Prashanthi Gajula Sree Chaitanya Institute of Management and Computer Sciences, LMD Colony, Thimmapor, Karimnagar 505001(A.P.) Mobile num: 9700558784 Abstract
In this paper, the basics of capturing an image, image processing to modify and enhance the images are discussed. There are many applications for Image Processing like surveillance, navigation, and robotics. Robotics is a very interesting field and promises future development so it is chosen as an example to explain the various aspects involved in Image Processing . The various techniques of Image Processing are explained briefly and the advantages and disadvantages are listed. There are countless different routines that can be used for variety of purposes. Most of these routines are created for specific operations and applications. However, certain fundamental techniques such as convolution masks can be applied to many classes of routines. We have concentrated on these techniques, which enable us to adapt, develop, and use other routines and techniques for other applications. The advances in technology have created tremendous opportunities for visual system and image processing. There is no doubt that the trend will continue into the future. form is orthogonal series expansion. Image processing system is typically non-casual system. Image processing is two dimensional signal processing. Due to linearity Property, we can operate on rows and columns separately. Image processing is vastly being implemented by “Vision Systems” in robotics. Robots are designed, and meant to be controlled by a computer or similar devices. While “Vision Systems” are most sophisticated sensors used in Robotics. They relate the function of a robot to its environment as all other sensors do. “Vision Systems” may be used for a variety of applications, including manufacturing, navigation and surveillance.

Brief History
One of the first applications of image processing techniques in the first category was in improving digitized newspaper pictures sent by submarine cable between London and Newyork . Introduction of the Bartlane cable picture transmission system in the early 1920’s reduced the time required to transport a picture across the Atlantic from more than a week. Some of the initial problems in improving the visual quality of these early digital pictures were related to the selection of printing procedures and the distribution of brightness levels. The printing method used to send the picture by specialized printing equipment coded pictures was abandoned towards the end of 1921 in favor of a technique based on photographic reproduction made from tapes perforated at the telegraph receiving terminal whose improvements are evident both in tonal quality and resolution. During this period introduction of a system for developing a film plate via light beams that were modulated by the coded picture tape improved the reproduction process considerably. Improvements on processing methods for transmitted digital pictures continued to be made during the next 35 years. However, it took the combined advents of large scale digital computers and space program to bring into focus the potential of image processing concepts. Work on using computer techniques for improving images from a space probe began at the

Image, ImageProcessing , Surveillance, Robotics, Navigation, Convolution.

Digital Image Processing is concerned with acquiring and processing of an image. In simple words an image is a representation of a real scene, either in black and white or in color, and either in print form or in a digital form i.e., technically a image is a two-dimensional light intensity function. In other words it is a data intensity values arranged in a two-dimensional form like an array, the required property of an image can be extracted from processing an Image .Image is typically by stochastic models. It is represented by AR model. Degradation is represented by MA model. Other

