. ently constituted Lodges of Mark Masters. the step a Mason gained to attain the rank similar to the Installed Master. all appear Before the Chief Overseer. from would appear that the Mark Master Mason has alludes to ancient given stone. a white and he custom with reference to is its use he quotes the anthem which admission. it M. Join heart and hand Each with his marTc in view. K there be no defect. Bro.). It belongs to the Scottish Constitution. At your command. narrates the legend here The degree of Ma/rJe Master. differs in described in a lecture from the Master at the end of the cere- the ritual. Harris (U. 189 There are two differ- This is decidedly objeotionable."'\ Maek Masters. In concert move Let binn your work inspect Por the Chief Architect. Prom Eev. ii.

Of the CEEBMONIES. the widow's son.190 ILLUSTEATIOirS OF rEEEMASONET. Who founded this May all their degree virtues he Deep in our hearts He says. Now to Where. leaving a tent where he had been received with he has presented to him a small squai-e white stone. that on a traveller hospitality. or considered as a stone of stumbling. fliU of strength and love.' Now tliere has been a custom in the East of long date. " The stone which bears ' the mystic word ' is legible only to those who have been taught the interpretation ' by others it is rejected as insignificant. Caution them to beware right hand. the westward move. and a rock of offence. to wtom the same Is truly known. the possession of which will ensure him good treatment from the tribe he next . Sent unto Solomon Our great key-stone On it appears tte name fame WHcli Of all raises tlie high. Hiram. Now to the praise of those Who triumph'd o'er the foes Of Masons' art To the praiseworthy three. Hiram doth But if stand impostors are Mix'd with the worthy there. and we are assured that it still abides with the Arabs.


to the chie& of the

There are marks on


known only
it is

tribes in conmmnication.
different a&ir,

The key-stone of the arch

a totally

and the mark placed on


to each


the Lodge.

Those brethren who have entered the Templar know the
stone presented to



in reference to the ancient custom.


learned brother. Dr. Hopkins, is very eloqnent on the

ceremony of


especially our duty to
test of the

He says, "As Mark Masons it is make onr conduct snch as shall stand the


Overseer's square,

us for the place for

which we are destiaed in the building.


fax as regards

with respect also to others,


ns learn by this d^ree

not to jndge by appearances


us remember our own igno-

and be more ready to approve than to condemn.

As the

stone which the builders rejected became the head of the comer,
so the

man we

despise to-day


control our destiny to-


The degree of Mark Master
each operative

is historically

considered of the

utmost importance, since we are informed


by its



at the building of the

Temple was known

and distinguished, and the disorder and concision, which might otherwise have attended so immense an undertaking, was completely prevented.


less nsefiil is it in its

symbolic signidegree is


illustrative of the Fellow-Craft, this

particularly directed to the inculcation of order, regularity,


It teaches us that

we should



the duties

of our several stations with precision and pnnctnalily ; that the

work of our hands and the thoughts of our hearts should be good and true ^not unfinished and imperfect not sinful and defective hut such as the Great Overseer and Judge of heaven

and earth wiU



to approve as a

worthy oblation from his
devoted to

If the Fellow-Craft's Degree is


inculcation of leamhig, that of the

Mark Master

intended to

instruct us


that learning can most usefully and judiciously



be employed for our

own honour and

the profit of others.


holds forth to the desponding the encouraging thought, that

although our motives
erring fellow-mortals


sometimes be misinterpreted by our

—our attainments be underrated,
not with the eyes of man, but

and our

reputations be traduced by the envious and malicious, there

One, at least,



may yet

make that stone which the bmlders rejected, the head of the comer. The intimate connexion, then, between the second and fourth degrees of Masonry is this, tha,t while one inculcates
the necessary exercise of aE the duties of Hfe, the other teaches
the importance of performing

them with systematic


The true Mark Master
sacred parable,


a type of that man, mentioned in the


received from his master this approving

language: "Well done, thou good and faithful servant; thou
hast been faithful over a few things, I will


thee ruler over




enter thou into the joy of thy Lord."

"Wherefore, brethren, lay aside
all malice,

if so






all evil



be ye have

tasted that the


is gracious.



coming, as unto a

living stone, disallowed indeed of

men, but chosen of God, and

precious; ye also, as living stones, be ye built

up a


house, an holy priesthood, to offer


sacrifices acceptable to

God. " Wherefore,

also, it is

contained in the Scriptures, Behold, I

lay in Zion for a foundation a tried stone, a precious cornerstone, a sure foundation

he that believeth shall not make haste.


will I also lay to the line,

and righteousness to the
believe, it is

Unto you,



an honour

and even to them which be disobedient, the stone which the
bmlders disallowed, the same
" Brethren, this


made the head of the comer.

the will of God, that with well-doing ye

put to
silence tlie ignorance of foolish





and not as

using your liberty for a cloak of maUdousness, but as the
servants of God.





love the brotherhood



Grod ; honour the King."


Jirst section explains the

manner of convocating and
It teaches the stations and

opening a


Master's Lodge.

duties of the respective oflScers,

and recapitulates the mystic and good order

ceremony of introducing a candidate.


this section are exemplified the regularity

which were observed by the craftsmen on Mount Libanus, and
in the plains

and quarries of Zeredatha, and ends with a beautiiul

display of the

manner in which one of the
this degree.

principal events

which characterizes

In the second

Mark Master



instructed in the origin and history of this


and the

indispensable obligations he





to the relief of

au indigent and worthy brother,

to a certaia


specified extent.

The progress made
of Solomon,

in architecture, particularly in the reign

remarked ; the -number of

employed in

building the Temple of Jerusalem, and the privileges they

enjoyed are specified; the


of rewarding merit and of

punishing the guilty


pointed out; and the marks of disas the

which were conferred on our ancient brethren,

rewards of excellence, are named.


To him that overcometh
new name

will I give to eat of the hidden

manna, and I wiU give him a white

and in the stone a

which no

man knoweth





And we wiU

wood out of Lebanon,



thou shalt


and we

will bring it to tKee in floats


sea to Joppa,

and thou




to Jerusalem. (2 Chron.


The stone wluch the

builders refased, is become the head

stone of the corner. (Ps. cxviii. 22.)

Did ye never read in the
builders rejected, the


The stone which the



become the head of the comer?

(Matt. xxi. 43.)

xii. 10.)

have ye not read this scripture. The stone which the

builders rejected, is

become the head of the comer P (Mark



this then that is written.

The stone which the

builders rejected, the



become the head of the comer?

(Luke XX.


the stone which was set at nought of you bmlders,
iv. 11.)



become the head of the comer. (Acts


that hath an ear to hear, let

Then he brought me back the
said the

him hear. (Bev. iii. 13.) way of the gate of the outward

sanctuary, which looketh toward the east, and



Lord unto me. This gate
and no

shall be

shut, it

shall not be opened,


shall enter in




the Lord, the
shall be shut.


of Israel, hath entered in
is for


therefore it

the prince


the prince, he shall



to eat bread before the

Lord he

porch of that gate, and shall

by the way of the go out by the way of the same.
shall enter
ears, all


the Lord said unto me. Son of man, mart; well, and

behold with thine eyes, and hear with thine

that I say

unto thee concerning


the ordinances of the house of the Lord,



the laws thereof: and ma/rk well the entering in of the
(Ezek. xhv.

house, with every going forth of the sanctuary.

For the kingdom of heaven
is like

unto a





which went out early in the morning to hire

labourers into his vineyard.

And when he had

agreed with the

labourers for a

his vineyard.

penny a day, he sent them into

And he went

out about the third hour, and saw others standing

in the market-place, and said unto them.
is right,

Go ye

also into

the vineyard; and whatsoever

I will give you.


they went their way.


again he went out about the sixth

and ninth hour, and did
them, "Why stand ye here
Because no


about the eleventh

hour, he went out and found others standing

and said unto

the day idle ?

They say unto him.


hath hired us.


saith unto them,

Go ye


into the vineyard;

and whatsoever

is right,

that shall ye receive.

when even was come,

the Lord of the vineyard saith unto

his steward.

Call the labourers,

and give tbem



beginning from the last unto the

And when

they came

that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every

a penny.

But when the


came, they supposed that

they should have received more; and they likewise received


a penny.
against the

And when


they had received it, they goodman of the house, saying. These

have wrought but one hour, and thou hast made them equal
of them, and said. Friend, I do thee no

unto us, which have borne the burden and heat of the day.

But he answered one
wrong ;

didst not thou agree with



a penny ?

Take that

and go thy way ; I

will give

unto this

even as unto

Is it not lawfiil for

Is thine eye evil because I

me to do what I will with mine own ? am good ? So the last shall be first,
are called, but few chosen. (Matt.

and the

first last





Brother, I congratulate

yon on having been thought worthy

of being promoted to this honorary degree of Masonry.


to impress it

on your mind, that your assiduity should ever

be commensurate with your

which become more and

more extensive as you advance in Masonry.

K 2


situation to whicli



now promoted will draw upon

you not only tte scrutinizing eyes of
those also of your brethren, on

world at large, tut


this degree of

safety be

has not heen conferred;


wiU he

justified in expecting

conduct and behaviour to be such as



In the honourable character of Mark Master Mason
Lodge, and among your brethren, be such as
of the

it is


particularly your duty to endeavour to let your conduct in the


stand the test

Grand Overseer's square, that you may not, Kke the

unfinished and imperfect

work of the negligent and
and thrown

unfeithfol of

former times, be rejected
spiritual building, that

aside, as unfit for that

house not made with hands, eternal in

the heavens.
"While such is your conduct, should misfortunes assail you,

should fidends forsake you, should envy traduce your good

name, and malice persecute you ; yet

may you have


among Mark Master Masons, you

will find friends


will administer relief to

and comfort in your

ever bearing in mind, as a consolation under all the

frowns of fortune, and as an encouragement to hope for better
prospects, that the stone

which the builders rejected (possessing

merits to

them unknown) hecwme the chief stone of the comer.

The working

tools are the

mallet and chisel.

The mallet

teaches us to correct the irregularities of temper, and, like en-

lightened reason, to curb the aspirations of unbridled ambition,
to depress the malignitf of envy,

and to moderate the


of anger.

It relieves the

mind from

the excrescences of vice,


fits it

as a well-wrought stone for that exalted station in

the great temple of nature, to which, as am emanation of the
it is entitied.

The chUel

education on

emblematic of the

effects of

hmnan mind.


as the artist,

by the

aid of this instrament,

gives form and reg^nlarity to the shapeless mass of stone, so


cultivating the ideas,

and by polishing the rude

thoughts, transforms the ignorant savage into the civilized


for a

Mark Masons' Lodge.

Words by Bro. John
Set to Music

Thearle, P.M., No. 82, P.J.a.D. Herts.


Bro. E. Hart.

GsACE this Lodge, Great Overseer, With all thy pure and earnest truth.

may flourish through



Even with unabated

Bless the advancing ones this night.

That through

their lives they'll

onward go.

Marking progress by the


Acknowledged and derived from you.


in hand, thy


at heart,

O may they ever constant prove.
in all time

and circumstance.

Unite in brotherhood and love


Have we mark'd well.

Great Overseer ?

A work to last beyond all time
his aUotted task fulM'd, praise he thine.

The glory and the

K 3


this degree


find the trutli,


earth below, in heaven ahove,

The Corner-stone of every work
Should he unselfish, lasting love.
Still will

we work, and working


Trusting that in a better land

Our mystic Key-stone may be




by thy Master Hand.

The ceremony of
properly conducted,

closing a

Lodge in




peculiarly interesting.

It assists

strengthening the social affections;

teaches us the duty



to our brethren in particular,

and the whole family


in general,


ascribing praise to the meritorious,


dispensing rewards to the diligent and industrious.

" All nnder varions names
One Power immense,
adore and love


wliich ever rules above.''

" Let envy hov?l, while heaven's whole chorus sings, And bark at honour not conferred by kings." POPB.


rite is

by some

authorities designated as the Scotch Site,

having derived
earliest record

its first

estahlishment from Scottish Masons.
of the practice of any of the degrees


we have

contained in the rite

that the Lodge " St. Greorge de la Ob-

No. 49, chartered by the Grand Lodge of England in

1736," stationed in Covent Garden, worked the " sublime degrees " in a body attached to their Lodge.

The members were But

mostly of French or Italian extraction, and the authority to


these degrees, it is said, was derived from Scotland.
is positive

living testimony that

some of the degrees in



as the eighteenth, twenty-eighth,



practised in the Midland Counties in the latter half of the last


Masons ; and

by brethren who were descendants of the Ancient York at Nottingham, in particular, they were worked

under the authority of Lord
the Templars.

who was Grand Master


K 4

Order are peculiar to the Institution while the re- lectures include every hranch of the Masonic system. and the Eose-Croix. confirmation for one of ancient date that had been said thnt this warrant is It is now in the possession of a brother living. was opened in London tlie Grrand Chapter of Harodim. We have been told that this association was a Council of the Nine Excellent Masters. at the Crown Tavern on Clerkenwell Green. signifying princes or rulers there were three hundred chief overseers whom ii. had a warrant from the Duke of Kent. empowering it to confer seven degrees. who was a member at the time. and finished present the Art of Masonry in a was and complete form. degrees now embodied in the Ancient and Accepted Eite continued to he practised up to a very recent period. and we believe now . gave no certificate. this The mysteries of itself. as got Harodim is a Hebrew word. Brother Preston says. among which was the Knight of the Sun. "January 1787. 4. Solomon ap18). but we are unable to learn what degrees were conferred. up by Eamsay and others. of ancient date is Europe. pointed to set the people at work (2 Chron. and over thirty years siaoe were conferred on brethren now living. and practised in different parts of ThougL. for.200 IlLUSTEiTIONS OE EEEEMA SONET. the Chapter of Harodim appears to have been a combination of the system of the Ancient York Masons with other degrees imported from France. there no record prior to this of its establishment in England. the survivors have no knowledge. Brother Goldsworthy being one of the acting directors of the proceedings. a price for each degree was named in the warrant.'' The presiding officer called the Chief Harod. now No. They The Old Kent Lodge. excepting as to the Ark Mariner or Noachite. Preston's time After Some little of the we hear nothing of the Harodim Chapter. The warrant was one of lost. As fer as can now he ascertained. and thus might be analogous to the Supreme Council . late 15.

THE AlfCIENT AND ACCEPTED The Lodge of Kdelity. on their part. Among the leaders of this of the movement the present Sovereign active. EITE. to form a general governing body of the Ancient and Accepted Bite. Sovereign desirable of the Order. last 201 Lodge that his 3. At the by Duke of Sussex. and in concert with a few Rite commenced the necessary steps for the formation of a Council of the . a great majority of which acceded those with one exception have since joined. was tke it met at the place named. seemed them in the rite . now No. survivors of the Andent York Masons. It thereto. of whom the death of the present M. and the degrees deferred to were confined to a few hrethren. and general consent of the remaining members of the Ancient Order. to discontinue it was agreed any assumption of authority over those degrees on the part of the Grand Conclave. was one. they being degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Eite. he exerted influence to suppress the practices we have referred to. and was then that it an interview took place between the satisfectorily leaders. Brother Crucefix obtained a legal authority from the Supreme Council at New York. it was thought to assemble the scattered fragments of the ancient degrees. (now at X 5 . and thus it was thought existing better to establish an independent conclave for the degree of Knight Templar by a general accordance of the various Encampments. P. Leeson. and having been proved that none of the existing Encampments ever had any authority by warrant from any legally constituted authority to give the degrees of Eose-Croix and Kadosh. all Wnen the Dnie of Sussex came into power. Dr. discontinued any authority or interference with the Templar Degree. Ancient and Accepted whilst these were progressing. Grand Commander Supreme Council was the most others. The present degrees of the Knight Templar exist and the Holy Arch not being found to impossible to combine amongst the it ancient degrees of the Order as elsewhere described. worked the old degrees . whilst the Supreme Council.







Brother Leeson, as a

descendant of the Ancient York Masons, was at the time in
correspondence with another hody for a like authority, but on
the arrival of the

New York

power, overtures were




to forego his

ancient privileges, and to

assist in


establishment of a Supreme Council in this country under the
authority of the American body.



members of the Council were,
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.



Thomas Crucefix. Henry Beaumont Leeson.


Eichard Lee Wilson.
Kev. Dr. George Oliver.






William Tucker.

John Eobinson, Bart.

Brothers Udall

and Nash have been removed firom the

Brothers Oliver and Bobiason have resigned ; Brothers

Crucefix, Wilson, Prior,

and Tucker are deceased: the present

M. P.

Sovereign alone survives of the original Council.


warrant of the

New York

Council was issued 26th October,

1845, and the Council was organized in

March 1846.


Leeson went over to Paiis to

visit the

governing bodies of the

by whom he was

received with open arms

a warrant of

recognition was at once granted to the English Council, and

Brother Leeson was appointed the representative of the Grand
Client in


The Supreme Council of Ireland

granted a like acknowledgment.
It cannot but be acloiowledged that


the establishment of

the Supreme Council the English degrees Laoluded in the rite are

Masons who had taken the


in a





they are in accordance with the Supreme

Councils of Ireland, Scotland, Prance, Germany, and the Brazils.

The degrees in
this rite are not innovations



on pnie symholie
full of

Masoniy, hut are rather

and as such are


mstrociiye speculation, comhining




great interest to Masons, shedding great light on the ohject of

the institution.

They were

also cultivated

on the continent of Europe in a


to that adopted in Great Britain, until their em'K'lTig

bodiment hy Frederick the Great,

of Prussia.

It appears that, in 1740, soon after his ascension to the
throne, Frederick chartered a

Lodge at

it as

hy the name

of " The Three Glohes," and organized

a Grand Lodge.


degrees of Craft

Masonry were governed hy
rite of

or Per-

Lodge, and the higher degrees of the


with its twenty-five degrees, were under the government of an " Inner East," whose members were elected by the Grand


rite of Perfection or

Harodim comprised


degrees, viz..

Knight of the Sword

(or East), Prince of Jeru-


Knight of the East and West, Sovereign Prince EoseSublime Princes of the Boyal Secret, including that

Croir, and seven of the superior degrees belonging to the Consistories of



Some few years after the degrees were increased in number to by making three grades of the thirty-second, and adding Noachite, or Prussian Knight, Knight of St. Andrew,

and some preparatory degrees to the
These degrees




—although extensively practised on the
by the Constitu-

continent of America, had no governing head, until Frederick

the Great condescended to become, and was acknowledged and
proclaimed, chief, with the rank, as declared

tions of the Order, ratified at Berlin on the 2oth of October,

1762, of " Sovereign Grand Inspector General and Grand



These Constitutions were " proclaimed for the gocouncils,

vernment of Sublime and Perfect Masons, chapters,



of the royal and military Art of

K 6



Freemasonry over the surface of the two hemispheres."


hody emanated authority
it is

to confer these degrees in IVance

and America, and

hy one

of these warrants, issued for


York, the Supreme Council



the 1st of May, 1786, the Grand Constitution of the

Thirty-third Degree, called the Supreme Council of Sovereign

Grand Inspectors General, was

finally ratified


his Majesty


of Prussia, who, as Grrand


of the Order of

Princes of the Royal Secret, possessed the sovereign Masonic

power over the





constitution this high

power was conferred on a Supreme Council composed of nine
brethren in each nation,
rogatives in their




the Masonic pre-


district that his

Majesty individually

and are sovereigns in Masonry.

The Supreme CotmcU in the South United States declared, " Although many of the Sublime Degrees are a constitution of
the Blue Degrees, yet there

no interference between the two

The Sublime Masons never

iuto the Blue

Degrees without a legal warrant for that purpose from a Symbolic

Grand Lodge


but they communicate the

secrets of tiie Chair

to such applicants as have not already received
their admittance into the Sublime

them previous




yet they are at the

same time informed that


does not give

them rani


Masters in the Grand Lodge."


designation, as used

by the "Supreme CouncU of the

Thirty-third Degree for England and Wales and the Dependencies of the British Crown," differs as regards sis of those of
Prussia, but in practice
slightly altered.




to be the same, or but

The degrees


stated as thirty-three in

number, the


three being the symbolic,

the Entered

Apprentice, EeUow-Craft, and Master Mason.

possessed of the certificate of these last

The Mason who named is, according to

the present usage, admissible to

degrees included below the

Eighteenth Degree, which


the Sovereign Prince Eose-Croix of



This must undoubtedly appear to tke trother -who

has been exalted to the Eoyal Arch, and wbo has gone through
the long course required to reach the chair of a Craft Lodge, to

be a wholesale mode of conferring rank.


conceive that,

according to strict rule, none but a regulaily installed Master of

a Craft Lodge

is eligible

to these degrees


in &ct, the certificate

of the Council begins by " certifying and aotnowiedging the brother to be an erpert Master and Past Master of the Symbolic


Li other countries we understand the


Council claim the right to confer the rank of Past Master


m England no



to interfere with the ftmctions
its constitutions.

of the Grand Lodge, or to infiinge

The formation
the Inspector to

of a

Supreme Council of Sovereign Grand

Inspectors General of the Thirty-third Degree





the degree

is first

given regularly,

thereby authorized and empowered to confer it on another brother



duly qualified by character and degrees to receive from

liim his obligation

these two give it in like


to a third,

when the three admit the rest by voting viva voce, beginning with
the youngest Inspector
if the

one nay excludes an applicant for ever,

reasons given for such negative are deemed sufficient. After
three the rules of reception must be regularly adhered to.





two admitted to the 33° should be the presiding

officers of

the Council

in case of death, resignation, or absence
first officer

from the country not to return, of the




Sovereign Grand Commander, the second

officer or


Grand Commander, takes
Greneral to succeed to his

his place,

and appoints an Inspector



in case of the like occur-

rences to the second





Grand Commander

appoints anotiier Inspector General to succeed

him who thus

The M. P. Sovereign Grand Commander in


appoints the Treasui-er General, the Grand Master of Ceremonies,

the Secretary Greneral, the Captaio of the Life Guards, and




the vacancies as they





Every Inspector General previous to his
into tlie Treasury the

sum often guineas


the like

must pay sum has to be

paid for the 32°, 31°, and 30°.

There must at

all times, for

any business in

either of these

degrees, be present three of the

Supreme Council, of which one

must he

either of the two first officers. The authority of the Ancient York Masons was transmitted,

viva voce, from individual to individual, the oldest surviving

Mason being

considered for the time being as the chief


was to seek out some worthy brother whom, he could entrust the keys of the cypher and other to documents necessary for the preservation of the Order, and it was
of the Order, whose duty

the duty of that individual to conceal from the world generally

the knowledge that he had been so entrusted, but
or generally imderstood


was known

by the m^embers of the Order.

The Eegtjlations or the Sxipeeme Geand Cotrircii, poe ENGLAlfD AITD WaIES AND DEPENDENCIES OF THE BeITISH CeOWN abb as FOLIiOW:
Brethren desirous of cultivating the Ineffable Degrees of the
Ancient and Accepted Rite, from the 4th to the 18th inclusive,
in any city, town, or place, where the same have not yet been

under the authority of the Supreme Grand Council

33° for England and Wales and the Dependencies of the British

Crown, must apply for a warrant to establish the same, by
petition to the said

Supreme Grand Council, addressed to the

Grand Secretary General




such petition to be signed by at least six Princes Eose-Croix, or


of the higher degrees holding allegiance to the
33°, three of


Grand Council

whom must

be residents in the imis

mediate vicinity of the place for which the warrant


town, or place not being within the distance of ten

miles from any other Chapter already legally established.





warrant for a Sovereign Chapter Eose-Croix will include authority to hold a

Grand Lodge of Perfection and a Council of

Princes of Jerusalem.

The Grand Lodge of

Perfection will

govern the degrees from the 4th to the 14th inclusive; the
Council of Piinces of Jerusalem, the 15th and 16th Degrees

and the


and the 18th Degrees

will be placed

under the im-

mediate administration of the Eose-Croix Chapter.

A warrant

cannot be removed from the dty, town, or place, for which


originally granted, without the permission of the


Girand Council

bad and obtained


and the charge


removal shall be two guineas.


of Fetition for a Warrant.

^We, the undersigned

Members of the Ancient and Accepted Kite, under the Supreme Grand Council 33° for England and Wales and the Dependencies

of the British. Crown, anxious to promote the welfere and

extend the good of the Order, do iereby petition the Sovereign
Gfrand Inspectors General 33° in council assembled, to grant a

warrant to open and Hold a Lodge of Perfection, a Council of
Princes of Jerusalem, and a Sovereign Chapter Eose-Crois of

H.E.D.M., to be named the

rCiiy ^
Chapter, at

in the <




in the

County of

(.Townj And we do further recommend our
to be nominated the first

Most Wise Sove-

reign of the same [our Brother
able Sovereign Prince

to be the

Most Equit-

Master of the Council of Princes of Jeruto be the Thrice Potent

salem; and our Brother

Master of the Lodge of Perfection].



fee for such

warrant to be

five guineas.



sary restrictions authorized Eituals


be obtained on payment

of the expenses of preparing the same, which

may be



Grand Treasurer General

application to tte Illustrious

the time being.

Whenever a warrant


granted by the Supreme Grand

Council 33° to bold any Lodge of Perfection, CouncU of Princes

of Jerusalem, or Sovereign


Eose-Croix, application

must be made to a Sovereign Grand Inspector General 33° to consecrate the same in ancient and solemn form. Copies of such by-laws as may be agreed on by any Lodge of
Perfection, Council of Princes of Jerusalem, or Sovereign Chapter

Eose-Croix, shall be sent to the Illustrious

Grand Secretary
and notice

General for the time being, one to be retained by him, and the
other to be deposited in the archives of the Order
shall also be given to the Illustrious
for the time being,

Grand Secretary General

whenever any alteration of such by-laws



By the

Ancient Constitutions of the Order, no by-laws

have any force or power unless sanctioned and approved by the

Supreme Grand Council.

No Member

of the 17th Degree shall be advanced to the rank

of a Sovereign Prince Eose-Crois, H.E.D.M., for a less


than three guineas.
Costimte of the



—The brethren must be clothed
on the

in black, over which they should wear a dalmatic of white cloth,
or stuff, bordered in black, with a Latin cross in red

front and back.


—Of white

satin bordered

with red, and lined with


the satin

painted or embroidered the Jewel of

the Order (the Pelican)

on the lining a red

—A waved or watered red ribbon,

four inches wide,

with narrow gold edging, lined with black
three red crosses, one on each side,

on the black side

and one

at the point above

a black rosette from which the jewel

to be suspended.

—Compasses surmounted with an antique crown, points

extended to 60°

a cross within the compasses


on one side of



yonng; on


the jewel a pelicaa feeding

other, a white

eagle with wings extended, as rising in the air

on both


on the joint of the compasses, a red


In the


point the jewel should be covered with black


Lodge of

Perfection, Council of Princes of Jerusalem, or

Sovereign Chapter Bose-Croix, within the jurisdiction of the

Supreme Council, can correspond, form any
intercourse with

alliance, or

hold any

any other Lodge of under


Council of

Princes of Jerusalem, or Sovereign Chapter Eose-Croix, nor with

am) Masonic Body



denomination what-

whether foreign or domestic, which professes to cultivate
Eite, or

any of the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted
other Bite, or any Sublime or


SymboKc Degrees whatever,

unless such Lodge, Council, or Chapter, or other Masonic Body,

has been recognized as


and regular by the Supreme Grand


all cases of

expulsion a vote of two-thirds of the


present shall be required, and such vote shall be submitted to

the Supreme Grand Council 33° for confirmation.

Any brother having
Master Master's

received the three first degrees of Craft

Masonry in a duly-wananted Lodge, on the production of

and on satis&ctory assurance of his
is eligible for

upright Masonic and moral character,
to the degrees of the Ancdent


and Accepted


But the

Most Wise Sovereigns of Bose-Croix Chapters

are earnestly

cautioned to be very particular as to the so<aal and Masonic
character of those they admit to the privileges of this exalted

No Lodge

of Perfection, Counral of Princes of Jerusalem,

Sovereign Chapter Bose-Croix, or other meeting held under the
authority of the Supreme


Council, can recognize the

works o^ or hold Masonic communication with, or receive as

any brethren who have not taken the oath of


to the


Supreme Grand Council 33° (excepting

'brethren holding

under foreign Supreme Councils duly recognized), unless such
brethren shall take and sign such O.B., and be duly

and regularized by

special dispensations from

the Supreme

Grand CouncU, such dispensations bearing the signature of the
Applications for such dispensations

Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Commander for the time being. must be made at least four-

teen days previous to the day of meeting, and

must be forwarded

by the Most Wise Sovereign of the Eose-Croix Chapter, accompanied by the fee of one guinea, to the Illustrious Grand Treasurer General for the time being and a copy of the oath of allegiance, duly signed and certified by such Most Wise


must accompany the


Every Lodge of

CouncU of Princes of Jerusalem,

or Sovereign Chapter Eose-Croix shall, once in each year, in the


of November,


up the printed form which wiU be

and return the same to the Illustrious Grand Secretary General



with the



tious of subscribing

and honorary members

and be particular

to notify any death, resignation, or removal,



occurred since the last return.

These returns are to be accom-

panied by the fee of one shilling for each subscribing
for verifying the register.


The names and addresses of those


are advanced, admitted as joining


or affiliated,

members from other must be sent without delay to the
for the

Grand Treasurer General

time being, with

the fee of ten shillings each for registering and

Unless this rule has been complied with, no brother can be
received at

any subsec[uent meeting of the Ancient and Accepted

If no returns are


for the space of three years, the
forfeited, unless,

warrant of such Chapter shall be ipso facto
application duly



to the

Supreme Grand Council

33°, such

forfeiture be rescinded.

All Lodges of Perfection, Councils of Princes of Jerusalem,

SasA. holding a Sword in its Claws worn suspended round the neck from a flameis coloured ribbon.H. Such Chapters are held on the second Tuesdays in April and Ocfcoher. Grand Secretary Gteneral for the time being. at their Grand East. upon it.H. &a. professions. Sujord-belt. if fevourably received. can he held except under the immediate authority of the Supreme Grand Coundl. and the brother doing it is liable to expulsion. to the Illustrious &c.. . in order that they may be submitted by hini to the Supreme Grand Council 33° . Soliciting votes at expressly an election is strictly forbidden . worn left from the breast. bordered with white. Spread Eagle. with letters of admission to be by them presented on the day appointed for the meeting. residences.THE AJfCTENT AITD ACCEPTED EITE. London. shoulder to the right hip . notice wQl be sent to such candidates. under pain of expulsion. ^A black double-headed . in the Andrew. Jewel. three of whose memhers must be present. stating their names. All parfy spirit and cabal in any CounciL or Lodge forbidden. and. Eeeom- mendalions for sucb must be sent from the Most Wise Sovereigns of the Eose-Croix Chapters of which such candidates are members. siaE take precedence according to the dates of their respecfiTe warrants. with white gloves with black. he shall be excluded for ever. The brethren of the 30th Degree must be clothed in black. on or before the second Tuesday in the months of March and September. no Chapter of Grand Elected EJughts K. — —Of black leather or to be velvet. By the Ancient CJonstitntions of the Order. . opposite the a red Teutonic Cross. they should wear a white mantie bordered —To be a broad black ribbon. If a Prince give another Prince a challenge. centre. 211 and Soverdgn Chapters Kose-Croii. wlien Candidates may be received. with the letters K. placed on two swords crossed as a Cross of St.

If any shall member of a Council or or aid Lodge •within this jurisdiction be present at. and assist in giving or receiving any of the Sublime or Symbolic Degrees in a clandestine or irregular manner. and if the officer report in his favour. or Accepted Masonry. and the degrees of our Ancient and Accepted Rite be preserved in their purity and integrity. Constitutions and Laws. and when his approach is announced. contrary to the true intent and meaning of the Statutes and Regulations of the said Supreme Grand Council. or Council of Princes of Jerusalem. or in any particular disobeys the Statutes and Regulations. and tteir conduct in If any should be irreproachable. this jurisdiction be member of a Coundl or Lodge in guilty of any immoral or unmasonic conduct. suspended. should present himself clothed with the dress and orna- ments of a Prince . of our lUustfious Order. and any Sublime Preemason. and be escorted by four brethren. although for the time being they may not be members of any such Lodge or Council. and seated on the right hand of the Presiding Officer. that the honour. he shall be received under the Arch of Steel. rule enforcing justice Princes are strictly to observe tlie life and good order. dignity. shall be amenable for their conduct as Sublime Freemasons to the Council or Lodge nearest their places of residence.212 IlLirSTEATIOirS OI' feeemasonet. he shall be expelled . the Presiding Officer must send a Prince of Jerusalem to examine him . Pree. A Prince of Jerusalem who visits an inferior Council or Lodge. who shall come to the knowledge of such illegal proceedings. in this jurisdiction. Ancient. according to the aggravation of the offence. All Sublime Masons who have received any degrees in a regular Lodge of Perfection. or expelled. or of the Constitutions and Laws of True. he shall be reprimanded. in and under this jurisdiction. shall immediately give information of the same to the Lodge or Council to which he belongs. and legality may be maintained. under the penalty of suspension of our Illustrious Order . An entry of .

Most Enlightened 5. in conformity with ancient usage. Valorous Treasurer. Most Enlightened Senior Warden. : Most Equitable Sovereign Prince Master. 4. The OflBcers of all Councils of Princes of Jerusalem shall. Valorous Master of the Entrances. the this jurisdiction shall. that he 213 name and rani must be made on may thereafter receive due honour -without examination. 9. Valorous Tyler. At least five members transaction of business. No one shall be a jurisdiction. 8. High Priest. and installed at the AnTiTial Meeting. Valorous Master of the Ceremonies. are necessary to form a quorum for the The Annual Meeting determined on.THE AUCISST his AITD ACCEPTED EITB. 2. be styled and take rank as follows 1. and stated Meetings at such other times as shall be The Officers shall be elected at the previous Meeting. with due care and fidelity. administer to all Every Council of Princes in name of the brethren admitted to any of the degrees conferred in their Council of Princes. the minutes. Junior Warden. 3. member of any Council of Princes in this who is not a member of a Lodge of Perfection under the superintendence of such CounciL It shall be the duty of every Council of Princes in this juris- and watch over. Chapters. shall take place on a day to be fixed by the Council. diction to inspect and see that this work is done in conformity with the regfulations and landmarks of the Order. or Comicals. and in the Lodges of Perfection under their . for and in Supreme Grand Council of the 33rd and last Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Eite for England and Wales and the Dependencies of the British Crown. and of addressing the Chair without first asking permission. Princes hare the right of being covered in all subordinate Lodges. 6. Valorous Keeper of the Seals and Archives. any and every Lodge of Perfection placed under its superintendence. 7.

The Annual Meeting shall take place night. that all arrears of the applicant are paid up iu the said Lodge . shall appoint one on a day to be fixed by the Lodge. (his Deputy). in conformity with : the most ancient usage. to be deposited in its arcbives. Treasurer. Thrice Potent Master. Keeper of Master 7. Perfect. No made appeal. Junior Warden. immediately after tlieir election of Officers. or The Thrice Potent.214 ILLUSTEATIONS OP FEEBMABONEX. Senior Warden. superintendence. of Ceremonies. be styled and take rank as follows 1. TTira. The Officers of Lodges of Perfection shall. for tbe degrees of Knight of the East or Prince of Jerusalem. or a dupUoate thereof. until the the examination and decision of the Council of Princes of Jeru- salem superintending such Lodge. 2. 10. and shall enclose the required fee for elevation to those degrees. 4. an obligation of fealty said Supreme Grand Council. Captain of the Guards. suspensions and expulsions shall be given to all the said Supreme Grand Council. In the event of the rejection of any candidate. in any case of suspension or expulsion. and so taken. Secretary. trans- mit to tlie said Supreme Grand Council every such obligation from a Grand Elect. Orator. also an Almoner. the shall be returned to amount of his enclosure Notices of all him. as well as to Councils and Lodges of inferior degree within the district. 8. installed at the and Annual Meeting. and allegiance to the its decrees . 6. can be to the Supreme Gfrand Council from any Lodge of Perfecmatter in question shall have been submitted to tion. the Seals. shall be accompanied with a certificate from the Treasurer of the Lodge of Perfection of which the applicant is a member. and stated Meetings at such other times as shall be determined on. on each election two Tylers. 9. Tlie Officers shall be elected at the previous Meeting. Every letter of application Sublime Mason. 3. .Tn Elng of Tyre 5. and submission to and stall annually.

and it shall come to the knowit to ledge of any member. may be Should a brother die. that necessary succour administered. regarding the character of a brother or applicant. The Almoner shall have the custody of the tand arising from the voluntary contributions of each night. It is most proper that the Lodge be then opened in the Perfect Master's Degree. sliall fervonr. being an indispensable obligation. the them the mysteries. and take measures the duty of every accordingly. Jerusalem sitting at It shall also be the duiy of every Lodge. he shall give early advice of the Almoner. solicit the charitable contributions of the members. If he has observed any indiscretion or dispute. before the closing of the Lodge.TEE At to AlfCIElTT AlTD ACCEPTED BITE. in reference to our Mysteries. and shall be entered on the minutes at the next Meeting of the Lodge. are obliged to attend and assist at his £meral in the usual manner. The sums so received shall be distributed by the Thrice Potent and Almoner. and enforce in the usual manner and£>rm. 215 all receptions the Orator tion of the Order. if re- quested. the Thrice Potent shall always before closing the Lodge remind the brethren of it their duty in this respect. and es^lain and exhort them to continue their zeal. Secrecy. and to the Lodge. as well as the transactions of the Lodge. make discourses in illustranew brethren. annually to the reports and returns to such Council of Princes. He shall. It sball be the duty of every Lodge of Perfection to place itself under the superintendence of the Council of Princes of its East. all the brethren. it is brother to endeavour to alleviate his distress. If any brother is taken sick. make . shall instnurf. he shall inform the Lodge of it. and constancy. If a brother is a prey to misfortune.

some few have as certain is an origin . We must necessarily derive our authority from !Prench —" The country Brother the Eev. derived as Brother Oliver himself allows. although the greater part are certainly derived from sources not entirely trustworthy. as other traditions the authenticity of which not disputed and in answer to Brother Oliver's tion of one of the lectures : last objection.. to be always ready to commimicate benefits. Dr. and they contain no typical references of any value either to improve the morals or entirely agree this time the amend the heart. worthy . viz. nor are these evidences essential to the well-being of !Freemasonry. we quote a small por- " What is the disposition of an Elect. " What kind recommended to be to you ? —The most —^Because represented profound respect and submission to authority. to the Inefiable Degrees. but in the main they wiQ not be found to differ very widely. and Sublime his heart divested of jealousy. and by the Equilateral Triangle. because the system is perfect without them. and as to the evidences of the degrees we are about to describe. Oliver. are both well known and highly estimated. speaMng upon this subject. since we find that at two degrees most practised. revenge. says Ineffable Degrees are little ." The address which belongs from Brother Dalcho. Mason? —To keep and every other evil passion. the Eose-Croix and the Kadosh." We cannot in this matter with our reverend brother.216 ILLTTSTEATIOIfS OF FEEEMABONET. may not be considered precisely agreeable to some authorities. Perfect. hence our explanations. It is not the rule at present to practise any of the degrees telow the 18th Degree . heing derived from a variety of sources partly written and partly oral. and to have a tongue of good of behaviour is report. known or esteemed in this for the evidences on which they rest are of doubtfel authority . is. sources. " Why are all Masons considered on equality ? they are equally subject to that Divine Being in our Lodges who is by the Sacred and Ineffable Name.

creet. that you have promised to remind him. here laboured in vain. that the world another. and. 217 of teing adopted in the Symbolic Degrees. and palliating orcumstances." But inasmuch as Masonry is professed in those nations which faith. amiable. yon are now about to quit this sacred retreat of -virtue. fevourable. " Brethren. brethren. fereweU : be ye all of one mind .THE A3SCm^T JlSD ACCEPTED EITE. it is adopted hy the Mark Masters. prudent. so accordant with the L . by liberal benevolence and diSusive ships. use it The Craft MaBons in a Eoyal Arch Chapter. Finally. and your recompense with your God. and repeatedly promised to befriend and with unhesi- tating cordiality. and virtuous deportment effects discover the beneficial of tbia ancient and honourable institution. so fer as shall lie in your power. by constancy and and happy Let it fideliiy in by uniformly just. may observe how Masons These generous principles are to extend &rther has a claim upon your to do good unto all. slightly altered. Be. Mendship and so to mix again with the world- Amidst its concerns and employments forget not the duties you have heard frequently inculcated and forcibly recommended in the that around this altar you solemnly relieve. charity. of his failings. temperate. therefore. Lodge. when his conduct is justly reprelove one hended. diligent. and dis- Eemember also. and excites virtue. every human being it Mud offices while . every brother who shall need your assistance. in the most tender manner. live in peace and may the God of love and peace deUght to dwell with and to bless yon. and aid his reformatioBL Vindicate his character when wrongftilly accused: suggest in his behalf the most candid. and spent your streng^ for nought for your work is with the Lord. have not yet been converted to the Christian and as it enkindles benevolence. so that we it enjoin upon you we recommend more especially to the household of the feithfbL By diligence your friend- in the duties of your respective callings. not be supposed that you have .

may eventually have no inconsiderable tendency towards iutroducing and propagating among them that most glorious system of revealed truth .. little Without the Eose-Croix. Prom our description of the several degrees. and removing the prejudices. by hu- manizing the disposition.218 ILLUSTEATIONS Or I'EEEMASONET. practised in Brazil. that there are two systems adopted in France." -the sixth. are seven degrees. The brother who admitted to the Ancient and Accepted Eite derives. It This rite is also was founded in 1786. softening the manners. first. three symbolic and four the three Craft. The Sublime Degrees included in these rites. which called is the first conferred by the Council. our readers will discover that in some the canon of Scripture . the "Elect. is in others. no other advantage it derived from a knowledge of the at least opens a vast is field of inquiry to the diligent Mason. With this introduction we shall now proceed to give some account of each degree. John the way for that most desirable event Baptist. imply the recognition. at least. the other more usually designated "the French Kite " and "the Grand Orient. great benefit from its acquisition." In the higher: the fifth. to smooth the road and the obstructions to the introduction of his truth. to which all the highly educated and intellectual of our Fraternity aspire. the "Eiiight of the East. in foreign Lodges. of Christianity. a "We must Mason is held in but esteem on the Continent."' the "Scotch Master. may prepare the in like manner to St. who (our traditions remove assure us he was the first Christiau Mason). the fourth. the Eose-Crois:. ledgment. the one identical with that practised in England. the apocryphal books hence. remark. it genius of the Gospel. by the Grand Orient of France. and is . was commissioned to prepare the way of the Lord. and cannot be attained but through the acknow-. latter viz. if rite." and the seventh. commencing with the Fourth Degree of the Eite. is the authority.

being a tribute of respect L 2 . The Fifth Degree is that of Peefect Mastee. on the key referring to Zadoc. as is highly probable. The Lodge is clothed in black. called " the mercy-seat. the authority of a bas-relief on the Arch of Titus at Bome. with a black edging. re- presents Solomon. In it is expired the mystic viz. 219 BBCEET HASTEB. and may be said to be a continuation of the preceding. it is certain that those used in the service of the second Temple were of a like The Master in tfiis degree. all restored by Cyrus on the return of the Jews to pattern. and illuminated by eighty-one lights. The jewel of the degree an ivory key. who now comes to the Temple to elect seven experts. to replace the loss of fllustrious character. as in the symbolic. or skilfbl practised Masons. also within the its lid second veil. the ark of the testimony. on whicb an is all-seeing eye is placed. there the iaviog a blue flap. which was thit city doubtiess copied from the originals taken to by the triumpbant army of the conqueror. candlestick. engraved the letter Z. is one Warden. and wbo was the first Secret Master. who was the high priest in the reigns of David and Solomon. an The Master is styled Most Powerful.. and. suspended from a white is ribbon edged with black . their native land.THB A2fCIEIfT ABD ACCEPTEB EXTE. who represents Adoniram. the altar of incense. the golden and the table of sieWbread." For the forms of these Loly things we have. signification of those things which are contained in the sanctum swivctorwm of the Tabernacle and the Temple. after the destruction of Jerusalem : and although the ornaments which adorned the Temple of Solomon became a prey to the Chaldeans — if they were not. and and cover. besides the lucid description in the twenty-fifth chapter of Exodns. PEEFECT MASTEE. the overseer of workmen on Mount Lebanon. The badge is wMte.

The Hebrew of the Second literally Book : of Samuel which speaks of Jashobeam. the captain of the guards (1 C!hron. who called "Inspector. a square stone or cube." The Deacon. Solomon visited the tomb. exclaimed. The latter erected a superb tomb and obelisk of black and white marble. represents Zabdiel. King of . prayer. Solomon. offered up a. in the centre of which embroidered within three is circles . " It accomplished INTIMATE SECBBTAET. or "Conductor" as he called. are only three officers. on which the letter " J " of the apron that. supporting a square stone surletter " J. three hundred. who Hfbed up his spear against whom he slew at one time. The entrance to the tomb was between two rounded by three pillars. the Grand Inspector. inscribed with the cassia.M. to the side of letters which a triangular stone was " J. At the death of Hiram." within a wreath of obelisk. In this the Eight Worshipful is is Master represents Adoniram he has also but one Warden. xxvii. being dead in is he nmst hope to revive in The to act jewel a compass. and ever pay due regard to justice and equity." circles. 2). fixed. The Perfect Master's Degree is founded on this traditional event. The Sixth Degree is the Intimate Seceetaet . to teach him within measure. The um was placed on the top of the Three days after the interment.B. first who was the fether of Jashobeam. aud with solemn ceremonies. . in this there Israel. in the presence of the brethren.220 ILLTTSTEATIONS OP PEEEMASOITET. requested Adoniram. symbolically to -vice. Adino of Bzni. to make arrangements for his interment. is and with hands !" and eyes elevated to heaven. the head thus " He who sat in the throne of of the three. extended sixty degrees. is the flap green.'' is The badge placed is white. the widow's son. who represent Solomon. on which was engraved the The heart of the deceased was enclosed in a golden urn. runs wisdom. being desirous of paying a tribute of respect to his friend. to the worthy departed brother. which he finished in nine days. remind the Perfect Master -virtue.

and thus addressed brother. The ceremonial and legend are intended to preserve the remembrance of an instance of unlawfbl curiosity. "My you as an Intimate on your promise to be faithful to the Order into which you have just been admitted. The candidate is invested in open Lodge. a triangle. They wear white aprons. The degree relates to circumstances that occurred between TTiraTn and Joabert. all the historical traditions of the M. I present you with a sword as a weapon of defence against the attacks of those who may try to extort from you the secrets which I am now about to communicate. The rest of the brethren are considered only as Perfect Masters. The collar is crimson.THE ANCIENT Hiram AlfB ACCEPTED EITE. and are termed Guards. having some reference to the event symbolized in that degree. the due punishment of the offender being averted only in consideration of his previous fidelity. is and apron white with red is border. a roU of parchment. and strings of the same. and seated at a table on which are two nated swords. The jewel a triple triangle In the degree of Intimate Secretary. indicates the Tetra/- grammaton. Our brethren will readily perceive that these three degrees are a Mnd of commentary upon D^ree. to which is suspended a solid triangle. with crimson coUaxs. and a captain of the guards. I receive by his superior: Secretary. lined and embroidered with crimson. and a human skull. 221 of Tyre." There is a tracing-board which is thus explained: — "The window letter ' in the clouds represents the vault of the Temple. on the flap interlaced. the tears symbolize the . when the fidelity of the latter was rewarded by Solomon with advancement to this rank. sceptres in their hands. with crowns on their heads.M. principal entrance The door represents the from the palace L 3 . and I trust that your fidelity will be proof against every temptation. or sacred name of God. the two persons who represent Solomon and Hiram of Tyre are clothed in blue mantles lined with ermine. and the ' J which you see inscriW therein.

