Learning Basics

Adams/View
Overview
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Overview
Starting Adams/View
You or your system administrator can customize how you start Adams/View and how Adams/View looks
after you start it.
To start Adams/View in UNIX:
1. At the command prompt, enter the command to start the Adams Toolbar, and then press Enter.
The standard command that MSC provides is mdadamsx, where x is the version number, for
example mdadams2010, which represents MD Adams 2010.
The Adams Toolbar appears.
2. Click the Adams/View tool .
For more information on the Adams Toolbar, see Running and Configuring Adams.
To start Adams/View in Windows:
1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to MSC.Software, point to MD Adams 2010, point
to AView, and then select Adams - View.
For more information on running Adams products from the Start menu, see Running and
Configuring Adams.
Starting a New Modeling Session
When you start Adams/View, Adams/View displays a Welcome dialog box that lets you create a new
Modeling database or use an existing one. The Welcome dialog box also lets you import modeling data
and specify your working directory.
Adams/View also displays the Welcome dialog box when you use the New Database command to create
a new modeling database in which to store your models. The Welcome dialog box is shown below.
To start a new session:
1. Select one of the options explained in the table below to indicate how you'd like to start using
Adams/View, and then select OK.
The option: Does the following:
Create a new model Lets you start a new modeling session with a new modeling database.
Follow Steps 2 and 3 to create the new modeling database.
Open an existing
database
Lets you open an existing modeling database. Learn about Opening a
Modeling Database.
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2. Specify the directory to be used as your working directory. Adams/View saves all files in this
directory. You can change the working directory at any time. Learn about specifying working
directory.
3. If you selected to create a new model, do the following:
• In the Model name text box, enter the name you want assigned to the new model. You can
enter up to 80 alphanumeric characters. You cannot include special characters, such as spaces
or periods.
• Select the gravity settings for the new model. You can select:
Earth Normal - Sets the gravity to 1 G downward.
No Gravity - Turns off the gravitational force.
Other - Lets you set the gravity as desired. The Gravity Settings dialog box appears after
you select OK on the Welcome dialog box.
4. Select a preset unit system for your model. In all the preset unit systems, time is in seconds and
angles are in degrees. You can set:
• MMKS - Sets length to millimeter, mass to kilogram, and force to Newton.
• MKS - Sets length to meter, mass to kilogram, and force to Newton.
• CGS - Sets length to centimeter, mass to gram, and force to Dyne.
• IPS - Sets length to inch, mass to slug, and force to PoundForce.
5. If you do not want any of the preset unit systems, you can change the units as required. Learn
about changing the default units.
6. Select OK.
Adams/View creates a new model for you. If you selected to set gravity when creating a new
model, the Gravity Settings dialog box appears. Learn about specifying gravitational force.
Modeling Process
The steps that you use in Adams/View to create a model mirror the same steps that you would use to build
a physical prototype. Click a step below or use the arrows on the right to read the steps sequentially.
Import a file Lets you start a new modeling session by reading in a model from an
Adams/View command file or an Adams/Solver dataset.
• Import - Adams/Solver Dataset Files
• Import - Adams/View Command Files
Exit Lets you exit Adams/View without performing an operation.
The option: Does the following:
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Functional Virtual Prototyping Process
Although we’ve listed the steps that you perform to create a model as though you create the entire model
at once and then test and improve it, we recommend that you build and test small elements or subsystems
of your model before you build the entire model. For example, create a few modeling objects, connect
them together, and then run a simple simulation to test their motion and ensure that you are connecting
them correctly. Once these are modeled correctly, add more complexity to your model. By starting out
slowly, you can ensure that each subsystem works before moving on to the next step. We call this the
crawl-walk-run approach.
Adams/View Main Window
After you start Adams/View, the Adams/View main window appears.
Main toolbox
Menu bar Welcome Dialog box
Status bar
Initial Adams/View Window
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Overview
Exiting Adams/View
To exit Adams/View:
1. On the File menu, select Exit.
2. If you did not save your work, asks you if you want to save your work:
• To save your work and exit Adams/View, select OK. If you want to save the model with a
new name in the current directory, enter the new name in the Filename text box.
• To exit without saving your work, select Exit, Don’t Save.
• To continue using Adams/View, select Cancel.
Displaying Product Information
When using any Adams product, you can display the following information:
• Software version number and the date it was built
• Directory where Adams is installed
• Copyright statement
To display information about Adams/View:
1. From the Help menu, select About.
2. View the information, and then select OK
.
Loading and Unloading Plugins
MSC has many add-on modules or plugins to Adams/View, which expand its functionality. The plugins
include Adams/AutoFlex, Adams/Vibration, Adams/Controls, and Adams/Durability. You run these
products from within Adams/View. You can set Adams/View to load them automatically when you start
up. You can also unload them while in your current session of Adams/View. To run a plugin, you must
have a license to it. (To learn more about the various plugins, see their online help.)
To see if there is a license available to run a plugin:
1. From the Tools menu, select Plugin Manager.
The Plugin Manager appears.
2. At the top of the Plugin Manager, select a plugin.
Note: If you accidentally exit without saving your work, you can use the Adams/View Log file
(aview.log) to recover your work. Learn about using the Adams/View log file
Tip: Shortcut from the Status bar, select .
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3. At the bottom of the Plugin Manager, in the text box Licenses, view the number of licenses
available.
To load an available plugin:
1. From the Tools menu, select Plugin Manager.
2. In the Load column, next to the plugins you want to load, select Yes.
3. Select OK.
The commands or menus for the plugins are added to Adams/View.
To unload a plugin:
1. From the Tools menu, select Plugin Manager.
2. In the Load column, next to the plugin you want to unload, clear the selection of Yes.
3. Select OK.
Adams/View removes any plugin menus or commands.
To set up a plugin so it loads automatically when you start Adams/View:
1. From the Tools menu, select Plugin Manager.
2. In the Load at Startup column, next to the plugin you want to load automatically, select Yes.
3. Select OK.
Executing a System Command
You can execute an operating system command from within Adams/View so that you do not have to leave
the Adams/View window.
You can select to display the results of the command in the Information Window or the Log file. If you
select to display the results of the command in the Information window, you can:
• Clear the window and only view the results of the command.
• Save the results of the command to a file.
If you select to display the results in the log file, you can keep the command results with the other
commands that you execute so that you can cut and paste the information together into a new file.
To execute a system command within Adams/View:
1. On the Tools menu, select System Command.
The Execute System Command dialog box appears.
2. In the Command Text text box, enter the operating system command that you want to execute.
See your operating system documentation for more information.
3. Select whether or not you want the output of the command to be displayed in the Information
window or the log file.
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4. Select OK.
Using the Adams/View Log File
Adams/View generates a log file during each Adams/View session, called aview.log.
While you are running Adams, you can display the current contents of the log file. In addition, you can
display the log file in a text editor. The following sections explain how to display the log file in
Adams/View and set the type of messages displayed.
• Viewing the Log File in Adams/View
• Updating the Log File
• Setting the Log File Information
Viewing the Log File in Adams/View
You can use the Log File command on the Tools menu to display the log file. You can keep the dialog
box open as you execute commands so you can keep track of the commands and messages that you
receive.
To help you use the log file as a command file, Adams/View marks any messages as comments so that it
does not try to execute them when you import the command file. It indicates a comment by placing an
exclamation mark (!) in front of the message. Adams/View also displays as comments any commands
that it executes when it starts up. To help you distinguish the startup commands from messages,
Adams/View follows the exclamation mark (!) with the command prompt (>>).
To display the log file:
1. On the Tools menu, select Log File.
The Display Log File dialog box appears.
2. Select Info to display all messages written to the log file. The default is to display only warnings,
errors, and fatal messages.
Updating the Log File
Adams/View does not update the Display Log File dialog box each time you execute a command.
Therefore, if you want to see the commands that you executed since you opened the dialog box, you must
update the log file.
To update the contents of the log file:
• From the Display Log File dialog box, select Update.
Note: You can change the name of the log file through the initialization file .mdi_init. For more
information, see Running and Configuring Adams.
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Setting the Log File Information
When you display the log file, Adams/View displays only warnings, errors, and fatal messages that you
have received. You can change the type of messages that Adams/View displays as well as display the
commands that Adams/View has executed. You can also display only lines that contain certain
information, such as display only commands that create links, and remove any duplicate lines that occur
if you encounter the same error again.
To set the type of information displayed in the Display Log File dialog box:
1. Select the Show only lines of type check box and then select one of the following:
• Info - Displays all commands that you have executed in Adams/View.
• Warning - Displays non-fatal messages that warn you of possible problems with commands
you entered.
• Error - Displays fatal messages that Adams/View did not understand and, therefore, did not
successfully process.
• Fatal - Displays messages that indicated that your model would not simulate.
2. If desired, select Show only lines containing and enter the text that the line must contain in the
text box. You can also enter wildcards. Learn about using wildcards.
3. Select Apply.
To remove duplicate lines:
• From the Display Log File dialog box, select Suppress duplicate lines.
Using Wildcards
You can use wildcards to narrow any search, set the type of information displayed in a window, such as
the Database Navigator or the Log file, or specify a name of an object in a dialog box.
Tips on Using Wildcards
Here are some tips for entering wildcards:
This character: Represents:
* (asterisk) Zero or more characters
? Any single character
[ab] Any one of the characters in the brackets
[^AB] Any character other than the characters following the caret symbol (^) in the
brackets
[a-c] Any one character in a range enclosed in brackets
{AB, bc} Any of the character strings in the braces
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• Case is insignificant so xYz is the same as XYz.
• You can match alternative sequences of characters by enclosing them in braces and separating
them with commas. For example, the pattern a{ab,bc,cd}x matches aabx, abcx, and acdx.
• You can form character sets that match a single character using brackets [ ]. For example, [abc]d
matches ad, bd, and cd
• You can use a dash (-) to create ranges of characters. For example, [a-f1-4] is the same as
[abcdef1234].
• You can use a backslash (\) to include a special character as part of the character set. For
example, [AB\]CD] includes the five characters A, B, ], C, and D.
Here are some examples of more complex patterns and possible matches:
• x*y - Matches any object whose name starts with x and ends with y. This would include xy, x1y,
and xaby.
• x??y - Matches only those objects with four-character long names that start with x and end with
y. This would include xaay, xaby, and xrqy.
• x?y* - Matches all of those objects whose names start with x and have y as the third character.
This would include xayee, xyy, and xxya.
• *{aa,ee,ii,oo,uu}* - Matches all those objects whose name contains the same vowel twice in a
row. This would include loops and skiing.
• [aeiou]*[0-9] - Matches any object whose name starts with a vowel and ends with a digit. This
would include eagle10, arapahoe9, and ex29.
• [^aeiou]?[xyz]* - Matches any object whose name does not start with a vowel and has x, y, or z
as the third letter. This would include thx1138, rex, and fizzy.
• You can use quotation marks to identify all objects with a certain naming pattern. The following
example describes how to set a damping ratio of 0.05 to all beams in .model_1 that have
‘_beam’ in the name.
for var=the_beam obj=.model_1."*_beam*" type=Beam
force modify element_like beam &
beam_name = (eval(the_beam).name) &
damping_ratio = 0.05
end !for
Adams/View Tools
Adams/View provides following tools. Click on each tool to learn more.
• Coordinate window
• Command Navigator
• Command Window
• Message Window
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• Information Window
• Database Navigator
• Table Editor
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Setting Preferences
Setting Preferences
Setting Default Coordinate System
Coordinate Systems in Adams/View
When you first start Adams/View, it displays a View triad in the lower left corner. The view triad displays
the global coordinate system for the Modeling database.
By default, Adams/View uses a Cartesian coordinate system as the global coordinate system with three
axes (x, y, and z). Adams/View attaches the ground part to the global coordinate system and by default
positions all other modeling objects to it.
Rotation Sequences
Adams/View uses three orientation angles to perform three rotations about the axes of a coordinate
system. You specify the order in which axes are rotated about as a sequence of three numbers (1,2,3),
which correspond to x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. For example, a rotation order of 312 produces
rotations about the z-, then x-, and then y-axis. Adams/View provides you with a set of 24 rotation
sequences from which to choose. The most commonly used rotation sequence, body 313, is the default
sequence.
The figure below shows how successive rotations defined by the rotation angles orient the axes. Dashed
lines represent original orientations and solid lines represent new and unchanged orientations.
• The first angle rotates the coordinate system about its z-axis. This repositions the x-axis and the
y-axis (see a in figure).
• The second angle rotates the coordinate system about its new x-axis (x´) to reposition the new y-
axis (y´) and the z-axis (see b in figure).
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• The third angle rotates the coordinate system about its new z-axis (z´) to reposition the new x-
axis (x´) and the second new y-axis (y´´).
Together and in sequence, these rotations define the orientation of the coordinate system (see c in figure).
The right-hand rule defines the direction of positive rotation about each axis. For example, if you are
looking down the initial z-axis, positive rotations are counterclockwise and negative rotations are
clockwise.
To set the default coordinate system:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the Settings menu, select Coordinate System.
• On the Move tool stack of the Main toolbox, select the Coordinate System tool .
The Coordinate System Setting dialog box appears.
2. Select the type of location coordinate systems: cartesian, cylindrical, spherical
3. Select the type of rotation sequence. See Rotation Sequences.
4. Select either:
• Space fixed - Adams/View applies the rotations about axes that remain in their original
orientation.
• Body fixed - Adams/View applies the rotations about axes that move with the body as it
rotates.
As Adams/View applies each rotation to an axis, it produces a new set of axes.
5. Select OK.
Specifying Gravitational Force
You can specify the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of gravity. For each part with mass, the
gravitational force produces a point force at its center of mass.
To turn off gravity:
• From the Gravity Settings dialog box, clear the Gravity check box.
When you turn on gravity, an icon appears in the middle of the Adams/View Main window. To turn off
the display of the gravity icon, see Edit Appearance Dialog Box.
To turn on and specify gravitational force:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the Settings menu, select Gravity.
• On the Create Forces Palette and Tool Stack of the Main toolbox, select the Gravity tool
.
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Setting Preferences
The Gravity Settings dialog box appears.
2. Select the Gravity check box to turn on gravity.
3. Set the acceleration of the gravity in the x, y, and z directions with respect to the global coordinate
system. See the table below for assistance.
4. Select OK.
Setting Screen and Printer Fonts
You can change the font Adams/View uses to display text in a view, such as the name of a part or a note
on the screen, or to print text to a printer. The fonts available for displaying text in a view are those
available with your operating system. The fonts available for printing text are a fixed set of 12 fonts. Note
that your printer may not support all of these printer fonts. Learn about Printing Models.
To select a screen or printer font:
1. On the Settings menu, select Fonts.
The Fonts dialog box appears.
2. In the Screen Font text box, enter the name of the font you want Adams/View to use to display
text in a view. To browse for a font, right-click the text box, select Browse, and select a font.
3. Set Postscript Font to the font you want to use to print text.
4. Select OK.
Specifying Working Directory
By default, Adams/View searches for and saves all files in the directory from which you ran
Adams/View. You can change the working directory.
To change the working directory for the current session:
1. On the File menu, select Select Directory.
Select the directory in which Adams/View should save files.
2. Select OK.
You can also set the working directory when you start Adams/View. Learn about starting a new session.
To change the working directory for all sessions:
1. On UNIX:
To enter: Do the following:
A value Enter the acceleration value in the X, Y, or Z text boxes as appropriate.
A standard value
(+ or -)
Select a standard button (+ or -) for the direction you want to set. The standard
acceleration value appears in the apropriate X, Y, or Z text boxes.
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Setting Preferences
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• From the Adams Toolbar, right-click the Adams/View tool, and then select Change Settings.
• In the Registry Editor, select WorkingDirectory, and then change the working directory.
For more information, see Running and Configuring Adams.
2. On Windows:
• On the Desktop, right-click the Adams/View shortcut, and then select Properties.
• In the Start In text box, enter the working directory.
Setting Units of Measurement
You can set the units that Adams/View uses in modeling, importing, and exporting files. You can select
individual units or select a set group of units.
Units of Measurement in Adams/View
The units of measurement that Adams/View provides for you are shown in the table below. The table also
shows the default units when you start a new session
Entering Unit Measurements in Text Boxes
When you enter a numeric value in a text box, you can specify the units of measurement that you want
used for the value or let Adams/View use the default unit. For example, you can specify the length of a
link in millimeters even when the default unit is set to meters.
When you want to enter an alternate unit, you include the value and its unit. Adams/View encloses the
value and unit in parentheses ( ). You can also enter an abbreviation for the unit. For example, to specify
60 millimeters, enter the following:
(60mm)
For the
dimension: Its supported units are:
The default
unit is:
Length Meter, Millimeter, Centimeter, Kilometer, Inch, Foot, Mile,
Micrometer, Nanometer, Angstrom, Microinch, Mils, Yard
Millimeter
Mass Kilogram, Gram, PoundMass, OunceMass, Slug, KilopoundMass,
Tonne, Milligram, Microgram, Nanogram, Us_ton
Kilogram
Force Newton, KilogramForce, Dyne, PoundForce, OunceForce,
KiloNewton, KilopoundForce, MilliNewton, CentiNewton, Poundal,
Micronewton, Nanonewton, Meganewton
Newton
Time Second, Minute, Hour, Millisecond, Microsecond, Nanosecond, Day Second
Angle Radian, Degree, Revolutions, AngularMinutes, AngularSeconds Degree
Frequency Radians per second, Hertz Radians per
second
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Setting Preferences
You set default units when you create an Adams/View model or you can use the Units command on the
Settings menu to change the units.
Unit Labels
To enter units other than the default in text boxes, you can use either simple unit labels or composed unit
labels.
Simple Unit Labels
Simple units: Simple unit Labels: Minimal abbreviations:
Length centimeter
cm
foot
ft
inch
kilometer
km
m
meter
mile
millimeter
mm
centimeter
c
f
ft
i
kilometer
km
m
met
mile
millimeter
mm
Angle am
angular_minutes
angular_seconds
as
degree
radian
am
angular_m
angular_s
as
d
r
Mass gram
kg
kilogram
kpound_mass
lbm
megagram
ounce_mass
pound_mass
slug
g
kg
kilogram
kpound_m
lbm
meg
ounce_m
pound_m
sl
Time hour
millisecond
minute
ms
second
ho
millis
min
ms
s
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Any unique abbreviation for a simple unit label is acceptable. For example, you can abbreviate radians
in the following ways, since none of the abbreviations conflict with abbreviations for any other units:
radians = radian = radia = radi = rad = ra = r
There are three exceptions for entering unique aliases:
Here are some examples of unit labels associated with a number within text boxes:
• 1mm
• 1.2 inch (spaces are not significant)
• 24in (you can use abbreviations)
Composed Unit Labels
Composed unit labels enable you to create aggregate units. You do this by combining Simple Unit Labels
and operators. There are three operators for composing aggregate units from existing simple units:
Force dyne
kg_force
kilogram_force
knewton
kpound_force
lbf
millinewton
newton
ounce_force
pound_force
dy
kg_
kilogram_force
kn
kpound_f
lbf
millin
ne
ounce_f
pound_f
Frequency hz
radians/second
hz
radians/sec
Aliases: Unit Labels:
d degrees, although it conflicts with dynes
kg kilograms, although it conflicts with kg_force
m meters, although it conflicts with mile, minute, ms, millisecond, and millinewton
Operator: Notation: Comment:
Exponentiation ** Right operand must be an integer: inch**2
Multiplication - or * foot-pound_f = foot*pound_f
Division /
Simple units: Simple unit Labels: Minimal abbreviations:
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Setting Preferences
A composed unit label is always enclosed in parentheses to eliminate ambiguity. Here are some tips and
examples of composed unit labels:
• To indicate torque, enter: 3.3 (newton*meter)
• To indicate composed acceleration, enter: 9.8 (meter/sec**2)
• To indicate angular acceleration, enter : PI (rad/sec**2)
• To indicate multiplication with a dash, enter: (fun(1)*3)(in - lbf)
• You cannot include parentheses inside of composed units. Therefore, the following is incorrect:
1.2 (inch / (sec*deg))
Instead, enter the following:
1.2 (inch / sec/deg)
To set the unit of measurement in Adams/View:
1. On the Settings menu, select Units.
The Units Settings dialog box appears.
2. Select the unit of measurement for each of the dimensions using the table below for assistance.
3. Select OK.
Tip: In general, if you see units associated with numbers in the information window, command
file, log file, and so on, you should be able to take that unit string and use it in a text box
without error.
To select: Do the following:
Unit for a specific
dimensions
Select the individual unit from the pull-down menu associated with the dimension.
Predefined unit
system
Select one of the following buttons. In all the unit systems, time is in seconds and
angle is in degrees. When you select a predefined unit system, the units selected
appear in the upper portion of the dialog box.
• MMKS - Sets length to millimeters, mass to kilograms, and force to Newtons.
• MKS - Sets length to meters, mass to kilograms, and force to Newtons.
• CGS - Sets length to centimeters, mass to grams, and force to Dyne.
• IPS - Sets length to inches, mass to pound mass, and force to PoundForce.
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Saving and Restoring Settings
You can save the current settings of the display of your model and any other settings you specify through
the Settings menu. Adams/View saves your settings in the file aviewBS.cmd in the directory from which
you ran Adams/View.
The settings that Adams/View saves include:
• Part and model display
• Rendering mode, colors, and translucency
• Visibility of the View triad, Screen icons, Working grid, and Coordinate window
• Settings for working grid, units, and screen icons
• Force graphics
• Toolbox and toolbar display and placement
• Simulation preferences
• Solution controls
When you start up Adams/View, Adams/View reads the settings stored in aviewBS.cmd, if it exists in
your path, and uses them instead of any settings in the Modeling database.
To save settings:
1. Set the display of your model and any other Adams/View settings, as desired.
2. From the Settings menu, select Save Settings.
To restore the saved settings:
1. From the Settings menu, select Restore Settings.
Models
Learn about working with Model in a Modeling database:
• Creating Models
• Displaying Models in the Database
• Merging Models
• Renaming a Model
• Modifying a Model's Comments
• Printing Models
• Deleting a Model
• Viewing Model Topology Map Through Information Window
Creating Models
You can store more than one Model in a Modeling database. You may find it helpful to store multiple
models in the same database because it lets you:
• Keep multiple versions of the same mechanical system in the same file.
• Store models of subsystems in one file that you want to combine and simulate as a whole.
• Compare results between models.
To add a model to the current database:
1. On the Build menu, point to Model, and then select New.
The Create/Modify model dialog box appears.
2. In the Model Name text box, enter the name of the model that you want to create. You can enter
up to 80 alphanumeric characters. You cannot include special characters, such as spaces or
periods.
3. Select whether or not you want to use the same gravity settings as the current model in your
database. Learn about Specifying Gravitational Force.
4. Select the Comments tool on the dialog box and enter comments you want associated with
the model. Learn about Comments.
5. Select OK.
Note: To copy a model, see Copying Objects.
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Displaying Models in the Database
You can set a View window so it displays a particular Model in the current Modeling database. You will
find this helpful when you want to compare different models or work with different models at the same
time.
To display a different model in a view window:
1. Click the view window in which you want to display the model.
2. On the View menu, select Model.
The Database Navigator appears listing the current models in your modeling database.
3. Select the model you want to display from the Database Navigator.
4. Select OK.
Learn about Setting Part Display.
Merging Models
You can merge one Model in your Modeling database into another model. For example, you can merge a
subsystem, called the source model, which you want to work on separately, into the base destination
model when you are ready to work on them as a whole. Adams/View maintains the source model and
does not change it after the merge operation.
This is helpful for merging two subsystems stored in the same database into a single model. It allows you
to work on each subsystem individually and merge them together when you are ready to work on them
as a whole.
As you merge models, you can:
• Enter a set of translations and rotations that Adams/View applies to the source model.
Adams/View first rotates the model then translates it.
• Specify whether Adams/View merges parts with the same name into one part, or copies and
renames the duplicate objects before merging them into the destination model.
• Place all merged objects into a group. Learn more about Grouping and Ungrouping Objects.
To merge models:
1. On the Tools menu, select Merge Two Models.
The Merge Two Models dialog box appears.
2. In the Base Model Name text box, enter the name of the destination model.
3. In the Model to be merged text box, enter the name of the source model that you want to merge
into the destination model.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
4. Specify the translations to apply to the source model before merging it with the destination model.
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Models
By default, you enter Cartesian (x,y,z) coordinates. You can change the convention for entering
translational positions. Learn more about Coordinate Systems in Adams/View.
5. Specify the angular position of the parts and polylines in the source model.
Adams/View orients the coordinate system starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. By default, you supply body-fixed 313 Euler angles. You can
change the convention for entering orientation angles.
6. If desired, enter a new or existing group into which Adams/View adds all merged objects.
7. Set the pull-down menu to either merge parts that have the same name (Merge) or rename the
parts before merging the models (Rename).
8. Select OK.
Renaming a Model
Adams/View lets you change the name of a Model.
To rename a model:
1. On the Build menu, point to Model, and then select Rename.
The Database Navigator appears.
2. Select the model you want to rename.
The Rename Object appears.
3. Enter a new name for the model.
4. Select the More button to display the Database Navigator and rename another object in the
database.
5. Select OK.
Modifying a Model's Comments
You can change the comments associated with a model.
To modify a model's comments:
1. On the Edit menu, select Modify. Be sure that no objects are selected. If objects are selected, click
the background of the main window or double-click the Select tool .
The Database Navigator appears.
2. Select the model you want to modify, and then select OK.
The Create/Modify model dialog box appears.
3. Select the Comments tool on the dialog box and enter any comments you want associated
with the model. Learn about Comments.
4. Select OK.
Adams/View
Models
4
Printing Models
Adams/View prints the currently displayed Model as it appears in the currently active View window. You
can set various print options, such as specifying Postscript or HPGL format.
Before printing, be sure to check which view window is the active window and what the magnification
of your model is in the view window. You might also want to check the font that Adams/View is using
for printing text. Learn about Setting Screen and Printer Fonts.
To print the currently displayed model:
1. Select one of the following:
• On the File menu, select Print.
• On the Standard toolbar, select the Print tool .
The Print dialog box appears.
2. Set the printing options as desired, and then select OK.
To cancel printing:
• Select Cancel or press the Esc key.
Deleting a Model
You can remove a Model and all its objects from the Modeling database. When you delete a model,
Adams/View removes the following objects from the modeling database:
• Parts
• Geometry
• Markers
To print: Do the following:
To a printer Select Printer and, in the Printer text box, enter an operating system
command to execute the print job (for example, lpr -Psp2 or lp -c -Ppd1 ).
Only to a file Select File and enter the location and name of the file to which you want
to print the model in the File text box.
In a different format Select the format. You can select Postscript, HPGL, or Encapsulated
Postscript.
In color or black and white Select either Color or Black and White. If you select Black and White,
Adams/View prints the model in black and white even if you are using a
color printer.
At a different orientation Select the type of orientation: Portrait or Landscape.
On a different size paper Select the size of paper or select Default to accept the current default
paper for the printer.
5
Models
• Joints
• Forces
• Simulation results
• Data elements and System elements
• Design variables
It does not remove plots, interface changes, or design variables that belong to the modeling database.
To delete a model:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the Build menu, point to Model, and then select Delete.
• On the Edit menu, select Delete.
The Database Navigator appears.
2. Select the model you want to delete. Learn about selecting objects.
3. Select OK.
If you selected Delete from the Build menu, Adams/View asks you to confirm the deletion of the
model.
4. Select Delete.
Viewing Model Topology Map Through Information Window
The model topology map displays information about the parts in your Model and determines what
constraints are owned by the model and what parts the constraints connect. The information appears in
the Information Window.
You can view the part connection information in two ways:
• By part - Lists each part in the model, along with the parts it is connected to and what
constraints or forces are affecting it.
• By connections - Displays each constraint and force with the parts they connect and act on. Also
displays any unconnected parts.
Model Topology by Part
You can select to have Adams/View list each part in the model, along with the parts it is connected to and
what constraints or forces are affecting it. If an object is inactive, the text (OFF) appears next to it. The
following shows the information that appears in the Information window or Database Navigator when
you display the connections by parts for a model called model_1.
Topology of model: model_1
Ground Part: ground
Adams/View
Models
6
Part ground
Is connected to:
LINK_1 via JOINT_2 (Revolute Joint)
LINK_6 via JOINT_1 (Revolute Joint)
LINK_1 via FORCE_1 (Single_Component_Force)
Part LINK_1
Is connected to:
LINK_5 via JOINT_3 (Revolute Joint)
ground via JOINT_2 (Revolute Joint)
ground via FORCE_1 (Single_Component_Force)
Part LINK_5
Is connected to:
LINK_1 via JOINT_3 (Revolute Joint)
LINK_6 via JOINT_4 (Revolute Joint)
Part LINK_6
Is connected to:
LINK_5 via JOINT_4 (Revolute Joint)
ground via JOINT_1 (Revolute Joint)
To display model topology by parts, do one of the following:
• From the Tools menu, select Model Topology Map.
• In Adams/View, on the Status bar, from the Information tool stack, select the Model Topology
by Parts tool .
Model Topology by Connections
When you select to display model topology by connection, Adams/View displays each constraint and
force with the parts that they connect and act on. Adams/View also displays any unconnected parts, and
indicates when an object is inactive with the text (OFF). The following sample shows the information
that appears when you select to display topology by connections for a model with three parts, named
model_1.