Example: Image Image Restoration: Improving the appearance of an image tend to be based on mathematical or probabilistic models of image degradation. each of which has a particular location and value. When x. this information bears little resemblance to visual features that human beings use in interpreting the contents of an image. Used in image data compression and pyramidal representation (images are subdivided successively into smaller regions) Compression: Reducing the storage requires to save an image or the bandwidth required to transmit it. discrete quantities. Improve image quality for human perception and / or computer interpretation. California in 1964 when pictures of the moon were transmitted which were processed by computer to correct various types of image distortion inherent in the on-board television camera. A digital image is composed of a finite number of elements. These elements are referred to as picture elements. the field of image processing has grown vigorously. Image Enhancement. pels. we call the image a digital image. "You press the button. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard. Examples of the type of information used in machine perception are Statistical moments. . Often. Wavelets: Foundation for representing images in various degrees of resolution. y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point. Ex. f(x. Fourier transform coefficients. and the amplitude of ‘f’ at any pair of coordinates (x. or simply to highlight certain features of interest in an image. where x and y are spatial (plane) coordinates. To bring out detail is obscured. sophisticated digital image processing takes place inside the camera. The second major area of application of digital image processing techniques is in solving problems dealing with machine perception. When you snap a picture with a digital camera. and multi dimensional distance measures. interest focuses on procedures for extracting from an image information in a form suitable for computer processing. and pixels. y). Other areas of image processing technology include: o 3-D Imaging o Multimedia o In Camera Image Processing Image Processing Inside the Digital Camera: Image Processing: Image processing is a subclass of signal processing concerned specifically with pictures. several things happen almost instantaneously to produce bright colorful images. Example: Index Terms Image: An image may be defined as a two-dimensional function. From 1964 until the present.Jetpropulsion Laboratory at Pasadena. y and the amplitude values of f are all finite. We do the rest" takes on new meaning when you consider that the moment you press the button of a digital camera. In this case. Pixel is the term most widely used to denote the elements of a digital image Distorted Image Image Restorted Color Image Processing: Gaining its importance because of the significant increase in the use of digital images over the Internet. The field of digital image processing refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer. image elements.

yet photography shows us the world in two dimensions. and to improve the image. Scientists are working on cameras and applications that collect and apply the full geometry of world. green and blue patterns. or otherwise alter an image and to prepare it for image analysis. Key Research Areas: o Photography o Software o Computer Graphics o Displays Image Processing Techniques: Image Processing techniques are used to enhance. It is one of the most difficult tasks in DIP. Morphological processing: Tools for extracting image components that are useful in the representation and description of shape. The intention is to remove faults. including histogram Analysis. during image processing information is not extracted from the image. Segmentation. Recent Achievements: Developed with a system that collects images of an object and builds a computer graphic model that can be viewed from any point. and others. While our methods initially are intended for e-commerce. Thresholding. constituting either the boundary of a region or all the points in the region itself. Analysis: The following is the overall view and analysis of Image Processing. Image Segmentation: Computer tries to separate objects separate objects from the image background from the image background. Usually. Finally. trivial information. Smart algorithms in the camera "firmware" respond to the scene data and sharpen the image. 4.Three-dimensional imaging attempts to retain the three-dimensional nature of the world. the camera compresses the image into the JPEG format. 3D Imaging The world about us is three-dimensional. A rugged segmentation procedure brings the process a long way toward successful solution of an image problem Output of the segmentation stage is raw pixel data. Objects now are photo-realistic since the data comes directly from photograph. Light is captured on an image sensor with pixels coated in red. at some point. 3. but not useful. . the technology will be available to consumers. Masking. They blend computer graphics and photography so objects can be viewed from any vantage and still have the detail and richness of photographs. adjusts for exposure and implements automatic noise reduction. 2.1. The system automatically corrects color. The system eliminates much of the time and expense in constructing 3D objects of high quality. improve. Edge Detection. The sensor captures the light and interpolates the scene into full color. or information that may be important. Image processing is divided into many sub processes.