" This degree appears out of place. The badge is white is lined with red. Traditional history relates its foundation by King Solomon for the purpose of strengthening his means of preserving order among the vast of the number first of craftsmen engaged in the construction of the Temple." fate of hlack. where he used to it retire to Hiram and here was he received the King of PE0V08T AST) JTTDGE. of the three hundred overseers called Sarodi/ra. . with the exception of the anarefer. on the wards of which engraved the letter " A. are connected with its construction and com- Connected as these four degrees are with the historical traditions of the Third Degree. It has been . Provost comes from the Latin chief of jprespositus.222 ILLTJSTEATIOirS OF FEEEMABONET. as it has reference solely to the .s been adopted from the French prdvdt des mar6- clianx. chronism to which we are about to able they axe unobjectiontraditions and somewhat instructive. Are these to be found in Preston's four sections of the Third Degree ? is derived the cognomen Tito ? — Whence ^it is clearly Latin or Italian. and are also emtlematioal of the lamentations of the king in the apartlament the ment hung with unhappy Tyre. very first preparations for building the Temple it whereas those preceding pletion. ha. which are so placed as to form a double triangle. who was the a Hebrew 1 signifies "princes" or "provosts" (see Kings In this degree there are six lights. . officer The presiding word which V. . Lodge represents Tito. This is the designation of the Seventh Degree. and has a pocket the collar red . which denotes the any society or community the French word privot comes nearest to the form of the word. an officer who has similar functions. 16). and the English expression "provost majshal." an officer attached to the army whose duty it is to seize and punish ofienders against military discipline. repentance of Joabert in Solomon's chamber of audience. to it is suspended the jewel. is a golden key.

the widow's The badge is is white. and there was but one building. nsed. Lord Provost of Edinbnrgh. a triangle with the initial of The Lodge is illuminated tweniy-seven lights. 223 among the with suggested as probable that this degree was instituted Masonic cmsaders. or The chief officers are a Thrice Puissant who represents TTi-ng Solomon. . The son. according is.TBS AJTCIETrT AITD ACOBPTED BITE. it designates the chief magistrate in corporate cities. as military government. &c IKTENDAJfT OF BUILDINGS. Glasgow. . acceptation of terms." The Intendant of Buildings. The most noticeable character of this degree is the metaphorical use of the five points of fellowship in conjunction with the five orders of architecture. a most important as but that post was filled most ably by Adoniram. in three groups. and on the the degree. An Litendant of Buildings. doubtless. representing Tito the chief of the Harodim. five steps and beheld the Great Light containing the three mysterious characters. the Senior Warden called Inspector. &c. penetrated the inmost part of the Temple. we are told. as the in Englajid rarely we believe the only instances are those of the heads of certain colleges. This arrangement of the Wardens would seem anomalous. and the Jxmior Warden who represents Adoniram. flap On by the centre a star of nine points. without better foundation than we L 4 are at present possessed o^ the degree seems unsatisfectory. bordered with green and red. wbile the Harodim were the three hundred overseers. the Harodim were under his controL Thus viewed. historical l^end of this degree also affirms that the object of its institution was to supply the loss of Tfiram. to the modem office . it has more especial connexion is The word " provost " ia Scotland. as " Adoniram was set over the levy" of thirty thousand men sent by Solomon to Lebanon. must have made " the of exactness. The Eighth Degree " Master in IsraeL" is called Intendant of Bttildings.

of the most atrocious character. for the first time. though sometimes slow. . with a broad black border on are embroidered the emblems of the degree. ELECT OF NINE. red. the sash bearing on it is black. The object of this degree is to exhibit the mode in which certain overseers. the jewel is a small poignard. of the binding nature of our Masonic colours ia the regalia are white. circumstances on which obligation. is evident that the degree ia an important one. The Lodge is called the Council of Nine Masters. the red of the atrocious crime committed. it requires three chambers. and the black of grief for its results. The Ninth Degree The chief . elect of fifteen. is Elect of Nine. In the French Eite this is the Fourth Degree ." tlie Tenth Degree. . body is At tMs termed a. It exemplifies the truth of the is maxim that the punishment of crime. and black the white being emblematic of the purity of the knights." is called Most Wise. just before the completion of the Temple. The symbolic . who. being also preparatory to the Kose-Croix. he the represents Eing it Solomon the second is officer is Eing of Tyre Most Puissant. by the historical. nine red roses . is more . that the oflGlcer " chapter. engaged in an execrable deed of villaiay." and in this the historical tradition. founded. or "Illustrious Elect of Fifteen. . had committed a crime com]pletely developed.224 ILLXrSTEATIONS OE PEEEMABONBT. to and in some respects has similitude the Seventeenth Degree of the Ancient and It Accepted Eite. also holds its meetings under the designation of " chapters. point -we observe. comprising the continuation and conclusion of the punishment inflicted on the traitors who. in order The Lodge represents the secret chamber of prematurely and improperly to obtain the knowledge of a superior degree. ever sure and it is it admonishes us. King Solomon it is iUuminated by nine lights of yellow wax. The badge of white satin. received their punishment.

The Eleventh Degree called is that of Stjblime Elect. who were. as after vengeance had been taken npon the traitors mentioned in the preceding degrees." This wonld appear to designate a new era in Masonry. SUBLIME ELECT. Solomon.THE AirciENT The AOT) ACCEPTED BITE. and payment for them. Most 225 an three principal officers are a Illnstrious Master. received the whose name he bears apron is as Thrice Puissant ." the presiding officer represents King Solomon. appointed twelve of these chosen by their companions. The assembly is called a " Grand Chapter . and on the flap . and instituted is favourable to the suggestion that it was by the military ordei-s in Palestine. rites. a red cross there is also a black sash suspended from the left hip. Inspector. and the Introdnctor. This degree in some form appears in different and as three words l 5 . and endowed them with a certain command over the workmen. is The white. to reward those trust as well as to who had remained feithful to their make room for the exaltation of others to the latter. differing only in the emblem. which is called a Grand Chapter. right shoulder to the and on it hearts in flames. his two chief officers are a Grand Inspector and a Grand Master of Ceremonies. sometimes "Twelve Bliistrious Knights. The room is or place of meeting. with a black border and lining. black. on which he bestowed the name of Sublune Elect. to constitute a new degree. The costume resembles very closely that of the Knights Templar. degree of Elect of IMfteen. divided into twelve companies. in imitation of the tribes of Israel. The title of Knights naturally suggests the idea that this degree could not have been formed before the Christian era. himg with We believe this degree is included with two others in the fourth of the Fi-ench Kite. collar is black The symbolic colour of the badge and strewed with tears. The Sublime Meet rendered to Solomon daily an account of the work that was done in the Temple by their respective companies.

and a case of is mathematical instruments. side of which. and it seems to have been distinguished from other temples of remote antiquity by its sumptuousness of detail. there some exercise for the imagination in furnishing a complete description of the Temple of Solomon. there is every reason to suppose it was an important step in the high grades.. who is denominated Most Powerful. In the absence of is upon many points. in The jewel a gold medal.KA. desired. The ofBcers of this degree are the Master. and two Wardens. and under the " Grand Master Architect " numerous details illustrative of the Temple dedicated to the Most High by the wisest man. GEAND MA8TEE AECHITECT is the denomination of the Twelfth Degree.d white hangings five orders . and others afibrd abundance of illustrative materials of which the compilers use. "We think that every Mason who carefuUy studies the subject. Although the lectures on the Fellow-Craft Degree illustrate is architecture from the ceptible same point of view. the subject sus- of great extension. In this it the is principles of operative Masonry become prominent. might be worked distinct information out. will agree with us that this degree it is ought not to be laid aside. in which the rules of axchitecture and the connexion of the liberal arts with Masonry axe dwelt upon. which we must conclude for the was an astonishing and magnificent work it time in which all was built . of the Fellow-Craft lecture have made no The degree . on the other a cube with triangle and other appropriate devices this is suspended by a blue ribbon. on one high relief. Cabnet. If not in its present state so fuU of interest as might be Strabo. belonging to were adopted by the framers of the present H. the ornaments are the columns of the of architecture. a purely scientific degree. the works of Josephus. the five orders are represented. is The diapter decorated with red an.226 rLLTJSTEATIONS it 01' rEEEHASONET.

that it Sook of Enoch. so fer as the execution of unsightly stmetures and confosion of styles. we canleam." sometimes. the Jews. but those holy books which were not iududed in this receptacle. the "Ancient Eoyal Arch of The historical traditions of this degree are repre- sented as affording copious information on certain points in which the sacred volume ing the destruction is not entirely free from obscurity.THE ANCIEITT ABD ACCEPTED EITE. were deposited in a The Scriptures now known new chest. first was enabled to preserve important secrets that eventually were to be communicated to the possessors of this degree. 227 miglit also become a nsefbl school of instraotion in praetieal architecture. or ark of the covenant . But we must remark that has been pradased. that the predictions of the Messiah's advent and reign on earth contained in the trovertible. The Thirteenth Degree is denominated the Mastee of the Ninth Aech. and Solomon. and these have reference to the mode in which Enoch. The Sook of Enoch apocryphal. the seventh L 6 . hid there in a cell such books as it was considered expedient to withdraw from public inspection. and by diffusing a correct taste among the Fralarge. having established their sacred archives at Tiberias. notwithstandcaused by the deluge and the lapse of ages. prevent and through them among the world at the degree. Jude's writings in which he says. and this seen in that passage of St. " And Enoch also. ternity. and thus concealed. that is is. never MASTEE OF THE irHfTH AECH. The Soolc of Enoch appears to have been read by both Jews and Christians is in the apostolic age. were called "the Apocrypha. one of the Hebrew scriptures designated hidden books. as canonical. and which at the close of the first century were suppressed by the Jews." The motive for this proceeding is said to be. from the &ct that after the destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem by the Bomans. was on are so direct and incon- this account concealed.

until. produced a complete translation." eighth century. even the metarational. Dr. Behold. all and of their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him. prophesied of these. saying. we so that in comparison. from Adam. who communicated to that people the knowledge of astronomy and the celestial globe. Lawrence. morphoses of the pagan mythology appear to be explanation This consider necessary. is called The officers of this degree (which in Prance Royals . Bruce brought from Abyssinia three these he presented to the Bodleian complete and beautiful copies of what was asserted to be the long-lost hook. Professor of consists chiefly of Hebrew.228 ILLUSTEATIONS OF TEEEMASOKET. as English Ma-sons. in 1774. this book. we. and that he is the Atlas of the Greeks. all sense of propriety is shocked by such preposterous is combinations as continually appear in what the presented to us as Book of Enoch. lonians acknowledged Musehiv^ tells us that the Baby- Enoch as the inventor of astrology. The subject-matter of the book and relations of Enoch's prophetical celestial visions. One of and from this. The Booh of lEnoch it existed until the when unaccountably disappeared. Noah during There have been but it many by the learned on must be allowed that although occasionally religious and moral precepts are enjoined. TertulUcm endeavours preserved by treatises to show that the BooJc of Unoch was the deluge. library. cannot admit it to be of any great value. and to convince all that are ungodly among them all their ungodly deeds -which they have ungodly committed. in 1826. including a survey and explanation of the solar and lunar revolutions. in the most remarkable of which the angel Uriel shows to the prophet various mysterious scenes in heaven. afterwards Archbishop of Cashel. as although the Thirteenth if Degree is represented as most interesting and impressive. the Lord Cometh with ten thousand of his saints. yet its ritual be based upon the authority of the work described. to execute judgment of upon all. save some fragments. according to the ancient astrological theory.

Master of Ceremonies. The jewel. a triangle. The apron is white." . 229 Arche) are a Thrice Puissant Grand Master who represents •King Solomon . who represents King Solomon. TTiTaTn. TTing of Tyre. attired Grand Treasurer. new members produced respect. Order became more uniformly established and regulated than it had previously been. . Keeper of the Seals. King of Tyre two Wardens. Secretary. but Bite. and a Grand who represents StolMn. a Treasurer.THE AJfCEEITT ASH ACCEPTED EITE." United States called " designated " Perfection in Prance Grand Scotch Mason of Perfection of the Sacred Vault of James VI. with a sun in the centre. TfiraTn. suimounted by a crown. bordered with blue. OE LODGE OP PEEFECTION. and Captain of the Guards. and SubUme Mason. appears to have been Elect. as it is the last of the Inefiable Degrees its officers are that refer to the first Temple . is the denomination it now given in Tin gland to the Ponrteenth first called Degree. with pnrple border. representing Joabert. and (his deputy). and merit alone was required of With these principles instilled into their nunds. there is a is also represented. has in centre a representation of two Inspector. with red flames. a Thrice Potent Master. the Masons : who had been Their employed in constructing it acquired immortal honour. Their caution and reserve in admitting the candidate. a Grand Secretary. GSAITD SCOTCH KNIGHT. it is in the Scotch in the it is "Grand Perfect. who these worthies were we are nnable to leam. representing GiihuInm. — people letting arch. The hadge is white. Brother Mackay gives the following history of this degree " By the completion of the Temple." The degree is considered to be the ultimate rite of ancient Masonry. bearing the jewel on the flap. The jewel is a pair of compasses extended on an arc of nineiy degrees. is down a third through a square opening into an English Eoyal Arch Masons must understand that this the only Eoyal Arch Degree of the Continent. of the Grand Elect left many the Temple after its dedication. as a traveller .

The reign of Solomon was most fitted peace and plenty blessed the land. and out a fleet with which. nations. and thirty years after the completion of the Temple Solomon died. he traded to Ophir for valuable commodities and the precious metals. afraid that his apostasy would end in some dreadful consequences. he took wives and concubines from among the idolatrous nations around him. after the dedication of the He had accepted . and Chemosh of the whom he built temples on the Mount of Olives neglected the and the people. and was strangely irregular in his conduct. and Rehoboam. King of Egypt. Perfect The Grand Elect and Masons saw this. headed a rebellion against the king. and dispersing themselves among the neigtbouring instructed all wlio applied and were found worthy in the Sutlime Degrees of ancient Craft Masonry. . to Moloch of the Ammonites. completed in the year of the world 3000. The Lord. and destroy the sacred prosperous . His extended power and he plunged into all influence at length corrupted his virtue. assured him sacrifice. Moabites. and were sorely grieved. who perverted his heart so that he worshipped Ashtoreth of the Sidoniams. the building to be his house of He promised to bless if him and his posterity if they were constant in his worship they did not remain feithful He would certainly punish them. edifice. The day of the vengeance of the Most High did come Jeroboam upon them those enemies . he grew deaf to the voice of the Lord. manner flicted of licentiousness. office. when he had ad- vanced in years. soon worship of the true God for that of idols. his son by one of revolted. and the latter actions of his life in- a deep disgrace on his character . his Ammonite wives. came with an army.230 ILLUSTEATIONS Or FEEEMASONET. who had appeared to Solomon in a dream Temple. ten of the tribes and Shishak. his understanding became impaired. aided by mariners from Tyre. succeeded . and gained universal admiration but in process of time. The Temple was Thus far the wise King of Israel had proved worthy of his great . following his example. and bring whom Solomon had before defied. he extended the commerce of the country.

but its principles are doubtiess to . as fer as much from that in use previous to we can discover. The position of the companions when forms a triangle . and the centre of the fire. his kingdom was . were put together for that purpose. and the twenty-four lights are placed three and five in the west. they took and sacked Jerusalem. sent his general Nebxizaradan with an army which desolated Judea with fire and sword . the Boyal Arch. letters Hin^ pillar. iu the In the west is a piOar of beauty. being found in the ruins. The conquerors carried the people captives to Babylon. the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Degrees present ritual differs very and although the 1813. the King of Babylon. as one governing Craft Masonry. has for a very Supreme Council to long period formed part of Masonic ceremonial in Great Britain. and nine in the south. placed behind the chair of the Master. and destroyed the Temple. of the dty." All the degrees which its gold and silver vessels. when the Eose-CroiK is given. Perfection which is practised in the United is among the decorations of the Lodge-room a trans- parency. laying waste the whole country. were by name degree. seven in the north. borne away. 231 the king's carried off the treasures of the Lord's house and all gold and silver. The holy things of the Temple. In the Degree of States. The pedestal is formed from the fragments of Enoch's which. On a table is placed bread and wine and gold rings for the newly seated admitted brother. We understand that it is intended by the work this degree. iRoyal in a body called the we have thus described are conferred LoBes of Peefection. no part of the Ancient and be found in Accepted Eite. historical lecture of this degree contains the fol: The so-caUed lowing passages —" At the death of Solomon. razed the waU. representing a burning bush enveloping a triangle. forms Arch Degree. and included in the certificate of that It is scarcely necessary for us to mention that the as such. till leaving only a remnant of the lower dass to the land. After the kpse of four centuries from the death of Solomon. Nebuchadnezzar.THE AirCIElTT XSD ACCEPTED BITE.

rent asunder. There were living at that time several ancient Masters. that they were admired by the princes of Jerusalem. believing that these mysteries inspired them with courage and virtue. nine Knights of the which led to the sacred vaults. * * * When the time arrived that the Christian princes determined to free the Holy Land from the vices. who. virtuous Masons voluntarily The valour and ofiered their ser- on the condition that they should have a chief of their own which was granted. that the whole ten became confirmed idolaters. and has continued to spread through a succession of ages to the present time. initiated. deputed some of their number to wait upon Solomon. were desirous of being their request . But the evil did not rest here . who. because they were zealous and faithful. his station on in regular progression. None were suffered to pass without giving the passwords of the different arches. and one of the deputies warmly observed ' : What and occasion have we for a higher degree ? still We know travel that the word has been changed. fortitude of those all election. The Masons complied with and thus the royal Art became popular and honourable. This answer was not satisfactory. but we can receive as Masters. for the fascinations and pleasures of the latitudinarian system which had so long prevailed under the influence of Solomon's pernicious exam. elected knights was such. * * * Whenever a Lodge of Perfection was Ninth Arch and so tiled the nine arches held. the youngest taking at the first arch. a Master Mason's wages. and ten of the tribes severed from the dominion of his son. and request that they might honours. nor did Judah and Benjamin escape the infection. excited by jealousy at the honours conferred upon the twenty-five brethren.' . was difiFased throughout these various dominions. participate in those The king answered that the twenty-five Masters were justly entitled to the honours conferred on them. infidels.232 IlLirSTEATIONS OF I'EEEMASOITEX. and gave them also hopes that one day they would be rewarded according to their merits.ple had become so agreeable to tribes soon his subjects. which was near the apartment of Solomon.

. 233 whom he had advanced to difficult the Degree of Perfection had wrought in the and dan- gerous work of the ancient ruins. accident. 1767. had penetrated the bowels of the earth. that those EITE. and brought thence treasures to enrich and adorn the Temple of God . G. They carefully examined the spot. The very next morning they removed hut no sooner had they fell the cubical stone. Martha's Vineyard. D. hearing of this make inquiries place. but found nothing except a few pieces of marble inscribed with hieroglyphics. into the circumstance. from Eingston in Jamaica. Giblim. and of StoDrin to The king. and aspire to perfection by good works. unanimously determined to go to the ancient ruins and search in the bowels of the earth. and the other at Holmes' Hole. and as its contriver's name is rather conspicuous in the In our brief account of these degrees. and desired the petitioners to go in peace.THE ANCIElfT AND ACCEJTEB Solomon mildly replied. in Scotland. Masonic history of the last century. in 1686. we leave the own conclusions as to the value of any part of them but since we know the source of this Fourteenth Degree. nor could they learn that any -one of those who had descended had escaped to teU the tale. one at Inspector General. Massachusetts. of course brethren to form their . The deputies returned and These Masters. The Chevalier Eamsay was bom at Ayr. by the Thrice Puissant Brother Henry Andrew Francken. and descended into the cavern with a ladder of ropes by the light of torches . At break day they went to the hut saw no remains of the arches. Albany. dis- reported their reception to the Masters. by which Solomon discovered that these fragments formed a part of one of the pillars of Enoch. the introduction here of a notice of a remarkable individual wiU not appear out of place. all arrived at the bottom than the whole nine arches in upon them. sent Joahert. constituted 20th December. that they might have good pretext for making a re-application to Solomon for the required honours. pleased at the refiisal.'' The two oldest Lodges of Perfection in America were.

they England to remove into offer. and proposed to the Gh-and Lodge of England to substitute in place of the three ancient degrees others of his own invention. at French nohlesse to the mechanical origin of the it which their pride revolted. where lecame the intimate and associate of the celebrated Fdndlon. upon the Saracens gaining the upper hand. and to have culti- vated most of the known sciences. sculpture. having discovered the existence of these spies. and music. Finally. but being invited by the King of his dominions. and conceived the idea of making use of the Masonic association to subserve the interests of their parly. and according to his idea improved. by asserting that arose in the ohivaJry. they adopted symbolic ceremonies with a view of instructing their proselytes more new religion. he engaged actively in political intrigues. had accepted the culti- and in this secure retreat devoted themselves to the vation and encouragement of architecture. Holy Land dm-ing the Crusades first as an order of His theory was that the Freemasons were a society of knights. disguised as Christians. but . who. the "Knights-Masons were compelled to abandon their original occupation. as many of their work- men were newly readily in the converted Christians.234 and in early friend ILltrSTEATIOIfS OE life FEEEMASONEX. system of Masonry. and instituted signs and words for the purpose of detection and that. . painting. with the view of preventing the execution of this pious design. he endeavoured to obviate the objections of the institution. whose business it was to rebuild the churches . careful. which had been destroyed by the Saracens that the infidels. betheir efforts came confounded with the builders and paralyzed became in foture more that the knights. sent emissaries among them. Being of a restless and ambitious disposition. and particularly devoted himself to the cause of the exiled princes of the house of Stuart. lie went to Prance. He is said to have been a man of most extensive erudition. In 1728 Eamsay attempted to lay the foundation of this new. With this end in view.

These degrees became popnlax. had been prevented by their enemies. jected in London. ancient Craft but as an addition Masonry. From Scripture and tradition is derived the following legend of this degree. were ever ready and prepared to construct and defend the Holy City and Sanctuary. the splendour of the decorations. liberated from their captivity.THB AirCEENT ASD ACCEPTED SITE. as it is founded on the circumstance of the assistance rendered by Darius to the Jews. not indeed as a substitute to. 235 wMch he asserted St. lined with red and bordered with green. were adopted. having on the letters T and H . In tills degree the m^eetiogs are designated " councils. would appear to be one of very considerable interest. and espedaUy refers to those va- Masons who. where his degrees for. KNTGHT OF THE SWOED ASD THE which liant is EAST. there are also sometimes other emblems painted on the ribbon. to a circumstance hereafter referred The chamber is illumi- nated by seventy-two years' captivity. the Fifteenth Degree. captivating Ere long they fell into oblivion. and the gorgeous manner in which the ceremonials were the senses. and in a short time gave birth to numerous others on the continent of Europe. after the death ot Cyrus. in is memory of the seventy-two The sash a green watered ribbon. The apron is white. he carried them to Paris." and an important change takes place in the symbolic colours adopted tiie hangings of the coxmal chamber are water-green. when the whole land was " a and an astonishment. with trowels in hand and swords by their sides. The Knights of the East derive their origin from desolation the captivity. lights. from achieving their purpose of rebuilding the Temple. had heen practised for tune TTtr immemorial in views heing re- the Lodge of Andrew at Edinburgh. worn left hip. who. in allusion to. and has on it emblems of war and its consequences." and the nation did " serve the Eing of Babylon . across the body from the right shoulder to the it the figure of a bridge being in the front. conducted.

to Sheshbazzai.) The king committed this is the the charge of the holy vessels. and servants amounting to 7337. " It shall come to pass. and in seven days from their arrival the work of restoring the Temple was commenced. The journey occupied four months. for their iniquity. armed 7000 Masons. in ftdfilment of the prophecy of Jeremiah. the prince of Judah . —"Thus And shall Babylon and shall not rise from the evil that I will bring upon her.360. force opposed to their passage. and he caused all the holy vessels and ornaments which had been carried to " be restored. The workmen were . and a direct ancestor of our Lord Jesus When the ex- IsraeUtish captives were assembled they clusive of slaves numbered 42. seventy years." (Ezra vi. for it not only fixed the date for the return of the Hehrew people to their own land. A at and the enemy was cut to pieces or drowned the passage of the bridge. of the Chaldeans. but also for the overthrow of the Babylonian monarchy. 5. This traditional history relates that Zerubbabel. the Israelites were restored to liherty hy Cyrus." And when the seventy years were accomplished. who was of the royal line of David. and the land perpetual desolation. where they found an armed conflict ensued. them in the house of God. for the protection of his people. Their march was unimpeded as fer as the banks of the Euphrates." But to return to the historical events said to be connected with this degree. saith the Lord. and placed them in the van to repel such as should oppose their march to Judea. This prophecy was very remarkahle. when the seventy years are accomplished. is The emblematic colour of the degree in allusion to this circumstance. Baby- lonian name of Zerubbabel. as well as of the returning captives. away by Nebuzaradan Temple which is and brought again unto the and place at Jerusalem. Christ. and wiU make it a the last words of the prophet declare sink.236^ ILLUSTEATIONS 01' FEEEMASOimT. Cyrus permitted the Jews to return to Jeru- salem for the purpose of rebuilding the Temple." and that nation. every one to his place. that I wiU punish the King of Babylon.

The works had distnrbed scarcely commenced before the workmen were by the neighbouring Samaritans. and hence the title were created by Cyrus Enights of this degree. 237 divided into classes. is the Sixteenth Degree. lights. as a measure of precaution. at . that the Masons should work with a sword in one hand and a trowel in the other. the and the table of shewbread. The assembly brazen sea. degree . there are the candlestick with seven branches. is The which worn from right to apron water-green. in memory is of the seventy years' captivity. over each of which a chie^ with two assistants. This appears in both the French Bites . Every d^ree of each class was paid modes of according to rank. is designated Sovereign. was its placed. &c. it Those Masons who constructed of the East. The Chief of the Council of Persia. The white satin with green border. GBAUD which is PHIlfCE OF JIEtrSALEM. is called a CounciL Every thing bears a Hebrew There are seventy character. who edifice. and there is also a GSrand General appear to receive the authority from the rebuild the King sash. in both it is termed Knight of the East. officer is King The second Nehemiai. The green colour has reference to the river Euphrates. and on it is it are embroidered the symbols of the. that they might be able at any moment to defend themselves fiom the attacks of their enemies. Esdras Zerubbabel and two others the Grand Orator. of Persia to is Holy City and Sanctuary. Mithridates the Grand Treasurer. to is attached a small poignaxd. and each class had its distinctive lea^nition. The second and was con- Temple occupied forty-six years in secrated in a its construction. in the Grand Orient it is tihe Sixth Degree . were determined to oppose the reconstruction of the Zerubbabel therefore ordered. Kke manner to that of the Temple of Solomon. and represents Cyrus. left. the Chancellor. founded on certain incidents which took place during the rebuildiag of the second Temple.THE AFCrEKT ABD ACCEPTED KITE.

The of five. saying. In this degree the fact of the Valiant Masons who. and troubled in building. The jewel It is a gold medal with a like emblem. " Give ye now commandment me. having on it a balance on which are the letters D and Z. seated on a blue dais city of Babylon. The Council confers on a candidate for the 18th to the 16th. wMcli time the Jews were muoli aimoyed by the attacks of the neighbouring nations. as mentioned in the legend of the Fifteenth Degree. building of the second Temple. The emblematic which is is red. and the apartment should be separated into two parts. colour of the degree is yellow. The assembly is called the Grand Council. the apron. and on the reverse a two-edged sword and five stars. were armed with sword and shield to protect the workmen. is especially referred to. where Zerubbabel presides. . first is represented Darius the king. The find Grand Council of Princes conti'ol of all of Jerusalem of which we to any record was formed and took the at Charleston. saloons are illuminated by twenty-five candles in groups We them find the following passage in Ezra iv. in 1788.'' to cause these men to cease. In the ." when the Israelites sent an embassy to that potentate to implore his protection and permission to resume the work. being bordered and lined with that colour the flap yellow. in the United States. and that this city be not builded until another commandment shall be given from And " so it ceased until the second year of the reign of King Darius." It goes on to say that these enemies ob- tained a letter from King Artaxerxes. —" The people of the land weakened the hands of the people of Judah. and succeeded in gaining the object of their petition. and it should be hung with The other at the part represents the city of Jerusalem.238 itirsTEATioNS or beeemasonet. subordinate degrees up the fifteenth. is in contemplation to first work this degree in England. this part represents the red. pre- Degree all the degi-ees by name from the 4th .

was oi^anized by the Enights engaged in the Cmsades that in 1118 the same year that the Order of the Temple was insti- — tuted—eleven Enights took the vows of discretion. to give. The jewel is a heptagon of is silver. Eeeper of the Seals and Archives. of the East and West is opened. accompanied by that some importance is secrets and password . and between the hands of Birinus. the reverse has a two-edged sword between the scales of a balance . it is suspended from a blue ribbon. Master of the Ceremonies. The practice in conferring the d^ree of Eose-Crois. first. As somewhat more to this degree thaTi deference is paid by the Supreme Council and as it is distinctly any which precede it. Treasurer. and. having at each angle a golden star. in a Grand Lodge of Perfection . then to declare a Grand Lodge of Princes of Jeruhaving closed that. conferred by an authoritative body. friendship. KSIGHT OF THE EAST AND WEST. thus we perceive attached to the d^ee by the Supreme . the other officers being Most Equitable Sovereign High Priest. badge is yellow bordered with red. in the centre a lamb on a book with seven seals. which is the Seventeenth D^^ee. secrecy.THE ATSrCZEITT AITD ACCEPTED EITE. Ite inventors asserted that it . makes no pretence in history to anaent Preemasoniy. 239 vions to Lis being eligible for the The Statutes enact all that the Council of Princes of Jernsalem have a right to visit Lodges up to the loth Degree. 17tli. two Wardens. the patriarch of Jeruo£S^cer is called salem. the d^xees by name from the fourth to the fourteenth inclusive. necessary that we should ^ve some explanation of is it. and Tyler. is entirely chivalric. a Grand Lodge of the Enights salem opened. and that degree is given by name. The presiding Prince Master. Master of the Entrances. as its far as can be at present discovered. and forms a portion of the it is ceremonial of the Eighteenth D^ree. also by name . and confer the Fifteenth and Sixteenth D^rees. having for its The emblem a two- edged sword.

mysterious Seven candlesticks stand around him. on the other. supported is placed a throne elevated on seven eagles. and from his mouth issues a two- edged sword. and temperance. is a higher meaning attached to the symbol of the seven . ever watchful to promote the welfare of his creatures . of the lustrous orb of night. On the the south and north sides are canopies for the Ancients in the west are while two seats with canopies. act as the who in conjunction with the Most Puissant is Grand Council. steps. But there stars. under a canopy. he wears a long white beard his head surrounded with glory. it will From the following description be seen tliat were this degree practised in accordance with the ritual.. mission. with a golden girdle is around his waist. The ing of the floor displays a heptagon within a . raised five steps. are explained to signify the seven qualities which ought to distinguish a Freemason.240 Council. jSrom which are suspended seven seals. On also one side of the throne is displayed a transparency of the meridiaii sun. which extended. derived from passages in the Old Testament they repre- sent the seven eyes mentioned by Zechariah. viz. for Venerable Wardens. friendship. over the is angles of which appear certain initials figure of a in the centre the man clothed in a white robe. fidelity. are In the east two vases. circle. On placed a cover- large Bible. and the seven lamps of the Apocalypse. stars : It must be hung with by the red. Twenty-four Knights are necessary a pedestal in the east to form a foil council. the grand council chamber of the Order would have a most gorgeous appearance. is sur. which symbolize the Holy Spiiit of God. spangled is with golden in the east. . bearing the initials. imion. figures of four lions and four between which placed an aiigel with six wings. which typify the care of Divine Providence. one containing water and the other perfume. The seven stars by which his hand is surmounted. mounted by seven is stars . ILLTTSTEATIONS 01? SEEEMASONET. sub- prudence. discretion. . whence are also derived the seven spiritual gifts of a Christian man. his right hand.

and so fer from sup- H . nothing satis&ctory is known . was converted to there admitted into the Order. afterwards King Edward L. differ its place is supplied it. and where (like the Bojal Arch) does not by name." the other. grieved at seeing the prindples of Christianiiy forgotten in idle and vain disputes. C. 241 The candidate being in possession of the password of the Seventeenth Degree. "Noces Chimiqnes de Eozen Cmtz. one writer supposes it to have been instituted by the Enights Templar in Palestine. and attributes its origin to a pious monk. but no evidence in support of when in fact they were the great enemies of Masonry. in the twelfth century. SOVEBEIGS PEDfCB OP EOSE-CEOIX HEEEDOII. found in it all the prindpal erist rites. the Eighteenth D^ree. and that science was to the pride of subservient man instead of contributing to his happiness.. and asserts that Prince Edward. passed his days in devising what he supposed to be the most appropriate means of restoring each to its legitimate affir moral and benevolent tendency." Ea^on made says that Andrea. is the most andent and most generally It is practised of the historical degrees of llasoniy. for the purpose of counteracting the insidious attacks of freethinkers offers upon the Eomish his assertion : fiiith. who seventeenth century. an Egyptian priest treatise J&agon. Of its ongin. among other works. then presents himself for admission to the Eose-Croix C!hapter. he also says that the Order was derived from Christianity. named John Valentine Andrea. Clanel absurdly ms that the degree was founded by the Jesuits. by others whose symbols do not materially £rom To those who have not gone beyond the symbolic d^rees. two one entitled " Judicorum de Eratemitate E. treatises.THE AJfCrEBT AlUD ACCEPTED BTTE. the name is perhaps more familiarly known than any other of the higher degrees.*' has most elaborately investigated the subject. flourished in the early part of the Andrea wrote. in his entitled "Qrihodosie Ma^onnique.

all The almost universal recognition of this degree in countries would fevour the theory of its heing of long standing. . and charity and his final reception into the abode of light. who presents the candidates for admission . who has charge his of the entrance. hope. and im- m. it are of the most imposing and is most eminently a Christian Its ritual is remarkable for elegance of diction. if he has not already done must sign a declaration of fealty and allegiance to the Supreme Council of the Chapter. he promises this this more fiilly in the presence To give several degree in the full perfection of its ceremonies. The it is jewel includes the most important symbols of the degree a . previous to so. The oflSoers of a Eose-Croix Chapter are. and hence the hostility of the Eomish Church. the Second . Many of the Rosicruoians were amongst the reformers of the age. in on which the . and . the First General. with roses worked embroidery richly ornamented is it has a rose-coloured border the collar of rose-coloured satin. their con- ductor during the ceremony and the Captain of the Guard.242 porting it. General. The candidate. while is the symbolic teaching not only pleasing. and on his admission. ILLirSTEATIONS O'P rEEEMASONET. a Grand Marshal. and degree.ortality. There are is two badges worn in this degree. and the aid of powerful and solemn music. hfe. richly embroidered. which reversible is . of black sUk. The ceremonies of the degree impressive character. the first may be called the badge of mourning. wrote treatises against tte Order. or rather one. but consistent with the Christian faith. the Most Wise Sovereign. who may be assimilated to Wardens . a High Prelate. prior to the ceremonial. admission. figuratively expressing the passage of man through the valley of the shadow of death. chambers are required. having in its centre the passion cross cross the other is side is of white satin. the rooms must also be large and lofty. accompanied and sustained by the Masonic virtues — ^faith. Eaphael.

both pass as one degree. instead of a pelican there a figure of am eagle. At the foot of the cross is a pelican wounding her beneath.'' The Degree of Knight created and constituted " a of the Eagle and Pelican appears to be the name by which the Eose-Croix is elsewhere known. or the sixteenth part of a circle. having a fall-blown rose. there is a beautiful comparison of the care and paternal affection of the Deity for his people with the natural tenderness of the eagle for her young "As the eagle stirreth up her nest. In Deuteronomy xxxii. and Prince of the Order of Eose-Crois:." M 2 . 11. On the arc of the circle is engraven in cypher the is password of the degree. Expandeth her plumes. the head of the compass is snrmomited by a crown with seven emerald points a cross of Calvary. its ritual and legend being somewhat similar. The eagle on the jewel. the recipient is Enight of the Pelican and Eagle. satisfy our readers of the Christian character of "When the Eose-Croix Degree is conferred. is a symbol of Christ. The symbols of which the jewel composed will the d^^ee. extended on an arc to twenty-two. and a half degrees. it is ingeniously suggested. and soar from the duU corruptions of earth to a higher and holier sphere. bearing the children of his adaption on his wings. breast to feed her yonng. And there was no strange god with him. 243 golden compass. which are in a nest is On the reverse. but by the Council of the Ancient and Accepted Eite in England and Wales. formed of rubies or garnets. in his divine character.THE AlfOrBNT AITD ACCEPTED BITE. Beareth them upon her wings So Jehovah alone did lead him. taketh them. whose stem twines ronnd the it encloses on its centre lower limb of the cross. Fluttereth over her young. teaching them with unequalled love and tenderness to spread their new-fledged wings.

alludes to the lonely situation of the pelican in the wilderness. with the Egyptians." Another theory of the origin of Freemasonry assigns to the union of the rose and the cross this explanation rose —that as the was the emblem of the female principle. in Egypt. the rose followed by the cross was the simplest mode of writing "the secret of immortality. rose.244 The ILLTTSTEATIONS 01' FEEEMASOTTET. which was written towards the end of the captivity. earliest ages. from the custom attributed by the poets to open its this bird of tearing breast to feed its offspring with its says that in the hieroglyphic eagle ." is. in ancient mythology. is applied as a figurative appellation of Christ. In this view the peHcan a fitting symbol The cross was from the . the two together. an emblem of immortality. an emblem of the death of the Saviour for the sins of mankind. Ragon suggests that as the cross was. in this latter signification only it is adopted as an emblem in this degree —and hence its form. a it symbol of eternal Hfe but since the crucifixion has been peculiarly adopted as am emblem of The Him who suffered on it . and the cross or triple phallus of the male. emblem of the pelican is appropriately adopted as an Saviour wlio slied his blood for the salvation of the human race. Sagon monuments of the ancients the and pelican of this degree perfect charity. Following this idea. rose. and the rose of secrecy. as illustrative of the poignancy of the writer's grief at witnessing the desolation of his country and the prostration is of her sacred altars. for the degree. own blood. wore a crown of as emblems of silence and secrecy. and the pelican of a benevolent therefore considers the eagle man he to be intended to symbolize perfect wisdom and The 102nd Psalm. called " the in the Canticles He is Eose of Sharon. was the symbol of a wise. in Scripture. was consecrated to Harpo- the god of sUence. The crates. The cross alludes to his death the rose on the cross therefore. like the Indian . and in the mysteries the hierophant roses.

restoring the true light. christianize Ereemasonry. but the three lesser give place to thirty others. In short. and Beauty which supported the Temple of Solomon are replaced by the Christian pillars of Faith.THE AITCIENT AITD ACCEPTED EITE. and visible in maJdng the new law is our works. it now bears universally an entirely Christian character . allude to the years of the Messiah's sojourn upon earth. for the Wisdom. " I am come down is to deliver my people. which. 245 lingam. a bold attempt to rites. attended with the appearance of a blazing star. the last and greatest dispensation Solomon and Zerubbabel a third — to add to the Temples of ^that to which Christ alluded when He said. Without entering upon the question of the age of our institution. Whatever may have been the origin of the Eose-Croix Degree. every thing bears tiie impress of Christianity. and displays its full effulgence in the exquisite mysteries of the Eose-Crois. and in three days I will raise it up. we may notice the undoubted feet that both the rose and the cross were used as symbols from the most remote antiquity. and traditions of ancient Masonry to . The brother who ceases to be of admitted to the Eose-Crois will observe that the great discovery made in the early degrees of Masonry any value in this degree . it may certainly be asserted that the light on the subject becomes clearer in each succeeding degree." He is come down in the person of Jesus symbolically asserted Christ . in this degree the divine glory to have been manifested at the period when the word was recovered. and to apply the symbols. Jehovah said to says. and Charity . Strength. from beginning to end. salt At its meetings the brethren break bread and eat with one M 3 . " Destroy t>n's temple. the three great lights of the Royal Arch of course remain. added to the three greater lights. symbolized universal generation. Hope. the cubical stone being changed into the mystical rose. dispelling darkness." Many commentators on our institution insist that all degrees of Freemasonry allude directiy to the religion of Christianity. If this be granted. indeed. it is.

Hail. and on the goblet of fraternal affection invoke the blessing of Him wbo is the Rose of Sharon. Hail. holy Lord. its cannot fail* to impress every brother with sublimity and beauty. sing. thy mercies never fail. While the name of God we Holy." this anthem sung : " Grrateful notes and numbers bring. to aid on earth their progress to that state of perfection which will enable them. Tin they reach the echoing sky. hail " WhUe on earth ordain'd to stay. then certainly the Roserite. In the original form of the Order of Knights .246 ILLUSTEATIOirS 0¥ ]?EBEM:AS01fET. another. to be admitted. as is ancient brotherhoods. to join their Great skies. raise your voices high. To this degi'ee has been attached the significant designation of ne plus ultra. hail. excelsis to give this degree a character of and at the closing of a chapter. hail. that if Christian Freemasonry. celestial Goodness. Men on earth and saints above Sing the great Eedeemer's love Lord. Be thy glorious name adored. hail !" In concluding our remarks on feel this impressive ceremony we with the bound to say. Men on earth and saints above Sing the great Redeemer's love Lord. Emmanuel in the and be there united in a happy its assistance eternity. thy mercies never fail. after "Gloria in is Deo. when bursting from the tomb. holy. celestial Goodness. Music lends sublimity. Croix it is a most beautiful Conducted as we have witnessed it in the Metropolitan and other Chapters. Guide our footsteps in thy way Mortals.

of the Scotch lUtes. in the second edition of his " Orthodoxie says it Ma^nni^e. H. and hj that of the Eadosh. so desirons is the Supreme Council to disavow the Knights Templar. 247 country it was the nest step taken above the -was followed q[nalified Templax Degree. confining itself more to &ct> while the Sose-Croix more of the allegory. and a corraption of the mediaeval Latin word heBredium.M. and the sesd confirms the grant.THE AITCTEHT AFD ACCEPTED Templar in siinple lliis EITE. S. which signi- "a piece of ground &llen by inheritance. that the candidate for the Sose-Croix is. and E. The high consideration in which the Bose-Croix is held is shown in the circumstance that its ritual has met with universal acceptance . in an old MS.S.E. the name of a mountain first sitnate in the north-west of Scotland. the Symbolic D^rees are in all countries identical. two H . The the Sose-Crois Degree possesses object in both similar is characteristics to Templar .D. emUems to 1831. at the time of receiving the degree. The older Masons are united in the opinion that these degrees ought never to bave been separated. the Templar. hence in the latter was afibrded a better opportunity of interweaving the symbols of Craft Masonry with an emblem of the Christian &ith." HSJuhay is observes that. the displays d^rees the same . But at the present day. perhaps. allowed to wear the jewels of any Masonic rank he may have attained except that of the Enight Templar.S." TmitiTig the whole stractnre. so also is the Bose-Croix —and this cannot be said of any other degree.C. All encampments l>euig the to give those degrees. where the or Metropolitan Lodge of Europe was and supposes that the present orthc^raphy spelling it may 4 be the French mode of Dr. is at of all are engraved on the certificates issued piior " The " Ne pins nltra the top of the Masonic ladder . find a satis&ctory explanation of the word is MagoTi.T. Oliver calls the H. We can no where Sieredom. he has discovered the following explanation — ^that Seroden held. the " K." fied was invented by the Stuart party. D.

initials salt. this degree it In connexion with representing may be observed that the I. RuacJi. Nov/r. on the floor is a painting representing seven circles in white on a black ground. that in the ancient city is of Amurajapm-a. the brother To he aa a eligible for must be acknowledged Eoyal Arch Mason by initials the Gfrand Chapter of Scotland. This symbol is doubtless of long date. and in the seventh. added in 1736. three Natwra Senovatwr Integra by fire nature is perfectly They also adopted them to express the names of their elementary principles. also a peculiar long naiTOw leaf. there in the sacred enclosure of a Dagobah it are or Temple. by making them the Irimenifwr. A. or inner. within each of these are sacred emblems. of the Latin inscription placed on the cross. laminim. a horse. In Scotland. a lion. E. of the sentence Igne finds in A learned Mason Nitrwm Moris the equivalent Hebrew of the ancient air. elements.'.. through which the aspirant for honoui-s has to pass. — sulphur. for we learn from a traveller in the island of Ceylon. were by the Eosieruoians used as the initials of one of their hermetic secrets Iffne renewed. . 1314.D. In the first part of the ceremony. earth. this Order. letters i^Ji the initials of the Hebrew names fire. by the Grand Chapter of the former degree. iTesits Nazwrenus Sex JiidcBonim. are a cow. water." as well as under the sanction of the Heredom and Eosy Supreme Council of the Thirty-third Degree. and in the centre a pelican. and on sculptured seven concentric rings different . a circular slab of dark bluish granite. and lehschah. and an elephant. he states that the Eoyal Order of Heredom was founded on the dissolution of the Order of the Knights Templar. and mercury. which forms the letter I of the Lath alphabet.-N. The centre is occupied by . iLLtJSTEATIONS 01' FEEIMASONIIT. I. the Eose- Croix Degree is given under the rite of the " Eoyal Order of Cross.248 degrees . the circles representing the seven periods of the world's existence. and that the Eose-Croix was.

or Templars.THE ASCrEFT The antiquiiy of this AJSTD ACCEPTED SITE. who are generally considered to be a branch of the appeared in Armenia in the seventh century. and of the Eomei. charity. is the essence Nwna. St. and that by The Master assures him that they are the principles and pillars of the new mystefry. and who witnessed his transfignration on Mount Tabor. especiallj in the extract which follows : " St. to St. in allosion to the age of oar Lord). repeating successively the name of each viitne. to which he answers that he has charity. to The Panlicians. His leader takes round the three columns. rite In a them. Paul. hope. and Christ dies and rises again under his eyes. St relating to the three pilgrimages. is 249 work on d^^ee shown in Rosetti's the secret societies which preceded the Beformation. M 5 . three piUars appear. St James on . In these same rites of the pilgrimage undertaken by the candi- leamt the three virtues of &ith. first Manichsans. which extends through thirty-three years. and St. which is supposed to have descended from the Alhi- genses. liim This new mystery. the Fanlicians' and made them St. and afterwards asks him what he has learnt in his pilgrimage. with the names of those virtaes on The candidate is obliged to travel for thirty-three years (thus they call the thirty-three tarns he takes. calls the three Apostles —^who attended their Divine Master in -pillars . of Dante's Yita described exactly. on feith. or Albigenses. we find this rite St Peter examines and St. James. in the second chapter of his Epistle to the Galatians. following that passage of the Apostle. and his devotion in the garden. the tragedy of Giood Friday and the events of the following days are rehearsed. hope. his most divine moments. date who is thirty-three years of age. John of Jerusalem James in Gallicia . —of the palmers. to learn the beauties of the new la/io. John. and them he intends to govern himself. or new law. three piUars. hope. 1 of the pilgrimB. emhlematic of the three theological virtaes Peter was faith. or Ghibbelines. John on charity. In the Paradise Before the last vision. to St.

