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Introduction

Bosch Nap is the largest manufacturer of Diesel injectors .MFH department manufactures
Nozzle Holders Body of the injector. Figure shows the various parts of injector -

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Fig-1: Various parts of Injector

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BOSCH GROUP BACKGROUND & GROWTH:
The Bosch Group is a leading Global supplier of technology and services. In the areas of
automotive and industrial technology, consumer goods, and building technology, some 275,000
associates generated sales of 38.2 billion Euros in fiscal 2009. The Bosch Group comprises Robert
Bosch GmbH and its more than 300 subsidiaries and regional companies in over 60 countries. If its
sales and service partners are included, then Bosch is represented in roughly 150 countries. This
worldwide development, manufacturing and sales network is the foundation for further growth. Each
year, Bosch spends more than 3.5 billion Euros, or eight percent of its sales revenue, for research
and development, and applies for over 3,000 patents worldwide. With all its products and services,
Bosch enhances the quality of life by providing solutions which are both innovative and beneficial.
The company was set up in Stuttgart in 1886 by Robert Bosch (1861-1942) as “Workshop for
Precision Mechanics and Electrical Engineering.” The special ownership structure of Robert Bosch
GmbH guarantees the entrepreneurial freedom of the Bosch Group, making it possible for the
company to plan over the long term and to undertake significant up-front investments in the
safeguarding of its future. 92 percent of the share capital of Robert Bosch GmbH is held by Robert
Bosch Stiftung GmbH, a charitable foundation. The majority of voting rights are held by Robert
Bosch Industrietreuhand KG, an industrial trust. The entrepreneurial ownership functions are carried
out by the trust. The remaining shares are held by the Bosch family and by Robert Bosch GmbH.

#Data Source: Bosch Annual Report 2009
Fig-2: Shareholders of Robert Bosch GmbH
The Bosch slogan ‘Invented for Life’ is part of its long tradition, through which it
communicates the Group’s core competencies & vision, that include technological leadership,
modernity, dynamics, quality & customer orientation.
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BOSCH GROUP BUSINESS SECTORS & DIVISIONS:
Table-1: Business Sectors & Divisions

Business sectors and divisions

Consumer Goods and
Automotive Technology Industrial Technology
Building Technology

• Gasoline Systems • Drive and Control • Power Tools
Technology
• Diesel Systems • Thermo technology
• Packaging Technology
• Chassis Systems Brakes • Household
• Solar Energy Appliances
• Chassis Systems Control
• Security Systems
• Electrical Drives

• Starter Motors and
Generators

• Car Multimedia

• Automotive Electronics

• Automotive Aftermarket

• Steering Systems

Key Data of Bosch Group:

For the period from January 1 to December 31, 2009.
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Table-2: Financial Result

Sl. No. Bosch Group 2008* 2009*

1.0 Sales revenue 45,127 38,174

1.1 Percentage change from previous year – 2.6 – 15
Sales revenue generated outside Germany as a percentage of
2.0 74 76
sales revenue
3.0 Research and development cost 3,889 3,603
3.1 As a percentage of sales revenue 8.6 9.4
4.0 Capital expenditure 3,276 1,892
4.1 As a percentage of depreciation 136 80
5.0 Associates
5.1 Average for the year 282,758 274,530
5.2 As of January 1, 2009/2010 281,717 270,687
6.0 Total assets 46,761 47,509
6.1 Equity 23,009 23,069
6.2 As a percentage of total assets 49 49
7.0 Profit Before Tax (PBT) 942 -1,197

7.1 As a percentage of sales revenue 2.1 -3.1

7.2 Profit After Tax (PAT) 372 -1,214

8.0 Inappropriate earnings (dividend of Robert Bosch GmbH) 75 67

*Currency figures in Millions of Euros

#Data Source: Bosch Annual Report 2009
Income Statement of Bosch Group:
For the period from January 1 to December 31, 2009

Bosch Group 2008* 2009*

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Sales revenue 45,127 38,174

Cost of Sales –31,553 –27,518

Gross profit 13,574 10,656

Distribution and administrative cost –8,561 –7,819

Research and development cost –3,889 –3,603

Other operating income 1,666 1,084
Other operating expenses –1,275 –1,469
EBIT 1,515 –1,151
Financial income 1,904 1,370
Financial expenses –2,477 –1,416
Profit before tax 942 –1,197
Income taxes -570 –17
Profit after tax 372 –1,214