Topology of model: model_1
Ground Part: ground
JOINT_1 connects LINK_2 with ground (Revolute Joint)
JOINT_2 connects LINK_3 with LINK_4 (Revolute Joint)
JOINT_3 connects LINK_2 with LINK_3 (Revolute Joint)
Unconnected Parts:
LINK_1
7
Models
To display model topology by connections:
• On the status bar, from the Information tool stack, select the Model Topology by Constraints
tool .
Note: You can also view model topology through the Database Navigator.
Adams/View
Modeling Database
8
Modeling Database
Adams/View stores all your work in Modeling database.
Learn more:
• About the Adams/View Modeling Database
• Creating a Modeling Database
• Opening a Modeling Database
• Saving Modeling Database
• Saving the Current Modeling Database with a New Name
About the Adams/View Modeling Database
The Adams/View Modeling database is a hierarchical database. Each object in the database has an object
that owns it, called its parent, and many objects own other objects, called their children. The top level
objects in the database are models, views, plots, and libraries containing such things as dialog boxes.
The following shows the hierarchy of a database called Database_1 that contains one model and a plot
of the model.
Names of objects in the database use a hierarchical naming structure. For example, a block built on the
ground part is named .model_1.ground.block.
Creating a Modeling Database
When you first start working with Adams/View, it provides you with options for creating a new Modeling
database. You can also create a new modeling database anytime during your Adams/View session. You
can have only one modeling database open at a time, but it can contain multiple models.
Remember that Adams/View saves all your customization changes, such as any new dialog boxes, in the
modeling database. Therefore when you create a new modeling database, the standard Adams/View
9
Modeling Database
interface appears and you will need to make any changes again in the new database. If, however, you use
the command, Save Settings, on the Settings menu to save any preferences you set, Adams/View reads
these and changes the interface accordingly. Learn about Saving and Restoring Settings.
To create a modeling database:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the File menu, select New Database.
• On the Standard toolbar, select the New Database tool .
When you create a new database, Adams/View automatically closes the current database. If
you did not save your current database, Adams/View asks you if you want to save it before
closing.
2. Select one of the following if you did not save your existing database:
• Yes - Saves and closes the database.
• No - Closes the database without saving it.
• Cancel - Does not save the database.
Adams/View displays the Welcome dialog box, which lets you choose how you want to start
your modeling session with the new modeling database.
Opening a Modeling Database
You can open an existing Modeling database. You can only open one database at a time. To load different
types of data into your modeling database, such as geometric data or commands, import the data as
explained in Exchanging Data in Adams.
To open a modeling database:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the File menu, select Open Database.
• On the Standard toolbar, select the Open Database tool .
The File Selection dialog box appears. The File Selection filter is set to display only modeling
database files (those with a .bin extension).
2. In the Directories list box, select the directory in which the file is located.
3. Highlight the file that you want to open in the Files list box, or type the file name in the Selection
text box.
The highlighted file appears in the Selection text box.
4. Select OK.
Adams/View
Modeling Database
10
Saving Modeling Database
You can use the Save Database command to save the current Modeling database as an Adams/View
Binary format file. Saving your modeling database as a binary file saves all modeling information,
including any customization changes you made. To save the model data in another format, export the data
as explained in Exchanging Data in Adams. To save your preferences, see Saving and Restoring Settings.
To save an existing modeling database:
1. Select one of the following:
• On the File menu, select Save Database.
• On the Standard toolbar, select the Save Database tool .
Before saving the file, Adams/View displays a message asking you if you’d like to create a
backup file of the current database file.
2. Select one of the following:
• Yes - Creates a backup file of the existing database file and saves the database. When
Adams/View creates a backup file, it adds a % to the end of the file extension (for example,
model.bin%).
• No - Saves the database without making a backup copy of the existing database file.
• Cancel - Exit the command without saving the database.
Saving the Current Modeling Database with a New Name
You can save the current modeling database to a binary file with a new name. This lets you keep several
versions of your database under different names and reduces the risk of losing your work if you
inadvertently change or delete your model. Saving your modeling database saves all modeling
information, including any customization changes you made. To save the model data in another format,
export the data as explained in Exchanging Data in Adams. To save your preferences, see Saving and
Restoring Settings.
To save a new database or an existing database with a new name:
1. On the File menu, select Save Database As.
The Save Database As dialog box appears.
2. In the File Name text box, enter the name you want to assign to the file.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.
3. Select OK.
11
Database Navigator
Database Navigator
The Database Navigator helps you view, select, and modify objects in your Modeling database.
Learn more:
• About the Database Navigator
Viewing Objects
• Showing, Hiding, and Selecting Objects in the Database Navigator
• Managing the Select List
• Filtering Objects in the Database Navigator
• Sorting Objects in the Database Navigator
• Setting Highlighting in the Database Navigator
Changing Objects
• Setting Appearance of Objects Through the Database Navigator
• Renaming Objects Through the Database Navigator
• Adding Comments Through the Database Navigator
Viewing Information About Your Model
• Viewing Model Topology Through the Database Navigator
• Viewing the Associativity of Objects
• Viewing Object Information Through the Database Navigator
About the Database Navigator
The Database Navigator appears when you do one of the following:
• Select Database Navigator from the Tools menu.
• Execute an editing command, such as Modify, from the Edit menu when no object is currently
selected.
• Request to view information about an object using the Info command on the Edit shortcut menu.
• Browse for the name of an object to enter in a dialog box using the Browse command.
The Database Navigator has several modes in which you can display object information. It can be set to
just let you browse for objects or you can set it to rename objects, view information about the objects,
such as view how the object relates to other objects, and view dependencies.
The Database Navigator only displays the types of objects that are appropriate for the command you are
executing. For example, if you are renaming a model, it only displays models in your database. On the
other hand, if you are searching for any modeling object in the database, it displays all types of modeling
objects. You can also set a filter for the types of objects that the Database Navigator displays.
Adams/View
Database Navigator
12
The Database Navigator shows objects in their database hierarchy. The following figure shows the
Database Navigator with the top-level modeling objects in a small database that contains one model,
model_1 . These objects do not have parents. Double-click the name of a model, in this case model_1, to
find all the objects belonging to that model.
Showing , Hiding, and Selecting Objects in the Database
Navigator
In the Database Navigator Tree list, a plus (+) in front of an object indicates that the object has children
below it but they are hidden. A minus (-) indicates that all objects immediately below the object are
displayed.
To show or hide objects below a single object:
• Double-click an object with a plus or minus by it.
To expand or collapse all objects by one level:
• In the lower right corner of the navigator window, select the + or - button.
13
Database Navigator
To hide all objects:
• In the lower right corner of the navigator window, select the - button.
You can use the Database Navigator to select any object in the database. You can also select more than
one object to complete a command. You can create a list of selected objects on which to perform options
by choosing Select List from the pull-down menu at the top of the Database Navigator.
To select a single object:
• In the tree list, click the object and select OK. If the Database Navigator is not in multi-select
mode, you can also double-click the object to select it.
To use the mouse to select a continuous set of objects:
1. In the tree list, drag the mouse over the objects you want to select or click on one object, hold
down the Shift key, and click the last object in the set. All objects between the two selected
objects are highlighted.
2. Select OK.
To use the Up and Down arrow keys to select a continuous set of objects:
1. In the tree list, click on the first object, hold down the Shift key, and then use the Up or Down
arrows to select a block of objects.
2. Select OK.
To select a noncontinuous set of objects:
1. In the tree list, click on an object, hold down the Ctrl key, and click on the individual objects you
want to select.
2. Select OK.
To clear any selection in the tree list:
• Hold down the Ctrl key and click the selected object to clear its highlighting.
Managing the Select List
You can use the Database Navigator to view objects you've selected using the procedures explained in
Showing, Hiding, and Selecting Objects in the Database Navigator. The list of objects is called the Select
list. You can also add and remove objects from the Select list.
To view the select list:
• From the pull-down menu, select Select List.
The selected objects appear in the text box to the right.
To add objects to a select list:
1. From the pull-down menu, select Select List.
Adams/View
Database Navigator
14
2. From the tree list or view window, select the objects to be on the select list as explained in the
previous section.
3. Select Add.
4. Select Apply.
To remove objects from the select list:
1. From the pull-down menu, select Select List.
2. From the list that appears on the right, select the objects to be removed.
3. Select Remove.
4. Select Apply.
To clear all objects from the select list:
1. From the pull-down menu, select Select List.
2. Select Clear.
3. Select Apply.
Filtering Objects in the Database Navigator
You can filter the types and names of objects that you want displayed in the Database Navigator Tree list
to narrow the display to exactly what you want or to broaden the display using wildcards. For example,
you can narrow the display to only parts or broaden the display to include all objects that begin with a
particular character, such as an h. Learn about Using Wildcards.
To set the filter of the Database Navigator:
1. In the Filter text box, enter the name of the objects that you want to display. Type any wildcards
that you want to include.
2. From the pull-down menu to the right of the Filter text box, select the type of object or objects
that you want to display in the Database Navigator. To select from all the different object types
in the modeling database, select Browse.
3. To only display active or inactive objects, set the pull-down menu below the Filter objects to
either Active Objects or Inactive Objects. Learn about Activating and Deactivating Objects.
4. Select OK.
Sorting Objects in the Database Navigator
You can sort objects in the Database Navigator by their name or type, such as parts or geometry. You can
also select to not sort the object so the objects appear in the Database Navigator in the order they are
stored in the modeling database.
Note that sorting by name can be slow for objects with very long names. Setting no sorting is the fastest
way to see objects.
15
Database Navigator
To sort objects in the Database Navigator:
• At the bottom of the Database Navigator, from the Sort by pull-down menu, select how you'd
like the objects sorted.
Setting Highlighting in the Database Navigator
You can set up the Database Navigator so that whenever you select an object in the tree list, it also appears
selected in the main window and the reverse. Highlighting is off by default.
To toggle highlighting:
• Select Highlighting.
Setting Appearance of Objects Through the Database
Navigator
Through the Database Navigator, you can set how individual, types of objects, and children of objects
appear in Adams/View.You can set:
• Visibility of the object and of its name on the screen.
• Color, line style, line width and transparency of the object. For example, you can set the color of
the object’s outline or its name.
• Size of the screen icons that represent the object in your model. Note that these changes take
precedence over the size you specify globally for the modeling database.
• State of the object during a simulation: active or inactive.
You can also set appearance through the Edit -> Appearance command. Learn about Setting Object
Appearance through Edit -> Appearance Command.
To set the appearance of objects:
1. Select an object from the Database Navigator Tree list.
2. Use the options in the dialog box to set the appearance of the object. To inherit an attribute from
a parent of the object, select None from any of the pull-down menus. See Display Attribute dialog
box help.
3. To set the scope of the appearance changes, you can select either:
Tip: For transparency, the higher the value, the more transparent the object is, allowing other
objects to show through. The lower the value, the more opaque the object is, covering
other objects. However, setting the transparency of objects can have a negative impact
on graphical performance if you are using a graphics card without hardware
acceleration for OpenGL. Instead of setting an object’s transparency, consider setting
the object’s render mode to wireframe.
Adams/View
Database Navigator
16
• Object - Only apply to the selected object.
• Siblings - Apply changes to all objects of the same type that are children of the parent of the
selected object.
• All - Apply changes to objects matching the filter you set in the Filter text box.
4. Select Apply.
Renaming Objects Through the Database Navigator
You can use the Database Navigator to rename any object. Also see Renaming Objects Through Menu
Commands.
To rename an object:
1. From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Rename.
2. From the Tree list, select the object to rename.
3. In the text box that appears to the right, type a new name for the object.
4. Select Apply.
Adding Comments Through the Database Navigator
You can use the Database Navigator to associate comments with any object in the Modeling database.
To associate comments with an object:
1. From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Comments.
2. From the Tree list or View window, select an object.
3. In the text box that appears to the right, type or modify the comments associated with the object.
4. Select Apply.
To save the comments in a file:
• Select Save to File.
Viewing Model Topology Through the Database Navigator
The model topology map displays information about the parts in your model and determines what
constraints are owned by the model and what parts the constraints connect. The information appears in
the window on the right of the Database Navigator.
You can view the part connection information in the following ways:
• By part - Lists each part in the model, along with the parts it is connected to and what
constraints or forces are affecting it.
Learn more about Model Topology by Part.
17
Database Navigator
• By connections - Displays each constraint and force with the parts they connect and act on. Also
displays any unconnected parts.
Learn more about Model Topology by Connections.
• Graphically - Displays a representation of the selected part and shows its connections to other
parts.
Learn more about Graphically Viewing Model Topology.
Graphically Viewing Model Topology
In graphical topology, the Database Navigator displays a representation of the selected part and shows its
connections to other parts. The connections represent the joints or forces between the parts. Each time
you select a different part in the tree list of the Database Navigator, the graphical display changes to show
the select part at its center. If an object is inactive, the part appears dimmed.
Adams/View
Database Navigator
18
To display model topology of parts and connections:
• From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Topology by Parts or Topology by
Constraints.
To graphically view the topology of parts:
1. From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Graphical Topology.
2. From the Tree list or view window, select an object.
Viewing the Associativity of Objects
You can use the Database Navigator to display the objects that a selected object uses. For example, you
can select a joint in the tree list to show the I and J markers that the joint uses. You can also select to view
the objects that use the selected object.
To view the associativity of objects:
1. From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Associativity.
2. Set the associativity:
• To show the objects that the selected object uses, select Uses
• To show the objects that use the selected object, select Is Used By.
3. From the Tree list or View window, select an object.
The objects associated with the selected object appear in the text box to the right.
To set up automatic navigation of the objects:
• Select Auto Navigate. Learn more About Auto Navigation.
To save the current associativity information to a file:
• Select Save to File.
Viewing Object Information Through Database Navigator
You can use the Database Navigator just as you would the Information Window to display information
about an object.
To display object information:
1. From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Information.
2. From the Tree list or View window, select an object.
The information about the object appears in the window to the right.
To save the information to a file:
• Select Save to File.
19
Database Navigator
To return to the information about a previous object:
• Select .
About Auto Navigation
When you select Auto Navigate, the Database Navigator lets you view the associativity of objects that
you select from the Tree list and any objects listed in the window on the right. For example, if you have
a model with a joint motion, and then select to view the associativity of that motion, you see a joint listed
in the right window, as shown below.
With Auto Navigate selected, you can just select that joint from the right window to view its associativity.
If it were not selected, you would have to select the joint from the tree list to view its associativity. In
addition, when you select the joint in the right window, the Database Navigator also highlights it in the
tree list.
Adams/View
Information Window
20
Information Window
Adams/View uses the Information window to display many different types of information about your
model, Simulation, or motion data. In addition to just viewing information about your model, you can
perform a variety of operations in the Information window. For example, you can display additional
information about the current object's parent or child, print the information, display information about a
different object in the database, and more.
Learn more:
Displaying Information
• Displaying Object Information and Accessing the Information Window
• Displaying Parent and Children Information
• Displaying an Object's Modify Dialog Box
Managing Information
• Clearing the Information Window
• Saving Information in the Information Window
• Displaying a Text File in the Information Window
• Copying Text in the Information Window
• Setting the Information Mode
Displaying Object Information and Accessing Information
Window
You can display information about each object in your Modeling database, including parts, geometry,
motion, and Markers. You can view the information about an object currently on the screen or any object
in the database, including view windows or dialog boxes.
When you display information about the objects in your modeling database, Adams/View displays
information specific to that type of object. For example, when you display information about a rigid body
in your model, Adams/View displays information about its material content, inertial properties, initial
conditions, orientation, velocity, and more. When you display information about a motion, Adams/View
display information about the type of motion it is, its function, and time derivative.
To display information about a modeling object displayed on the screen:
• Right-click the object on the screen, and then select Info.
Information about the object appears in the Information window.
Tip: You may want to zoom in on the object on the screen to more easily place the cursor
over just that object.
21
Information Window
To use the Database Navigator to display information about objects in the Information
window:
1. On the Status bar, select the Info tool from the Information tool stack.
The Database Navigator appears.
2. Select the object about which you want to display information. Learn about selecting objects.
3. Select OK.
The information window appears.
To display object information once you've displayed the Information window, do one of
the following:
• In the text box at the top of the Information window, enter the name of the object, and then select
Apply.
• If the object name already appears in the Information window, place the text cursor in the name
of the object, and then select Apply.
Displaying Parent and Children Information
Each object in the database has an object that owns it, called its parent, and many objects own other
objects, called their children. The top-level objects in the database are models, plots, and interface
objects, called gui objects. These objects do not have parents. You can display information about the
parent or children of the object currently displayed in the Information window.
If an object has a parent, the type of parent it has appears in the Information window under the heading
Parent Type and the name of the parent is placed in front of the name of the object in the Object Name
heading. For example, for the part LINK_2, its parent type and name appear in the Information window,
as shown below:
To display an object's children:
• In the Information window, select Children. Learn about accessing the Information window.
To display an object's parent, do one of the following:
• In the Information window, select Parent.
• In the Information window, place the text cursor in the name of the parent and select Apply.
Adams/View
Information Window
22
Displaying an Object's Modify Dialog Box from the Information
Window
When information about an object is displayed in the Information window, you can access that object's
modify dialog box so you can modify the object.
To access an object's modify dialog box from the Information window:
• In the Information window, place the text cursor in the name of the object and select Modify.
Learn about accessing the Information window.
• Learn about other ways of Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
Clearing the Information Window
Each time you request information in the Information window, Adams/View adds the information to the
bottom of the Information window without removing the current information. You can remove all current
information.
To clear the Information window:
• In the Information window, select Clear.
Saving Information in the Information Window
You can save the contents of the Information window to a text file.
To save the contents of the information to a text file:
1. In the Information window, select Save to File.
The Select File dialog box appears.
2. Select the directory in which you want to place the file.
3. In the File Name text box, enter the file name.
4. Select Open.
Displaying a Text File in the Information Window
You can display any text file in the Information window. You will find this helpful if you want to display
an information file that you saved or you are creating a demonstration of your model using an
Adams/View command file and you want to display information about a particular object or aspect of the
demonstration.
To display a text file when the Information window is already displayed:
1. In the Information window, select Read from File.
The File Selection dialog box appears.
23
Information Window
2. Select the directory in which you want to place the file.
3. Highlight the file that you want to open in the list, or type the file name in the File Name text box.
4. Select Open.
To display a text file when the Information window is not displayed:
1. On the Tools menu, select Show File.
The Info Window Read dialog box appears.
2. In the File Name text box, you can either:
• Enter the name of the file.
• Browse for a file: right-click the File Name text box, and then select Browse to display the
File Selection dialog box.
3. Select OK.
The Information window appears with the text of the file as its content.
Copying Text in the Information Window
You can copy any text in the Information window for use in another window, dialog box, or application.
You cannot paste or delete any text in the window.
To copy text in the Information window:
1. Highlight the text that you want to copy.
2. Right-click the Information window and select Copy.
Setting the Information Mode
By default, the Information window displays only a part's parent and type. To display more information
about the part, you can turn on verbose mode. When you turn on verbose mode, the Information window
displays the children of the object, its geometry, whether or not comments are associated with it, and its
attributes, such as its color and visibility.
To turn on verbose mode:
• Select the Verbose check box.
Adams/View
Information Window
24
Adams/View Interface
Learn about the different aspects of the Adams/View interface.
• Using Shortcut Menus
• Using Toolboxes, Tool Stacks, and Palettes
• Working with Text Boxes
• Working with the Coordinate Window
• Using Tables to Enter Values
• Undoing and Redoing Operations
• Canceling Operations
• Managing Messages
Using Shortcut Menus
The four different types of Shortcut menus are explained in the table below.
To display and select a command from a shortcut menu:
1. Right-click the appropriate type of object.
2. Select the desired command.
Using Toolboxes, Tool Stacks, and Palettes
Some of the tools on the Main toolbox are actually Tool stacks. If you are using tool stacks frequently, you
can display many of them as floating dialog boxes, or palettes. For example, you can display the
When cursor is over: The shortcut menu lets you:
Modeling object in the main window
(for example, a rigid body)
Select, modify, duplicate, delete, measure, rename,
deactivate, set appearance, and display information about the
object.
Main window (over no modeling
object)
Set the display of the main window, such as zoom in on your
model or change the view orientation.
See an Example of shortcut menu.
Text box in a dialog box Enter information required in the text box.
See Using Shortcut Menus in Text Boxes.
Strip charts that monitor a measure Transfer the plot to the full plotting window, display
information about the measure, and delete the measure.
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Geometric Modeling tool stack as the Geometric Modeling Palette. You can keep these palettes open
during your entire modeling session and place them anywhere on your screen.
As you create objects, such as parts or constraints, Adams/View provides settings to assist in defining the
objects. It provides the settings in a container at the bottom of the palette or Main toolbox. For example,
as you create a link, Adams/View lets you specify its width, length, and depth before you create it. Then,
as you create the link, these dimensions are set regardless of how you move the cursor. You can also
define Design variables or Expressions for these setting values.
To select a default tool from the Main toolbox or palette:
• Click the tool once with the left mouse button.
To select a default tool so you can use it several times or set the display in all view
windows:
• Double-click the tool with the left mouse button.
To stop using a tool:
• Select another tool, Esc key, or the Select Tool.
To display a tool stack and select a tool from it:
1. Right-click a tool stack.
2. Select the desired tool in the stack.
To display a tool stack as a palette:
• On the tool stack, select the Display Palette tool .
Working with Text Boxes
Text boxes in dialog boxes let you input information into Adams/View. Adams/View text boxes provide
you with a visual cue as to whether or not the information in the text box is required to run the command.
If the information in the text box is required, the text box appears in a lighter shade of gray. If the
information is not required, the text box appears in a darker shade of gray. Also, you can use the shortcut
menu in a text box to determine if the information is required.
Learn more:
• Using Shortcut Menus in Text Boxes
• Entering Modeling Objects in Text Boxes
• Searching for Files
• Cutting, Copying, Pasting, and Clearing Text
• Viewing and Validating Text in Text Boxes
• Entering Unit Measurements in Text Boxes
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Using Shortcut Menus in Text Boxes
The text boxes also contain Shortcut menus to access commonly used commands that pertain to the
information to be entered in the text box. For example, if a text box requires a file or model name, you
can click the right mouse button to display a command for browsing your directories or modeling
database. The types of commands that appear on shortcut menus depend on the type of object required
in the text box. The table below shows the different menu commands that appear for each type of object.
Entering Modeling Objects in Text Boxes
Many of the dialog boxes in Adams/View require the name of a modeling object, such as a part or model.
To help you enter the object name, Adams/View provides commands on the Shortcut menus in text boxes
for selecting the object from the screen or for browsing your modeling database using the Database
Navigator.
The shortcut menu also has a command called Guesses. Guesses displays the five most recently created
objects of that type. Depending on the object required, the shortcut menu also contains a command to
create a new object of the required type.
When the text box
requires: The shortcut menu lets you:
Modeling object (for
example, a rigid body)
• Browse the Modeling database, select an
object from the screen, or create an object.
• Copy, cut, and paste text.
• Manage and parameterize objects. These are
the same commands available through the
pull-down menus.
• Display information about the required
values.
File name and location • Browse directories.
• Search a specified path.
• Copy, cut, and paste text and display
information about the required values.
Text, such as a value • Copy, cut, and paste text.
• Parameterize the text, if appropriate.
• Display information about the required
values.
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To enter a modeling object by typing:
• Place the cursor in the text box, and then type the name of the modeling object in the text box.
Be sure to enter the entire name of the object, including its model and parent, if the name of the
object is not unique within the entire database. For example, if you had two markers called
mar_1 on two different parts, you need to enter .model_1.par_1.mar_1 to uniquely identify the
marker. Learn about the Adams/View modeling database hierarchy.
To enter a modeling object by picking, browsing, or creating the object:
1. Right-click the text box. The first command on the menu is the type of object to be entered. For
example, the first command is Model if you are to enter a model, Constraint if you are to enter
a constraint.
2. Point to the type of object and then do one of the following:
• Select Pick and click on the desired object in the main window.
• Select Browse to display the Database Navigator, and then select the desired object from the
Database Navigator.
• Point to Guesses and select the desired object from the list of recently created objects of that
type.
• Select Create to create an object of the type required.
Searching for Files
If a text box requires the name and location of a file, you can browse for it or look for it in a specified
search path. The next sections explain how to browse and search for files:
• Browsing Directories
• Using a Search Path
Browsing Directories
You can use the Select File dialog box to browse for a file.
To browse for a file:
1. Right-click a text box that requires a file name to display a shortcut menu.
2. Select Browse to display the Select File dialog box.
3. Double-click the directory that contains the file.
4. In the File Name box, type the file name you want to open, or highlight the file in the list.
5. Select Open.
Tip: Clear the text box, if necessary, and double-click to display the File Selection dialog box
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Using a Search Path
The file aview.pth in the aview directory defines search paths for different types of files. For example,
there is a path defined for database modeling files (binary files), paths defined for command files, and so
on. Adams/View displays the search paths defined for a particular object when you select Search from a
shortcut menu in a text box. You can use these search paths to quickly locate files.
• For more on aview.pth, see Running and Configuring Adams.
To search for a file in a search path:
1. Right-click a text box that requires a file name to display a shortcut menu.
2. Point to Search, and then select a search path that contains the file you are looking for. For
example, if you are searching for a modeling database (binary file), select $LOCAL_AVIEW.
The Select File dialog box appears.
3. Locate the file in the list, and then select Open.
Cutting, Copying, Pasting, and Clearing Text
You can use the shortcut menu commands that appear in text boxes to cut or copy the text in the box to
the clipboard (a temporary storage area) and paste text saved in the clipboard into the text box. You can
also quickly clear text in a text box using a keyboard shortcut.
To cut and copy text in a text box:
1. Select the text that you want to cut or copy.
2. Right-click the text box to display the shortcut menu and do one of the following, depending on
the type of text in the text box:
3. If the text is a value, select Cut or Copy.
4. If the text is a name of an object, point to Text, and then select Cut or Copy.
To paste text stored in the clipboard:
1. Place the cursor in the text box where you want to paste the text.
2. Right-click the text box to display the shortcut menu and do one of the following depending on
the type of text in the text box:
3. If the text is a value, such as a real number, select Paste.
4. If the text is a name of an object, point to Text, and then select Paste.
To quickly clear a text box:
• Left-click at the start of the text box, and then press Ctrl-k.
Viewing and Validating Text in Text Boxes
To help you ensure that you enter the correct type of information and to see if the information is required,
the Shortcut menus in text boxes contain a submenu called Field Info. Field Info does the following:
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• Indicates whether or not the information in the text box is required to execute the command. The
following text appears in the menu. They are for information only and do not execute a
command.
• Required appears if the information is required.
• Optional appears if the information is not required.
• Displays the type of information you should enter (text, integer, model, and so on).
• Validates the information you have entered in the text box. This is particularly helpful if you
entered a function in the text box. Adams/View also automatically validates the information
when you move the cursor out of the text box.
To view and validate the information required in a text box:
1. Right-click the text to display the shortcut menu.
2. Point to Field Info, and then do either of the following:
• To verify that the information you already entered was correctly enter, select Validate. If you
enter invalid information, Adams/View highlights the text box in red and displays an error
message.
• View the type of information to be entered and whether or not it is required for Adams/View
to execute the command.
Also see Entering Unit Measurements in Text Boxes.
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Working with the Coordinate Window
You can use the Coordinate window to help you identify the coordinates of any location in a View window.
You can also measure the distance between objects based on their coordinate locations.
The sections below explain how to work with the coordinate window:
• Displaying the Coordinate Window
• Measuring the Distance Between Points
Displaying the Coordinate Window
To toggle on and off the display of the coordinate window, do one of the following:
• On the View menu, select Coordinate Window.
• On the Main toolbox, from the Toggle Tool Stack, select the Coordinate Window tool .
The coordinate window appears in the lower right corner of the screen. You can move and size it
as you do any window in your operating system.
Measuring the Distance Between Points
In Delta mode, you can use your mouse and the coordinate window to find the distance between two
points
To measure the distance between two points:
1. Move the cursor to the point in a view window where you want to begin, and press and hold down
the mouse button.
2. Drag the cursor to the next point. As you drag the cursor, Adams/View displays the distance the
cursor moves in the coordinate window.
3. To end delta mode, release the mouse button.
Using Tables to Enter Values
Adams/View has two types of tables for entering values as shown in the table below. To learn more, click:
• Entering Values in Cells
• Moving Between Cells
• Selecting Cells and Rows
• Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Text in Cells
• Viewing Entire Contents of a Cell
Tip: Press the F4 key to toggle the display of the coordinate window.
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• Resizing Columns
Entering Values in Cells
To enter values in a cell of a table:
1. Click the cell.
The text cursor appears in the cell.
2. Enter the values in the selected cell.
Moving Between Cells
You can quickly move from one cell to another using the following shortcuts. Note that you must press
the Enter key to enter information into the cells.
To move to the next cell:
The table: Lets you: Example:
Table Editor Enter values for all types of
objects.
Location Table Enter values for multiple
locations, such as the
locations for the points on a
spline.
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• Press Tab.
To move to the previous cell:
• Press Shift + Tab.
To move up to the previous row or down to the next row:
• Press the up or down arrow keys.
Selecting Cells and Rows
To work with information in a table, you must select the information you want to change.
Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Text in Cells
You can cut or copy text from one cell of a table and paste it in another cell.