' " RoseUi. now called. the friend of Chaucer. : at the back of the head. to magical arts." " Wishing to says in. was John Gower. let us ' know that these things There is are all mystical. Saviour's. He took only three apostles with Him out of the twelve things. Southwark. 'when trans- figured before the eyes of his three Apostles. the double triangle are the shields of Templars. by a fex-fetohed comparisoii. St. and by the ignorance of the age was considered to be addicted visited England in 1510. in very secret we should have but few is companions. which drawn up in a very curious manner. The initiated in the Eose-Croix it by carefiil study. Saviour's Church . may be traced. shows the recog- nition of the degree in the purple roses and gold band with Degree fillets of which encircles his head : in Grower's works also the degree will. Eome and : at the examination presides Beatrice. . or. known in the great metropolis it is well deserving of a England does not contain a more elegant Gothic structure. of a Cologne. one thing which should be very attentively observed benefit : by readers. is perhaps one of the least visit. and by that we are to understand that. into a projecting knot south transept is. He He practised as a physician and astrologer. and now placed upon the organ . find allusions to in the poems of Chaucer. Mary Overies' Church. a alluded to in the works of Henry noble family at man of great learning and talent. is likened to Christ. for their we read that when Christ went own and their pupils' up into the mount to be transfigured. the stone effigy of an emaciated is man wrapped shroud. to have belonged to the Eose- Amongst the earliest known Oroix Brotherhood. His works were printed at Leyden in 1550. The Eose-Croix Degree Cornelius Agrippa. he the Convito. whose sumptuous monument in as it is St. wto.250 Peter's in ILtUSTEATIONS OP EEEEMASONET. bom 1486. and there are : many in a memorials of interest to Masons an effigy of a cross-legged EJoight Templar . St. in the window of the in beautifiil stone tracery.

but are occupied in an examination of the Apocalyptic mysteries of the Bevelation xxi. possessed of any of these extraordinary powers. Livicta Chapter. Peter and St. and Manchester. Yet it can be undoubtedly traced to the early days of ancient Borne. held alternately at Bolton. Eyde. 710 —672) of priests. VectiB Chapter. who on a throne under a canopy K 6 .c. at Weymouth. Boyal Naval Chapter. the modem of pontiff would appear to be applied exclusively to the head of the Somifih Church. Portsmouth. at the " Ship and Turtle.THE ASCTEKT ASD AOCEPXED KITE. Birmingham. Momit Calraiy hall-street. Soyal Sent Chapter." Leaden- London. Woolwich. Vernon Chapter. when founded the coU^e of FoTitifex Numa Pompilius (b. held at Preemasons' Hall. Dee's Hotel. Liverpool. Chapter. degrees. 251 THE BOSE-CBOIZ CHAPTEE8 IN ENGLAITD. at Asminster. London. having superintendence and power their over all persons in matters connected with religion and ceremo. at Bath. nial laws and amongst numerous duties was the govern- ment of the vestal virgins. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. and instituted the office Maximus. AH Souls' Chapter. are not. The pontiffs stood in the place of an ecclesiastical court at Bome. GKAITD poirriFP is the denomination of the Nineteenth Degree. and xxiL New Jerusalem. Masonic Hall. however. Metropolitan Chapter. Isle of Wight. Masonic Hall. St. Devon. and the superintendence of their moral conduct: the brethren who reach this Masonic degree. Except title in this and some other Mas onic. Paul. Palestine Chapter. as we are advised. and an appella- tion more deddedly papal could scarcely be found. Coiyton Chapter. as set forth in : There are two chief officers is seated a Thrice Puissant in the east.

Who is the personage meant we are at a loss to imagine . and on the other Omega. and wear blue embroidered with twelve golden The decorations or hangings of the Lodge represent the vault of heaven — celestial blue. where they established a Lodge and built an abbey. . when this magnificent abbey was founded. The sash is crimson with golden stars to it is suspended the jewel. dispersed over the various countries in Europe. B. The presiding ofiScer is styled Venerable Grand Master. filled Temple by in the Titus. second king of Persia of that name. 70 and 1140. Taylor says. A considerable number went to Scotland. The historical the period of the destruction of the third a. corresponds with the Aliasuerus of Scripture. 358. in which the records of the Order were deposited . whose wife was the daughter of Cyi'us I. OE GBAlfD KASTEE OP ALL THE SYMBOLIC LODGES.C. GEAND MASTEE AD VITAM. and tbe Warden in tbe west. is the imposing Here the brother lecture refers to name bestowed on the Twentieth Degree. in which we have tolerably good proof that a Masonic Lodge was founded by the builders engaged in constructing the edifice. that the period of Ai-taxerxes Longimanus. on one side of which is Alpha. The' Christian Freemasons then Holy Land. who died B. This is one of those numerous instances of . mentioned in the book of Esther. on the suggestion of Prideaux. departed from their home with the determination of erecting a fourth Temple edifice . of blue. fillets All the members are clothed in white.d. bears a staff of gold. and made choice of the town of Kilwinning. and represents Cyrus Artaxerxes. the younger Cyrus was the younger brother of Artaxerxes. with stars of gold. and died in his 24th year. a square. we are not informed where these worthy brethren were travelling during the period between a. who stars.252 ILLtrSTEATIONS Or rEEEMABOKET. 70. — ^a spiritual and dividing themselves into different Lodges.C. 358. with sorrow.d. wearing a white satin robe. is again led to temple-bmlding.

they have arisen through the super- acquaintance the framers had with andent history.. and the fifth. being called Knight of Introduction the third. did not belong to the same individuaL perfect. or." This is a gratuitous assumption. the second. of Defence. an equilateral triangle crossed by an arrow. and annoy the inquirer in his researches ficial . The Knights wear a black sash from is and on the front the jewel. either It is stated that the meetings in this symbolical or historical. what is derived from that The meeting is called a Chapter. is The names of Cyrus and Artaxerxes The Lodge. who. profess to be descendants of Peleg. they wear collars of yellow and blue. of Finances . There must have been formerly in English Masonry some matters . We now find the traditional history carried back to an earlier date thaa in any other degree in Maaonry. The other officers of the degree light is permitted than are five knights —the first . for it commemorates the destmciion of the Tower of BabeL d^^ree are holden only on the night of the full moon. on which is engraved words. " that his named him Peleg was divided. and that no other luminary. first the Tery Ancient Order of Noachites. is the Twenty- Degree. right to left. of is Chancery. of Eloquence the fourth. because) in his days the earth This Order of the Noachites was first established in Prussia in 1755. they The Noachites say. NOACHITB. for fiither that Moses tells us is. 253 anachFonism in dates and peisons that occur in the traditional history of the symbolic and Iiistoiical degrees. who represents Erederick II. initials of the The jewel is a triangle. and could easily be set light.THE AlfCrEIfT A^TD ACCEPTED EITE. King of Prussia." {dvoisvyii) for (or. when all composed of nine Grand Masters . was the chief architect of the "tower whose top was to all reach to heaven. The badge white satin with a yellow border. and it is presided over by a Ejiight Commander Lieutenant. OB PETJSSIAlf KlTtGHT.

is of the as follows : " Concerning Grod and JReligion.USTEATIONS OT FEEEMASONET. in their mysteries. as given by St. which Ark and Mark. aj'k. Worship the only true God. On this head Brother Oliver says. Phaleg is called Phalec. own particular opinion). is obliged by moral law as a true NoacMda (son of Noah. connecting the name of the survivor of the deluge with its traditional history. the ark was represented by the darkness and the pastas . men of honour and honesty. 1. enough to is preserve the cement of the Lodge. by Laurence Dermot. on that account. first Sezon. for agree in the three great articles of Noah. religions. by whatever names." It is to be observed that in the genealogical table of Jesus Christ. Luke. the 2. and the happy means of conciliating persons that otherwise must have remained at a perpetual distance. among them. They are generally all charged to adhere to that religion in which (leaving each brother to his men agree is. being found in all nations. Commit no murder. there may be some farther reference to him. in the historical traditions of the degree. nor an irreligious libertine. Our ancient brethren three first evi- dentiy called themselves Noachidae. Thus Masonry the centre of their union. or sons of Noah. and his was symbolic of his entrance into the vessel of his salvation his detention in (cofiers. the first name of Freemasons) and if he rightly imder- stand the Craft." and " Ark were then used. and his precepts were preserved are: 3. published in 1764.254 ILI. all of antiquity.) for we find in Ahvmtxm. commemorated the descent of Noah into the The entrance into initiation . the old charges. the Christian Masons were charged to comply with the Christian usages of each country where they travelled or worked. or persuasions they they all may be distinguished. of which Renounce all idols. he never wiU be a stupid atheist. his tenure to observe the —A Mason . even of divers religions. that to be good men ajid true. "The spurious Masons subsequent exodus. nor act against conscience. In ancient times. (probably " the and Dove " Degrees.

derived the connexion of " our fiither Noah " from first the Egyptian "IvriTrraiTTi . They farther say. The legend of this degree states that it was instituted to record the memorable services rendered to Masonry by the mighty cedars of Lebanon. when in command of the island of Bourbon in 1778. and the name "prince. less the blacl^ acacia. OB KNIGHT OF THE EOTAt AXE. do not tell us how the Israelites bad the wood conveyed to them from the land of promise to the mountains in the wilderness. . was there elected Grand Master of all the French Lodges in India. that Zerubbabel employed labourers of the same people in cutting cedars of Lebanon for the use of the second Temple. and on the mountains that border the Red Sea. The Twenty-second Degree. he was admitted to fiiU light.THE AlfOIEITT Am) ACCEPTED was plaxied." Osiris was his appropriated signifying PBINCE OF LEBAirOir. mysteries . indeed. employed in the same and in the same place. EITE. was seen in the mani- festation of the candidate. according to Bishop Cumberland. The ^ tradition adds that the Sidonians formed colleges ou Mount The best anthorities consider that the descriptive term gopher vsood is agrees "with the cypress. real or spurious. grandson of Noai. was the king of Egypt. who received him in the sacellum or holy place. shittim wood. as." It is not improhatle that the ancient Masons. was institnted by Pierre Kiel. title. 255 exit or concn) in wliicL the aspirant and the of Noan. doubt- which is very common about Mount Sinai. when. Our ancient brethren. for building Solomon's Temple . and also. that the descendants of the Sidonians were offices. the son of Cham. amid the surrounding initiates. who. Marquis of BoumonviUe. from Jerome's description. in later years. in obtaining materials for the construction of the ark of the covenant . as the Sidonian architects cut down the cedars for the construction "of Noah's ark '. after the forty days of deluge. Thory asserts. teing ftdly tried and proved. and lastly.

room it hung with red is a round table. this assembly is axe. the Twenty-third Degree commemorates the institution of the order of priesthood in Aaron and his sons Eleazar and Itha- mar . and . with axes. and always adored the most ancient cities G.. the first representing a work- shop at Lebanon. in the has on : the square. wedges. is The collar belonging to this degree lined and bordered with stars: the badge." The allusion to the " colleges " on Mount Libanus may have some Druses. goddess of the Sidonians. and a " college. who still exist in masonry. CHIEF or THE TABEEKACLE. tlie Litanus. But their worship was not that of the true and living God.O. reference to the secret sect of the that country..T. Sidon was one of of the world. : ofiBcer is Gfrand Patriarch. has on it re- presented a table. xl. of the Holy Kcyal Arch. is celestial blue.'' and this agrees with the appellation in 1 Kings xi. have considerable affinity to EVee- There are two apartments. for medals are in existence bearing the inscription "to the Sidonian goddess. " Ashtoreth. their wealth and prosperity. travellers affirm. mallets. upon which are laid several architectural plans. and such like implements This . the .256 ILLUSTRATIONS OF PEEEMASOIirET. apartment is lighted by eleven lamps. and the ceremonial was in some degree founded on the in- struction delivered to rites the degree of Moses in Exodus Priest is xxix. which white. the High Priest was the chief ." Each brother is armed with an represents the council of the is The second apartment the Kound others Table. and even in the time of celebrated for Homer. saws. the presiding Patriarchs centre. compass. the Master is Most Wise. In many High to be found in the old ritual officer.U. his Wardens. and whose mysterious ceremonies. The jewel is an axe.A. the Sidonians were their trade and commerce. Wise Princes. and other mathematical instruments each Patriarch armed with a sword. crowned in gold.

" and on the flap a violet-coloured myrtie. In America. also two chandeliers of five is There has one a the obscure chamber. 257 retain ia that portion of English Masonry. The installation of the Third Principal of a Royal Arch Chapter has undouhtedly been derived from this or some similar ceremonial. left — ^yellow. and not unworthy of practice at the present day. is from a broad sash of four colours scarlet. on the expiation. There is a red altar. called Levites. also skeleton with this inscription " If you are fearftd. and the members are lined with scarlet. exceedingly impressive —^when High is celebrated in ample form. and blue: in and three suspended embroidered a representation of the " candlestick of side. blue. The jewel. it lamp. purple. reference to Tii™ who only had of entering the sanctuajry once in the year. somewhat resembles that of Past Master of a Lodge. and shoulder to the right hip. the Holy Place is separated by a railing-and There curtain. The Lodge is hung with white. which and worn from the is a thurible. with three branches on the one branches on the other side. is on it the Book of Wisdom and a is poignard: the throne elevated on seven steps. which altar. ornamented with columns of red and black. purple. or censer. wien duly performed. go from . viz. the ceremony. They wear a white badge. the is presence of at least nine as Priests required. an and a stool on which are three : skulls. pure gold. ranged in pairs at equal distances. conferred on the immediate Past Pirst Principal.THE and we still AIircrElfT AND ACCEPTED BITE. to "the privilege day of solemn mate atonement for the sins of the whole people. the altar of burnt offering lights each. and the incense is . High Priest In this degree there are three chief officers. as well as in the Master Mason's Degree. is was formerly the case in England. hung with black. In the TJnited States the order of High Priest. and bordered with a tricoloured ribbon the centre is —red. Saciificer the titie given to the First Principal : a Sovereign Grand and two High Priests. so that doubtless this was a genuine Masonic degree.

if we may so call it. gold. according to alone. The immense sum required . presented tion: the principal object that " a candlestick lamps.258 hence .528Z. This candlestick the scriptural symbol of the universal Church. for the convenience of carrying from place to place. bo contrived as to be taken to pieces and put it together at pleasure. wMcb is without sleeves on his head is a mitre of cloth of He wears a black scarf with silver fringe. partly to be a palace of his presence as the Eing of Israel. is wear white robes with red Tt) the prophecy of Zeohariah there an account of the splendid and significant in a vision which emblem used in this degree. to 182. estimate. intended to illustrate the directions for constructing the tabernacle which Moses bmlt for God by his express command. used for the work. and to the value of those spiritual and eternal blessings of which it was designed silver as a type or emblem. The value of the gold and amounted. was nevertheless built with extraordinary magnificence and at a prodigious expense. Bishop Cumberland's in for English money. which may properly be called the sacred tent. The Levites scarfs. with a bowl on the top of it and seven is The image evidently taken from the candlestick is in the tabernacle. ILLTJSTEATIONS it is 01* rEEEMASONET. during the wanderings of the Israelites in the wilderness for forty years. that it might be in some measure whose palace it suitable to the dignity of the King was. Sacrificer wears a long red robe over a yellow . This was a moveable chapel." Tke Grand tunic. PEIIfCE OF THE TAIBENACLE." wiU abundantly reward an attentive examinamet the eyes of the prophet was all of gold. This moveable fabric. and partly to be the locality of that most solemn worship which the people were to pay to Him. to the the is name which is given Twenty-fourth Degree. wlio cannot brave danger not permitted for men •without abandoning virtue.

but the public reputation of the institution will . and north. 259 completion was raised by presents and voluhtaiy contribumale Israelite tions. which of circular form. The candidate is represents Eleazar. Bezaleel and Ahollab. short cloaks of blue tafFata. above twenty years wMch tax amounted to tbe simi of is called 35. 6d. represent placed in the south. The assembly is termed a "hierarchy. : There are two apartments necessary is for this degree the first. or vestibule. the lawgiver. duties of the priests. representing is Moses. is hung with tapestry. and by a poll-tax of balf a sbekel for every old. is who succeeded Aaron in the priesthood. environed They have a and bordered by is stars and surmounted by a luminous The badge white. with green.THB AJTCrENT its AJSI) AOCEPTEI) EITE. The Lodge a "hierarchy. Is. the flap embroidered a representation of is sky-blue." and its officers are a Most Powerfiil Chief Prince. while the presiding officer has of Grand Sovereign Sacrifioer. The Twenty-th:Td and Twenty-fourth Degrees. west. edged with gold embroidery. the Wardens the titie are styled High Priests. In the altar. have been based upon the former we find the ark. and three Wardens whose style respectively represent Aaron. decorated with the various attributes of is Masonry the second. and golden candlestick. the High Priest.3592. Aaron. not only as it respects the correct practice of our rites and ceremonies. and who and Ahollab. Bezaleel. Powerful. in the centre the tabernacle . is Uaed with scarlet. and a robe of cloth of gold. . The members wear coronet triangle. sterling. and the are called internal economy of the Chapter over which you upon to preside. the cunning artists under whose direction the tabernacle was constructed. it wiU. The brother who to the degree of station admitted High Priesthood upon to thus addressed: —"The you are called folfil is important." In the latter degree there are three Wardens. colonnade. official be seen. and in the centre is the chandelier with seven branches. representing a The sun is represented on the Mosaic pavement. The officers Moses.

be observed that Josephus speaks of some vaulted chambers that existed on the holy spot in his time. are adds that their successors. Andrew. down to Hugo de Payens. they discovered three stones. and on their arrival in Scotland. their last Grand Master. that in digging holies. on one of which was this word engraven. the founder of the Enights Templar. its and in proportion officers are as the conduct and character of principal estimable or censurable.260 ILLtrSTEATION'S 01' rEEEMASONET. according its generally be found to rise or fidelity. as the foundation-stones of their first Lodge. discovered by the Knights Templar when It is related. from which period has been transmitted through Noah. The old traveller MaundreU also says that in a garden . in building a church at Jerusalem. which is much more expressive than the word Adonai . on Holy Land. The tradition secret. High of which entitles him to receive the following information that in fliture he has to adore the Deity under the name Jehovah. deposited them. Abraham. on St." is In the First Degree of Scotch Knighthood. and Jaques de Molay. to the skill. under the spot whereon had been placed the holy of the bosom of Mount Moriah. Freemasonry at the present day. Degree the royal Art it is Jn traced to the creation. In the next degree the great word is revealed to him. Andrew's day. Moses. the Second that in this degree he receives the Masonic science as descended from Solomon and revived by the Templars. leaving the The Templars. carried with them these relics. the adept informed that he has been elevated to the degree of Priest. and discretion. with which concerns are managed. and High Our Royal Arch brethren Supreme Degree will readily trace in this legend a resemblance to certain parts of the ceremonial belonging to that . fall. being entrusted with this Priests of Jehovah. and in reference to the place in which the it is to discovery was made. whence they assumed the name of Knights of perfect Masters of St. and other worthies. Solomon.

among the people. the Persian. and set upon a pole: and come to it. and founded upon the events bit the people described in the book of Numbers xri. "I have sinned. of long standing. it Make shall thee a fiery serpent. when he beheld the serpent of he lived. people came to Moses. And it Moses prayed And the Lord said unto Moses. KNIGHT OP THE the Twenty-fifth Degree. when he looketh upon And Moses made it a serpent of brass.THE AlfCrEITT ABU ACCEPTED lie EITB. 261 situate at the foot of Monnt MoriaK was shown several large vaults hnilt in numing two at least fifty yards undergroTind : they were aisles arched at the top with a huge firm stone. pass. in obedience to the divine com- mand. each consisting of a single stone sustained by two two yards in diameter. had bitten any man. that every one that is bitten. and every one who looked upon it was directed to pronounce the word hatathi. and said. of which we have tau. and against thee. a representation. and they Therefore the and much people of Israel died. We have sinned. transparency. rendered ill " pole " our translation." and having done this he was immediately healed- Commentators regard the word. 6 fiery serpents —9 : " And the Lord sent . that if a serpent brass. and ^ the earliest form of the standard. is the figure of the The hangings of the Lodge are red and blue. and put it upon a and came to pass. and piUars. is BfiAZElf SEEPEKT. pray unto the Lord. for we have spoken against the Lord. representing the burning bust. only one light. shall live. with the in- A communicable There is Name in the centre." The ritnal says that Moses. is placed over the throne. placed the brazen serpent upon the tau. pole. to mean standard. for the people. a mount accessible by upon the summit is placed the . that he take away the serpents from us. in the centre of the apartment there is five steps .

induced the Israelites to adopt the practice of serpent-worship. combined with the remembrance of the benefits derived &om this particular brazen serpent. for some kings. as a military and monastic order. the Wardens are called Ministers. In what manner they worshipped ." The Lodge oflficer is The presiding is styled named the "Court of Most Powerfal Grand Master." . their fathers In the wilderness it had been directed to look on and live —they did so and lived. — ^it part of the obligation of the knights to receive and gratuitously nurse sick travellers. who established it in the it Land bears. however bent on the at the destruction would have hesitated of that which was certainly in itself an interesting memorial of a remarkable manifestation of the power of God. by John Ralph. and cut down the groves. protect infidels. and represent Aaron and Joshua the Orator is styled Pontiff. them against the attacks of the and escort them safely through Palestine. idolatry into may have formed the foundation of the which they fell. Holy name it being in allusion to the healing and saving virtues of the brazen serpent among the Israelites in the wilderness. Sinai. And this direction and its consequence. is a serpent entwined around a tau cross standing on a triangle. the Secretary Grand Graver. — this miracle till the ^who. It is not improbable that the influence of the example of the Egyptians. and the Candidate " a Traveller. "removed the high for it. set The brazen serpent which Moses memorial of up was preserved as a 700 years places. and represents Moses. in extirpating time of Hezekiah idolatry. . with the inscription Hin^- The legend states that this degree was founded in the time of and gave the the Crusades." and brake the images. symbol of the degree. The jewel.262 ILLTISTEATIONS OF TEEEMASONET. which is suspended hy a red ribbon. and brake in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had until those days the children of Israel did bum incense to This was a bold measure extirpation of idolatry. misunder- stood and perverted. —more than made .

But the universality of serpent-worship.THE ANCrENT AND ACCEPTED EITE." Diodonis informs us that in the Temple of Bel or Belus. at ancient nations of any celebrity will be found which have some time or other. Few not. or ligion either as a symbol of a charm. authorizes the inference that neither China nor Chaldaea was the mother. for the most prevailing emblem of the solar god was the serpent. with Zabaism worship is The earliest authentic record of serpent- to be found in the astronomy of Chaldaea and China diffiision but the extensive of this remarkable superstition through the remaining regions of the globe. and as such burned incense before attacked with disease. sitting on a . and Chaldsean philosophy was but feebly reflected. The universality of serpent-worship is alluded to : by Lucan. The worship of the serpent is supposed by Bryant to have commenced iu Chaldsea. in these memorable lines " Vos quoque. tbey regarded it as symboUzing the it Dirine healing power. or an oracle. admitted the serpent into their redivinity. That it was intimately connected with Zabaism cannot be doubted. aurato nitidi folgore. the serpent was the sacred symbol. but it is 263 that. deacones. "was an image of the goddess Khea. where Chinese wisdom never penetrated. qui cunctis innoxia nttmina terris Serpetis. with most probable a recollection of its origin. left and the strong traces which it has in astronomical mythology. seem to attest an origin coeval itself. and wherever the Zabsean idolatry was the religion. when much in the same manner as the -classical ancients resorted on similar occasions to the serpent-symbol of the healing god. and to have been the first variation from the purer Zabaism. in Babylon. the serpent does not appear. or a god. but that both were the children of this idolatry.

thirty talents each in weight. they are huried in the Temple of Jupiter. The first ages very and was introduced into all the mysteries wherever It is remartable that wherever the Ammonians founded any places of worship. to to belong. There wag a remarkable superstition in regard to a serpent of enormous bulk. was one of the most widely was the diffused modes of idolatry of the ancient world . there was generally some stoiy of a serpent. current in the mythology of almost every nation where ophiolatria prevailed. which girded the world. " In his notice of the Egyptian mythology. was also an image of Juno. they are very small. hut have two horns on the top of their head. This idea perhaps originated in the early consecration of the serpent to the sun. partly from the perfect figure of a . holding in her right hand the head says. and their worship of the healing power (the god iEsculapius)." When they die whom they are said says. figured. " of a serpent. . it deified symbol of something good and beneficent. Bryant symbolioal worship of the serpent was in the extensive. In the monuments upon they bear serpents as the chalice or salutary which these divinities are emblems of health. This hierogram was again considered as typical of eternity. and the subsequent conversion of a serpent biting his into an emblem of the sun's path.SIsculapius corresponds to the Egyptian and Horus. and near her very There large serpents of silver. Among the Greeks and Eomans it symbolized the good genius. under some form or other.264 ILIUSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONET. celebrated." Serpent-worship. tail. partly from the serpent being a symbol of Deity . In various points of view deities Serapis ." Serodotus In the vicinity of Thebes there are sacred serpents. and carry the cup of nature surrounded by serpents. was but an extension of the same general idea. under the same figure. golden throne at lier knees stood two lions. not at all trouhlesome to men .

inscribed with the Hebrew letter /I.niTna. one of the symbols of the tetragram- maton . been there ever since the time of the grotto only during the four He said it had Mahomet. He comes out of it is summer months. white. . whose genial heat is annually renewed when he revisits the vernal signs. N . When the honours of initiation were conferred on the candidate. it is suspended from a tricoloured ribbon of green. THE PEINCB OF MEECT. without heginmiui or KITE.THE ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED circle thus formed. . on a globe. where the femous serpent. or " Scotch Trinitarian. and partly from observed an opinion of the eternity of matter. g. Heredy." is the name given to the Twenty-sixth its Degree. Bt^mains of this superstition were by Bishop " The next Pococke. its vigour in the spring of as by casting its was not only considered an apt symbol of renovated and reviviscent virtue. Eleazar. day we came to Baigny. 265 end. when be visited the banks of the Nile. the emblem of which.1 renewing skin. character and It is a highly philosophical degree. but of the sun himself. within which is a heart. religious sheikh of the was at the side of the river to meet us. a golden serpent was placed in his bosom. and the candidate. Joshua. for this every year. and the cydes of revolving time. which of course clearly designates intention. as an emblem of his being regenerated and made a disciple of Mithra. lateral triangle. the Chief Prince. out of which issued a serpent. The jewel is a gold equivery impressive. marked the convolutions of his orb. He went with us to the grotto of the serpent. and its ritual The assembly is styled the Thrice Heavenly Lodge . also of gold." In the ancient Persian mysteries the statue of Mithra stood erect life. and said they sacrifice to it. represents Moses the Senior Warden represents Aaron the Jxmior. whose title is Most Excellent. twining ia numerous folds around the body of the deity.

266 and red. is often used in Latin to express the which signifies " covenant . is red. With regard to the word " covenant. to that with his people in the wilderness . we usually say the Old and ments . through Moses and which He made with man- kind by the mediation of his Son Jesus Christ. and speaks of the triple aUianoe which the Eternal has the first pla<!e . when the Lord to build the ark. and has a blue This is on the flap is embroidered the jewel. Li common discourse. explained further under Moses. in his edition of Calmet's Dictionary. New Testa- the covenant between and that God and the posterity of Abraham. The covenant of God with . ." we may notice that Mr. Tte apron flap . Hebrew JT"1^. its ritual a Christian degree. constitutes the law that ratified through the mediation of Jesus Christ is the kingdom of grace. the coming of the Messiah the consummation and end of it. bordered with white fringe. titles Old and denote the Old and covenant creation.'' whence the New New Testament are used improperly to Covenant. to that caroumoision secondly. the word testamentvMi berith. The efieots of this covenant appear is throughout the Old Testament . directed A third covenant was with Noah. his fall. between God aad we may remark that the first man was made with Adam at his a certain fruit. after A second covefor- promising not only giveness on his repentance. says. which He has made with believers by Jesus Christ all because these two covenants contain eminently the rest. and alludes in the covenaut entered into with Abraham by thirdly. Taylor. when he was prohibited to eat nant God made with man. ILLTISTEATIONS OF rEEEMASONET. to made with man. These covenants were general limited j but that made with Abraham was the seal or confirmation was the circumcision of all the males in Abraham's family. but also a Messiah. . . Adam forms what we call a state of nature that with Abraham. who should redeem the human race from the death of sin and from the second death. Without discussing the doctrine advanced in the ritual of this degree. him and which was renewed.

it is its proper not necessary to say more in this N 2 . the Wardens red. bordered with red. circle. crosses. The badge all is red satin. The white. been intended to supply the Templar Degree under this but as we shall enter folly into the subject under head. hanging from the right shoulder to left hip. Grand Commanders. lined and edged with black. is The jewel a golden triangle. and even the Enights are chamber is . all The accounts we has concur in connecting this it certainly degree with the Tonights Templar. rite. the is and bears on it a Teutonic cross in red. is with a sceptre and naked sword be placed in a table. and embroidered with four Teutonic have from the French writers the character of that Order. it is suspended from a white collar bound with red. it. and much of It is generally considered to have rite. 267 is The most solemn and perfect of the covenants of God with men." and altogether the degree has a character dissimilar to it . The presiding are Sovereign officer is Most Puissant. The assemblage is called a " Court. GRAITD COMMAlfDEB Or THE TEMPLE is the Twenty-seventh Degree. is the gnarantee of it is confirmed with his blood life. as a distinct place. with a Teutonic cross encircled by a wreath of and a scarf key beneath. the end and object of it is eternal infinitely and its constitution and laws are more exalted than those of the former covenant. upon the flap. designated The hung with on an having black columns surmounted by torches altar is placed the . every other that precedes chivalric every thing about it is of the styled and military class. Book of the Evangelists. on which engraved the Ineffable Name in Hebrew . Commanders. on a pedestal placed a lustre bearing twenty-seven lights. that made through the mediation of onr Redeemer. is embroidered in black. mnst The Son of God . and if there is The members ought to no reception.THE ANCIENT AlO) ACCEPTED EITE. at a round laurel. which snhsist to the end of time.

heing sometimes called Prince of the Sun. tenets of Masonry. but the of the promised blessings ^the reality —came by Jesus Christ. which are but as grace and truth — shadows the law was given by Moses. and explain in the fiiUest maimer the various Masonic emhlems. The ceremonies and all which are of great length. says this is or Chaos Disentangled. hut is of the highest antiquity. the doctrines of natural religion. called the is . Klfl&HT OP THE StrN is the designation of the Twenty-eighth Degree. The great ohject of this degree is the inculcation of truth. also hears other names. or truly pious . fiimish a history of the preceding degrees. Truth on God united with mercy and goodness. He did but show Himself faithflil and true. or acting for the advantage of those is who confided in Him and in his word. and Key of Masonry. when Grod realized any special good. for truth.268 IlLUSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONET. and as this virtue is one of the three great we need scarcely say it deserves is it commendar in which To he true and trusty is one of the is first lessons the aspirant Master. and was. that the part of fidelity to —honestly. fulfilling the desires. his neigh- bour. which formed an essential part of the ancient mysteries. invention. tion. instructed — the prime essential of the is All mortal affairs are transitory. is Every man should speak truth to sincerely. as did. it It is highly philosophical. teaching. his " Conrs Philosophique " speaks disparagingly of the high degrees. The love of truth one of the noblest characteristics of the Christian. and goodness and mercy being implied in the divine promises. This might with propriety be Degree of Perfection . in it the last degree of perfect initiation. because promises being one great test of truth. a substance or reality. like opposed to typical representations. lecture. Prince Adept. who in not a modem fact. there is the attribute of HiTti in whom no variableness nor shadow of changing. is with integrity. Ragon. hut truth alone it is immutable and eternal .

these are tranquillity. so we find a real love of truth. and has but one light. hearing. 269 it prevails. sent to declare the will of God. to correct." hung with black. which is very powerful. being itself a system of truth. Baphael. in the centre is a column. and lighted by three candles in the east. . Scriptures In the Holy we frequently read of missions and appearances of angels. flee this sanctuary. " Te who have not power to subdue your This chamber is passions. piety. smelling. having on it a chain suspending the jewel. from whom flow all philosophical principles. feeling. Gabriel. west. The last chamber is azure blue. whose are written in the circle of the first heaven. The Master wears a red robe and yeUow top. tonic . there are seven subordinate after the seven chief angels officers. Anael. named —Zaphiel. Over the entrance to the next apartment is inscribed. tasting. The Father principal officers of this degree are styled Thrice Perfect Adam and who are Brother Truth . most fevourable —the most decisive proofs of genuine religion which. Camael. ZaphrieL Pour apartments degree. with an eye in the centre. The is first represents a grotto . The fourth chamber is hung with red. and as genniiie wherever Msehood. being a large illuminated glass globe. and thought. he has a sceptre with golden globe on the The names to historical legend describes the seven cherubim.THE tnan of amy creed will banisli AirCIEirT AlTD ACCEPTED KITE. and the conformity of a man's condact with the regulations of truth. are requisite for the due ceremonial of this . to represent life the corporeal pleasures of this Tna. N 3 . delights in nothing more than in truth. when He taught him obey. side is to it which attached a chain on one a table. or conduct. whether of heart. representing the sun —the symbol of the Gfreat All.Ti which the Eternal presented to enjoy and to at the Creation. Michael. — seeing. having on a Bible and a small lamp. a triangle of gold. The collar is white. and south. to be always the most desirable — ^the . discourse. and is illuminated by eleven candles.

Enoch. This degree. seven an essential and important number. both among heathens.O. made The meaning of j?3ty is " sufficiency. 2) . and on the seventh. Solomon. The number among it. the number of is sufficiency or completion. says Fa/rlchv/rst. who created all things in six days it is said. and throughout the whole system the septenary influence extends itself in a thousand different ways. because it was on the seventh day that God completed his work of creation. or comfort. ILLUSTEATIOITS 01' FEEEMASONET. the Apocalypse.A. is Reference to these angelic missions made in this degree. who had been employed somewhat more than the Temple. churches . it is stated that the different were seven in number. as already mentioned. we number seven ever prominent." seven.teach. The Pythagoreans called this a venerable it number. celebrated its six years in building dedication in the seventh with every it solemnity that was due to the Divine Being in whose honour had been erected. Raphael is Tobias that he one of the seven angels St.U. reprove.T. because it referred to up the two radical perfect figures — the creation. and applies. and in that sublime and mys- terious book. In Pree- masonry.270 . and in every system of antiquity frequent reference to we find a In one of the lectures of the high Masonic grades originally degrees. all nations. . was worked by the Kent Lodge. before the The holy viii. believers and and hence." and the number seven was thus denominated. we will describe those to which the allusion tells In the apocryphal hook of Tohit. "The seven stars axe the angels of the seven and the seven candlesticks are the seven churches. employed six days in constructing the arches. and rested on the seventh. having deposited the secret treasure in the lowest arch. was translated to the abode of the blessed. has been considered as a sacred number. seven was. John saw seven find the angels standing Lord (Rev. from the example of the G. and because triangle ^the and the square. We think it very probable that it was some knowledge . who attend in the presence of God." or " fulness.

having in centre the compasses. is the preparation for the " Kadosh. it is unnecessary to do more here than remark the inconsistency of this system." There are a Master and two Wardens. in the angle collars. is attached." in allusion to its supposed origin during those wars. as already mentioned. A hierogram. is illuminated as in the degree of Secret Master. a triple triangle. they also wear a white sash with gold his The Grand Master and is two officers are . AKDEEW. under the degree of the Grand Scotch Knight. to a poignard. is beneath it a square reversed . the Grand Master is called Patriarch. 271 degree which induced Eosetti to connect the theology of Swedenhoi^ with Freemasonry. The St. The Lodge. We have here. fringe. It was formerly in ertensive practice .TIUE AITCIEITT -of this AUD ACCEPTED BITE. bearing within degree. first emblems of the This is the of the degrees which Eamsay proposed to substitute in place of the andent Symbolic Degrees. from which its is suspended the jewel. by eighty-one lights arrai^ed by nine times nine. KNIGHT OP the Twenty-ninth Degree. Knights wear purple which the jewel. The degree is noticed by him in iUnstration of the Purgatory of Dante. placed within four degrees of the pinnacle of his fabric. also the and it had name of " Grand Master of Light. a Cross of Andrew. letters delta is the mysterious figure of the Eternal The triangle The three top of the which you see signify as follows B' : —G at the 4 . is thus explained. the other The Master and officers are attired officers Worshipfiil Masters. and one of those preserved by the Ancient Masons in England. in scarlet robes with scarfe of purple. ST." This degree has also been called " Patriarch of the Crusades. on thrones covered with red drapery with gold fringe above that of the Master a transparency of a luminous triangle. The assembly is called Grand Lodge. but the hangings of the room are red. a d^^ee intended or to supersede the very first step in Preemasoniy. and as afidl eisplanation of his theory has been already ^ven. in this degree.

Itagon mentions the Kadosh as having been established at Jerusalem in 1118. Ancient and Accepted Bite. God. means in reality. the Superintendent of the Universe. his neighbour. and in this is name is found all the divine attributes. called also Knight of the Black and White Eagle. Previously to the adoption of the being found in many rites. When we is compare clumsy contrivance with the beautiful simplicity of the ancient Symbolic Degrees -step — ^in which the Mason gradually advanced by step iu knowledge. but gathered from other systems.272 ILLTJSTBATIONS OF FEEEMASONET. S on the to the left Qromd Ccmse o£ tnfe hand the submission same order. and himself.merit. though thus CrTwnd this foundly impressed upon his heart. we a part of the ceremonial of the Knights Templar. GEAND ELECTED ENIflHT KADOSH. being taught the whole duty of is man to God. explained in the ritual. triangle refers to the Masons. we can but conclude that those degrees in the rite he put forward which really possess . of course. it must. This letter placed in the centre of the triangle that imperative requirement for every we may understand the true Mason to bear it proThe hierogram. The Gr placed in the centre of the triangle signifies the Great Architect of the universe. were not devised by himself. believe. acknowledged to be very important. and U at the right hand to the ^mion that ought to reign . This is the triangle called equi- lateral. ineffable who is God. in which case longed to the Templars. or equal figure in all its parts. the Kadosh Degree formed. have be- The word from which this degree takes it name. before he plunged into the mysteries of triangles and other geometrical symbols —and its examine the system which Eamsay proposed to set up in place. has been a . among the brethren which all together maie but one body. is the Thirtieth Degree.

where. "Holiness to the Lord." "Glod blessed the seventh day and sanctified (Gen. iL 3. we must consider it to be derived from the appointments of the priestly office. and grave upon it. that Aaron may bear the holy gifts. by Moses. and so long that ^ reached from ear to by ear. which rendered in our translation. as he writes itS signifies "holy" or *' holiness. upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be. probably. adapted to the shape of the it head. and Meribah-Kadesh (Deut. Taylor word Jcadesh. 3. it is Meribah in Kadesh (lumbers . Exodus xxviii. mihror-Jcodesh. there as had been a Divine appearance. Hoeikess to the — : LosD." and is equivalent to the Greek Uphs. the name is also applied to certain places. that it may be upon the mitre. hodesh-laihovah. sxviL 14). which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their always be upon his forehead. " sacred. (Lev. be accepted before the Lord." This plate is had engraven on rOIT? ItTIp. and it shall iniquity of the holy things. And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead.TKE AirCIENT AUD ACCEPTED considerable difficulty with all conmieiitators EITE. and agreeably to the ancient .) He separated and distinguished it from the days of the week.versions. And thou shalt put it on a blue lace. irrTii." In the law. N 5 . 36 38 " And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold." The size and form are not defined broad. but the Jewish doctors say it was two fingers and made in a circular form. signifying " separated " or " consecrated. Meriboth-Kadesh. a holy convoca- ttnp'ttnpD. but the seventh day tion ." The says. and was The word is differently rendered translatots. application to this degree. 273 appear- — ^ite first ance in the volume of the Sacred Law is where we read that it." is a Sabbath of rest. as delivered by Moses. 51) and in EzeUel In its used in the plural. agreeably to the primary meaning of the word which is here made use o:^ ttnp.) Mr. rdii. leodesh. that they may it. setting it apart for the purposes of a sabbath. we find the following precept concerning : the feasts and sacred assemblages —" Six days' work shall be done . like the engravings of a signet. xLviL 19.