of which attributable to minority interests 28 46

of which attributable to parent company 344 –1,260

*Currency figures in Millions of Euros

#Data Source: Bosch Annual Report 2009

Table-3: Income Statement

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Bosch has been present in India for more than 80 years. which is present in India since 1998. Nasik. The company is headquartered in Bangalore having its manufacturing facilities in Bangalore.000. 6400 crores. a 100% subsidiary of Robert Bosch GmbH. and in business year 2008 achieved total consolidated revenue of over Rs.. It has a strong presence in the Indian automotive services sector. established in 1974 in India. is a 100% subsidiary of Bosch Group and is engaged in the manufacture and sale of electronic devices and electronic control units. industrial technology. Bosch employs about 18. The company is based at Naganathapura in Bangalore. Bosch Chassis System India Ltd. and has a strong presence in the country at numerous locations in diverse industry segments. established in 1982 as Kalyani Brakes Limited in India is amongst the leading manufacturers of brakes in the country. Bosch Rexroth India Limited. Bosch is a leading supplier of technology and services. Company Profile : In India..030 associates in India. Robert Bosch Engineering & Business Solutions Ltd.first via representative office in Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) & then from 1951 via its subsidiary Bosch Limited (then Motor Industries Company Limited). Jaipur & Goa. Bosch Automotive Electronics India Private Ltd. These plants are TS 16949 and ISO 14001 certified. Robert Bosch GmbH holds around 70% stake in Bosch Limited. Naganathapura.000 towns and cities with over 4. Motor Industries Company limited) is the largest subsidiary of Bosch in India. is 6 . Bosch’s service network which spans across 1. It provides end to end engineering technology solutions for all the business sectors of automotive technology. Bosch is also represented by five other group companies in India. services customers in Ahmadabad and Bangalore. RBIN (formerly MICO. It currently manufactures a range of Hydraulic Brake Systems meeting the stringent quality norms of many leading Indian and international vehicle manufacturers. founded in 1951. has emerged one of the largest Bosch development centers outside Germany. It is the largest auto-component manufacturer in India with a turnover of over Rs 4750 crores in 2009 with total employee strength of 10. Its market leadership is testimony to the high quality and technology of its products. Bosch Electrical Drives India Private Ltd... Bosch set up its manufacturing operations in 1953.000 authorized representations to ensure widespread availability of both products and services. The company has developed excellent R&D and manufacturing facilities and a strong customer base. consumer goods and building technology.. and has grown over the years to 14 manufacturing sites and 3 development centers.

auto-electrical. stationary engines and in locomotive segments for both inland & export markets. engine cooling fans etc. Industrial technology. Nashik plant is specialized in manufacture of components of fuel injection equipment. diesel and gasoline fuel injection equipment. BOSCH LIMITED.Automotive technology. power tools. The product application lies in automotive. Starter –Generator (SG) and Gasoline Systems (GS) and Automotive Aftermarket (AA). security systems. The plant operation has grown remarkably and steadily in last 40 years. it was expected that the NaP conventional products will decline in the market. industrial equipment. wiper system. especially Nozzles and Injectors for automobile industries. Bosch Limited operates in all the business sectors of Bosch . Various new products were introduced to meet customer expectations as per the introduction of emission norms for vehicles. It is based near Chennai and manufactures and sells electrical drives for various automotive applications such as window lift drive. 7 . both in conventional (non-Euro) and Euro series applications. Due to introduction of emission norms by government of India since 2006.a joint venture company. manufacturing of Nozzles and Injectors was started at the present location. It manufactures and trades products as diverse as common rail injector and components. special purpose machines. NASHIK: The pilot plant at Nashik started in 1969 and from 1974. Consumer goods and Building technology. packaging machines. gear pumps. RBIN facilitates superior product availability and countrywide after sales services. The table-4 below shows step by step introduction of new products in NaP.

Fig-3: Percentage Share of Product at NaP From 2006. This has catapulted NaP into big league as a supplier of parts to International Production Network of Bosch. A world class production facility is set-up for this contemporary product which is identified under Export Oriented Unit. Table-4: NaP Product Introduction Emission Sr.P Type 2000 BS 2 4 Chevy Injectors (Export) 2002 Euro 4 5 Bx Injectors (Export) 2003 6 NBFE (Injectors) 2008 BS2 7 CRI Components 2006 8 CRI Injectors 2008 BS 4 As a strategic measure. especially being made for Asian market and planned to be launched by 2010. Common Rail Injector (CRI) products were introduced which can meet emission norms up to BS4. The NaP contributed Rs 450 crores in the business of Bosch group during last financial year.This product is a strategic move to support the Asian and Indian markets need of LPV (Low Priced Vehicle) in coming years. The CRI component exports started in 2006. Holder. Common Rail Injector assembly production is launched at NaP from 2007 for which there are customers from Indian OE market. 8 .1).The CRI production was started in 2007 & new product CRI contribution is planned to grow to 50% of NaP turnover by 2010. NaP started production of parts for Common Rail injectors. Another prime project for NaP is low-cost Common Rail Injector (CRI1. Product Starting Year Norm 1 Nozzle Holder & Nozzles 1969 2 DLL Nozzle (DI) 1974 3 BS 2 Noz. No.

along with our business partners. In order to achieve targets and to secure the future of Plant. 9 . NaP believes in improving continuously.WeNaP Leadership are the mostinpreferred Production and Logistics partner of Cost effective to our customers based on diesel injectors through Innovative solutions and best in class Quality Mission our reliability and leadership in technology and quality We focus on our core competencies and continuous improvement for sustained and profitable growth WeNaP involve. are cost competitive through lean and effective processes We commit ourselves towards environment protection & social responsibility NAP VISION AND MISSION: Fig-4: Nap Vision and Mission Organizational culture: NaP stakeholders are RBIN. They guide the actions and tell what is important to Bosch and what they are committed to. The Bosch values are the foundation upon which future is built. DS/IN. business partners. RB-DS. Bosch has always been a company driven by its values. NaP’s responsibility and commitment towards all the stakeholders is sensitized with the help of ‘Vision’. their customers. employees. empower and motivate our people to shape our Vision future together We. society and shareholders.