To cut or copy text:
• Right-click the text in the cell that you want to cut or copy and then select Copy or Cut.
To paste text:
• Right-click the cell where you want to insert the text, and select Paste.
Viewing Entire Contents of a Cell
Often, information displayed in a cell is longer than the width of the cell. When this happens,
Adams/View displays an arrow next to the cell to indicate that there is more information than can fit in
To select: With the mouse:
A cell Click the cell.
A range of cells Click the upper left cell and drag across the cells you want to select.
OR:
Hold down the Ctrl key and select individual cells.
An entire row Click the row header.
An entire column Click the column header.
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the cell. The following figure shows the Location Table as it appears in UNIX when cells contain more
information than can be displayed at once.
To view the rest of the cell:
• Click the cell.
Adams/View displays the last portion of the information in the cell.
Resizing Columns
You can change the size of any column in a table. In addition, in the Location table, you can resize all
columns equally.
To resize a column:
1. Point to the right border of the column heading that you want to resize. The cursor changes to a
double-sided arrow.
2. Drag the cursor until the column is the desired size.
3. Release the mouse button
Undoing and Redoing Operations
You can undo the effects of most Adams/View commands. Adams/View remembers up to 20
Adams/View operations. For example, if you accidentally delete a joint, you can undo the deletion by
selecting Undo. Note that you cannot undo the effects of some commands, such as the commands in the
File menu.
To undo an operation, do one of the following:
• On the Edit menu, select Undo.
• On the Main toolbox, select the Undo tool .
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• Type Ctrl + Z.
To redo an operation, do one of the following:
• On the Edit menu, select Redo.
• On the Main toolbox, select the Redo tool .
• Type Ctrl + Shift + Z.
Canceling Operations
You can cancel any operation that you started in Adams/View. For example, you can exit from a dialog
box or from a drawing operation or stop a simulation or animation.
To cancel an operation, do one of the following:
• Select the Cancel button on a dialog box, if available.
• Press the Esc key or select the Stop tool on the Status bar.
Managing Messages
Types of Messages
Adams/View displays informational messages, errors, warnings, and faults in the following interface
elements.
The element: Displays:
Status bar Informational status messages, brief descriptions of commands, and the time
remaining in an operation. It also displays messages to assist you in creating
and editing objects. Be sure to watch it as you work with Adams/View. The
status bar appears at the bottom of the main window
Alert boxes Errors or messages about the command that you selected. For example, it
appears when you select to perform an operation on an object and there are no
objects of that type in the database.
Message Window Messages about the execution of a command. By default, the message window
only displays messages about commands you execute from the user interface.
You can also set it to display messages about commands that you execute from
the Command window, Command Navigator, and Adams/View command file.
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Setting the Messages Displayed
By default, the Message Window only displays error and fatal messages and messages from commands
that you execute from the user interface (for example, menus and dialog boxes). You can also display
messages that you execute from the Command Window, Command Navigator, and Adams/View
command file. In addition, you can set the severity level of the messages displayed, from informational
to fatal messages.
To set the messages displayed in the message window:
1. From the Message window, select Settings.
The Message Settings dialog box appears.
2. Set the messages that you want displayed as explained in the table below, and then select OK.
Clearing the Message Window
Each time you receive a message in the Message Window, Adams/View adds the message to the bottom
of the message window without removing the previous message. You can, however, clear all previous
messages.
To display: Select one of the following:
Only certain types of messages • Only Graphical User Interface (GUI) widgets to display
messages that are generated from commands you execute
from the user interface.
• The GUI, the command line, and command files to display
messages that you execute from the user interface, command
window, Command Navigator, and command files.
• Don't display messages to turn off the display of all
messages.
Messages at or above a
specified severity level
• Information - Displays messages about what is occurring
during a command. Setting the message window to display
these types of messages helps you understand what is
happening in Adams/View but requires no action from you.
• Warning - Displays messages that warn you that something
unusual occurred but the operation can continue. You may
want to fix or change something to complete the operation
without warnings.
• Error - Displays messages that indicate that the operation
cannot be executed. You need to fix or change something to
complete the operation.
• Fatal - Displays messages that indicate that a programming
error occurred. You should report the message to MSC's
Technical Support staff.
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To clear the message window:
• From the Message window, select Clear.
Setting Screen Icon Display
When you first start Adams/View, it displays Screen icons. As you add objects to your model, however,
these icons can clutter your view of the model. To clear the display of a window, you can turn off the
icons. You can select to turn off:
• All icons
• Only icons of certain types of objects, for example, all joints
• Only icons for individual objects, such as FORCE_1
In addition, you can set the size of the icons either in current units or as a factor of their current size.
Learn more about how to set the display of screen icons by database and object type.
• Setting Screen Icon Display by Database
• Setting Screen Icon Display by Object Type
For information on quickly toggling the display of all screen icons, see Displaying View Accessories. For
information on setting the display of icons for individual objects, see Setting Object Appearance.
Setting Screen Icon Display by Database
You can set up how you want Screen icons to be displayed for an entire Modeling database. By default,
all models and objects in the modeling database inherit the screen icon settings that you specify for the
database. You can, however, override the inheritance for different types of objects as explained in Setting
Screen Icon Display by Object Type, or for individual objects as explained in the Setting Object
Appearance.
To set up the screen icon display for the entire database:
1. On the Settings menu, select Icons.
The Icon Settings Dialog Box appears.
2. Set New Value to one of the following to select whether or not you want to turn on screen icons:
• No Change - Select No Change to not change the current settings.
• On - Turns on all icons regardless of how you set the icon display for individual objects or
types of objects.
• Off - Turns off all icons regardless of how you set the icon display for individual objects or
types of objects.
3. In the New Size text box, enter the size you want for the screen icons. Note that any changes you
make to the size of icons for individual objects or types of objects take precedence over this size
setting.
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4. To save the settings for each new database in the Adams/View settings file (aviewBS.cmd), select
Save new size as default. Learn about Saving and Restoring Settings.
5. Select OK.
To reset the screen icon display to the previous values:
• On the Icon Settings dialog box, select Reset.
Setting Screen Icon Display by Object Type
You can set up how you want Screen icons displayed for a particular type of object, such as all parts or
joints. By default, all objects inherit the screen icon display options that you specify for the modeling
database. You can set screen icon options for the following types of objects:
• Curve-Curve Constraints
• Couplers
• Data elements
• Equations (System elements)
• Forces
• Gears
• Joints
• Markers (Note that markers belong to parts and, therefore, by default, inherit screen icon display
options for parts.)
• Motion
• Part (also called Bodies)
• Points
• Point-Curve Constraints
To set screen icon display options for objects of a particular type:
1. On the Settings menu, select Icons.
The Icon Settings Dialog Box appears.
2. Set Specify Attributes for to the type of object for which you want to set the screen icon options.
3. From the Visibility area of the Icon Settings dialog box, select whether or not you want to turn on
screen icons for the selected object type. You can select:
• On - Turns on the display of screen icons for the selected type of object.
• Off - Turns off the display of screen icons for the selected type of object. Remember, however,
that turning on the display of screen icons for the entire database overrides this setting.
• Inherit - Lets the object type simply inherit the display settings from its parent. For example,
a coordinate system marker inherits settings from its parent part.
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• No Change - Does not change the current settings. Lets you make changes to other display
options without affecting the visibility of the icons.
4. Enter the size you want for the icons or select the amount by which you want to scale the icons.
The scale factor is relative to the current size set. A scale factor of 1 keeps the icons the same size.
A scale factor less than 1.0 reduces the size of the icons and a scale factor greater than 1.0
increases the size of the icons. Note that these changes take precedence over the size you specify
globally for the modeling database.
5. Enter the color you want to use for the icons.
To browse for or create a color, right-click the Color text box, and then select Browse or
Create.
1. Set Name Visibility Option to whether or not you want the names of objects of the selected type
displayed in the view. Refer to Step 3 for an explanation of the choices.
2. Select OK.
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Display Options
Setting Part Display
You can set a View window so it displays a particular part in the current Model. You will find this helpful
when you want to compare or work with different parts at the same time.
To display a single part in a view window:
1. Click the view window in which you want to display the part.
2. On the View menu, select Part Only.
The Database Navigator appears listing the parts in the current model.
3. Select the part you want to display.
4. Select OK.
The selected part appears in the currently active view.
Displaying View Accessories
When you first start Adams/View, it displays several accessories to help you manage the view of your
model:
• Working grid
• Screen icons
• View triad
• View title
To use a dialog box to toggle on and off the display of view accessories:
1. Click the view window whose accessories you want to change.
2. On the View menu, select View Accessories, and then select the accessories that you want to turn
on or off from the View Accessories dialog box that appears.
3. Enter the title you want displayed in the currently active view window, and then press Enter.
4. On the Window menu in the View Accessories dialog box, select Exit.
To use tools in the Main toolbox to toggle on and off the display of view accessories:
1. If you want to change the view accessories for only one view window, click that view window.
Note: You can also use the tools in the Main toolbox to set the display of these items. If you use
the tools, you can change the accessories for all view windows at once but you cannot
change the view title.
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Display Options
2. On the Main toolbox, from the Toggle Tool Stack, select a view accessory tool. Double-click any
of the tools to apply the accessory changes to all view windows. Note that the tool must be on top
of the tool stack to double-click it.
3. Select the buttons Icons or Grid on the Main toolbox to toggle on and off the display of screen
icons and the working grid.
Setting Rendering Mode
Adams/View provides six Rendering mode in which you can display a model in a view window.
To select a rendering mode:
• Click the View window whose rendering mode you want to change.
• On the View menu, point to Render Mode, and then select a rendering mode.
To toggle the display between wireframe and smooth-shaded mode:
Do one of the following:
• On the Main toolbox, select Render to toggle between wireframe and smooth-shaded mode.
• Type an uppercase S in the view window.
Displaying Toolbox and Toolbars
You can turn on and off the display of the Main toolbox , the Standard toolbar and Status bar. You can
also set where the Standard and status toolbars appear—either at the top of the main window under the
menu bar or at the bottom of the window. By default, the Main toolbox appears at the left of the main
window, the Standard toolbar is turned off, and the status bar appears at the bottom of the window.
To turn toolbars on and off:
1. On the View menu, select Toolbox and Toolbars.
The Tool Settings dialog box appears.
2. Select the visibility of each toolbar and its placement in the main window. Your changes take
place immediately.
3. Close the dialog box.
Tip: • Type a lowercase g while the cursor is in the view window to toggle on and off the
display of the working grid in the active view window
• Type a lowercase v to toggle on and off the display of screen icons.
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Setting Stereo Viewing
You can set up stereo viewing. Stereo viewing is available on all UNIX platforms but not Windows.
To run stereo viewing, before running Adams/View, set the MDI_STEREO environment variable
MDI_STEREO (setenv MDI_STEREO 1). Learn more about setting Adams/View Environment
Variables.
Stereo viewing is only available when running Native OpenGL graphics with the
OpenGL_Software_Assisted registry setting set to disabled. You use the Registry Editor.
To set this registry setting:
1. From the Adams Toolbar, right-click the Toolbar tool , and then select Registry Editor.
The Registry Editor appears.
2. Select AView -> Preferences -> Graphics -> OpenGL_Software_Assisted.
Using Stereo Viewing on SGI Machines
There are two types of stereo views available on SGI machines:
• Above-and-below viewing - The first, and least useful, is above-and-below viewing. This type
of viewing is used with non-stereo- ready hardware and splits the screen into two halves, a top
half and bottom half. The result is that the screen size in pixels is effectively cut in half in the
vertical direction. For example, on a monitor set for a screen size 1024 x 768 pixels, the screen
size changes to 1024 x 384. This changes the aspect ratio of the screen and of the resulting
images displayed within Adams/View and Adams/PostProcessor. They appear to be one half as
tall as they should be.
• Interlaced stereo viewing - The second type of viewing is Interlaced stereo viewing, which is
available on stereo-capable graphics cards. This approach has the advantage that the screen
aspect ratio is not changed and, therefore, the resulting images maintain the same proportions
has their non-stereo counterparts. To enable this mode in the current Adams code, the video
format for the monitor must be set to a format that supports interlaced stereo viewing. To do this,
use the SGI setmon(1) shell command. For example, on a SGI tezro machine with a V12
graphics card, you could use the following command:
/usr/gfx/setmon -n 1280x1024_100s
To turn on stereo viewing and set options for it:
1. From the Settings menu, select Stereo Viewing.
2. Select Stereo viewing.
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Display Options
3. Set the following options as desired:
Setting View Background Colors
By default, Adams/View uses a blue background to display the Main window and any View window that
you create. It also provides a set of colors in which you can display the background. You can set the view
to any color by setting the red, green, and blue colors directly.
Learn more:
• Selecting a Preset Background Color
• Creating a Background Color
Selecting a Preset Background Color
You access the palette of background colors using:
• View Background Color command on the Settings menu.
• Background Color Tool Stack on the Main toolbox.
The View Background Color command contains all the pre-set colors, while the Background Color tool
stack contains only four of the most commonly used colors.
For the option: Do the following:
Depth of Field Slide to control the depth of the perspective matrix.
Eye Separation Slide to control of offset between the left and right modeling views.
Parallax Control the type of parallax view used to display the model:
• Positive - Positive parallax viewing produces images that appear to be
within the space of the monitor. For engineering purposes where objects
are often cut off by the window borders or partially obscured by dialog
boxes, positive parallax viewing produces images that are less confusing
to the viewer and are, therefore, easier to view.
• Negative - Negative parallax viewing produces images that appear to
float in space in front of the display. Viewing floating images that are
partially obscured by interface items produces confusing cues to the
viewer. While the image appears in front of the screen, the interface
items appear to be on the screen but these interface items can obscure
part of the image. These conflicting inputs can be confusing and lead to
extra strain.
Eye Position Use with Negative parallax viewing and use it to control how far the image floats
in front of the screen.
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To select a color from the Background Color tool stack:
• Select a color from the Background Color tool stack.
To select from the entire palette of background colors:
1. From the Settings menu, select View Background Colors.
The Edit Background Color dialog box appears.
2. Select a color from the palette of preset background colors.
The color appears in the Current color box and its color values appear in the Red, Green, and Blue
color value sliders.
3. Select OK.
Creating a Background Color
You can create a background color by setting its red, green, and blue light percentages and change the
background of all view windows to this new color. You cannot add the color to the preset palette of colors
or change the colors in the preset palette.
To create a color:
1. From the Settings menu, select View Background Colors.
The Edit Background Color dialog box appears.
2. If desired, select a color near to the color that you want to create from the palette of preset
background colors.
The color appears in the Current color box, and its color values appear in the Red, Green, and Blue
color value sliders. Adams/View creates the color by mixing the red, green, and blue light
percentages as specified in the color value sliders.
3. Change the color values for the color in the Red, Green, and Blue color value sliders, as desired.
As you change the color values, the New color box changes to reflect the new values.
4. Select OK.
To reset a color to the original background color:
• Select the R tool in the Edit Background Color dialog box.
Setting Up the Working Grid
By default Adams/View displays a Working grid. You can set the appearance of various elements in the
grid, such as its color, location, and orientation.
Learn more:
• Setting the Appearance of the Working Grid
• Setting the Location and Orientation of the Working Grid
21
Display Options
Setting Up the Appearance of the Working Grid
Settings -> Working Grid
You can set the appearance of various elements in the Working grid and toggle their visibility. You can
also set the working grid to represent Polar working grid or Rectangular working grid coordinates.
To set the appearance of the working grid:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the Settings menu, select Working Grid.
• On the Move tool stack, select the Working Grid tool .
The Working Grid Settings dialog box appears.
2. Select whether or not you want to display the working grid.
3. Select the type of working grid you want to use (Rectangular or Polar). Adams/View changes the
coordinate system settings accordingly. For more information on coordinate systems, see Setting
Default Coordinate System.
4. Select the size and spacing of the working grid. The options for setting the size and spacing
depend on the type of working grid you select, as listed below.
• For a rectangular working grid, set the following:
Size - Enter the size of the grid in the x and y directions in length units.
Adams/View
Display Options
22
Spacing - Enter the spacing between each point in the grid in the x and y directions in length
units.
See Rectangular Working Grid Size and Spacing.
• For a polar coordinate system, set the following:
Maximum Radius - Enter the radius of the working grid from its origin to its outermost circle.
Circle Spacing - Enter the amount of space between each circle in the working grid. The
smaller the spacing, the more circles Adams/View defines.
Radial Increments - Enter the number of lines radiating from the origin of the working grid.
Adams/View spaces the lines equally around the working grid. The lines do not include the
axes. The number of lines (N) determines the angle increment between lines (q), as shown in
the formula:
u = 360×/N
For example, if you specify 8 lines, the angle increment between the lines is 45.
See Polar Working Grid Sizing and Spacing.
5. Select the color and weight (thickness) of each object in the grid. You can also set the color of the
objects to Contrast, which indicates that Adams/View should select a color that contrasts with the
color currently set for the view background. Setting the color to Contrast is particularly helpful
when you set each of your view windows to a different background color or when you frequently
change the view background.
The colors listed for the working grid elements are the same colors provided for setting the color
of objects. The colors do not include any new colors that you created.
The weight values are from 1 to 3 screen pixels.
6. Select OK.
Setting Up the Location and Orientation of the Working Grid
You can set the center location and orientation of the Working grid as desired. This is particularly helpful
when you are moving or creating objects because, by default, Adams/View moves and creates objects in
the plane of the working grid.
To set the location and orientation of the working grid:
1. Do one of the following, if you haven't already:
• On the Settings menu, select Working Grid.
• On the Move tool stack, select the Working Grid tool .
The Working Grid Settings dialog box appears.
2. Set the center location of the working grid by setting Set Location to one of the following:
• Global Origin to set the center location of the working grid to the center of the view window.
• Pick and click a location on the screen to set as the center of the working grid.
23
Display Options
3. Set Set Orientation to how you want to orient the working grid. You can set its orientation by
picking points or by aligning it with the screen plane. Note that if you select Pick for orientation,
you will also set the location of the working grid.
Adams/View
View Options
24
View Options
Setting Up the Window Layout
By default, Adams/View displays the front of your model in the entire main window. Adams/View also
provides 12 View window layouts for the Main window. The layouts vary from a single view window of
your model up to six windows. Each window displays a different view of your model. Adams/Views
displays the current model (if there is one) into any of the views that are empty.
You select the layout you’d like for your main window from a palette of layouts or from the Window
Layout Tool Stack on the Main Toolbox. The palette and tool stack contain the same set of view layouts.
If you display the palette, you can keep it open so that you can quickly select another layout.
To select a layout:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the View menu, select Layout to display the Window Layout palette.
• Select the Window Layouts tool stack.
2. Select a layout.
25
View Options
3. If you used the palette, select Close to close it. You can keep it open to quickly switch between
layouts.
Activating a View Window
By default, Adams/View changes the display of your model only in the active View window, leaving the
other windows the same. The active window is outlined in red. Adams/View also provides shortcuts from
the Tool stacks that let you change the display in all your view windows at once.
To activate a view window so that any display changes occur in it:
• Click anywhere in the view window using the left mouse button. Be sure the border changes to
red.
Changing the View in a Window
Adams/View provide seven pre-set views of your model that you can display in any of your view
windows. You can access the pre-set views using the Pre-set command on the View menu or using the
set of View Orientation Tool Stacks on the Main Toolbox.
Learn about the different Orientations and the tools that activate them.
To set a view in a view window:
1. Click the view window whose view you want to change.
2. Do one of the following:
• On the View menu, point to Pre-Set, and then select a view.
• On the Main toolbox, select one of the tools on the View Orientation tool stacks.
3. Double-click any of the tools to apply the view orientation to all view windows. Note that the tool
must be on top of the tool stack to double-click it.
Setting the Center of a View Window
You can move a particular point in your model to the center of the current View window. This is
particularly helpful when you have zoomed in on your model and you want to rotate the View because it
Tip: Type one of the following uppercase letters while the cursor is in a view window to change
to the corresponding view:
• F - Front view
• T - Top view
• R - Right view
• I - Iso
Adams/View
View Options
26
lets you set the center about which Adams/View rotates the view. You can also reposition the model so
that the origin (0,0) of the window is again at the center of the window.
To set a particular point as the center of window:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the View menu, point to Position/Orientation, and then select Center.
• On the Main toolbox, select the Center tool .
2. Click the left mouse button on the point in the model that you want at the center of the window.
To return the origin (0,0) of the window to the center of the window:
• On the View menu, point to Position/Orientation, and then select Origin.
Setting the View Perspective
By default, Adams/View displays your model as though it were drawn on a flat piece of paper. This is
called orthographic projection mode. You can change the depth of the screen to perspective mode.
Perspective mode causes a vanishing point effect by showing the size of parts relative to their distance
from the viewer. It does not show the true proportions of all parts. The figure below shows a solid box in
the two different view projection modes. Once in perspective mode, you can set the distance the objects
are from the viewer.
To set the current View to perspective mode, do one of the following:
• On the Main toolbox, select the Depth button.
• On the View menu, point to Projection, and then select Perspective.
Tip: Type a lowercase c.
27
View Options
To set the perspective in the window:
1. On the Main toolbox, from the Translate Tool Stack, select the Translate Z tool .
2. Place the cursor in the view window and click and hold down the left mouse button.
3. Drag the cursor in the window as follows:
• To increase perspective, drag the cursor upward.
• To decrease perspective, drag the cursor downward.
4. When the window contains the desired perspective, release the mouse button.
To set the view back to orthographic mode, do one of the following:
• On the Main toolbox, clear the Depth check box again.
• On the View menu, point to Projection, and then select Orthographic.
Dynamically Translating a View
To move the display of the model so that you can see objects that are outside the current view window
boundaries, you can translate the view. Translating the view moves the view in the x and y directions as
you move the cursor. You can also more precisely control the translation of the view by specifying the
amount by which Adams/View translates the view each time you move the cursor.
You can translate the View by selecting the Translate command from the View menu or View shortcut
menu that appears in the main window. In addition, there is a Translate tool on the Main toolbox. If you
want to control the amount by which Adams/View moves the view, you must use the Translate tool on
the Main toolbox.
To dynamically translate the view:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the View menu, point to Position/Orientation, and then select Translate.
• On the Main toolbox, from the Translate Tool Stack, select the Translate tool .
2. Place the cursor in the view window and click and hold down the left mouse button.
3. Drag the cursor in the window in the direction you want to translate the view. The view of the
window follows the movement of the mouse.
4. When the window contains the desired view, release the mouse button.
Tip: Type a lowercase d to change the perspective.
Tip: Type a lowercase letter t while the cursor is in a view window.
Adams/View
View Options
28
To dynamically translate a view by specified increments:
Use the Translate tool on the Main toolbox as explained above, but also:
1. On the Main toolbox, in the Increment box, enter the amount by which you want to increment
the view translations.
2. As you translate the view, hold down the Shift key. Holding down the Shift key limits
Adams/View to the increments you specified. To translate the view continuously, release the
Shift key.
Dynamically Rotating a View
You can rotate the display of the model about any of the View’s three axes (x, y, or z). You can also more
precisely control the rotation of the view by specifying the amount by which Adams/View rotates the
view each time you move the cursor. All the rotation operations work using screen axes. Screen axes are
fixed with x to the right, y up, and z out of the screen.
You can rotate a view the Position/Orientation submenu on the View menu or from the View shortcut
menu. In addition, you can use the Dynamic Rotation Tool Stack on the Main toolbox to rotate the view
about the screen x-, y-, and the z-axes. If you want to set the amount by which Adams/View rotates the
view, you must use the Dynamic Rotation tool stack on the Main toolbox.
To rotate a view dynamically:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the View menu, point to Position/Orientation, and then select one of the Dynamic
Rotation commands.
• Select a tool from the Dynamic Rotation tool stack on the Main toolbox. Select either:
Rotate XY tool to rotate the view about the screen’s x- and y-axes at the same time.
Rotate Z tool to rotate the view about the screen’s z-axis.
2. Place the cursor in the view window, hold down the left mouse button, and move the cursor to
rotate the view in the specified direction. As you move the cursor, the view changes.
3. When the window contains the desired view, release the mouse button.
To dynamically rotate a view by specified increments:
Use a Dynamic Rotation tool on the Main toolbox as explained previously, but also:
• On the Main toolbox, in the Increment box, enter the amount by which you want to increment
the view rotations. You can enter any value, but we suggest that you use a value between 0 and
360. Try 5.
Tip: Type a lowercase r while the cursor is in the view window to rotate the view about
the x- and y-axes and type a lowercase s to rotate (spin) the view about the z-axis.
29
View Options
• As you rotate the view, hold down the Shift key. Holding down the Shift key limits Adams/View
to the increments you specified. To rotate the view continuously, release the Shift key.
Orienting the View Using an Object XY
You can rotate the View to that of any object in your model. Adams/View rotates the view so that the front
of the selected object appears in xy plane of the view. The front of an object is the location where its
positioning handle is set to the screen axes. For example, if you have two blocks as shown in the following
figure, you can orient the view to the front of BLOCK_1 simply by selecting any part of BLOCK_1.
To orient the view using an object:
1. Select one of the following:
• On the View shortcut menu, select Align to Object XY.
• On the Main toolbox, select the Align to Object XY tool .
2. Select an object.
Orienting the View Using Precise Increments
You can rotate the View about the x, y, and z screen axes by a specified increment.
To orient the view by precise increments:
1. On the Main Toolbox, select the View Rotation tool from the Toggle Tool Stack.
The View Rotation palette appears.
2. Select the amount by which you want to incrementally rotate the view.
3. Select the appropriate rotation arrows on the View Rotation palette to rotate the view.
Tip: Type a lowercase e when the cursor is in the view window. e stands for entity orient.
Adams/View
View Options
30
Orienting the View Using Three Points
You can specify three points to define a new View orientation in the View window. The first point defines
the center of the view and the second and third points define the x- and y-axes. You can define the points
for the x- and y-axes using any edge, face, or point in your model.
For example, if you have two blocks as shown in the figure below, you can rotate the view to see the front
of the first block, BLOCK_2, by selecting the center of mass of BLOCK_2 as the center of the view and
selecting two points along the edges of BLOCK_2 that define the new view. In the figure, the points that
you would select are indicated with X’s.
To orient a view using three points:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the View shortcut menu in the main window, select Align to 3 Point.
• On the Main toolbox, select the Align to 3 Point tool .
2. Select the point you want to define as the center of the view.
3. Select an edge, face, or point to define the x-axis and then select another edge, face, or point to
define the y-axis.
Adams/View rotates the view to the new view.
Dynamically Zooming the Display
Changes the magnification of your model in the window. Dynamic zooming automatically zooms the
current window in and out as you move the cursor. You can more precisely control the magnification by
specifying an increment by which Adams/View zooms the window.
To dynamically zoom the current window:
1. Select one of the following:
• On the View menu, point to Position/Orientation, and then select Zoom In/Out.
31
View Options
• On the Main toolbox, select the Zoom In/Out tool .
2. Position the cursor in the window you want to zoom and hold down the left mouse button.
3. Move the cursor in the window:
• To enlarge the display of the model, move the cursor toward the outside of the window. Do
not move the cursor outside of the window or Adams/View turns dynamic zooming off.
• To shrink the display of the model, move the cursor in toward the center of the window.
4. When the model is at the desired magnification, release the mouse button.
To dynamically zoom the window by increments:
• Use the Zoom In/Out tool on the Main toolbox as explained above but:
1. On the Main toolbox, in the Increment box, enter the amount by which you want to increment the
zoom. For example, to magnify the view 3 times, enter 3. To magnify it by 1/2, enter.5.
2. As you move the cursor in the window, hold down the Shift key.
Zooming In and Out by Pre-Set Values
You can quickly enlarge and shrink the display of the model in the current window by 1/2 (50%) its
current magnification.
To magnify the display by 1/2:
• On the View menu, point to Position/Orientation, and then select Zoom In.
To shrink the display by 1/2:
• On the View menu, point to Position/Orientation, and then select Zoom Out.
Defining a Zoom Area
You can define the area that you want enlarged and displayed in the current window. You draw a box to
define the zoom area. The lower left corner of the window that you define becomes the lower left corner
Tip: Type a lowercase z while the cursor is in the window to dynamically zoom the view.
Adams/View
View Options
32
of the view window. The shape of the window you define does not need to correspond to the shape of the
view window. Adams/View fits the specified area into the view window as necessary.
To define a zoom box:
1. Do one of the following:
• On the View menu, point to Position/Orientation, and then select Zoom Box.
• On the Main toolbox, select the Zoom Box tool .
2. Place the cursor where you want the upper right corner of the box and click and hold down the
left mouse button.
3. Drag the mouse diagonally to define the size of the box.
4. Release the mouse button.
Fitting a Model in a Window
You can fit the entire model into the current window using the Fit and Fit - No Ground commands.
• Fit - Fits the entire model into the window, including the ground part and any geometry attached
to it.
• Fit - No Ground - Excludes the ground part and its geometry.
For example, if you have a model of a car that also has a very large piece of geometry on ground
representing a road, and you use Fit to view the entire model, the view contains all of the geometry, as
Tip: Type a lowercase w when the cursor is in the window.
33
View Options
shown in the image on the left. The car appears very small after the fit to accommodate the road. If you
use Fit - No Ground, the view is only of the car, as shown in the image on the right.