R. Tbese two ornaments and breast-plate. ILLTJSTBATIONS Or FEEBMASONEX. It was formerly tbe custom in Royal Arcb Cbapters for tbe Tbird Principal to wear a mitre of tbis description.D. and also a similar bead-plate. their use. tbis linen. by a blue lace or ribbon. and sometimes a plate of gold on the forehead. We are told by Fluche. tbat in the East. as weU as tbe breast-plate ordained to be worn by tbe High Priest. bearing tbe inscription we bave mentioned.M. xxxix. signifying "to separate." bence denotes a crown. fumisbed in front with from a root a plate of pure gold. the preamble of tbe issued up to the year —was always conferred in encamp—" Royal and Exalted 1851. Masonic ICjiights Templar. K. runs thus : certificates Religious and Military Order of H. Grand Elected St. was tied bebind tbe The mitre was a turban of fine In cbap. it nezer. as a mark of separation or distinction.274 fastened bead. as —tbe bead-piece Mount Sion a worn by tbat officer in tbe Chapter (tbe oldest in London). We bave already observed that tbe Kadosh Degree — ^prior to the establishment of tbe Supreme Council of tbe Ancient and Accepted Eite in this country ments of Knights Templar. We can suggest no better theory for the connexion of priestly and knightly rank in the degrees of chivalry.S. has been discontinued. . and conferred on the principal clerical members of those orders. of John of Jerusalem. a person preferred to honours bore a sceptre.H. as well as tbat of some other regalia. called a kadosh.D. — are now in tbe possession of Past Principal . wMob. to apprise the people that the bearer of these marks of distinction possessed the privilege of entering into hostile camps without fear of losing bis personal liberty. We are induced to believe that in the Kadosh was formerly comprised tbe degree — if it may be so called —of High Priest and tbat it is not unlikely to bave been adopted by the military and religious orders in Palestine..O. ornament is called ~)\2.

which at the ferther is hung with black . the first mode room prescribed. on either side of the room s 6 . worn an emblem of monming for the -death of the illustrious Jaques de Molay.THE Palestine. These remarks are not cable to the present practice in this country. the Grand Sacrifica^ teur bere receives the candidate and his conductor. ever. three chambers are required. is and." is is The second hung with black with blue end of the rooin a table. there State. and displays neither dais nor altar : at the bottom of the apartment is seen a statue of Wisdom. In England the chamber chamber." sides. the rest In France. the other Lieutenant. displays a sword . tiie Order would also appear to assnme a deriyation from the HospitaUers. is also recognized an The officers are Grand and Grand Knights. a Grand officer called Grand Secretary. bears the golden scales of jujitice. these three form the " Council of the Areopagus. as Knights' costome shonld be black. and fiimishes the history of the destruction of the Enights atrocaons Philip of Prance by the The and his minion Clement V. The first Lieutenant. while the Orator. Treasurer.'' &c. is called the " Areopagus. behind which are placed the two Lieutenants and an officer called the Orator . we hung with white drapery. The litoal. According to tiie believe. pre- holding a golden sceptre. adopted in Prance. is who are on the left. besides an ante-room for the reception of the candidate. dimly visible by the pale light of a spirit-lamp placed over a cbafing-dish. there are two lieutenant Grand Commanders. 275 By this title. When the ritual is duly celebrated in ample form. Minister of Perfect. covered doth. and Grand Master of Ceremonies. AirciEirr and accepted rite. seated in the centre. on his right. how- connects the degree with the Knighte Templar. as no reference made to the death of Jaques de Molay. the strictly appliis martyred Grand Master. The presiding officer of this degree is styled Most IllustriouB Grand Commander. a GSraud Chancellor. a a Grand Marshal.

which and the Eighteenth Degree. and astronomy. ornamented and edged with silver fringe on it is embroidered the Teutonic cross in crimson. geometry. rhetoric. wisdom. white. and i. three yellow candles light this is called The third hall. On : each side of the throne are placed the standards of the cross bears the motto. and crossed swords. that in the practice of our French is brethren this the last of the degrees which has its teaching is engraved on the cubical stone. black. which are dispersed in a peculiar is way : here is placed the mysterious ladder. has the motto." is hung with red . with a green cross." headed Senate eagle. suspended from the . and the other to the love of our neighbour the steps represent justice. sash. ranged tte seats of the Knights chamber. e. the platform steps are is the ne plus ultra.276 ILLXrSTEATIONS or TEEEMASONET. . and prudence. with a shield charged on one side with a red and on the other a doubledie. music. crowned. cross. on which is placed the throne. the distinguishment being that the extremities are tipped with gold. the is pyramid bearing the variously applied to this initials ne plus ultra. God wills it. The degree in England at the present time can only be . and . is which the " Senate." the other. The jewel is a naked poignard of silver with a Teutonic cross of red enamel. logic. which . We may here observe. in the centre of which are the figures 30. and forms a pavilion. holding a poignard in his claws a drapery of red and blackj interspersed with red crosses. the descending grammar. canopy the double-headed eagle. patience. Knight Templar The Knights wear a broad black left shoulder. " one. symbolic of virtue and science one of the supports is dedicated to the love of God. which points divided into eighty-one —the ^^ square of nine. old This symbol of the Order appears also on the certificates. arithmetic. truth. descends from the wings of the eagle. Some adopt the Eagle of the superior degrees. candour. " is Conquer or The haU of the illuminated by eighty-one lights. in the east bearing on its the dais.

assum. differing in England.ed established. and hence its decisions were most just and . ot^^nizance of That court took idleness as the its aU crime and immorality. it will not bear comparison with the Eose-Croix. inquire why the second chamber named after the celebrated seat of justice at Athens. Thus we find the em- blematic ladder prominent in the Symbolic Degrees as well as in the Eose-Croix. when the Ancient and Accepted Kite was crusade. 277 conferred in the presence of at least three of the Supreme CoTmciL It is to be observed that the description of the ceremonial is derived from a French some portions shorn of its MS. though as present form. knights. that members migbt not be prepossessed in fevour of either plaintiff or defendant by their appearance it allowed only a plain state: ment of facts. there appears a want of xmity of design. perhaps for want of proper apartments to conduct the ceremoniaL now purely philosophical. One standard used in this rite bears a green motto which designated that nation in the Holy Land. and was by the two other orders on the extermination of the Templars. for. for instance. The degree is somewhat It is dignity and importance in England. We cannot but tbiTiV the degree is not perhaps in its of high antiquity. of the middle of the last century.THE AlfClENT AITD ACCENTED KITE. and it cause of vice : beard causes in the darkness of night. In its present form it bears evident traces of it and most probably was devised by the German cross. while the admixture of the military and religious ceremonies is more conspicuous in this than in any other degree. Teutonic origin . There are several this which strike us upon examining degree^-we is may. the is the same as was borne by the pilgrims in the first The red cross belonged to the Templars. now practised. To this ceremonial additions were made in the «ighteenth century. Although much importance inconsistencies is attached to the degree.

composed of nine viz. and six Inquisitors — one being elected to perform the ftinctions of Inspecting Inquisitor. bunal. is archives of the Order covered with blue drapery. if not identical. with officer's eight golden columns letters on the dais above the presiding . a Chancellor. Lodge is white. hence some desire that the Templar Degree should be brought into the Ancient and Accepted which it appears might be accomplished if the 30° were restored to its original fulness. throne are the J. All degrees beyond the Eose-Croix are designated Philosophical.. Roman name. the duties of the members being examine and regulate the proceedings of the subordinate Lodges and Chapters. a Treasurer. and all reference to Jaques de Molay discarded . Other anachronisms might be noticed. having on its . ILLTJSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONET. but is simply administo trative in its character. THE SOVEBEIGN TKIBTTNAL OF THE THIETT-FIEST DEGEEE. It will be seen one not applicable to a body which acknow- ledges a superior council.278 impartial. placed a case containing the In the east. The decoration of the . and but these are degree. as they are particularly directed to the philosophical explanation of the Masonic system. OE GEAND INQmSITOE COMMANDEE. . but the results of research into this and the Templar Degree prove intimately connected. the third chamber bears a and tbe Greek tribunal. We can see no possible connexion between the degree Again. that. they were is The allegory of the three days . It is not an historical degree.. on a low seat. there is also an altar covered with white drapery." and is The meeting is designated a " Sovereign Triofficers. iUustrate the sufficient to weak points of the from the preceding remarks that the philosois phical part of the degree alone retained. more in harmony with the Eose-Croix Rite. which in aU the inferior degrees receives a moral signification. a Most Perfect President.E.

embroidered in black is In the east a throne. the throne. with aurore (yellow) flap. on the draperies are represented and emblems of mortality. a Minister of State.. to which is suspended a Teutonic cross. of the two principal oflicers are covered with bordered with black. with the numerous degrees. on which is embroidered a triangle with rays. two Illustrious Lien- tenants Grand Commanders. the centre of which represents a cross. 279 ki^ red cross . bearing similar emblems to the hangings . and next. is skeletons. The . embroidered with the attributes of the degree. the members wear a white collar. STTBLHIE PEINCB OP is THE EOTAl SECEET the Thirty-second Degree. elevated on seven steps. in which the Lodge hung with tears. The ofScers are —a Thrice Illustrious Commander. seats satin.THE front a AlfCIEIfT AITD ACCEPTED EITE. is the seat of the President . In England there is no badge used. a Grand Treasurer. third. references to the this and the other the rite ignores." first rite. As regalia. draped with black satin. and until the year 1786 (when Frederick the Great instituted the Thirty-third) this was the summit of the sistory. a room for is preparing the candidates. In France the re-gnlations direct a white apron.M. in memory of Jaqnes de Molay. and a Grand Secretary. The crimson silver . silver. is The . and strown with tears ot in the front are embroidered certain letters. a Grand Chancellor. It is somewhat remarkable chivaMc orders in that. on the right of the altar is the table of the CJhancellor. The Lodge is styled a "Grand Conand should be held in a building of two stories. that of the Treasurer. the Templar Degree. having in its centre the number 31. on the left. The floor of the Sovereign Trihimal is covered by a painting. on a table covered with blads satin are the actual emblems of mortality the covering has the letters J. held. encompassing all the attributes of Masonry. as such. We enter the chamber of the Guards. which also.

a . with a palm-tree on each side. Perfect Master. the ground and on the device. Chief wears a robe of royal purple. On the first standard emblazoned the ark of the covenant. a bla«k and red 7. flames. Nehemiah. tlie 6. Ninth and Twelfth Degrees. flap is a trophy. 3. holding a sword in his right claw. for the Fourteenth Degree. lined with purple. On The the tents tents are as are certain letters. the Tenth and Eleventh Degrees. we find five is which form a particular word. — Esdras typifies the Three First Degrees Joshua. which form the secret word. the Seventh Degree . lie. with a collar of it is the same metal . represent the different degrees of Masonry. holding in his mouth a golden is blue. the ark has the motto ILaus Deo.280 ILHrSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONEX. within which is a circle. has a black flag. with a double border of black . The third standard . and Lieutenants. Ad majorem Dei gloriam. has a red and black 5. key. is a silver double-headed eagle over a Teutonic The badge on the is of white satin. displays a heart in with two wings is the field silver. AhoUab flag. represents the Sixth and Eighth Degrees flag. designed follows : to 1. On the sides of the enneagon are nine tents the colours are distinguished by numbers. represents Joakim. Peleg. and suspended cross of gold. flag. . in the designs of which letters. with the double-headed eagle is in the centre of the badge represented a camp of the Crusaders. Joiada. with a black cross embroidered with sUyer. The last bears a black on a . wear swords. within which inscribed a heptagon. . within that a pentagon. green . as well as the The collar of this degree is black. and a bleeding heart in his left ox. : The form of the camp is thus explained is — it is composed of an enneagon. Between the heptagon and pentagon are placed five standards. On the second is a lion of gold. has a red and green 4. 2. the field is a water green. and in the centre an equilateral triangle. with blue streamer. field of gold. it is surmounted by a crown of laurels The next bears a double-headed eagle crowned. flag.

OB SOVEEEIGN GEAND IlfSPECTOE GEXEEAX. or the Kfteenth Degree. George Beauohamp Cole. Captain GSeneral.TKB AlrCLENT AXD ACCEPTED red flag. . are at the present time as foUow : Dr. Henry Charles Vernon. tioned. to dispense with the badge. for the transaction of business. The members of the Supreme Council of England and Wales. the Sword. Its constitute the " members chief tribunal in this rite. William Hyde PuUen. Malachi represents the Eose-Croix. Grand Secretary. represents the Knight of the East. Dr. Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Commander. 32°. Bart. Grand Chancellor. as already men1786. Henry Beaumont Leeson. and Seventeenth Degrees it is has a white flag with red stripes. 9. Henry Atkins Bowyer. Bart. a flag of bright green. Gieorge Augustus Vernon. instituted in Council can exist in Supreme CoxmcU. which nmst be composed of nine members. John "Vigne. The practice in England emblems described being embroidered on the THE THIETT-THIBD DBGEEE. Sir John Greorge De la Pole. the collar." which is th6 The degree was. BITE. Honorary CoL {Retired) Members. Sir John Eobinson.. 28l Zenibbabel. as well as the Sixteenth . Grand Treasurer. George Oliver. not less than three of whom constitute a quorum. and the oflSces they fill. Lieutenant Grand Commander. and not more than one Supreme any one nation. 8. There are three vacandes at present. John AxteU Deacon Cox. Grand Secretary General. Charles Eobert James Shuttleworth.

three in the west. In the east the rear a transparency bearing the Sacred Name in Hebrew characters. and on the part that covers the breast side a triangle of gold. before which is altar. two in the south. holding in his claws a naked sword. with a golden beak. We the have already noticed the ingenious proceedings of the C3ievalier rite Eamsay. and the drapery of the Order in the covered with crimson. elevated on three steps. In the west is a throne. but it appears that as early as in 1715. Detts meti/mque Jus. a white sash. fringe. The jewel the double-headed eagle. dis- playing a skeleton which holds a poignard in the right hand. : surrounded by rays. covered with crimson. and suspended from the right shoulder is At the bottom a red and white rosette is . supporting a Bible. wMoh sustains is representations of dais. letters left. the of which we are treating . a triangular is in- Over the entrance door the is scribed in of gold motto of the Order. the east. The Most Puissant Sovereign wears a royal robe of crimson satin.ILLUSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASOKET. within which are the figures 33 of this on each is emblem is a drawn dagger. is The badge of the degree edged with gold to the left hip. upon which a sword is laid across. and the theory which he set up respecting Scotland. its emblems of mortality. Order alluded to the violent death of Charles . on raising the standard of revolt adherents of the House of Stuart Freemasonry as an auxiliary to out this pui'pose. and crowned with an imperial crown in gold.282 . is The Lodge having in litmg with purple drapery.. five in The chamber illuminated by eleven lights. it made many efforts to enlist their cause. is a regal crown. In the centre of the chamber In the north is a square pedestal. is another pedestal. The better to carry and that was affiimed that the great legend of the I. of silver. and one in the north. and on his head. four inches broad.

it advisable that they should is be brought into use. when a Lodge has no work before it . That one small head should carry Still all he knew. we are now considering. 283 Cromwell. fiirtherance of the project. as out. These Irish degrees. and wisely reduced the compass. and all had a political bias. and Ireton were alluded to as the traitors the Masons were to condemn. mnst have fiimished Tiim with materials and encou- ragement to set his great scheme on like all worthless foot. Our French brethren saw the uselessness of retaining a number of degrees in name. but rather with them are speculations Connected many interesting traditions and instructive which cotdd hardly fail to be nseftil in shedding light upon the character and and we do not consider objects of the institution. They doubtless were fevonrably received attached to by those of the Fraternity who were the Jacobite cause and if they did not give Bamsay . We aU have said that the greater part of these degrees are not practised ." lore . of course omitting all reference to doctrinal points which might traditions offend the peculiar religious views of any brother present. and spurious imitations of Masonry. by some with the exceptions we have alluded to. &c. when not more than a quarter of them could be practised. something might be made of this mass of historic the and mysteries of this rite would furnish admirable subjects for lectures. the idea. we have shown. Bradshaw. these degrees are not to be considered innovations on pure symboKc Masonry. indeed. yet. as illustrations of it. New degrees were invented in named Irish Master. Perfect Irish Jlaster.THE AirciENT AlTD ACCEPTED BITE. rite into a reasonable . of any who is perfect in these degrees it may well be said that "the wonder grew. soon died is deteriorated. for the most retentive memoiy taxed to accomplish brother all suffidentiy the present working. but the Ancient Bite which although its value objectionable points..

two of them are the Grand Lodge of England Grand Masters of well-ordered provinces under which fact may be considered as — giving a Masonic sanction to the rite . that We should. the as Mark Degree. and Accepted and not without some show of reason. besides which they had and have the merit of consistency. we are convinced that would hardly be possible to throughout the world of Ma- sonry more energetic and practical brethren than are there associated. and was attached to ancient Freemasonry. contained matter fer instructive than still more some retained in the . are not unimportant. Again. why. and as each and all have . as well as the Holy Eoyal Arch. adopted in this we are constrained to admit that the objections are founded rather practical results. various ceremonies of Preemasonry as one English It has been urged as an objection to the Ancient Rite. and thus considerable progress would be made towards consolidating the rite. In the construction of the Ancient and Accepted Kite there are some omissions which we cannot find explained. or Commander of the Temple. which is contrary to the spirit of the Masonic institution. ought never to have been separated from the Second Degree. as well as their courtesy of demeanour. indeed. individually. the Templar Degree was not distinctly by corporated as a part of it it : name that Order was certainly in exist- ence and practised. that the Supreme is Council a self-elected tribunal. however. The Mark. rite they were practised at that time. on a theoretical basis than on its Non-attending members as weU as violators removed from time to time. and it must eventually be restored to its proper places The Templar Degree might well be attached in this rite to the Knight-Kadosh. of its constitution have been and their places filled by more worthy and find diligent brethren while it with regard to the present Council. for in- example.284 ILLUSTEATIONS OE rEBEMASONET. its frxiits : remember and when we are directed to judge of the tree by we consider the actual working of the system of government rite. . The position they hold in social life.

. Companions and Apprengeneral.A. Ejiights of St. Eccossais.M. induces the idea in the minds of the great majority of the Craft that they are novelties or introductions of recent date. and the Grand Lodge. Superintendants Knights of Palestine. Officers of the Gtrand tices. which —" All the Masters of Lodges. the 37th clause. regelating all the privileges of the Grand Elected Knights K. To prove the approved on error of this notion the Grrand Lodge of London. 1721. Masters. 285 among the workers in the several degrees from the E. is the best proof that can be affi)Tded of the worth of rite. Andrew.THB AirCLENT ever been AUTD ACCEPTED EITE. they are entitled to the high esteem and respect they receive. enacts : G. the Grand Lodge having the sole power to diminish the aforesaid proceedings. by the Duke of Montagu. printed at Brussels in 1722. Ancient Masters of the Eoyal Arch. Elus. Masons of the Secret. to act in perfect conformity therewith. or which knowingly act contrary thereto. of the Lodges which act in opposition to." The constant accessions tbat are made to the Andent and Axxsepted Bite in the persons of highly educated Masons in our own land. individually. are expressly and all Masons in commanded to acknowledge and recognize these present Statutes. from the Craft. Princes of Jerusalem. and as a body. and having their meetings interdicted.H. Lodge. St. the degrees embodied in the . under penalty of nullification of their proceedings. we quote from the archives of among the Constitutions and Laws John's Day.upwards. of suspension.. EJiights Elected Kadosb. The &ct of the degrees embodied in the Ancient and Accepted Rite being at the present time ignored by the Grrand Lodge of England. either temporarily or in perpetuity.

" This the scope was of our former thought. a Syrian which existed at that date. Wherein. that pilgrims might denay To see Christ's tomb. and the Masonic Institution has heen repeatedly asserted hy the friends and enemies of both. and indeed now continues.CHAPTER XIX." ! Thbeb is mucli difference of opinion as to the origin of this degree of the Masonic Institution. THE ROYAL. Brother "We know the Knights Templars not only possessed the mysteries. and promised vows to pay. The Christian folk from bondage to have brought. EXALTED. and inculcated the duties of Freemasons. In Palestine. . possessed cannot he featm-es controverted that their Institution some of similarity to Freemasonry. EELIGIOTJS. rites of the He endeavours to show that they were initiated into fraternity the Order by the Druses. Of Sion's fort to scale the noble wall. an empire to have wrought. alas they long have lived in thraU. Where godliness might reign perpetual And none be left. and without attempting to show that the form of conferring the degree gallant is identical with that of the it and devoted soldier-monks of the Crusades. AOT) MILITAEY ORDER OE MASONIC KNIGHTS TEMPLAR. hut performed the ceremonies.'' and he attributes the dissolution of the Order to the discovery of their being Free- masons. and assembling in secret to practise the Order. The connexion hetween the Knights Templar Lawrie says.

The Knight Templar. .


after- . all the clergy belonging to the society. In his hands was placed the all the forces of the whole patronage of the Order. increasing prosperity They owed their existence to the and luxury of the Order. was in war the commander-in-chief of Temple." This is not the practice of the degree in England at the it present time. in the degree of 287 Black (30°). when it was acknowledged to be connected with the Templar Degree. were not a part of the primitive institution. Every candidate in the twelfth century. was limited. He much controlled and g^ded by the Chapter. and as the vicegerent of the Pope. great. for admission into the first class nmst have to received the honour of knighthood in due form. was divided into three classes: Enights. or the Priests. however. hnt was. and to receive the Serving Brothers. is and the Grand Commander adds. Over officer. though with the titie of Grand Master. The Order of the Temple. thus was placed a presiding His power. to enable the knights more commodiously to hear divine sacraments. service. this society. The Grand Master resided originally at Jerusalem. it was ordained that they might be admitted. " This my iUustrious brother. without whose consent he was never permitted to draw out or expend the money of the Order.THE OEDEB O! MASONIC KNISHTS TEMPLAE. The second class. Ton are now a Knight Templar. like the Priests. the transmission of Freemasonry by the Templars is most positively asserted. douhtiess. Priests. and according the laws of chivaky. and conseqnentiy the Enights Templar were all men of noble birth. constituted. and Serving Brethren. and on a level with them. and White Eagle ritnal of abont 1780. In a French MS. how and by whom Masonry is derived and has been transmitted to ns. known as the bull omne datum optmvwm. were not originally a part of the Order. but by the biJl of Pope Alexander. He he was the spiritual head and bishop of was. Thehistory of the Templars and their persecution is minntely described in the closing address.

a Grand Prior was chosen to administer the elected. the Chapter usually assembled at the chief seat of the Order . the Prior. The Standard-bearer bore the glorious Beauseant to the field. two more. Acre. behold here our Master. " In the of God the Father. and these four. all it by a majority of was announced to the assembled brethren. affairs of the Order until a successor could he When the day which had been appointed for the election arrived. and he who had received the greatest number was nominated to be the electing Prior. to be our Master. turning to the brethren. in the chapeh engaged in prayer. night In the morning. When the election was completed. and bo on had been elected number of twelve (that of the Apostles) selected. we have "Beloved sirs chosen. The Draper had the care of the clothing department. and do choose thee. Grand Preceptor of the Temple. On the death of the Grand Master. Brother N. who were employed as skinnishers and . and the name Holy Ghost. three or more of the most esteemed knights were then proposed.288 wards. and distributed the garments to all the called the The Prior of Jerusalem. and had charge of all the receipts and expenditures. brethren. when that city was lost. he said. who was and when the votes." Then. The Turcopilar was the commander of a body of light horse called Turcopoles. was the Treasurer of the Order. give thanks unto God. An Assistant was then associated with bim These two remained all in the person of another knight. he consequently never resided in Europe. the Son. at His duty always required him to he in the Holy Land. who was charged with field the execution of the militajy arrangements on the of battle. said to him. to vote for a The thirteen then proceeded Grand Master.. and finally at Cyprus. IliLUSTEATIOirS OP PEEEMASONET. had promised obedience. if the person was present. He was elected for life from among the knights in the following manner. The twelve then selected a chaplain. the Grand Prior coUeoted the votes." The remaining officers were a Marshal. and brethren. they chose until the two others.

Each Province of. he was of sound body. and I Grod. the Order had a Grrand Prior. without any 1£ his answers proved satisfectory. to tbe Gnardian of the Chapel entrusted the care of the portahle chapel. the candidate was conducted into an adjacent chamher. life as one who. If he persisted. will be the servant and if slave of the Order. If no ohjection was made. in time of war. A novitiate was enjoined hy the canons. who was its in it the representative of the Grand Master : and ea/ch House was knights governed hy a Prior or Preceptor. If all were silent. and in the mode of asking admission. had made a vow in any other Order. said. pray and beseech you. and before yon and the brethren. which was always canied hj the Templars into the field. demanding if they knew of any just cause or impediment why the candidate should not he admitted.THE OUDEE OF MASOITIC EKIGHTS TEMPLAE. and free? they him and returned to the Chapter. for the sake of and our sweet Lady. the candidate was who had questioned hiTii. " Sir. I am come to receive before God. if if he owed more than he could pay. where two or three of the knights. the knights hiiti On their assenting." The Preceptor then inquired of him he had well . demanded if he EtUl-persisted in entering it. and who now by instructed He advanced. all his loi^. thongh practically it was in general dispensed with. The candidate was received in a C!hapter assemhled in the chapel all of the Order. he asked if they were willing to led in receive him. kneeling before the Preceptor with folded hands. he was asked if he was married or betrothed. The mode of reception into the Order is deserihed to have heen exceedingly solemn. light cayalry. 289 was And lasQj. secret infirmity. me into your society and the good works of the Order. if any one had any thing to say against his being left received. and the Preceptor again asked. placing hefore his view the rigonr and austerities of the Order. strangers heing rigorously excluded. and presided over who commanded its chapter in peace. The Preceptor opened the husiness with an address to those present.

" We you of bread toil its and water. we receive you to your all the Order. and labour and The Preceptor then took the white mantle. adjured hi-m on the truth. the Preceptor then said. and if he was a priest. and our dear Lady. and the son of a knight and gentlewoman. how good and and Jiow pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity ?" the prayer of the Holy Spirit." each brother said a Pater. your mother. . which have been performed from the beginning. receive us to will perform. and all those of your family like whom you all let participate therein. such a deed?" The answers to all these questions being in the affirmative. fether. the poor clothing of the Order. obe- dience. and in "In the name of name of St. to the Master of the Temple. and of our Father the Pope. He then placed himself at the feet of the Preceptor. So you. as long as the Prior who shall be set over you Uve. and of Mary. with Chapter? and your might. further inquiring he was a knight. God. our dear Lady. (Christian unjustly deprived of his inheritance. and bound : it fast. you. " Dezis qui cordafidelium . the Holy Land of Jerusalem. Peter the name of all the the good works of brethren of the Temple. and will be performed to the end. and in the of Rome. He then asked him the following questions " Do you promise to God and Mary. in manner. and such will and Knights may hereafter add? all you fight for and defend. all the trials and difficulties which awaited him in to speak the the Order. and you P do you promise chastity of the body? do you farther promise a strict compliance with the laudable customs and usages of the Order as the Master now in force. placed it ruddy about his neck. with cross. the good works which assure you have performed and enow. do you agree that you never wiU see a nor be aiding in and never quit the Order but with the consent of the Master and lastly.290 considered ILLtJSTEATIONS OF rEEEMASONET. and the Preceptor and Chaplain kissed the candidate. The Chaplain repeated the 133rd Psalm " Behold. Holy Evangelists and then put to Tiitn the questions which had already if been asked of him in the preparation-room.

in his treatise concerning the cause brought before our Lord Jesus Christ." It is to be observed that. and what those mysteries we discover from those who still cany them on as their heirs. They are accustomed in these secret rites to act over the events which took place on the Thursday. the deliverer of mankind out of the servitude imposed by sin. first pilgrimage. which was assisted in&mous Clement. by the no less set on foot by the in&mous Philip le Bel of France. Friday. Dwnie of his also. to chastity. chose the same three days the hearing of the cause resurrection. and Saturday of the Holy "Week. The were. the Order as kept up in France and other comitries on the Continent — ^not the Masonic Institution. spent the same three days in visiting the servants of Satan (in purgatory). the Thursday. and so the ceremony was ended. during which time they represent the IJast Supper with the Apostles. and then solemnize with great pomp the resurrection of Christ.THE OEBEE OF MASONIC KNIGHTS TEMPLAB. The accusation of irreligion the Templars most strenuously denied. obedience. "In the Ne jilus Ultra —a Eose-Croix Degree —there is reference to the three days. and on Easter-day he saw the Star of Love. but not so the fact of their possessing certain o 2 . Friday. and on Easter-day. during the persecution of the illustrious Knights of the Temple. that they maintained a secret doctrine which was subversive of Christianity. Sartolo. and the death on the Cross at Calvary. hmnility. other. who exhorted 291 him to peace and charity. shining before him. between the Virgin side Mary on the one for and the Devil on the . were celebrated on Good Friday . most of the historians say. Sosetti observes. On the third day he rose from the dead. and Saturday of the Holy Week. and piety. a most prominent charge against the Order was. secret mysteries of the Templars. the day of the he describes that Judge proclaiming mankind freed from the opening of his sublime poem to the end from Satan's power.

whose great object in that age was the overthrow of the papal tyranny. were framed for the purpose of pulling It down the triple crown. however. Itosetti). that the Templars and certain mysteries . to the They had. One writer. which dethroned kings. distinctly asserts that Templars were a branch of the Masonic Institution. Spirit of the Secret Societies of Italy in the Middle Ages. with all its daring innovations. all conoeming them from any possessed Thus much. not against the Church or the Pope Bishop of Eome. which were rites confined to themselves affihatiug practice and the observed in receiving and members approached. gradations of !Freemasonry. in rank. and impiety . Rosetti. we are inclined to believe that the mysteries of the Craft were the only secrets of their practice. in a remarkable degree. Bishop mony of those learned ecclesiastics Hurd gives like testiwho were members of the Eose-Croix. but who. the Order of the Temple. as was against the temporal power of the papacy they were opposed. but against that power inaugurated by Hildebrand. and hence he traces the determination of the Pope to crush. and it the monstrous fabric had erected of idolatry. if not a certainty.292 secrets. for instance. Though there is a great probability. may be taken to answer to the degrees in our some religious ceremonial was used : in communicating each additional secret of the Order and to each was attached a the solemn obligation. at all hazards. The whole conduct of the . superstition. we do know. wMcli was true beyond (as ^not all doubt is —and secrets they have remained to this — &r as the outer world ooneemed) from that day the slightest information has ever been obtained source. the other orders of knighthood and peculiar forms. called themselves Brotherhood of the Holy Ghost. indeed {M. who. that Masonry was a leading feature in the Templar institution. which Craft. in his work On the Anti-papal Croix. especially alludes to the brethren of the Eose- he says. to conceal their objects. ILLrSTEATIOirS OT rEEEMASOFET. excommunicated the nations. and parted husband and wife.

architect's and builder's art required to be These were the only men who possessed the requisite knowledge. and knowledge of the laws of beauty and just proportion. palaces. it artificers. John. tiie Chmch of Some as her strongest is esteem in which they were held by her amply shown in the piivil^es which were granted to them in every state in lEhirope. whose surpassing skill. very striking evidence of the Masonic Gremase of Canterbury. and hospitals speedily arose o 3 .TKB OEDEE OF HASOSIC ENI&HTS TEMPLAB. for the purpose of proffering their services wherever the exenased. churches. who travelled iu gnilds or societies. been considered by the bulwarks . were constructed under the direction of the Templars and Hospitallers ^more particularly the former — seems to us. until the attack made upon the Templars by TTing PhiKp. and pursued the under the sanction of the throne first practice of their mystic rites and the Church. castles. — skUfbl to work in stone and in wood. and was one of the principal causes of their down&lL The wonderM architectural and engineering works which. in &ct. During the Crusade we have no record of any building constructed by the warrior pilgrims . who wrote in origin of the Enights. They met in Lodges close tiled from the vulgar gaze.l1 to bring upon them the combined jealousy and envy of all the reigning princes of the age. after the institution of the Orders of the Temple and St. exempting them from aU authority except that of the Pope Tn'Tnsplfj and which in course of time increased the power and pride of the Enights to an extent which oonld not fa. and from their ranks kings and princes frequently impressed by violence workmen their palaces or fortresses. to whom they required to construct They were the operative Freemasons. speaks of both French and English are. the Orders of chivahy had always. we are indebted for the magnificent cathedrals whidi adorn this country and the Continent. XnigMs refiites 293 the charge of any attempt to sabvert either CSuistianiiy or the Church . the twelflih century. both in Asia and Europe. hut at a later date.

by the German Knights. show the strength of head-quarters of the Order* The remains of the palace of the Grand Master are extremely grand. preserved in their Order a rank exclusively clerical. on his arrival in 1231. tioned. which are the remains of the old : fortifications. ILLUSTEATIONS 01 rEEEMASONET. Their fortresses were of wondrous streng^. who. themselves a body of military monks. among their ranks were many whose names survive to the present day in the magnificent edifices which they assisted to erect. but who • as such were little likely to have any knowledge of the science of with skill architecture. and in 1335 removed The Gothic cathedral was site of the present town. their skill ? To what source. let it be observed. by the Knights in 1376. both noble and plebeian. partaking both of the character of soldiers and priests. strongly the ancient castle of to the built Tumo at Old Thorn. that the rants of all of the Knights the Orders were recruited from the military but un- educated classes. The Knights of the Temple. are we to attribute Let us see whether the peculiar condition of the Masonic body at that time wiU not afford an elucidation of the problem. yet to the present day the remains of their structural labours testify to the perfection they attained. or the art of fortifying strategic posts the most valuable which presented themselves in their progress of conquest . The travelling bodies of Freemasons. and skill in engineering. showed great for its Thorn in Poland Balk. and the late King of Prussia caused it to be repaired and This town was built partially restored to its ancient splendour.294 on all sides. Grand is indebted foundation to Herman Master of the fortified Teutonic Order. Now. then. the individuals belonging to which . both as architects and engineers. consisted of brethren well skilled in every knowledge . The chief seat of the Order was soon after removed to Marienburg the ancient castle with the lofty towers and parapets. which we have menbranch of learned ecclesiastics.

but to their operative skill were the Templars indebted for their triumphs in architecture and fortification. has actually attempted to identify the Templars and fSi^emasons with the celebrated eastern sect of Assassins. of the white d/ress and red fillet of the and red cross of the Templars. Assassins. we believe there can be little doubt that these learned clerks introduced the whole &bric of Craft Masonry into the body of the Templars. that in the records of the Order architects or builders inference. no mention of individual nnfeirly we may therefore not Craft. o 4 . with the white mantle The accordance. And it we find is worthy of remark. The arg^oment which we now about to examine. masonry has been attributed will shortly allude. likewise. draw the whole body were made participators in the knowledge and mysteries of the A thiB &r we different origin and organization than that of Freeto the Order of Templars . prejudice can is carious as showing how &r the power of warp the mind and opinions of a learned and industrious student. who has acquired a well- deserved and extended celebrity as an antiquary and historian. and that not only was the speculative branch of the science by them incorporated with the laws and organization of the Knights. SVom the hest information we possessed of regarding the Order. 295 who were skilled in letters. Von Sammer. that tiie . and to are more perhaps to the amusement than the edification of our readers. : Speaking of the extent and influence of the latter body. and we know that the learn- ing of the time was in their keeping. affairs and devoted themselves to the dvil and religions of the Order. seem to have been the same as those of the Order of Assassins. he says "The Templars them . and the extension of their power by the acquisition of castles and strong places.THE OBSEB OV MASOSIC KlTrGHTS TEMPIAB. took no part in war&re. particularly in so &r as relates to the renunciation ofpositive religion. all —they are were the historians of the period. incontrovertibly stand in the next rank to their secret maxims. in common with the other ecdesiaEtics of the time.

and as such may left to We have. in our own days concerning secret revolutionary societies and they coincide not less in the form of their constitution." * * "THe Assassins were a brancli of the Ismaelites. The writer's comparison of the costume of the Assassins and Templars is simply puerile ^while — the slanderous assertion of the irreligious and revolutionary principles able. The institution of their Lodge. the hosom of the Freemasons. revolutionary from. of a very different kind.296 is ILLrSTBATIONS OP PEEEMASONBT. certainly The greater number of the members were deceived into good faith by the fair exterior of a beneficent. so in the did the Assassins spring from the Ismaelites. However. agree completely with what we have heard and read . that an ignorance of be a well-merited contempt undoubted virtues can hardly be otherwise than assumed. the proper illwninati of the East. well knowing that the principles of our Order have for so lustre. however. on the contrajy. As in the west. that there is abundant . We think. and the exoteric doctrine had merely for its object the extension of knowledge and the mutual support of the members. spreading &x and wide they were a kind of Preemasons. than in the common ! object of declaring all kings and priests superitself fluous The ostensible object of this institution was in sufficiently laudable. which he attributes to iPreemasonry would be laugh- were we not moved rather to pity his ignorance and malice. societies a/rose east. * certainly remarkably striHng. philanthropical knowledge.'' shall not so far insult the We common sense and intelligence of our readers as to enter upon any refutation of the absurdities contained in this extract. having suggested that IVeemasonry was introduced into Europe from tlie East by the Templars. entered upon this subject in consequence of another author (Adler). as Masons we can well afford to treat with contempt attacks of this kind. who had received it from the Is- maelites. many centuries blazed forth with undutmned its even in the eyes of the profane. with the various grades of initiation.

THE OBSES OP MABOIJIC evidence that it KlflG-HTS TEMPIcAJE. distinctly Of this tribe (the Ismaelites) little is known. that the Templars." and the word has come down to our time epithet which can be applied to most degrading man. have preserved a ment. naturally ascribed every crime to the hated " hashisheen. in its constitution and government. of an association Even at the present day are found doubtiess traces similar to those which existed amongst their ancestors in the time of the Crusaders. and we are inclined to think that the preFor their other name judice of the earlier Christian writers has given them a fir worse character than was really their due. strict morality and a sober and decent deport- The religious doctrine which they profess appears to be a pure unitarianism. it requires a probation of twelve . months previous to the admission of a member in the second year he assumes the distinguishing mark of the white turban and afterwards. The Druses of Mount Lebanon are the undoubted descendants All travellers agree that these people of this tribe of Ismaelites. a vile preparation of hemp used by devotees in the East to this day —^and in which no doubt the followers of the called) indulged "Old Man of the Mountain" (as their chief was when about to undertake any desperate enter- prise. of "Assassins. The Crusaders who suffered from the flariTig attacks of this as the tribe. in the course of their long sojonm in Asia. is allowed to participate in the whole o 5 ." which has come to be a term of infimy in Europe. There is preserved by this singular people an institution which has many similar points to the Masonic Order (excepting that we are told both sexes are admissible) . became acquainted (as fir as men of differing &ith could honestly do) with the Ismaelites. we presume our readers are aware that it was derived from the eastern drag hashish. which body doubtless. hy any means improbable. 297 was carried to the East by the learned men who It is not however joined the second Crofiade. had some points of resemblance to their own. by degrees. during the frequent traces between the infidels and the Christians.

we will refer. and we have endeavoured to trace to Masonic influence the eminence attained in structural science by the various knightly Orders. the Holy Land. knowing proportion as th. and was acces- only to such as had made some new discovery (real or sup- posed) in physical science. to the the sixteenth science. upon blind super- and puerile must gradually disappear from the alarm of the papal Church at earth. Knights made no profession of their Masonic studies the animosity which has been since so perhaps. we cannot be surprised that the . though not strictly belonging to our subject. the views of the Knights became much changed is little and extended. We have shown that the early Freemasons were the architects of all structures above the hovels of the peasantry. for the advancement of This association was called I Secreti. there was a well-grounded fear of fearftilly developed in the Church of Rome against full well that in all secret societies. sible Academy of Secrets. there is no doubt with increasing power and influence. even at that remote period. means of instruction and education he also to the . To return to the subject more immediately before us. Simplicity of attire.e intellect of man is strengthened by freedom stition of thought. and that Masonic Templars. Though the original object of these institutions was the protection and assistance of the Christian pilgrims whose piety had led them to that. this private Porta did not content himself with . In illustration of the societies of this kind. temperance. self-denial. founded credulity. established in Italy in century by Baptista Porta. and irreproacliable moral conduct are essential to admission to the Order. her influence. That power has ever trembled at the progress of liberality and science.298 ILXTJSTEATIONS OF rEEEMASONEX. secrets alone were the far-femed mys- teries of the As it is evident that these pursuits would not in the eyes of the world appear to farther the original objects of the chivalric Orders. In our opinion there room to doubt that the practice of Masonry soon became a prominent feature of the Order. of tte mysteries.

and a variety of valuable experiments instituted optical. the charge of magic being brought against him. Writing. indirectly. as the established rule at that time when anything the understanding of the spiritual gentry. and many towns and cities. in order to raise supplies of men and money. but his society was suppressed. in that attentions of age. anxious in many instances to join in the glories and spiritual benefits of the Crusades. natural history. Numerous ab- surdities may be traced in his works. even.THE OEDEE OP MASONIC EtTIGHTS TEMPLAB. he was. scientific passed Eventually Porta was released. results which by the institutions of That society ultimately benefited rise of by them there can be no doubt. they possess of national feeling. by him have in duced fruitful results. a phUosopher. and a man of practice as well as theory. institutions to which England and Europe owe whatever liberty. were compelled to combine for mutual defence. The influence of a religious immediately before and during the period of the Crusades. and all he was visited by the learned from parts of Europe. To him we owe the and other later ages pro- camera obscura. The independent corporate bodies. much that was and was perfectly incomprehensible to the ignorant priests of the time. nevertheless. he was summoned to Some to answer for his conduct opinions. directly and chivalry. architectural science is admirably displayed : upon the progress of by Michavd in the following remarks o 6 . taught the then recondite sciences of chemistry. could not escape the notice and pressing Holy Church. And here we may pause to notice the wonderfiil were produced. chemical. owing to the imperfect light which fell to his lot . and voluminous works extended his &me. sold their seignorial rights to their vassals. Such a man. charters. wherein were optics. 299 Ms power TTig promoted public academies. The great feudal chie&. Hence arose free cities. which had been previously under the protection of some mighty lord. and fran- chises. of course. may in some degree be traced to this source. utmost of.

Another con' fraternity was formed with the useful design of constructing bridges for pilgrims and travellers. edifices Before for" the consecrated to religion were con- It is scarcely possible to enumerate the churches and Ac- monasteries built in the eleventh and twelfbh centuries.300 ILLTJSTEATIONS Or TEEElIASOIfrET. in every town. "The opulence in buildings. magnificent palaces for princes. they travelled about the world. the most <3ertain expiating sins was to build a church or architectural mode of a monastery. " In every dty. clergy. offering their vices to the faithful to buUd or repair churches. cording to the opinion of the time. or paternal church. ments were those which devotion raised £o ancestors. of. " In the tenth century. The only architectural monuviding defences against an . for the basilica. the inhabitants made pride to ornament their cathedral. " At the commencement of the Crusades there existed a re- composed of men practised in the labours ser- of building . Thus and the prodigies which monuments arose at the voice of repentance. A chapel or an oratory reminded passengers that the bridge they were crossing was the work of charity. may be said that there was something lite patriotism in this pious zeal. In the habitations of the great every thing was sacrificed to the necessity of pro- enemy nothing could he afforded to The dwellings of the people. comfort or magnificence. it their and the altars at which they its invoked the saint It whom the parish had chosen for patron. was then the most noble and the most ligious confraternity sensible image of the country. who were rich. and fortresses. axcMteeture consisted in the construction of towers. To complete their called in the aid of painting and . ramparts. even in cities. scarcely protected them from the injuries of weather or the intemperance of the seasons. in some sort. and made it their work they could only display their glory to erect churches. religious inspirations revived. or convenient houses rich were thought structed. fabulous antiquity attributed to the lyre of Amphion.

upon the interesting subject of the secret assoidations and practices of the early Cmsaders. and whose earliest masterpieces were consecrated to the ornamenting of the altars of the (Thristian religion. to see noble Crusaders. on their departure for Palestine. any great value that can be attached to their real or supposed Prejudice and ignorance have of course been frequently busy in detraction of these Orders. employed their treasures in constructing churches.e West. and by Wren's theory. on coming hack from Jerusalem. Several pilgrims are named." infidels visited. satisfection we have. or on their return to ii. and various the writers. the form of which might offer them an treasures image of the holy sepulchre they had conquered from the buildings. is which beais the name by writers of eminence assumed to be of oriental growth. It was during the twelfth and thirteenth upon the long monotony of the This style. as being more or less connected with the essence of Masonry. which. however. and we have abundant evidence that the splendid specimens of Grothic architecture that cover our Continental dties were buUt own land and adorn many by Ereemasons. 301 owed their first encourage- ment to piety.THE OEDEE OF MASOKTC KNIGHTS TEMPIAE. Its earliest adoption was undoubtedly in England. whilst others are for the enthusiastic views more distinguished they hold upon the subject. while those writers who have attacked the Templars are gradually sinking into weU-deserved . Nruuerous indeed have been the conjectures. "Nothing was more common than found a monastery or a chnrch. who. The were often appropriated to such The origin and progress of the pointed arch has been rendered one of the most complicated problems in the histoiy of architecture. that the Freemasons were its inventors. than for discoveries. centurieB this innovation circular arch appeared and was perfected. like architecture. the of knowing that. Some of these authors have brought to bear upon the subject much learning and archseological knowledge. of Gfothic. sculpture.

armed legions of saints. A somewhat peculiar theory as to the Masonic customs of the '' Knights was held by Hutchinson. on the other hand a brilliant Gbsotirity. who prompted the zealots in religion to the holy war . so also was requisite in these expeditions that certain signs. and enthusiasts. than Europe was inflamed with the cry and mad- ness of an enthusiastic monk. for the armies consisted of various could answer : nations and divers languages.302 ILLTJSTEATIONS OF rEEEMASONET. know his companion and brother As it was with Jephtha's army it as well in the at the passes of the Jordan. or passwords. and that each might dark as by day. should be known amongst them . signals. for the purpose of recovering the holy city and Judea out of the hands of the infidels. for as the Mohammedans were also worshippers of the Deity. and where some remains would certainly be found of the mysteries and wisdom of the ancients and of our predecessors. and were materially necessary on that expedition . and as the enterprisers were seeking a country where the Masons were in the time of Solomon called into an association. No project or device the purposes of the Crusaders better than those of Masonry the maxims and ceremonials attending the Master's Order had been previously established. in tens of thousands. devotees. such degrees of Masonry as extended only to the . unprofitable as it was " It was deemed necessary that those who took up the ensign of the cross in this enterprise should form themselves into such societies as might secure them from spies and treacheries . to waste their blood and treasure in a purpose as barren and impolitic. Peter the Hermit. there is galaxy of advo- cates of the Masonic and general virtues of the Knights. watchwords. who in his " Spirit of Masonry (a work which claims mere for our Institution a far more exalted origin than the practice of building) has the following : remarkable observations "No sooner was Christianity all fiilly developed in this land (England). poured forth from every state of Europe. in which.

. is the doctrine of that Order of Masons called the Higher Order \ to believe I am induced by l^t Order was . the priests projecting the Crusades. and so that the rank and of each feUow-labonrer might be distinguished and ascer- tained beyond the possibility of deceit. separate nations as they were might be distinguished by some separate Order peculiar ensigns but be that as it may. as practised at that time. and as Solomon at the building of the Temple introduced orders and regulations for the conduct of the work. being possessed of the mysteries of Masonry." mysteries of the Templars might not have stall But supposii^ the can be 1 been wholly connected with those of Rreemasonry. inclnded of wliat are now termed the Higher Degrees. many of them had been initiated into the mysteries of Masonry they . and now is the truth. and initiated the legions therein who followed them to the Holy Land hence that : secre(^ which attended the Crusaders. as in the ages of antiquity. " All the learning of Europe in those times. 303 acknowledgment of their being servants of the Grod of nature would not have distinguished them from those they had to encounter. was possessed by the religious (priesthood) . they had acquired the wisdom of the ancients. and of the universal language which survived the con&sion of Shinar. of Scottish extraction . which his wisdom hayd been enriched with from the learning of the sages of antiquity. it frilly proves to me that Masons were Crusaders. but as one order or degree. — ^in like manner.THE OEDEE OF MASONIC ENTGHTS TEMPIAE. little there doubt that many of the Templar Order were Preeall Masonry. had they not assumed the symbols of the Christian &ith. the knowledge of the ancients. were the projectors of this enterprise. "Amongst jecture that other evidence which authorizes me in the conMasons went to the holy wars. and the original knowledge which was in the beginning. so that no confusion should happen during office its progress. revived the orders and regulations of Solomon.

readers and. Francis. Order. we will for the present leave that most —^upon which very much more might he said reader's attention to the — and wiU draw the &et that secret societies of a totally different kind existed in this country and These on the Continent long before the era of the Crusades. by a certain party in the Church of England. and others.304- ILLUSTEATIONS OF rEEEMASONET. has many significations among the earlier writers. the latter both for trade and alms their religious observances. to revive the religiotis guilds. Pitzstephen. were in fact associations by which men were enabled to gain subsistence for themselves and fellows. or amerce- ment . describe these associations very ftilly. It is used to signify." names of divers saints. city of The great and important Livery Companies of the from these trading guilds. as " The Guild of "The Holy Guild are derived of Poor Brethren of St. masons. both were distinguished for and partook much of the nature of (of monastic institutions. The accounts handed down to us by the earliest Anglo-Saxon writers whose works have been preserved." &c. as our may have noticed. primarily. an last has not been unsuccessfully made within the few years. and which are amply corroborated by Stow. the former for the practice of alms-deeds. mulct. as in the wards of the city of London). which are again flourishing under the St. London The word guild. as it is variously written. as bodies maintaiimig certain secrets for the benefit of their siastical own . it also denoted an enfranchised district (otherwise called sohe. gild. Cuth- bert. under the name oi gilds or guilds. geld. and moreover was used for the free customs and privileges of such guild or soke in later times its most usual acceptation was in the sense of an . or gelt. They were eccle- and secular . a payment. Having endeavoured thus &r interesting subject to trace the peculiarities of the Order of Templars. and initiated into the secrets of occult philosopiy or the Eosicrucian Order. composition. The trading guilds have survived effort course in a modified form) to the present day.

in which well known that artificers and traders were formed iato companies like those of later days. and alle the sellers of wares. to which they gave name. it is Very great antiquity can be claimed for these and siTnilaT They may even be traced to classical times. it was their custom to assemble at stated periods. some of the most valuable points of our and sprang from the Saxon custom of frank-pledge. and even occupied particular localities. and the records of our Anglo-Saxon synods mention that both laymen and priests were members ot these confraternities. even as Boma. —in old French. are distinguished everie mominge. Icelandic. and everie one in his own streete. beiiig a fraternity or commonaliy of men gathered gether in one combination.d. which afterwards arose. symposvwm. is divided into wardes. when they ate and drank together. and by orders and laws made amongst to- by their prince's licence. every or only a minor incorporation —of such. defines the The learned Johnson word as meaning "fiatemities stock . That the members of the guilds might the better identify each other. a and yilde. i. a oonfaibntor to the support of the general body. and aUe the workemen for hyre." The Anglo-Saxon guilds were an undoubted element in the constitution. business. the originally contribnting sums to a word is to be fonnd in various tongues. The guilds devoted to religious or to trading objects. To (a. copied not only the convivialities but also most of the customs of their predecessors." societies. a society. which 305 might be a whole town. 770). supporting their common charges by mutual contribution.d. combined themselves. convivium. as well as ascertain whether any man was absent on unlawM. Teutonic. this Ktzstephen has : alluded in his description of London 1180) " This dtie. common member was a gildar.. Hence the word gvili proceeds. associated brotherhood or l)ody. These ecclesiastical guilds are mentioned so early as the CwpitvXa of Carloman (a. e. .THE OBDEE OE MASONIC KHIGHTS TEMPIuLE. each in origin of his place. firater- nity or company.

chief." continued to flourish for several centuries. that is to say. It is said that a . A favourite number of the to council. more than six hundred years since. A custom prevailed in ttose early times of dividing whole triple towns into guilds.806 ILLtrSTEA. however. the prior of the Holy Trinity became the territorial lord and alderman of Portsoken memorial of the ancient " knighten guilde " has descended to our own days in the corrupted name its of " Nighti'ngak-]a^(i. in East Smithfield. victoriously aocompKsh three combates. and the members or the twelve associates. and the same principle of union united them. assimi- ." To was granted by Edward the Confessor. with conditions following." says old Stow." These several associations of Anglo-Sason origin had each secrets . the council. " there were thirteen knights. and forsaken by the inhabitants by reason of too much servitude.TIONS OF rEEEMASONET. A curious anomaly arose in consequence Ward. the government of which consisted of a estate — ^the chief or president. who had the right to be a guild or trade corporation reserved to them. which she endowed by the transfer of the lands of the "knighten guilde . Queen Maud founded the priory of the Holy Trinity. and the third in the water and after on a certain day. including the was thirteen —alluding our Lord and Apostles. spears against comers all which was gloriously performed it : and this the same day the king fraternity a charter it named knighten guilde. one under ground. which requested to have a certain portion of land left desolate on the east part of the oitie. the other rights and privileges of that ancient corporation being transferred to certain burgesses of the city of London. To such a source may be traced the origin of " Portin the city of London. or soldiers. and Li 1145. with the liberty of a guilde. one above . that each of them should this. they should run with . soken " Ward " Li the days of TTirig Edgar. ground. They besought the king to have this land. for ever : the king granted their request. well beloved of the Mng and the realme (for service done by them).

kept up a show of preserving the customs and secrets of the ancient guilds. This fer-famed commercial confederacy was established during the rule. During the earlier periods. if not by the direct influence. of the Order of Teutonic Knights. We may observe that ecclesiastics identified themselves both with the peacefbl gnilds and with those devoted to the profession of arms. the hereditary character of the handicraft must have greatiy assisted in preventing the veil : pro&ne from withdrawing the other means were practised for the purpose of keeping the secrets of the trades. till within a recent period. prince and pontiff. continued to flourish in England. all the great Companies of which. the incipient workman enjoyed the ftdl application of the lash of the into the Worshipfdl whip. they imtil the period when the wealth some of the chivahio Orders having attracted the envy of both first fell a sacrifice. fostered and we have ample proof that they were and patronized of by the Chxirch of Borne. The aspirant admitted Company of Cooks. however. and defending their monopoly. with swords suspended over his head. there. and the policy of the Church ever afterwards denounced irreUgions all secret associations as and heretical. The name is derived from the ancient German word " Hanse. binds himself under a heavy penaUy not to reveal to any stranger the secret of raising puff paste The most celebrated and enduring of these ancient guilds on the Continent was the League of the Hanseatio Towns. In these guilds all the more important and essential processes of their crafts were concealed as mysteries in the true sense of the term. and especaally in the city of London. lated in a great degree to that sacred 307 bond of brotherliood wMch has ever characterized the institation of Freemasonry.THE OEDEE OT MABOSIO EinSHTB TEMPLAE. The associations of trading gnilds. Here the candi- date trembled beneath the arch of steel. sometimes painfiil or ludicrous. including many awe-inspiring ceremonies and initiations —some- times terrific. unless his agility preserved him." signifying an association for mutaal support and .

that as years passed on. and the town ancient charters granted by of Dunwich. in anticipation of his his successor to rule the Fraternity. the Templars (we beUeye there no doubt) amalgamated their body with -that or. indeed. the Electorate of Bradenburg repubKos imtil the year 1810. The Teutonic Order eventually became absorbed into the Hanse Towns existed as free when they were crushed by the Europe by the first Napoleon. the became Knights of Malta. the fate. and main- tained a force of 20. John and Knight of is found in two York. continued to exist. and in the United States. This extraordinary association period and the great Order of Teutonic Knights flourished at the same during the 200 years from 1250 to 1450 they were . and clouds arose more ominous is to the existence of the society. survived to and. Jaques de Molay. IILTJSTEATIONS OF EEEEMASONET. through our times . the degrees ' many known as Knight of St. of 248 ships. many vicissitudes. John.308 defence °. still It is true. perhaps at their highest power. influence has been exer- cised in the Masonic Craft by this brotherhood in England. the Knights of St. on Notwithconsequent the continent of Europe. of late years a and we may say am astonishing.000 soldiers. of their ancient brothers in arms. for years. martyred Grand Master. and in the most perfect organization. upon the machinations of Philip it le Bel and Pope Clement. and city of . illustrious Order of the Temple has. appointed and from that time to the present there has been an uninterrupted succession of Grand Masters. In the Preceptories secrets imparted to of the Order which remained in England the the newly installed brother of the Temple included. despotic rule established over The great. standiug the persecution the Order was subjected to. as they were afterwards called (from the island that their head-quarters). at their joint expense. in Suffolk. to protect their The Hanseatio League maintained sMps and soldiers commerce from pirates In 1428 they had a fleet and enemies. if not to flourish. . The term has been adopted in our own King John to the tongue.

are generally unknown to the younger English Masons). In Prance and Italy chapters of the chivalrie degrees have always been held. We have spoken known of the wide-spread influence of the Templar feet is. and we fear not to say unpardonable. Heredom. In Prussia the military Orders and there is good ground for tracing their preservation up to the Teutonic Order. degrees. the present sovereign of Belgium. The influence of this noble Order has been widely exercised on the Continent. the historian of the Crusades. Order at the present day. of the Church. and. "With these were also conferred the 309 " Rose-Croix of it is said. and that their . which curious. which. in proportion to the Masonic population of Great Britain a century ago. in Germany. if not to a greater extent. and latterly under the sanction At Sonnenberg. Great. well as in Irelajid. and even valuable Masonic rites are preserved. was ori^nally brought into this country from Scotland (where. that the vows of this degree were embraced to as great. however worked. Of the Kadosh there we are at are said to be six liberty to say that there is little doubt that they are intimately connected with the ancient ceremonies of the Order of the Temple." or ne phis ultra of Masonry. and the " Kadosh. John early in the present century. as many interesting. Malta. not perhaps to the generality of our readers. than at the present time. It is not unreasonable to conclude that a portion of the persecuted brotherhood of the Temple sought refuge with their more prosperous fellow-soldiers of the Teutonic Order.THE OEBEE OF MASOmC KlflSHTS TEMPLAE. the Enights of which were the original founders of the power of the Prussian monarchy. there was a Grand Encampment of the Enights of St. neglect has been manifested with regard to the records of the Order at that period. amongst whom were Leopold of Saxe- Cobuig. and Michaud. and the documents which have been preserved are meagre in the extreme." one of the higher degrees. the however. where several Gfirman princes were elevated to the privileges of the Order. flourish.