NaP products are supplied to inland and export markets-both for Original Equipment and Aftermarket. NaP has direct relationship with all its stakeholders’ viz. and society. Finance. Employees: NaP employs 2. HR. Product development. RB-DS. SPIL. business partners. They operate directly with OEMs. 10 . Sales. RBIN. With the changes in product life cycle stages of different products. end customers are handled by Sales Automotive Aftermarket division through its dealer network. employees. RB-DS. DS/IN. For aftermarket. Direct material purchasing etc.855 associates as on end Aug 09. Tata-Fiat. DS/IN: NaP management is jointly lead by a Technical & a Commercial Head who report to DS/IN Management. Major Particulars M&SS Non-M&SS Qualificatio Graduates/Post-graduates from across Skilled technicians n India (ITI/NCTVT/Diploma) from the state Includes few foreign nationals from Supported by internal union other Bosch plants General Employment based on equal opportunity Expertise from world-wide Bosch locations We have about 298 substitute/temporary employees OEM customers include Tata Motors Ltd. customers. are appropriately integrated with the plant. Ashok Leyland Ltd & Tata Cummins Ltd. RBIN. This comprises of 429 M&SS (Managerial) and 2.Organizational Relationships: Except for the shareholders. Customers: Main products of NaP are nozzles and injectors with a good mix of conventional and contemporary technologies.426 associates (non-managerial) colleagues. redeployment of associates in direct areas is continuously done. M&M Ltd.. Common corporate functions such as Legal.

Elements and Delivery Valves 1992 ISO 9001 Certification 1996 DSLA Injectors (Euro I) : Manufacture with CKD imports 1997 QS 9000 Certification 1998 SOP .Nozzles and Nozzle Holders 1988 SOP . Sixty Millionth NHA production 2005 27% Export Vision fulfillment 2006 CRI Part production 2007 Common Rail Injector 2008 Eighty millionth NHA produced 11 .ISO14001 certification. Bosch NaP Milestones: Table-6: Bosch NaP Milestones Year Description 1969 Start of Pilot Plant 1974 SOP . Lead plant status-DN nozzles 2004 Lead plant status for KCA.DSLA Nozzles 1999 First export to Automotive After market of Bosch 2000 DSLA nozzles : Approval up to 1800 bar pressure 2001 One Millionth DSLA Nozzle produced 2002 Fifty Millionth NHA produced 2003 ISO/TS-16949.

applied research is nothing but application of sciences and knowledge to observe variables i. An exploratory is generally based on the primary data that are readily available. including many companies. by the charitable organization and by private groups.e.” Research can be classified into various classes. The term research is also used to describe an entire collection of information about a particular subject. diligent and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering. There is a certain amount of overlap between the various classifications. statistics graphs and charting. The word research derives from the French recherché. applied theory. This intellectual investigation produces a greater knowledge of events. from researcher. The second type. interpreting and revising facts. theories and laws and makes practical application possible. behaviors. In this case exploratory and applied type of research is used. It does not have rigid design as researcher may have to change his focus or direction depending on the availability of variables i.e. its literal meaning is “to investigate thoroughly’. to search closely where “chercher” means “to search”. It is defined as the “systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalization principles or theories. Research is funded by the public authorities.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MEANING OF RESEARCH Research is an active. and is usually associated with the output of science and the specific method. Every classification emphasizes certain aspect of research. resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events. 12 . These classes are not watertight compartments. RESEARCH DESIGN A research design specifies the method and procedures for conducting a particular study.

This focus took much of the data collected about equipment. During these some years. MAE runs without unplanned downtime and manufacture good products TPM uses the potentials of the associates and improves the workflow. and construction phase of equipment management. reorganizing the importance of reliability. It was at this time that “Total “was added to the productive maintenance. the focus was on the implementing the preventive maintenance recommendations. effective use means. maintenance and economics efficiency in the plant design. 13 . Literature survey Introduction and Definition TPM aims the effective use of plant equipment and machinery Above all. As new equipment was installed. The Japanese realized that companies cannot produce consistent quality product with poorly maintained equipment. TPM focused on productive maintenance. By the need of 1970’s Japanese began to teach TPM strategies internationally and were recognized for the results. TPM thus began in 1950s and focused primarily on the preventive maintenance. By the end of 1960s. During 1960s. JIPM had established and awarded prize to companies that are excelled in maintenance activities. History of TPM From where did TPM evolve? What spurred its development? TPM originated in Japan and was equipment management strategy designed to support Total Quality Management strategy. Then in 1970s TPM evolved to a strategy focused on achieving PM efficiency through a comprehensive system based on respect for individual and total employee participation. A high value was placed on equipment that operated at designed specification with no breakdowns. research group was formed which later become Japanese Institute Of Plant Management (JIPM).

This process was an evolutionary one that took time not because it was technically difficult to produce the results. Lean manufacturing strategies has yet to produce true benefits possible because they assume full asset utilization. Furthermore the full utilization of assets will never occur without an effective TPM strategy. For eg. General TPM approach is as shown in the figure. Today the international focus on TPM is intensifying. It is based on Toyota production System and is designed to drive out waste from an organization. A quick review of the current state of maintenance in the US indicates that change are required if companies want to achieve Lean Manufacturing. Therefore. are lean manufacturing strategies effective today? The answer is no. This interest is expressed to support a company’s full utilization of its assets. TPM Approach 14 . one of the prevalent strategies today is the concept of lean manufacturing. but because of the efforts to change the organizational culture so that it values the “Total” concept.