To fit the entire model, including ground, into the window:
Do one of the following:
• On the View menu, point to Position/Orientation, and then select Fit.
• Right-click the background of the screen, and, from the shortcut menu, select Fit to View.
• On the Main toolbox, select the Fit tool .
To fit the model, excluding ground, into the window:
• On the View menu, point to Position/Orientation, and then select Fit - No Ground.
• Right-click the background of the screen, and, from the pop-up menu, select Fit to View.
Refreshing the Model Display
You can redraw the Main window to return the model to its initial configuration and display all geometry
in the Model. This is particularly useful if you selected to view only certain parts and now want to view
the entire model.
To refresh the model display:
• On the View menu, select Refresh.
Tip: Type a lowercase f.
Tip: Type Ctrl f.
Adams/View
View Options
34
Purging Cache Files
Flexible-body cache files (.fcf) used to achieve the performance of flexible-body animations can
accumulate on your disk after repeated simulation-animation iterations. You can purge the cache files
from your disk through the Tools menu in both Adams/View and Adams/PostProcessor (animation
mode).
Learn more about cache files.
To purge cache files:
• From the Tools menu, select Purge Cache Files.
Building Models
Adams/View
Parts
2
Parts
Parts define the objects in your model that can have mass and inertia properties and can move. All forces
and constraints that you define in your model act on these parts during a simulation. The next sections
explain more about parts:
Types of Parts
Adams/View provides you with three different types of parts that you can create:
• Rigid Bodies
• Flexible bodies - Basic Adams/View provides you with the ability to create Discrete Flexible
Link. For more functionality, you can purchase Adams/Flex. For information on purchasing
Adams/Flex, see your MSC sales representative, and for information on using Adams/Flex, refer
to Adams/Flex online help.
• Point mass
In addition, Adams/View provides a ground part that is already created for you.
About the Ground Part
The ground part is the only part in your model that must remain stationary at all times. Adams/View
creates the ground part automatically when you create a model. You can also define a new or existing
part as the ground part. The ground part does not have mass properties or initial velocities and does not
add Degrees of freedom into your model.
The ground part acts as the global coordinate system that defines the global origin (0,0,0) and reference
frame about which you create your model. You cannot specify its position. You can add geometry to the
ground part.
In addition, by default, the ground part also acts as the inertial reference frame with respect to which all
of the part velocities and accelerations are calculated. You can also select another part as the inertial
reference frame. You can select another part through the Command Navigator.
Note that although the ground part is the only part in your model that must remain stationary at all times,
you can move the geometry and constraints attached to the ground part. Since geometry and constraints
are tied to markers, you can use the Select List Manager to select all the markers on ground and then
translate and rotate the ground entities with the rest of your model.
Learn about Defining a New Ground Part.
Local Coordinate Systems
As you create parts, Adams/View assigns a coordinate system to each part, known as its local coordinate
system. A part’s local coordinate system moves with the part and its original position defaults to that of
the global coordinate system.
3 Building Models
Parts
The local coordinate system is a convenient way to define the position and location of objects.
Adams/View also returns Simulation results, such as the position of a part, as the displacement of a part’s
local coordinate system with respect to the global coordinate system. It returns object results, however,
as the displacement of a part’s center of mass relative to the global coordinate system.
Degrees of Freedom
Each rigid body that you create can move within all Degrees of freedom; a point mass can move within
three translational degrees of freedom. You can constrain the movement of parts by:
• Adding them to the ground part, which means they are fixed to the ground and cannot move in
any direction. Each time you create geometry, Adams/View gives you the option to add it to
ground, create a new part, or add it to an existing part.
• Adding constraints, such as joints, to define how the parts are attached and how they move
relative to each other.
Naming Conventions
As you create parts, Adams/View automatically generates names for them based on their type and the
number of objects of that type in your model. For example, when you create a point mass, Adams/View
names it POINT_MASS_1. For all rigid bodies, except points and coordinate system markers,
Adams/View uses the name PART regardless of the type of geometry. For example, if you create a box,
Adams/View names it PART_1. When you create a second box, Adams/View names it PART_2, and so
on. You can rename your parts. Learn about Renaming Objects Through Menu Commands.
Rigid Bodies
The most common type of part in your model is a Rigid body. Adams/View provides a library of geometry
that you can use to create rigid bodies. A part can be made up of many different geometric objects. There
are two types of geometry that you can use to create rigid bodies.
• Construction geometry
• Solid geometry
Each time you create geometry, you can select to do one of the following:
• Create a new part containing the geometry.
• Add the geometry to an existing part.
• Add the geometry to ground. You add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or
influence the simulation of your model. For example, if you are simulating a car driving around
a race track, the geometry that defines the race track can be added to ground. (You can also fix
parts temporarily to ground using a fixed joint.
In addition, you specify the location of the geometry in space. You can select to define the location of the
geometry:
Adams/View
Parts
4
• Graphically, by picking locations on the screen or by selecting an object on the screen that is at
the desired location.
• Precisely, by entering coordinate locations.
Learn more techniques for creating and placing objects.
Also See Geometric Modeling Palette and Tool Stack to learn more about creating rigid body geometry.
Modeling Two-Dimensional Body Using Planar Option
Adams/Solver (C++) only
After you create a rigid body, you can identify it as planar (as having only three degrees of freedom
(DOF)) instead of creating a planar joint (see Planar Joint Tool). The three DOFs are global x and y
translations and a rotation about the global z-axis. You can think of the body as a regular three-
dimensional body with a built-in planar joint. Unlike a body and a planar joint pair, however, which
combines to add 18 equations to an index-3 dynamic analysis in Adams/Solver, the planar body only adds
six equations.
Example of using the planar option.
To set a part as planar:
1. Create the three-dimensional rigid body.
2. Display the Modify Body dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
3. Set Category to Name and Position.
4. At the bottom of the dialog box, select Planar.
5. From the option menu that appears, select the plane in which the planar part will move. The
default is for the planar part to move in the global xy plane.
6. Select OK.
Note: • Using planar parts does not limit your use of three-dimensional contacts. If you can
simplify your contacts to two-dimensional representations, however, you will usually
realize speed improvements.
• A planar body is implicitly constrained to move in a plane at a fixed global value of z.
Any force applied to the planar part in the global z direction is discarded. The same
applies to torques about the global x- and y-axes. It is not possible to measure the
reaction forces required to constrain the planar part to stay in plane. If such forces are
desired, you must subsitute the equivalent part and planar joint combination.
5 Building Models
Parts
Parameterization
As you create rigid bodies in your model, you can define them so that the location or orientation of one
object affects the location or orientation of another body. This is called parameterizing your model.
Parameterizing your model simplifies changes to your model because it helps you automatically size,
relocate, and orient objects. For example, if you parameterize the geometry of two links to the location
of a point, when you move the point, the link geometry changes accordingly, as shown in the figure
below.
Example of Parameterizing Locations
The ways in which you can build parameterization into your model while creating rigid bodies include
the following:
• Attach objects to points so that when you change the location of the points, the body locations
and orientations update accordingly.
As you create a point, Adams/View gives you the option to attach other nearby objects to the
point. The help that explain how to create points also explain how to attach objects to them.
• Define design variables to represent values of your rigid body geometry, such as the length or
width of a link. You can create design variables for any values you specify for a rigid body.
Design variables are needed when you run tests on your model, such as design studies. Learn
about Using Design Variables.
• Create expressions that calculate the values of your rigid bodies, such as the length or width of a
box. You can specify expressions for any values you specify for a rigid body geometry. For more
information on creating expressions, see Adams/View Function Builder online help.
You can also parameterize your model after you build it. For more information on parameterization, see
Improving Your Model Designs
Before You Begin
Before you begin creating the parts of your model, you might want to take some time to set up your
modeling environment and learn some drawing and placement techniques. To help you place parts
accurately, do the following:
Adams/View
Parts
6
• Turn on the Working grid so that the points snap to a grid. In addition, Adams/View draws objects
parallel to the current working grid so by displaying it you can better see how your objects are
being drawn. Learn about Setting Up the Working Grid.
• Display the Coordinate window so that you can view the coordinate values as you place points.
Learn about Working with the Coordinate Window.
• Be sure to set the current units to those required for your model. Learn about Setting Default
Coordinate System.
• Review the different tools for drawing and placing objects in Tools and Techniques.
7 Building Models
Tools and Techniques
Tools and Techniques
There are several techniques in Adams/View that can help you create objects with precision and speed.
Turning Selection Highlighting On and Off
Adams/View provides a Dynamic Model Navigator that highlights entire objects or edges, faces, and
points on those objects so you can easily select, place, or align an object that you are creating or a rotate
a view.
The Model Navigator highlights objects and displays their names as you move the cursor over them
within the main window. For example, when you create a marker, the Model Navigator highlights edges,
faces, and points you might want to use to orient the axes of the coordinate system. In addition, if you are
adding a point or joint to a part, the Model Navigator highlights the different parts in your model to which
you can add the point or joint. The figure below shows the the Model Navigator highlighting line
geometry.
The Model Navigator only highlights those objects that are appropriate for the operation you are
currently performing. For example, when you are aligning the faces of two parts, the Model Navigator
only highlights faces. It does not highlight edges or points. In addition, if you are chaining together wire
geometry, the Model Navigator only highlights wire geometry.
Finally, when you are defining a direction, the Model Navigator lets you select points, edges, or faces.
When you select an edge or face, the Model Navigator then lets you select the direction along the object
that you want to define since edges and faces don't provide unique direction.
To improve performance you can turn off the Model Navigator.
To turn off the Dynamic Model Navigator:
• During a selection operation, press the Ctrl key.
Adams/View
Tools and Techniques
8
Setting Snapping to Objects
As you build your model through the graphical interface, Adams/View automatically snaps the object
that you are creating to surrounding geometric objects. This can help you quickly align parts or draw
objects that touch other objects.
To turn off object snapping:
• As you create an object, press the Ctrl key.
Entering Precise Location Coordinates
As you create an object, such as a design point or a force, Adams/View often asks you to select the
position of the object. You can do this graphically by clicking the mouse button when the cursor is in the
screen or you can enter location coordinates to precisely set its location. You can enter the location
relative to the origin of the working grid, the global coordinate system, or any other object on the screen.
To enter location coordinates:
1. When Adams/View asks you for a location, right-click.
The LocationEvent dialog box appears as shown below. The current coordinates of the cursor
appear in the upper box.
2. In the upper box, enter the coordinates at which to place the object.
3. Select the element (Working grid, global coordinate system, or modeling object) to which the
coordinates are relative. By default, the coordinates are relative to the working grid.
4. In the lower box, enter the object to which the coordinates are relative. You only need to enter an
object if you selected that the coordinates are relative to an object.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
5. Select Apply.
Note: If the Working grid is on, when you draw, move, resize, or reshape geometry, the geometry
automatically snaps to the grid points. Learn about turning on and off the working grid.
9 Building Models
Tools and Techniques
Selecting from a List of Objects
When you perform a modeling operation, such as set an object's appearance or specify a force direction,
and you need to select an object from the screen, you can display a list of all objects in the area
surrounding the cursor and then select the desired object from the list. Note that this only works during
a modeling operation. The objects include geometric objects, such as object faces, vertices, and more.
To display a list of all objects in an area of the screen:
1. Right-click the area of the screen containing the desired object.
A selection box of all the objects in the area appears.
2. Highlight the desired object from the list and select OK.
3. As you highlight the desired object in the list, Adams/View also highlights the object on the
screen. To see what objects the names in the list represent, scroll through the list to highlight the
objects.
Adams/View
Orientation Methods
10
Orientation Methods
Orientation
Orientation of rigid or flexible body using three rotation angles. Adams/View orients the body starting
from the initial coordinate system and applying three successive rotations.
Depending on the convention you select, the rotations occur about space-fixed or body-fixed axes in any
combination of the x, y, and z axes. By default, you supply body 313 (body-fixed z, x, z) angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles with respect to the coordinate system in the Orientation
Relative To or Relative To text box.
Along Axis Orientation
Orientation of a rigid or flexible body by directing one of its axes. Adams/View assigns an arbitrary
rotation about the axis.
Two points are needed to define an axis but you can enter either one or two points to direct the axis. If
you enter two points, the axis points from the first location to the second. If you enter one point,
Adams/View uses the location you specified in the Location text box as the first point and the new
location as the second point.
Along Axis Orientation
Adams/View applies the location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify in the Location
Relative To or Relative To text box.
Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system. Adams/View positions
the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you must completely control the
coordinate system orientation, select Orientation or In Plane Orientation.
By default, you direct the z-axis of the coordinate system. You can use the DEFAULTS
ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING command to change this convention.
For example, selecting either X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE directs the x-axis. The
plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter.
You can also direct the axis graphically using the marker’s position handle. Simply point the appropriate
axis on the marker in the desired direction.
11 Building Models
Orientation Methods
In Plane Oriention
Orientation of the rigid or flexible body by directing one of the axes and locating one of the coordinate
planes.
In Plane Orientation
To define an axis and a plane, you need three points. You can enter either two or three locations, however.
If you enter three locations, the axis points from the first location to the second and the plane is parallel
to the plane defined by the three locations. If you enter only two locations, Adams/View uses the location
you specified in the Location text box as the first point and the other two locations as the second and third
points.
Adams/View applies the location coordinates in the coordinate system in the Relative To text box.
By default, you direct the z-axis of the coordinate system marker and locate the zx plane. You can use
the DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING command to change
this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE directs the x-axis and orients the xy
plane.
Adams/View
Orientation Methods
12
Construction Geometry
You can create several types of Construction geometry. You draw construction geometry normal to the
screen or the working grid, if you turned it on.
Creating Points
To create a point:
1. From the Geometric Modeling Palette and Tool Stack, select the Point Tool .
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
• Whether you want the point added to ground or to another part in your model.
• Whether you want to attach nearby objects to the point. For information on attaching
objects, see Parameterization.
3. If you selected to add the point to another part in your model, select the part.
4. Place the cursor where you want the point to be located and click the left mouse button.
Creating Markers
To create a marker:
1. From the Geometric Modeling Palette and Tool Stack, select the Marker Tool .
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
• Whether you want the marker added to: (a) Ground (b) Another part in your model (including
a flexible body); or (c) Curve (only available with Adams/Solver (C++)) (Learn about
switching solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.)
• How you want to orient the marker. Set Orientation to the desired orientation method. When
adding a marker to a curve, the orientation is prescribed implicitly.
3. Do one of the following:
• If you selected to add the marker to a part, select the part to which you want to add the marker.
• If you selected to add the marker to a curve, select the spline curve onto which you want to
add the marker (splines and data-element curves are all considered curves).
Tip: If you want to place the point at the location of another object, as you create the point, right-
click near the object. Adams/View displays a list of objects near the cursor. Select the
object at whose location you want to place the point. Adams/View creates the point at that
location.
If you want to specify precise coordinates, right-click away from the object. A dialog box
for entering the location of the point appears. For information on using the dialog box, see
Entering Precise Location Coordinates.
Adams/View
Construction Geometry
2
4. Place the cursor where you want the marker to be located and click.
5. If you selected to orient the marker to anything other than the global or view coordinate system,
select the directions along which you want to align the marker’s axes. Do this for each axis that
you selected to specify.
Adams/View draws the marker, aligning its axes as specified.
Creating Lines and Polylines
To draw a single line:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Polyline Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground.
• Set the type of line to be drawn to One Line.
• If desired, set the length and angle of the line.
3. Position the cursor where you want the line to begin, and click the left mouse button.
4. Move the cursor in the direction you want to draw the line.
5. When the line is the desired length and orientation, click again to end the line.
To draw an open or closed polyline:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Polyline Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground.
• Set the type of line to be drawn to Polyline.
• If desired, set the length of the line segments.
3. Select whether you want a closed polyline (polygon) by selecting Closed.
4. Position the cursor where you want the polyline to begin, and click the left mouse button.
Tip: To reorient the marker, use the Align & Rotate tool from the Move tool stack, select Align
One Axis, and then follow the prompts:
1. Select the object to align (the first marker)
2. Select the axis on object to align (z-axis on first marker)
3. Select the direction for the axis:
• Select the center of the first marker
• Select the center of the second marker
3
Construction Geometry
5. To create the first line segment, drag the cursor and click to select its endpoint.
6. To add line segments to the polyline, continue dragging the cursor and clicking.
7. To stop drawing and create the open or closed polyline, right-click. If you selected to create a
closed polyline, Adams/View automatically draws a line segment between the last and first points
to close the polyline. Note that clicking the right mouse button does not create another point.
Creating Arcs and Circles
To draw an arc:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Arc Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground. By default, Adams/View creates a new part.
• If desired, set the radius of the arc.
• Specify the starting and ending angles of the arc. The default is to create a 90-degree arc
from a starting angle of 0 degrees.
3. Click where you want the center of the arc and then drag the mouse to define the radius of the arc
and the orientation of the x-axis. Adams/View displays a line on the screen to indicate the x-axis.
If you specified the radius of the arc in the settings container, Adams/View maintains that radius
regardless of how you drag the mouse.
4. When the radius is the desired size, click.
To draw a circle:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Arc Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part or add the geometry to an existing part. By
default, Adams/View creates a new part.
• If desired, set the radius of the circle.
• Select Circle.
3. Click where you want the center of the circle and then drag the mouse to define the radius of the
circle. If you specified the radius of the circle in the settings container, Adams/View maintains
that radius regardless of how you drag the mouse.
4. When the radius is the desired size, click.
Tip: While creating the polyline, you can remove the last line segment that you created by
clicking its endpoint. You can continue removing line segments in the reverse order that
you created them.
Adams/View
Construction Geometry
4
Creating Splines
To create a spline by selecting points on the screen:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Spline Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground.
• Select whether you want the spline to be closed or open.
3. Set Create by Picking to Curve or Edge.
4. Place the cursor where you want to begin drawing the spline, and click.
5. Click the locations where you want the spline to pass through. You must specify at least eight
locations for a closed spline and four locations for an open spline.
6. To stop drawing the spline, right-click.
To create a spline by selecting an existing curve or edge:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Spline Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground.
• Select whether you want the spline to be closed or open.
3. Set Create by Picking to Curve or Edge.
4. In the # Points text box, set how many points you want used to define the curve or edge or clear
the selection of Spread Points and let Adams/View calculate the number of points needed.
5. Select the curve.
Tip: If you make a mistake, click the last location you defined. You can continue removing
locations by clicking on each location in the reverse order that you defined them.
5
Creating Solid Geometry
Creating Solid Geometry
You can create several types of Solid geometry. In addition, you can combine solid geometry into more
complex geometry or modify the geometry by adding features, such as fillets or chamfers.
Creating a Box
To create a box:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Box Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground.
• If desired, set any of length, height, or depth dimensions of the box.
3. Place the cursor where you want a corner of the box and click and hold down the left mouse
button.
4. Drag the mouse to define the size of the box. If you specified any of the length, height, or depth
dimensions of the box in the settings container, Adams/View maintains those dimensions
regardless of how you drag the mouse.
5. Release the mouse button when the box is the desired size.
Creating Two-Dimensional Plane
To create a plane:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Plane Tool .
2. In the settings container, specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry
or add the geometry to an existing part or ground.
3. Place the cursor where you want a corner of the box and click and hold down the left mouse
button.
4. Drag the mouse to define the size of the box.
5. Release the mouse button when the box is the desired size.
Creating a Cylinder
To create a cylinder:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Cylinder Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground. By default, Adams/View creates a new part.
Adams/View
Creating Solid Geometry
6
• If desired, set the length or radius dimensions of the cylinder in the settings container.
3. Click and hold down the mouse where you want to begin drawing the cylinder.
4. Drag the mouse to size the cylinder. If you specified any of the length and radius dimensions of
the cylinder in the settings container, Adams/View maintains those dimensions regardless of how
you drag the mouse.
5. When the cylinder is the desired size, click.
Creating a Sphere
To create a sphere:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Sphere Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground. By default, Adams/View creates a new part.
• If desired, set the radius of the sphere.
3. Click where you want the center of the sphere.
4. Drag the mouse to size the sphere. If you specified a radius dimension for the sphere in the settings
container, Adams/View maintains that dimension regardless of how you drag the mouse.
5. When the sphere is the desired size, click.
Creating a Frustum
To create a frustum:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Frustum Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground.
• If desired, set the length or radii of the frustum.
3. Click where you want to begin drawing the frustum.
4. Drag the mouse to size the frustum. If you specified the length or radii of the frustum in the
settings container, Adams/View maintains those dimensions regardless of how you drag the
mouse.
5. When the frustum is the desired size, click.
7
Creating Solid Geometry
Creating a Torus
To create a torus:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Torus Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground. By default, Adams/View creates a new part.
• If desired, set the minor and major radii of the torus.
3. Place the cursor where you want the center of the torus and click.
4. Drag the mouse to define the radius of the torus. If you specified the radii of the torus in the
settings container, Adams/View maintains those dimensions regardless of how you drag the
mouse.
5. When the torus is the desired size, click.
Creating a Link
To create a link:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Link Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground.
• If desired, set any of the length, width, or depth dimensions of the link.
3. Place the cursor where you want to begin drawing the link, and click.
4. Drag the mouse until the link is the desired size and then release the mouse button. If you specified
the length, width, and depth of the link in the settings container, Adams/View maintains those
dimensions regardless of how you drag the mouse.
Creating a Plate
To create a plate:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Plate Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground.
• If desired, set the thickness or radius of the corners of the plate.
3. Place the cursor where you want the first corner of the plate and click the left mouse button.
4. Click at each corner of the plate. You must specify at least three locations.
Adams/View
Creating Solid Geometry
8
5. Continue selecting locations or right-click to close the plate.
Creating an Extrusion
To create an extrusion based on an existing curve profile:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Extrusion Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground.
• Set Create profile by to Curve.
• If desired, set the length (depth) of the extrusion.
• Specify the direction you want the profile to be extruded from the current Working grid.
Learn about directions.
• Select Analytical to create the revolution using the Analytical Method. Clear to use the Non-
analytical Method.
3. Select the curve profile.
To create an extrusion based on selected points:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Extrusion Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the geometry or add the
geometry to an existing part or ground.
• Set Create profile by to Points.
• Specify whether or not you want to create a closed extrusion.
• If desired, set the length of the extrusion.
• Specify the direction you want the profile to be extruded from the current Working grid.
Learn about directions.
• Select Analytical to create the revolution using the Analytical Method. Clear to use the Non-
analytical Method.
3. Place the cursor where you want to begin drawing the profile of the extrusion and click.
4. Click at each vertex in the profile; then right-click to finish drawing the profile.
Learn to extrude existing construction geometry along a path.
Note: If the distance between any two adjacent points is less than two times the radius of the
corner, Adams/View cannot create the plate.
9
Creating Solid Geometry
Creating a Revolution
To create a revolution by selecting points to define the profile:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Revolution Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part or add the geometry to an existing part or
ground.
• Set Create by Picking to Points.
• Specify whether or not you want to create a closed revolution.
• Select Analytical to create the revolution using the Analytical Method. Clear to use the Non-
analytical Method.
3. Click at two points that define the axis about which Adams/View revolves the profile.
4. Click at the location of each vertex in the profile; then right-click to finish drawing the profile.
To create a revolution by selecting a profile curve:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Revolution Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• Specify whether you want to create a new part or add the geometry to an existing part or
ground.
• Set Create by Picking to Curve.
• Select Analytical to create the revolution using the analytical method. Clear to use the non-
analytical method.
3. Click two points that define the axis about which Adams/View revolves the profile.
4. Select construction geometry defining the profile curve.
Tip: Be sure to draw the profile so that it does not intersect the line you drew to define
the axis of revolution.
Adams/View
Creating Complex Geometry
10
Creating Complex Geometry
Adams/View provides you with many ways in which you can take simple geometry and create complex
geometry from it. You can create solid geometry that has mass from wire geometry or create complex,
open geometry that has no mass.
Chaining Wire Geometry
To chain wire Construction geometry together:
1. If necessary, create the wire geometry.
2. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Chain Tool .
3. Click each piece of the wire geometry to be chained. As you move the cursor around the main
window, Adams/View highlights those objects in your model that can be chained.
4. After selecting the geometry to be chained, right-click to create the chained geometry.
Extruding Construction Geometry Along a Path
You can add thickness to Construction geometry by extruding it to create three-dimensional geometry.
You can extrude lines, polylines, polygons, and wire geometry that you have chained together. You
cannot extrude points. If the geometry you extrude is closed, Adams/View creates solid geometry that
has mass. Adams/View centers the extruded geometry about the z-axis of the view screen or working
grid, if it is turned on.
When you extrude geometry, you select the geometry that you want to extrude, called the profile
geometry, and then you select the wire geometry that defines the path along which you want to extrude
the profile. See an Example of Extrusion.
The geometry you extrude can be a new part or belong to another part, which you specify when you
extrude the geometry.
Extrusion Limits
You can only select to extrude a profile whose extrusion would have the following properties:
• Same dimensions. For example, you cannot extrude a profile that would have mixed dimensions.
See an Example of Mixed Dimensions.
• Edge or face shared by only one face. See an Example of Objects with Shared edges and faces.
• No intersecting lines.
Objects with these properties are called manifold. If the object extruded did not have these properties, it
would be non-manifold.
If the result of an extrusion is an object that is non-manifold, you receive the following error message
when you try to create the extrusion:
11
Creating Complex Geometry
! ERROR: Creation of the feature failed
! ERROR: The body created is non-manifold.
Remake the profile so that it does not result in a non-manifold
extrusion.
To extrude construction geometry:
1. If necessary, create the construction geometry.
2. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Extrusion Tool .
3. In the settings container, do the following (you can ignore all other settings):
• Specify whether you want to create a new part composed of the extruded geometry or add
the geometry to an existing part or ground.
• Select Along Path.
• Select Analytical to create the revolution using the Analytical Method. Clear to use the Non-
analytical Method.
4. Select the construction geometry to be extruded.
5. Select the construction geometry defining the path along which you want to extrude the geometry.
Adams/View
Combining Geometry
12
Combining Geometry
Once you have created individual parts of Solid geometry, you can combine them into one part to create
complex, solid geometry, referred to as constructive, solid geometry or CSG. Adams/View creates the
solid geometry using Boolean operations, such as union and intersection.
Creating One Part from the Intersection of Two Solids
To create a part from the intersection of two overlapping solids:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Intersect Tool .
2. Select the solid geometry to be combined. As you move the cursor, Adams/View highlights those
objects that can be combined. The second part you select is combined into the first part.
Creating One Part from the Union of Two Solids
To create a part from the union of two solids:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Unite Tool .
2. Select the solid geometry to be combined. As you move the cursor, Adams/View highlights those
objects that can be combined. The second part you select is combined into the first part.
Cutting a Solid
To create a part from the difference of two solids:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette, select the Cut Tool .
2. Select the solid geometry to be cut. As you move the cursor, Adams/View highlights those objects
that can be cut. The second part you select is cut from the first part.
Splitting a Solid
To split a complex solid:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Split Tool .
2. Select the solid geometry to be split. Adams/View highlights those objects in your model that can
be split.
13
Adding Features to Geometry
Adding Features to Geometry
You can add features to the solid geometry that you create, including chamfering the edges of the
geometry, adding holes and bosses, and hollowing out solids.
Chamfering and Filleting Objects
To create a chamfered or fillet edge:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select either of the following tools:
• To create a chamfered edge or corner, select the Chamfer Tool .
• To create a fillet edge or corner, select the Fillet Tool .
2. In the settings container, do one of the following:
• If desired, for chamfers, specify the width of the bevel.
• If desired, for fillets, specify the radius. To create a variable fillet, also select End Radius and
enter the end radius. Adams/View uses the value you enter for radius as the starting radius of
the variable fillet.
3. Select the edges or vertices to be chamfered or filleted. The edges and vertices must be on the
same rigid body.
4. Right-click.
Creating a Hole or Boss
To create a hole or boss:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select either of the following tools:
• To create a hole, select the Hole Tool .
• To create a knob, select the Boss Tool .
2. In the settings container, do one of the following:
• If desired, forholes, specify the radius and depth of the hole. You cannot specify the radius and
depth of a hole so that it splits the current geometry into two separate geometries.
• If desired, for bosses, specify the radius and height.
3. Select the face of the body on which you want to create the hole or boss.
4. Click the location where you want to center the hole or boss.
Tip: To create a hole or boss at a specific location, create a temporary marker at the desired
location for the hole or boss, and select it in Step 4.
Adams/View
Adding Features to Geometry
14
Hollowing Out a Solid
To hollow an object:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Hollow Tool .
2. In the settings container, do the following:
• If desired, specify the thickness of the remaining shell after you hollow the object.
• If you want to add the shell to the outside of the object, clear the Inside check box.
3. Select the solid body that you want to hollow.
4. Select the faces of the body that you want to hollow. Adams/View highlights those faces that can
be selected.
5. Click the right mouse button to hollow the selected faces.
Merging Geometry
To merge two rigid body geometry:
1. From the Geometric Modeling palette or tool stack, select the Merge Tool .
2. Select the geometry to be merged. Adams/View highlights those objects in your model that can
be merged as you move the cursor around the modeling window. The second geometry that you
select is combined into the first.
Adams/View combines the selected geometry and deletes the second.