The is active part taken by that illus- trious prince in Masonry indeed surprising. was of French origin. and established in Prussia the Supreme CounoU of Grand Inspectors General. The sovereigns of Prussia have always been patrons of Masonry in every form. when we consider the magnitude and importance of his military and political transactions. Their descent from the illustrious Grand Master of the Teutonic Order may. held Burckhardt. manifested the warmest interest in affairs of the Craft. and believe. and into it none but such as There is are professors of Christianity can be admitted. while the KJiights of St. they were designated in the Holy Land he figuratively under- goes seven years' travel. must be a Eoyal Arch Mason. as . He is proficiency in what are known to have attained known as the higher to the greatest degrees in Free- masonry. ia England. in order head of that to preserve to his successors the Masonic privileges which he possessed as the acknowledged rite. and ceremonies may have been thus perpetuated in the north of Europe. It need hardly be said that this is entirely a Christian degree.310 secrets ILLUSTEATIONS OP EEEEMASONET. when. The candidate &r honours. The Templar Degree derived two sources its origin in this country from —IVance at campment. is highly valued in all countries. have influenced their predilections . not a . be that as it may. and presided over by Brother The Knights Templar Degree and its ritual is. it is not improbable. having conducted himself courageously through his finally trials. we its as such he presents himself at the are called — Encampment — as the meetings ^in the character and garb of a pilgrim. identical. or palmer. the Observance was from Germany. and more particularly since the time of !Frederick the Great. and then seven years' warfare. it is well known the that they have always. John preserved them in the south. he is admitted into the Order. and Germany: the Cross of Christ JEnClerkenweU.

is. in the degree. The similar to that of the Eose-Croix Knight. Pirst and Second Grand Captains. Sir Knight Eight Hon. Grand Prelate. and two Grand Equerries. Grand Chancellor Grrand Eegistrar. the &ct. First and Second Grand Captain of Lines. the belt has broad in front. Grand Sword-bearer. Grand Provost. Gtrand Superintendent of Works. and John. and Vice Chancellor. as such. Grand Director of Ceremonies. First and Second Grand AideFirst de-Camp. A belt of bla>ok silk velvet. vow a The Soldier of the Cross. Grand Organist. 311 vestige of Freemasonry. a white kid with a border of black watered ribbon —the ribbon to be on four inches broad . the Earl of Carnarvon. of Alden- Supreme Grand Master. The other officers appointed annually are. except one slight extract. Grand Almoner. The New Testament . Two Grand Heralds.THE OBBEB OF MABOlflO KNTGHTS TEMPLAB. Knight Colonel George Augustus Vernon Grand Seneschal. James. in the centre of the badge a red cross patee in velvet or embroidery. No Encampment can install a knight into the Order for a less sum than three guineas (except in case of a serving brother. Grand Constable or Mareschal. five inches to the badge . and Second Grand Standard-bearers. tVii'g celebrates is The obligation of a Masonic Knight Templar not his unlike that taken by the Soldier Monk. extiie clusively used for iUustration and three great lights repreobject of this degree is sent Peter. First and Second Grand Experts. Grand Treasurer. Herts . Grand Chamberlain. but whereas that deals with the event of man's redemption in an allegory. save the absolute necessity of candidates having been admitted into the Boyal Arch. officers of Grand Conclave Sir Most Eminent and Stuart. for which a dispensation is necessary). Knight "William ham Abbey. : The costume of bViti the degree is as follows Badge. Grand Prior and Sub-Prior. is worn attached . Very Eminent Deputy Grand Master. and he becomes by are. Sir . Grand Hospitaller. Grand Banner-bearer.

The Grand Conclave is held on the second Friday in the month of May. Every Encampment must be constituted by a warrant or patent with the great seal of the Order affiled. silTer. and for the and other good reasons. We the undersigned being regularly registered members of respective names. and the Present Captains. The form of petition : for a warrant for opening a new Encampment To the is as follows Grrand Conclave of the Eoyal Exalted and Military Order of Boiights Templar in England ajid Wales. Grand officers' sashes have three white stripes. Commanders are distinguished by having gold fringe and button at the ends. all Present and Past Commanders. and there to discharge our duties in a constitutional manner acoordiog to the Statutes of the Eoyal Exalted and Military . of the Ancient Order of Masonic Knights Templar greater convenience of our brethren.812 ILIitJSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONEX. and the Colonial Dependencies of the British Crown. is worn over the right shoulder. of private Encampments. London. A sash of black watered ribbon. The members of Grand Conclave are all Present and Past Grand Officers. the front tte emblems of mortality in a triangle in Grand sected officers are distinguished by the hlaok ribbon being inter- by three white stripes. are anxious to exert our difiiise the genuine principles . are desirous of establishing a new Encampment. having Encampments mentioned against our best endeavours to promote and the prosperity of the Order at heart. and under the sign manual of the Grand Master. at iPreemasons' Hall. four inches wide. and pray stitution for a Warrant of Con- empowering us to meet as a regular Encampment at on the day of the months of in every year. to be named the Encampment. and witnessed by the Deputy Grand Master and the Grand Chancellor.

It is closed with this prayer : "O Mercifdl Lord. The prayer of the strict obedience to petitioners being granted. an Almoner. ver. a Eegistrar (who acts as Secretary). two Captains. Encampment is opened by a prayer to the Redeemer." installing a knight. grant thy holy protection and salutary blessing to t^'" Encampment. that they of our Heavenly Captain. that. a Treasurer. from its solemnity. which must be to the Yice-Chancellor with the petition. 313 Order of Masonic Enights Templar in England and Wales. through Jesus Christ our Saviour. is most impressive. a Captain of the lines. two Heralds. and an Equerry. two Standard-bearers. of thy holy Name. direct the suppliants' labours that they The so to may be inspired with love to tressed. The fee for a warrant is five guineas. an Expert. TTiTTi. and and pecond Captains of the the said Encampment. they may arrive at the Heavenly Jerusalem. we promise commands of the Most Eminent and Supreme Grand Master and the Laws and Statutes of the Grand Conclave. and Lave nominated and do recommend as First as Eirst Sir EJaight Sir Eniglits Eminent Commander. he is invested with the armour. enlighten its rulers with the rays of. a Prelate. armed with the shield of feith and the breastplate of righteousness. Paul's Epistle to vi. protection to the dis- and obedience to the Order. In the ceremony of the Ephesians. thy brightness. may always see the just ways and may by their example induce the having overcome the enemies companions committed to their charge so to follow them through this wilderness of temptation. The ritual. To be signed by seven KJiights of the Order. remitted Every Encampment must consist of an Eminent Commander. 10 —17 : p . while the Prelate reads from St. affection to their companions.THE OEDEE OS MASONIC KNIGHTS TEMPLA3. chap.

spirit in life and land your enfranchised blessed. the word of God. to stand. And which take the helmet of salvation. having your loins girt about with truth. the peaceful abode of the Let the emblems of and death now before you life. which represented the pilgrimage of through which we are all . and in the power of his might.314 "Finally. effect on your future character. feet all. may he able to stand against the Put on the whole armonr of God. my brethren. and having done aU. and we trust have a long and happy first. in and which it is necessary for us to perform to be always engaged. IliLITSTEATIONS OP FEEEMASONET. agauist spiritual wickedness in high places. are of the Order. Wherefore take be able to withStand unto you the whole armour of God. against the rulers of the darkness of this world. to perform seven years of . remind you of the uncertainty of human and lead you to be prepared for the closing hom. You were life as a trial of your faith and humility. therefore. we are all weary pUgidms looking forward to the asylum where labours and be at rest for ever. And rest assm-ed that a firm faith in the ti-uths revealed to us will afibrd you . trial we shall rest from our Tou were then directed. as a of your courage and constancy. that ye For we Tyiles of the devil. enjoined passing to perform a seven years' pilgrimage. wrestle not against flesh and blood. shod with taking the the preparation of the gospel of peace shield of faith. on the breastplate of righteousness and your . and the is sword of the Spirit. warfare vanities it represented the constant warfare with the living deceits of this world. be strong in the Lord.of existence. and having . but against principalities. against powers. and will conduct it is also a trial of the faith which you safe over the dark gulf of everlasting death. Tou are now called upon one year of humility. the ceremonies in which you now a novice now engaged are will calculated deeply to impress your mind. above wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked." : The novitiate is then thus addressed " Pilgrim. that ye may stand in the evil day.

: comer. as lively stones. the same is made the head of the not be confounded. as unto a living stone. elect. precious comer and he that believeth on bim shall Unto you therefore whicb believe he is precious but unto them which be disobedient. disallowed indeed of men. as supreme or xmto governors. 1 —during whict V7 - is read the First Epistle of Peter. a peculiar people. and a stone of stumbling. and aU evil speakings. p 2 . which they shall behold. who hath called you out of Which in time past were of God: which had not not a people. for the Lord's sake whether it be to the king. as newborn babes. Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man . : even to them which stumble also they at the word. an holy nation. " Wherefore laying aside crisies.' that ye if so may grow thereby be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious. but are obtained mercy. Wherefore also contained in the scripture. they glorify may by God your good works. to up spiritual it sacrifices. all malice. and hypo-- and envies. as unto them that are sent by bim for the punishment of evildoers. whereas they speak against you as evildoers. and ensure and eternal bliss in the world to come. Behold. that ye should show forth the praises of him darkness into his marvellous Ught. being disobedient wbereunto were appointed. consolation in the efiable 315 in- gloomy hoiir of dissolutioii. and a rock of offence. but ciosen of Gcod and precious. and all gnile. abstain from fleshly lusts. but now the people now have obtained mercy. an holy priesthood. acceptable to God by Jesus : CJhrist. which war against the soul.THE OEDEE OP MASONIC KNIGHTS TEMPLAE. are built ofifer up a is spiritual house. But ye are a cbosen generation. in the day of visitation. I lay in Sion a chief stone. ye also. having your conversation honest among the Gentiles : that. Dearly beloved. I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims. ii. chap. ver. desire the sincere milk of the word. a royal priesthood. To whom coming. the stone which the builders disallowed." After the novitiate has undergone his trials of fortitude and courage.

when his Divine mission was indicated to John the Baptist. of the Almighty Comforter which descended in a bodily shape on Jesus Christ at his baptism. and in the stone a new name it. and not using your liberty maliciousness.316 and ILLTTSTEATIONS Or PEEEMASONET. he being anxious to have a first sight of the pushed forward with a few followers. Honour all men. that with well doing ye of foolish may put to silence the ignorance for a cloke of men : as free. Pear God. which no man knoweth are the saving he that receiveth The sacred emblems of the Order and the Cook. and will give birn a white stone. and made known their near approach. bright with the morning sun he saw the towers and pinnacles of the he turned round . the Dove. caution. T— a small cube of marble is presented to him. Crusaders were led by Godfrey de Bouillon to Jerusalem. At the time when the Holy City. on arriving at an elevated point near to a village. city shining to his com- panions in arms. the Dove. the Cock. in illustration of which is read from Eevelatiou. May we ever welcome the sound as a friendly fear it and not have reason to as the periodical memorial of a broken vow. The first is emblematic of the Paschal Lamb. . For so is the mil of God. by informing them they were at Bmmaus. chap." written. To Tn'm that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna. 17 "He that hath an ear. The installation of the Eminent Commander has reference to an event in the Holy Wars. and reminds us to ask thus early for assistance to perform them throughout the coming day. ver. from the foundation of the world . the monitor of the Order — ^for his crowing heralds the as mom—especially calls to our remembrance our duties Knights Templar. ii. for the praise of ttem that do veil. and being in advance. but as the servants Love the brotherhood. :" Honour the King unto the churches . let him hear what the Spirit saith : of God. as had been agreed. distant threescore furlongs from Jerusalem. slain Lamb.

M. Masonic Hall. Masonic Hall. Peamley. on the cross to shoulder is the which the wearer is entitled. near Bochdale. Faith and Fidelity. Masonic Hall. Nottingham. Faith. 3. Yorkshire. Bath. seven points . Oxford. Sheffield. of Ejiiglits of the Order is a cross patee Comcross. Bolton. Assembly Booms. New Excelsior. Beauseant. All Souls. Weymouth. Great Queen Street. The Grand Master is distinguished by the The star of the Order is of silver. Greneral Lodge Booms. Horse Shoe Inn. Staffordshire. or Conclave of the Holy Falmouth. or Early Grand Encampment of England. suspended by a white watered. New Inn. Calpe. Fusilier. Albert. In hoc The cloak or mantle is of left white camlet. The emblem which is 317 . Handsworth. manders and Fast Commanders wear the patriarchal Syrian ribbon. Bradford. Inn. AUD WALES. p 3 . London. Comubian. with signo mnces. Foona. Maur. Queen's Arms Hotd. Yorkshire. Hamilton. Pendleton. Lancashire. Bladud. Low Pavement. 21st Foot. Gibraltar. TTITDEE BOLL OF ENCAMPMElfTS EEGISTEEED COlfCLAVE OF ENG-LAITD THE GEAITD 1861. Bermuda. Coeur de Lion. Eoyal North British Barbadoes. Littleborough. around which the motto. East Indies.THE OEDEE OF MASONIC ENIGHTS TEMPLAE. Openshaw. Dewsbury West. City. Bishopsgate Street. with a cape or hood . in red sOk. Freemasons' Tavern. Abbey Chapter. Bermuda. or in some cases by a triple cross of Salem. Weslgate Buildings. Almeric de St. Edmund Flantagenet. Ascalon. Frederick of Unity. Masonic Hall. In H. is it has a passion cross in the centre. London Tavern. De Fumival. Faith.

Kingston. St. Hall. in the Room of the Royal Yorkshire Lodge. Holy Holy Cross. Melbourne. George Hotel. Plymouth. -Cross Street. Jaques de Molay. Mtzwilliam Street. Masonic . Freemasons' HaU. Huddersfield. Joppa. Sunderland. Ship and Turtle. Sandhurst. Omer.318' ILLtrSTEATIONS OF PEEEMASONET. Aldemaj:. Ashton-under-Lyne. Plains of Rama. Madras. Masonic Hall. George's HaU. Bishopsgate Street. de Payens. J Mount Calvary. Mount Zion. Masonic Rooms. Hope Street. Stoke-upon-Trent. Stamford Street. Hugli de Payens. Preemagons' Hall. East Indies. Liverpool. Thatched House. Swan Inn. Jerusalem. Mount Carmel. Malta. Hope. Observance._ StaffordsMre. Canada West. Canada West. Cross Keys. Hamilton. Trinity. Toronto. . Loyal Brunswick. Loyal Ashton-under-Lyne Encampment of Volunteers. Leadeuhall Street. Nova Scotia. Observance. Canada West. Masonic Hall. ^ Godefroi de Bouillon. Masonic Lodge Booms. MeUta. Whiteliaven. Stockport. Vernon Arms. Tattersall's Hotel. Love and Friendship. Masonic Temple of the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity. Manchester. St. Kemeys-Tynte. Australia. Palestine Hotel. Kent. Masonic Temple. . Victoria. Geofirey de St. Manchester. Godefrbi de Bouillon. Stonehouse. Bomhay. Birminghani. William Street. Australia. . Keighley. Howe. Blackhum. Hugh . Pembroke. New Street. Burnley. Halifax. Wheatslieaf Inn. Old BuU Hotel. Grapes Inn. . 22. Valetta. James's Street. Jaques de Molay. Plains of Mamre. London Tavern. GeoflGrey de St. Nova Scotia. Axminster. Woolwich. NewhaU Street.

James of Jerusalem. Prudence. Christ. Cross George. Exeter. Royal Naval. St. Phoenix Lodge Rooms. Bridge Street. Station 319 Tod- House. Blackfriars. Richard Coeur de Lion. Dudley Arms Hotel. St. Street. Oldham. Geoi^ [formerly Gross of Chrisf]. Augustine. Canada West. Royal Gloucester. Sepulchre. St. East Salamanca. Gtolden Eleece Inn. East Indies. Simlah. p 4 . Michael and St. George's. and the Legs of Man. Prince Edward. York. Street. St. Masonic Rooms. Bengal. Ereemasons' Hall. Street. Tuns. Lahore. Royal Veteran. Colchester. St. Manchester. Halifax. Tynte Encampment of Redemption through Somersetshire. East Indies. Plymouth. Freemasons' HaU. Ports- Royal Sussex. Union. morden. Todmorden.outh. East Indies. Eadley's Hotel. John of Jerusalem. Greorge Hotel. John. Calcutta. St. St. alternately at the Bisiag Sun. Temple Cresing. London. BeU Court. St. Assembly Rooms. or Rougemont. Punjauh. Great WMte Horse Hotel. Ipswich. Queens Hotel. Ereemasous' Hall. Royal Kent.. Dog and Partridge Tun. Michael. Bottom's Stanfield.THE OEDEE OP MASOlTtO KITIGHTS TEMPLAJE. Royal Kent. Ereemasons' Hall. Salem. Duldnfield. Tiverton. Joseph. Lancashire. Three Angel Inn. Masons' Arms. Masonic Hall. West Grate. Astley Arms Lm. London. "Worcester. Stuart. Stockport. St. Newchurch. Newgate Newcastle-on-Tyne. 2. Richard de Vernon. St. Southampton. Corfu- Street. Barnstaple. High m. Royal Edward. Taunton. Bolton. Trinity in Unity. Dudley. Watford.

for authority to rule the ohivalric orders established in this country. —an vation which caused considerable discontent at the time. to the present government of the Order. Encampments) are bound to acknowledge. as they are now of termed. we have arisen. With regard would gladly the Order. and Knights of Malta. to whom of its right belongs the nile of the Order. Canada West. carrying out the wishes of the majority of the brethren in this country. must acknowledge that it is clear serious anomalies which we see reconciled.320 ' ILLirSTEATIOlfS or la la rEEBMASONBT. all subordinate Preceptories or Encampments. whose authority Preceptories (or. More. on the other hand. as the nominal head of the Knights of Malta. traditions. the late Colonel Kemeys Tynt6> styled was inno- "Grand Master'' of the Knights Templar. If then the succession of Grand Masters is allowed to have continued unbroken in Prance. The King Baldwin. he applied to the Emperor Alexander of Bussia. he wished to obtain also the supreme authority in the higher degrees. it is clear that to the Grand Master of the Temple in Paris belongs the right of appointment of the heads of If. and what becomes of ancient customs. and landmarks? When as the late Duke of Sussex was in the zenith of his power Grand Master of Masons in England. and in . William de William de More the Martyr. Manchester. Queen's Hotel. or Grand Priors. this authority be disavowed. uniting under his control the three degrees of Knights Templar. ordinate heads The sub- of the brotherhood in the various parts Christendom are properly designated Masters. as well in Craft as Eoyal Arch Masonry. BeUeviUe. Knights of St. John. Quebec. and received from that potentate the title of Grand Prior of England. According to the constitutions of that there can he but one Supreme all Grand Master. in At the Duke's death the supreme authority '''^bo England was conferred upon that very worthy and highly- esteemed Mason. and to this end.

it acknowledged. which the author having received the Templar Degree under the old constitution. and the heart-burnings arising from which can hardly yet be said to have subsided. are we not justified p 5 in taking another and very different view of the subject? The Order having in the course . in the year 1851 the Eadosh. Herts. undoubtedly. of late results 321 to he regretted. Brother Aldenham Abbey. unsatisfiictory. were separated from the degrees of EJnight of Malta or Knight of St. made to those other On the settlement by the Supreme Council and the as Grand Conclave. But the Grand Master. is eldest son of the Archbishop of Armagh. it was removed by the Pope's authority to Having shown that the title of the Duke of Sussex. to say the least. the Emperor Paul of Bussia. as derived from the Emperor of Eussia. elected. some meaBure tended to Williaju Stuart. the chief seat was transferred to Catania in Sicily. was. the Prince and also the Templar Degree. whence.THE OEDEE OE MASONIC KUIGHTS TEMPLAB. to the Templar. on as their titie of the contrary. After the removal of the Order from Malta in 1800. Bose-Croix:. John. in 1826. The appointment of the Duke of Sussex himsdfi from the Emperor Alexander. who. was never conferred by the votes of the Order. corporated with the Knights of is as derived liable to is the following ob- jections: the Knights Templar. Grand Master. the present Grand Master of the Order. a severance which caused at the time much dissatis&ction. Alexander. and the other degrees connected with . after the assassination of Paul. Under the Ancient and Accepted Rite were conferred by the certificate reference is made it. Ferrara. assumed by his son and successor. can affirm that in the ritual then practised no reference was degrees. abeady mentioned. were inor Knights of Malta. after their expulsion from that island. they elected the Prince Caraccioli. St John.

This. more satisfactory if the It would be members would communicate any facts corroborative of the statement.322 IIiIiTISTEATIOirS OP PEEEMASOITET. Palestine with Richard I. It must be confessed. own good government. it is still one of the most flourishing in England. with another at Bath." if the Order think to confer it upon their head. It is asserted that the Encampment of Baldwin was established at Bristol by the Templars who returned from . this point. our information derived only from the traditions current in these Encampments. and a third at no reason to York. though at present they do not work in connexion with the is Grand Conclave. their archives is concealed We cannot but think that in of interest to the Order much matter in general. the different We hope that the time not far distant when systems of our Masonic institution. however. in the higher as well as in the Craft degrees. for their heEeve. had indecision or weakness manifested themselves at the fountain-head. the mle of the Duke of Sussex. accepted though not elected land. will be brought under one government. and we trust that an attempt will also be made to assimilate . many years. that though there is is doubt their authenticity. seems perfectly satisfactory. and wonld have been followed by the Viewed from we fiiUy ancient brethren of the Order. There are several Encampments in England claiming great antiquity. and which would prove of value in any future regulations for the government of the Pratemity. and infirmity having been displayed in its knights. whose for government and management. of time fallen into decay abroad. by the knights in Engnor can we see that any really title fit important objection can be made to the assumption of the of " Grand Master. the English Encampments had been in a healthy condition were fliUy entitled to take the steps necessary this course. and has preserved the ancient costume and cere- monial of the Order. constitute the three original Preceptories of this kingdom.

to be nominated by the legislative authoiily of the Grand Master. yet with the rise and progress of the its latter Templarism continues to increase. The Grand Master and The subordinate Chapters are designated Priories. sup- ported belong. the 323 wortmgs in tihis country •with that pursued under the sanction of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland. 1. Officers are elected. that the Templar institution is popular with English Masons . by the recommendation of the Priories to which they 3. At the meeting in is. consist of three grades. In Scotland the Templars have an organization this ancient Order is to be found. 2. which consists of the Grand Officers. Novice or Esquire . Knights Commanders. a con- summation which would be welcomed hy every true brother of the Craft. p 6 .THE OEBEE OF MASONIC KKIGHTS TEMPLAB. and the Prior of each priory. 1. elected from the Knights on memorial to the Grand Master and Council. It will be seen from the numerous list of Encampments. March the Grand elected triennially. " The Eeligious and Military Order of the Temple " in Scotclasses. Four Chapters are held annually. The supreme Order is the Grand Conclave. the Knights Grand Crosses. are equivalent to our Encampments. and although the Ancient and Accepted Eite appears to be in some measure antagonistic. the Knights Commanders. Knights created by Priories 2. Enight The EJoights . and among members different are ranked some of the most distinguished Masons in the realm. from our own and from that existing in any part of the world where land consists of two Templar. Knights Grand Crosses.

generally known to English Masons. been concocted. At four the present time the Masonic family in England may be considered as divided into four distinct bodies. and have political. therefore. besides the schism. Most of these novelties originated in the vanity of their con- trivers. the Grand Conclave of Kiights Templar. and have similar designations. some for fluence . and some for religious. that in all these the three ancient degrees and their essentials were preserved. in the glorious febric of Freemasonry. others died out with their authors. in- and to all of them is affixed the solemn appellation of " Rite. THE EITES OP FREEMASONRY. and.CHAPTER XX. some fell into oblivion in the inventor's lifetime. —The Lodge of Mai'k Masters . the ceremonials of which greatly resemble one another. em- bodying a variety of degrees. in which several constitutions we have United Grand Lodge. " What to I understand I find to be excellent. if we may so term . perhaps. the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Rite. ambitious of making themselves a name . : acknowledged. and the Grand viz. or rather interpolated. It is not. and nearly all are now extinct." We believe we are correct in saying. These have nearly all originated on the continent of Europe. that in m:odem times numerous modifications have been introduced. believe that be of equal value which I cannot understand. and more particularly to the younger members of the Craft." Socrates.

We believe that a brother who has been admitted is into a degree of any rite. and. it is entitled to priority. : first instance ac- To them. Site. has existed most from time first immemorial. degree of lite always received and acknowledged in a name or rank in any Xiodge or assembly prac- tising under the constitution of another rite. it is said only the three primitive d^rees of ancient Craft Masonry were in the knowledged. two have been But. but as the most ancient Masonic Institntion in the British Isles. In this. and the Supreme D^. Most Excellent viz. of all those we are about to describe. the parent Lodge of pure Masonry. claiming the same prerogatives as the Supreme Conncil and Grand CSondave. in modem times. have been added four MarV Master. but in some parts still Master. and originated in the city of York. annexed in addition the Ancient York —those of Boyal. where the Grand Lodge of England was held A. Bite. and Select Master. it appears. surprising that Varieties does appear we can number littie more than forty of these of Masonic government on the great continent of Europe. 926. Andent and Accepted last is as mentioned in the account of the Masons in England in the This rite century practised other degrees. or that adopted by the United Grand act of union in The solemn viz. where it is practised. not at present practised in this country . those of the Entered . Erom this arose THE EKGLISH The ETtglish Site. Fast Master. the EITE. ancient.ree of the Holy Boyal Arch. other degrees. Thus this rite consists of the United States. of seven degrees. it. 1813 declared and pronounced that pure ancient Masonry consists of three degrees and no more. Lodge of England and Wales. BITS..D. TOEK The Tori. it Seeing the position of Masonry in this island.THE EITES or FEEEHASOITET. 325 of the Baldwin Encampment of Templars.

to he "a for another step. correctly defined hy Johnson and other lexicographers. Principal. be " degrees. hut as it is the most extensively diffused of those rites in which the historical and chivalric degrees are embodied. Installed 7. Master Mason. Second Principal. that no further explanation is needed. which axe these — 1. Zeruhhahel. as to each is attached distinct signs and secrets. that to qualify a brother for permanent admission to memhership of the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter. 6. or preparation it is high rank. in defiance of the city of Clermont buU of Pope Clement XII. Entered Apprentice . the FeUow-Craffc.326 ILLtrSTEATIONS OF TBEEMASONET. Royal Arch. ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED EITE. 4. The history of the Ancient and Accepted Rite has already been so fully treated upon. station. Haggai. or First Principal. and. In the year 1753. besides the three ancient .. and tie Master Mason. 8. to which they gave the name of the Chapter of Clermont. All that is distinctly known of this society or its teaching is. 3. The exact date at which it was formed is uncertain. the brethren of that College founded a Masonic Lodge. each all aiid the steps above enumerated must be taken . Notwitlistanding this. Joshua. or Past Master . a step. or 9. 5. Apprentice. CHAPTEE OE CIEEMONT. includingtlie Supreme Degree of tlie Holy Eoyal Areli. Past Now. they must. that." worthy of remark. we consider the Masonic fehric really to consist of nine : degrees. PeUowMaster Craft. in the common acceptation of the word." Hence. as well as the denunciation of the King of Prance. we give it the next place in rajik. in the Jesuit CoUege of the in France. although our nomenclature may differ from that adopted hy our transatlantic brethren in the York Eite — ^in the number of degrees (nine) they correspond. or Third Principal . 2. if the word " degree '' be state.

aR the aUegories and symbols of which. the desired end Into this C!hapter fhe &inoiis Baron Hnnde. pointed to the establishment of an univeisal dominion. with some other Templars . Scotch Master. and Professed Knight. Templar. a Chapter of aU the Knights was held on St. the Grand Master of the Templars. was formed the nndens of the system which he introdnced into Grermany. according to Clavel. asserts. Pierre d'Anmont. they met as a Lodge of Freemasons. under the disg^uise of operative Masons. arrival Soon after their they were so fortunate as to discover one George Harris. of the Order was established at Old Aberdeen . Some of the degrees embody the practice of alchemy. Master Mason. is based . in 1754 and.Tiz. To avoid the persecution which still pursued their own body. STEICT OBSEETAKCE. with two Commanders and five Bjiights. Fellow-Craft. The of rite thixs narrates its origin. thongh a member of the Protestant &ith. and. and npon the Masonic in- stmction he there received. John's day. on the Order of the Tonights Templar. under the veil of Masonry. d^rees. and the ritual of the new degrees. 327 symbolic degrees. Gtrand Prior of Auvergne. scientific delusions. The Site of Strict Ohsereanee was founded in Germany by the Baron Hunde. The rite nevertheless attained con- . 1313. Fessler and aim of the Jesnit institntion. and other now obsolete pseudothis rite being We have no knowledge of now any where practised.TKE EITE8 01 rKEEMASOlTET. in this rite the Templar Order was diffused from Scotland to various parts of the Continent. contrived to gain admission. escaped from Prance. In 1361 the chief seat. £here were introdnced some of tke higher ones . Novice.: It comprises seven —Entered Apprentice. and Pierre d'Anmont was elected Grand Master. a Grand Commander. legend of the On the murder Jaqnes de Molay. and sought safety in Scot- land. that Order being tolerated at the period of the Templar persecution. magic.

Entered Secret Apprentice . Alchemy and magic were the stone. and that he should PeUow-Craft. Perfect . Prince of Clermont. lUustrious Elect 12. Master Mason . 11. which offset rite. Provincial Master of the Red Cross. and Knight of Light it the last degree was divided into five sections. Enight of Andrew. who was at that period the Grand Master of the Freemasons of France. Chief of the Twelve . Enight of the Eagle. The leading principle in this rite is to establish the connexion of the Knights Templar with Freemasonry. 9.328 - ILLUSTEATTONS OF FEEEMASONET. 6. Cla/oel says its members boasted that they had the elixir of life. but over For admission into this was imperative that the candidate should be a member of the Catholic Church of all Bome. Elect of Fifteen. Intend. The Site of Perfection. proof of foxmd in the schism that was created among its members. possession of the true philosopher's spirits. 3. have taken the degrees of the Rite of Strict Observance. ant of Buildings 8. 4. Scotch Master. which is siderable influence at one period . required seven years for comobjects of this rite. most of them being the same as those of the Ancient and Accepted Rite — 1." is The Chevalier de its estab- Bonneville said to have taken a prominent part in lishment. and consisted of twenty-five degrees.of and a method of discovering the hidden treasures of the Temple. rite "We have already referred to the denominated "Chapter of Clermont. Sovereign Ma^us. about the year 1753-56. It bore also the name of the Rite of Heredom. Intimate Secretary. the command . 2. and pletion. KITE OF PEEFECTION. The new rite had ten degrees : — Apprentice. 6. Elect of Nine 10. not only over the parent the whole brotherhood of Masons. . . FeUow-Craft Master. association it Order called the Clerks of Relaxed Observance. St. 7. : Master Mason. and resulted in an claimed pre-eminence. Provost and Judge . to do honour to Louis of Bourbon. African Brother. Master.

Grand Pontiff. 17. In the historical part of the lecture in this rite we are told that the Masons who were employed . in constructing the first Temple acquired immortal honour established and the world-wide feme of Their scrupulousness in that stately edifice caused the Order to become more uniformly and regulated than before. Knight of the East and West. Sovereign . an advocate tised in that city. 22. as those adopted same by Marchot. 13. and the Kadosh the twenty-eighth degree. Grand Patriarch. and possibly will be seen that the in existence. admitting new members into the Order brought it to a high degree of respect of candidates. Ulustrions Knight Commander of the Black and White Eagle lime Commander of the Eoyal Secret. Grand Master of the Key of Masonry . 21. 19. The Frimitive Scotch Site was founded on the Rite of Perfection. and dispersed themselves among the neighbouring kingdoms. 14 Grand Elect Perfect Ancient Knight of the Sword 16. Prince of Libanns 23. 20. rite. 25. Royal Arek.THE BITES or rEEEMASONET. There are thirty-three degrees in . Grand Knight. 15. 329 Master . but at Namnr. Eose-Croix Knight. Tribes. Sub- This rite was in practice is still a few years since in Paris. —m. Modem Rite was established by the Grand . 18. instructing all who applied and were found worthy in the sub- lime degrees of ancient Craft Masonry. It names of some of the degrees which differ from the first formation of the Ancient and Accepted Bite are the by the Supreme Council in England. Chief of the Grand Consistory . Prince Adept. and is said still to be prac- we cannot learn that it was adopted in ^^tl^s any other place. FEENCH The French or EITE.erit alone being regarded in the admission With these principles instilled into their minds. Prince of Jerusalem . 24. and they are similar to the Scotch Rite is but in this the Eose-Croix the twenty-second. Most ZUnstrions Sovereign Prince of Masonry. . many of the Grand Elect left the Temple after its dedication.

ajid decorated with various Masonic attributes pedestal. the presiding Grand (Very and the brethren are Sublinie Masters. or Second Order of Eose-Croix. and many sombre and awe-inspiring emblems. in three groups of its nine each it represents the Temple completed. wine. The Sixth is called Degree also requires three chambers the . The. by twenty-seven lights. brethren appear covered. and for the purpose of simplifying the system. having upon is the com. is the second of which most elaborately ftimished . the Council Chamber.. Fellow- Master Mason. The lesson. and oU . being hung with black drapery. to preserve the high degrees . or Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted which the practice is the Rite. and by a table. is a triangular on which is is placed the cubical stone it in the centre of it the chamber a column. Elect. Knight of the East. and described —in somewhat inconsistent terms — as being . Orient of Prance about the year 1786. viz. to seven. The peculiar signs and secrets of the two first symbolical de- grees under this rite are in reverse of those adopted by the Grand Lodge. and all the the members Venerable Masters. Entered Apprentice. The Fifth Degree requires also three chambers. the second. The whole Lodge is illuminated . In the Fourth Degree there are three chambers — ^ihe Room of Preparation. in the east . and in the north a sacrificial altar. or Third Order of Rose-Croix.330 ILLTISTEATIONS OE EEEEMASONET. or First Order of Eose-Croix. inculcated in this degree is intended forcibly to imprint on the mind of its recipient the certainty with which punishment will foUow crime. which HaU is of the East. displaying In the Third Degree the Lodge has a very solemn appearance. represents the council of Cyrus at Babylon. Master is designated Tris Sespectable (Very Worshipfol). or rae plv^ ultra. the number was reduced Craft. and the Eose-Croix. lime . in same as in our own Grand Lodge. Scotch Order. and the Cavern. officer is The Lodge !Prh is denominated SubGreat). and appearance is most gorgeous. of IVance. In this degree the passwords correspond with those of our Royal Arch installation.

and requires is many Behind the throne the captives/' a transparency. is among The room Sovereign Master represents Cyrus. the chief the Prophet. Grand Philosopliiqtie. The the ruins of Jerusalem. and in.THE BITES OF FEEEMASONBT. we are land and Belgium. in bis " Cours entirely astronomical. and illuminated by ten groups of candles of seven each. known. slightly differing called the Ancient Seformed Site. ^ is Bagon. officers. in which he received the injunction. . and having at length arrived he perceives the Masons re- at the last. : the second his final restoration. of water green. and told. but first to have been divided into two classes in the of which was represented the fill of man from virtue and happiness. is precisely - The Seventh Degree. Apprentice Cohen. Fellow-Craft Cohen. from the preceding. by whom it was introduced into the Lodges of Bordeaux. It consisted of nine degrees Entered Apprentice. Marseilles. seven principal hnxghts. crossed by two swords. 331 and other lights.*' says the syiDbolism of this rite This is erroneous. The Mite of Elected Cohens. Master Mason. or western chamber. now practised in Hol- ELECTED COHElfS. Master Cohen. representing the vision of Oyrns. in passing from the second to the third chamher. as the first six degrees have all reference to the Old Testament history. the Rose-Croix. is A rite. " Kestore liherty to The candidate. has to cross a bridge of timber over a stream choked with corpses and rubbish . posii^ hung with red. our own Eighteenth Degree *. bordered with green the sash. or Priests. The decoration is green. Eellow-Craft. Grand Elect. composed of that piince. it is and said Of its principles very little is . Daniel The badge is is of white satin. In the centre is the representation of the ruined Temple. Toulouse. was founded some time between 1754 and 1760 by Martinez Faschalis. being identical with the Ancient and Accepted Rite. worn from left to right . the jewel is the triple triangle. OflScer.

embodying ten degrees three degrees followed the Pirst Temple. —Grand PaIn the were ritual Key of Masonry. Clavel tells us this rite for a short was rather popular among the litterateurs of Paris time. a disciple of PaschaUs. Architect. This lite had twenty-five degrees. the first nineteen being the same as the Ancient and Accepted Eite. Martin. C01JNCII." asserts that this is the parent of the Ancient and Accepted Eite. most likely perished when the Continental Lodges were closed. the members of which at assumed the of "Sovereign Prince Masters. Martin. about 1758. John of Jerusalem. year in which it was formed. or Mardnism. was instituted hy the Marquis de St. during the panic produced by the French Revo- lution. the others being triarch. or EMPEEOES OF THE EAST AND WEST. This It was first brought out at Lyons. at Berlin in the same year. Substitutes General of the Eoyal Art. Knight of the Sun. the degrees and their adopted by the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes in Berlin. and Knight Kadosh. MAETINISM. in this novelty two classes. some time —of whose system first it was said to he a reform. The Rite of after St. Noachite. Martin. established. ILLTTSTEATIONS OF PEEEMASONET.332 Architect. in first Under Paris. . as it after the was termed by De Grand St. Elect. Knight of Palestine. Grand Superintendents and Officers of the Grrand and Sovereign Lodge of St. There were . comprising those of Ancient Master." Eagori. this pompous name was titles an authoritative body. in his " Orthodoxie Mofonniqtie. The degrees of the Second Temple were Prince of Jerusalem. and Prince of the Eoyal Secret. which was established by Frederick II. but it has now ceased to exist. Prince of Lebanon. and Kniglit Conmiaiider. but in of Prance all time extended to the principal rite cities and Germany. and Master of the Secret. Kadosh.

or Sublime Masters of the Luminous Sing^' the ohject of the contriver heing to instruct adopted hy the Grand Lodge in 1776. exist. Eagle or Itose-Croix. or IJodge of JPerfect Union. and for a time extended to other classes. and the third class. The FMlosopMs Scotch Site was estahUshed in Paris. Pleece. and Some few years previously a Mason named Pemetti founded a rite. Rose-Croix . and 3. and then gave This name above which CJlavel says is still practised in Prance. to which he gave the name of " Sermetic. The Ancient and Accepted Eite has superseded the this rite in Prance 833 practice of and Grermany. 5. the three degrees of ancient Craft Masonry being necessary pre-requisites. and preparing the elixir of Pemetti had for a pupil a physidan named Boileau. and Perfect Master . 2. was the name given to a rite adopted in a Lodge at Eennes in Prance. Master Elect. Elect of Pifteen. Minor Architect. 7. It was divided into three first class which contained fourteen degrees. 10. the Enight Adept and Elect of Truth. Grand Architect. Knight of the Sun . who did away with the alchemy. This rite has ceased to PHILOSOPHIC SCOTCH EITE. . hut also in the art of transmuting metals life. 8. Grand In- . 4. has twelve degrees. divided into three parts Phoenix . Perfect Initiate. and made this reformed rite the rite. it more purely Masonic. Enight of the .THE EITES or FEEEMASONET. the second. "Knight of the East. affixed to it. not only in the higher degrees of Masonry. though they do not form a part of the rite. the com- prising the Entered Apprentice. the Elect of Nine. Pree- mason . Elect of Truth. 6.- Master. Enight of the Argonauts Enight of the Golden 11. Knight of Lis 9. Second Architect. his disciples. Knight of the Black . The degrees are — 1. ELECT OP TETITH. Grand Lispector. Pellow-Craft. cities.

the . either by the Prophet Ezekiel or Daniel. Previously. and thus prepared mingKng with the celestial beings. and the other of vice conducting to misery. as evidence of their brotherly love and of their means of mutual recognition. were circle. . Sublime Master of the this rite was. asserting.334 spector. figure The point within a of twelve sides. thus. and learn- ing from the inscription that a brother had been there sick and . travelled into Chaldea and Egypt. that . in pursuit of knowledge. Lummous Ring. the one of virtue leading to happiness. on which he had traced some enigmatical characters. to his death. and that "his mysteries were the most perfect approximation to the original science of Freemasonry which could be accomplished revelation. he directed a tablet. the following travelling in a distant country. fell incident sick : —A Pythagorean and died at a public inn. perceived the tablet. the triple triangle was an emblem of and the letter Y a representation of the course of human in which there were two diverging paths. essence of light and truth the square referred to the Diyine mind for . the right angle was an emblem of morality and justice . the cube was the symbol of the mind of man after it had been purified by acts of piety and devotion. being unable to compensate the landlord for the kindness and attention with which he had been treated. symbols of the universe health life." by a philosopher bereft of the aid of JambHcus relates. 12. the equilateral triangle was a symbol of God. Some time after another disciple of Pythagoras passed that way. to be exposed on the public road. Pythagoras. the Hebrews. The doctrine taught ia Freemasonry was founded hy Pythagoras and the lectures consisted of an explanation of the philosophy trines and peouHar doc- of the Samian sage. that the symhols he adopted in his secret instruction were chiefly derived from geometry . however. Grrand Scotcli Mason . and the dodecahedron or . and is said to have been instructed in the sacred lore of Dr. for instance. ILLUSTEATIONS OF I'EEEMASONEX. Oliver asserts that he was initiated into the Jewish system of Preemasonry.