5: TPM approach 15 .Fig.

For every pillar of the TPM model Standards are presented in forms and contents.The Bosch TPM Model It describes the tasks and activities for planned and global maintenance for the existing MAE in order to avoid unplanned downtimes and to reduce planned downtimes. the local and the central maintenance staff. The main target is the implementation of the plant concept. The tasks and the activities in the next stages of TPM are integrated by the manufacturing teams. With these and other standards Point CIP improvement circle can be drawn on Machine Selection Procedure: Table no.7: Machine Selection Procedure 16 . The implementation of TPM is done with a project organization.

Table no.7: Machine Selection Procedure 17 .

from the perspective of waste elimination and continuous improvement. Eliminating Main Problems Eliminating main problems means that operating personnel are put in a position in which. they can systematically analyze downtimes that appear. and eliminate them permanently. identify the causes. Fig.6: pillar eliminating main problems 18 .

test runs) Unproductive Operation and minor stops Reduced work speed (longer cycle time) Internal the regarded sources of loss in the context of this description are: Availability losses because of change over. start up difficulties (warm-up times. adjusting. Fig. Determine sources of loss with the help of check lists. Determine main problems 5. downtime logs. calibrating and quality losses can be also main problems. The systematic is described in the related element descriptions Implementation Step 1: 1. Create A B C analysis for the problems identified 6.7: Implementation Steps Machine break-down. OEE calculation with detailed identification of OEE factors 4. Prioritize the problems 19 . or electronically generated machine data. shift notes etc 2. Hourly Count 3.

quality plans. Derive and agree upon standards 2. work plans.check for feasibility. Review the corrective actions (PDCA) Implementation Step 2: 1. set responsibilities and deadlines 6. implement and monitor actions Implementation Step 4: 1. check effectiveness of actions 20 . mind- mapping 4. Ask 5x why 3. Analyze and plan corrective actions 8. training plans are set and implemented jointly with those involved Implementation Step 5: 1. Define improvement potentials with the help of creative 3. Analyze causes with the help of problem-solving methods such as cause- effect Diagram 2. work directives. evaluate improvement potentials 5. maintenance plans. Find causes check and prioritize causes evaluate and present effect Implementation Step 3: 1. Control success and document 2. Define and implement measures 2. describe actions (action sheets). methods such as brainstorming. agree on actions with persons responsible 7. 7.

3.g. Now question comes in our mind how to measure the effectiveness of the equipment? The answer is. 3. Hourly production tracking shows the progress and lead to transparency Problems Downtime Data Collection. Deviations are documented constantly during shift so Important information is not lost 2. Down time can be linked with OEE Sheet by hourly production tracking. visualize according to PDCA system 5. Top-team leader visualizes the results and causes of down time of machine/machine group every hour. “OEE is worldwide established metric for the current Process control of TPM activities” • OEE captures three major losses: 21 . OEE.) 4. transfer positive results to other areas Internal Documentation of Deviations: 1. This procedure/process leads to identification with the results and involvement in problem solving process. 4. Information is available any time for associates and management Deviations show the correlation between drop in of delivery rates and the information of related problems. Visualize trends and improvement of result (e.

1. test runs. Startup difficulties (Warm up times and test runs) 2. setups. software changes. calibration. Performance Losses: Reduced work speed Unproductive operations and short downtimes 3. Quality Losses: Process mistakes and quality losses 22 . adjustments. Availability Losses: Machine and equipment Breakdown Changeover.

This confirms all issues related to the equipment performance. The formula for equipment effectiveness must look at the availability. The formula could be expressed as: Availability x Performance rate x Quality rate = Overall all Equipment Effectiveness Availability is the required availability minus downtimes divided by the required availability. it can be expressed as following formula 23 . rate of performance and the quality rate. OEE Overview: Answer to this question is OEE over all equipment effectiveness. This approach allows all departments to be involved in determining equipment effectiveness.

and there is difference) After the process or the production cycle is finished. The result will be a percentage of performance. Downtime is the actual time the equipment is down for repairs. This formula is useful for spotting capacity reduction breakdowns. such as breaks. even when the poor quality product is accepted by the customer. The calculation gives true availability of the equipment. as seen in the following formula. Quality defect represents the amount of product that is below quality standards (not rejected. schedule lapses and meetings. It is sometimes called breakdown downtime. Output is the total output for the given time period. The formula is useful for spotting production quality problems. the number that should be used in the effectiveness formula. The goal for the most companies is the number greater than 95%. Operating time is the availability from the previous formula. the goal for most of companies is higher than 99 %. The formula is.Quality Defects Production input Production input is the unit of product being fed into the process or production cycle. 24 . Quality Rate is the production input into the process or equipment minus the volume or number of quality defect divided by the production input. The goal for most companies is the number greater than 90%. Performance Rate is ideal or designed cycle time to produce the product multiplied by the output and then divided by the operating time. Production input. Design cycle time x Output Operating time Design cycle time is given in some unit of production such as part per hour. Required Availability-Downtimes Required Availability Required availability is the time production needs to operate the equipment minus planned downtimes.