Discrete Flexible Links
A discrete flexible link consists of two or more rigid bodies connected by beam force elements. You
indicate the following and Adams/View creates the appropriate parts, geometry, forces, and constraints
at the endpoints:
• Endpoints of the link
• Number of parts and the material type
• Properties of the beam
• Types of endpoint attachments (flexible, rigid, or free)
The following figure shows a flexible link composed of rigid bodies whose cross-section geometry is
rectangular.
For more information on beam force elements, see Adding a Massless Beam. Also note the caution about
the asymmetry of beams explained in that section.
Learn more:
• Types of Flexible Link Geometry
• Positioning Flexible Links
• About Number of Beams Created
• Creating Flexible Links
• Modifying Flexible Links
Adams/View
Discrete Flexible Links
2
Types of Flexible Link Geometry
To make it convenient to create discrete flexible links, Adams/View provides a set of geometry you can
select for the cross-section of the link. If the pre-defined geometry does not meet your needs, you can
also define your own cross-section based on area and inertia properties that you enter. If you enter area
and inertia properties yourself, Adams/View creates short angular geometry to represent the link.
The pre-defined cross-section geometry that you can select includes:
• Solid rectangular
• Solid circular
• Hollow rectangular
• Hollow circular
• I-beam
Adams/View uses the cross-section geometry to calculate the following:
• Area and area moments of inertia (Ixx, Iyy, Izz) for the beams.
• Mass, mass moments of inertia (Ixx, Iyy, Izz), and center-of-mass Markers for the rigid bodies.
Note that Adams/View does not directly use the geometry to account for stress on the beam. Therefore,
any stress values are based on the area and area moments.
Positioning Flexible Links
You use two or three Markers to define the locations and orientation of a discrete flexible link: Markers 1
and 2 (attachment markers) and an orientation marker, which is required for only certain types of cross-
section geometry. See a Picture for Orientation Marker.
As you can see from the examples, the attachment markers (Markers 1 and 2) define the total length of
the flexible link and the x (longitudinal) direction of the associated beam forces. Adams/View creates
new markers on top of Markers 1 and 2, as well as at the centers-of-mass of the geometry associated with
the discrete flexible link. For the resulting beams, the vector from Marker 1 to Marker 2 defines the x-
axis while the vector from Marker 1 to the orientation marker defines the xz-plane. The global axes are
not relevant to the orientation of the beam forces unless you erroneously specify three colinear markers.
The orientation marker works with the two attachment markers (Markers 1 and 2) to define a plane. The
x-axis of the beam markers will be aligned along the line formed between the attachment markers. The
beam markers will be oriented such that their z-axes are in the plane formed by the two attachment
markers and the orientation marker. If the orientation marker is colinear with the two attachment markers,
the plane formed by those three points is indeterminate. Adams/View will not attempt to adjust the
orientation marker by adding unit vectors until a noncolinear solution is found. The orientation marker
itself is not changed.
3
Discrete Flexible Links
About Number of Beams Created
The following table shows how the number of beams that get created for your flexible link depends on
the number of segments and the types of endpoint attachments.
For links with axisymmetric cross-sections, such as solid and hollow circular sections, the orientation of
the cross section is not critical and so Adams/View does not require the use of an orientation marker.
Creating a Flexible Link
To create a flexible link:
1. From the Build menu, point to Flexible Bodies, and then select Discrete Flexible Link.
The Discrete Flexible Link dialog box appears.
2. Define the overall properties of the flexible link as explained in the table below.
Types of endpoint attachments: Number of beams created:
Free-Free Number of segments - 1
Rigid-Rigid Number of segments - 1
Free-Rigid or Rigid-Free Number of segments - 1
Flexible-Free or Free-Flexible Number of segments
Flexible-Rigid or Rigid-Flexible Number of segments
Flexible-Flexible Number of segments + 1
To specify: Do the following:
Name for parts,
constraints,
forces, and
Markers
In the Name text box, enter a text string of alphanumeric characters. Adams/View
prepends the text string you specify to the name of each object it creates. For
example, if you specify the string LINK, the first rigid body is LINK_1, the first
marker is LINK_MARKER_1, and so on.
Type of material In the Material text box, enter the type of material to be used for the rigid bodies
and beam properties.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Learn about Setting Up Material Types.
Number of
segments
Enter the number of rigid bodies that you want in the link.
Adams/View
Discrete Flexible Links
4
3. Define the length of the link and its flexibility at its ends as explained in the table below.
4. Select one of the following to define the geometry of the link or specify the area and area moments
of inertia of the flexible link, and then select OK.
• Solid Rectangle
• Solid Circle
• Hollow Rectangle
• Hollow Circle
• I-Beam
• Properties
Defining Link Cross Section
Solid Rectangle
In the following text boxes, enter:
Damping ratio In the Damping Ratio text box, enter the ratio of viscous damping to stiffness for
the beam forces.
Color In the Color text box, enter the color to be used for the geometry in the flexible link.
To specify: Do the following:
Ends of the link Enter the markers that define the endpoints of the link in the Marker 1 and
Marker 2 text boxes. Marker 1 defines the start of the link and Marker 2
defines the end of the link. Marker 1 and Marker 2 are also used to calculate
the orientation of the link. Learn more about Positioning Flexible Links.
Flexibility at the
ends of the link
Select how to define the ends of the link from the Attachment pull-down menus.
You can select the following for each end of the link:
• free - The end is unconnected.
• rigid - A fixed joint is created between the parent of Marker 1 and the
first part of the discrete flexible link or between the parent of Marker 2
and the last part of the discrete flexible link.
• flexible - The link has discrete flexibility all the way to the endpoint. To
create this flexibility, Adams/View creates an additional beam force
between the first or last segment of the link and the parent part of
Marker 1 or Marker 2. The length of the beam is one half of the segment
length.
To specify: Do the following:
5
Discrete Flexible Links
• Orient Marker - The marker that defines the orientation (z-axis) of link. For information on
setting the orientation of the geometry, see Positioning Flexible Links.
• Base - The width of the rectangle (dimension in local y direction).
• Height - The height of the rectangle (dimension in local z direction).
Solid Circle
• Diameter - Diameter of the circular cross-section.
Hollow Rectangle
• Orient Marker - The marker that defines the orientation (z-axis) of the link. See Positioning
Flexible Links on setting the orientation of the geometry.
• Base - The outer width of the rectangular shell.
• Height - The height of the outer rectangular shell.
• Thickness - Uniform width of the wall of the rectangular shell.
Adams/View
Discrete Flexible Links
6
Hollow Circle
• Diameter - Outer diameter of the circular shell.
• Thickness - Width of the wall of the circular shell.
I-Beam
• Orient Marker - The marker that defines the orientation of the link. See Positioning Flexible
Links for information on setting the orientation of the geometry.
• Base - Enter the width of the I-beam.
• Height - Enter the height of I-beam.
• Flange - Enter the width of the flange of the I-beam.
• Web - Enter the width of the web of the beam.
Properties
Enter values in the following text boxes to create your own custom-shaped cross-section:
• Orient Marker - The marker that defines the orientation (z-axis) of the link. For information on
setting the orientation of the link, see Positioning Flexible Links.
• X Section Area - Specify the uniform area of the beam cross section. The centroidal axis must
be orthogonal to this cross section.
• Link Mass - Enter the total mass of all the link segments combined.
• Link Segment Inertias - Specify the area moments of inertia for the link.
• Ixx - Enter the torsional constant, also referred to as torsional shape factor or torsional stiffness
coefficient. It is expressed as unit length to the fourth power. For a solid circular section, Ixx is
identical to the polar moment of inertia J = (tr
4
/2). For thin-walled sections, open sections, and
noncircular sections, consult a handbook.
7
Discrete Flexible Links
• Iyy, Izz - Enter the area moments of inertia about the neutral axes of the beam-cross sectional
areas (y-y and z-z). These are sometimes referred to as the second moments of area about a given
axis. They are expressed as unit length to the fourth power. For a solid circular section, Iyy=Izz =
(tr
4
/4). For thin-walled sections, open sections, and noncircular sections, consult a handbook.
Modifying Flexible Links
Once you create a discrete flexible link, you must modify each object separately, such as each beam and
Rigid body. Therefore, you might find it easier to delete the beam and create it again instead of modifying
each object individually.
If you find that link does not bend enough, investigate your cross-section and material properties and
possibly increase the number of segments in the link.
Note: The example of an elliptical cross-section below is only one example of many cross-
sections that you can create using the Properties option.
Adams/View
Point Masses
8
Point Masses
Point masses are points that have mass but no inertia properties or angular velocities. They are
computationally more efficient when rotational effects are not important.
For example, you could use point masses to represent the concentrated masses in a net. You could then
represent the ropes between the masses as forces or springs. The following figure shows a model of a net
with point masses.
To create or modify a point mass:
1. From the Build menu, point to Point Mass, and then select either New or Modify.
2. If you selected Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a point mass to modify.
The Create/Modify Point Mass dialog box appears. Both dialog boxes contain the same options.
3. If you are creating a point mass, enter a name for the point mass.
4. Set the mass of the point mass in the dialog box and adjust its location as desired. By default,
Adams/View places the point mass in the center of the main window with a mass of 1 in current
units.
5. Select the Comments tool on the dialog box and enter any comments you want associated
with the point mass. Learn about Comments.
6. Select OK.
9
Creating Trace Spline
Creating Trace Spline
Traces follow the motion of a point or part (circle or cylinder) as it moves relative to a second part.
You can create two- or three-dimensional splines from traces. A trace that follows a point creates a three-
dimensional spline. The point can move in any direction relative to the part on which the trace was
created.
A trace that follows a circle or cylinder creates a two-dimensional spline. Adams/View creates the curve
in the xy plane of the base marker (the marker on the part on which the trace was created). Adams/View
assumes the circle is parallel to the plane or the cylinder is perpendicular to the plane, and that the motion
is in this plane.
When you create the trace, Adams/View creates a base marker that is oriented properly with respect to
the circle or cylinder you selected. Therefore, the curve will be in the plane of the circle in its initial
position. You have to make sure that the motion is in the plane of the circle or you will get unexpected
results. Therefore, be sure to think of the circle trace as occurring in the plane of the circle. It can be any
plane, not necessarily the global xy plane.
Example of Creating Spline Geometry
For example, if you want to create a surface on a cam that makes a follower part move in a particular way
relative to each other, you can create the necessary surface geometry by following the movement of the
two parts with a trace that Adams/View turns into spline geometry.
You start creating the spline geometry by first making the follower and cam move the way you want them
to relative to each other. You place a motion on the cam joint that rotates the cam once per second. Next,
you place a motion on the follower joint that moves it up and down once each second.
Adams/View
Creating Trace Spline
10
After simulating the motion, you then request Adams/View to trace the motion of the follower circle
relative to the cam circle and create spline geometry based on that geometry. The following figure shows
the cam and follower geometry and the trace that Adams/View creates.
To create a spline from a trace:
1. Set up your model so that it creates the desired motion after which you want the spline to be
modeled.
2. Run a simulation of your model as explained in Performing an Interactive Simulation.
3. Reset the simulation by selecting the Simulation Reset tool from either the Simulation
container on the Main toolbox or the Simulation palette. See Interactive Simulation Palette and
Container dialog box help.
4. From the Review menu, select Create Trace Spline.
5. Select a point, marker, circle, or cylinder with which to trace, and then select the part on which to
trace.
6. You can trace on ground or any other part. For a point trace, select anywhere on the point or part.
For a circle or cylinder, however, be careful where you select because where you select on the
circle and the part determines the resulting trace geometry. There are usually two possible traces,
one on each side of the circle or cylinder.
11
Creating Trace Spline
7. Replay the simulation to see the selected object follow the trace curve.
Tip: The following are some tips on creating splines from traces:
• When you trace an object, the point/circle should move in a smooth, even path or
the trace ends up looking like scribbles on the screen.
• If the path is closed, you should simulate for one cycle only.
• If the trace is uneven or complex, you can get a strange looking curve as a result.
As an alternative to the Create Trace Spline menu command, you can use the
Command Navigator to execute the command: geometry create curve
point_trace. It lets you create a polyline instead of a spline, which works better if
the trace is uneven or complex. In that case, the motion of the cam or slot is
transferred through the traced curve and gives the desired follower motion.
Adams/View
Creating Trace Spline
12
Overview of Constraints
Constraints define how parts (rigid bodies, Flexible bodies, or Point mass) are attached to one another and
how they are allowed to move relative to each other. Constraints restrict relative movement between parts
and represent idealized connections.
Types of Constraints
Adams/View provides a library of constraints including:
• Idealized joints
• Primitive joints
• Motions generators
• Higher-pair constraints
The following figure shows some of the different types of idealized joints that Adams/View supports.
Constraints and Degrees of Freedom
Degrees of freedom (DOF) are a measure of how parts can move relative to one another in a model. A
body free in space has six DOF in which it can move: three translational and three rotational. Each DOF
corresponds to at least one equation of motion. When you add a constraint, such as a revolute joint,
between two parts, you remove DOF between the parts, causing them to remain positioned with respect
Adams/View
Overview of Constraints
2
to one another regardless of any motion or force in the model. Each constraint in Adams/View removes
different DOF.
For example, a revolute joint removes all three translational DOF and two of the rotational DOF between
two parts. If each part had a point on the joint that was on the centerline of the revolute pin, then the two
points would always remain coincident. They would only rotate with respect to one another about one
axis: the centerline of the revolute joint.
The total number of DOF in a model is equal to the difference between the number of allowed part
motions and the number of active constraints in the model. When you run a simulation of your model,
Adams/Solver calculates the number of DOF in your model as it determines the algebraic equations of
motion to be solved in your model. You can also calculate the DOF in your model before running a
simulation as explained in Verifying Your Model.
For a list of the DOF that the different constraints in Adams/View remove, see the following:
• DOF Removed by Idealized Joints
• DOF Removed by Primitive Joints
• DOF Removed by Higher-Pair Constraints
• DOF Removed by Motion
Connecting Constraints to Parts
Adams/View uses the convention that the first part that you select when you create a Constraint is the part
that moves relative to the second part that you select. For example, if you join a door and a door frame
with a Joint, the first part that you select is the door so that it moves relative to the door frame.
Adams/View always applies forces at the location of the constraint. For example, for a revolute joint,
Adams/View applies any forces at the center of the joint. For joints that allow translational movement,
such as a screw joint connecting a nut and bolt, the location of the joint changes over time as the first part
moves relative to the second part and, therefore, the locations of the forces change. For the nut and bolt,
as the nut moves along the bolt, the location of the joint changes and the reaction forces also change
relative to the bolt.
When you create many of the constraints in Adams/View, including most idealized joints, primitive
joints, and some types of motion, Adams/View provides you with shortcuts for specifying the parts that
the constraints are to connect or to which the motion is to be applied. As you create a constraint, you can:
• Let Adams/View connect the constraint to the parts nearest to the constraint location. If there is
only one part, Adams/View assumes that the second part is ground. Note that letting
Adams/View select the parts is only appropriate when two parts are located near one another and
when it does not matter which part Adams/View considers the first or second part.
There are some constraints, such as revolute, translational, and cylindrical, to which you can
apply motions. If you think that you will apply a joint motion, you should explicitly select the
two parts when creating the constraints.
3
Overview of Constraints
There are other constraints, such as Hooke/universal, inline, and perpendicular, which are very
sensitive to which part is the first part and which is the second. When you create these
constraints, you should explicitly select the parts to be connected.
• Explicitly select the parts to be connected. The first part that you select moves relative to the
second part that you select.
• If you created your model in exploded view, which lets you create individual parts and then
assemble them together into a model, you can specify the parts to be connected by the constraint
and then select a different location for the constraint on each part. When you assemble the parts
into a model, Adams/View joins the parts together at the location on the first part that you
selected. Learn about Performing Initial Conditions Simulation.
Constraints and I and J Markers
When you create a Constraint, Adams/View creates Markers at the specified location on both parts.
Adams/View orients the markers in the direction of the axis along which the parts can move with respect
to each other. The marker on the first part is often called the I marker and the marker on the second part
is called the J marker.
When Adams/View creates a joint primitive, it creates an I marker on the first part and a J marker on the
second part. It connects the I marker on the first part to the J marker on the second part.
For more on the effects of I and J markers on the joint, see JOINT in the Adams/Solver online help.
Tips on Constraining Your Model
The following are some tips to help you constrain your model correctly.
• Build your model by adding constraints to a few parts and testing the constraint connections
frequently. By building your model, you can more easily pinpoint the cause of any simulation
problems.
• Be sure that you connect the right parts and that you correctly define which part should move
relative to another part.
Be sure that you connect the right parts and that you explicitly select which part is to move
relative to another part if the constraint allows translational motion.
• Be sure to orient the constraint correctly.
If you do not define constraint directions correctly, you might not remove DOF from the model
that you intended to and, in fact, you might remove DOF that you did not intend to.
For example, if you have a slider-crank model and you direct a translational joint between the
slider and ground so that it is out of the plane of desired motion, the model locks up immediately
when you run a simulation.
• Be sure to select the correct type of constraint.
Adams/View
Overview of Constraints
4
Try to find only one constraint that removes all the DOF that you need to remove. If you define
more than one constraint between two parts, you get the union of the DOF that each constraint
removes, which may not be what you expected. For example, if you have two concentric,
cylindrical parts that you want to allow to rotate and translate with respect to each other, and you
use one translational and one revolute joint between the parts, you lock the parts together. They
lock together because the translational joint allows no relative rotational movement and the
revolute joint allows no relative translational movement. In this case, instead of using the two
joints, you should use a single cylindrical joint.
• Check the DOF in your system periodically.
Use the Verify command to check the DOF in your model to make sure you have the correct
number of parts and constraints. Learn about Verifying Your Model.
• Run a Kinematic simulation to test your model without forces.
If possible, run a kinematic simulation before performing a dynamic simulation. By running a
kinematic simulation, you can ensure that connections are correct before you add forces to your
model. You may have to add temporary constraints to your model to run a kinematic simulation.
• Remove redundant constraints from your model even if a simulation of your model runs
correctly. See More on Redundant Constraint Checking.
Working with Higher-Pair Constraints
Adams/View provides you with two types of higher-pair constraints: point curve and 2D curve curve.
Point-Curve Constraints
The point-curve constraint restricts a fixed point defined on one part to lie on a curve defined on a second
part. The first part is free to roll and slide on the curve that is fixed to a second part. The curve on the
second part can be planar or spatial or open or closed. The first part cannot lift off the second part; it must
always lie on the curve. A point-curve constraint removes two translational Degrees of freedom from
your model.
When you specify the location of the point-curve constraint on the first part, Adams/View creates a
marker at that location. The marker is called the I marker. The I marker can only translate in one direction
relative to the curve. The I marker, however, is free to rotate in all three directions.
You can use the point-curve constraint to model a Pin-in-slot mechanism or a Simple Cam Follower
mechanism where a lever arm is articulated by the profile of a revolving cam.
When modeling a pin-in-slot mechanism, the point-curve constraint keeps the center of the pin in the
center of the slot, while allowing it to move freely along the slot and rotate in the slot.
5
Overview of Constraints
To create a point-curve constraint:
Before creating a point-curve constraint, read Tips on Creating Higher-Pair Constraints.
1. From the Joint palette, select the Point-Curve Constraint Tool .
2. In the settings container, set whether or not you will be selecting an edge or curve:
• Curves - Splines, chains, and data-element curves are all considered curves.
• Edge - An edge is one of the wireframe outlines drawn on a solid. For example, you can use
a Parasolid object representing a cam that you imported into Adams/View.
3. Select a point on a part that will travel along a curve.
4. Select the curve or edge along which the point will travel. The curve can be closed or open. Note
that when you select a closed curve, Adams/View highlights only a portion of the curve.
Adams/View will use the entire curve.
To Modify Point-Curve Constraints
The following procedure changes the basic properties and sets initial conditions for a point-curve
constraint. See Point-Curve Constraint Tool. Learn about Working with Higher-Pair Constraints.
1. Display the Constraint Modify Higher Pair Contact Point Curve dialog box as explained in
Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Assign a unique ID number to it. Learn about Adams/Solver IDs.
3. In the Comments text box, add any comments about the cam that you want to enter to help you
manage and identify the cam. Learn about Comments.
4. Set the basic properties as explained in the table below.
Note: You can also modify constraint properties using the Table Editor.
For the option: Do the following:
Curve Name Change the curve that defines the shape on which the point can move. You
can enter a curve on a part or a curve element. Learn about Using Curve
Elements in Your Model.
I Marker Name Point that moves along the curve.
Adams/View
Overview of Constraints
6
J Floating Marker Name Enter a marker that is a floating marker. Adams/Solver positions the origin
of the floating marker at the instantaneous point of contact on the curve. It
orients the marker so that its x-axis is tangent to the curve at the contact
point, its y-axis points outward from the curve’s center of curvature at the
contact point, and its z-axis is along the binormal at the contact point.
Ref Marker Name Enter marker that is fixed on the part containing the curve on which the point
must move. Adams/Solver uses the reference marker to associate the shape
defined by the curve to the part on which the reference marker lies. The
curve coordinates are, therefore, specified in the coordinate system of the
reference marker.
Displacement Ic/
No Displacement Ic
Select either:
• Displacement Ic - Enter the initial point of contact along the curve. If
the point you specify is not exactly on the curve, Adams/View uses a
point on the curve nearest to the point you specify. By default, you
specify the initial point of contact in the coordinate system of the part
containing the curve or specify it in the coordinate system of the marker
you specify for Ic Ref Marker Name.
• No Displacement Ic - Leaves the initial displacement unset.
Learn about Higher-Pair Constraints Initial Conditions.
For the option: Do the following:
7
Overview of Constraints
5. Set the initial conditions as explained in the table below, and then select OK.
Curve-Curve Constraints
A curve-curve constraint restricts a curve defined on the first part to remain in contact with a second
curve defined on a second part. The curve-curve constraint is useful for modeling cams where the point
Velocity Ic/
No Velocity Ic
Select either:
• Velocity Ic - Velocity with which the point (I marker) moves along the
curve. You specify the velocity in the coordinate system of the part
containing the curve.
• No I Velocity Ic - Leaves the initial velocity unset.
Ic Ref Marker Name You can:
• Enter the marker with which the initial point of contact on the curve is
specified.
• Leave blank. Adams/View uses the coordinate system of the part
containing the curve.
For the option: Do the following:
Velocity Ic/
No Velocity Ic
Select either:
• Velocity Ic - Velocity with which the point (I marker) moves along the
curve. You specify the velocity in the coordinate system of the part
containing the curve.
• No Velocity Ic - Leaves the initial velocity unset.
Ic Ref Marker Name You can:
• Enter the marker with which the initial point of contact on the curve is
specified.
• Leave blank. Adams/View uses the coordinate system of the part containing
the curve.
For the option: Do the following:
Adams/View
Overview of Constraints
8
of contact between two parts changes during the motion of the mechanism. The curve-curve constraint
removes two Degrees of freedom from your model.
An example of a curve-curve constraint is a valve lifter where a cam lifts a plate-like object. The point
of contact between the plate and the cam changes depending on the position and shape of the cam.
The two curves of the constraint, which you define by selecting edges in your model, must lie in the same
plane. You can initially select curves that are not in the same plane, but Adams/Solver moves the parts
during Simulation to ensure that the two curves are constrained to the same plane of motion with respect
to each other. Both curves can be open or closed.
The curves always maintain contact, even when the dynamics of the model might actually lift one curve
off the other. You can examine the constraint forces to determine if any lift-off should have occurred. If
your results require an accurate simulation of intermittent contact, you should model the contact forces
directly using a vector force.
The curve-curve constraint models only one contact. Therefore, if the curves have contact at more than
one point, you need to create a curve-curve constraint for each contact, each with a initial condition
displacement near the appropriate point. Learn about Higher-Pair Constraints Initial Conditions.
To Create a Curve-Curve Constraints
Before creating a curve-curve constraint, read Tips on Creating Higher-Pair Constraints.
1. From the Joint palette or tool stack, select the 2D Curve-Curve Constraint Tool .
Note: Instead of defining a curve by selecting a curve on a part, you can also use a curve element
that you create to define the curve. To specify a curve element, you can create geometry for
the curve and select that geometry as you create the cam or modify the cam to reference
the curve element. Learn about Creating and Modifying Curve Data Elements.
9
Overview of Constraints
2. In the settings container, for each part, set whether or not you will be selecting an edge or curve:
• Curves - Splines, chains, and data element curves are all considered curves.
• Edge - An edge is one of the wireframe outlines drawn on a solid. For example, you can use
a Parasolid object representing a cam that you imported into Adams/View.
3. Select a curve or edge that will travel along a second curve.
4. Select the curve along which the first curve will travel. The curve can be closed or open. Note that
when you select a closed curve, Adams/View highlights only a portion of the curve. Adams/View
will use the entire curve.
To Modify 2D Curve-Curve Constraints
The following procedure changes the basic properties and sets initial conditions for a 2D curve-curve
constraint. See 2D Curve-Curve Constraint Tool.
1. Display the Constraint Modify Higher Pair Contact Curve Curve as explained in Accessing Modify
Dialog Boxes.
2. Assign a unique ID number to it. Learn about Adams/Solver IDs.
3. In the Comments text box, add any comments about the cam that you want to enter to help you
manage and identify the cam. Learn about Comments.
4. Set the basic properties as explained in the table below.
Note: You can also modify constraint properties using the Table Editor.
For the option: Do the following:
I Curve Name Change the curve that defines the shape of the curve that moves along the second
curve (J curve). You can enter a curve on a part or a curve element. Learn about
Curves.
J Curve Name Change the curve that defines the shape of the curve along which the first curve
(I curve) moves. You can enter a curve on a part or a curve element. Learn about
Curves.
I Ref Marker Name Enter a marker that is fixed on the part containing the first curve (I curve).
Adams/View uses the reference marker to associate the shape defined by the
curve to the part on which the reference marker lies. The curve coordinates are,
therefore, specified in the coordinate system of the reference marker.
J Ref Marker Name Enter a marker that is fixed on the part containing the second curve (J curve).
Adams/View uses the reference marker to associate the shape defined by the
curve to the part on which the reference marker lies. The curve coordinates are,
therefore, specified in the coordinate system of the reference marker.
Adams/View
Overview of Constraints
10
5. Set the initial conditions as explained in the table below, and then select OK. Learn about Higher-
Pair Constraints Initial Conditions.
I Floating Marker
Name
Enter a floating marker. Adams/View positions the origin of the floating marker
at the instantaneous point of contact on the first curve, which is also the global
position of the J floating marker on the second curve. Adams/View orients the
marker so that its x-axis is along the tangent at the instantaneous contact point, its
y-axis is along the instantaneous normal, and its z-axis is along the resultant
binormal.
J Floating Marker
Name
Enter a floating marker. Adams/View positions the origin of the floating marker
at the instantaneous point of contact on the second curve, which is also the
position of the I floating marker on the first curve. Adams/View orients the
marker so that its x-axis is along the tangent at the instantaneous contact point, its
y-axis is along the instantaneous normal, and its z-axis is along the resultant
binormal.
For the option: Do the following:
I Displacement Ic/
No I Displacement Ic
Select either:
• I Displacement Ic - Enter the initial point of contact along the first curve
(I curve). If the point you specify is not exactly on the curve, Adams/View
uses a point on the curve nearest to the point you specify. By default, you
specify the initial point of contact in the coordinate system of the part
containing the curve or specify it in the coordinate system of the marker
you specify for I Ic Ref Marker Name.
• No I Displacement Ic - Leaves the initial displacement unset.
J Displacement Ic/
No J Displacement Ic
Select either:
• J Displacement Ic - Enter the initial point of contact along the second
curve (J curve). If the point you specify is not exactly on the curve,
Adams/View uses a point on the curve nearest to the point you specify. By
default, you specify the initial point of contact in the coordinate system of
the part containing the curve or specify it in the coordinate system of the
marker you specify for J Ic Ref Marker Name.
• No J Displacement Ic - Leaves the initial displacement unset.
For the option: Do the following:
11
Overview of Constraints
Tips on Creating Higher-Pair Constraints
The following are some tips for creating point-curve and 2D curve-curve constraints. Learn more about
these constraints with Point-Curve Constraint Tool and 2D Curve-Curve Constraint Tool.
• Specify a curve with a large number of curve points.
When you select a curve, be sure that it contains a sufficiently large number of points to achieve
an acceptable fit.
I Velocity Ic/
No I Velocity Ic
Select either:
• I Velocity - Enter the initial velocity of the contact point along the first
curve (I curve). This is the speed at which the contact point is initially
moving relative to the curve. The velocity is:
• Negative if the contact point is moving towards the start of the curve.
• Positive if it is moving towards the end of the curve.
• Zero if it is stationary on the curve.
• No I Velocity Ic - Leaves the initial velocity unset.
J Velocity Ic or
No J Velocity Ic
Select either:
• J Velocity - Enter the initial velocity of the contact point along the second
curve (J curve). This is the speed at which the contact point is initially
moving relative to the curve. The velocity is:
• Negative if the contact point is moving towards the start of the curve.
• Positive if it is moving toward the end of the curve.
• Zero if it is stationary on the curve.
• No J Velocity Ic - Leaves the initial velocity unset.
I Ic Ref Marker Name You can:
• Enter the marker with which the initial point of contact (displacement) on
the first curve (I curve) is specified.
• Leave blank. Adams/View uses the coordinate system of the part
containing the curve.
J Ic Ref Marker Name You can:
• Enter the marker with which the initial point of contact (displacement) on
the second curve (J curve) is specified.
