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T A Harrison/O Brooker
BS 8500 Concrete – Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-11 replaced BS 5328 Concrete2 on 1 December 3 2003. While BS 8500 is intended to be used alongside Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures , there will be an 4 interim period where designers will continue to use BS 8110 . BS 8500 gives guidance on specifying concrete including the assessment of concrete cover and strength for durability, therefore tables 3.2 and 3.3 of BS 8110 should be regarded as being superseded. This publication gives guidance on the application of BS 8500 to the design of concrete structures using BS 8110. The guidelines given in BS 8500 for durability are based on the latest research and therefore recommended strength, cover, cement content and water/cement ratios for similar exposure conditions do vary compared to guidance given in BS 8110. In the less severe exposed conditions BS 8500 generally has less onerous requirements, whilst for more severe exposed conditions the requirements are different and reference may well have to be made to the full standard.
Information for the Design of Concrete
2.1 Exposure classification Initially the relevant exposure condition(s) should be identified. As opposed to BS 8110 where exposure is based upon relative severity (mild, moderate, severe etc.), BS 8500 exposure classification is related to the deterioration processes of carbonation, ingress of chlorides, chemical attack from aggressive ground and freeze/thaw (see Table 1). All of these deterioration processes are sub-divided. There will always be one and often more than one relevant exposure class for each concrete element. Indeed each face of the element should be considered in turn and the exposure class or classes identified so that the requirements of every exposure class are met.
a Corrosion induced by chlorides other than from sea water (XD classes) (where concrete containing reinforcement or other embedded metal is subject to contact with water containing chlorides. a Corrosion induced by chlorides from sea water (XS classes) (where concrete containing reinforcement or other embedded metal is subject to contact with chlorides from sea water or air carrying salt originating from sea water) Exposed to airborne salt but not External reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces in coastal areas. Exposure XS3 covers a range of conditions. including de-icing salts. . Table 2 indicates the minimum cover and strengths required to meet common exposure conditions for a 50 year working life. parapet edge beams and buried structures less than 1 m below carriageway level. abrasion or chemical abrasion. the notation used gives the cylinder strength as well as the cube strength (see table 3). Horizontal concrete surfaces. such as roads and pavements. Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces in parts of bridges away from direct spray containing de-icing agents. abutments and columns within 10 m of the carriageway. bathrooms. The least extreme is in the tidal zone where conditions can be similar to those in XS2. such as parts of buildings. 2. attack Corrosion induced by carbonation (XC classes)a (where concrete containing reinforcement or other embedded metal is exposed to air and moisture) XC1 XC2 XC3 and XC4 Dry or permanently wet Wet. Chemical attack (ACEC classes) (where concrete is exposed to chemical attack) Refer to section 2. from sources other than from sea water) XD1 XD2 XD3 Moderate humidity Wet. Specialist advice should be sought where appropriate. 