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improving. cleaning. carry out minor repairs- ( e. With sensitivity of equipment operators and TPM system timely maintenance and repair are natural results. fuses.. oiling.. Repair work Replace wear parts. and remedied safely and quickly. filters. greasing. Includes the following 1...g. bearings.AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE: Fig. lights.g. . belts. 26 . covers. 8: Autonomous Maintenance Means that all routine activities to maintain systems are done as teamwork by operating personnel Acting on their own initiative once they have been trained accordingly. attaching -visualize. ) 2. testing. servicing. adjusting. standardize. Faults in machines and equipment are recognized quickly. cables. correcting. marking. Service work (E.

Check whether necessary cleaning. or loose. if necessary. faulty. and check whether parts / assemblies are dirty. servicing has been or has to be done. Clean and service MAE function groups. create action sheets with photographic documentation 8. standardize) Fig. place a TPM card create & implement actions 7. greasing. 5. if appropriate optimize them 9. damaged.9: Implementation steps Implementation Step 1: 1. Plan basic inspecting 2. visualize according to PDCA cycle 27 .Valves. check standards. oiling. if checkpoints are out of the limits. marking. check for success (trust curve) 10. determine existing standards 3. missing parts -visualize. 6. Train the associates for basic inspection 4.

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describe repair tasks organize and optimize spare parts inventories define responsibilities create and roll out repair plan 4. carry out repair tasks 5. check standards and improve if necessary 6. cleaning and inspection-provisional maintenance plans are set and communicated by the appropriate department Implementation Step 3: Carry out independent service work and improvement of standards-describe maintenance tasks-define responsibilities-train associates as necessary-create and roll out maintenance plan-define and communicate TPM maintenance intervals-perform maintenance tasks-review standards and optimize if necessary-check for success Implementation Step 4: Carry out independent repair work and improvement of standards 1. check for success Implementation Step 5: 1. regularly evaluate key data 3.Implementation Step 2: 1. set new objectives 29 . Continuous improvement of installations and process quality 2. check manufacturers' standards and improve if necessary 2. evaluate existing repair data 3. incl. Agree upon standards for service. check attainment of goals 4.

apply and review PDCA cycle 6. use Lernstatt and CIP workshops for improvement potential 8. 5. a CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System) is used for planning and controlling. 30 . train associates further 4.g. and the useful life of the systems and facilities are substantially increased as a result of further maintenance work. In addition to that diagnostic systems are used for early warning. the systems and facilities are kept so well that there are no more unplanned downtimes.10: Planned Maintenance Means that. These tasks require advanced knowledge of maintenance.3 Planned Maintenance Fig. 8 Action Tools ) 7. and it is therefore preferable that they need to be performed with a cross- functional team under the coordination of the maintenance department.2. apply and improve problem-solving methods( e.

Standards similar to in autonomous maintenance: Proof of execution • Maintenance and repair work plan • Maintenance and repair work instructions: 1. The level of detail is related to the difficulty of execution. Implementation Step 2: Standards for Further Maintenance Activities: Elements are identical with those of autonomous maintenance. Further maintenance activities specified with explanation and pictures: Listing of activity. Overview of maintenance and repairing points 2. Instructions and workflow are visualized on MAE and/or stored in the maintenance database. training of executer and the possible results in case of wrong execution. checks and values 31 . 1. Short Training (One Point Lesson) for all maintenance and repair work activities Schedules. Fig11: Implementation steps Implementation Step 1: Further maintenance activities are carried out by specialist divisions.

Choose one CMMS 5. Evaluate experience of other operating units 4. setter) 3. parts and processes 1. Create concept for efficient diagnostic systems 4. Evaluate existing experience 3. tools.Registration and analysis of current status of MAE with evaluation of most susceptible modules. Roll out CMMS 8. Where are most maintenance hours spent? 3. Check manufacturers standards and include them in concept 2. SAP PM. Train associates 7. Install CMMS 6. Where are the most spare parts/wear parts needed? 4. etc) 2. Evaluate experience of other operating units 32 . Check for success 9. Create concept and specifications for a CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System) (ie. Where are the most auxiliary materials used? Implementation Step3: To define criteria for evaluating the equipment. Which system has the most failures? 2. Evaluate existing maintenance data & experience 3. Response limits for deviations of downtime Find answer to the following questions: 1. time observation or MTM-MEK) 5. spare parts 4. Optimize and continuously improve CMMS Implementation Step 4: 1. Executor (associate. Needed devices. Planned duration(first evaluation by estimation is possible. 2.

( e. Develop MAE-specific concepts 6. 5. Apply and improve problem-solving methods 8.g. Use CIP workshops for improvement potentials 10. 8 Action Tools ) 9. Apply and review PDCA system 7. Regular evaluation of metrics 2. Check attainment of goals 5. Continuous training for associates 33 . and optimize if appropriate 4. Assess handling and results of the CMMS and diagnosis system. Train associates 8.Optimize and continuously improve diagnostic system Implementation Step 5: 1. Install diagnostic system 7. Roll out diagnostic system 9. Check for success 10. Set new objectives 6. Regular check for standards 3.

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Generalized flow chart of TPM is given below: 35 .

Evaluatethe effectivenessof PM program . 3. STARTING TPM 1. Dowe havePM program? YES 2. It iseffective< Contd… 20%reactivew ork perform ed? 36 .