• Leave blank. Adams/View uses the coordinate system of the part
containing the curve
For the option: Do the following:
Adams/View
Overview of Constraints
12
• Use closed curves whenever possible.
It is generally easier to select a closed curve, if possible. Open curves represent modeling
difficulties when the point on the follower part approaches one of the end points of the open
curve.
• Define curves that cover the entire expected range of motion of the cam.
Adams/Solver stops a Simulation if the contact point moves off the end of an open curve.
Therefore, be sure that the curve you define covers the expected range of motion of the contact
point.
• Avoid defining an initial configuration with the initial point of contact near to one of the end
points of the curve.
• Avoid curve-on-curve constraints that have more than one contact point.
Adams/Solver requires that your model contain a unique contact point during simulation. If there
is more than one contact point, Adams/Solver may be unable to find the correct contact point or
may even jump from one contact point to the next. It also may have difficulties finding the
correct solution. One way to ensure that contact points are unique is to specify curve shapes that
are convex. The following figure shows two curves, the first is convex and the second is
nonconvex. Note that for a convex curve, any line segment connecting two arbitrary points on
the curve lies in the domain of the curve (it does not intersect the curve). The same is not true for
nonconvex curves.
• You can create more than one contact using the same curve.
• It is easy to over-constrain a model using the curve-to-curve constraint. For example, in a cam-
follower configuration, the cam should usually be rotating on a cylindrical joint, not a revolute
joint. If the follower is held by a translational joint and the cam by a cylindrical joint, the curve-
to-curve cam between the follower and cam prevents the cam from translating along the axis of
rotation, which is the axis of the cylindrical joint. A revolute joint would add a redundant
constraint in that direction.
13
Overview of Constraints
Higher-Pair Constraints Initial Conditions
The initial conditions that you can set include:
• Point-curve (See Point-Curve Constraint Tool)
The initial conditions for a point-curve constraint include:
• Velocity with which the point (I marker) moves along the curve. You specify the velocity in
the coordinate system of the part containing the curve. Therefore, you specify the speed of
the I marker from the standpoint of an observer on the part containing the curve. Therefore,
if the curve, not the I marker, moves globally then the velocity of the I marker is still
nonzero.
• Initial point of contact on the curve. If the point you specify is not exactly on the curve,
Adams /View uses a point on the curve nearest to the point you specified. By default, you
specify the initial point of contact in the coordinate system of the part containing the curve.
If another coordinate system is more convenient, you can specify another initial conditions
coordinate system marker and enter the initial point in its coordinates.
If you supply an initial point, Adams/View assembles the model with the I marker at the
specified point on the curve, even if it must override part initial conditions to do so. If you do
not supply an initial point, Adams/View assumes the initial contact is at the point on the curve
closest to the I marker position. Adams/View may adjust that contact point to maintain other
part or constraint initial conditions.
• 2D Curve-Curve (See 2D Curve-Curve Constraint Tool)
The initial conditions for a 2D curve-curve constraint include:
• Velocity with which the contact point on either or both curves is moving. You specify the
velocity in the coordinate system of the part containing the second curve. If you do not
supply an initial velocity, Adams/View assumes the initial velocity is zero, but may adjust
that velocity to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
• Initial point of contact on either or both curves. If the point you specify is not exactly on the
curve, Adams/View uses a point on the curve nearest to the point you specify. By default,
you specify the initial point of contact in the coordinate system of the part containing the
curve. If another coordinate system is more convenient, you can specify another initial
conditions coordinate system marker and enter the initial point in its coordinates.
If you supply an initial point, Adams/View assembles the model with the marker at the specified
point on the curve, even if it must override part initial conditions to do so. If you do not supply
an initial point, Adams/View assumes the initial contact is at the point on the curve closest to the
first curve (I curve). Adams/View may adjust that contact point to maintain other part or
constraint initial conditions.
The initial conditions are only active during an Initial conditions simulation, which Adams/View runs
before it runs a Simulation of your model.
You can also leave some or all of the initial conditions unset. Leaving an initial condition unset lets
Adams/View calculate the initial conditions of the constraint during an initial conditions simulation
depending on the other forces and constraints acting on the constraint. Note that it is not the same as
Adams/View
Overview of Constraints
14
setting an initial condition to zero. Setting an initial condition to zero means that the constraint will not
be moving in the specified direction or from a specified point when the simulation starts, regardless of
any forces and constraints acting upon it. For a Kinematic simulation, the initial conditions are redundant.
Therefore, for a model with zero Degrees of freedom, you should always leave the initial conditions
unset.
DOF Removed by Higher-Pair Constraints
The following table shows the degrees of freedom that higher-pair constraints remove.
General Constraints
Available with Adams/Solver (C++) only
You can create a general constraint that defines an arbitrary constraint specific to a model. As its name
implies, it is more general than the Idealized joints, which describe physically recognizable combination
of constraints that are used to connect bodies together. You can also use the general constraint to
equivalently define an existing idealized joint. Read more about the GCON statement in Adams/Solver
(C++) help.
We advise that you use the general constraint with caution. Be sure to read the Known Limitations in the
GCON statement.
15
Overview of Constraints
To create or modify a general constraint:
1. Do one of the following:
• To create a general constraint, from the Joint palette or tool stack, select the General
Constraint tool .
• To modify a general constraint, from the Edit menu, select Modify. From the Database
Navigator that appears, select the general constraint to modify.
2. The Create/Modify General Constraint dialog box appears.
3. If you are creating a general constraint, in the Name text box, change the name for the constraint.
Adams/View assigns a default name to the constraint.
4. Enter a runtime function that Adams/Solver (C++) forces to zero during the simulation. To enter
a function expression, next to the f (q) = text box, select the More tool to display the
Adams/View Function Builder. For information on using the Function Builder, see the Function
Builder online help. Learn more about defining a runtime function for a general constraint.
5. In the Report reaction forces on marker text box, enter a marker whose reaction forces are
measured and reported as part of standard results. The reaction force reported is the force that is
exerted on the marker to satisfy the constraint equation. Note that if you specify a marker and the
runtime function has no dependency on it, the general constraint reports a zero force. The default
is the ground coordinate system (GCS).
6. Select OK.
Note: You cannot enter the Adams ID for the marker; you must enter the name of the
marker. Learn about Adams/Solver IDs.
Adams/View
Overview of Constraints
16
Joints
Idealized Joints
About Idealized Joints
Idealized joints connect two parts. The parts can be rigid bodies, Flexible bodies, or Point masses. You
can place idealized joints anywhere in your model.
Adams/View supports two types of idealized joints: simple and complex. Simple joints directly connect
bodies and include the following:
• Revolute Joints. See Revolute Joint Tool.
• Translational Joints. See Translational Joint Tool.
• Cylindrical Joints. See Cylindrical Joint Tool.
• Spherical Joints. See Spherical Joint Tool.
• Planar Joints. See Planar Joint Tool.
• Constant-Velocity Joints. See Constant-Velocity Joint Tool.
• Screw Joints. See Screw Joint Tool.
• Fixed Joints. See Fixed Joint Tool.
• Hooke/Universal Joint. See Hooke/Universal Joint Tool.
Complex joints indirectly connect parts by coupling simple joints. They include:
• Gears. See Gear Joint Tool.
• Couplers. See Coupler Joint Tool.
You access the joints through the Joint Palette and Joint and Motion Tool Stacks.
Creating Idealized Joints
The following procedure explains how to create a simple idealized joint. You can select to attach the joint
to parts or spline curves. If you select to attach the joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker,
Note: The joints you can attach to flexible bodies depend on the version of Adams/Solver you are
using (C++ or FORTRAN). In addition, Adams/Solver (C++) does not support point
masses.
For a summary of which joints and forces are supported on flexible bodies, see Table of
Supported Forces and Joints in the Adams/Flex online help. Also refer to the Adams/Flex
online help for more information on attaching joints and forces to flexible bodies.
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and the joint follows the line of the curve. Learn more about curve markers with Marker Modify dialog
box help. Attaching the joint to a spline curve is only available with Adams/Solver (C++). Learn about
switching solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.
Note that this procedure only sets the location and orientation of the joint. If you want to set the friction
of a joint, change the pitch of a screw joint, or set initial conditions for joints, modify the joint.
To create a simple idealized joint:
1. From the Joint palette or tool stack, select the joint tool representing the idealized joint that you
want to create.
2. In the settings container, specify how you want to define the bodies the joint connects. You can
select:
• 1 Location (Bodies Implicit)
• 2 Bodies - 1 Location
• 2 Bodies - 2 Locations
For more on the effects of these options, see the help for the joint tool you are creating and
Connecting Constraints to Parts.
3. In the settings container, specify how you want the joint oriented. You can select:
• Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working grid, if it is displayed,
or normal to the screen.
• Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction vector on a feature in
your model, such as the face of a part.
4. If you selected to explicitly define the bodies by selecting 2 Bodies - 1 Location or 2 Bodies - 2
Locations in Step 2, in the settings container, set First Body and Second Body to how you want
to attach the joint: on the bodies of parts, between a part and a spline curve, or between two spline
curves.
5. Using the left mouse button, select the first part or a spline curve (splines and data element curves
are all considered curves). If you selected to explicitly select the parts to be connected, select the
second part or another curve using the left mouse button.
6. Place the cursor where you want the joint to be located (for a curve this is referred to as its curve
point), and click the left mouse button. If you selected to specify its location on each part or curve,
place the cursor on the second location, and click the left mouse button.
7. If you selected to orient the joint along a direction vector on a feature, move the cursor around in
your model to display an arrow representing the direction along a feature where you want the joint
oriented. When the direction vector represents the correct orientation, click the left mouse button.
Modifying Basic Properties of Idealized Joints
You can change several basic properties about an Idealized joints. These include:
• Parts that the joint connects. You can also switch which part moves relative to another part.
3
Joints
• What type of joint it is. For example, you can change a revolute joint to a translational joint. The
following are exceptions to changing a joint's type:
• You can only change a simple idealized joint to another type of simple idealized joint or to a
joint primitive.
• You cannot change a joint's type if motion is applied to the joint. In addition, if a joint has
friction and you change the joint type, Adams/View displays an error.
• Whether or not forces that are applied to the parts connected by the joint appear graphically on
the screen during an animation. Learn about Setting Up Force Graphics.
• For a screw joint, you can also set the pitch of the threads of the screw (translational
displacement for every full rotational cycle). Learn about screw joints.
To change basic properties for a joint:
1. Display the Modify Joint dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. If desired, in the First Body and Second Body text boxes, change the parts that the joint connects.
The part that you enter as the first body moves relative to the part you enter as the second body.
3. Set Type to the type of joint to which you want to change the current joint.
4. Select whether you want to display force graphics for one of the parts that the joint connects.
5. For a screw joint, enter its pitch value (translational displacement for every full rotational cycle).
6. Select OK.
About Initial Conditions for Joints
You can specify initial conditions for revolute, translational, and cylindrical joints. Adams/View uses the
initial conditions during an Initial conditions simulation, which it runs before it runs a simulation of your
model.
You can specify the following initial conditions for revolute, translational, and cylindrical joints:
• Translational or rotational displacements that define the translation of the location of the joint on
the first part (I marker) with respect to its location on the second part (J marker) in units of
length. You can set translational displacement on a translational and cylindrical joint and you can
set rotational displacements on a revolute and cylindrical joint.
Adams/View measures the translational displacement at the origin of the I marker along the
common z-axis of the I and J markers and with respect to the J marker. It measures the rotational
displacement of the x-axis of the I marker about the common z-axis of the I and J markers with
respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
• Translational or rotational velocity that define the velocity of the location of the joint on the first
part (I marker) with respect to its location on the second part (J marker) in units of length per unit
of time.
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4
Adams/View measures the translational velocity of the I marker along the common z-axis of I
and J and with respect to the J marker. It measures the rotational velocity of the x-axis of the I
marker about the common z-axis of the I and J markers with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
If you specify initial conditions, Adams/View uses them as the initial velocity of the joint during an
assemble model operation regardless of any other forces acting on the joint. You can also leave some or
all of the initial conditions unset. Leaving an initial condition unset lets Adams/View calculate the
conditions of the part during an assemble model operation depending on the other forces acting on the
joint. Note that it is not the same as setting an initial condition to zero. Setting an initial condition to zero
means that the joint will not be moving in the specified direction or will not be displaced when the model
is assembled, regardless of any forces acting on it.
If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part that the joint
connects, the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part. If, however, you
impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial
conditions as specified by the motion generator take precedence over those on the joint.
Setting Initial Conditions
To modify initial conditions:
1. Display the Modify Joint dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Select Initial Conditions.
The Joint Initial Conditions dialog box appears. Some options in the Joint Initial Conditions dialog
box are not available (ghosted) depending on the type of joint for which you are setting initial
conditions.
3. Set the translational or rotational displacement or velocity, and then select OK.
Imposing Point Motion on a Joint
You can impose a motion on any of the axes (DOF) of the idealized joint that are free to move. For
example, for a translational joint, you can apply translational motion along the z-axis. Learn more About
Point Motion.
Note: If the initial rotational displacement of a revolute or cylindrical joint varies by anywhere
from 5 to 60 degrees from the actual location of the joint, Adams/Solver issues a warning
message and continues execution. If the variation is greater than 60 degrees, Adams/View
issues an error message and stops execution.
Note: For translational, revolute, and cylindrical joints, you might find it easier to use the joint
motion tools to impose motion. Learn about Creating Point Motions Using the Motion Tools.
5
Joints
To impose motion on a joint:
1. Display the Modify Joint dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Select Impose Motion.
The Impose Motion(s) dialog box appears. Some options in the Impose Motion dialog box are not
available (ghosted) depending on the type of joint on which you are imposing motion.
3. Enter a name for the motion. Adams/View assigns a default name to the motion.
4. Enter the values for the motion as explained in Options for Point Motion Dialog Box, and then
select OK.
Adding Friction to Idealized Joints
You can model both static (Coulomb) and dynamic (viscous) friction in revolute, translational, cylindrical,
hooke/universal, and spherical joints.
To add friction to a joint:
1. Display the Modify Joint dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Select the Friction tool .
The Create/Modify Friction dialog box appears. The options in the dialog box change depending
on the type of joint for which you are adding friction.
3. Enter the values in the dialog box for the type of joint as explained below, and then select OK.
• Cylindrical Joint Options
• Revolute Joint Options
• Spherical Joint Options
• Translational Joint Options
• Universal/Hooke Joint Options
Note: Using Adams/Solver (C++), you can apply joint friction to joints if they are attached to
flexible bodies; using Adams/Solver (FORTRAN), you cannot. In addition, Adams/Solver
(C++) does not support point masses.
For a summary of which joints and forces are supported on flexible bodies, see Table of
Supported Forces and Joints in the Adams/Flex online help. Also refer to the Adams/Flex
online help for more information on attaching joints and forces to flexible bodies.
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Friction Regime Determination (FRD)
Three friction regimes are allowed in Adams/View:
The joint velocity determines the instantaneous friction regime for a joint. The following is a block
diagram of the friction regimes available in Adams/Solver.
The regime: Means:
Dynamic friction A joint is in dynamic friction if its joint velocity magnitude exceeds 1.5 times
the stiction transition velocity. The dynamic coefficient of friction (md) is used
in the computation of frictional forces.
Transition between
dynamic and static
friction
If the joint velocity magnitude is between 1 and 1.5 times the stiction transition
velocity, the joint is considered to be transitioning between static and dynamic
friction. A STEP function transitions the coefficient of friction between the
dynamic (md) and static (ms) coefficients of friction.
Static friction A joint is in static friction when the joint velocity magnitude falls below the
stiction transition velocity. The effective coefficient of friction is computed
using the joint creep, joint velocity, and static coefficient of friction ( ms ).
7
Joints
Conventions in Friction Block Diagrams
The following tables identify conventions used in the block diagrams:
• Legend for Block Diagrams identifies symbols in the diagrams.
• Relationship Between the Inputs Option and Switches Used in the Block Diagrams describes the
relationship between the Input Forces to Friction option in the Create/Modify Friction dialog box
and the switches used in the block diagrams.
Legend for Block Diagrams
Relationship Between the Inputs Option and Switches Used in the Block Diagrams
Cylindrical Joint friction
Joint reaction (F) and reaction torque (Tm) combined with force preload (Fprfrc) and torque preload
(Tprfrc) yield the frictional force and torque in a cylindrical joint. As the block diagram indicates, you
can turn off one or more of these force effects using switches SW1 through SW3. The frictional force in
Symbol: Description:
Scalar quantity
Vector quantity
Summing junction:
c=a+b
Multiplication junction:
c=axb
MAG Magnitude of a vector quantity
ABS Absolute value of a scalar quantity
FRD Friction regime determination
Switch: Inputs are: Symbol: Acceptable values:
SW1 Preload Fprfrc or Tprfc On or off
SW2 Reaction force f or F On or off
SW3 Bending moment Tr On or off
SW4 Torsional moment Tn On or off
All or None sets all applicable switches On or off, respectively
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a cylindrical joint acts at the mating surfaces of the joint. The FRD block determines the direction of the
frictional force. Based on the frictional coefficient direction, the surface frictional force is broken down
into an equivalent frictional torque and frictional force acting along the common axis of translation and
rotation.
9
Joints
Cylindrical Joint Options
For the option: Do the following:
Mu Static Define the coefficient of static friction in the joint. The magnitude of the
frictional force is the product of Mu Static and the magnitude of the normal
force in the joint, for example:
Friction Force Magnitude, F = µN
where µ = Mu Static and N = normal force
The static frictional force acts to oppose the net force or torque along the
Degrees of freedom of the joint.
The range is > 0.
Mu Dynamic Define the coefficient of dynamic friction. The magnitude of the frictional
force is the product of Mu Dynamic and the magnitude of the normal force
in the joint, for example:
Friction force magnitude, F = µN
where µ = Mu Dynamic and N = normal force
The dynamic frictional force acts in the opposite direction of the velocity
of the joint.
The range is > 0.
Initial Overlap Defines the initial overlap of the sliding parts in either a translational or
cylindrical joint. The joint's bending moment is divided by the overlap to
compute the bending moment's contribution to frictional forces.
The default is 1000.0, and the range is Initial Overlap > 0.
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Overlap To define friction in a cylindrical joint, Adams/Solver computes the overlap
of the joint. As the joint slides, the overlap can increase, decrease, or remain
constant. You can set:
• Increase indicates that overlap increases as the I marker translates in the
positive direction along the J marker; the slider moves to be within the
joint.
• Decrease indicates that the overlap decreases with positive translation
of the joint; the slider moves outside of the joint.
• Remain Constant indicates that the amount of overlap does not change
as the joint slides; all of the slider remains within the joint.
The default is Remain Constant.
Pin Radius Defines the radius of the pin for a cylindrical joint.
The default is 1.0, and the range is > 0.
Stiction Transition
Velocity
Define the absolute velocity threshold for the transition from dynamic
friction to static friction. If the absolute relative velocity of the joint marker
is below the value, then static friction or stiction acts to make the joint stick.
The default is 0.1 length units/unit time on the surface of contact in the
joint, and the range is > 0.
Max Stiction
Deformation
Define the maximum displacement that can occur in a joint once the
frictional force in the joint enters the stiction regime. The slight
deformation allows Adams/Solver to easily impose the Coulomb
conditions for stiction or static friction, for example:
Friction force magnitude < static * normal force
Therefore, even at zero velocity, you can apply a finite stiction force if your
system dynamics require it.
The default is 0.01 length units, and the range is > 0.
Friction Force Preload Define the joint's preload frictional force, which is usually caused by
mechanical interference in the assembly of the joint.
Default is 0.0, and the range is > 0.
Friction Torque Preload Define the preload friction torque in the joint, which is usually caused by
mechanical interference in the assembly of the joint.
The default is 0.0, and the Range is > 0.
For the option: Do the following:
11
Joints
Revolute Joint Friction
Joint reactions (Fa and Fr), bending moment (Tr), and torque preload (Tprfrc) determine the frictional
torque in a revolute joint. You can turn off one or more of these force effects using switches SW1 through
SW3. The joint reactions (Fa and Fr) are converted into equivalent torques using the respective friction
arm (Rn) and pin radius (Rp). The joint bending moment (Tr) is converted into an equivalent torque using
Effect Define the frictional effects included in the friction model, either Stiction
and Sliding, Stiction, or Sliding. Stiction is static-friction effect, while
Sliding is dynamic-friction effect. Excluding stiction in simulations that
don't require it can greatly improve simulation speed. The default is
Stiction and Sliding.
Input Forces to Friction Define the input forces to the friction model. By default, all user-defined
preloads and joint-reaction force and moments are included. You can
customize the friction-force model by limiting the input forces you specify.
The inputs for a translational joint are:
• Preload
• Reaction Force
• Bending Moment
Friction Inactive During Specify whether or not the frictional forces are to be calculated during a
Static equilibrium or Quasi-static simulation.
For the option: Do the following:
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pin radius (Rp) divided by bending reaction arm (Rb). The frictional torque (Tfrict) is applied along the
axis of rotation in the direction that the FRD block computes.
13
Joints
Revolute Joint Options
For the option: Do the following:
Mu Static Define the coefficient of static friction in the joint. The magnitude of the
frictional force is the product of Mu Static and the magnitude of the normal
force in the joint, for example:
Friction Force Magnitude, F = µN
where µ = Mu Static and N = normal force
The static frictional force acts to oppose the net force or torque along the
Degrees of freedom of the joint.
The range is > 0.
Mu Dynamic Define the coefficient of dynamic friction. The magnitude of the frictional
force is the product of Mu Dynamic and the magnitude of the normal force
in the joint, for example:
Friction force magnitude, F = µN
where µ = Mu Dynamic and N = normal force
The dynamic frictional force acts in the opposite direction of the velocity
of the joint.
The range is > 0.
Friction Arm Define the effective moment arm used to compute the axial component of
the friction torque. The default is 1.0, and the range is > 0.
Bending Reaction Arm Define the effective moment arm use to compute the contribution of the
bending moment on the net friction torque in the revolute joint. The default
is 1.0, and the range is > 0.
Pin Radius Defines the radius of the pin.
The default is 1.0, and the range is > 0.
Stiction Transition
Velocity
Define the absolute velocity threshold for the transition from dynamic
friction to static friction. If the absolute relative velocity of the joint marker
is below the value, then static friction or stiction acts to make the joint stick.
The default is 0.1 length units/unit time on the surface of contact in the
joint, and the range is > 0.
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Max Stiction
Deformation
Define the maximum displacement that can occur in a joint once the
frictional force in the joint enters the stiction regime. The slight
deformation allows Adams/Solver to easily impose the Coulomb
conditions for stiction or static friction, for example:
Friction force magnitude < static * normal force
Therefore, even at zero velocity, you can apply a finite stiction force if your
system dynamics require it.
The default is 0.01 length units, and the range is > 0.
Friction Torque Preload Define the preload friction torque in the joint, which is usually caused by
mechanical interference in the assembly of the joint.
The default is 0.0, and the Range is > 0.
Effect Define the frictional effects included in the friction model, either Stiction
and Sliding, Stiction, or Sliding. Stiction is static-friction effect, while
Sliding is dynamic-friction effect. Excluding stiction in simulations that
don't require it can greatly improve simulation speed. The default is
Stiction and Sliding.
Input Forces to Friction Define the input forces to the friction model. By default, all user-defined
preloads and joint-reaction force and moments are included. You can
customize the friction-force model by limiting the input forces you specify.
The inputs for a translational joint are:
• Preload
• Reaction Force
• Bending Moment
Friction Inactive During Specify whether or not the frictional forces are to be calculated during a
Static equilibrium or Quasi-static simulation.
For the option: Do the following:
15
Joints
Spherical Joint Friction
The reaction force (F) and the preload frictional torque (Tprfrc) are the two forcing effects used in
computing the frictional torque on a Spherical joint. The ball radius is used to compute an equivalent
frictional torque. The FRD block determines the direction of the frictional torque.
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Spherical Joint Options
For the option: Do the following:
Mu Static Define the coefficient of static friction in the joint. The magnitude of the
frictional force is the product of Mu Static and the magnitude of the normal
force in the joint, for example:
Friction Force Magnitude, F = µN
where µ = Mu Static and N = normal force
The static frictional force acts to oppose the net force or torque along the
Degrees of freedom of the joint.
The range is > 0.
Mu Dynamic Define the coefficient of dynamic friction. The magnitude of the frictional
force is the product of Mu Dynamic and the magnitude of the normal force
in the joint, for example:
Friction force magnitude, F = µN
where µ = Mu Dynamic and N = normal force
The dynamic frictional force acts in the opposite direction of the velocity
of the joint.
The range is > 0.
Ball Radius Defines the radius of the ball in a spherical joint for use in friction-force and
torque calculations.
The default is 1.0, and the range is > 0.
Stiction Transition
Velocity
Define the absolute velocity threshold for the transition from dynamic
friction to static friction. If the absolute relative velocity of the joint marker
is below the value, then static friction or stiction acts to make the joint stick.
The default is 0.1 length units/unit time on the surface of contact in the
joint, and the range is > 0.
17
Joints
Translational Joint Friction
Joint reaction force (F), bending moment (Tm), torsional moment (Tn), and force preload (Fprfrc) are
used to compute the frictional force in a translational joint. You can individually turn off the force effects
using switches SW1 through SW4.
Max Stiction
Deformation
Define the maximum displacement that can occur in a joint once the
frictional force in the joint enters the stiction regime. The slight
deformation allows Adams/Solver to easily impose the Coulomb
conditions for stiction or static friction, for example:
Friction force magnitude < static * normal force
Therefore, even at zero velocity, you can apply a finite stiction force if your
system dynamics require it.
The default is 0.01 length units, and the range is > 0.
Friction Torque Preload Define the preload friction torque in the joint, which is usually caused by
mechanical interference in the assembly of the joint.
The default is 0.0, and the Range is > 0.
Effect Define the frictional effects included in the friction model, either Stiction
and Sliding, Stiction, or Sliding. Stiction is static-friction effect, while
Sliding is dynamic-friction effect. Excluding stiction in simulations that
don't require it can greatly improve simulation speed. The default is
Stiction and Sliding.
Input Forces to Friction Define the input forces to the friction model. By default, all user-defined
preloads and joint-reaction force and moments are included. You can
customize the friction-force model by limiting the input forces you specify.
The inputs for a translational joint are:
• Preload
• Reaction Force
Friction Inactive During Specify whether or not the frictional forces are to be calculated during a
Static equilibrium or Quasi-static simulation.
For the option: Do the following:
Adams/View
Joints
18
The bending moment (Tm) is converted into an equivalent force using the Xs block. Similarly, torsional
moment is converted into an equivalent joint force using the friction arm (Rn). Frictional force (Ffrict) is
applied along the axis of translation in the direction that the FRD block computes.
19
Joints
Translational Joint Options
For the option: Do the following:
Mu Static Define the coefficient of static friction in the joint. The magnitude of the
frictional force is the product of Mu Static and the magnitude of the normal
force in the joint, for example:
Friction Force Magnitude, F = µN
where µ = Mu Static and N = normal force
The static frictional force acts to oppose the net force or torque along the
Degrees of freedom of the joint.
The range is > 0.
Mu Dynamic Define the coefficient of dynamic friction. The magnitude of the frictional
force is the product of Mu Dynamic and the magnitude of the normal force
in the joint, for example:
Friction force magnitude, F = µN
where µ = Mu Dynamic and N = normal force
The dynamic frictional force acts in the opposite direction of the velocity
of the joint.
The range is > 0.
Reaction Arm Define the effective moment arm of the joint-reaction torque about the
translational joint's axial axis (the z-direction of the joint's J marker). This
value is used to compute the contribution of the torsional moment to the net
frictional force.
The default is 1.0, and the range is > 0.
Initial Overlap Defines the initial overlap of the sliding parts in either a translational or
cylindrical joint. The joint's bending moment is divided by the overlap to
compute the bending moment's contribution to frictional forces.
The default is 1000.0, and the range is Initial Overlap > 0.
Adams/View
Joints
20
Overlap To define friction in a cylindrical joint, Adams/Solver computes the overlap
of the joint. As the joint slides, the overlap can increase, decrease, or remain
constant. You can set:
• Increase indicates that overlap increases as the I marker translates in the
positive direction along the J marker; the slider moves to be within the
joint.
• Decrease indicates that the overlap decreases with positive translation
of the joint; the slider moves outside of the joint.
• Remain Constant indicates that the amount of overlap does not change
as the joint slides; all of the slider remains within the joint.
The default is Remain Constant.
Stiction Transition
Velocity
Define the absolute velocity threshold for the transition from dynamic
friction to static friction. If the absolute relative velocity of the joint marker
is below the value, then static friction or stiction acts to make the joint stick.
The default is 0.1 length units/unit time on the surface of contact in the
joint, and the range is > 0.
Max Stiction
Deformation
Define the maximum displacement that can occur in a joint once the
frictional force in the joint enters the stiction regime. The slight
deformation allows Adams/Solver to easily impose the Coulomb
conditions for stiction or static friction, for example:
Friction force magnitude < static * normal force
Therefore, even at zero velocity, you can apply a finite stiction force if your
system dynamics require it.
The default is 0.01 length units, and the range is > 0.
Friction Force Preload Define the joint's preload frictional force, which is usually caused by
mechanical interference in the assembly of the joint.
Default is 0.0, and the range is > 0.