The temple contained the three symbolic degrees in the second It was divided into two temples. to Masonry. KITE OF PHUiAIETHES. which was a compound of the reveries of Swedenboi^ and Paschalis. having eleven degrees. Esquire. Secrets. The ritual object of the institution was historical research. The Site of tTue PhilaletJies. Cosmopolitan Brother. 335 in distress. had an perfect extensive Kbrary. a. Christian Philosopher. They emulated and decorous of Greece in their simple banquets. Soldier. AFEICAlf AECHITECTS. about the year 1775. and that he had been treated -with Mndness. keeper of the royal treasury. and some are of value. first . and the was not confined chivalry. but contained allusions to the mysteries of Christianily. and was of first adopted in the Lodge It consisted of Amis Iteunis at Paris. with the sum of fifty ducats. is said to have been invented by Salvalette de Langes. The some years annually of these documents decreed a gold medal. and to the pursuits of alchemy and Ragon for the tells us that the society possessed a large this "a mansion Grand Chapter of the Order. temple were —Apprentice of Egyptian Secrets. with the sanction of Frederick II. or Searchers after truth. their assemblies they read essays and communicated the the philosophers results of their researches. for the best . . museum In of natural history. whose society for meaning was sublime but concealed. he stopped and reimbursed the innkeeper for his trouble and expense. Prussian The Order of African Architects was established by a named Baucherren. memoir on the history of Masonry many have been published. and much affected sententious apothegms. Master of Egyptian Knight.THE KITES OF rBEEWAflOySY. at which instructive discourses were delivered. and chemical laboratory. Initiate in the Egyptian Secrets.

Essay on the Anti-papal Spirit of Secret Societies. which consists in applying positive science to one of his rather incomprehensible rules runs thus . and produced a great numall.336 ILIiTJSTEATIONS OF viz. hearing this name was recently made ILLUMINATI OF AVIGNON. Rose-Croix. somewhere ahout the year 1760. Master. ceased to rite' An attempt to revive a in London. Sublime Philosopher. hy Pernetti (who was a Benedictine monk). Swedenhorg. Initiated. practised in said that this rite Rosetti. in which he broached some novel and ingenious theories. It is Blue Brother. Elect. in his " is still some Lodges in Sweden. and Ked Brother. : FEEEMASONET. six grades of Appren- Pellow-Craft. and Philalethes. TCnrght of the Temple." asserts that an expert Mason would find much of the institution of Freemasonry in the . Master. twelve degrees. Master Theosophite. the Lodge of At the Amis SSunis was and the rite. able to discover we ourselves have not been any thing to show that Swedenhorg was a Freeyeai's of his life. one of for instance. and it Very little is known of might have been forgotten but for the Marquis de Thom6. the institution. writings of Swedenhorg but excepting some principles general to Christians as well as Masons. The Uluminati of Avignon was a species of Masonry inter- mingled with the reveries of Swedenhorg. rite. Scotoli —^Apprentice. mason. taking up the system that had been adopted in the Avignon Lodge. death of the founder of the dissolved exist. and the Baron Gahrianca. Knight of the East. in 1783. Pellow-Craft. Illuminated Theosophite. a Polish nobleman. Unknown Philosopher. . and from it framing what is now known as swbdenboeg's eitb. for fifty-eight devoted himself to the cultivation of science. not having extended further. The Site of Swedenhorg had the tice. or Searcher after Truth. ber of works.

nevertheless. Its promulgator. 3. but his theological labours. To discharge with 2. arid of his employment. because they are of the devil and from the deviL done by 4. The tenets inculcated in his writings and adopted are by his followers — 1. in England. laid He was a most me- man. precisely as the lines and forms of geometry. 2. That evil actions ought not to be done. and down these rules for the guidance of his of God. That having feith consists in believing in Him. with additions from the Swedenborgian. ^1. operating in him and by is all him. was the chief physician to Q . and combining also several selections from the Scotch and other rites. the United thodical life : States. because Gtod. 5. There is one God: that there is in Him 3. and always to keep the conscience clear. resulted in the establishment of a new church. KITE OF ZINWEKDOEFF. it This very good. 4. designated by his name. and that He is the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Count Zinnendorff. To observe in every thing a propriety of behaviour. as of himself.." scientific labours are forgotten. under the belief that they are from the Lord. but reveries we are led to suppose that was Swedenborg's concerning angels and celestial visions that were transformed into the rites we have alluded to — and with these Masonry can have no connexion. Sweden. Often to read and meditate upon the Word To submit every thing to the will of Divine Providence. 337 —" The begmiiiiig of nature is the same as the beginning of arise geometry: thus natural particles from mathematical His points. and Giermany. a Divine Trinity. and the duties of his to render himself in all things usefiil to society. or life. which occu- pied the latter part of his sect. — fidelity the ftmctions office. That good actions ought to be done. The Site of Zinnendorff" was a modification of the Dluminism of Avignon. andthis^ is because every thing in nature geometric. they are of Gtod and from And that they should he man himself.THE EITE8 OF FEEEMASOKET.

rite Novelties charm the gay and versatile French. Strict The Reformed Rite was an emendation of the " Rite of Observance. contains the Scotch Apprentice. and comprises. or Eed Masonry. Clavel says. the first of which is entitled St. EEFOEMED HELVETIC EITE. 2." rejecting the connexion which the latter rite had with the Biights Templar . the Emperor Charles VI. to be in practice in France and Switzerland. under Ferdinand." M. the three sections of the last were named — ^Novice. Martin's system was merged in this . adopted the Eeformed Eite. The rite had what were were but as the last had three sections.338 ILLrSTEATIONS OP rEEBMASONET. The system 1. and Elected Brother. The Grand Orient of Poland adopted . EEPOEMED EITB. Scotch Master. 3. Master. consisted of seven degrees. Duke of Brunswick. John's Masonry. by Brother Glayre. and Eellow-Craft. assuming in the first instance the title of the " Order of Charitable Knights of the Holy Cily. and Clavel says. and the Clavel further states it soon spread over the country. divided into three sections. embraces the Favourite of St. in the year 1782. the Lodges that had adopted Martinism. King of Poland). name. and Knight. John. called Capitular Masonry. that several alterations its were made in the and hence the addition to it. the Provincial Grand Master of this rite in Switzerland. Master Mason. and was established by an assembly of Masons who met at WUhelmsbad. Fellow-Craft . while the third. to the The Reformed Selvetic Rite was the name given preceding rite. Entered Apprentice. there really seven in all: Apprentice. when introduced into Poland in 1784. The second section. who had been rite. called five degrees. Professed Brother. de St. Charitable Kriight of the Holy City . and the Scotch Master . of Lausanne (minister of state to Stanislaus. Fellow-Craft.

Perfect Master. and are peculiar to tbia rite the others correspond with those of the same name in the Ancient and Accepted Rite. of which. which was an offshoot of the "Hermetic Eite" of Pernetti. Scotch Master. Boilean. Rose-Croix Knight. in Prance. rite established in Prance The exact date of its rise. Knight of the Argonauts. It consisted of twelve degrees." at Berlin. are degrees —^Entered Minor Architect or Scotch Apprentice. declined. and Knight of the Golden . seventh. . ABOmEAMITE. a. The Apprentice. four ninth — —the sixth. Grand Master of the Grand Lodge " Royal Tort of Friendship. six degrees This rite had beyond the three symbolic degrees of ancient Craft essential for admission.THE BITES OF EEEEMASONET. Masonry. TETJE MASONS. and Prussian Knight. and the name of its founder. Elect of Perignan. It is well known that during the panic created by the French Revolution. Masonry. AdonircmiUe JUasonry was shortly before the Revolution. Fellow-Craft. Grand Architect or Scotch Fellow-Craft. as well as most other beneficent institutions. Master Mason. in 1778. The degrees were —The True Mason Fleece. and difficulty only met occasionally under circumstances of great but so soon as order was restored and Masonry began to revive. which were but not practised. we are unable to learn. He Q 2 . 339 The Order of the True Masons. . . Knight of the East. eighth. was formed at Montpelier. FESSLES'S EITB. and the Lodges were generally dosed. revised the statutes and regu- lated the proceedings of the Lodges under his jurisdiction. Elect of Nine. Professor Fessler. by Pemetti's pupil. The True Mason in the Eight Way Knight of the Golden Key Knight of the Rainbow.

Celebration. was abandoned with the intention of bringing here remark. Holy of Holies. Knight was of the Passage. of all was the most learned and It philosophical the degrees in Masonry." abstrusely Strict Observance. degrees for this rite Crafb. nine also created. which axe divided into cabalistic .340 IILrSTEATIONS 01' I'EEEMASONET. It was established in recog- continued in some Lodges in Paris at the present time. philosophic." Clavel says. and Perfection. The names of the degrees. najned Ananiah. or perhaps more properly speaMng. they wfere^—Entered Apprentice. England. and in each series are seventeen classes. that degrees in Prussia are the Ancient York Eite into unison with the Constitutions of We may not passed through with the same rapidity as in some other countries —twelve months at least being requisite between each of the symboho degrees. PellowJustification. It consists of ninety degrees. The it ritual drawn from the " Golden Eose-Croix. selected. but the Grand Orient of Prance has never nized it. and is Scotch Bite then organized in Supreme Council of the MUan. four series —symbolic. EITE OF MIZEAIM." while the fifty-second profane designation of in the somewhat "Supreme Commander of the Stars!" rejoices At the fifty-fifth and fifty-sixth the comic element predominates they are the "Washer and Bellows-blower!" Many of the . and was said to have been brought It is said that its founders were into the from Egypt by a learned philosopher of that country. some Masons who had been refused admission Prance in 1814. we MUan. in this more than any other of the prove that the founders must have and sorely tested their inventive faculties. in 1805. mystical. They appear indeed to have been driven to their wit's end. Fatherland. for the forty-ninth fiftieth bear the very expressive titles of " Chaos the Pirst and Second." the " and the " Chapter of Clermont. Master. believe at The Rite of Mizraim was first promulgated in Italy. . and rites.

" Brother Oliver says. under the title of "De I'Ordre Ma^onnique de said to have Mizraim. whose son Jubal. reported to have been slain by three traitors.." three ancient symbolic degrees are under the control of the Grand Lodge. TTalriTna. and with a view of applying a remedy. thus annihilating the 'Strict Obser- vance ' of Baron Hunde. Grand Master of Germany. B. in 1835 published an elaborate work.'' as our account of these varied rites shows. Marc Bedarride. but allowing that the rite may have One in many degrees an eminently philosophical character. A. " covered pure Masonry with disgrace . The legend is substituted for that admitted by all the other rites." from which we learn that the legend of the Third Degree is abolished in tbia rite. entered into a n^otiation with the Prince of Hesse Darmstadt. after the completion of the Temple. The Site of the Grrand Lodge of the Three Globes of Berlin. and to have passed the remainder of his days in peace and opulence. 341 degrees pretend to be founded upon and borrowed from the rites of andent Egypt. (about 1775. it is altogether too complicated and diffused ever to be practised. carried back to the days of Lamech. Lord Petre. who The Grand Lodge at Berlin body corporate. H. under is the name of Hario-Jubal-Abi. Hagava. In his " Historical Landmarks. but also to a very great extent throughout Germany. " At this time. is returned to his fcmily. —are is governed by the Internal appointed by the Supreme Lodge. This compact was further confirmed erected the by the into a "K'iTig of Prussia. but the higher degrees seven only being practised Orient.THE EITES OF TBEEMASONET.) the increasing innovations. the "Rnglisb Grand Master (from 1772 to 1777). exponent of its principles. of its chiefe. which resulted in a mutual compact being formed. which confirmed to the Grand Lodge at Berlin the sole authority in Grermany. which council Grand This rite is not exclusively practised in Prussia. q3 . and Haremda ! GEAITD LODGE OF BEBLIIT.

Initiate (this is . Master. 2. John. its Master. Adept (this is the Master) . Knight Guard same — or Levite of the Interior ^these last degrees are called the Covenant. Master of the East. At what say. and is the Eose-Croix of the 7. Scotch Rite. degrees that follow — 1. Fellow-Craft Adept. of the Scotch . 8. Knight of Nine) 6. Clavel. or symbolic degrees essential to its whether they are included in the fanciful names of the degrees adopted. Esquire of Benevolence 4. Listening Apprentice . (endeavouring to disguise re-organized. eight in number. — John ^these they call the House of Initiation. we are unable to learn. it was and the degrees. Heart. Master of the Black Eagle of St. 5. three The Fersicm Philosophic Rite was formed in France about It -was not much encouraged.342 iLLrsTEATioirs or teeemasokex. Adept of the (the Elected East (the Illustrious Elected of Fifteen of the Scotch Bite) 5. period the rite of the Order of the Temple was formed. were thus named (this is : 1. Architect of all 3. 2. are The degrees and were evidently borrowed : from Bite. originally as follow —^Apprentice. ceased to exist. Esquire . from whom we its gather our account.) 3. Knight of tie Philosophy of the 6. and whether the members. as our author says evident Masonic origin). and are the Rite. and Perfect Master of the Pelican. Knight of the Sun Eites. 7. THE TEMPLE. Grand Adept of the Black Eagle of St. Initiate of the Interior the P. the year 1819. Master. PEESIAN EITE. as the Knight K.C. Knigit of Eclecticism and of Truth. and has now Little is known were of its ritual. Yenerable Grand Elect.H. 4. Postulant of the Orders (Perfect Adept of the Pelican) — this is called the House of Postulance. : It consisted of the seven .) . Eellow-Craft But in 1808. Good Shepherd . does not for the institution but it appears that members claim the Scotch a regular descent from the Knights Templar. EA.

what was pretended to be a new institution. iiom. which he ia- must notice the — tended to be conferred only on the principal dignitaries of the Masonic institution in bis dominions. the Gterman " mops^' signifies a young maKtifij is intended to indicate the mutual fidelity and attachment of the brethren teristic — ^those virtues being charac- of the noble a-TiiTnal. we Order of Charles 'XTT an order of knighthood instituted by the King of Sweden in 1811. in truth. Masons. ^id was composed of ninety-one d^rees. nothing else than Free- masonry under a less offensive appellation. by Brothers J. formed. the ^iiig decrees : —" To give In the manifesto estab(the it. properly. which name. OBDEB OP CHAEIBS Although. THE MOPSES. to this Masonic) society a proof of our gracious sentiments towards we will and ordain. The 2£opses. yet fearfdl of offending the eodesiastical authority. A. Marconis and E.THE BITES OP PEEEMASOITET. lishing the Order. This Order originated in the fi>Ilowing maimer. that its first dignitaries. Several brethren in the Catholic States of Giermany. still." all The number of Tonights in the Order is twenty-seven. in future. The ^ite of Memphis was to Marseilles and Brussels. mark be decorated with the shall be for most intimate proof of our confidence. Moutet. under the above name. It was patronized Q 4 . condenming and forbidding the practice of the rites of Masonry. A. in 1839. number which we may determine. it does 343 YTT - not directly l)ear upon the gnlject we liave in liand. unwilling to renounce the Order. and which them a distinctive of the highest dignity. established in Paris. but which was. to the shall. devoted to the papal hierarchy. In 1738. and the King of Sweden is the perpetual Grand Master. in 1740. and extended itself It is said to have been a variation of the Site of Mizraim. BITB OP SEEJfPHIS. Pope C3ement XEL issued a bull. as a solitary instance of the honours paid to distiTignisIied Masons by a sovereign in modem times.

or that practised The Swedish Bite. and many of the princes of the empire were its Grand Masters. during the second centuries of the Christian era. distinction between the In order to preserve a marked Eoyal Order and Craft Masonry. The King of Grand established the Eoyal Grand Lodge of Heredom at Kilwinning. The historical tradition that after the dis- solution of the Templar Order. these were the Masons. Dr. for the sake of the Masons who formed a part of his troops. declined during the sixteenth and seventeenth and this Order was in abeyance until the middle of the last century. which are believed to have been introduced principal seat by the Culdees. reserving to himself and his successors the office Master. the first was an order of knighthood con- ferred on the field of Bannookbum. 1314. OEDEE OF HEEEDOM AND EOST hy King Robert Bruce said to have heen founded at EHwinTiing. After the battle of Bannookbum. the King created the Order of St. when its fnnctions were resumed at Edinburgh. THE EOTAI. and greatly contributed to gain the victory of Bannookbum . on the 24th of June. was at LCohn-Kill. we believe. Andrew of the Thistle. and is given only to those who. to which was afterwards united that of Heredom. it is said. affiliation. The Eosy which in French was termed the Grade de la tradition being that it Tov/r. by the sanction of the . This Order is. the former confined itself entirely to the two degrees of Heredom and Eosy Cross. but appears to have been connected with some ceremonies of the early Christians. several of the Knights placed themselves under the protection of Bruce.d4i4 ILLUSTEATIONS OE FEEEMASONET. Oliver says. whose and third Cross. for whom he instituted the Order of Heredom. Masons. which had formed a Grand Lodge in that city in 1736. entirely confined to Scotland. AH Masonry centuries. CE088. illustrious persons in by the most Germany. is honorary. by exaltation or are registered in the books of the Grand Chapter of Eoyal Arch relates. the Heredom was not originally Masonic.

and besides the three degrees of ancient Craft Masonry. and was made a cardinal shortly before. Grand Lodge of Sweden.THB EITES or FEEEMASOlfET. Dignitary of the Chapter . magic. wMcli. " Whereunto shaU we liken the kingdom of God «5 . who. they devoted themselves." was instituted in Grermany in 1739. assuming as their object the reformation of intellectoalman. as a religions house of brotherhood. Pavoniite Brother of Solomon . Andrew Brother . and his restoration to his primitive rank of purity and perfection. operative The Freres Pontiveg were a community of and speculative Masons. rites. name denotes. the fifth of we are told. Favourite Brother of St. that the community existed as late as 1590 John de Medicis. Apprentice and PeUow-Craft of St. The degrees are Stuart —Apprentice. had many others containing a mixture of alchemy. The degrees were selected and were chiefly of a philosophical character. Master. or " THE OEDEB OF MTTSTAED SEED. Andrew. established themselves at Avignon. as the construction and repair of stone bridges. where our Lord said. It was first practised in a Lodge at Sarreburg. Andrew. 34)5 consists of twelve degrees. Member the CSiBipter Master. is said to be still THE from other PErstrrrvE kite of KAEBOinnB was established in that city in 1780. at the close of the twelfth century . to the It is on record. and Reigning Grand soheoedeb's ettb. . WMte Fellow- Craft. or Violet Ribbon . may perhaps have been a son of Cosmo. wbich practised at Hamburgh. and theosophy. who died 1562. or Favourite Brother of St. . confers npon its possessor the rank of nobility in the state. who was Master in 1560. Duke of Florence. The Fraternity of Moravian Brothers of the Order of were founded on the parable in St. Its mysteries Mark's gospel. was invented by a person of that name. Reli- gious Freemasons. John. . Ribbon of Master of St.

346 or with ILLirSTEATIONS OP rEEEMASONRX. what comparison shall of mustaid seed. Knight of the Cihristian Mark and Guard . for the defence of his person. while Soheuchzer describes and represents a species of the plant several feet high. as it will be conferred said readily seen. Holy Cross. which. of the mustard tree occasioned cites much a passage from the Talmud. in which a mustard tree said to have been possessed of branches sufficiently large to cover a tent. It is now disused. ." : herbs. COTTlfCIL It is said in OF THE TEIlflTT. " No one lives for himself. The jewel of the order. I. The jewel is a triangular . as a Masonic grade. of the Conclave Knight of the Holy Sepulchre Illustrious Order of the and III. all Christian degrees. when we compare it ? It it is sown in the : is like a grain earth. Conductor. was a cross of gold surmounted by a mustard plant. and shooteth so that the fowls of the air may lodge under and Lightfoot is The description which our Lord has given conjecture. of II. is less it is than all the seeds that be in the earth but when all sown. Eeoorder." ZlflGHT OF MAITA. was an appendant to that of the Knights Templar. (who authorized the distin- guishing attire of the Knights to be a red tunic with a white cross). and I. Mackay's Lexicon to be an independent Ma- sonic jurisdiction. in which are conferred the degrees. and beoometh greater than out great branches the shadow of it. suspended from a green ribbon. The ritual is composed from passages in the books of Ezekiel and Jeremiah. "What was it before? Nothing!" The brethren wore a ring on which was inscribed. and possessing a tree-like appearance. Treasurer. body of Knights of and Guard. and in this country never existed as a separate degree. John. only on Knights Templar. it groweth up. The Holy and Thrice They are. selecting for the purpose a St. Senior and Junior Knights. The officers axe an Invincible Knight. This degree is to have been organized by Pope Alexander IV. with the words.

Upon the loss of the Holy Land they took refuge in Perugia." and succeeded in securing the protection of the Prince of Anhaldt- BembuTg. on her visit to Jerusalem. High Priest. bahedt's bite. G within St. a five-pointed II. form. the Old Man. the government was vested in the Three Chiefs.d. and that the accolade is bestowed with the sword of Godfrey de Bouillon. under the name of " German Union. 326. with Holy The presiding officer in America is called the Eight Eeverend Prelate. King. Posa. In the old ceremonial of the Soyal Arch in Sngland. a Lutheran mi- Germany. Helena. with the letter . the mother of C!on- when. we presume. the Enights of the Holy Sepulchre were eminent for their valour.. The whole ceremonial has reference to death. This degree was instituted by stantine. The had six degrees. It was for a short time highly patronized and exceedingly popular. and this form his spurs. viz. first officer. and afterwards were incorporated with the Enights of Rhodes. the presence of nine Priests EOSAIC EITE was the name given by nister in its institutor. q6 . During the war of the Cmsades. is the governing coundL Order of Migh JPriestliood. At the close of the last century Balirdt opened a tiie Lodge at Halle in Saxony. An as honorary degree was confer one on the conferred on the retiring we now Past First PrincipaL When the High ritual was performed in ample was required. the Man.THE EITES OF FEEEMASOITET." 1 1 - — — is preserved in the United States. a. in his "Visits to the Mountains in the is still Levant. We have no information a£ to the ritual or practice." says. but was superseded by the Rite of Strict Observance. This. ' 347 star. M. plate of gold. Curzon. and Prophet. is preserved in the sacristy of the Church of the Sepulchre. and the rite co-operation of-twenty persons of rank. she is said to have discovered the true cross. which. the Youth. but of noble birthi Bomaa Catholics by the superior of the ^Franciscan College. " The order conferred only on continued in Jerusalem.

" Though this order is of ancient date. Lodge of the State. but permitted any of the higher degrees. Hence Eclectic Masonry only acknowledged the three symbolic any Lodge to select at its option degrees. however. as the degrees he reprobated are in high estimation. For some years it was faintly encouraged. was of brief duration. it received the patronage of several exalted Masonic characters. et Chevalih-es we believe. but after its merit had been flirtber investi- gated. and the Superior. the Diocesan. the regular establish- ment of such an association in England. The Grand Chapter is governed by a Grand Patron. struction. established order or rite which he called Eclectic object the abolition of the an Masonry. It is clear the Baron did not succeed in his endeavours. by Brother Preston) in 1787. In the year 1784 a secret society of both sexes its was framed on Its the model of Freemasonry . ENIflHTS . organized It was a school of and the in- upon a peculiar plan. He says. previously to this period. with a Council of Twelve Companions. in 1783. and the sections into clauses. and nothing is heard now of his system. The Gtrand the Mesopolyte. two Vice-Patrons. and two Assistants. there appears not on record. under the title of Chevaliers existence.348 iiLrsTEATiONS or ieeemasonet. and had been patronized in different parts of Europe. a Chief Ruler or Harod. lectures were Its teaching divided into sections.AlfD LADIES OF THE DOVE. GEAND CHAPTEE OF HAEODIM. so named is continued in the United States existence in BuErland can be Ko record of its . an institution revived (it is supposed. dissolved the fraternity. A Masonic degree of America. meetings were held at Tersailles de la Colomhe. embodied the whole art of Masonry. provided they did not interfere with the uniformity of the first three." KNIGHT OP THE EBD CEOSS. at Frankfort The Baron de Knigge. having for its high grades or philosophical degrees.

it doubt one of the many degrees united under that of the is similar Knights Templar. the Grand Master At this period the Knights. As a reward for the valour displayed by these Knights. 349 was no and if it ever was conferred in this country. headed by Raymond Berenger. and the river dyed with their blood. de Chau- .THE KITES OF FEKEMASOITEtI traced. We frill are told it can be conferred by any Master Mason who is is possessed of its secrets on another. KIQGHT OF THE lEKDITEKBASEAlI PASS was an honorary degree conferred on Knights Templar Knights of Malta. but were compelled at last to retire btjfore the superior force of the Sultan of Egypt. or Ithodes as then called. KNIGHTS AlTD imiPHS OF THE EOSE was an order of Adoptive or Androgynous Masonry. nearly 200 years before the Knights of St. the Moslems being entirely routed. teenth The legend to that of the Kf- D^ree of the Ancient and Accepted Site. they had granted to them tree permission to pass and repass at every port in the Mediterranean in possession of the Christians. the degree relates thait this The legend of event occurred in 1367. the Knights succeeded in obtaining a complete victory. they were attacked by a very superior force of Turks. a ritual for the performance of the though seldom used. under the old said to have originated constitution. John. notwithstanding the disparity of numbers. with a large naval force attacked the Ottoman corsairs in the Mediterranean and chased them into the port of Alexandria. while crossing the river Offanto (the ancient Aufidus). as is The degree from the following circnmstanee. KOTGHT OF CONSTANTTNOPLE IS a side degree invented in America. In an excureion of the Knights of Malta into the kingdom of Naples. obtained Malta. but there degree. invented towards the close of the eighteenth century by M. However.

When a candidate was to be initiated. " What is your age ?" and the this the candidate has. hood- winked. Duo . The former initiated men." The and opinions on matters of gallantry are further probed. and having seek- answered these questions was asked. the man being styled the Hierophant." The interrogatory then proceeds a little further. The men was called Sentiment. if a male. which are called "the chains of love. The only known was in Paris It the place of meeting was Temple of Love. where admission was demanded knocks.'' The candidates were then conducted to the mysterious groves in . the chains axe removed and replaced by After garlands of flowers." some other probationary administered : exercises of a like character. " The age to love . "Happiness. and being satisfactory. and loaded with chains. " What are you now ing?" to answer was. on which were embroidered two devices within a myrtle wreath. was ornamented with garlands of There were two presid- and hnng round with escutcheons. ing officers. and conducted to the door of the Temple of Love. One dull taper was the only light during the initiation . condition in society." the female. the female the High Priestess. may the pleasures. and should I shall receive fail in this my vow. he or she was taken in charge by Sentiment or or Discretion. the Nymphs a crown of roses. by two When admitted and presented. the candidate was asked his or her name. divested of all weapons. mont. that of the women Discretion. tlie de Chaiiies. at the closing business the hall was illuminated by numerous wax candles. mysteries I add nothing to my and instead of the roses of happiness may I flnd nothing but thorns of repentance. money. The Hierophant and High Priestess Conductor Assistant of the wore in addition a rose-coloured scarf. the Masonic Secretary to establishment called the flowers. The KJiights wore a crown of myrtle. candidate's feelings all " The age to please and to he loved. the B is " I promise and swear by the Grand Master of the Universe never to reveal the secrets of the Order of the Eose. jewels. on which were painted various devices and scenes of gallantry. to reply. the latter women. country.350 ILLTJSTEATIONS 01' FEBEMASONET.

Lod^e. being brought to . All the information here given is gathered from Clavel. 351 the neigliboiirliood of the Temple of Love. Companion. placed at the foot of the Haerophant's throne. and Balba which signifies confusion. these are obligatory grades. and dnring the tiine there spent. —the others are called high High IVCstress and Sublime Scottish. Evb is the pass- word throughout. " Ma^onnique Picturesque. Sisters. The which are the Apprentice. These trials ended. and there incense is offered to Venus and her son Cupid: a hrief space spent there. after the subsidence of the waters of the deluge. and after some more ceremonies of a like character. (Babel). and with delicious music and in a brilliantly lighted apartment. and the dreadful punishment our mother on her posterity by giving way to is curiosily is the first lesson.THE BITES OF rEEEMASONET. the handage is removed from the novitiate's eyes. ADOPnVB MASONET. excited a desire in the breasts of some of the other sex to obtain a knowledge of the foundation of Freemasonry. Those who are admitted bear the appellation of Order contains five grades. . the novice is next conducted to the altar of mystery. John Brown. the of Edinburgh. the signs and secrets are communicated. the garden of Paradise. slow and delidons mnsic in march style is played. A Latin Lodgb was in 1784 organized title by Dr. It would appear that the perfection of character which their husbands had reached. sisters. with our Eve inflicted first parents and the tempter.'' BOMAlf EAGLB. The Masonry of Adoption is the term used in France for a system of Masonry for Women. not inappropriate to this mixture of brothers and The third degree embraces a vast portion of Scripture History. the whole of the events recorded in the book of Grenesis. under the of the It Soman Sagle whole ritual being in Latin. had a brief existence. and Mistress . are prominent illustrations. As we might expect.

The prominent vices of boti sexes are dilated on.352 view. Li Prance has been instituted an order for the Baptism of the sons of Masons. London during the present Noachite iu the Ancient and Accepted Bite." at Strasburg. we suppose because it tells unfavourably to the ladies. Their names imply that they have a reference to the salvation of Noah and They bore much similitude to the his family from the deluge. but in 1805 there was a revival. Joseph's adventures are related in the examination. 1785. " La Candeur. some novelty the Masonic institution. AEK DEGEEES. when first organized in Prance. but the part played by Potiphar's wife appears unaccountably to be omitted. The first Lodge. our continental brethren are ever at for work to contrive. and practice in Ark Mariners. Balls and banquets are inseparable from these being merely a pretext. were degrees in some century. associations. which has been also adopted by the Foyer Mofownique Lodge in New Orleans. even to a reference to the crimes which drew down the vengeance of the Most High on Sodom. Lot's wife not being forgotten. and they are no doubt the real design of the organization. and a Duchess acting as Grrand Mistress : in the same year the Duchess of Bourbon was installed as Grand Mistress. and the first opening of the proceedings occurred in . and the Empress Josephine presided over the "Lodge Lnp^riale d' Adoption des Prancs Chevaliers. MASONIC BAPTISM. the in- stitution was acknowledged by the Masonic authorities of the kingdom. II/LTJSTEATIOirS or rEEEMASONET. The Revolution of course checked this as well as other associations." was opened in Paris on the 11th of March. Although we have rites and ceremonies sufficient to task the powers of memory in the best constructed brain. the ceremonies We are told that. of course to read another lesson to the ladies on the evils of curiosity. a Marquis being the President. AtIc and Dove.

for this name. as to us. but known institution of the . in conjunction with a few other men of high position and intellectual attainments. a professor of canon law in the Universily of Ingolstadt. formed a secret society of a more extraordinary character than tion the modem times had ever known. Weishaupt himself by the opponents of his system. no secrets for satisfied. which it gives us pleasure to bestow on you. was to have been completely is said.TKE BIT£S Of FHESMASOITKY. in Bavaria." THE rLLUlONATI. you know her laws and be then dear sister. what you have seen and heard. To the mother is g^ven a gold alliance able characpteiistic ling with this injunction. About the year 1775 or 1776. M. ganized. and there great reason to doubt whether he or the society which he established deserved the bad character which has been attached to them. Freemasonry has been with the fireqnently accused of a connexion little much dreaded. 1859. the meagre accounts we have of bim have been written under the influence of is strong prejudice . and an in£deL that But little is known of this person . you . always remember Henceforth Masonry can have obligations . Of this associa- most extraordinary accounts have been given at various which the romantio element has combined with fiicts periods. We are told that the design all civil tution was to accomplish the overthrow of and religious government —the throne and society and the altar were equally destined to disor- annihilation. in malicious exaggeration to distort the few which are really of the insti- known concerning it. your fiiture steps in the Masonic temple . " May this ring recall to you. 353 The proceedings do not appear to have any very remarkThe Sponsors make promises of good order and moral oondnct. Adam Weishaupt. to have been an extreme political reformer. and the neophyte's left hand is dipped into the -water by the W. makes us feel that there cannot exist true &atemity and happiness unless accompanied by the presence of woman.

. Upon learning charges the political tenets taught in its assemblies. Events which oocuiTed in Prance during the fever of the Prench Revolution cannot be received in evidence. and in a short time his persuasive arguments induced enlist into the many Masons better to new Order. and it made rapid progress. and was introduced into Prance in 1787 feeling in Prance at this period the state of the public an institution like was favourable to the tenets of lUuminism. and the result was that the meetings were forbidden. betrayed principles. and tlie world at large all lias been led to believe that the Frenoli Kevolution. by means to get over the scruples of the more enlightened of his those who became By his adversaries it is said that. and the society extinguished in his dominions. The idea of connecting seen that the it first his institution with its Freemasonry did it will not exist in Weishaupt's mind at steps have formation.354 niuminati : ILIiUSTEATIOWS Or FEEEMASOITET. certainly no where has it specific union or connexion with our noble Order. as soon as the Masons witnessed the development of " high degrees. but seems that imagining that union with an ancient and_^honoured institution would be favourable to the promulgation of his scheme. It. however." they saw their error. to Although Professor Robison and others have endeavoured been established that there was ever any connect the niuminati with Preemasonry. and the horrors that followed. for be no Masonic bearing whatever . the result of conspiracies hatched under their tinited auspices. in a gi'eat degree. were. spread into other parts of Germany. who had left the society in disgust at witnessing its the disloyal and infidel precepts that were broached. He then contrived to interweave the three ancient their symboKc degrees with Tllnminism. and one and aU retreated while some. he became a member of a Lodge in Munich. the his followers. all socieiy and order having been overturned . the Elector of Bavaria ordered a judicial examination into the made against the Order.

free from the obstacles which society. and the causes of the Eevolutiou may at this day be traced. and which animates them by a great. and period of which we are treating. and speedy prospect of universal happiness. had at least the effect of flattering the national vanity diflferent but the wanton prodigality of Louis XV." Doctrines Certainly Freemasonry teaches nothing of this sort. even more alaT-miTig to the minds of those who reverence " the right divine for kings to _govem wrong. in a state of liberty. and the exhaustion of its resources. produced a result upon the national mind. although supported by the most oppressive works. money in profligate expenditure was firmly fixed in the and the corrupt system of government too deeply rooted to be easily eradicated. "inviting to Christians of every communion. the smouldering fire of public indignation was ready to break into flame. . rank. but to the deplorable corruption of the national morals. not to such institutions as the Uluminati. The habit of lavishing the public court.. bnt says he has contrived a system. and riches continually throw in our way. The young were opposed by the clergy and noblesse. whidi gradually frees them from all religious pr^udices. reform. and when Louis XVX. ascended the king's virtuous attempts at at the throne he succeeded to an empty treasury and a debt of four millions of livres. and that throngboat Giennany the Masonic Lodges were closed against its &nnder . 355 It is dear that the institution liad but its a very brief existence in the conntry of birth. his stupendous public edifices erected by him. indeed several dissolved themselves. a feasible.THE KITES OP PEBEMASOirET. and the pomp of his magnificent court. in that oonvnlsion. and therefore quieter times. The wastefol wars of Louis XTV. the splendid taxation. they mnst remain closed "Weishaapt himself in recommending his scheme. speaks disparagingly of all Masonry. as it was said Lodges might by possibility till barbonr conspirators." were promulgated in Prance.

or Princes . A work entitled Essai sii/r la Secte des Ill/mmnds. lesser and greater '' styled " Priests the lesser comprehended the degrees and " Eegents. however. which were subdivided into the following: degrees. who saw on public plunder were approaching to an end." Between these symbolic two classes were afterwards interwoven the three degrees of Masonry. and the pretended disclosures which were therein made increased the prevailing excitement. appears to bear the slightest resemblance to symbolic Masonry. its initiated for the paxt they It has been said that lUuminism found way into Britain. The niuminati. made its appearance in the year 1788 . this was divided into two degrees. Eluminatus Major. and the " Areopagites. designated the Brother Inquisitor. Accounts of an institution holding tenets like those attributed to the IllimiinSs would naturally increase the alarm of the every hand signs that their days of upper classes. says our author. no paxt of had two their system. class In the second were attained the mysteries. whose office was to make proselytes. lesser The sect classes. with those of Scotch Novice and Scotch Prom the last class were chosen the "elect. it is quite possible that Illuminism is wrongly judged. altogether from Lodges. and to prepare the minds of the newly were intended to act. which was published anony- mously. their first class containing Novices. tions of the sect depended in every degree on the tact of one single brother. As all we know of the institution is derived from hostile writers. but has since been ascertained to have been the production of the Marquis de Luchet. is but the statement is without foundation. and there no record of any one of our countrymen having embraced its principles." The operaKnight. lUuminatus Minor .S56 ILLTISTEATIONS OP rEEEMABONET. began by excluding the their New Testament." who were the supreme council." in the greater are : comprehended those of " Magus " and " Eex. from hig account. . and every reference to Christianity.

OuE traditional listory Scripture. SOLOMON'S TEMPLE. tlie tabernacle of the Lord. are terms often used .a designation intended to intimate that splendonr and magnificence were not intended its construction. the palace of Most Sigh. a description of the building and situation is essential to obtaining even a general notion of this remarkable structuie. the Tifmse sources. as though he "worshipped there. On every floweiy-smlptured capital." lectures have As the ceremonies and many allusions its to the Temple." its . "Behold the Temple In nndisturhed and lone serenity. Lingers upon the gilded cedar roofs And down the long and branching porticoes. and Lord of lords. The following account is drawn fircm the historical books of the Old Testament and other trustworthy Temple. ascribes the fonndation of Ereemasoiiiy to the tuildiiig of Eing Solomon's Temple. tlte sanctuary. THE HOUSE OF GOD WHICH SOLOMON BUILT AT JBEUSALEM. OE. as it is called in "the palace of Jeiovah. Finding itself a solemn sanctuary In the profound of heaven It stands before ns mount of snow fretted with golden pinnacles The very sun. Grlitters the homage of his parting beams. tJie of Ood." ! A MiLMAN.CHAPTER XXI. to reflect honour on those engaged in fit hnt only is that it should be rendered a dwelling for Him who the " TTing of kings. or.

" The Old Testament in many places refers to the extent of their cities. . applied himself to collect great quantities of gold. but fit the Lord did not think that he should execute his purpose. Tyre called " the great city. like The honour was reserved in war. who had shed much blood and other materials peaceable prince. however. on the contrary. iron. and especially in that brilliant dye and those rich fabrics of art which gave them their name. could not properly be said to have had a temple. in the time of David. but also buildings. or describe the tabernacle speaking. by the tabernacle of the Lord. of the tabernacle. they The sanctuary was but one part temple. copper. for Solomon. neither does the word temple . as a people in possession. silver. and the dazzling decorations of thrones. and not David. The Heto describe brews. nor tabernacle the temple. the Tyrians. iron. that prince began to realize his design of preparing a temple for the Lord. as.358 ILLUSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASOTfET. and awakened the songs of poets as they gazed on the sumptuous beauty of court dresses. that might be something worthy of his divine majesty. his however laudable. He opened his mind on this subject to the prophet Nathan. for this undertaJring. strictly synonymously in Scripture. son and successor. commerce and the wealth of their They traded in timber. After the Lord had instructed David that Jerusalem was the place He had chosen. for aid. arts of and the ascendancy he had gained greatly favoured the peace and the blessings of civilized society. Of this people. glass. yet they did not scruple by the word temple the tabernacle. they sometimes. men capable of constructing The flourishing state of the Phoenicians at the time of David indicates the growth of ages. thougt. In the book of Joshua. He looked to his neighbours. tin. in which to fix his dwelling. import very distinct things. brass. Hiram was king. is 600 years before Solomon's time. not only of architectural skiU. before Solomon. who was to be a David. his country was at rest. expressed the temple built by Solomon. When David thought of the temple.

and that can skUl to grave with the cunning men that are with me in Judah and in . even so deal with me. appear in King of l^e. it is supposed. and in and in and in purple. and crimson. and whom we are accustomed to designate TTiram Abif (an appellative said to sellor or mean his coun- head workman). of Kapthali . saying. in exchange for the services of his men.Solomon's temple. At this period there lived at the court of Tyre an artificer of great celebrity. seeing the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain hiTTi p who am I then. save me now therefore a and in brass. " As and didst send to give liim TiiTn thon didst deal with David cedars to bnild my father. " Behold. his mother being of the tribe of Dan. to him. according to some accounts. This is an ordinance for great : ever to IsraeL is And the all house which I bnild is for great our God above But who is able to build bim an house. he sent Tiiin an embassy We learn that Solomon sent to Hnram (in Kings he is called Tfiram. and blue. n. him an honse to dwell therein. and in the answer of TTiT-aTn^ one of the oldest letters on record in the world. and on the solemn feasts of the Lord our gods. in which he assents to Solomon's reqnest. The preliminary arrangements which Solomon made his message to the to carry ont the great undertaMng on which he had set his heart. and on the new moons.) Solomon agrees com. and to bum before him sweet incense. Giod. and whose name was the same as that of his royal master. on the sabbaths. or. The two anointed 359 soTereigns formed an alliance on the basis of mntaal TTiTitTn advants^. and as soon as of congratulation. and the materials he required. This TTiVaTn was a widow's son. that I should build sacrifice before only to bum him? Send silver. I build an house to the name of the Lord to dedicate it my God. him an house. heard that Solomon had been Mng in the room of his father. and for the continual shewbread. his father." wine. being a native of Tyre. 3. in Chronicles Hnram). and for the burnt offerings morning and evening. and oil (2 CJhron. man iron. cunning to work in gold.

my me servants shaJl be -with : thy servants. as him send unto his much as thou by sea to need: and . twenty thou- sand measures of beaten wheat. that made heaven and who and hath given to David the king a wise son. endued with prudence and understanding.360 ILLirSTEATIONS OV I'EEBMASONET. for the Tyrian coast. endued with son of a And now I have sent a cunning understanding. and with the cunning father. blue. and in crimson also to grave any manner of graving. and men the wine. Blessed earth. which servants fihalt my lord hath will cut spoken of. skiUul to work in gold. be the Lord Huram said moreover. felled. with thy and to find out every device which shall cunning men. and twenty thousand baths of wine. and in fine Unen. -whom David cedar trees. of my lord David thy and the barley. even prepare timber in abundance for the house which I am about to build shall be wonderful great. also and alguin out of Lebanon for I to know that thy servants can skill to cut timher in Lebanon and. and rafts have passed the Phoenician of Carmel . and rounded the promontory all and artisans and cunning workmen of needful . trees. woman of the daughters of Dan. and in in brass. my father did provide. and cedar trees are fleet Ancient Joppa is in motion. man. let and we wood out it it of Lebanon. and twenty thousand measures of barley. Jerusalem. Stones are hewed. Send me : . and twenty thou- sand baths of oil. in purple. Because the Lord hath loved his people. God of Israel. up to Jerusalem.'' The Tens of thousands are busy in the mountains of Lebanon. in stone. he hath made thee king over them. the and his father was a silver. of Huram my father's. in . And. we wiU bring to thee in flotes Joppa and thou shalt carry result soon appears. man of Tyre. the oU. fir trees. that might build an house an house for his for the Lord. and in timber. behold. Now : therefore the wheat. in iron. kingdom. which he sent to Solomon. the hewers that cut timber. behold. I will give to thy servants. " Then Huram the king of Tyre answered in writing. be put to him.

having occupied B . ti:mpj>b. have at this —about idols. altars. only several of them were larger. God was built much in the same form The as the taber- nacle. or side. was unequal and its sides irregular. and should they land safely jonmey of nearly forty miles. The place chosen for erecting this magnificent structure was Mount Moriali. viz. and it was finished a.. allowing. originally. as is commonly done. it secret was surrounded by a wall of feet excellent stone 25 or 47 7 inches high. but it was an object of ambition with the efiected. formed a square of 500 cubits. to prevent the possibility of pollution graves .soiomof's faafts. all empires. Almost the whole of was arched from under-: ground. they will find themselves and their burdens near the hallowed spot where they will be employed to aid a more sublime to object than Phcenician ever thought of. and it this structure laid by the same Divine Architect as that of the tabernacle. This they and during the 304 yards to second temple. save among the Israelites. this magnificent e-iifice The foundations of were laid by Solomon in the year of the world 2992. 'will 361 employ their skill. which was gardens. utensils for the sacred service were also the same as those used in the tabernacle. The plan and the whole model of Himself. Jews to on each level and extend it it. a thousand years before Christ —temples. with their magnificent resources. and but the true and living Glod has no place. in the religions and worship of the world. without which lay a con- siderable extent of flat occupied by the buildings of the tower of Antonia. and was public walks. and the materials on wMcli they will soon be tossing amid tiie snrf that here rolls -violently in after a from the great sea. 21"888 inches this space the cubit. 3000.m. but was of much larger dimensions. and gentiy sloping ground. in proportion to the more spacious edifice to which they belonged. and cubits. and in the neighbouring territory Tyrians shall hear the voice of Him whom Baal Sastem time and Astarte are an insult and an abomination. the summit of which.

to the back of the porch on the other side. 8). 4). These wei'e called side chambers. which comprised the portico. vii. as famish such an account as may be deemed satisfactory to the their descrip- reader. 10). But what may seem singular that the lowest of these stories was 5 cubits broad on the . stood towards the west. Hence we find no two writers agreeing in The following account may be : sufScient to give us a general idea of the buUdiag The temple cubits (1 itself was 70 cubits long . Prom the descriptions which are handed it is to us of the temple of Solomon. or all around the edifice. of Olives. formed only a small part of the sacred edifice. each 5 cubits high (1 to the wall of the is. 3001. from the back of the porch side.) side. and most holy was 20 and the height over the holy and most holy places was 30 cubits (1 Kings vi. utterly impossible to obtain so accurate an idea of to its relative parts and their respective proportions. 3). v. To the north and on the one south sides. seven years and six montlis in tte It was dedicated A. iii. certain buildings were attached. tions. and consisted of three stories. and the (2 Chron.M. the sanctuary. 'btiilding. and the holy of holies. the porch being 10 Kings vi. itself. and other apartments. iii. or four times the height of the rest of the building. which were sive much more down than the temple itself. and joined temple without.362 IlLrSTEATIONS OP I'EEEMASOHET. Kings vi. but the height of the porch was much greater. exten- chambers. most holy place 20 cubits porch. The front or entrance was on the eastern and consequently feeing prospect of the the Mount . 2). holy. therefore. iii. these being surrounded by spacious courts. who condescended tion of his glory. with peculiar solemnity. to the temple to make it the place for the special manifesta- (2 Chron. 3). being no less than 120 cubits (2 Chron. the holy place 40 cubits (ver. to the worship of Jehovah. strictly The temple so called. which commanded a noble building the holy of holies. places. and the west end of the holy and most holy places. vi. The width of the cubits (2 Chron. 17).