2. in many cases.7. The recommendations given take into account the most extreme UK conditions within this class. especially where the dry side is at a high ambient temperature. but exposed to freezing and to rain or water. This table is not intended to cover all concrete exposure situations. XS1 in direct contact with sea water XS2 XS3 Permanently submerged Tidal. splash and spray zones Reinforced and prestressed concrete completely submerged and remaining saturated. where water accumulates and which are exposed to freezing.2 Selecting concrete strength and cover Having identified the relevant exposure condition(s).g. de-icing agent XF3 XF4 High water saturation without deicing agent High water saturation with de-icing agent or sea waterd Horizontal concrete surfaces. use at least XC1.7. NOTE: Need to combine with appropriate ACEC class – see section 2.g. pavements and car park slabs). NOTE: For reinforced concrete. NonXF1 vertical concrete surfaces not highly saturated. Reinforced and prestressed concrete completely buried in soil. rarely dry Moderate humidity or cyclic wet and dry Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces inside structures except areas of structures with high humidity. walls. b concrete below mid-tide level . It is not normally necessary to classify in the XF4 exposure class those parts of structures located in the United Kingdom which are in frequent contact with the sea. Freeze/thaw attack (XF classes) (where concrete is exposed to significant attack from freeze/thaw cycles whilst wet) Moderate water saturation without Vertical concrete surfaces such as facades and columns exposed to rain and freezing. but which are XF2 exposed to de-icing salts either directly or as spray or run-off. exposed to freezing and to deicing salts either directly or as spray or run-off. Note BS 8500-1 refers to ACEC classes rather than XA classes used in BS EN 206-1 a b c d The moisture condition relates to that in the concrete cover to reinforcement or other embedded metal but. Parts of structures exposed to occasional or slight chloride conditions. The most extreme conditions are in the spray zone. Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces permanently submerged in nonaggressive water. e. This might not be the case if there is a barrier between the concrete and its environment. It is important to quote the compressive strength class in full to avoid confusion. Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces directly affected by de-icing salts or spray containing de-icing salts (e.2. Reinforced and prestressed concrete elements where one surface is immersed in water containing chlorides and another is exposed to air are potentially a more severe condition. rarely dry Cyclic wet and dry Concrete surfaces exposed to airborne chlorides. Elements subjected to frequent splashing with water and exposed to freezing. Unreinforced concrete completely buried in X0 reinforcement or embedded metal non-aggressive soil (exposure AC-1). and reference should be made to BS8500 for those cases not included.g. a recommended strength class and cover should be chosen. conditions in the concrete cover can be taken as being that of the surrounding environment. de-icing agent Moderate water saturation with Elements such as parts of bridges. b Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces totally immersed in water containing chlorides .1 Compressive strength BS 8500 uses ‘compressive strength class’ to define concrete strengths. Unreinforced concrete in cyclic wet and dry conditions not subject to where there is no significant freeze/thaw. to develop a specification that is appropriate to the actual conditions likely to be encountered. freezing or chemical attack. Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces in the upper tidal zones and the splash and c spray zones . for further explanation refer to the following paragraphs. External reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces sheltered from. which would otherwise be classified as XF1. kitchens).Table 1: Exposure Classes Class Class description Informative example applicable to the United Kingdom No risk of corrosion or attack (XO class) For concrete without Unreinforced concrete surfaces inside structures. Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces exposed to alternate wetting and drying. or exposed to. Unreinforced concrete permanently submerged in nonaggressive water. Elements subjected to frequent splashing with water containing de-icing agents and exposed to freezing. direct rain Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces inside structures with high humidity (e.
