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CAUSES AND RISKS FACTORS
Cancer is a term used for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems.
Cancer types can be grouped into broader categories. The main categories of cancer include:
Carcinoma - cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. Sarcoma - cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia - cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood.
Lymphoma and myeloma cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system cancers cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord.
CAUSES OF CANCER .
a person·s DNA becomes damaged by exposure to something toxic in the environment such as chemicals. . Many times though. People can inherit damaged DNA. radiation or viruses. which accounts for inherited cancers.Normal Cells transform into cancer cells because of damage to DNA. Remember though that most cancers have multiple causes and risk factors.
Carcinogens A carcinogen is an agent capable of causing cancer. Effects of carcinogen agents usually depend on the dose or amount of exposure.1. 2. Heredity/Family History Certain type of cancers run in the family such as breast cancer. . radiation and viruses. the greater the risk of cancer. the larger the dose or amount of exposure. an environmental agent. This maybe a chemical.
Chemicals & Environmental Agents Polycyclic hydrocarbons are chemicals found in cigarette smoke. . Polycyclic hydrocarbons are also produced from animal fat in the process of broiling meat and are present in smoked meats and fish. industrial agents. Aflatoxin is found in peanuts and peanut butter. or in food such as smoked foods.
Avoid reusing cooking oil.g. . Also produced when food is fried in fat that has been reused repeatedly. tinapa or smoked fish). Avoid eating burned food and eat smoked foods in moderation.Benzopyrene Produced when meat and fish are charcoal broiled or smoked (e.
Limit eating preserved foods and eat more vegetables and fruits that are rich in dietary fiber. longganisa. Formation of nitrosamines may be inhibited by the presence of antioxidants such as Vitamin C in the stomach. . bacon and hotdog.Nitrosamines These are so powerful carcinogens used as preservatives in foods like tocino.
Radiation Radiation can also cause cancer including ultraviolet rays from sunlight. certain leukemias. This is found in cervical cancer (human papilloma virus). lymphoma and nasopharyngeal cancer (Epstein-Barr Virus). x-rays. liver cancer (hepatitis B virus). Viruses A virus can enter a host cell and cause cancer. . radioactive chemicals and other forms of radiation.
they die and are replaced with new cells. it's helpful to know what happens when normal cells become cancer cells. the body's basic unit of life. To understand cancer. When cells become old or damaged. The body is made up of many types of cells.Origins of Cancer All cancers begin in cells. These cells grow and divide in a controlled way to produce more cells as they are needed to keep the body healthy. .
sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. producing mutations that affect normal cell growth and division. The extra cells may form a mass of tissue called a tumor.However. cells do not die when they should and new cells form when the body does not need them. The genetic material (DNA) of a cell can become damaged or changed. . When this happens.
For example. . Cells in benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Cells in these tumors can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. in most cases. Benign tumors aren't cancerous. They can often be removed. leukemia is a cancer of the bone marrow and blood. and. tumors can be benign or malignant. Some cancers do not form tumors.Not all tumors are cancerous. they do not come back. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis.
LUNG CANCER .
Lung cancer. as of 2004. . which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs.Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. is responsible for 1.3 million deaths worldwide annually. derived from epithelial cells. The vast majority of primary lung cancers are carcinomas of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis. the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women.
cigars. including cigarettes. chewing tobacco and snuff.RISK FACTORS >Tobacco use. > Radiation Exposure >Second-Hand Smoke >Lung Diseases >Air Pollution .
Anyone can get oral cancer. use tobacco or alcohol or have a history of head or neck cancer. Frequent sun exposure is also a risk for lip cancer. but the risk is higher if you are male. over age 40.ORAL CANCER Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth or throat. Most oral cancers begin in the tongue and in the floor of the mouth. .
smokeless tobacco) >Excessive alcohol use >Chronic Irritation (e. ill-fitting dentures) >Vitamin A deficiency . pipe. cigar.RISK FACTORS >Tobacco use (cigarette.g.
reflecting their origin from the squamous cells which form the majority of the laryngeal epithelium. Cancer can develop in any part of the larynx. but the cure rate is affected by the location of the tumor. Most laryngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. the supraglottis and the subglottis. For the purposes of tumour staging. the larynx is divided into three anatomical regions: the glottis (true vocal cords. anterior and posterior commissures).LARYNGEAL CANCER Laryngeal cancer may also be called cancer of the larynx or laryngeal carcinoma. .