4). had always a scarcement of a cubit at the height of every 5 cubits.Solomon's temple. above these. 6). The most natctral approach to this was by the east which was the principal gate of the temple.. prevent the joists of these side chambers from being &zed in Thus the three stories of side chambers. against which they leaned. of which above two-thirds lay to the south of the temple. not to proceed ferther on pain of death. women by a wall three cubits high. The reason of this was. which was called the court of the OeTitiles. for the purpose of supplying those sacrifices who came from a B 2 distance (Matt. and consequently reached exactly to half the height of the side walls. gate. or 14 English acres. 29 poles. was not on a level with the court of which we are speaking. and the third 7 cubits. 363 the second 6 cubits. for the (ver. and end of the temple. to it. 13). as well as over This wall. the ascent to which was by 12 steps. the court of the lattice it. were 15 cubits high. 12. xxi. and such as were undean. for which we know not how to account. when taken together. 1 rood. to warn strangers. Tn noticing the several courts of the temple. It was by fer the laj^est of all the courts pertaining to the sacred building. . so that persons walking here might see through it.991 superficial cubits. and yet the outer wall of them all was upright (ver. windows which diflPers gave light to the temple Josephus very materially jBrom this in his description. of work. On pillars placed at equal distances in this wall were inscriptions in Greek and Latin. we naturally begin with the outer one. but was cut out of the rook 6 cubits above it. and 13 yards. and comprised a space of 188. and into which persons of all nations were permitted to enter. It was from with this court that our Saviour drove the persons who had established a cattle-market. however. floor. It was separated fiom. so that there was abundance of space. but by supposing that he has confounded the Scripture account of Solomon's temple with that of the temple after the captivity and of Herod. that the wall of the temple.

or covered walks. cov/rt The of the women. There were two rooms more. with galleries above them. Acts iii. sides were of the same dimensions. The gate which the Gentiles. 11) was on the east side or front of the temple. XX. all because the folding-doors. one on each side. court of Israel. court. its having four gates. unless brought a sacrifice. 1 — 20. whence could be seen what was passing in the great different purposes (Ezek. The court was 135 cubits square. related in John viii. It was into this court. In the first the . upon a high wall of 400 cubits from the valley of Kedron. and sideitself posts. lintel. lepers purified themselves after they were healed in the second the wood for the sacrifices was laid up the Nazarites prepared their oblations. and also thirteen treasure chests. which was paid were laid up. and on three of sides were piazzas. It was in women. not because none but women were when they from that of permitted to enter but because it was their appointed place of worship. and was so called heoause it was built by this prince. 21). 2. were overlaid with Corinthian brass. appropriated to — . 21 At the four corners of this court were four rooms.364 ILLTJSTEATIONS OF FEEEMASONEX. mentioned Acts iii. 23. 24). xlvi. that our Saviour delivered his striking discourse to the Jews. Those on the east. west. two of which were for yearly by every of sacriiices called Israelite. much The porch called Solomon's (John x. with which this court was surrounded. in which case they went forward to the led into this court. the outer cov/rt (Ezek. where the Levites' musical instnimentB the half-shekel. and shaved their heads. . called in Scripture the new court (2 Chron. cmd it. and the piazzas. We must not overlook tlie beautiful pavement of variegated and north marble. xlvi. and the rest for the money for the purchase this court of the and other oblations. hut that on the south was larger. 5). and in the oil for fowrth the wiae and also the sacrifices were kept. so called. beyond which they might not go. in the third. was so designated by the Jews. was the hea/utiful gate of the temple. the treasury.

This gate is spoken of under several appellations in the Old Testament. and into which the lame man followed Peter and John after he was cored. by taking Gentiles within the sacred fence (Acts xxL 26. of a semicircular form. It . that as the rock on which the temple stood always became higher on advancing westward. priest. when they judged him a violator of the temple. and his cleansing com- was here they tried the suspected wife. the several courts naturally became elevated in proportion. The whole length of pleted. Peter delivered that sermon which converted five thousand. at the fest of Expiation. This was divided into two one of which was the court of the Israelites. court of the It was in the same women that the Jews laid hold of Paul. where he had been lying. on which it is by some thought that the Levites stood and sung the " Psalms of degrees " (cxx. that 365 10 — 13). and the breadth from north to south.). From thence. a wall 32| cubits high on that but on the other The reason of which difference was. by TtiakJTig her drink of the bitter water and it was here likewise that women appeared after childbirth. the Pharisee and publican went to pray (Luke xviii. women by only 25. also. and the parts . into the court of the Gentiles. through the beautiful gate of the temple. The former was a kind B 3 of a . the court of the women being the ordinary place of worship for those who brought no sacrifice (Acts iii. — at the feast of Tabernacles. The court of Israel was separated from the court of the side. 8). the court from east to west was 187 cubits. other the court of the priests. where. but in the time of our It Saviour it was known as the gate Nicanor. on the sabbatical year. &c. In <^biR court the high read a portion of the law. for purification. after prayers. he went back with them. to have his atonement made. under the eastern piazza. or Solomon's porch. and through the sacred fence. Here also the king.Solomon's temple. did the same at the feast of Tabernacles. cxxxiv. was here the leper stood. The ascent into the court was by a flight of 15 steps.). 135 cubits.

piazza surrounding the latter. each of which had its particular name and use. Jacldn and Boaz. according as the slain sacrifices on the north rule. had 13 with chambers above them. and through the place where the priests stood. that although the court of the priests was not accessible to all Israelites. Of the dimensions of this. and was raised from which piazza. and in the sight of stood in the courts immediately before it. but ordinarily by the north or were to be general. The space which was comprised in the court of the priests was 165 cubits long. xlvi. it 2^ cubits above the surrounding comi^ was separated by the piUars which supported the railing and the which was placed between them (2 Kings xi. which are enumerated in 2 Chron. xl. in which the priests washed. two pUlars. which led into the sacred porch. And then their entrance was not by the east gate. also and the ten brazen lavers. that or south sides of the altar. In was a they never returned from this court by the same 9). to lay their ofiered. 8. or to kill might enter it on three several hands on the animals which they them. as also of the sanctuary and holy of holies. it south side of the court.3C6 ILLrSTEATI0N3 OF PEEEMASONET. yet they occasions. Within this court stood the brazen altar on which the sacrifices were consumed. ficing. ment of these remarkable pillars especially demands our . each half a cubit in height. viz. were placed Ezek. 49). 10). for washing the the various utensfls and instruments for sacriiv. We was within the door of the porch. The consummate art displayed in the fabrication and enrichnotice. gates. we have that it already spoken. those who that the iii. shall therefore only observe here. as that of Israel was to all the priests. It is necessary to observe here. (2 Chron. door that they entered (Exod. priests the ascent to the temple From the court of the was by a flight of 12 steps. and 119 cubits wide. sacrifices. or to waive some part of them.. the molten sea. 17. under wliioli the Israelites stood whUe It their sacrifices were burning in the court of the priests.

crowned the head of each piUar as it rose in majesty before this holy house. the capital of five The whole height. 367 The compfler of the hooks of Kings says that TTiranij who was "filled with wisdom and understanding to work all works of brass. predominating to such a degree that the whole it. whUe the says that " he Chron. two hundred pomegranates. while the two of 18 cubits each mentioned in the former book would be together 36 cnbits the difference of half a. palm-trees. There have been various mystical specular it is tions about these pillars and their names.Solomon's tempi^. walls of the temple were covered with fir and cedar . They were adorned with a considerable work. as the marginal interpretation — reads . made two pillars of thirty-five cubits high " (2 The explanation here is not very donbtftiL The Chronicles speak of both the pillars. beautified the " All was cedar. offering to the (ver. and "he set up the right piUar. and he up the these left pillar. cubits. according to would be 35 or 4D depth of lily feet. The latter. in several rows. cubit in a column of that height might be swallowed up in the chapiter or base. had doors of olive-tree. or it may be otherwise rendered JBoaz. and called the najne thereof dispute. the holy place . . and called the name thereof JacMn. Soaz" Although names have occasioned much . and on the projecting part of the capital there were. 15). it shall stand. adding different authorities. ornaments. 32) carvings of chenibims.'' oast for Solomon "two pillars of brass eighteen cnbits writer of the Chronicles high apiece " (1 TCings vii. in strength. with other beautifiJ. and open powers curtain suspended a by gold rings and chains veiled the interior B 4 . together form a kind of sentence. it A partition separated the from eye . stabiLity is the ftmdamental idea they embody the two names Jachin. which not necessary here to enter into. These pillars Solomon ordered to be placed in the porch of the set temple . was said to be covered with stone seen " (1 Kings vi. the however. there was no Carvings of plants and flowers oracle woodwork. iiL 15). 18). which.

Here the tabernacle. The conception. gaze of mortal. The two They were as and there was a square17^ from feet. 15). The light of the holy place . were ten derived from the seventy lights of for it appears there which must mean that given in Exod. In Exod. . some of the Assyrian figures. in height and length. was wholly. often called the golden altar. belonging to the temple were of olive-wood. The whole temple of which we have been accounts given in the history baffle all treating was over- laid with gold in a style of extraordinary magnificence. we find the command given that two were to be made of pure colossal as gold. The small engravings matter. indicating the care with which the heavenly powers watch over God's covenant and law. Near the entrance of the oracle was placed the also. can we. as in altar of incense. and spread a canvas of the appropriate size before the imagination. suspect the writers of exaggeration. ness about them. before the oracle. or mainly. in view of the statement that Solomon made gold and silver at Jerusalem as plentifdl as stones (2 Chrou. Nor. we are accustomed to see deceive us in this We must strive to paint it on the mind's eye in order to conceive of it correctly. on each side of the the thus making with the central light Five of these were placed on the number we have named. each covering a space of 10 cubits. as some seem disposed to do. xxv. and overshadow the mercy-seat. and over tlie central point of its myste- rious depth the wings of cherubims met. "When the reader has occupied himself with only a small part of the details. and five right. and the table of shewbread. meeting and iiUing (ver.368 from tlie ILLTISTEATIONS OF PBEEMASOWET. side to side must have had a very imposing appearance. and therefore having three branches to their form. i. XXV. were the golden candlesticks with seven branches.. he finds himself bewildered with their richness and variety." them made "according shaft. 27). on the left. their fore The two thus rising either 15 or having and hind wings extending over an equal portion of the it breadth of the chamber.

three months. a. that although the materials were prepared so &r oS. after having stood. every thing having been cnt and framed in the quarries or on Mount Lebanon. "without the hammer of contention. or the 23rd of October in the year 2999. 26. 25. and was at length utterly destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. to Jerusalem. where they were fitted in by means o£ wooden mauls. or 1012 years before the Christian in little sponding with the 21st day of April. and was completed more than seven years. xiL 9). So of Freemasonry it has always been the boast. Egypt it (1 TTiTig^ xiv. the axe of division. king of 2 Chron. After this period underwent sundry pro&nations and pillages. or oilier metallic tool was heard.m. The tenrple thus described retained its pristine splendour but thirty-three years. on the 8th day of the month of Bnl. four hundred and twenty-four years. 3416. dnring which period no sonnd of axe. and brought. hammer. in the year of the world era. king of Babylon.SOLOMOIf'a TEMPLE. B. 588. that it appeared fitted more like the work of the Great Architect of the universe than of human hands. It is worthy of remark that the 369 bmldisg of King Solomon's Zif. and numbered. marked. according to TJsher. when it was plundered by Shishai. E 5 . when they with such were put together at Jerusalem each piece exactness. properly carved. and eight days. or any tool of mischiefi" craft in the days of our The excellency of the Grand Master TTiTaTn was so great. corre- temple was hegun on the 2nd day of the month of 2992. that its members perfect the work of edification by quiet and orderly methods.C.

amid the sound of trumpets and cymbals. In every clime adored.—THE DATES OE MASONRY. many Prom the time when God unto first announced his name to Moses at the burning bush. 9. it was the only name by which Although God had thus to pronounce it He was known to the Israelites. which prevented the people from hearing . By saint. 15).CHAPTER XXII. lest lie that heaieth it put thee to ON THE NAME. shame. Jehovah. iii.—THE AEMORIAIi BEARINGS OP THE ORDER." ^Pbov. Jove. it was considered unlawful except on the great day of atonement. or Lord. and by sage. xxv. " DJBCOTer not a secret to another. and also instances in the Psalms. by savage. declared his Name. . THE NAME. " Father op All. all my name for ever. and " This is said. when it was only uttered by the High Priest in the Holy of Holies. and this is my memorial generations " (Exod.—THE SACRED ELEMENTS OE CONSECRATION. in every age. — THE SYMBOLIC COLOURS OE EREEMASONRY. aLthongh in the is Hebrew thus in it it assumes different forms the more usual Jehovah appears in the Prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah." The English version of tlie Old Testament Scriptures invariably translates the name of God as The Lobb.

the self-sufficient (or aJl-bountifiil) . — Mr. this way it was that duriog the captivity the word was principle of The ftmdamental the True and Living God . In what sense. " I appeared. hence his Masomy is Name the knowledge of in varied form. appears in the entire system. the true pronunciation vowel sounds haviag to be supplied by the reader. The first Enos then the Lord was invoked under his Name Jehovah. It will be readily seen that as the Hebrew alphabet consists entirely of consonants. idols. There has been much written on this passage. the ance. and in the same chapter (Gen. then. coiild God assert to Moses that his ancestors had not known Him by his Name Jehovah ? his son ary. as symbolic of his attributes. 26) Seth called object of worship. viously if not pre- made acquainted with the correct pronunciation. but by was I not known to them " (Exod. my Name Jehovah Shaddai signifies signifies by the name of God Almighty (Al-Skaddai). 371 Tliis custom is supposed to liave arisen originally from a v?ish to prevent nations. Eve. which. and applied to the Supreme woman. as it stands in our translation. is taken to be a direct contra- diction to several instances in which this Name appears to have been known long before Moses. " unto Abralam.OH" it. the e 6 . appears to have designated the Deity by the Name Jehovah. and unto Jafiob. when she had " got her son Cain." says the Almighty. THE NAME. unto Isaac. Charles Taylor. offers culty. He who gives being and existence to others. Jehovah the Self-exiBtent. iv. In lost. vL 3). Jehovah is his ineffable and mysterious Name. becoming known to the surrounding and being by them blasphemously applied to their its In consequence of the people thus abstaining from its utterwas lost. in his English edition of Calmet's Dictionan elucidation which certainly clears away the diffi- The word used in the original is '/ly^U {nodati). he was of course unable to pronounce the word.

which had never before been revealed to man. of Scripture history referred Grod to teU says. Some learned Jews even doubt whether Jehovah be the true name of God." It must be borne it in mind also that the book of Genesis was to Moses. stands for the Jehovah this substitution has the sanction of the Septua- gint (the Greek translation. or " Lord. rmtil ultimately they forgot the true pronv/nciation. ILLTTSTEATIONS OF PEEEMASONET. and they say that this is one of the mysteries that will be . and concerning which it is not lawful for me to say more. but knowledge has various cites several instances of the different degrees of its accessories strength the verb and as orioa/re. in his account of the portion to. veU it from the profane Josephus. appropriate. that he might know how to invoke Him properly when he offered sacrifice." whence it has been inferred that the translators were not accus- tomed to pronounce the Name .372 root of degrees." is. Origen. and other early fathers of the Christian (Church. mention that ia their time the Jews wrote the Name in their copies of the Scriptures in Samaritan characters. "that Moses entreated him his Name. in order to inspection of strangers. to Tcnow . their respect for it led them from pronouncing it after the captivity. to which we may add. century). and he suggests that the proper by my name Jehovah was I not appropriate . written after God had revealed his Name who may have used by anticipation. made at Alexandria in the third it which commonly renders by Kvpios. Jerome. It is certain that the Jews associated much mysto abstain tery with the Name. It is to be observed that when it in our translation the word Iced occurs of the origiual : in capital letters. that they it were probably unwilling to communicate what they knew of to strangers. wMch and he is J/T. full perception. the latter meaning being " but that most frequently employed rendering to them. whereupon God declared to him his Name. which they consider to have been irrecoverably lost . obtain in the Old Testament.

that Se mho is. CdUgnla. in consequence of which the true vowels were lost. which has is." on one of the lE^yplian temples was The heathen had names of dare to pronounce. was preserved and by the Essenes. swears to him and his associates by " the 111 — God who was to them of unpronounceable Name. disciples of The Mohammed name Hu or Hon. attribute all and enabled him to perform his miracles . that while component parts were known. " By Hiin who has the four letters . Hebrew by a Boman emperor. transmitted The pronunciation of the Name. a mystery. connected whole still remained The modem Jews say the wonderful works of it was engraved on the rod of Moses.'' and Husehius verses. earth would have trembled had any one pronounced them. . in FMlo.on THE HAME. "Thou "I AM. (a-d. it is said. it Without further remarks on the incommunicable Name. almost the same signification as Jehovah." and P)." The very heathen seem to have had some knowledge of this great inefible Name we have an oath in Pythagoras's golden . inscribed. or four-lettered name " the sacred letters the shuddering Name of God ." art. and they J^us Christ to the potency of this incommunicable Name. 320) says that on the fiwntispiece of a temple at Delphi was inscribed. and in such a form. of deities (De Natura their gods which they did not and JDucan says the Cicero produces an example in his catalt^e Deomm. revealed only at the coming of the Messiali. which they say He stole out of the Temple and wore about Him. who always communicated it to its its each other in a whisper. 373 They attrihuts this loss to the sinfiil habit of applying the Masoretic points to 80 sacred a name. because he had been heard to pronounce the Holy Name with They even relate the l^end of a celebrated scholar whom Grod pfflmitted to be burnt these points {Oliver). use the lib. iiL). Josephoi calls the Tetragrammaton.

Hallelujah: —God my Lord. ia it it forms no verb. " he erected there an altar. and who was. always existing. the Dominator. which they never pronounce. El Shadbai spake. yet plural form. and Adonai. does not admit an article or take an placed in a state of construction with other words —^though neither other words may be in construction with it. or. &o. xi. 4 . of being.374 ILLirSTEATIOirS of rEEEMASOITET. the El Shaddai generally translated God of Israel. and nTT. the in praise the Lord. is Elohi. to ascend. whence the word Eternal appears to express its import . the Lord. and would seem to be second the only to Name Jehovah. that is. —" He is who is. or the manifestation of that power on its relative subjects. which also enters into the formation of many Hebrew appellations. nification of Land gives the sig- Adon. the Lord. God Almighty. the most firm or most strong. although it it signifies may not the state. xxxiii. no where is it said. as that Name imports the essential bemg'oi the Divinity. so Elohim seems to import the power inherent in Deity." It is abbreviated in the form of H'. Eloha. Elohim. it is said to be derived from Ul^if. or sit in the highest place . be amiss to remiad tie reader that. J^ah. 20) when Jacob came to Shalem from Padan-aram. they are deKvered in the Name of Jehovah or Elohim . and in this view it is Sigh. Hence it may be assumed . and who come. We are told (Gen. it never assumes a affix. Job more frei[uently uses it synonymous with (]V^^) Most than any other of the sacred Adonai {Lord). 17. It is in this form the Name appears in the Mosaic account of the creation of the world . or Alehim. and called it El-elohe-Israel " is —that is. is to i. eadstmg. as it is well rendered in Rev. writers. and wherever the messages of the prophets or other commissioned ambassadors of the Most High appear. as Adonijah. another form of Name dignity of the Supreme Being. This word is by the Jews substituted for that of Jehovah. It seems to be a compound of n\ i^e essence.

He was fond of for his hunting. changed biyn into the flower called anemone. as it as El GrBAl." Adonis was the same deity with the Syrian Tomvmuz. sing praises to his his be sung in the procession of the ark from the house of Obed- edom name to . The and feile originated with the Phoenicians. the Master-builder. from whence Greece. crohius (a. was transferred to Urquhart mentions one name of God among the Hebrews is curious. whose festival was celebrated by the Jews when they degenerated into idolatry (see EzeMel viii. it assumed among the Greeks the tri-literal form. although bi-literal among the Hebrews. 4£)0) says this was the sacred Name of the Supreme Deity . In the Greek mythology. it is presumed to iave teen used among strangers. after shedding many tears death. boar. to express 375 most powerful. and the Clavian Oracle. in that noble Psalm (68th) which begins with the well-known exordium on the removal of the ark . Adonis was the son of Cinyras. being asked which of the gods . and in the chase was mortally wounded by a wild The goddess of beauty. it is concluded it was composed by David in order to God." It extol biTn that rideth rejoice before upon the heavens by is name JAH. When the Jews first adopted this form but as it it is difficult has a Greek resemblance. Payne Knight "Adonis or Adonai was an oriental title of the sun signifying Lord. Mount Zion . This proves that the men of Gebal were beyond all others famed for their to their city as a token of their skill. —" Sing unto him. and his beauty captivated Venus. Jah is the Syriac form of the name of Jehovah . 14). as lAQ. it appears but once in the Sacred Scriptures.d. was carried to Egypt. by his daughter Myrrha. to ascertain . or the name was given pre-eminence in architecture. says. S. it there identified in Osiris. and supposed that this form as the tri-literal was well known among the GcentUe nations Name God for.ON THE NAME. Jfoof .

in Timmus. who ruleth over Beltts was the name by which the Deity was inown . Baal or Bel. in allusion fell to the idolatrous worship into which the IsraeUtes when they came into contact with surrounding nations. An ancient memorial of this god of the heathens Selins-gate. but it is most generally agreed that creative power. Syrians. is retained in the name of our great fish-market. and not- withstanding the spread and estabKshment of Christianity through so many ages. to be observed that . Philo Biblius. says the Phoenicians called the sun Beel-samun. says. Herodian says that some caU the same deity call Belin. some traces of it still remain ia the fires lighted on the 1st of May in the north of England." worshipped by the Egyptians. Apollo which others The worship of Bel. of Seaven." the Great God Supreme. in fact the whole system may be properly said to be a It is science of the name of the Most High. or Belinius was general throughout the British Islands. Plato. On was the Name by which Jehovah was and never knew beginning. others that it was the Tyrian Hercules it . It appears frequently in the Old Testament. was the name God worshipped by the Phoeniciajis and CSialdeans. to the Assyrians and Babylonians in Chaldee it assumes the form Bel. from Sanchoniatho. Some have supposed it was the same as the Saturn of Greece of the and Eome. Belus. which On may considered as the equivalent for as Jah was among The the Jehovah among the Egyptians. ruler. replied. "Tell IS me Thus of the God be On. Learn then that lAQ all. Lord.376 was lAil. which in their language signifies the Lord. "The initiated are bound to is conceal the mysterious secrets. names of ineffable degrees record a great variety of the God . and in Ireland on the 24th of June. that great was the Sun as the symbol of over the luminary being adored all East. signifying governor. ILLTJSTEATIONS Or FEEEMASOWET. and Bel among the Clialdees.

and oil in your processions. in silence. refer to its rites in the Veda. and to come. "Wherefore. or the science of the it. away hut that which created beings. St. in a discourse delivered in aid of a charitable institution." Thessalonians. present. .s I vmrd. but life. says. Sir_ William Jones says. " They pretend that God is the . ohlations to fire. the same awe and reverence for the unutterable 377 is Name to "be found in the doctrines and ceremonies of other nations as well as the Jews '. or our epistle. in the pilgrimage of human you are to "All pure beings. and solemn is sacrifices. and Mohammed . with the genii who are at the command of the who instruct them . tinne. and that word AM. you that. brethren. were created by the . speaking of The Mohammedans have a science name of God and says. thence called aishwra. and that it places the winds and seasons at their disposaL" THE SACEED ELEMENTS OF COlfSBCEATIOlf. : that consequently it discovers none but Mohammedans can attain passes in different countries that that what and it familiarizes the possessors initiated." Zenda Vesta. the key it . stand &st. Niehuhr. and bold tbe have been tangbt." The peculiar efScaqy as an omnific word. the Lord of In the Brahminical literal rites the name was bestowed in this tri- form on the aspirant at the completion of his it initiation. past. Padl to the The Eev. do to remind 1 Harris. Ism Allah. wbetber by word.THE SACBED EI^MENTB OF CONSECEATIOIT." passes not away the syllable aitm. " The name of God forms a mystical He^ institutes of word which never meditates on it escapes from the lips of a pious Hindoo. since it is the symbol of God. my you carry com. Brother Thaddeus Mason brethren. lock of this science. traditions "wbicb ye " Therefore. by whispering called in his ear. —"All pass Menu .

" which his specific directions were given (Eiod. Freemasons' Lodges. wiiTE. which demonstrates the wisdom.878 llirSTEATIONS 01' rEEEMASONET. is strewed with com. mentions "wine that maketh glad the heart of and bread which strengtheneth man. Aaron and two sons were anointed and consecrated to the priesthood. impart a portion of your bread to feed the hungry. tiquity. The own land at their coronation are consecrated with an holy ters. 23). or a 104th the corn is carried in a cornucopia (or oil golden dish. Prom the earliest ages. as representing the Holy Ark of the Covenant. to send a cup of your wine to cheer the sorrowful. symbolically termed the Most High. and their adoption Being all is supported by the highest an- the most important productions of eastern countries. in that most magnificent composition. in devoting any place or thing to religious purposes. ixi. in the enumeration of his blessings. the wine and in silver ewers. . and Boyal Arch Chap- which are emblems of the Ark and Temples dedicated to and the Tracing Board. and oU. as constituting the wealth of the people. properly horn of plenty). and OIL are the Masonic elements of consecration. the Tabernacle in the wilderness and holy vessels were consecrated with " an for the preparation of holy anointing oil. as also his providential care. Por these purposes. prophets of the Hebrew nation were sovereigns of our all alike Kings and consecrated. the Psalm. or affliction rent in the hearts of your feUow" trayeHers ? CoEif. they were necessarily esteemed as the supports of life and the means of refreshment. By God's express command all its to Moses. and variety of God's works. Hie Lodge. are solemnly consecrated to the sacred purposes of the institution . wine. oil. and to pour the healing oil of your consolation into the wounds which sickness has made in the bodies. oil to make his face shine. David. beauty. the anointing with oil wajs considered a necessary part of the ceremony : a custom which has descended to our own times.

an NaphtaU. a Tine by the side of a Benjamin." Lodge. When the twelve tribes marched through the wildemess. white. Issachar. The banners of the twelve Chapter. an (Numbers ii. three tribes were under the standard of Judah. a man and on the north. blue. and peace. purple. Ephraim. a hind. on the south were three tribes under the standard of Eeuben.) Israelites. on the west were three tribes under the standard of Ephraim. Reuben.) .THE AEMOEIil BEAEDTOS OF THE OEDEE. Dan. flesh-coloured. Asher. Zebnlnn. a Hon oouchant. a sword. wall. Manasseh. and when encamped round about the Tabernacle. an ox . three eagle tribes under the standard of Dan. red. green. 379 They may he characterized as emhlems of health. to signify that He was the leader and of the cheiTibim king of the cohorts of the Sebretos. and whence were framed the hieroglyphics and seraphim to represent the people of IsraeL Therefore God chose to sit upon chembims bearing the forms of the four animals. a wolf. Simeon. a man. green. a cup. an ass crouching beneath its burden. a troop of horsemen. (Traditiotis of tJie These four standards compose the banner or armorial bearings . they were gathered in four divisions. yellow. bine. essential blessings to the happiness of a THE AEMOELili BEAEINGS OP THE OEDEE. which was a Hon. and placed on the east. Grad. plenty. eagle. purple. scarlet. an ox. are as follow : tribes which adorn the Eoyal Arch Judah. green. a ship. man's heart.

company is a branch of the ancient and in former times no one could take up his freedom in it unless he had been first initiated in some lawftd Lodge of first Free and Accepted Masons. in the a golden lion on a of blue. SVeemasomy. is the distinguishing colour of the is Grand Lodge. it is produced by tlie combination of blue and scarlet. on the third. on a chevron between three first crest. of the Order of attaolaed to the craft. instructing us. Clarenciexis. and WiUiam Hanistow. as it is generally called. castles wrgemt. and the latter the chief colour of the Royal Arch. coat. on the second. tace. and crest is on the fourth. On the dexter side the arms of the London Guild of Masons are thus heraldi- cally described: sable. or. PuEPLE a Royal Arch colour and an emblem of union. granted them the above It is generally believed that this fraternity . a pair of compasses of the society style a castle of the second. a black OS on a field of gold . quarter is On field the sinister side. a golden eagle on a blue ground. symbolic the former being the chai-acteristio colour of the degrees. that in tlie mind of a blue arch of Mason those Heaven itself. The the ark of the covenant. The Arms of the Grand . GAETEE because BltTE. and altlioTigli only in use as Royal Axoh Degree. -who was the tribes king under whom all the twelve were united. virtues should be as extensive as the Daek." Masonic first colottes.S80 ILLTJSTEATIONS OT FEEEMASONET. they belong to the whole and are intended to denote the origin of the institution last from Solomon. . This was incorporated in the year 1410 by the name and of the Society of Freemasons." The is supporters are two cherubims. Eing at Arms. Blub is the appropriate colour of the is three degrees or Ancient Craft Masonry. Cihapter are without the Craft Masons' Bearings and the motto " Soilness to the Lord. The armorial bearings of the Order may be thus described: The shield is divided into eight compartments. a man on a field of gold . vidi. and emblematic of universal friendship and benevolence.. the motto being " Audi.

but -with difierent : have peculiar modes of computation . derived its .L. and white or fine linen. because it was made out of flax. 5860.DATES OF MABOITET. The KJaight Templars' era dates from the organization of their Order. A. and supposed them to represent the four elements. Eoyal Arch Masonry dates from the building of the second Temple. the purple. Blue. because colour from the murex. Anno Lucis. a production of the earth the blue. are the colours with which the veils of the Tabernacle were interwoven. . the scribes wearing white. thus in Craft Masonry they date from the creation of the world. tte pecoliaT emblematic colour of the Boyal Arch. a shell-fish that inhabits the sea and the scarlet was the natural symbol of fire. Joseplius informs us that the Jews gave to the veOs an astronomical signification.O. In affl-CTTig dates to official documents Freemasons never make use of the rites common calendar or vulgar era.. of the sea. earth. Anno Inventionis. DATES 01 JdASONET. makes our 1860 A. linen Fine white was a symbol of the . in 1860 would be 743. 381 ScABUST. The Arch Chapter purple.. thus 1860 is A. which being 530 years before Christ. Anno Qrdinis. the year of light. thus A.L. purple. and significant of the zeal and ardour which siould inspire its possessors. as the colour of the siy. are of these Joshua wearing blue. was it a symbol of the air . Saggai and Zerubbabel scarlet.I. 2390. robes of the Principals of a Eoyal colours. 1118 . scarlet.

JAHTTAET 2. and from Wisdom. omnipotent. who by his masijerly structure. NO. 1861. his Strength . and his Beauty shines forth throughout the whole of Creation symmetry and order. 742. and Corinthian orders —the Ionic representing »i«(foTO / the Doric. Hiram. which essential parts furniture of a Lodge now. AND BEAUTY.CHAPTER XXIII. and Beauty. Eing of Tyre. are three architectural columns." Lectures. A LECTUEE DELITEEED BY THE EDITOE TS THE BEEKHAMPSTBAD LODaE. Strength. pillars of his whom we serve. . Doric. STRENGTH. WISDOM. exj amples of the Ionic. They emblematically represent the three Grand Masters -who presided at the building of the house of God at Jerusalem : — Solomon. "The Universe is whom all goodness ahout his throne as in the temple of that Deity emanates. and the Corinthian. men and marveUons of the the King of Israel. the widow's son. In our symbolic language tie three great pillai-s which support the Lodge are called Wisdom. of his strength in supporting Solomon with materials . rfreny^A. and Beauty are work his Wisdom is infinite. as a semblance of his wisdom in building and dedicating the Temple to God's service. rendered it ai'e workmanship in adorning the for heatity. Strength. and Hiram. These pillars.

thy word: lo. I have given thee a wise and uiiderstaTidiTig heart. and his heauty shines forth throughout the whole of Creation in symmetry and order. neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee. and because it is the duty of the W. Strength. I have done according to standing to discern judgment . is the temple of that Deity ^the universe As a further illustration whom we serve." Tn Gibeon the Lord appeared to him in a dream by night. Wisdom." told in the sacred volume.'' He replied. BTEENGTH. instruct. tions : 383 These piUaxs Ixave. " Ask what I shall give thee. let characteristics separately. ASH BEAUTY. . we need for supporting us under our difficulties and Seauiy. so there was none like thee before thee. his strength omnipotent. Wisdom is represented by the Ionic column and the Worshipful Master. and enlighten the Craft by his superior wisdom. " Give tiy servant an understanding heart to judge thy people. Soon after his accession he went to Gibeon. that I discern between good and bad : may for who is able to judge this thy so great a people ?" " And God said unto him. Tiaming his successor on the throne of Israel emanated from Divine dictation. however. Because thou hast asked this thing. because the Ionic wisely combines strength without the massiveness of the Doric. hy onr moral teaching.M. with the grace without the exuberance of ornament in the Corinthian. but hast asked for thyself underbehold. to superintend. And in process of time we are "God gave Solomon wisdom and . Wisdom is personified iu King Solomon as the column of wisdom that supported the Temple and David's choice in . and from whom all — goodness emanates. briefly noticed these Having thus us treat their symbols in combination. . beauty. saying.WISDOM. strength. we require to conduct all US in our undertakings all . and " a thousand burnt offerings did he offer upon that altar. of holiness to adorn : our mind and manner. more important significa- Wisdom. his throne as pillars of his work his and beauty are about wisdom is infinite. and hast not asked riches for thyself nor asked the life of thy enemies .

. Solomon enjoyed a profound peace throughout his " Judah dominions. all And Solomon's wisdom wisdom of the children of the east country. and dom. and in conjunction with Hiram of Tyre. Orientals and the Egyptians in He ruled over all He exceeded the . Egypt was deemed the fountain of the arts and the Gentile philosophers were wont to go minds by the dew of Egyptian wis- thither to fertilize their This did Pythagoras. wisdom and prudence and his nations. the Egyptians were wisdom ^that is. and Israel dwelt safely. That he was the wisest man of all times must be allowed. the countries from the Euphrates to the Nile. reputation as the wisest of mankind spread through out a fleet at all He extended the commerce of his country." and his neighbours either paid him tribute or were his allies. precious woods. and others. as well as justly famous for their science Prom this it appears that among among the Greeks. and came to prove to which with hard questions . Solomon gave such answers that she confessed that half of his wisdom had not been told her. he received a visit from the Queen of Sheba. who furnished him with mariners. their knowledge in — and art. in Ethiopia. understanding exceeding much. He fitted Ezion-geber and at Eed Sea. and imported largely of foreign produce. even as the sand that excelled the is on the sea shore. and aE the wisdom of Egypt. who had it heard of his wisdom. Elath on the ebony. sciences.384 ILLXTSTEATIONS OP rEEEMASOHiTET. Anaxagoras. made to him in his dream and we must remember that his wisdom was a gift supematm-al from Jehovah. traded to Ophir for ivory. every man under his vine and under his fig-tree. We have the warrant for this in God's promise at Gibeon . or Saba. and laxgeness of heart. Herodotus. peacocks. perity All this peace and pros- was the result of Solomon's judicious government. &c. whereas all other men have been obliged to acquire knowledge by the slow and processes of study and experience. difficult While Solomon was at the height of his prosperity." the Hehrews. Plato.

Gtod threatened to divide his lifetime there him by pain. as displayed in the books that bear his name. a collection of the proverbs of Solomon compiled by several hands. of women fi«m the into idolatry. conclude from hence it We cannot it is iv. Most High had the effect and he has recorded his confession of the vanity of worldly wisdom. some doubts have been expressed as to his being the author of the whole. own pro- The rest are supposed to have been collected after his time. for Hence pleasure became the great object of his but as the cup of which he drank was not prepared the Divine hand. STBESGTH. riches. rather shows the author than the compiler. which may with the societies utmost propriety be styled the tD&ncy of aphorisms and proverbs. and nations. Proverbs and Ecdesiastes. threat of the his idolatry. The it first nine chapters seem to form a kind of introduction. and honours. amch 385 for even prosperity was at length too Solomon : among his magnificent establishments he had a large harem. if not the only. we have the testimony in the same holy volume of the wisdom of this great monarch. Eezon. in direct opposition to the Divine command. as we have stated (1 Kings title." The Proverbs of Solomon. Besides the records in the sacred historical books. and during his were signs of the coming This of recovering Tiim from calamity in the rebellions of Hadad. and Jeroboam. and has been suggested .•WISDOM. 32) "he composed three thousand pro- verbs. But. the result was disappointment. and misery. were proverbs in use before tbe time of Solomon and from the tenth chapter to the twenty-fourth are the monarch's duction. alas ! AND BEAUTY. not the work of Solomon. In those periods of remote the usual. and form an appendix to the whole. kingdom after his death. idolatrous nations of Canaan. mode of instruction was by detached Those who by genius and reflection 8 . Although the Book of Proverbs has always been ascribed to Solomon. but suggest that the book We is do not assent to this explanation. composed. antiquity. who seduced him pursuit .

" . were desirous of rendering into the most comhappi- pendious form. And " precious ornaments. as through a silver vessel exqtiisitely veil. as the appearance of the most beautiful and exquisitely coloured is fi-uit improved by the circumstance of shining." stirreth Hate up strifes But love covereth all transeressions. are the lips of knowledge.386 ILLTTSTBATIONS OF FEEEMASONET." are to Thus he insinuates that grave and profound sentiments be set off by a smooth and well-tumed phraseology." man who " Gold and abundance of rubies. And further. that it is not only a neat and polished diction which must recommend them. exercised in the school of experience haA accumulated a stock it of knowledge. and among them first rank must be assigned to the Proverbs of Solomon. with the Hebrews continued their literature. We examples which are elegance : deserving our attention for their propriety and " Clouds Is a and wind without rain glories in a fallacious gift. to he a favourite style to the latest ages of this didactic poetry there are still Of extant many the specimens in the writings of that people. which they apprehended most essential to human This manner of instruction. himself explained the principal excellences of this form who has of composition. which with other nations first prevailed only during the periods of dTilization. through the reticulations of a wrought. and comprised in a few maxims those ohservations ness. exhibiting at once a complete definition of a proverb or parable. and a very happy specimen of what he describes^ " Apples of gold in a network of silver Is a word seasonably spoken. but that truth itself acquires additional beauty when partiaEy discovered through the veil of select three other elegant fiction and imagery.

AlTD BEATJTT. . as a means of nrging first the necessity of acquiring portion." This portion of the book life. suits . " poeticaL is varied. The general opinion of the design and s scope of the Book of 2 . The frequent assertion of the emptiness of earthly greatness the declaration that human enjoyments edifices. and truly It is embellished with many beaatifdl descriptionB and all personifications. the expression of satiety and disgust at past pleasures the tone of cool and philosophical reflection which pervades the whole. and all the beauties the force and eloquence. STBENGTH. are poured forth to to virtue win the ingenuous youth and piety. of language. insomnch that in elegance and splendour to any of the sacred writings. elegant. practices. This portion of the Proverhs. the enumeration of gardens. Bishop Lowth says. And while the progress and issues of vice are ex- under a variety of the most striking delineations and all metaphors. in their utmost deformity and horror. are painted with the hand of a master. is chiefly confined to the conduct of early before a permanent condition is made choice of. 387 selection In the from the ritnal of the first Eoyal Areh we have adopted a knowledge. snhlime. requiring a long and their completion the deep condemnation of former pur. except vanity of every thing The acknowledgment of the numerous follies and delusions implies that it was composed after the author had apostatized from Jehovah. life for and possessions. and had become by sad experience convinced of the terrestrial. Heclesiastes has in all ages been ascribed to the tradition of the Jews states that he composed this after book in his old age. the diction is polished and abounds with it scarcely yields the ornaments of poetry. and to fix biTn in the steady pursuit of his duties toward God and toward man. are strikingly characteristic of an advanced period of life. The Booh cf Solomon . and had subsequently repented of his past misconduct. are unsatisfactory . and the sins which most easily beset it."WISDOM. hibited. and all the life is formidable dangers to which this season of exposed. he had repented of his former vicious piety and wisdom.