0.50. IIA. 4 ∆c is a variable fixing tolerance – see section 2.55. 3 ⎯ Not recommended For prestressed concrete the minimum strength class should be C28/35.45. XS2 and XS3 should be derived from BS 8500-1: 2002.55.60. Annex A.45. <<<< Indicates that concrete 5 Freeze/thaw resisting aggregates should be specified.40. 340 or RC50 C40/50. 340 or RC50 C40/50.IIB-S.35.6 plus air ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ C25/30. 0. 300 5. . 280 5. 3405. <<<< 0. 0. ⎯ 0. 0.3805 ⎯ C32/40. minimum cement or combination content (kg/m3). 0.50. 0. 340 C35/45.50.3805 C25/30.45.IIB-S. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.45. 0. maximum w/c ratio. 360 C40/22.214.171.124. 380 C45/55. 0.55. IIA. 240 or RC25 ⎯ <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< XC1 AC-1 XC2 All except IVB All ⎯ XF1 XC3 and XC4 All except IVB All except IVB ⎯ ⎯ XF3 Exposed horizontal surfaces XF3(air All entrained) except IVB All except IVB IIB-V. 0. 3405 or RC50XF5 C32/40. 360 C40/50. see section 2. 0. 300 or RC40 C32/40. 0.60. 300 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ C35/45.2.3605 This table comprises a selection of common exposure class combinations.45.45.360 C25/126.96.36.1990 C32/40.40. 380 C45/55.45. 360 <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< C35/45. IIA. 0.6 plus air or PAV2 C40/50. SRPC C32/40. 260 or RC30 C32/40. 0. 340 C40/50. 0. 0.340 C32/188.8.131.52. C32/40.380 C32/40.60.55. 0. and de-icing salts XC3/4 +XF4 XC3/4 +XF4 (air entrained) XC3/4 IIB-V. SRPC IIIB XC3/4 +XF4 CEM I. 0.35.6. IIIA CEM I. 0.55. 380 <<<< C28/35. see section 2.360 C32/40.6 <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< C28/35. 320 C40/50. and equivalent designated concrete (where applicable) Nominal cover to reinforcement4 15 + ∆c 20 + ∆c 25 + ∆c 30 + ∆c 35 + ∆c 40 + ∆c 45 + ∆c 50 + ∆c Typical example Internal mass concrete Internal elements (except humid locations) Buried concrete in AC-1 ground conditions Vertical surface protected from direct rainfall. +XF2 IIIA CEM I. 0. IIA.360 0.3805 C28/35 0.40. 380 C28/35. IIA.7 plus air or PAV1 C28/35.380 C45/55.35. 340 0. <<<< 0. 0. 280 0. <<<< 0.IIB-S. 0. 380 C50/60. 280 5.70.50. C25/30 0.60.380 C35/45. 340 C35/45.360 Vertical elements subject to de-icing spray and freezing XC3/4 +XF2 XD3 IIB-V.50.260 or RC35 or RC30 C28/35.45.380 C35/45.2. 0.Table 2: Selected1 recommendations for normal-weight reinforced concrete quality for combined exposure classes and cover to reinforcement for at least 50 year intended working life and 20mm maximum aggregate size Cement/ combination 2 types Exposure conditions Primary X0 Secondary Strength class3. should not be reduced 7 This option may not be suitable for areas subject to severe abrasion. 0.45. All All Recommended that this exposure is not applied to reinforced concrete C20/25.IIB-S.50. 0. 0. 0.6 <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< Exposed vertical surfaces near coast XS1 Exposed horizontal surfaces near coast 1 CEM I. 0. C32/40. 0.50. 300 or RC40 <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< C28/35. 0. SRPC IIIB Car park decks ramps and external areas subject to freezing. quality in cell to the left 6 Where air entrained concrete is required.5. 280 or RC35 <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< Car park elements subject to airborne chlorides only Car park decks and areas subject to deicing spray XC3/4 XD1 XC3/4 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ C28/35. 340 C35/45. 340 <<<< C32/40. 0.35. 360 C40/50. 0.45. 0.45.40.6.IIB-S. Requirements for other sets of exposure classes eg XD2.65. SRPC IIIB ⎯ C40/50. 2 Key: Refer to Table 4 for further details.40.50.65. 320 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ C45/55. SRPC IIIB C32/40 C32/40. IIIA CEM I. 360 0. 0. Exposed vertical surfaces.60. 3605. 0. 380 C50/60.