Effect Define the frictional effects included in the friction model, either Stiction
and Sliding, Stiction, or Sliding. Stiction is static-friction effect, while
Sliding is dynamic-friction effect. Excluding stiction in simulations that
don't require it can greatly improve simulation speed. The default is
Stiction and Sliding.
For the option: Do the following:
21
Joints
Input Forces to Friction Define the input forces to the friction model. By default, all user-defined
preloads and joint-reaction force and moments are included. You can
customize the friction-force model by limiting the input forces you specify.
The inputs for a translational joint are:
• Preload
• Reaction Force
• Bending Moment
• Torsional Moment
Friction Inactive During Specify whether or not the frictional forces are to be calculated during a
Static equilibrium or Quasi-static simulation.
For the option: Do the following:
Adams/View
Joints
22
Universal/Hooke Joint Friction
The universal/hooke joint contains two yokes (I_YOKE and J_YOKE) that are modeled independently.
An equivalent revolute joint represents each yoke. Frictional torques are applied along the axes of
rotation of the two yokes.
23
Joints
Universal/Hooke Joint Options
For the option: Do the following:
Yoke Select either to define the rotational constraint on which the friction acts. I
Yoke identifies the yoke to the I marker's rotational constraint. J Yoke
identifies the yoke to the J marker's rotational constraint.
Mu Static Define the coefficient of static friction in the joint. The magnitude of the
frictional force is the product of Mu Static and the magnitude of the normal
force in the joint, for example:
Friction Force Magnitude, F = µN
where µ = Mu Static and N = normal force
The static frictional force acts to oppose the net force or torque along the
Degrees of freedom of the joint.
The range is > 0.
Mu Dynamic Define the coefficient of dynamic friction. The magnitude of the frictional
force is the product of Mu Dynamic and the magnitude of the normal force
in the joint, for example:
Friction force magnitude, F = µN
where µ = Mu Dynamic and N = normal force
The dynamic frictional force acts in the opposite direction of the velocity
of the joint.
The range is > 0.
Friction Arm Define the effective moment arm used to compute the axial component of
the friction torque. The default is 1.0, and the range is > 0.
Bending Reaction Arm Define the effective moment arm use to compute the contribution of the
bending moment on the net friction torque in the universal/hooke joint. The
default is 1.0, and the range is > 0.
Pin Radius Define the radius of the pin. The default is 1.0, and the range is > 0.
Stiction Transition
Velocity
Define the absolute velocity threshold for the transition from dynamic
friction to static friction. If the absolute relative velocity of the joint marker
is below the value, then static friction or stiction acts to make the joint stick.
The default is 0.1 length units/unit time on the surface of contact in the
joint, and the range is > 0.
Adams/View
Joints
24
DOF Removed by Idealized Joints
The following table lists all of the idealized joints except screw, gear, and coupler joints. It does not
contain screw joints because they couple one rotational and one translational degree of freedom and
Max Stiction
Deformation
Define the maximum displacement that can occur in a joint once the
frictional force in the joint enters the stiction regime. The slight
deformation allows Adams/Solver to easily impose the Coulomb
conditions for stiction or static friction, for example:
Friction force magnitude < static * normal force
Therefore, even at zero velocity, you can apply a finite stiction force if your
system dynamics require it.
The default is 0.01 length units, and the range is > 0.
Friction Torque Preload Define the preload friction torque in the joint, which is usually caused by
mechanical interference in the assembly of the joint.
Default is 0.0, and the range is > 0.
Effect Define the frictional effects included in the friction model, either Stiction
and Sliding, Stiction, or Sliding. Stiction is static-friction effect, while
Sliding is dynamic-friction effect. Excluding stiction in simulations that
don't require it can greatly improve simulation speed. The default is
Stiction and Sliding.
Input Forces to Friction Define the input forces to the friction model. By default, all user-defined
preloads and joint-reaction force and moments are included. You can
customize the friction-force model by limiting the input forces you specify.
The inputs for a translational joint are:
• Preload
• Reaction Force
• Bending Moment
Friction Inactive During Specify whether or not the frictional forces are to be calculated during a
Static equilibrium or Quasi-static simulation.
For the option: Do the following:
25
Joints
cannot be placed in any one of the categories in the table. The table does not contain gears and couplers
because they connect joints rather than parts.
Primitive Joints
About Joint Primitives
A joint primitive places a restriction on relative motion, such as restricting one part to always move
parallel to another part. The joint primitives do not have physical counterparts as the idealized joints do.
You can, however, combine joint primitives to define a complex constraint that cannot be modeled using
the idealized joints. In fact, you can use the joint primitives to create any of the idealized joints listed in
About Idealized Joints.
The different types of joint primitives that are available in Adams/View are:
• Inline. See Inline Joint Tool.
• Inplane. See Inplane Joint Tool.
• Orientation. See Orientation Joint Tool.
• Parallel Axes. See Parallel Axes Joint Tool.
• Perpendicular Axes. See Perpendicular Axes Joint Tool.
Adams/View
Joints
26
Note that joint primitives are only available from the Joint palette, not the Joint tool stack on the Main
toolbox.
Creating Joint Primitives
The following procedure explains how to create a joint primitive. You can select to attach the joint to
parts or spline curves. If you select to attach the joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker, and
the joint follows the line of the curve. Learn more about curve markers with Marker Modify dialog box
help. Attaching the joint to a spline curve is only available with Adams/Solver (C++). Learn about
switching solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.
To create a joint primitive:
1. From the Joint palette, select the joint tool representing the joint primitive that you want to create.
2. In the settings container, specify how you want to define the bodies the joint connects. You can
select:
• 1 Location (Bodies Implicit)
• 2 Bodies - 1 Location
• 2 Bodies - 2 Locations
• For more on the effects of these options, see the help for the joint tool you are creating and
about Connecting Constraints to Parts.
3. In the settings container, specify how you want the joint oriented. You can select:
• Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working grid, if it is displayed,
or normal to the screen.
• Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction vector on a feature in
your model, such as the face of a part.
4. In the settings container, set First Body and Second Body to how you want to attach the joint: on
the bodies of parts, between a part and a spline curve, or between two spline curves.
5. Using the left mouse button, select the first part or a spline curve (splines and data element curves
are all considered curves). If you selected to explicitly select the parts to be connected, select the
second part or another curve using the left mouse button.
6. Place the cursor where you want the joint to be located (for a curve this is referred to as its curve
point), and click the left mouse button. If you selected to specify its location on each part or curve,
place the cursor on the second location, and click the left mouse button.
7. If you selected to orient the joint along a direction vector on a feature, move the cursor around in
your model to display an arrow representing the direction along a feature where you want the joint
oriented. When the direction vector represents the correct orientation, click the left mouse button.
27
Joints
DOF Removed by Primitive Joints
The following table shows the degrees of freedom that joint primitives remove when used alone or in
combination with other primitives.
Couplers
Creating Couplers
When you create a coupler, you can only create a two-joint coupler. You select the driver joint, the joint
to which the second joint is coupled, and the coupled joint, the joint that follows the driver joint. To
specify the relationship between the driver and the coupled joint or to create a three-joint coupler, you
modify the coupler.
To create a coupler:
1. From the Joint palette, select the Coupler tool .
2. Select the driver joint to which the second joint is coupled.
3. Select the coupled joint that follows the driver joint.
Adams/View
Joints
28
Modifying Couplers
When you modify a coupler joint, you can:
• Set the number of joints being coupled together.
• Change the joints being coupled together.
• Select which joint is the driver joint and which are the coupled joints.
• Specify the relationship between the joints as linear or nonlinear.
• If you specify a linear relationship, enter scales for the coupled joints.
• If you specify a nonlinear relationship, enter the parameters to be passed to a User-written
subroutine COUSUB, COUXX, COUXX2 or you can also specify an alternative library and name
for the user subroutine. See the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help. Learn about
specifying your own routine with ROUTINE Argument.
• You can also modify coupler properties using the Table Editor.
To modify a coupler joint:
1. Display the Modify Coupler dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
The Modify Coupler dialog box appears. The options in the dialog box change depending on
whether the coupler joint couples two or three joints and whether or not it is linear or nonlinear.
2. Select whether or not you want a three-joint coupler or a two-joint coupler and the relationship
between the joints:
• By Displacements
• By Scale
• User Defined
3. If desired, in the Driver and Coupled text boxes, change the joints to be coupled and, then set
Freedom Type to their type. If you have any cylindrical joints, you can specify either translational
or rotational displacement. Translational joints always have translational displacements. Revolute
joints always have rotational displacements.
4. Do the following depending on the relationship set up for the coupler:
• If the coupler is linear, enter a scale for the second and third coupled joints. The scales are r2
and r3 in the following equation:
delta1 + r2 * delta2 + r3 * delta3 =0
If the joint displacement is rotational, its corresponding delta in the equation above is in
radians.
• If the coupler is nonlinear, in the User-Written Subroutine Parameters text box, specify the
user parameters to be passed to a user-written subroutine or specify a routine other than the
standard in the Routine text box. See the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help.
Learn about specifying another routine with ROUTINE Argument.
29
Joints
About Gears
Gears in Adams/View connect two of the parts, which are called the geared parts, by coupling together
the allowable Degrees of freedom in two joints.
The coupled joints are attached to the third part, called the carrier part. The joints can be translational,
revolute, or cylindrical joints. Using different combinations of joint types and orientations, you can
model many different physical gears, including spur, helical, planetary, bevel, and rack-and-pinion.
When you create the joints to be geared together, you must create them so the first part you select is a
geared part and the second part is the carrier part. Therefore, the I marker parameters of the joints must
belong to the geared parts and the J marker parameters must belong to the carrier part. In addition, the
CV marker must belong to the carrier part.
The gear uses the location of the CV marker to determine the point of contact or mesh of the two geared
parts. The direction of the z-axis of the common velocity marker points in the direction of the common
motion of the geared parts. This is also the direction in which the gear teeth forces act.
The location of the CV marker is constant with respect to the carrier part. Its location does not change
when the direction of power flows through the gear changes.
An Adamsgear joint does not model backlash.
Adams/View
Joints
30
Creating and Modifying Gears
When you create or modify a gear, you specify or change the two translational, revolute, or cylindrical
joints located on the carrier part and the marker defining the point of contact between the geared parts.
To create or modify a gear:
1. Do one of the following depending on whether you are creating or modifying a gear:
• To create a gear, select the Gear tool on the Joint tool stack or palette.
The Constraint Create Complex Joint Gear dialog box appears.
• To modify a gear, display the Constraint Modify Complex Joint Gear dialog box as explained
in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
Both the gear create and modify dialog boxes contain the same set of options.
2. If you are creating a gear, in the Gear Name text box, change the name for the gear. Adams/View
assigns a default name to the gear.
3. In the Adams Id text box, assign a unique ID number to the gear. Learn about Adams/Solver IDs.
4. In the Comments text box, add or change any comments about the gear to help you manage and
identify the gear. Learn about Comments.
5. In the Joint Name text box, enter or change the two translational, revolute, or cylindrical joints
to be geared together. Adams/View automatically separates the joint names with a comma (,).
6. In the Common Velocity Marker text box, enter or change the marker defining the point of
contact between the geared parts. You need to make sure the z-axis of the common velocity
marker points in the direction of motion of the gear teeth that are in contact. Z-axis of the common
velocity marker is tangent to the pitch circle of the spur gears. See the picture in About Gears.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
7. Select OK.
Equations for Gears
The algebraic equation that the gear joint adds to your model, in general, looks like the following:
S
1
q
1
+ S
2
q
2
= 0
where:
• q
1
and q
2
are the rotational or translation displacement variables defined by the allowable
Degrees of freedom in the geared joints.
Note: If you encounter a warning message that the gear has a suspicious configuration, the
z-axis of the CV marker is probably oriented incorrectly.
31
Joints
• S
1
and S
2
represent scalar multipliers that act to couple these displacements together. S
1
and S
2

are defined indirectly by the spatial relationship between the locations of the joints with respect
to the common velocity marker.
You do not explicitly define the scalar multipliers (gear ratio) when creating a gear. Instead, Adams/View
automatically determines the gear ratio as the distance between the origin of the common velocity marker
and the origins of the coupled joints. The gear ratio is shown below.
The figure also shows a specific case of creating a spur gear. For this gear, the general equation is:
or, to write it in the general form:
a u
A
· b u
B
· =
a u
A
· b u
B
· – 0 =
Adams/View
Joints
32
Motion
Overview of Motion
A motion generator dictates the movement of a part as a function of time. It supplies whatever force is
required to make the part satisfy the motion. For example, a translational joint motion prescribes that a
joint on a part move at 10 mm/second in the z direction. You can apply the motion to either idealized
joints or between a pair of parts.
Types of Motion
Adams/View provides you with the following types of motion:
• Joint Motion - Prescribes translational or rotational motion on a translational, revolute, or
cylindrical joint. Each joint motion removes one degree of freedom (DOF) from your model.
Joint motions are very easy to create, but they limit you to motions that are applied to the above
listed joints and movements in only one direction or rotation.
• Point Motion - Prescribes the movement between two parts. When you create a point motion,
you specify the direction along which the motion occurs. You can impose a point motion on any
type of idealized joint, such as a spherical or cylindrical.
Point motions enable you to build complex movements into your model without having to add
joints or invisible parts. For example, you can represent the movement along an arc, of a ship in
the ocean, or a robot’s arm.
For more on point motions, see About Creating Point Motions.
Defining the Motion Magnitude
You can define motion as acceleration, displacement, or velocity over time. By default, Adams/View
creates a motion that moves at a constant velocity over time. When you create a motion, you can define
its magnitude by entering one of the following:
• Translational or rotational speed - As you create a motion, you can specify the translational or
rotational speed of the motion. By default, you enter the rotational speed in number of degrees
per second and the translational speed in length units per time unit (for example, number of
inches per second).
When Adams/View creates the motion, it uses the value you enter as the motion function. It also
converts the rotational motion speed to radians. When you modify the motion, you can change
the value or enter a function expression or a user-written subroutine as explained next.
Adams/View
Motion
2
• Function expression - You can use Adams/View function expressions to specify the exact
movement applied to a joint as a function of time. For example, using function expressions you
can define a motion function that holds the joint in a fixed position, as well as one that moves the
joint with the required force to produce a constant velocity. To learn more about function
expressions, see Function Builder and Adams/View Function Builder online help.
• Parameters to be passed to a user-written subroutine - You can create a much more complex
motion by creating a MOTSUB User-written subroutine and entering the values to be passed to
the subroutine to determine the motion. For more on creating subroutines and passing values to
them, see the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver help.
Tips on Creating Motions
The following are some tips for creating motions:
• The motions that you assign determine the initial displacements and velocities of your model.
For any joint that has a motion applied to it, do not specify initial conditions that act in the same
direction as the motion. If you specify initial conditions for both the joint and the motion,
Adams/Solver uses the motion conditions and ignores the initial conditions you specified for the
joint.
• You can define a zero motion with respect to time, which is the same as locking two parts
together.
• If any motion generates nonzero initial part accelerations, Adams/Solver may not produce
reliable accelerations and velocities for the first two or three internal Integration steps of a
Dynamic simulation. Adams/Solver automatically corrects for this; therefore, the values it returns
at the first output step are accurate. A sensor, however, that depends on the accelerations or
reaction forces due to this motion may trip unexpectedly before the first Output step, even
though the solution appears correct when the sensor is removed. If this occurs, you should
modify the initial conditions set for the motion so that the initial accelerations are zero.
• If you defined the motion using velocity and acceleration, you cannot set a dynamic simulation
so that it uses the ABAM integrator. For more on controlling your simulation, see Solver Settings
- Dynamic.
• Adams/Solver cannot perform a kinematic simulation on a zero-DOF model containing motions
whose function expressions are specified as velocity or acceleration. You’ll need to perform a
dynamic simulation instead.
Note: If you make your function a function of displacements or forces, Adams/View issues an
error and stops execution. These types of functions contain a VARVAL (function that
returns variable name), and although a VARVAL is allowed in the function, Adams/View
issues a warning. The motion function containing the VARVAL will not give correct
velocities, accelerations, or reaction forces in a joint, and may have trouble converging to
a solution.
3
Motion
DOF Removed by Motion
The following lists the motions that can be applied to the axes of parts. It places the general point motion
in all fields of the table because a general point motion can apply motion to none, any, or all axes of a part.
Applying Joint Motion
Creating Joint Motion
When you create a Joint motion, Adams/View creates a motion at the specified joint. It defines the motion
as a constant velocity over time based on a speed value that you can enter. The speed value can be a
numerical value, function expression, or User-written subroutine.
Learn about:
• Tips on Creating Motions
• Defining the Motion Magnitude
• DOF Removed by Motion
To create a joint motion:
1. From the Joint palette or Motion tool stack, select the joint motion tool representing the motion
that you want to create. Select either:
• to create a translational motion.
• to create a rotational motion.
Adams/View
Motion
4
2. In the settings container, specify the speed of the motion in displacement units per second. By
default, Adams/View creates a rotational motion with a speed of 30 degrees per second and a
translational motion with a speed of 10 millimeters per second.
To enter a function expression or user-written subroutine, right-click the Speed text box, point to
Parameterize, and then select Expression Builder to display the Adams/View Function Builder.
For information on using the Function Builder, see Function Builder and Adams/View Function
Builder online help.
3. Use the left mouse button to select the joint on the screen to which the motion will be applied.
Modifying Joint Motion
You can change several properties about a Joint motion after you create it. The properties include:
• Joint to which the motion is applied.
• Motion direction, either rotational or translational.
• Motion definition, including how the motion magnitude is defined (displacement, velocity, or
acceleration) and the function that defines its magnitude. You can enter a numerical value,
function expression, or User-written subroutine for the magnitude (MOTSUB). For more
information on MOTSUB, see Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver help.
• Initial conditions for displacement and velocity. Adams/View uses the initial conditions during
an Initial conditions simulation, which it runs before it runs a simulation of your model. You can
specify the following initial conditions:
• Initial displacement that defines the translation of the first part, in units of length or angles,
relative to the second part. You can set initial displacement on any joint motion whose
magnitude is defined as velocity or acceleration.
• Initial velocity that defines the velocity of the first part with respect to the second part, in units
of length or angles per unit of time. You can set initial velocity on any joint motion whose
magnitude is defined as acceleration.
To modify a joint motion:
1. Display the Joint Motion dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. If desired, in the Joint text box, change the joint to which the motion is applied. The Joint Type
text box automatically updates to the selected type of joint.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
3. Set Direction to the desired motion direction (rotational or translational). You can select only
translational motion for a translational or cylindrical joint. You can select only rotational motion
for a revolute or cylindrical joint.
4. Set Define Using to how you will define the motion.
Note: You can also modify joint properties using the Table Editor.
5
Motion
If you selected Function, enter the following in the Function (time) text box that appears:
• Numerical value (For rotational motion, specify the magnitude in radians.)
• Function expression:
To enter a function expression, next to the Function (time) text box, select the More tool
to display the Adams/View Function Builder. For information on using the Function Builder,
see Function Builder and Adams/View Function Builder online help.
If you selected Subroutine, enter the parameters to be passed to a User-written subroutine
MOTSUB and its ID or you can specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine in
the Routine text box. For more on subroutines, see the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver
online help. Learn about specifying your own routine with ROUTINE Argument.
5. Set Type to Displacement, Velocity, or Acceleration to specify how motion magnitude is
defined.
6. In the Displacement IC or Velocity IC text boxes, enter the initial conditions for displacement
or velocity. The text boxes that appear depend on how the magnitude of the motion is defined.
Applying Point Motion
About Point Motion
There are two types of Point Motion that you can create:
• Single point motion - Prescribes the motion of two parts along or around one axis.
• General point motion - Prescribes the motion of two parts along or around the three axes (six
degrees of freedom (DOF)).
When you create a point motion, you specify the parts to which the motion is to be applied and the
location and orientation of the motion. Adams/View creates markers on each part at the location of the
motion. The marker that Adams/View creates on the first part you select is called the moving point. It
moves or rotates relative to the marker on the second part, called the reference point. The z-axis of the
reference point defines the positive direction using the right-hand rule.
When you create a point motion, Adams/View creates a motion at the specified location.
• For a single point motion, Adams/View defines the motion as a constant velocity over time,
based on a speed value that you can enter. The speed value can be a numerical value, function
expression, or User-written subroutine, as explained in Defining the Motion Magnitude.
By default, Adams creates the point motion around or along the z-axis. You specify the direction
of the z-axis when you create the single point motion. You can change the axis around or along
which the motion is applied.
• For a general point motion, Adams/View creates a motion around or along all six coordinates of
the markers created on the selected parts. It does not define the magnitude of the motion. You’ll
need to modify the motion to define its magnitude.
Adams/View
Motion
6
Creating Point Motions Using the Motion Tools
Learn about applying point motion as you modify joints in Imposing Point Motion on a Joint.
To create a point motion:
1. From the Joint palette, select the tool representing the type of point motion that you want to create.
Select either:
• to create a single point motion.
• to create a general point motion.
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
How you want the motion applied to parts. You can select the following:
• 1 Location - Lets you select the location of the motion and have Adams/View determine the
two parts to which it should be applied. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the motion
location. If there is only one part near the motion, Adams/View connects the motion to that
part and ground.
• 2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to which the motion is to be
applied and the location of the motion.
• 2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to which the motion is to be
applied and the location of the motion on each part. You should use this option if you are
working in exploded view. For more on exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool.
For more on the effects of these options, see Connecting Constraints to Parts.
How you want the motion oriented. You can select:
• Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the motion along the current working grid, if it is displayed,
or normal to the screen.
• Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the motion along a direction vector on a feature in
your model, such as the face of a part.
3. If you are creating a single point motion, set Characteristic to the direction of the motion, and
then enter the speed of the motion in the Speed text box.
4. If you selected to explicitly select the parts to which the motion is to be applied, select each part
using the left mouse button.
5. Place the cursor where you want the motion to be located and click the left mouse button. If you
selected to specify its location on each part, place the cursor on the second location, and click the
left mouse button.
6. If you selected to orient the joint along a direction vector on a feature, move the cursor around in
your model to display an arrow showing the direction in which you want the motion oriented.
When the direction vector shows the correct orientation, click the left mouse button.
7
Motion
Modifying Single Point Motion
The following procedure explains how to modify a single Point Motion defined between two parts.
To modify a single point motion:
1. Display the modify motion dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
The Point Motion dialog box appears.
2. If desired, in the Moving Point and Reference Point text boxes, change the markers that define
the location and orientation of the motion on the parts.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
3. Set Type to how you want to define the magnitude of motion:
If you selected Function, enter the following in the Function (time) text box that appears:
• Numerical value (For rotational motion, specify the magnitude in radians.)
• Function expression
To enter a function expression, next to the Function (time) text box, select the More tool
to display the Adams/View Function Builder. For information on using the Function Builder,
see Function Builder and Adams/View Function Builder online help.
• If you selected Subroutine, enter the parameters to be passed to a user-written subroutine and
its ID.
4. Set Type to Displacement, Velocity, or Acceleration to specify how motion magnitude is
defined.
5. In the Displacement IC or Velocity IC text boxes, enter the initial conditions for displacement
or velocity.
• Initial displacement defines the translation of the first part in units of length relative to the
second part. You can set displacements on any point motion whose magnitude is defined as
velocity or acceleration.
• Initial velocity defines the velocity of the first part with respect to the second part in units of
length per unit of time. You can set initial velocity on any point motion whose magnitude is
defined as acceleration.
Modifying General Point Motion
The following procedure explains how to modify a general Point Motion defined between two parts.
Note: You can also modify point motion using the Table Editor.
Note: You can also modify point motion using the Table Editor.
Adams/View
Motion
8
To modify a general point motion:
1. Display the modify motion dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
The Impose Motion(s) dialog box appears.
2. If desired, in the Moving Point and Reference Point text boxes, change the markers that define
the location and orientation of the motion on the parts. Learn about moving and reference points.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
3. Set Type to how you want to define the magnitude of motion.
4. Enter the following in the F(time) text boxes. The text boxes that appear depend on how the
magnitude of the motion is defined.
• Numerical value (For rotational motion, specify the magnitude in radians.)
• Function expression
• Parameters to be passed to a User-written subroutine MOTSUB or you can specify an
alternative library and name for the user subroutine in the Routine text box. See the
Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help. Learn about specifying your own routine
with ROUTINE Argument.
To enter a function expression, next to the Function (time) text box, select the More tool
to display the Function Builder.
5. In the Disp. IC or Velo. IC text boxes, enter the initial conditions for displacement or velocity.
The text boxes that appear depend on how the magnitude of the motion is defined.
• Initial displacement defines the translation of the first part in units of length relative to the
second part. You can set displacements on any point motion whose magnitude is defined as
velocity or acceleration.
• Initial velocity defines the velocity of the first part with respect to the second part in units of
length per unit of time. You can set initial velocity on any point motion whose magnitude is
defined as acceleration.
Forces
Overview
Forces define loads and compliances on parts. Forces do not absolutely prohibit or prescribe motion.
Therefore, they do not add or remove degrees of freedom (DOF) from your model. Some forces can resist
motion, such as spring dampers, and some can try to induce motion.
Adams/View provides the following types of forces:
• Applied forces
• Flexible connectors - Note that flexible connectors resist motion and are simpler and easier to use
than applied forces because you only supply constant coefficients for the forces. The forces
include Beams, Bushings, translational spring dampers, and torsion springs that provide
compliant force relationships.
• Special forces - Special forces are forces that are commonly encountered, such as tire and
gravity forces.
• Contacts - Specify how parts react when they come in contact with each other when the model is
in motion.
See Create Forces Palette and Tool Stack dialog box help for more information.
Defining Force Magnitude
When defining a force’s magnitude, you can either define it as one resultant magnitude along a direction,
or you can resolve the resultant into as many as three components that are associated with the three
mutually perpendicular axes of a particular coordinate system.
You can define force magnitudes in Adams/View in the following ways:
• Enter values used to define stiffness and damping coefficients. In this case, Adams/View
automatically makes the force magnitude proportional to the distance and velocity between two
points. The coefficients represent the proportionality constants. You specify coefficients for
flexible connectors, such as spring-dampers and beams. You can also specify these values for
applied forces.
• Enter a function expression using the Adams/View library of built-in functions. You can enter
expressions for all types of applied forces. Built-in functions include the types listed below. For
more information on using expressions and available functions, see Function Builder.
• Displacement, velocity, and acceleration functions that allow the force to be related to the
movement of points or bodies in the system. Examples include springs and viscous dampers.
• Force functions that allow the force to depend on other forces in the system. An example
would be a Coulomb friction force that is proportional to the normal force between two
bodies.
• Mathematical functions, such as sine and cosine, series, polynomials, and steps.
Adams/View
Forces
2
• Spline functions that allow the force to depend on data stored in lookup tables. Examples of
these include motors using torque-speed curves or nonlinear bushings whose stiffness is not
entirely linear.
• Impact functions that make the force act like a compression-only spring-damper that turns
on and off as bodies intermittently contact one another.
• Enter parameters that are passed to User-written subroutines that are linked to Adams/View. You
can enter parameters for all types of applied forces. You can also enter parameters to a subroutine
for the field flexible connector to create a nonlinear force between two parts. For more
information on how to use subroutines to define your force magnitudes, see the Subroutines
section of the Adams/Solver online help.
Defining Force Directions
You can define force directions in one of two ways:
• Along one or more of the axes of a marker.
• Along the line-of-sight between two points.
If your force direction remains fixed with respect to some part in your model, either a moving part or the
ground part, then you can define the force using one vector component and specify only one magnitude
and direction.
If you have two or more forces whose directions always remain perpendicular to one another (such as a
normal force and a friction force), you can either define multiple Single-component forces whose
directions are perpendicular or you can use a Multi-Component force element. You must define several
expressions, one for each of the force magnitudes you need.
If the direction along which you want the force applied is defined by the line between two points in your
model and is constantly changing throughout the Simulation, you only need to define one component of
force along this direction and one expression for the corresponding force magnitude.
As you define forces, Adams/View gives you shortcuts for defining the force application. These shortcuts
allow you to let Adams/View automatically create the force definition using only a few clicks of the
mouse. For example, as you create a bushing, you can simply specify one location. Adams/View
automatically determines the parts which should be included. You can also specify that the force be
aligned to the coordinates of the Working grid or screen or a feature of a part.
Applied Forces
Applied forces are forces that define loads and compliances on parts so they move in certain ways.
Adams/View provides a library of applied forces that you can use. Applied forces give you a great deal
of flexibility, but they require work to model simple forces. Instead of using applied forces, you may want
to consider using the flexible connectors, which model several commonly used force elements, or special
forces, which provide environmental and complex forces.
3
Forces
Applied forces can have one, three, or six components (three translational and three rotational) that define
the resultant force. For example, a single-component force or torque defines the force using a single
component, while a multi-component force or torque defines the force using three or more components.
The following figure shows all six possible force components associated with a particular coordinate
system’s x-, y-, and z-axes.
As you create applied forces, you specify:
• Parts to which the force is applied and its direction - You can apply the force to two parts or to
one part and ground. Adams/View creates a marker on each part. The first part you select is the
action body and receives the force action. The second part you select is the reaction body and
receives the force reaction. If you specify one part and ground, the reaction force is on the
ground part, and, thus, has no effect on your model.