All will is acknowledge the truth of this aphorism. whereas the sovereign good. but we suggest that it contains conduct applicable to all ages. Freemasonry affords a striking instance of the faithfulness of this aphorism in the case of Brother Euspini. is "A good name Content. but another name for religion. that which. is and undefiled. all its is ultimately good . but in the end receive its due recompense. conducive to the best interests of man. The Ecclesiastes regards it as an inquiry into the chief good. the praise and recomcreatures mendation the supreme responsible for their actions. : it is But in this wisdom there is the wisdom from above. This is the object of the Preacher's inquiry. At the period of its . as is. Some commentators numerous precepts for object to the style as of a very inferior character to that of Proverbs. it is was much ever to be by the old pagan philosophers. inquiry after the chief good. — —and which. with the promise annexed. that it shall not be tlirown away. in the writings of Solomon." earth. that they only sought to know in what lay the prime happiness of the present as understood life . than both spirit :'' hands fall with travail and vexation of the counsel and how truly Masonic is —" Cast thy bread days. better than precious ointment. good to The scope of the whole argument therefore of wisdom." upon the waters. that which is is by the Treacher. " Better is a handful with quietness. he finally determines that it consists in teue wisdom. but remembered. and on as thrown away. and after discussing various erroneous opinions. in bearings and relations. the practised summum horm/m. nothing worldly or carnal spiritual. the only happiness on exhibited in this sentence. whom no return can be whom the benefaction may seem as much if a man were to sow his seed in the sea but .388 ILLTTSTBATIONS OJ? rEEEMASOKET. the founder of the Freemasons' School for Female Children. and thou shalt find it after many This must be regarded liberality of as enforcing the great and distinguished doing good to those from expected. ^holy.

which. As celebrated introduced by our transatlantic brethren in the ceremonial of the Third Degree. or Creator in the days of thy youth. serves as an introduction to the more specific details which follow. AITD BEAUXT." gives a highly figurative and poetical representation of old age. denoting the succession of pains and infirmities which so often attend the winter of life. on this account. SemarMng that as clouds and rain do not appear during the summer in Judea. "Eemember now thy shalt say. afforded much exercise to the ingenuity of the learned. two of his grandchildren became the recipients of the benefits of the noble institution their ancestor had originated. be not darkened. which to is contained in the first seven verses. It has. nor the years draw nigh. Book of Ecdesiastes is the twelfli chapter. and this it has consequentiy had passage is many different explanations. STEENGTH. the Eev. in which the various infirmities and imbecilities of that period of life are pouitrayed in a great variety of images in themselves unconnected. I light. and when his remains were slnmbering in the tomb. after admonishing his reader. Solomon. or the stars. intended as a general statement of the pains and miseries of age. Holden's "Attempt to illustrate the Book of Ecclesiastes '' offers the best elucidation. and could have had no idea of his &mily requiring the aid of charity. In this all^ory. G. The property he had accumulated was wasted by his successor. meant put to trial the acnteness of his readers. when thou have no pleasure in them : while the sun. yet mutually tending to identify their prototype. after the manner of the Oriental philosophers. we may understand this image to be taken from the winter season. s 3 . 389 formation Enspini was possessed of a good income.WISDOM. nor the clouds return after the rain. while the evil days come not. or the the m^oon. " Beportion of the But the crowning member now thy Creator in the days of thy youth." This figurative b^inning.

perhaps." is In consequence of the loss of teeth. . their smooth surfaces are obliged to perfoiin the ofBce of the teeth. as being to the body what guards and keepers are to a palace . " In the day the strong men when the keepers of the louse shall bow themselves. replied. here it describes deafness also as one of decay the infirmities of age but may allude to the . custom of females. can thy sei'vant taste "I am what this day fourscore or I eat what I drink? singing can I hear any more the voice of singing men or women?" He . who daily grind the com required and thus denotes the teeth. and he shall rise up at the voice of the and all the daughters of music shall be brought low. masticating the food with slow and silent which is probably what the Preacher meant by the low sound of the grinding." allusion to the " grinders " is derived The from the Eastern ." streets. and then also the gums with labour." and By the "keepers of the house. 35) was invited by David to accom- pany him to Jerusalem. they are so called. down the food for which become dimmed or " darkened. The word rendered " bird " {tzippon) shall then denotes a sparrow or any smaU. or rather." the arms and hands are intended. and hence we have the sense that the aged sleep so unsoundly that the twittering of the smallest birds will suffice to rouse them. When the aged Barzillai (2 Sam. is when the sound low. which masticate and grind the stomach. he years old: . bird. shall tremble. and those that look out of the windows shall be darkened.390 IliltrSTEATIONS OF JEEEMASONET. as providing for the sustenance of the house or body: old age is well known. . by the windows. the act of eating usually performed by aged persons with closed lips . " And the doors shall be shut in the of the grinding bird. are indicated The eyes. " And the grinders cease because they are few. how they "tremble" in men bow themselves" which bow and totter beneath strong the aged. xix. "The may allude to the lower limbs.

flourish. "The dry. STUENBXH. or bunching parts of the bones. doubt. and the grasshopper shall be a burden. crumbling. scraggy old man—his backbone sticking out. And from this exact a grasshopper. that. The almond-tree in the condition leads them when they venture having white blossoms refers to the white hair of aged persons. descriptive of characteristics effect. AND BEAUTr. and the mourners go about the streets. in general enlarged — ^is very aptiy described by that without all insect. and the apophyses. or the pitcher be broken at the the wheel broken at the cistern." and "the mourners going about the streets. arose the fable of Tithonus. he fainiliar to was turned into old This idea was the classical ancients. shrunk. 391 of the organs employed ia the prodaction and enjoyment of music "And when they shall be a&aid of that which is high. Then s shall the dust return to 4 . enumerated above. his head downward. it aJhides to the difficulty which the aged find in ascending high places. and fears shall he in the way. is By the word rendered grasshopper to. liiAng to an exi/reme old age. their infirm to walk out pubUc ways^ and which." The elucidation of this passage is apparent . his arms backward.WISDOM. and desire shall because man goeth to his long home. as well as to the timidity which the oonsciouBness of to exhibit. or broken. we find engraved gems in which an emaciated man is represented by a locust walking erect on its hind legs." require no explanation. in the narrow streets of the East." for likeness. "Or ever the silver cord be loosed. fail . itsel£ what attends and denotes death "Man going to bis long home. his knees projecting forward. and the almond-tree shaU. a species of locust alluded and Parkhuist says in explanation. are brought out All that precedes refers to the with truly singular We now reach another class of circumstances. and in which aU the decay of man. is necessarily more marked than with us. or the golden bowl be fountain.

planation.392 the eartli as ILLrSTEATIONS OF FEEBMASONET. in their literal import. By the golden howl understood the skull.) his discourse : The Preacher thus sums up and keep his conunandments man. such methods being extensively in use in the East. and the cistern -the left ventricle." This hence. both being equally necessary. it was . and which very liable to be relased and weakened in old age. for this is the whole duty of we must acknowledge to be a truly Masonic charge. heart. This ex- we must allow. producing the various paralytic complaints. the great vessel from which the arteries of the body which carry red blood derive their origin. the series of images is evidently suggested by some hydraulic process for raising water from wells and cisterns. deserves our especial notice. that. the tremors and debilities to which the aged are so frequently is subject. and tte spirit shall return unto God who gave it. suggests that Solomon was acquainted with sqme idea of the circulation of the blood.spinal silver cord signifies that resplendent white cord — ^the marrow which passes through the is entire length of the backbone. the other a conscientious practice of it. therefrom as the fountain the right ventricle of the heart. and the epithet golden we conclude to be a term of excellence. all The wheel is the aoi"ta. denoting the importance of the skull and large canals its valuable contents. There are two things in general that perfect a good the one a clear man It has and distinct knowledge of his duty. or a part thereof altogether broken in its ftmotions. The pitcher denotes the and receive the blood is which issue from the from a fountain . and when the subject of Divine wisdom is considered. {Holden. a discovery of comparatively modem date. Another suggestion has been offered. pleased God. who is the Governor of the universe and will be the . " Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter : : Pear God." The .

so that to avoid. to put the people in mind that if He was thus terrible in delivering his law. contains our duties to our neighbour. STRENaXH. 393 righteous Judge of all. no doubt. who. These CJommandments were delivered 2500 years to the Mosaic history. It is the hounden duty of every brother to follow the bright example of a worthy Master. finger of is a summary of those laws written by the God! Looking to the brevity of the expressions and the copiousness and variety of the matter contained in them. the tohiti piUar that supports the Lodge. and by Divine authority " on these hang all the law and the prophets. Master. when He shall come to judge the transgressors of it. and the sure or The Decalogue. comprising six enactments. — The tables of the law are two : the first. heavenly laws. is enabled to preserve due order. to prescribe laws for the regulatiou of our we may know what we ought to do. according The manner in which God appeared to pronounce his law was terrible fire — ^in thunder and lightning. and while he commemorates s the wisdom of King 5 . the other. the perfect rules of a holy promises of a glorious immortality. and hence not necessary in this place to urge the practice of them. and clouds of daikness intended. therein is comprised the whole body of the actions. and what The volume of the Sacred Law is the statute hook of God's kingdom. who who represents King Solomon — is the ^the wisest man of all time —and it is practically represented in the moral government of those are sworn to obey him. by a knowledge of the laws and the rites and ceremonies of the institution.WTSDOM. comprehending four enactments. how nmch more so will He appeal. we must acknowledge the wisdom of their Divine Author in reducing the whole duiy of TO an to so small a compendium. Ten Commandments. after the creation of the world. . AJfD BEATTTT. life. contains our duties to Gtod . and maintain peace and unity among the brethren under his charge. Wisdom." These it objects are the beginning is and end of rreemasoniy.

cii. as may be properly advanced is upon examination every one must allow that there and in our uses and explanations in our traditional legend. the great lawgiver Jehovah.) So also in the ninetieth Psalm. nor device. as given in the lecture. " Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do. 10. " without. Do it with thy might is Por there no work. him act as a disciple of wisdom . be careful not to blend it with his weaknesses nor stain it with his vices. that we our hearts unto wisdom. The Lodge figuratively represents the Temple of Solomon. the mighty monarch.394 Solomon. nor wisdom. which is is generally ascribed to Moses." STEENGTH. Nor knowledge. a good understanding have aU they that do there- after." may apply To conclude. presei'ved with integrity. Previously to attempting an elucidation of the other supports of a Mason's Lodge. but to " walk in wisdom towards them that are says. In the empire of shadows Where thou goest. as principal we have (by said. some inoongmity as weR as anachronism." (Ps. let ILLTTSTEATIONS OF TEEEMASONET. they deserve to have their form. and his officers name) two remarkable pillars wrought by Hiram the widow's These piUars. to keep the representation consistent. and doubtless the most sublime beseeches prayer in the Sacred Volume." The Royal Psalmist of The fear of God is the beginning wisdom .. a few remarks upon the adopted foi-m. that . personifying. " So teach us to number our days. and remembering that the interests of Masonry are in the hands of every individual brother. Intimately Connected as they are with our rites. the Master the son. a : suggestion for their improvement. ought to be placed side by side . as described 1 Kings vU.

the Doric." (1 work: so was the work of the piUarB Kings viL 13—22. and and he set up the left And he and called the lily name thereof Boaz. He was a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali. the pillar. And upon the top of the pillars finished. and the other at the north-west of the Lodge. They should be wrought strictly in conformity with the description in the Sacred Volume. us to divine. ASD BEAUTY. with pomegranates the chapiters that and so did he for the other chapiter. and seven for the other chapiter. And he made and two rows round about upon the one network. if to lectures it is necessary we should stiU have the s and Corinthian capitals. is. : and he was filled with wisdom. the height of the one chapiter was five cubits : and the height of the other chapiter was and nete of checker work. were of work in the porch. and wreaths of chain work. "And King Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre. and his father was a man of Tyre. line of twelve cubits did compass either of them about. over against the belly which was by the network and the pomegranates were two hnndi-ed in rows chapiter. STBENGTH. to cover the chapiters that were upon the top. as is generally the 6 . of eighteen cubits high and a. apiece cast two pillars of brass. 895 one at the south-west. pillars And lily were upon the top of the four cubits.) it is difficult How the for Greek and Italian orders of architecture came to be but preserve the teaching of the Ionic.WISDOM. And : the chapiters upon the two pUlais had pomegranates also above. introduced into the Masonry of the old covenant. : round about upon the other in the porch of the temple called pillar. and wrought work. to set upon five the tops of the pillars cubits. let the three lights. and understanding. for the chapiters which were upon the top of the pillars . and he set the name was thereof Jachin: set up the pillars up the r^ht pillar. And he made two : chapiters of molten brass. a worker in brass brass. and cunning to work all works in all his And he came For he : to King Solomon. seven for the one chapiter.

on the accession of Solomon. and our reverential respect for the great Master of our art demands There can be no their presence in a perfect Masons' Lodge. and it will violate no law to especially. man of blood. are . as at the period alluded to.396 case. and these. we must conclude they were merely completing ornaments. adopt the suggestion now made. claims their restoration. that are mentioned 3 Chron. re- top of the pillars. and pomegranates. iv. having been a . but as representations of the three Grand Masters who presided at the building of the Temple they are decidedly incorrect. the two columns lily their curious beauty. Boaz and Jachin doubtless in ancient Masonry were . yet ILLXrSTEATIONS or TEEEMASONET. has been by some critics translated howls . were merely rounded knobs or balls for instances. as being on the finish. King of Tyre. was not allowed to build a house to God but the Most High reserved that honour for David's son and successor. Hiram. . The word rendered pommels in the English Authorized Version. Solomon. the theory of the rotundity of the earth was unknown. A treaty of alliance and by which the King made by the two sovereigns. work. difficulty in their construction. and the latter on his reply announced the intention to build a house to God's Holy Name. enriched with network. most improperly in some now presented as the celestial and terrestrial globes a very palpable anachronism. and out of keeping with the ritual. 1h. Holy Writ tells us that David. sent to him a message of congratulation. Solomon paid Hiram in wheat and friendship was oil." trees. but as the Hebrew original does not mention these appendages ftirther. keep ttese ornaments for the purpose of illustra- tion . In a Grand Lodge the situation of the Waidens and the form of their columns axe decidedly objectionable. for "there is not skill to hew timber like fir unto the Sidonians. as among us any that can And Hiram gave For this service Solomon cedar and he desired.e pommels. and desired Hiram to command cedar-trees out of Lebanon to be hewed for that purpose.

The sub-basement of the great temple of Baalbeck."WISDOM. which were prepared by the stone-squarers or Gebalites.'' Of fiir Sidonians and describes a silver goblet "earth Owned not its like for elegance of form. a kind of freestone. and wherever the stone was obtained. the mountains. of Israel 397 was to send thirty thonsand to labour in hewing the "K"iTig materials he required of the of Tyre. SIEENGTH. There were also fourscore thousand hewers in . which belonged to an earlier structure. costly. it was quarried and hewn with the help of the Xebanon and throughout Syria the stone is Phoenicians. and Wood measured still. we presume. and in the fine arts Sidon was termed "great" in the time rivalled the Egyptians.UTT. all of the same character. accomplished works . Josephns describes the stone with which Solomon's Temple was built as " white stone. AJTD BBA. with overseers to superintend their work these. and still used for buUding. and over these men was Adoniram. Homer teDs us that the Queen of Troy "kept Her manties of all hues. In the ixeatf with TTira-Tn no mention is made of stone.'' In the ancient structures of Syria. and hewed stones. which is of Phoenicia. Skilful Sidonians had around Embellished it" . of Joshua. The In timber was from Lebanon . For the foundation they brought great. the stones were of an astonishingly lai^e size. must have been the TTiTig of Tyre's subjects. has one stone that measures sixiy-six feet in length and twelve feet in breadth one lying in the quarry ready for removal larger calculated to and thickness . the people all others weigh above 1100 tons cities Tyre and Sidon were the chief of which country appear to have been in advance of in the arts of commerce and ship-building.

particularly astronomy and arithmetical calculation. we can find no parallel nations with our own so fit as the Phosnicians. however. lay the strength of King Hiram. . Looking back through the dim vista of past ages. was subjugated by . descendants of Canaan. distinction of the Phoenicians. The Phcenicians were a branch of the Shemitic family of nations. and Roman and .898 ILLTJSTEATIONS OF FBEEMA SONET. beauty. tell us something of their neighbours' When Abraham came it from Mesopotamia to dwell in the land. wealth. the son of first Ham. were despoiled by different conquerors by Assyrian. There was constant commercial intercourse between them and the Israelites prophets. its cities The country suffered in many . hy the power of art and science he was enabled to aid Solomon in the raising that glorious house of God. but it is not known what period they migrated and Tyre to the Mediterranean. Their progress amid surrounding barbarism was marvellous. for until the reign of Solomon the Israelites were incessantly at wai. other passages might be quoted to prove the repute in Many which they were held hy the Greeks. over all known We have tolerably good evidence that they came to five centuries before Cornwall for tin our present era. and flourishing commerce. is repeatedly mentioned its by the Hebrew wars. the The Phoenicians extended world. save this portion. form the only were great adepts in all the sciences of their time. Herein. and originated on the borders of the Eed Sea at . whose cities eldest son Sidon was the governor of that part of the country bordering the sea- coast. Babylonian. for they The superiority in manufactures and commerce does not. in the Holy Wars entii-ely Tyre suffered many razed sieges. Persian. and who speak of strength. Its fortifications were when the Christians were expelled from the their trading Holy Land. was then inhabited by the Canaanites. It was we must consider. where were founded the of Tyre and Sidon. and the Holy Scriptures habits. The whole of the land of Canaan. Greek.

(Jebal. an early race of their own country. is attributed Cadmus. that of the stone-squaring Fhcenicians. vpith the inscription of was emblematic of Judea.C. and if the visit of the Phoenicians first allowed. &om the Felasgi. from country. and it is he merely introduced and that more convenient and suitable materials for writing. Joslina. or rather the art of writing. as the formation and order of the Ghreek alphabet bear a dose resemblance to those of the alphabets which belonged to the Shemitic race. makes a very mean and seaport of some into the sea. it is generally assumed. they also assigns to derived the knowledge of letters. were the aborigines of is Greece. 399 We find this district called first '^oivif. Greeks. it is. who were distingnished for strength. that figure at present. there exists diversity of upon this however. and. opinion We acknowledge subject. The former are denominated Cyclopean. note. The to invention of letters. King of the Phoenicians. STEENGTH. the Crehalites ? While noticing although it this people. two kinds of these ancient walls and irregular rocks of the first constructed of rude stone. AlTD BEATJTT. —we think with good evidence. — for these and the Jews nntil the time of Cyrus used the same characters. or palm-tree of Scripture. 1550. not denied that said Cadmus did visit Greece. and the more perfect. There are . and the second formed of stones regularly cut and squared. laid together without mortar. and the latter Felasgic. Now tradition the Pelasgi various the ancient monuments of architecture. as we on coins Judea . it is worthy of remark. B. The Pelasgi. * The see date-tree. was in ancient times a city and there is still remaining a ridge miming composed of huge square stones which once formed a mole. capia.WISDOM. Fhcemcia by the " palm-tree V' which ahoonded in this Here the spies sent hy Moses fonnd a people their called AnaMm. and especially walls known by the name of Cyclopean. or more especially the Phcenidans. may we not conclude that the rude structures were the work of the natives.

and like the Sidonians. was the Prophet Daniel. however. the great reformer of the Magi religion. the derivation of which The Gebalites were worshippers of Apollo. is and as Parsees in Bombay. all places and from that general ruin the Turks bring to they come. and their and Imowledge was. and now venture to claim Gebalites the foundation of the science of astronomy. Through all whom of they symbolized hj fire. carried to other countries. and that they were a Shemitic and that people. and because . Strength. far advanced in the arts sciences in the earliest ages of the world. As a people the Phoenicians are dispersed In investigating the history of Zoroaster and the mysMagi. Bosetti endeavours to show that Freemasons are the descendants all of the Manichseans and Albigenses.400 ILLUSTEATIONS OF JEEEMASONET. from the Magi Chaldea down to the remnant now in the mountains of Guzerat. in their commercial intercourse. belong to our present subject. we find that some acute commen(as teries of the ancient tators consider the Chaldeans the Magi were called) a foreign race in Assyria. because it is considered the strongest of the it is orders of architecture. There are also the ruins of a noble theatre. is by the Doric column and the duty of the Senior the Senior Warden. lost. for these In modern times the followers of the ancient religion of the Magi have been is known by unknown. who held the same This investigation does not. their skill in all the was very great. is 100 yards across : the ontside wall is nearly four yards . time. All the ancient writers say their acquaintance with astronomy exceeded that of sciences all others. tenets. and built of very large it and firm stones which great where strength has preserved thus long fi-om the ravages of time. the Deify symbolized in fire. In another place we have endeavoured to show that Zoroaster. - The Gebalites were. the appellation of Gebers. as the second principal support of physically and personally represented Masomy. the semioirole of iwhich thick.

because his tion in the situa- Lodge enables its biTn better to observe that bright is luminary which at meridian height the beauty and glory d the day. and. and hence is plain and natural. . Warden summons the Warden should be was intended by the United in 1813. the that a twelvemonth's . and some of its ponderous blocks Museum. But as representing the column of Beauty which supported the Temple of Solomon. when the Constitutions were framed better to prepare the Master for bis service as office. because that This is the most beautiful and highly finished of all committed to the care of the Junior Warden.WISDOM. that he in all may be s^d to be in strength to be established our mysteries. TVith regard to the Senior strength in his Lodge. its capital or base. Of the is Doric. column eight times its diameter in height. The Parthenon was of are in the British this Order. although the law does not demand it is desirable a brother should have attains the Senior's served a year as Junior Warden ere he column. STEENSTH. some of the columns being of one block of marble sixty feet higb. and originally had no ornaments on The solid composition of this Order gives it a preference where strength tiiis is the chief qualify desired. and in or absence of the Master the Senior case of the death Lodge. and it Grand Lodge. Warden us . and to strengthen and support his authority. remarks on Hiram the widow's son. It is of the utmost importance the well skilled in the Craft. Warden was essential to bis election it. AlTD BEAUTT. it is Warden as the representative of to be observed that by our laws the Master and Wardens govern the Lodge. BBAinrr Order is is symbolized by the Corinthian column. 401 to aid the Master in Lis dniies. onr lectures thus instmct all —It is the most ancient of Its the orders. we must first bestow a few Before we proceed fitrther. The gigantic remains of style in Sicily are the wonder of travellers.

and sent with the King of Tyre's letter. any manner of graving." By this and what . which describes biTn " skilful to work in gold and also to grave in silver. of whom the Among cunning last. It is clear King had no subject capable of raise.402 it is ILLtJSTEATIONS OF rEEEMASONET. and in timber. undertaldng the construction of the House he purposed to and " it was to the skilful men of Tyre he had recourse. three greater and three lesser with many other instances of the consecration of this number. in purple. although resident among the Phoenicians. a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali. which he overlaid with gold. There are three degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry . and we find it pervading our whole ritual. in iron. the workmen sent by Hiram of Tyre to aid Solomon in raising the House of God was one whom he styles "a man endued with brass. was an Israelite by parentage. one of the daughters of Dan. his mother being narratives of the building. thereon palm-trees. and in stone. who. related in the The Books of Kings and Chronicles. while in the latter he appears in the outset. and his father had been a This was Hiram. and doors were overlaid . was Hiram the widow's son.'' understanding. ttat in Ibreemasonry the number three ia tiie most important and universal in its application of all the mystic numbers. and a subject of the King of Tyre. and there are three supports and three principal officers to a Lodge. and in ci-imson find out every follows. as differ. besides there being three Ancient Grand Masters. somewhat is Hiram in the former not mentioned until the decoration com- mences. and to device which shall be put to him. three working lights . tools to each degree. and walls. in blue. and in fine linen. man of Tyre. Prom set the description it we must conclude the structure was of timber was ceiled with fir-ti'ee. in brass. but not the least in importance." The beams. to be remarked. a worker in it is to be noticed. Solomon was indebted that the to Hiram for all the ornament and we are disposed to conclude he was the of Israel architect of the building.

STEKIfGTH. rendered the It has been remarked that wherever a style of architecture originated. where height and lightness were and it is quite pro- when the Holy Ciiy was gained. Sir James Hall. but his drawings show is how peculiarly that grace&l and elegant tree. where was Solomon's Temple placed ? and next. its clustered pillars. In both accounts mention made of the orna- mental palm-trees which were carved in the wood with which the sanctuary was lined.WlSDOir. 403 The capitals of the piQajrs were carved with figures of is pomegranates. and hence it must have been the dis- tinguishing feature of the Jewish style . We axe not (as now called upon to describe the building of the Temple that is done in another place). These palm-trees were doubtless pilasters. Sir James does not mention adapted to the the palm. as that wonld be the form in which the palm-tree would be exhibited to most advantage. TTiTa. its windows and their purpose fandfiil tracery. This strengthens the theory given in another place in support of Wren's state- ment. the feet is attested by the foreign character of the vegetable forms imitated or represented. in his Essay on the Origin of Grothic Architecture. and the use of the latter as an ornament appears in none of the varied styles of architectore. what . and with reference to the palm-tree. the first inquiry would be. believing. AJTD BEAUTY. witt gold. ingeniously refers ns to interlaced wicker- work as the undoubted type of the Gothic style in all its leading forms.Tn but notice the peculiarities of ornament by which structure marvellous for heauty. its arched and grained roo&. the imitated vegetable forms (if any) are those which nature there offered but where it is borrowed. that on first seeing the We are warranted in pahns some ingenious artisan must have bable that noticed their adaptation for constructing a building requisite . and these were afterwards overlaid with gold. The palm-tree and pomegranate were natives of Palestine. that the Gothic style originated with the iPreemasons on their return from the holy wars.

and that a similar correspondence in the constituent paits. which undoubtedly was entirely it under Hiram's direction. suggested the idea for the style of ecclesiastical architecture. and by an easy transition it has been extended to objects perceptible by the hearing. figures Prom this a door of olive and ornamented with of the cherubim. an essential feature of beauty that is the adaptation of means to the end there is observable. palms. and some years since we read a statement of such a model being in existence at Dresden. The word beauty. as -when fore we speaJi of beautifiil music. combined with the growing palms. . both doors were covered with a veil of linen richly embroidered. and the Sacred Volvune was referred We heard that many models in wood were wrought and brought into Europe. kind of building was itP No traces even of the third to. rendered tnwrvelloug for beauty. and . lilies and network. flowers of carved work. At the entrance of the sanctuary were the two remarkable. similar door from the sanctuary led to the A and Holy of Holies . All this was the work of our Grand Master Hiram. &c. hollow within. was first applied to objects perceptible by the sight. and turned on hinges of the same metal. pillars. which were of brass. a beautifiil voice. granates. it has been observed. to works of constructive art which belongs to it is With regard our present purpose. It was distinguished from all other temples of remote antiquity by the sumptuousness of detail. to contain the roUs of the Sacred Law : they were pro- fusely ornamented with representations of leaves and pomewood. which is uut rivalled for its adaptation to the Christian Church. Temple have remained. The description in the Old Testament. Therewe may say beauty is that quality in visible objects in consequence of which their forms and colours are agreeable to the human mind.404 ILLtrSTEiTlONS OF I'EEEMASONEY. and we may say Masonic. The decoration of the Temple. led into the sanctuary this door was covered with gold.

beits longs. form and all its destination. often feil in attempts to produce beauty. all And generally lated to ficence. the abacus and the volutes the bended Vitmvius is the only architect of the ancients whose writings have come down . perceived a basket of toys CaUimachus accidentally passing the tomb of a which had been left there by her nurse ^perhaps as a votive offering of affection covered with a tile. and in many cases seem rather to adapt the building to the ornament.WISDOM. — — Drew they encompassed the basket. AJSD BEATTTT. and shonld grow out of and be suggested by it whence professed architects. than the orna- ment to the building. Eveiy part of a bailding has beauty. Without entering into a detailed description. Por tHs reason orna- ment in architecture should 1)e snhordinate to use. the base of the capital he the tile. And lie splendour borrows all its rays from sense. and placed over an acanthus root as the branches . from a love of gaudy magniis the sake of ostentation. made to represent the basket. is one of the three ancient Greek Orders of architecture shaft is taller in its proportion than that of either of the others. or for it may be observed that either ornament. CaUimachus was struck with the object." CarintJiian Order. if accimiu- an excessive degree. till. dependent on therefore its peculiar 405. to which the column of Beauty . often construct more beautiful buildings than persons with whom beauty is the chief consideration. devoid of beauty . they met with an obstruction. with their whom the idea of decoration is predominant. it . Accordingly it has been observed that the use of civil engineers. STEENGTH. the very pretty story. of its origin will sufficientiy explain the style of the capital young lady. which "Vitru- vius tells us. arriving at the tile. and turned downwards. . and he made a drawing of leaves. and its capital is profusely ornamented. whose attention is solely directed to that which they plan. " 'Tis use alone that sanctifies expense.

he flourished during the reign of Augustus. tlie and have taken some of Smeaton. are exhibited representatives of the by the Wardens as two Hirams by whose power and talent Solomon was enabled to construct and beautify the house of Grod. ILLrSTEATIOlfS 01' rEEEMASONET. "Strength and beauty are in his sanctuary.. for mere brute is no king saved by the multitude of an host strength. which signifies beauty in some places. he calls on the people to "seek the Lord in his strength. in Ps. strength and "Grod our refiige and strength. : —" There man .) are in his presence is . xxiiii. moulded contour from the bole of an oak that had withstood the tempests of ages. which expressive of confidence.406 to UB . The union of these two qualities in his holy tabernacle is proclaimed by David in the Psalms. as far as human calculation may its venture to surmise. To conclude : —The Hebrew word IDJ. and in strength." is In Ps. ahout the hirth of Christ." and 1 Chron. As wisdom is practically represented by the Master. . in the psalm of thanksgiving which he composed for Asaph on the Ark being placed in the tabernacle. succeeded in fixing upon the dangerous rock of the Eddystone a lighthouse that has resisted for a hundred years the violence of the sea. Prom the form we have some of the choicest of our ornaments. to establish it. of vegetables and beauty of Nature. refers to a dwelling or the tabernacle. naneh." strength. will endui-e many centuries. deliver a mighty is not delivered by : much An horse is a vain thing for safety neither shall he any by his great strength. who first most useful hints in architecture. so strength and beauty." The strength force which is referred to is with commendation or praise in the Sacred Volume is set Godlike majesty and puissance at nought.. the Irxxiv. the pillars that complete the triform supports of a Mason's Lodge. xvi. xlvi." and he tells them that " glory and honour gladness in his place. Wisdom. " Blessed is man whose strength is in thee." (Ps. and.

Let us ia sbrengfh be clothed in the armour of righteousness. AlTD BEArTT. let and to whatever station the providence of God may please to us adorn it with the heawty of holiness. to use the language of David. . STEEKGTH.). "Worship the Lord in the hewwty of holiness " planation is —^which hy the marginal ex- " in his holy sanctuary. There we are instructed that the fear of the Lord is the begiuning of toisdom. If thus. call us." and David also says. " we set (Ps. xvi. the designations ports received from our ancient brethren. and the enjoyment of that presence our exceeding great reward hereafter. teaching must infallibly and carefid perusal of the Book of Life."VrrSBOM. like Ghd always hefore us him we shall not be moved. and happy is the man that findeth it. and endeavour to grow more and more into the likeness of Grod. are proofe of the gent use they made of the Sacred Volume of God's thus a study of our Lastitution and require a frequent its Law and . 407 Singers were appointed by JeLoshaphat to "praise the Lord in the heauty of holiness. and onr Masonic supdili- many more might be selected. The apprehension of his omnipresence will be the guard of our conduct and the support of our steps here .'' Prom these passages.

are displayed by three others of triangular form. himself. to patience godliness to godliness brotherly kindness and to brotherly kindness chai-ity. " add to your faith virtue to virtue knowledge . These virtues are enforced in various parts of the enlarged upon in the first lecture and of Craft Masonry. the second generous. Hope.CHAPTER XXIV. these. PAITH." rituals. Peter exhorts his readers to the : what we are accustomed to call the cardinal virtues . Belief. Am) CHAEITY. and the third just. . his neighbour. and . temperance . HOPE. and representing the virtues of Faith. in the Ancient and Accepted Rite. Sope. as already described. and their importance inculcated in our Lectures. and Beauty. and Charity. to knowledge . In Craft Masonry the supporting piUars of the Lodge. The first renders us affectionate and kind. and Truth. is Thb tliree great principles upon whicli our Order fonnded. and Charity. given to them in those degi-ees that have especial reference to Christianity (the degrees being not antagonistic to the Craft Degrees. but in reality an expansion of thom). are the precepts most strongly enforced hence the points to dii-eot the steps of the aspirant to higher honours are Faith. A more wide extension is. In his second practice of Epistle. St. The great duties of man to God. Strength. . to temperance patience . are the three architectural columns denominated Wisdom. is are Brotherly Love. however.

is the basis of all Christian virtues. T . either as proceeding from God. the matter out of which it was composed. or affection. Faith we believe in the existence of ancient . whether for pardon or other blessings. AlTD CHAEITT. also of persons formerly living. who assents to and obeys the truths of Grod. is Faith the full assurance or personal conviction of the . does not become a creature so ignorant and so feeble as its possibility. it must also be scrupnlously investigated before since the grossest of be received and acted upon. entitled to our adherence. and is defined to be a disposition of mind by which we hold for certain the matter gives life The Faith that produces good works It to a righteous man. until its character is proved to be genuine it is. as Egypt. who reveals his truths to man. HOPE. as Abraham. &c. though we can form no conception of. man. or obedience. it is not entitled to reception until after examination and confirmation. undergo and The more genuine the more readily sustain the trial. kind in the Name Nor is Divine. testimony assuming to be aU deceptions have been imposed on manof God. Himian testimony. Babylon. in reference to human things. Faith is a reliance on testimony : if it human testimony. reality of things not seen it looks backward to past ages as well as forward to futurity. though not immediately apparent to human discernment. and the more clearly will its character appear. David. is But after a testimony. a it maxim. also of distant places. relying on his promises. cities. by which. Faith is taken also for a firm confidence in God. to dispute the obedience to which or to question the beneficial consequences attached to it. may be considered. and really it will from Heaven. &c. we be address ourselves without hesitation to Trini. or from man. much less can we see. to doubt it is entitled. By . in reference to divine things. 409 Faith affirmed. or a command proved to be Divine. By Faith we believe that the world was originally created by God.FAITH. as Jerusalem.

And ' It is written. and expects no harm " Eeceives with joy the promises He makes. Faith is that firm conviction of the promises and threatenings of God. Paul's Faith is the firm and assured expectation of things hoped the evidence of things not seen. Reposing every care upon her God. of rewards and punishments beyond the grave. looks forward with realizing belief in the existence of heaven and hell. and with the power and wisdom of the Supreme and words in the original are. she disbelieves it not Where reason would examine. not such as are restricted to this world. believing what is God has promised He able to perform. so never seen as yet Noah by Paith built the ark. " Faith. like a simple unsuspecting child. quitted the honours and pleasures of Egypt. Paitli anticipates things Jesus Christ." Those things not seen by sense. Universal Judge.' answers every doubt. and yet made manifest. so Moses. although no general deluge had ever then been witnessed. However dark. St. which enables a man in spite of temptations to obey his Creator in expectation of an invisible reward hereafter. but such as coincide with the immortality of the soul. However deep be the mysterious word. and the rewards of the life to come. Can this be so ? The Lord has " and there needs no more. Sleeps on his bosom. Faith obeys. and so every pious man. and the certain reality of the rewards and punishments of the all life to come.410 ILlTrSTEATIONS OF TBEEMASOKET. . &a. are the being of God. " for. Securely resting on its mother's arm. Nor questions of his purpose or his power ' And does not doubting ask said it. actuated by Faith in the descent of the Messiaih from Israel.

but it also up in heaven. or unseen things and we read of the " fiiU assurance of eheerftil is hope. to glory. or pro- on Divine promises. all —which is a confident expectation of fiitare good.FAITH. and the happiness of Heaven. . Mope and by fixture is distinguished fix>m Paith by its desire of good only. fi'om. unmoved amidst surrounding storms. and eternal life. conviction. admits of degrees it is it is sometimes confident feeble. . We are therefore said to be "saved desire. promises and perfections The hope of the Israel was. it is and proof against shame or hesitation it is sometimes limited to things extends beyond this world." HOPE." by the hope. or . the end of the Babylonish Captivity. of by hope. " As evening's pale and solitary star 411 But brightens while the darkness gathers round. " Experience produoeth hope. immortality. combines purity of heart and obedience. is yet life. with rejoicing. when the result of experience. its reference to fiiturity. however or be founded it may refer to Divine things." which may be taken as synonymous with and earnest expectation. hope of eternal blessings. moted by. with expectation. and that is. with waiting. and with reason . AITD CHAEITT. near or to things likely to possessions laid . —like but other graces. Coming of the Messiah. with devout and firm reliance on the of God." Hope. hope of a foture resurrection. aad refers to things past as well as to things . but this is not the case with Hope. HOPE. The T 2 . the Sacred a reasonable hope. and hope maketh not ashamed. Is &irest seen in darkness most profound. for the hope of a pious man. Faith contemplates evil as well as good. It is repeatedly connected with patience. So Faith. or be derived Spirit. In the New Testament it generally taken for hope in the Messiah.

'Tis all our present state can safely bear Health to the frame. 12) are captivity. of all passions.412 ILIiTJSTEATIONS OF rEEEMASONBT. or they shall live and die without hope. his Paradise below. the fetal lid. which the poet expresses by saying. like a cordial. Joy has her Hope. as detailed by the inspired penman. that Epimetheus received Pandora. afterthought. wlio were in is but in hopes of deliverance. indicates his change of resolution." : The Greek fable is too instructive to be omitted " In the house of Epimetheus there was a large box which ftdl of curiosity. tears. mild and sweet. as our parent Eve disregarded . Like the 'Tis fair summer evening. innocent Man's heart at once inspirits and serenes. There is a curious analogy fall between this more ancient tradition and the account of the first parents. may denote the purity and wisdom of our . " their hope shall not be confounded hope of the ungodly shall perish. and vigour to the mind. The poet Young is eloquent in its commendation : " Hope. A joy attempered. The curiosity of first Pandora violates the injunction of the oracle. ix. and Transport has her death though strong. Pro- metheus." it. lifted Pandora. most befriends us here Passions of prouder name befriend us less. after he had been cautioned by Prometheus not to do it. The Lord the . Nor makes him pay his wisdom for his joys. and Hope on of our this was alone secured. forethought. shall be without effect. early progenitor before he yielded to temptation Epimetheus." Hope " the of the righteous. terrified and at spread themselves over the earth. length regained sufficient presence of The mind female to close the lid. tlie Israelites prisoners of hope (Zech. and immediately aU evils issued forth. an oracle had forbidden to be opened. a chastised delight. and his yielding to the arguments of Eve . man's full cup.

regular and artificial gradation. and closes the cata- Charity.FAITH. for she closed the lid of the fetal box before conld escape . connected by various lations. Hope and this she did. though he be a stranger or thee. stitution of the Jubilee. brotJierly Jcincbiess . a.'' and perance. compre- hends all the social virtues which depend upon our relation to ties in life. the first to ofiend. the author of human woes. AITD CHAEITT. May not Hope thus secured be that hope and expectation of a Kedeemer. gives us the earliest injunction in the law of C!harity and beneficence. has connected all the life several virtues that form the and complete the character of : a good virtue. and to temperance patience . and to godliness chaeitt. moreover. or universal love. thou shalt relieve him. as re- one another as men. the all 413 commands of her Maker. and to patience goAliness . is the author likewise of their chief and. benevolence. added as a supplement to brotherly logue of the cardinal virtues. T 3 But so general is the law of . Peter. man under the new covenant " Add to your faith to knowledge tem- and to virtue hnowleige. that he may live with Thus under the Mosaic in dispensation there was an express exhortation to the practice of the law of CSiarity . in fact. but from the seed of the woman. Pandora. only solace .) Our Grand Master Moses. and to brotherly is kindness Charity. friends." sojourner. and St." (Barker's Lempriere. yea. according to Hesiod. which has been traditional from the earliest ages of the world? Even so our first parents commit the fetal sin of disobedience . was to spring One who should be the hope and only solace of our race. and neighbours. in compliance with the will of Jove. which was to take place every fiftieth year. or in stating the law for the in- Tear of Liberty. " If thy brother be waxen poor and feUen into decay with thee. in this sense. HOPE.

for if we are the poor widow with her two mites will far outdo us in that very virtue should be distinguished. although almsgiving it is is them by no means the whole of beneficence. And He may and in plenty. is kind. but that others enjoy a due share of them it. both our charity and our generosity should hear some decent and deficient. not merely for themselves to enjoy in a vulgar sense. In general. the circumstances of the . Paul has determined that " though they bestow all their goods to feed the poor. all all things. believeth things. by which our MaJcer justly expects we Nor is it sufiioient to give plentifully our means but we should do it on every needful and not stay till occasion. Paul test shows the nature and extent of this virtue is "Charity suffereth long. liberal proportion to our abilities . peace. hatred." yet if they have not the charity to act in other respects as they ought. that St. rejoiceth not in iniquity. hut rejoioeth in the heareth . a courteous justice. and jealousy. hopeth all things endureth How extensive is this virtue. "it will profit nothing. thinketh no evil truth. Now St. By the comprehensive virtue of Charity we may whilst secure good order." But still. and obliging bearing. according to . suspicion. and charity vaunteth not itself itself. impatience and anger." all things. equity. charity envieth not. the love of truth and kindness and forbearance. It drives from the heart of man pride. integrity. yet an essential part in those hath given them all whom things God hath richly qualified for it. speedily. and envy. and ! how all fimitful of blessing to mankind It cuts up by the root the causes of contention and mischief. doth not hehave is unseemly. and happiness iu this world. It plants in room of them. seeketh not her own.414 ILIiTTSTEATIOlfS OP JfBEEMASOlfET. animosity. and they the pleasure of imparting —the worthiest and highest enjoyment of wealth that can be. it opens to us the prospect of a better. . it good-will to-wards men. not easily provoked. not puffed up. extends to our very enemies.

Now if these men are in earnest. though their very large and extensive. represents others as lovely as possible. because his mind cannot reach them. is . poor applicant says. the most lovely of virtues. most advantageous point of view their good qualities their &ilings. Go. namely. and to relieve distress by almsgiving. but this charitable shade their office is daily in their power." (Prov. Solomon Say not unto thy neighbour.FAITH. as a painter and dwells entirely on the dark of low rank throws those beauties into darkness and shade which his eye cannot endure to behold. and to rescue an injured one from obloquy ! may have little is or none. that by our means the miseries of God's creation are lessened. are inclinations are cramped within a narrow sphere. to extenuate . Charity. It does not merely let us see an object as it it lets it is a Idnd of sunshine.) again to-morrow. what and gold. but better than such as they have they silver may give. Our Grand Master iii. " AND CHAEITT. and to set out in the . By the practice is of these virtues. the shining parts of a man's side of it. there is one kind of charity which will not be expensive to themselves. It is their abilities to do good. which brightens what all us see whereas Ul-natore passes over character. HOPE. The truly Masonic virtues of Beneficence and Charity are enforced in the most impressive manner on our first admission to the light of Masonry. we shall feel how delightful it to think. and I wiU give. — ^to cast in neighbour's misconduct. Their worldly circumstances may not enable them to cherish merit by their generosity. and yet endear them to their fellow-creatures. 415 are beyond recovery. and to do justice to their virtues Silver or gold they to draw an obscure character into the light. and at every meeting the charitable . and come 28. a good name and reputation to their neigh- bours. no unusual thing to hear some men complaining that and to abound in works of charity.

and altbough guage enforced these than the poet Prior. in obedience to what Heaven decrees. endless good diffuse. she easily forgives. Lays the rough paths of peevish nature even. And much she suffers. Knowledge shall fail. Softens the high and rears the abject mind reins Knows with just Betwixt vile and gentle hand to guide pride. modest. as she much beheves Soft peace she brings wherever she arrives. and endless praise receive. and prophecy shall cease : ! But lasting Charity's more ample sway. Thus. kind. we can find none more eloquently " Chaeitt. She builds our quiet. as she forms our lives. easy.416 ILIXTSTKATIONS 01' TEEEMASONET. An happy triumph And shall for ever live. bestows. And finishing its act exists no more. shame and arbitrary Not soon provoked. Nor bound by time. decent. And opens in each heart a gift little heaven. many pens have in powerful lanvirtues." . brought before tbe institutions of tte Order are prominently !Praternity. Each other which God or man His proper bound and due restriction its knows To one fixt purpose dedicates power. nor subject to decay.

Twentythird Degree. Androgynous Masonry. Consecration of a Lodge." 62. Chief of the Tabernacle. Elect 80. Conclave. 144.. Chapter of Clermont. 248. Doctrine of the. 176. on the Tan. Armorial Bearings of the Order. 311.ofRoBe-Croix. " Blest Masonry. Ma- Fellow-Craft Degree. Psalm cxxxlii. 224. " To Heaven's High Architect. Truth Rite. Baptism. Crusades. Brockweil. Brother. Cherubim. 154. Ark Degrees. 175. 305. 379. — —— Charges. 87. 97. Elected Cohens." 64. 77. 44. 1. Anthem. Adoniramite Rite. 332. Relief. Druses. and Truth. on Masonry. 263. 333. 92. Equilateral Triangle." 64. 351. Symbolic Painting in Ceylon. 47. 165. Dr. 299. Excellency of Masonry.INDEX. 256. 347. Beneficence and Charity. Clarke. 326. and Charity. Nine. 59. 165. 351. " HaQ to the Craft. of the Trinity. to. Cyrus. 81. . 352. 199. on Bochart on the Chembim. 381." 63. Dates of Masonry. Bahrdt's Rite. Cube. and Accepted Rite. distingnishing characteristics of Masonry. 224. Charges and Regulations to the Master. Fawcett. 56. Elements. Faith. 78. Ecclesiastical Guilds. Academ J of Secrets in the Sixteenth Centniy. Rev. Brotherly Love.246. Masonry. 305. Tomb of. Bryant on Serpent Worship. 346. . English Rite. Entered Apprentice. 40. 349. Adoptive Kite. Ancient Mysteries. on sonry. Gland. 149. 72. Charge Initiation. Acacia. 298. Masonic. Council of Emperors of East and West. Rev. 22. Hope. Charity the Comer Stone. Anglo-Saxon Guilds. 217. Ninth Degree. Cudworth on Deity. C. " Let there be Light. 408. remarks on the. Dalcho's Address. ]4o. 352. 377. 68. at Mourg-Aub. 325. Degree. Tenth Degree. of Fifteen. Charges to Officers. 165.. Accepted. 297. 331. 177. Song. Badge of a Mason. 339.

Twelfth ninth Degree. 278. 140.418 IMDEI. Pontiff. 329. Brazen Serpent. advantageous results. Freemasonry in its General Application. 134. 235. of the Rose. the Twenty-fifth Degree.Scotch Knight. 346. Uluminati. Guilds. - 348. 191. Fei'guBBon on Buddhist Architecture. on Mark Degree. Kadosh. 120. Leeson. 196. 188. Andrew. Master Architect. T.243. Hutchinson on the Crusades. Laws for Government. the Black and White Eagle. M. Friendship. tions. Master. 272. Heredom. Hanseatic League. Malta. 133. 220. 286. 272. 271. Inquisitor Commander. Josephus on the Cherubim. Intendant of Buildings. 142. 60. on Masonry. 100. 237. Gr. Dr. Ragon on. Knights-Templar Encampments on the Continent. 41.ison. Scriptural Illustra- . Historical Legend of the Royal Arch. 348. 247. 339. 45. Harris. Five Orders of Architecture. Gervase of Canterbury on the Travelling Masons. 193. the Sword and the East. H. Points of Fellowship. 293. on Third Degree. Fessler's Eite. Fellowes on Royal Arch Degree. Lecture of Second Degree. Commander of the Temple. 195. 267. 's Charge. i Mark Anthem. of Perfection. Definition of. First Lecture.. 175. 239. Fourteenth Degi-ee. Trading. Gower. Brother. 91. 22. the Mediterranean Pass. Eighth Degree. remarks on. 304. 166. Knight of Constantinople. Degree. John. . 229. the Seventeenth Degree. Elected Knia-ht Kadosh. 140. . Twentieth Degree. on Behaviour. Hymns. Nymphs 349. 336. and others on the Name. 353. 252.. 24. Sixth Degree. Fifteenth Degree. Installation of Master. - the Sun. on Third Degree. the Red Cross. thePelicanandEade. Order. Brother Dr. Prince of Jerusalem. Nineteenth Degree. 189. 192. Twenty-seventh Degree. 47. 147. Lodge. 70. 250. East and West. 307. St. a Mason. Twenty-eighth Degree. . of Avignon. Hoplcins. 51. Thirtieth Degree. French Rite. Friendly Admonitions. 272. 2o8. Formation of a Lodge. Ceremony of Opening and Closing a. Rev. Rev. M. Government of the Fraternity. 349. 84. 163.. 261. 202. Honour. Knights and Ladies of the Dove. 229. Thirty-first Degree. 66. Twenty- General Advantages of Masonry. Intimate Secretary. 69. 251. B. Master ad Vitam. 309. 22fa'. 36. 302. Sixteenth Degree. 223. Address on Consecration. 349.

340. Pluche on Kadosh. Provost and Judge. Michaud on the Cmsades. 185. or Knight of — Knights Templar. 344.INDEX. 348.Heredom and Rosy Cross. Rev. 342. Dr. Mustard-seed Rite. Ramsay. Serpent Worship. Degree. Mopses. Principles of the Institution. 324. Scriptural Illustrations. 335. . 357. Constituting of. Proposing Members. Oliver. 141. Mizraira. Masonry of present Era. 298. 338. " When orient Wisdom. Ne plus ult)-a. 313. Mark Master's 419 Working Tools. Rites of Freemasonry. on Royal Arch . Rose-Croix Chapters. 341. 41. 347. 332. mony of Installation. Fifth Degree. 274. 166. Philalethes. Charles XIT. Degree. 301. 299. Milne. Secrets of Freemasonry. on the Templara as Masons. Memphis. . Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences. Noachite. 55. Schroeder's Rite. Prince of Lebanon. " Almighty Sire. Order of . Antiquity of. 111. Solomon''s Temple. Roval Arch Chapter. 255. 169.. Masonic Colours. 253. Temple. on Masonry. 38. Zinnendorff. 311. Reformed Rite. Odes. Rite of African Architects. 315. Perfection. Master Mason. 41. 178.. 265. - Officers Sci-ip- and Government. - Eng- land. Martinism. 310. 174. 345. 139. Twenty-sixth Degree. Rosetti on Secret Societies of the Middle Ages. 158. 233. Degree. Rev. 343. 262. 219. 345. 227. Cere- Cosin tume.. Twentyfourth Degree. Officers of. 337. Seventh Degree. Roman Eagle. 132. its Origin. on Masonry. Harodim. Helvetic Rite. 370. Mercy. Reasons for them. the Tabernacle. Pointed Arch. 246. 14. 72. 54. . 343. 249. of the Ninth Arch. 219. New Lodge. Ode. the Royal Axe. 91." 185. 278. 258. Thirteenth Degree. Name of God. Twenty-second Degree. 328. Fourth Degree. Number. 333. 270. 311. 345. 251. 222. 335. Petition for New Lodge. Philosophical Degrees. Mercy. - 249. 292. Dr. ^ on the Ineffable Degrees. 343. 145. Second Degi-ee. Oriental Source of Gothic Architecture. Twenty-first Degree. Rosaic Rite. Pythagoras"'s Symbol of the Triangle. 196. 338. or Luminous Ring. 216. Pagan Altars. 49. Point 'within a circle. Secret Master. 327. Philosophic Scotch Rite. 351. 87. 97. 380. 144. Chevalier. 31. Narbonne Rite. Philo-Judaeuson the Cherubim. Strict Observance. Porta's Association. Mosaic Pavement. Persian Philosophic Rite. Berlin. Perfect Master. Seven." 186. - tural Illustrations. 342. Pentangle of Solomon.

Tessellated Pavement. 139. Temperance. GlLDISliT A. .V. Brother. alluded to by Ezekiel. Memof. " Here's a liealth." 114. .NOTO. Eleventh Degree. and Biautv. ST. Arch Degree. 266. Taylor on Covenants. " Hail. 357. 323. &79. Thirty-third Degree. Twelve Tribes. " Just straiffht from his home. Wisdom." 117. First Members. Sovereign Grant! Inspector Genera]. 278. The. the Knightt-n Guild." 115. Piincc of tlie Uoval Secret. "Let Masoniy. 281. . Templar Encampments of England and Wales. Moses. 281. Fortitude. Eighteenth Degree. 171. Templars of Scotland.V.420 INDEX.arle'B. of Aldenham AbVeils of the Tabernacle. UiNUd. 306. Masonry. Virtue. Webb a. 197. Third Degree. . 90. Temple of Solomon. . bey. 311. . True Masons. Standards of 379. 177. 33G. 295. 206. Stow on 165. Tribunal of Thirty-first Degree. 339. Formation of 205. PBINIERS. Fellow-Craft. Sublime Elect. 383. 225. " AViicn a Tjodge. 381. Supreme Council." 119. Swedish Rile." ." 95. on Royal Strength. 325. 49. " Genius of Masonry." 93. .ND niVI. 344. Swedenhorg's Rite. Tacitus on Herod's Temple. Prudence. Prince of Rose-Croix Heredom. Wren Regulations 130. Thirty-second Decree. 99. on the Apocalypse. 88. 317. the. Present bers. Mark Hymns. " Tn all your dealings. Tan. 241. 174. 202. JOH-n's SQUAIIK. Song. York Rite. and Justice. THE KN'D. Stuart. 81. on Gothic Architecture. Von Hammer on the Templars. Tools of Entered Apprentice. 'William.

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