the C3A content of the Portland cement fraction does not exceed 10% Portland cement with 36 to 55% of fly ash (pfa) Portland cement with 36 to 40% of fly ash (pfa) CEM I SRPC CEM II/A-L CEM II/A-LL CIIA-L CIIA-LL CEM II/A-S CIIA-S CEM II/A-V CIIA-V CEM II/B-S CIIB-S CEM II/B-V CIIB-V CEM II/B-V+SR CIIB-V+SR b CEM III/A b CIIIA CEM III/B CEM III/B L BIIIB CIIIB CEM III/B+SRb b CIIIB+SR 2. In the UK all cement/combinations are available.7 Aggressive ground Where plain or reinforced concrete is in contact with the ground further checks are required to ensure durability. N/mm2 Letter(s): ‘C’ for normal or heavyweight concrete and ‘LC’ for lightweight concrete (Note strength classes for lightweight concrete differ from those in table 3) 2. 2.3.3.Table 3: Compressive strength class for normal and heavyweight concrete Example Compressive Previous Grade of concrete strength classes (BS 8500) (BS 5328 & BS 8110) C20/25 C25 C25/30 C30 C28/35 C35 C30/37 C32/40 C40 C35/45 C45 C40/50 C50 C45/55 C50/60 C60 Note: Refer to BS 8500-1: 2002. 4. table A. silica fume and metakaolin.4 Cement types and minimum cement content Table 4 can be used to identify the cement/combination designations. ground granulated blastfurnace slag or limestonea Portland cement with 21 to 35% of fly ash (pfa) or ground granulated blastfurnace slag Portland cement with 25 to 35% of fly ash (pfa) Portland cement with 36 to 65% ground granulated blastfurnace slag Portland cement with 66 to 80% ground granulated blastfurnace slag Portland cement with 66 to 80% ground granulated blastfurnace slag where.2 Cover to reinforcement The durability guidance given in BS 8500-1 is based on the assumption that the minimum cover for durability is achieved. see BS 8500 CEM I SRPC IIA Portland cement Sulfate-resisting Portland cement Portland cement with 6 to 20% of fly ash (pfa). but due to their costs will only be used when specifically specified. 2. Where a different working life is required. unless the fabrication is subjected to a quality assurance system where it is permitted to reduce ∆cdev to 5 mm.20 for full list of compressive strength classes Explanation of the compressive strength class notation C40/50 Minimum characteristic cube strength. When using a designated concrete it is not necessary to specify the types of cement/combinations. It should be noted from Table 2 that the strength. 2. Eurocode 2 recommends that ∆cdev is taken as 10 mm.5% should be specified for 40mm. BRE Special Digest 1 gives guidance IIB IIB+SR IIIA IIIB IIIB+SR IVB IVB+SR a CEM IV/B PIV/B-V CIVB CEM IV/B PIV/B-V+SR CIVB There are a number of other second main constituents. i.6 Freeze/thaw aggregates For exposure conditions XF3 and XF4 freeze/thaw resisting aggregates should be specified.3 Intended working life The recommendations in BS 8500-1 are for an intended working life of ‘at least 50 years’ should be followed to achieve a durability equivalent to that obtained using BS 8110. water/cement ratio and minimum cement content may vary depending on the cement type used. if the alumina content of the slag exceeds 14%. It is recommended that these values are adopted when using BS 8500 with BS 8110. N/mm2 Minimum characteristic 150mm diameter by 300mm cylinder strength. not both. An allowance should be made in the design for deviations from the minimum cover (∆cdev) this should be added to the minimum cover to obtain the nominal cover.5% or 5. b Inclusive of low early strength option . reference should be made to BS 8500-1. 20mm and 10mm maximum aggregate size respectively. Table 4: Guide to cement/combination type designations Designation Composition Cement/combination types. The producer is then obliged to conform to the requirements given in BS 8500-2: 2002. The nominal cover and permitted deviation should be clearly stated on the drawings.2. (except SRPC) although in most concrete production plants either ground granulated blastfurnace slag or pulverizedfly ash is available.0%. Table 3.5 Air content Where air entrainment is required for exposure classes XF3 and XF4 the minimum air content by volume of 3. 3. 2. .e. An aggressive chemical environment for concrete class (ACEC class) should be assessed 5 for the site.