Does the work No order system 10. YES 37 13. .(A) Establ requires maintanence computarization YES 11.Investigate involvement in pilot area.Purchase & implement CMMS or (EMIS) 12. Is CMMS No Effective Identify & cor Contd….

Investigate OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT 38 finacial optimization. Investigate Reliability engineering Is reliability data used for all equipments for making decisions? YES Fig No14: Flow chart of TPM 19. YES 18. .

the productivity of the machine will definitely increase. Currently it is in initial stage. 39 . To analyze the effectiveness of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) on productivity through variable like OEE. By the implementation of TPM on bottleneck process. By analyzing the OEE data over certain period of time for the machines we can suggest plant management about further activities. SCOPE OF PROJECT Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) has wide scope in the company.

failing of which may lead to wheel breakage. For grinding operation two dedicated special purpose Supfina machines are used. First wheel is used for rough grinding & second one is used to achieve fine & smooth surface finish.Changeover Losses 3. The part height needs to be matched with the wheel. So the gripper arm performs three operations simultaneously loading part from intermediate station to out- 40 . Inside the main machine block there are five stations. After final grinding chuck again comes to its initial position& gripper arm unloads part to intermediate station.Organizational Losses 4. containing four parts. Second chuck is pre-measuring station. First chuck is loading & unloading station. To achieve these four sensors are placed on the doges at third & fourth station. Four major losses are 1. Proximity sensor & actuators mechanisms are used to regulate their flow. The positions of the chucks with respect to each other are continuously displayed on the numeric control screen.Quality losses 2.Performance Losses. Here pre-measuring needle is used to adjust the part height. This data indicates effectiveness of the equipment (How equipment is productive) On the basis of the data we measured losses. SUPFINA 20261 &12492 Grinding is a very fine metal cutting process. As explained previously the top surface of nozzle holder body needs to be grinded so as to fit tightly with the distance piece avoiding any kind of leakages. From here part is again placed back onto the pallet waiting on the conveyor belt. The third & fourth stations are rough & fine grinding wheels respectively. inside the main machine block. These are mounted vertically. Two rotating abrasive wheels are used to smooth flat surface. Three arms gripper is used for loading & unloading. The overall machine has two important sections pallet conveyor & main machine block. Pallet conveyor is used to transport pallets. It has two parallel belts transporting pallets in opposite directions. Out of these four stations are four chucks. It has only one station for loading & unloading of body. Intermediate station is used to avoid traffic at the loading & unloading operations. mounted on single circular base called as Index Table.Data Collection (Primary and secondary Data) Data for the month June and July is primary data and Jan to May is secondary data. It produces fine surface finishes with accurate dimensions. They perform grinding operation at 4000 rpm.

namely 20261 Supfina & 12492 Supfina. So action plan was decided on daily basis to reduce unplanned breakdown hours. both of them have cycle time of around 7. The two Supfina machines used are technically advanced ones. Because of their critical operations & the cycle time both of these machines are Bottle Neck machines of the shop. Then two cross stroke system is used to take the out-feed pallet back to the unloading station (same as loading station). The detail analysis of the collected data is presented in the following sections. All of them are discussed in detail in the next section. Servo Motors are used in both machines to carry out all the mechanical movements.5 minutes. Grinding wheels has a life of about 6000 parts. For proper function. management had decided to implement TPM concepts on both of them. So in order to increase the productivity of the entire value stream. at a time 8-10 pallets can be loaded on the conveyor belt. organizational loss & performance loss were collected & calculated resp. 1. TPM being an ongoing process needs substantial time to show the results. And the latter one has Computerized Numerical Control (CNC).feed station pallet. changeover losses. To achieve higher production targets & decrease unplanned breakdown hours. And the corrective action plans taken are provided in the conclusion& recommendation section. As a part of our project. LOSSES ON SUPFINAS 41 .1 – 8. From January 2010 TPM implementation steps have been started. The percentage of OEE. we collected daily production data & machines technical failure details. In all. Out of the two 20261 Supfina is relatively old. Depending upon the part diameter. productivity of bottle neck machines needs to be increased first. technical failure loss.Also 20261 have pallet size of four parts whereas letter has pallet size of two only. Being more technically advanced 12492 Supfina produces parts with higher quality. unloading part from chuck to intermediate station & loading part from in feed pallet to the same chuck. Both of them have Anti fire mechanism installed. we daily discussed the probable solutions for avoiding technical failures. the temperature of the oil needs to be maintained at standard room level temperature. After collection. it is of numeric control (NC) type.