. Laryngeal cancer may spread by direct extension to adjacent structures.Most laryngeal cancers originate in the glottis. Distant metastates to the lung are most common. andsubglottic tumours are least frequent. Supraglottic cancers are less common. by metastasis to regional cervical lymph nodes. through the blood stream. or more distantly.
cigar.RISK FACTORS >Tobacco use (cigarette. pipe. smokeless tobacco) >Poor Nutrition >Alcohol >Weakened Immune System >Gender: 4-5 times more common in men >Age: more than 60 years .
muscular organ that stores urine. The most common type of bladder cancer begins in cells lining the inside of the bladder and is called transitional cell carcinoma (sometimes urothelial cell carcinoma).BLADDER CANCER Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. it is located in the pelvis. . The bladder is a hollow. It is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder.
Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women are. Your risk of bladder cancer increases as you age. .RISK FACTORS >Increasing age. Bladder cancer can occur at any age. >Being white. but it's rarely found in people younger than 40. Whites have a greater risk of bladder cancer than do people of other races. >Being a man.
Smoking cigarettes.>Smoking. it's thought that being around certain chemicals may increase your risk of bladder cancer. These harmful chemicals may damage the lining of your bladder. >Exposure to certain chemicals. your body processes the chemicals in the smoke and excretes some of them in your urine. . When you smoke. cigars or pipes may increase your risk of bladder cancer by causing harmful chemicals to accumulate in your urine. Your kidneys play a key role in filtering harmful chemicals from your bloodstream and moving them into your bladder. Because of this. which can increase your risk of cancer.
Chronic or repeated urinary infections or inflammations (cystitis). may increase your risk of a squamous cell bladder cancer. squamous cell carcinoma is linked to chronic bladder inflammation caused by the parasitic infection known as schistosomiasis. such as may happen with long-term use of a urinary catheter.>Chronic bladder inflammation. In some areas of the world. .
>Personal or family history of cancer. you may have an increased risk of the disease. as well as in your colon. A family history of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). If you've had bladder cancer. If one or more of your immediate relatives have a history of bladder cancer. although it's rare for bladder cancer to run in families. can increase your risk of cancer in your urinary system. ovaries and other organs. you're more likely to get it again. . also called Lynch syndrome. uterus.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC, also known as hypernephroma) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, the very small tubes in the kidney that filter the blood and remove waste products. RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, responsible for approximately 80% of cases. It is also known to be the most lethal of all the genitourinary tumors.
RISK FACTORS >Cigarette smoking and obesity are the strongest known risk factors. Hypertension and a family history of the disease are also risk factors. >Dialysis patients with acquired cystic disease of the kidney showed a 30 times greater risk than in the general population for developing RCC.
>Exposure to asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, gasoline has not been shown to be consistently associated with RCC risk. >Patients with certain inherited disorders such as von Hippel-Lindau disease, hereditary papillary renal cancer, a hereditary leiomyoma RCC syndrome and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, show an enhanced risk of RCC.
>Gender: Renal cell carcinoma is more common among men than women. .>Hysterectomy is associated with an approximately doubled risk. >Race: Renal cell carcinoma is more common among African Americans than Caucasians. Hormonal factors or injury of the ureter during surgery were considered as possible causes.
>Smoking: Smoking cigarettes increases the risk for renal cell carcinoma by 40 percent. .>Age: Renal cell carcinoma is more common in people between the age of 40 and 60. >Obesity: Overweight people are at higher risk to develop kidney cancer. This risk decreases if the person stops smoking.