Note: At the time of writing Special Digest 1 is under review and is being simplified.e. however. refer to BS 8500. e 2. instead reference should be made to BS 8204-2 or Concrete Society 7 Technical Report 34 . For designated concretes. therefore. f Excluding Portland-limestone cement and equivalent combinations. d For section widths <140mm refer to BS 8500. see section 3 for specification requirements. minimum cover plus an allowance for deviation) should be a minimum of 75mm for concrete cast directly against the earth and 40mm for concrete cast against blinding.55. Knowing the ACEC class and the thickness of the section. Table 7.h DC-3z/1 DC-3/2i Table 6: Guidance on selecting designated concrete for reinforced concrete foundations DC-2 FND2 DC-2z FND2Z DC-3 FND3 DC-3z FND3Z DC-4 FND4 DC-4z FND4Z Note: Strength class for all FND concrete is C28/35. It should not exceed 0. h Only APM3 (surface protection) is recommended (not applicable to bored piles). Where any surface attack is not acceptable e.3. refer to BS 8500. for fire cover. 2.9 Concrete cast against uneven surfaces To comply with the requirements of paragraph 3. refer to BS 8500. refer to BS 8500. For designed concretes the concrete producer should be advised of the DCclass. In these situations. Water/cement ratio Water/cement ratio is of great importance. AC-1s AC-1 AC-1s (DS-2) AC-2s AC-2z AC-2 AC-3s AC-3z AC-3z (DS-2) AC-3 AC-4s AC-4z AC-4z (DS-2) AC-4 AC-5z AC-5 a Where the hydrostatic head of groundwater is greater than five times the section width. the cover should be determined from table 2 for the applicable exposure classes. Coarse and fine aggregates should not contain soft or friable materials Dry shake finishes Dry shake finishes can be used to enhance the surface properties in high abrasion locations. i This should include APM3 (surface protection). an appropriate foundation concrete (FND designation) can be selected using table 6.on the assessment of the ACEC class and this is normally carried out as part of the interpretive reporting for a Ground Investigation. Factors affecting the abrasion resistance of concrete floors Factor Effect Power floating Power finishing and in particular repeated power trowelling is a significant factor in creating abrasion resistance. refer to BS 8500. c For structural performance outside these values refer to BS 8500. Reducing to 0. the number of APMs may be reduced. A FND concrete has the strength class of C30/35.4 of BS 8110 the nominal cover (i. refer to BS 8500. Table 5: Selection of the DC-class and the number of Addition Protection Measures (APMs) where the hydrostatic head of groundwater is not more than five times the section widtha ACEC-class (Aggressive Chemical Environment for Concrete class) DC-class/number of b APMs Normal structural performance level (Intermediate life structures (30 to 100 years)c Section Section width 150 width mm to 450d >450e mm mm DC-1/0 DC-1/0 DC-1/0 DC-1/0 DC-1/0 DC-1/0 DC-2/0 DC-2z/0 DC-2/0 DC-3/0 DC-3z/0 f DC-3z/0 DC-3/2 DC-4/0 DC-4z/0 f DC-4z/0 DC-4/2 f.g.h DC-4z/1 DC-4/2i DC-1/0 DC-1/0 DC-1/0 DC-2/0 DC-2z/0 f DC-2z/0 DC-2/2 DC-3/0 DC-3z/0 f DC-3z/0 DC-3/2 f. DC-4 or DC-4m is given or derived. APM4 (sacrificial layer)should not be used. where a higher strength is required a designed concrete should be specified. use the recommendations given in the 150 mm to 450 mm column. where practicable. except in floors in very aggressive environments where the surface is expected to be worn away. b Where DC-3. as one of the APMs. . with friction piles. a design chemical class (DC class) can be obtained from table 5.50 is likely to increase abrasion resistance but lowering further is unlikely to give further enhancement Aggregates Coarse aggregate usually has no direct effect on abrasion resistance.4 of BS 8110.8 Fire design Having selected concrete cover and strength to meet the durability requirements of BS 8500. 2. Table 7 summarises the factors that affect the abrasion resistance of floors. the nominal cover should be checked in accordance with Table 3.10 Abrasion 6 BS 8500 does not contain abrasion classes.1. excessive repetitions of the process do not necessarily further enhance performance Curing Prompt and efficient curing is essential in order to retain sufficient water in the surface zone to complete hydration and the development of concrete strength at and close to the surface Cement content Cement content should not be less than 325 kg/m3 Cement contents above 360 kg/m3 are unlikely to enhance abrasion resistance and excessive cement content can impair the power finishes process.