The net effect is a corrupted image that needs to be preprocessed to reduce or eliminate the noise. bad memory chips and low resolution. Vision Systems contains noises. sometimes images are not of good quality. 5. In addition. etc. Noise and Edges produces higher frequencies in the spectrum of a signal. Knowledge Base: A problem domain detailing the regions of an image where the information of interest is known to be located is known as knowledge base. thus. each with a selected threshold.Stages In Image Processing: A problem A solution Thresholding: Thresholding is the process of dividing an image into different portions by picking a certain grayness level as a threshold. Image Acquisition: An image is captured by a sensor (such as a monochrome or color TV camera) and digitized. The purpose of segmentation is to separate the information contained in the image into smaller entities that can be used for other purposes Convolution Masks: A mask may be used for many different purposes. Recognition And Interpretation: Recognition is the process that assigns a label to an object based on the information provided by its descriptors. Various techniques are available to choose an appropriate threshold ranging from simple routines for binary images to sophisticated techniques for complicated images. Noise Reduction: Like other signal processing mediums. Interpretation is assigning meaning to an ensemble of recognized objects. due to both hardware and software inadequacies. To establish the connectivity of neighboring pixels. Some noises are systematic and come from dirty lenses. Segmentation: Segmentation is the generic name for a number of different techniques that divide the image into segments of its constituents. If the output of the camera or sensor is not already in digital form. Representation And Description: Representation and Description transforms raw data into a form suitable for the Recognition processing. we first have to decide upon a connectivity path. 3. and then assigning the pixel to the different portions. 2. Image Acquisition Knowledge Base Recognition and Interpretation nn Preprocessin g Segmentatio n Representatio n and Description Connectivity: Sometimes we need to decide whether neighboring pixels are somehow “connected” or related to each other. in which the image is processed by dividing it into ”layers”. including filtering operations and noise reduction. Edge Detection: Edge Detection is a general name for a class of routines and techniques that operate on an image and results in a line drawing of the image. Connectivity establishes whether they have the same property. coming from the same object. faulty electronic components. 4. Thresholding can be performed either at a single level or at multiple levels. 1. having a similar texture. such that higher frequencies of an image are attenuated while the lower frequencies are not changed very much. The lines represented changes in values such as cross . an analog-to digital converter digitizes it. depending on whether the pixel’s grayness level is below the threshold or above the threshold value. they have to be enhanced and improved before other analysis can be performed on them. such as being of the same region. It helps to limit the search. comparing each pixel value with the threshold. Others are random and are caused by environmental effects or bad lighting. It is possible to create masks that behave like a low pass filter. There by the noise is reduced.

is now taken for granted. once viewed as revolutionary in the imaging industry. emissive displays. Two different approaches are considered for real time processing. there is a long lapse between the time and image is taken and the time a result obtained. Scientists use advanced imaging software to emulate the characteristics of film or digital systems. and some are descriptive.The vision of helping people and businesses tell their stories more effectively through imaging. these scientists are able to save considerable time and effort in the process. image sensors. The images generated are then used in studies in which people choose which pictures they find most pleasing. image processing operations. Image quality modeling was key in selecting the new film and print format sizes and in evaluating proposed features. Recent data transmission and storage techniques have significantly improved image transmission capabilities. In other situations. In a digital camera. The final result is a line drawing or similar representation that requires much less memory to be stored. sharpness and grain to generate the kind of picture quality that a proposed system would deliver. in other situations. camera exposure control and component positioning tolerances were developed with the aid of system performance models. Image Simulation: Image simulation is used to generate actual images based on system models. simulations can eliminate the need for elaborate "breadboard" hardware needed to produce experimental images.can significantly impact image quality. the image is digitized and stored before processing.  How to Manage and Use All That Data The digitization of the imaging industry brings new technical challenges and opportunities. including transmission over the Internet. Real-Time Image Processing: In many of the techniques considered so far. Edge detection is also necessary in subsequent process. Image Data Compression: Electronic images contain large amounts of information and thus require data transmission lines with large bandwidth capacity. and the number of gray levels are determined by the required quality of the image. However. intersections of planes. and colors. some are heuristic. including elements such as optics. scanners. Developers used predictive system modeling to meet image quality targets for the system. in general. Some techniques are mathematically oriented. Drawing on an extensive library of fully characterized images. printers. there is a need for real-time processing such that the results are available in real time or in a short enough time to be considered real time. is much simpler to be processed. In digital imaging. One is to design dedicated hardware such that the processing is fast enough to occur in real time. The other is to try to increase the efficiency of both the software and the hardware and thereby reduce processing and computational requirements.  Making Digital Imaging Easy Is Not So Easy . Simulating new color films and paper emulsions has replaced time-consuming. such a pseudo zoom. specifications for such elements as film design. They manipulate tone scale. as well as differences in shading and textures. All generally operate on the differences between the gray levels of pixels or groups of pixels through masks or thresholds. The requirements for the temporal and spatial resolution of an image. expensive physical experiments in chemical laboratories. Modeling: A key goal for the system designers was for overall image quality to closely match that of current 35mm systems. color. modification of only one component -such as the lens. Scientists work on simulating traditional and digital imaging systems.sections of planes. for example. such as segmentation and object recognition. lines. modeling is used to predict the performance the entire system. textures. Advances in information networking allow applications to seamlessly integrate multimedia into every form of communication. This means that. the number of images per second. or color filter array -. sensor. For hybrid and digital imaging products. This may be acceptable in situations in which the decisions do not affect the process. as well as hybrid systems that combine both technologies. the processing routines require long computational times before they are finished. Ultimately. and saves in computation and storage costs. Image communications: Image communications is what makes digital imaging much more than a mere replacement for film-based technology. capture and display media and human visual responses. although the image is not stored.