and Performance Loss. Generally its value is calculated based on the values of other losses. It involves adjusting pallet height & changing of gripper jaws. In order to follow quality standards. From the collected data the technical losses were found and are mentioned in “Causes & Failures on 20261 Supfina”. Organizational Loss: Apart from operating machine. Performance Losses It considers the time for which machine remains idle. With appropriate planning & scheduling this loss can be minimized. This transportation time also accounts for reduced production time. If flatness found to be outside limits then according changes must be made at chuck positions e. Here the machine is available for the production but the operator is not. Other ways to increase the wheel life needs to be explored. Technical Failure: Being NC & CNC machines any kind of technical malfunctioning may occur. Hence this loss in time is termed as change-over loss. post grinding the nozzle setting surface should have flatness of at max of 1. Hence it is necessary to check flatness of parts at regular intervals. he needs to bring them from phosphating shop. Both of them consume 10 minutes per occurrence. At random four parts are selected from the lot for flatness checking.5 mm. Also the grinding wheel has life of around 6000 parts only. 42 . This setting time is consuming production time which leads to reduction in the production quantities daily. For loading parts. Each of these are explained with respect to Supfinas as follows- Change-Over Loss: NHB bodies of various diameters can be grinded on each of the two machines. operator is also supposed to carry out other important work. Only the critical thing is that setting needs to be changed for each type. Sometimes if particular chuck is consistently giving bad flatness. All of these eat up production time. he needs to check flatness of parts at regular intervals of time. So it needs to be changed daily. Quality Loss For the proper function of fuel injector. affecting its total production quantities. Also he needs to carry out daily machine cleaning & warm-up at the starting of the shift. These are Changeover Loss. Organizational Loss. rotation of index table base. This in general daily production quantity. Bodies with 17mm & 21mm diameter are commonly grinded. then it is not used for grinding operation. For Supfinas we mainly considered only three types losses only. All these decreases production time.g. Technical Failure Loss.

So that at loading station pallet may stop exactly below gripper position. Sensor Problem Sometimes when the part settings are changed the gripper sensor doesn’t function properly. If the gripper alignment is disturbed it cannot load & unload parts properly. The strips below belt should be rough for smooth pallet movement. Switch Problem Continuous oil shower may lead into its percolation in electronic circuit causing malfunctioning. Gripper Problem It’s gripper alignment trouble. ceasing its movements. Temperature Problem 43 . Motor Problem Due to some electric trouble motor shaft stops rotating. Sometimes due to wear out they become smooth so pallet cannot move properly. Sometimes its piston gets jammed or sensor gets disturbed.All other losses which come under TPM are not applicable for Supfina machines. It’s mainly because variation in part diameter. Air pipe Problem Sometimes pipes supplying pneumatic air gets damaged leading to air leakage. Base Position Trouble It’s nothing but sensor trouble of the earlier mentioned pneumatic cylinder. Sometimes this belt gets slipped. Index Table Problem The index table on which four chucks are mounted is rotated by belt. Station Problem This is nothing but remote control trouble due to wrong height of grinding wheel. So the sensor needs to be set again. In/ Out feed problem One pneumatic cylinder is used at loading station to stop the pallets on moving conveyor. Technical Failures on 20261 Supfina- Belt Problem It’s basically a conveyor problem. Cable Problem When cables are damaged oil enters into it causing short circuit.

sometimes large amount material is removed from NSS surface. Chuck Problem Sometimes jaws in the chuck gets jammed which cannot grip parts properly. Fuse Problem Its nothing but short circuit trouble at both in feed & out feed station. if the thickness of NSS surface of part is found to be more then machine automatically rejects it without grinding. Sometimes it may result into heavy sparks or fire. So through automatic fire control mechanism machine is switch gets off. Above figure represents the detail Pareto of technical losses on 20261 Supfina. to avoid wheel damage. the gripper alignment problem is the most frequent one. at these stations all the 44 . Finishing Drive Problem It’s due to trouble in the motor which lifts the grinding wheels. I. Setting Problem When part type is changed. So they are not mentioned separately. their height & pallet height needs to be matched to avoid problem at gripper end. Fire & Heavy Sparking M/C During grinding. To solve the in/out feed problem. Most of the above problems are common to 12492 Supfina also.Supfinas are designed to operate at moderate temperature. All others are infrequent ones. As we can see from the Fig. Below figure represents month-wise frequency of occurrence of each problem starting from January to June 2010. followed by In/out feed problem. Measuring Problem At pre-measuring station. Because the electronic used is susceptible to temperature conditions.

Separator Problem Z47 & Z43 sensors used to regulate the flow of pallets malfunctions sometimes. Error Height Trouble To keep part & pallet height at desired level. Simo-drive Problem Sometimes machine oil is leaked in to green cables of electronic circuitry. Note that due to the restricted training period. proximity sensor & laser sensor is used right at the input gates. from the point of view of damage. 45 . Motor Drive Problem When machine is switched off. wear or alignment trouble. For new wheels there is problem of incomplete grinding. Technical Failures of 12492 Supfina Most of the problems of this machine are same as that of the 20261 Supfina. we need to have at-least one have planned maintenance in which we should check & readjust each & every component of machine. FST 11/FST12 Problem These are pre grinding & fine grinding stations respectively. As success of corrective steps most of the problems occurrence is reduced in the month of June. This trouble occurs due to malfunctioning of these sensors only. sometimes while starting next time motor drive of machine doesn’t starts. the data for July month cannot be included. However due to timing constraints management has decided to go ahead with this plan in July month end. The other important feature of this graph is that most of the problems are occurring very rarely. we have decided to dismantle the gripper & again set its alignment properly. Hence only the unique problems are mentioned here. To solve the Gripper alignment problem. almost once in year. So in order to avoid them.sensors & their cables have been changed.