10. Table 9 gives the slump and flow classes and the likely target slump/flow. Where this is not adopted. however.2 The specifier Figures 1 and 2 show standard specification forms produced by the Quarry Products Association (which can be downloaded from http://www.qpa. called the specification.20. b) in cases of doubt. the designer will want to ensure his requirements are incorporated and this will normally be through his own specification for the works (e. the concrete needs to be pumped or a high quality finish is required. Identity testing can include strength. which should be specified as class Cl0.g. e.40 except for 8 concrete made with cement conforming to BS 4027 (SRPC). The most popular are Designated and Designed.1 Specification Method of specifying As with BS 5328 there are various methods of specifying concrete to BS 8500 (see table 8). Figures 1 and 2 have been annotated to indicate which information is typically provided by the designer and contractor. Similar tables are included in the National Structural Concrete Specification (NSCS) An important change in BS 8500 is that the ‘specifier’ is the person or body responsible for the final compilation of the technical requirements.5 Conformity Under BS 8500. the concrete producer is now required to follow a formal procedure called ‘conformity’ to verify that the concrete is in accordance with the specification. high strength columns. which is in all but in name acceptance testing. certain information must be provided in addition to the specification. It is therefore recommended that the concrete supplier should have third party certification.7 Exchange of information To enable the concrete producer to design and produce a suitable concrete.4 Chloride Class Concrete that is to be prestressed or heat cured should normally be specified as chloride class Cl0. 3. There are a number of situations where it is recommended: a) where the producer does not hold third party certification. with theNSCS). Reinforced concrete should be specified as class Cl0. . d) for spot checks on the producer.org/pro_rea) for designated and designed concretes.3 3. Table 8: Methods of Specifying Concrete BS 8500 Designated concrete Designed concrete Prescribed concrete Standardized prescribed concrete Proprietary concrete BS 5328 (superseded by BS 8500 1 Dec 2003) Designated mix Designed mix Prescribed mix Standard mix No equivalent 3.g. Table 9a: Consistence Slump classes and likely target values Slump class Target slump (mm) S1 20 S2 70 S3 130 S4 190 Table 9b: Consistence Flow classes and likely target values Flow class Target flow (mm) F2 380 F3 450 F4 520 F5 590 3. consistence and air content. the specifier is advised to adopt adequate identity testing to ensure the concrete is as specified. 3. e. 3. 3.g. BS 8500 also introduces a new method ‘Proprietary concrete’. The designer should require that any reported non-conformities are passed to them for assessment. This will generally be the Contractor. which is passed to the concrete producer.3 Consistence The term ‘workability’ has been replaced by the term ‘consistence’ and a series of consistence classes has been introduced.6 Identity testing The specifier is responsible for organising any identity testing. c) for critical elements.
maximum aggregate size. minimum cement content. chloride class.55 0. Figure 2: Specification of Designed Concrete .70 300 240 XX 20 20 XX 10 Designer specifies compressive strength class. target density (excluding normal weight concrete). - - - Figure 1: Specification of Designated Concrete Slab Cols Pads C28/35 C25/30 C32/40 2z 0. any additional requirements and completes exchange of information section. maximum aggregate size and any additional requirements FND2z RC30 RC40 10 48m3 6m3/day Skip + tamped 1200m3 18m3/hr Pumping + float 72m3 6m3/day Skip + tamped N/A N/A N/A Contractor specifies consistence. any additional requirements and completes exchange of information section. design chemical class. maximum water/cement ratio. requirement for third party product conformity certification (recommended) and 48m3 72m3 1200m3 6m3/day 18m3/hr 6m3/day Skip + tamped Pumping + float Skip + tamped N/A - N/A - N/A Contractor specifies consistence. cement or combination types (unless design chemical class is specified).Designer specifies concrete designation.
BS8500: 2002 (in two parts). BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION Concrete. BS 5328 (in four parts). BRE Special Digest 1. Concrete Society CS149. bases and in-situ floorings – Part 2: Concrete wearing surfaces – Code of Practice. prEN 1992-1-1: April 2004 BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION The structural use of concrete.4 Further Advice The above concepts are introduced in The new concrete standards – getting started9 and described in more detail in Standards for fresh concrete – The application of BS EN 206-1 and BS 8500. BS 8204-2:1999. References 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION Concrete – Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1. T A The new concrete standards – getting started. 2003. . this is a derived document and is a composite of BS EN 206-1 and BS 8500 together with additional guidance and commentary. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION Eurocode 2: design of concrete structures – Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings. HARRISON. 2003 BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION Specification for sulfate–resisting Portland cement. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION Screeds. 2003.Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction. BS4027:1996. Withdrawn by BSI on 1 December 2003. THE CONCRETE SOCIETY Technical Report 34: Concrete Industrial Ground Floors – A Guide to Design and Construction Concrete Society. BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHEMENT Concrete in Aggressive Ground (in 4 parts). BS 8110-1: 1997.