As a discipline and in its widest sense. Applications: There is a wide range of applications of the digital image processing. containing positional information).e. Feature detection 4. few f them are 1. Face detection 3.g.000 times. and PDAs converge — and as more powerful editing and organization tools are developed — we will enter a new age of personal imaging in which anyone could produce multimedia content that rivals the quality of today's movies and television programs. Achieving this grand vision will be neither quick nor easy. Medical field and common uses… robot’s hand. and multiple data formats. medical photography and microscopy (e. Here we want to present some of the applications of Image Processing in some fields where it is applied like Robotics. Here a point in the target is obtained by using the Edge Detection Technique. iodine. Hence image processing is used here in the study of robotics. privacy of records.000. this real time image is processed by the image processing techniques to get the actual distance between the hand and the object. Today. for human pathological investigations). Computer vision 2. digital still cameras.Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images. diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and physiology). but employs a constant input of x rays. image communication specialists are creating the infrastructure that could one-day support this vision. Medical imaging Medical imaging refers to the techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal. An image receptor is required to convert the radiation into an image after it has passed through the area of . can be seen as forms of medical imaging. Contrast media. endoscopy. such as barium. Medical image processing 7. Robots capture the real time images using cameras and process them to fulfill the desired action. Here the base wheel of the robot’s hand is rotated through an angle. which are fixed to the robot in position. Using the software programs the operations to be performed are assigned keys from the keyboard. Lane departure warning system 5. The operation to be performed is controlled by the micro-controller. Here the usage of sensors/cameras and Edge Detection technique are related to Image Processing and Vision Systems. and air are used to visualize internal organs as they work. but which produce data susceptible to be represented as maps (i. Non-photorealistic rendering 6. adiological sciences. competitive edge in the new age of imaging. as well as the technologies that will make that possible.As camcorders. which is proportional to the actual distance between hand and the object. such as electroencephalography(EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) and others. identification of immotile cilia syndrome and many other tasks Fluoroscopy Fluoroscopy produces real-time images of internal structures of the body in a similar fashion to radiography. Consider that the robot’s task is to move an object from one point to another point. Microscope image processing 8. which is connected to the ports of the fingers of the Electron microscopy The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons as the source of illumination. Morphological image processing Robotics: Image Processing is vastly being implemented in Vision Systems in Robotics.(medical) thermography. at a lower dose rate. The hand of the robot and the object that is to be captured are observed by the cameras. Fluoroscopy is also used in image-guided procedures when constant feedback during a procedure is required. Electron microscopy is employed in anatomic pathology to identify organelles within the cells. By pressing the relative key on the keyboard the hand moves appropriately. A simple application in robotics using Vision Systems is a robot hand-eye coordination system. magnifying at levels up to 2. Increasingly we are discovering that XML offers a common framework that can solve many of the problems that arise from e-commerce. Its usefulness has been greatly reduced by immune histochemistry but it is still irreplaceable for the diagnosis of kidney disease. These efforts should give a sustainable. which is to be moved. By this technique the complexity of using manual sensors is minimized to a great extent and thereby sophistication is increased. it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology (in the wider sense). Here the robots are fixed with cameras to view the object.