Here important thing should be noted. It is clearly evident from the side bar graph that the problems of gripper alignment & Poka-yoke are the most frequent ones. This indicates more planned breakdown hours should be devoted for the machine for its full-fledged servicing. FST 11 & In/out feed troubles are also major contributing factors to unplanned machine break-down hours. this means it needs to be tackled immediately. Above figure represents the consolidation of the technical failures for 12492 Supfina Machine. Improvements made as a result of TPM on Machine 12492 46 . Probably June is having highest unplanned machine break down hours. The Poka-yoke trouble is reaching at its peak in June. Air oil leakage & Simo-Drive problems also need to be given immediate attention. Apart from them various sensor troubles. almost all types of problems are increased in numbers.

47 .

Data Analysis and Interpretation OEE Details of 12492 & 20261 Machines: 48 .

49 .

Details of Losses: Supfina NSS Grinding Machines in W1190 50 .

One thing needs to be mentioned that July production data cannot be supplied due to training period restrictions. for the year 2010. TPM steps are getting it close towards the actual target of 74%.. 20261 Machine: The pie-chart of June production data for 20261 Supfina. It is close to 70%. forced the OEE values low. but the performance loss. The Changeover Loss is quiet low at 4% result of better production planning and control. It is closely followed by Technical Failure & Changeover losses with 4% contribution. This means all the parts produced are as per quality standards. One good thing which can be mentioned over here is management has succeeded in keeping the quality loss at 0. the target OEE is 74%. It accounted for 19% of the total losses. Out of all. Organizational Loss remained at 3%. the organization & technical failures are the major relief for maintaining the OEE Value.OEE and Loss Analysis for June month: 12492 Machine: Pie chart represents the average production hour’s break-down in June month for 12492 Supfina. Compared to other Supfinas the Average OEE percentage for this one is quiet on higher side. However the major roadblock for this month was performance loss. ensuring customer satisfaction. 51 .

52 .

Graph Findings Actions Decided Relative Changes Action completed (RYG Status) Planned 15 Days To 30 MTBF Increasing trend Maintenance Days Autonomous and Technical losses Decreasing Trend planned 20% Maintenance Organizational Decreasing Trend Correction of Loss planning and 18% scheduling Change over Setup Losses Increasing trend adjustments. Observations and findings: 1. 20% QCO’s TPM activity- OEE Shows increasing QCO/Less Average 66% to trend Changeover 68% losses Table No.11: Observations and findings 53 .

On the basis of data analysis and interpretation. SUGGESTIONS 1. 54 . 2. TPM should reached to the root level (Lower level like associates. TPM activity should become a part of continuous improvement process. deployment of TPM activity horizontally will improve the productivity in other departments. OJTs) 3.

From the graph of technical break-down history we can see that gripper alignment problem is the most frequent one for both the Supfinas & it is reaching at its peak in June. All other trends are similar to that of 20261 Supfina. All the data collected were analyzed daily & action plan were decided to counter technical failures. It is gradually moving towards the set target of 74%. servo motor troubles have been eliminated completely. This indicates their supply pipes needs to be replaced. As an action plan. Then it is again reaching its peak at 8% in June. for 20261 Supfina. conveyor track. Organizational losses are also showing increasing trend. It appears that Switch. Base position. Other good thing one should notice is that performance loss is on decline. Zero quality loss means that parts produced are as per quality standards. This indicates that with proper planning.CONCLUSION As explained previously. Second most common problem in this year is In/out feed trouble. Other alarming problem is Air/oil Leakages. error height. Its zero occurrences indicate that this problem is completely eliminated. Systematic compilations of these data is already been presented in form of Pie-chart. management should undertake these machines for planned maintenance to fix the gripper alignment properly once again. Another success of TPM steps is control over continuously rising Pre-measuring problem. The major success of TPM steps is that the OEE values are on the rise. This means effective planning is necessary to control them. air pipe and cooling problem are reduced significantly. technical failures are decreasing continuously from 6% in January to minimum at 3% in April. Simo-drive. 55 . it can be concluded that TPM implementation steps are showing the results & they are moving in right direction. This trend is most noticeable form the data of 12492 Supfina. For 20261 Supfina the occurrences of Sensor. From the collected data. its needle was replaced. As far as this year’s production data is concerned. This means machine requires more of planned break-down hours. the production details were collected for the month of June & July on daily basis. 12492 Supfina is additionally down with Poka-yoke trouble. Station. The detail conclusions which can be drawn are as follows. So it needs to be tackled effectively. Index Table. Its OEE increased from 59% in January to 66% in June.

By analyzing Overall Equipment Effectiveness I came to conclusion that the productivity got increased. 56 . This project helped to learn how the losses can be tracked from time to time. Many new things and management techniques were observed practically in the organization. TPM being a major issue has been tackled by giving special attention. BOSCH being largest auto component manufacturer has implemented many steps in the direction of improvement. From above observations and findings I came to the conclusion that TPM initiative has very good exposure in the company as it is continuous improvement process. The project benefited the company as well as me. The summer internship project turned to be an important learning experience for me. Also various ways of reducing unwanted down times were analyzed and implemented in the due course of this project.

TPM should reached to the root level (Lower level like associates. On the basis of data analysis and interpretation. 57 . TPM activity should become a part of continuous improvement process. SUGGESTIONS 4. OJTs) 6. deployment of TPM activity horizontally will improve the productivity in other departments. 5.

Jhamb. 2. C. Production and Operation Management by L. 3. http://www. Bibliography: 1. Total Productive Maintenance by Terry Varghese.org/ 58 .tpmclubindia.