. such as asbestos (a mineral fiber that can be used in construction materials for insulation and as fire-retardant) and cadmium (a rare. bluish-white chemical element used in batteries and plastic industry).Occupational exposure: Many studies suggest that certain work environments (ex: the iron and steel industry) increase the risk for renal cell carcinoma. also increase the risk for renal cell carcinoma. The exposure to certain chemical and substances. soft.
It may present with vaginal bleeding but symptoms may be absent until the cancer is in its advanced stages. .CERVICAL CANCER Cervical cancer is malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area.
An HPV infection that doesn't go away can cause cervical cancer in some women. HPV infections are very common. HPV is the cause of nearly all cervical cancers. Most adults have been infected with HPV at some time in their lives.RISK FACTORS >HPV infection: HPV is a group of viruses that can infect the cervix. but most infections clear up on their own. . These viruses are passed from person to person through sexual contact.
The Pap test helps doctors find abnormal cells. >Smoking: Among women who are infected with HPV.>Lack of regular Pap tests: Cervical cancer is more common among women who don't have regular Pap tests. . Removing or killing the abnormal cells usually prevents cervical cancer. smoking cigarettes slightly increases the risk of cervical cancer.
the risk of developing cervical cancer is higher because these women have a higher risk of HPV infection. a woman who has had sex with a man who has had many sexual partners may be at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. . >Sexual history: Women who have had many sexual partners have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer.>Weakened immune system (the body's natural defense system): Infection with HIV(the virus that causes AIDS) or taking drugs that suppress the immune system increases the risk of cervical cancer. In both cases. Also.
However. .>Using birth control pills for a long time: Using birth control pills for a long time (5 or more years) may slightly increase the risk of cervical cancer among women with HPV infection. the risk decreases quickly when women stop using birth control pills. >Having many children: Studies suggest that giving birth to many children (5 or more) may slightly increase the risk of cervical cancer among women with HPV infection.
primarily adenocarcinoma (approx.ESOPHAGEAL CANCER Esophageal cancer (or oesophageal cancer) is malignancy of the esophagus. . 50-80% of all Esophageal cancer) and squamous cell cancer. Squamous cell cancer arises from the cells that line the upper part of the esophagus. Adenocarcinoma arises from glandular cells that are present at the junction of the esophagus and stomach. There are various subtypes.
and are diagnosed with biopsy. pain and other symptoms. Larger tumors tend not to be operable and hence are treated with palliative care. radiotherapy or a combination of the two.Esophageal tumors usually lead to dysphagia (difficulty swallowing). . their growth can still be delayed with chemotherapy. Small and localized tumors are treated surgically with curative intent.
and the median in US patients is 67. It is more common in men.RISK FACTORS >Age. Sex. >Heredity. It is more likely in people who have close relatives with cancer. and together appear to increase the risk more than either individually. . Most patients are over 60. >Tobacco smoking and heavy alcohol use increase the risk.
>Human papillomavirus (HPV) . while all other risk factors predispose more for squamous cell carcinoma).>Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its resultant Barrett's esophagus increase esophageal cancer risk due to the chronic irritation of the mucosal lining (adenocarcinoma is more common in this condition.
>Gender: 3 times more common in men >Diet: Low in fruits and vegetables .
Cancers originating from ducts are known as ductal carcinomas.BREAST CANCER Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is cancer originating from breast tissue. those originating from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas. most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. .
The risk is higher if her family member got breast cancer before age 40. or daughter had breast cancer.RISK FACTORS >Family history: A woman's risk of breast cancer is higher if her mother. . Having other relatives with breast cancer (in either her mother's or father's family) may also increase a woman's risk. sister.
>Race: Breast cancer is diagnosed most often in women of African ancestry. followed by European and Asian ancestry.>Certain breast changes: Atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ found in benign breast conditions such as fibrocystic breast changes are correlated with an increased breast cancer risk. .
number of pregnancies.changes in hormone levels throughout life. >High fat diet >Obesity >Physical Inactivity .>Early Menarche/ late menopause >AGE. such as age at first menstruation. and age at menopause.