It is also relatively inexpensive and quick to perform. heart. While it may provide less anatomical detail than techniques such as CT or MRI. valuable information like speed. Ultrasound Medical ultrasonography uses high frequency broadband sound waves in the megahertz range that are reflected by tissue to varying degrees to produce (up to 3D) images. MRI scan of knee Thyroid Animal Tracking In order to collect spatial information about an animal's movement by means of digital image processing techniques the information has to be collected sequentially.this can help diagnose ulcers or certain types of colon cancer. Nuclear medicine Images from gamma cameras are used in nuclear medicine to detect regions of biological activity that are often associated with diseases. such as tumors or fracture points in bones. should be included. can be used to guide drainage and biopsy procedures. are often used to determine the type and extent of a fracture as well as for detecting pathological changes in the lungs. Baby scan Projection radiography Radiographs. such as 123I is administered to the patient. Doppler capabilities on modern scanners allow the blood flow in arteries and veins to be assessed. male genitalia. This is often used to visualize the fetus in pregnant women.and Ycoordinates representing the position of a mouse for each individual image frame. emits no ionizing radiation. the exact time for each coordinate pair is extracted simultaneously. Ideally. the path can be measured. and a mirror at the opposite end. These isotopes are more readily absorbed by biologically active regions of the body. such as barium. A short lived isotope. stops. time as an additional information. which gave way to an Image Amplifier (IA) which was a large vacuum tube that had the receiving end coated with cesium iodide. Ultrasound scanners can be taken to critically ill patients in intensive care units. The real time moving image obtained . and contains speckle that can be used in elastography. Other important uses include imaging the abdominal organs. in particular that it studies the function of moving structures in realtime. If the images are captured and analyzed at a constant framerate or. Eventually the mirror was replaced with a TV camera. With the use of radio-opaque contrast media. it has several advantages which make it ideal in numerous situations. more commonly known as x-rays. Although information on this is not well Documented. This can be achieved by analyzing subsequent image frames of a digitized video. alternatively. they can also be used to visualize the structure of the stomach and intestines . avoiding the danger caused while moving the patient to the radiology department. and the veins of the leg. Talking about timelines. By means of extracting the X. it has to be noted that depending upon the framerate (time resolution) the total pathlength may vary to a great extend. Early on this was a fluorescing screen.interest. It is very safe to use and does not appear to cause any adverse effects. can be calculated from the data. etc.

Systems.Also used in Remote Sensing. 4. 6. 5. From the above discussion we can conclude that this field has Relatively more advantages than disadvantages and hence is very useful in varied branches. inspection for abnormalities in industries. Digital Mage Processing .Jain 3. Woods. 4. which plays a vital role in modern world as it is involved with advanced use of science and technology. Geological Surveys for detecting mineral resources etc. Niku 2. Image Processing is used for Astronomical Observations. 2. In medicine by using the Image Processing techniques the sophistication has increased.Saeed B. Applications . powerful tools that can be used with ease. Syed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain. Hence it’s unsuitable and unbeneficial to ordinary programmers with mediocre knowledge. AddisonWesley 1993. References: 1. Disadvantages: 1. This lead to technological advancement. Calculations and computations are difficult and complicated so needs an expert in the field related. Digital Image Processing by Engr. In Space Exploration the robots play vital role which in turn use the image processing techniques. Analysis. Vision Systems are flexible. The advances in technology have created tremendous opportunities for Vision System and Image Processing. There is no doubt that the trend will continue into the future. 2. Gonzalez And Richard E. Introduction To Robotics. .Rafael C. Also used for character recognizing techniques.Advantages: 1. Conclusion: It’s a critical study. 3. Introduction To Digital Image Processing – Anil K. inexpensive. A Person needs knowledge in many fields to develop an application / or part of an application using image processing.

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