Women who stopped using oral contraceptives more than 10 years ago do not appear to have any increased breast cancer risk. This risk seems to decline back to normal over time once the pills are stopped.>Recent oral contraceptive use Studies have found that women using oral contraceptives (birth control pills) have a slightly greater risk of breast cancer than women who have never used them. .
a gland in the male reproductive system.PROSTATE CANCER Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate. however. Other symptoms can potentially develop during later stages of the disease. The cancer cells may metastasize (spread) from the prostate to other parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing. particularly the bones and lymph nodes. problems during sexual intercourse. or erectile dysfunction. difficulty in urinating. . there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers. Prostate cancer may cause pain.
RISK FACTORS >Age >Family History >Race >Dietary Fat >Hormones >Cadmium >Vitamin A & D .
However. liver cells (hepatocytes) make up 80% of the liver tissue. and fat-storing cells).LIVER CANCER Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) is a cancer arising from the liver. the majority of primary liver cancers (over 90%-95%) arises from liver cells and is called hepatocellular cancer or carcinoma. blood vessels. It is also known as primary liver cancer or hepatoma. The liver is made up of different cell types (for example. Thus. bile ducts. .
RISK FACTORS >Hepatitis B infection Hepatitis B can be caught from contaminated blood products or used needles or sexual contact but is frequent among Asian children from contamination at birth or even biting among children at play. . The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in causing liver cancer is well established.
in Japan. hepatitis C virus is present in up to 75% of cases of liver cancer. It usually requires direct contact with infected blood. HCV is also associated with the development of liver cancer. either from contaminated blood products or needles.>Hepatitis C infection Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is more difficult to get than hepatitis B. . In fact.
. The usual setting is an individual with alcoholic cirrhosis who has stopped drinking for 10 years and then develops liver cancer. at autopsy. Many of these people are also infected with chronic hepatitis C virus. In fact. as many as half of alcoholics previously unsuspected to have cancer will have early evidence of cancer hidden within the liver.>Alcohol Cirrhosis caused by chronic alcohol consumption is the most common association of liver cancer in the developed world.
SKIN CANCER .
This type of skin cancer does not typically spread.Types of Skin Cancer >Basal cell carcinoma -is the most common form of skin cancer. but does require treatment. . Basal cell carcinomas most often develop in areas of the skin exposed to the sun.
. called malignant melanomas. Melanomas can spread quickly to other parts of the body and to organs. are the most aggressive form of skin cancer. >Abnormal growths of melanocytes. This type of cancer can spread and can be life threatening if not treated appropriately.>Squamous cell carcinomas develop in the middle layer of the epidermis.
>Fair Complexion .RISK FACTORS >Increased sun exposure and a history of sunburns increase the risk for developing skin cancer.
it is the fourth most common form of cancer in the United States and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world.000 deaths worldwide per year. rectum and appendix.COLONIC CANCER Colorectal cancer. includes cancerous growths in the colon. Colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps in the colon. With 655. also called colon cancer or large bowel cancer. .
Localized colon cancer is usually diagnosed through colonoscopy. .These mushroom-shaped growths are usually benign. but some develop into cancer over time.
low-fiber diet >Obesity >Sedentary lifestyle >Smoking .RISK FACTORS >Daily alcohol use (may double the risk) >Eating a high-fat.
Cancer most commonly develops in the endometrium of the uterus. When this occurs. the most prevalent type of uterine cancer. cancer develops in the muscles and other tissues that support the uterus. Much less commonly. Less than 5% of uterine cancers are sarcomas. it is called a uterine sarcoma.UTERINE CANCER Uterine cancer is a type of cancer that affects the uterus in the female reproductive system. resulting in endometrial cancer. .
RISK FACTORS >Never being pregnant >Beginning menstruation before age 12 and continuing through age 50 or more >Being diabetic >Obesity .
>Use of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) >Personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer >Use of Tamoxifen. a breast cancer treatment drug .
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