• Characteristic, which defines the magnitude of the force. You can specify:
• Constant force - You enter a constant force value. When Adams/View creates the force, it
uses the value you enter as the force function. When you modify the force, you can change
the value or enter a function expression or parameters to a user-written subroutine as
explained for the Custom option below.
• Bushing or spring-like - Adams/View creates a function expression defining the linear
stiffness and damping forces based on the stiffness and damping coefficients that you
specify.
• Custom - You define the magnitude of the force as a function of any combination of
displacements, velocities, other applied forces, user-defined variables, and time. You can
write a function expression or enter parameters to be passed to a User-written subroutine (for
example, SFOSUB or VFOSUB) that is linked into Adams/View. You define the constitutive
equation for the force applied to the action body. Adams/View evaluates the reaction forces
on the reaction body. You can also specify an alternative library and name for the user
subroutine. Learn about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.
Adams/View evaluates the signed magnitude of the force and applies it to the selected body or
bodies.
Adams/View
Forces
4
Single-Component Forces
To create a single-component force:
1. From the Create Forces tool stack or palette, select either:
• to create a single-component force.
• to create a single-component torque.
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
• The number of parts and the nature of the force direction. You can select the following:
• Space Fixed
• Body Moving
• Two Bodies
Learn about Specifying Force Direction for Single-Component Forces.
• How you want the force oriented. You can select:
• Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force normal to the current Working grid, if it is
displayed, or normal to the screen.
• Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a feature in your model,
such as along an edge or normal to the face of a part.
• The characteristics of the force. You can select the following:
• Constant force/torque - Enter a constant force or torque value or let Adams/View use the
default value.
• Spring-Damper - Enter stiffness and damping coefficients and let Adams/View create a
function expression for damping and stiffness based on the coefficient values. (Not available
when you are using the Main toolbar to access the force tool.)
• Custom - Adams/View does not set any values for you, which, in effect, creates a force with
zero magnitude. After you create the force, you modify it by entering a function expressions
or parameters to a SFOSUB User-written subroutine that is linked to Adams/View. You can
also specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine. Learn about specifying
a routine with ROUTINE Argument.
3. Do one of the following depending on whether you are creating a single-component force or
torque:
• For a single-component force, select the action body. If you selected to create a torque
between two parts, select the reaction body and then select the points of application on the two
bodies. Be sure to select the point of application on the action body first.
• For a single-component torque, select the action body. If you selected to create a torque
between two parts, select the reaction body and then select the points of application on the two
bodies. Be sure to select the point of application on the action body first.
4. If you selected to orient the force along a direction vector on a feature, move the cursor around in
your model to display an arrow representing the direction along a feature where you want the
force oriented. When the direction vector represents the desired orientation, click.
5
Forces
Modifying Single-Component Forces
The following procedure explains how to modify the following for a single-component force:
• Force direction, if only one part is affected.
• Action body to which the force is applied. If you created the force between two parts, you can
also change the reaction body. You cannot change a force created on one part and ground to a
force created between two parts because the direction methods are not compatible. You’ll have to
delete the force and create it again.
• Force magnitude.
• Force graphics.
Learn about Specifying Force Direction for Single-Component Forces.
To modify a single-component force:
1. Display the Modify Force dialog box as explained in the Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Set the following in the dialog box, and then select OK.
To: Do the following:
Set the
number of
parts affected
and the
direction of
the force
Select either:
• On One Body, Fixed in Space - Sets the force direction so it is applied to a part.
The force direction is fixed on ground.
• On One Body, Moving with Body - Sets the force so it is applied to a part. The
part defines the direction of the force.
• On One Body, Moving with Other Body - Sets the force so it is applied to a part.
A second part (the direction part) defines the direction of the force.
• Between Two Bodies - Creates a force between two parts. One of the parts can be
ground. You cannot change a force on one part to a force defined between two parts
or the reverse. You can, however, change a torque on one part to a torque on two
parts or the reverse.
Set the
bodies used
in defining
the force
Change the values in the following text boxes as necessary. The text boxes available
depend on how you defined the direction of the force.
• Body - Change the action body to which the force is applied.
• Action Body - For a force defined between two parts, change the action body to
which the force is applied.
• Reaction Body - Change the body that receives the reaction forces.
• Direction Body - Change the body that defines the direction of the force if you
selected the direction option, On One Body, Moving with Other Body.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Adams/View
Forces
6
Specifying Force Direction for Single-Component Forces
When you create a single-component force, you have three options for specifying the number of parts
affected and the direction of the force:
• Space fixed - Applies the single-component force to one part, or action body, that you select.
Adams/View automatically applies the reaction force to ground. You specify a direction for the
force. The direction never changes. It remains fixed in space during the simulation, even if the
action body moves because the marker used to define the force direction is attached to the
ground part.
Change the
force
function
defining the
magnitude of
the force
Set Define Using to how you will define the force. Select:
• Function to define using a numerical value or function expression.
If you selected Function, enter the following in the Function (time) text box that
appears:
• Constant force value
• Function expression
To enter a function expression, next to the Function text box, select the More
button to display the Function Builder.
• Subroutine to define using a User-written subroutine SFOSUB or you can specify
an alternative library and name for the user subroutine in the Routine text box.
Learn about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.
If you selected Subroutine for Define Using, enter the parameters to be passed to a
user-written subroutine and its ID. Entering an ID is optional.
Force
Display
Set whether you want to display force graphics for one of the parts, both, or none. By
default, Adams/View displays the force graphic on the action body for single-
component forces.
To: Do the following:
7
Forces
• Body moving - Applies the single-component force to one part, or action body, that you select.
Adams/View automatically applies the reaction force to ground. You specify a direction for the
force. The direction can change during the simulation because the coordinate system marker
used to define the force direction is attached to the action body. You can attach the direction
marker to a different part when you modify the force.
• Two bodies - Applies the single-component force to two parts that you select, at two locations
that you select. Adams/View defines the direction based on the line of sight between the two
locations you selected.
Multi-Component Forces
To define more complex forces, you can use multi-component forces. Multi-component forces apply
translational and/or rotational force between two parts in your model using three or more orthogonal
components. The following lists the different types of multi-component forces:
• Three-component force
• Three-component torque
Adams/View
Forces
8
• Six-component general force
A multi-component force applies an action force to the first part you select, which is called the action
body. Adams/View automatically applies a corresponding reaction force to the second part you select,
which is called the reaction body. If you define the force characteristics as bushing-like, Adams/View
generates equations to represent a linear spring-damper in the specified component directions.
To define the points of application of the multi-component force, Adams/View creates a marker for each
part. The marker belonging to the action body is the action marker, and the marker belonging to the
reaction body is the reaction marker. Adams/View keeps the reaction marker coincident with the action
marker at all times. The reaction marker is often referred to as a floating marker because its location is
not fixed relative to the body to which it belongs. Action and reaction markers are also referred to as I
and J markers.
Adams/View also creates a third marker called a reference (R) marker that indicates the direction of the
force. You define the orientation of the reference marker when you create a multi-component force. You
can align the marker to the working grid, if it is turned on, or to the global coordinate system. You can
also orient the marker using any feature in your model, such as along an edge of a part.
Example of Action and Reaction Force Movement
The following figure illustrates the movement of reaction forces and the placement of the reference
marker. The figure shows a ball bouncing on a board. As the ball bounces, its location changes relative
to the board. The reaction forces applied to the board also change location because the reaction (J) marker
moves with the ball. The reaction forces applied to the board do not change direction because the
reference (R) marker belongs to the stationary board.
Tip: You can use the Info command to see the markers that Adams/View creates for a multi-
component force. You can also see the markers when you modify the force. Learn about
Displaying Object Information and Accessing Information Window.
9
Forces
Total Force Equations
For a six-component general force and a three-component force, the total force that Adams/Solver
supplies is the vector sum of the individual force components that you specify. Its magnitude is the square
root of the sum of the squares of the three mutually-orthogonal force components:
where:
• is the action applied to the action body.
• FX is the user-defined function defining the magnitude and sign of the x-component.
• FY is the user-defined function defining the magnitude and sign of the y-component.
• FZ is the user-defined function defining the magnitude and sign of the z-component.
• is a unit vector along the + x direction of the reference marker.
• is a unit vector along the + y direction of the reference marker.
• is a unit vector along the + z direction of the reference marker.
The values of the reaction forces are:
where r is the reaction force applied to the reaction body. If you apply the force to a part and ground,
Adams/Solver does not calculate the reaction forces.
Total Torque Equations
For a Six-component general force and a Three-component torque, the magnitude of the torque is the
square root of the sum of the squares of the magnitudes of the three mutually orthogonal torque
components, such that:
where:
• is the action applied to the action body.
• TX is the user-defined function defining the magnitude and sign of the x component according to
the right-hand rule.
• TY is the user-defined function defining the magnitude and sign of the y component according to
the right-hand rule.
F
a
FXx
ˆ
rm
FYy
ˆ
rm
FZz
ˆ
rm
+ + =
F
a
x
ˆ
rm
y
ˆ
rm
z
ˆ
rm
F
r
F –
a
=
T
a
TXx
ˆ
rm
TYy
ˆ
rm
TZz
ˆ
rm
+ + =
T
a
Adams/View
Forces
10
• TZ is the user-defined function defining the magnitude and sign of the z component according to
the right-hand rule.
• is a unit vector along the + x direction of the reference marker.
• is a unit vector along the + y direction of the reference marker.
• is a unit vector along the + z direction of the reference marker.
The reaction torque applied to the reaction body is:
where is the reaction torque applied to the reaction body. If you apply the torque to a part and ground,
Adams/Solver does not calculate the reaction torques.
Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts
When you create Multi-Component forces, Adams/View provides you with shortcuts for specifying the
parts to which the force is to be applied. As you create a multi-component force, you can select one of
the methods listed below. These methods also apply to bushings, fields, and torsion springs.
• 1 Location - Lets you select the location of the force and have Adams/View determine the two
parts to which it should be applied. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the point of
application. If there is only one part near the point, Adams/View applies the force to that part and
ground. Note that letting Adams/View select the parts is only appropriate when two parts are
located near each other and when it does not matter which part is the action body and which is
the reaction body.
• 2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you select the two parts to which the force will be applied and the
common point of application on each part. The first part you select is the action body; the second
part is the reaction body.
• 2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you select the two parts to which the force is applied and a
different location for the force on each part. If the markers defining the locations of the forces are
not coincident and aligned, the forces may be nonzero at the beginning of the simulation.
x
ˆ
rm
y
ˆ
rm
z
ˆ
rm
T
r
T –
a
=
T
r
11
Forces
The table summarizes the bodies and locations you specify as you create a force.
Creating Multi-Component Forces
To create multi-component forces:
1. From the Create Forces tool stack or palette, select either:
• to create a three-component force.
• to create a three-component torque.
• to create a six-component general force.
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
• The method you want to use to define the bodies and force-application points. You can select
the following:
• 1 Location
• 2 Bodies - 1 Location
• 2 Bodies - 2 Locations
Learn about Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts.
• How you want the force oriented. You can select:
• Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force normal to the current Working grid, if it is
displayed, or normal to the screen.
• Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a feature in your model,
such as along an edge or normal to the face of a part.
• The characteristics of the force. You can select the following:
• Constant force/torque - Enter a constant force or torque value or let Adams/View use the
default value.
• Bushing-like - Enter stiffness and damping coefficients and let Adams/View create a
function expression for damping and stiffness based on the coefficient values.
The method: Number of bodies: Number of points:
1 Location 0 1
2 Bodies - 1 Location 2 1
2 Bodies - 2 Locations 2 2
Tip: To precisely orient your force, first orient the Working grid so its x-, y-, and z-axes align
with the desired force axes. Then, use the Normal To Grid orientation method when you
create the force. Learn about the Working Grid dialog box
Adams/View
Forces
12
• Custom - Adams/View does not set any values for you. After you create the force, you
modify it by entering a function expressions or parameters to a standard User-written
subroutine that is linked to Adams/View. You can also specify your own rotine with
ROUTINE Argument.
3. Click the bodies.
4. Click one or two force-application points depending on the location method you selected.
5. If you selected to orient the force along direction vectors using features, move the cursor around
in your model to display an arrow that shows the direction along a feature where you want the
force oriented. Click when the direction vector shows the correct x-axis orientation and then click
again for the y-axis orientation.
Modifying Multi-Component Forces
The procedure below modifies the following for a Multi-Component force:
• Action and reaction body to which the force is applied or the action and reaction markers.
• reference marker.
• Force magnitude.
• Force graphics.
Learn about:
• Total Force Equations
• Total Torque Equations
• Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts
To modify a multi-component force:
1. Display a Modify Force dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
13
Forces
2. Set the following in the dialog box, and then select OK.
Flexible Connectors
Bushings
Creating Bushings
To define a bushing, you need to create two markers, one for each part. The marker on the first part that
you specify is called the I marker. The marker on the second part that you specify is called the J marker.
To: Do the following:
Set the bodies or markers
used in defining the force
From the pull-down menus, select whether or not you want to define the
force using bodies or markers. Then, enter values in the text boxes, as
appropriate. The text boxes that are available depend on how you
defined the direction of the force.
• Action Part/Action Marker - Change the action body or
marker to which the force is applied.
• Reaction Part/Reaction Marker - Change the reaction body or
marker that receives the reaction forces.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Change the reference
marker that indicates the
direction of the force
In the Reference Marker text box, change the reference marker that
indicates the direction of the force.
Change how the
characteristics of the force
are defined
Set Define Using to how you want to define the force. Select:
• Function to define using a numerical value or function
expression, and then enter either a constant force value or
function expression for each component of the force. To enter a
function expression, next to the Function (time) text box, select
the More button to display the Function Builder.
• Subroutine to define using a User-written subroutine, and then
enter the parameters to be passed to a user-written subroutine
and the ID of the force being modified. In the Routine text box,
you can also specify an alternative library and name for the user
subroutine. Learn about specifying routines with ROUTINE
Argument.
Force Display Set to whether you want to display force graphics for one of the parts,
both, or none. By default, Adams/View displays the force graphic on the
action body.
Adams/View
Forces
14
Learn about Constitutive Equations for Bushings.
To create a bushing:
1. From the Create Forces tool stack or palette, select the Bushing tool .
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
• How you want the force applied to parts. You can select the following:
• 1 Location
• 2 Bodies - 1 Location
• 2 Bodies - 2 Locations
Learn about Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts.
• How you want the force oriented. You can select:
• Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force using the x-, y-, and z-axes of the current
Working grid, if it is displayed, or using the x-, y, and z-axes of the screen.
• Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a feature in your model,
such as the face of a part. The direction vector you select defines the z-axis for the force;
Adams/View automatically calculates the x- and y-axes.
• The translational and rotational stiffness and damping properties for the bushing.
3. Click the bodies.
4. Click one or two force-application points depending on the location method you selected.
5. If you selected to orient the force along a direction vector using a feature, move the cursor around
in your model to display an arrow that shows the direction along a feature where you want the
force oriented. Click when the direction vector shows the correct z-axis orientation.
Modifying Bushings
The following procedure modifies the following for a Bushing:
• The two bodies to which the forces are applied.
• Translational and rotational properties for stiffness, damping, and preload.
• Force graphics.
Learn about Constitutive Equations for Bushings.
To modify a bushing:
1. Display the Modify Bushing dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
15
Forces
2. Enter the values in the dialog box as explained the table below, and then select OK.
To: Do the following:
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Set the bodies used in
defining the force
Change the following as necessary in the following text boxes. The text boxes
available depend on how you defined the direction of the force.
• Action Body - Change the action body to which the force is applied.
• Reaction Body - Change the body that receives the reaction forces.
Change the properties
of the force
For the translational force applied by the bushing, enter:
• Three stiffness coefficients.
• Three viscous-damping coefficients. The force due to damping is zero
when there are no relative translational velocities between the markers
on the action and reaction bodies.
• Enter three constant force (preload) values. Constant values indicate
the magnitude of the force components along the x-, y-, and z-axeis of
the coordinate system marker of the reaction body (J marker) when
both the relative translational displacement and velocity of the markers
on the action and reaction bodies are zero.
For the rotational (torque) properties, enter:
• Three stiffness coefficients.
• Three viscous-damping coefficients. The torque due to damping is
zero when there are no relative rotational velocities between the
markers on the action and reaction bodies.
• Three constant torque (preload) values. Constant values indicate the
magnitude of the torque components about the x-, y-, and z-axes of the
coordinate system marker on the reaction body (J marker) when both
the relative rotational displacement and velocity of the markers on the
action and reaction bodies are zero.
Set force graphics Set Force Display to whether you want to display force graphics for one of the
parts, both, or none.
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Constitutive Equations for Bushings
The following constitutive equations define how Adams/View uses the data for a linear Bushing to apply
a force and a torque to the action body depending on the displacement and velocity of the I marker on the
action body relative to the J marker on the reaction body.
where:
• Fx, Fy, and Fz are measure numbers of the translational force components in the coordinate
system of the J marker.
• x, y, and z are measure numbers of the bushing deformation vector in the coordinate system of
the J marker.
• Vx, Vy, and Vz are time derivatives of x, y, and z, respectively.
• F1, F2, and F3 are measure numbers of any constant preload force components in the coordinate
system of the J marker.
• Tx, Ty, and Tz are rotational force components in the coordinate system of the J marker.
Note: A bushing has the same constitutive relation form as a field element. The primary
difference between the two forces is that nondiagonal coefficients (Kij and Cij, where i is
not equal to j) are zero for a bushing. You only define the diagonal coefficients (Kii and
Cii) when creating a bushing. For more on field elements, see Field ElementTool.
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Forces
• a, b, and c are projected, small-angle rotational displacements of the I marker with respect to the
J marker.
• wx, wy, and wz are the measure numbers of the angular velocity of the I marker as seen by the J
marker, expressed in the J marker coordinate system.
• T1, T2, and T3 are measure numbers of any constant preload torque components in the
coordinate system of the J marker.
The bushing element applies an equilibrating force and torque to the J marker in the following way:
where:
• is the instantaneous deformation vector from the J marker to the I marker. While the force at
the J marker is equal and opposite to the force at the I marker, the torque at the J marker is
usually not equal to the torque at the I marker because of the moment arm due to the deformation
of the bushing element.
For the rotational constitutive equations to be accurate, at least two of the rotations (a, b, c) must be small.
That is, two of the three values must remain smaller than 10 degrees. In addition, if a becomes greater
than 90 degrees, b becomes erratic. If b becomes greater than 90 degrees, a becomes erratic. Only c can
become greater than 90 degrees without causing convergence problems. For these reasons, it is best to
define your bushing such that angles a and b remain small (not a and c and not b and c).
Translational Spring Dampers
A translational spring damper represents forces acting between two parts over a distance and along a
particular direction. You specify the locations of the spring damper and points on two parts. Adams/View
calculates the spring and damping forces based on the distance between the locations on the two parts
and their rate of change, respectively.
It applies an action force to the first part you select, called the action body, and applies an equal and
opposite reaction force to the second part you select, called the reaction body. The forces are both directed
along the line connecting the spring-damper endpoints, often called the line of sight. A positive action
o
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18
force tends to push the action body away from the reaction body. A negative action force tends to pull
the action body toward the reaction body.
You can specify the damping and stiffness values as coefficients or use splines to define the relationships
of damping to velocity or stiffness to displacement. You can also set the stiffness value to 0 to create a
pure damper or set the damping value to 0 to create a pure spring.
You can also set a reference length for the spring, as well as a preload force. By default, Adams/View
uses the length of the spring damper when you create it as its reference length.
Creating Translational Spring Dampers
You add a Translational spring damper to your model by defining the locations on two parts between
which the spring damper acts. You define the action force that is applied to the first location, and
Adams/Solver automatically applies the equal and opposite reaction force to the second location.
Learn about Equations Defining the Force of Spring Dampers.
To create a spring damper:
1. From the Create Forces palette or tool stack, select the Translational Spring Damper tool .
2. If desired, in the Settings container, enter stiffness (K) and damping (C) coefficients.
3. Select a location for the spring damper on the first part. This is the action body.
4. Select a location for the spring damper on the second part. This is the reaction body.
Modifying Translational Spring Dampers
For a Translational spring damper, you can modify:
• Parts between which the spring damper acts.
• Stiffness and damping values, including specifying splines that defines the relationship of
stiffness to displacement and damping to velocity. Learn about Splines.
• Preload values.
• Whether or not spring, damper, and force graphics appear.
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Forces
Learn about Equations Defining the Force of Spring Dampers.
To modify a spring damper:
1. Display the Modify a Spring-Damper Force dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog
Boxes.
2. In the Action Body and Reaction Body text boxes, change the parts to which the spring-damper
force is applied, if desired.
3. Enter values for stiffness and damping as explained in the table below, and then select OK.
To: Do the following:
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Stiffness Select one of the following:
• Stiffness Coefficient and enter a stiffness value for the spring damper.
• No Stiffness to turn off all spring forces and create a pure damper.
• Spline: F=f(defo) and enter a spline that defines the relationship of
force to deformation. Learn about Splines.
Damping Select one of the following:
• Damping Coefficient and enter a viscous damping value for the spring
damper.
• No Damping to turn off all damping forces and create a pure spring.
• Spline: F=f(velo) and enter a spline that defines the relationship of force
to velocity. Learn about Splines.
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Equations Defining the Force of Spring Dampers
The magnitude of the translational force of a spring damper is linearly dependent upon the relative
displacement and velocity of the two locations that define the endpoints of the spring damper. The
following linear relation describes the action force:
force = -C(dr/dt) - K(r - LENGTH) + PRELOAD
where:
• r is the distance between the two locations that define the spring damper measured along the
line-of-sight between them.
• dr/dt is the relative velocity of the locations along the line-of-sight between them.
• C is the viscous damping coefficient.
• K is the spring stiffness coefficient.
• PRELOAD defines the reference force of the spring.
• LENGTH defines the reference length, so that when r = LENGTH, then force = PRELOAD.
Length and preload
of spring
• In the Preload text box, enter the preload force for the spring damper.
Preload force is the force of the spring damper in its reference position.
• Select either:
• Default Length to automatically use the length of the spring
damper when you created it as its reference length.
• Length at Preload and enter the reference length of the spring at its
preload position.
Tip: If you set preload to zero, then displacement at preload is the same
as the spring’s free length. If the preload value is non-zero, then
the displacement at preload is not the same as the spring’s free
length.
Set graphics Set any of the following:
• Graphics - Specify whether coil spring graphics are always on, always
off, or on whenever you have defined a spring coefficient.
• Force Display - Specify whether you want to display force graphics for
one of the parts, both, or none. By default, Adams/View displays the
force graphic on the action body.
• Damper Graphic - Specify whether cylinder damper graphics are
always on, always off, or on whenever you have defined a damping
coefficient.
To: Do the following:
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Forces
Torsion Springs
A torsion spring force is a rotational spring-damper applied between two parts. It applies the action
torque to the first part you select, called the action body, and applies an equal and opposite reaction torque
to the second part you select, called the reaction body.
Adams/View creates a marker at each location. The marker on the first location you specify is called the
I marker. The marker on the second location that you specify is called the J marker. The right-hand rule
defines a positive torque. Adams/View assumes that the z-axes of the I and J markers remain aligned at
all times.
The following linear constitutive equation describes the torque applied at the first body:
torque = -CT*da/dt - KT*(a-ANGLE) + TORQUE
Adams/Solver automatically computes the terms da/dt and a. The term a is the angle between the x axes
of the I and the J markers. Adams/Solver takes into account the total number of complete turns.
You can specify the damping and stiffness values as coefficients or use a spline to define the relationship
of damping to velocity or stiffness to displacement. You can also set the stiffness value to 0 to create a
pure damper or set the damping values to 0 to create a pure spring. Learn about defining Splines.
You can also set the rotation angle of the torsion spring when it is in its preload state and any preload
forces on the spring. By default, Adams/View uses the rotation angle of the torsion spring when you
create it as its preload angle.
Creating Torsion Springs
To create a Torsion spring:
1. From the Create Forces tool stack or palette, select the Torsion Spring tool .
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
• How you want the force applied to parts. You can select the following:
• 1 location
• 2 bodies - 1 location
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22
• 2 bodies - 2 locations
Learn about Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts.
• How you want the force oriented. You can select:
• Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force using the x-, y-, and z-axes of the current
Working grid, if it is displayed, or using the x-, y, and z-axes of the screen.
• Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a feature in your model,
such as the face of a part. The direction vector you select defines the z-axis for the force;
Adams/View calculates the x- and y-axes automatically.
• The torsional stiffness (KT) and torsional damping (CT) coefficients.
3. Click the bodies, unless Adams/View is automatically selecting them (1 location method).
4. Click one or two force-application points, depending on the location method you selected.
5. If you selected to orient the force along a direction vector using a feature, move the cursor around
in your model to display an arrow that shows the direction along a feature where you want the
force oriented. Click when the direction vector shows the correct z-axis orientation.
Modifying Torsion Springs
After you’ve created a Torsion spring, you can modify:
• Parts between which the torque acts
• Stiffness and damping values
• Preload values
• Force graphics
To modify a torsion spring:
1. Display the Modify a Torsion Spring dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. In the Action Body and Reaction Body text boxes, change the parts to which the torsion spring
is applied, if desired.
23
Forces
3. Enter values for stiffness and damping as explained in the table below, and then select OK.
Beams
A beam creates a linear translational and rotational force between two locations that define the endpoints
of the beam. It creates markers at each endpoint. The marker on the action body, the first part you select,
is the I marker. The marker on the reaction body, the second part you select, is the J marker. The forces
the beam produces are linearly dependent on the relative displacements and velocities of the markers at
the beam’s endpoints.
See Beam example of two markers (I and J) that define the endpoints of the beam and indicates the twelve
forces (s1 to s12) it produces.
To: Do the following:
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Stiffness Select one of the following:
• Stiffness Coefficient and enter a stiffness value for the torsion
spring.
• No Stiffness to turn off all spring forces and create a pure
damper.
• Spline: F=f(defo) and enter a spline that defines the relationship
of force to deformation. Learn about Splines.
Damping Select one of the following:
• Damping Coefficient and enter a viscous damping value for the
torsion spring.
• No Damping to turn off all damping forces and create a pure
spring.
• Spline: F=f(velo) and enter a spline that defines the relationship
of force to velocity. Learn about Splines.
Preload force and angle of
spring
• In the Preload text box, enter the preload force for the torsion
spring. Preload force is the force of the torsion spring in its
preload position.
• Select either:
• Default Angle to set the rotation angle of the spring when
you created it as its preload position.
• Angle at Preload and enter the angle of the spring at its
preload position.
Set graphics Set Torque Display to whether you want to display force graphics for
one of the parts, both, or none.
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The x-axis of the J marker defines the centroidal axis of the beam. The y-axis and z-axis of the J marker
are the principal axes of the cross section. They are perpendicular to the x-axis and to each other. When
the beam is in an undeflected position, the I marker has the same angular orientation as the J marker, and
the I marker lies on the x-axis of the J marker. Adams/View applies the following forces in response to
the translational and the rotational deflections of the I marker with respect to the J marker:
• Axial forces (s1 and s7)
• Bending moments about the y-axis and z-axis (s5, s6, s11, and s12)
• Twisting moments about the x-axis (s4 and s10)
• Shear forces (s2, s3, s8, and s9)
You can use a field element instead of a beam to define a beam with characteristics unlike those that the
beam assumes. For example, a field element can define a beam with a nonuniform cross section or a beam
with nonlinear material characteristics.
Constitutive Equations for Beams
The following constitutive equations define how Adams/Solver uses the data for a linear field to apply a
force and a torque to the I marker on the action body of a Beam. The force and torque it applies depends
Caution: By definition a beam is asymmetric. Holding the J marker fixed and deflecting the I marker
produces different results than holding the I marker fixed and deflecting the J marker by
the same amount. This asymmetry occurs because the coordinate system frame that the
deflection of the beam is measured in moves with the J marker.
25
Forces
on the displacement and velocity of the I marker relative to the J marker on the reaction body. The
constitutive equations are analogous to those in the finite element method.
where:
• Fx, Fy, and Fz are the measure numbers of the translational force components in the coordinate
system of the J marker.
• x, y, and z are the translational displacements of the I marker with respect to the J marker
measured in the coordinate system of the J marker.
• Vx, Vy, and Vz are the time derivatives of x, y, and z, respectively.
• Tx, Ty, and Tz are the rotational force components in the coordinate system of the J marker.
• a, b, and c are the relative rotational displacements of the I marker with respect to the J marker as
expressed in the x-, y-, and z-axis, respectively, of the J marker.
• w
x
, w
y
, and w
z
are the measure numbers of the angular velocity of the I marker as seen by the J
marker, expressed in the J marker coordinate system.
Adams/Solver defines each Kij in the following way:
K11 = E A / LK22 = 12 E Izz /[L3 (1+Py)]
Note: Both matrixes, Cij and Kij, are symmetric, that is, Cij=Cji and Kij=Kji. You define the
twenty-one unique damping coefficients when you modify the beam.
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26
K26 = -6 E Izz /[L2 (1+Py)]
K33 = 12 E Iyy /[L3 (1+Pz)]
K35 = 6 E Iyy /[L2 (1+Pz)]
K44 = G Ixx / L
K55 = (4+Pz) E Iyy /[L (1+Pz)]
K66 = (4+Py) E Izz /[L (1+Py)]
where:
• E = Young’s modulus of elasticity for the beam material.
• A = Uniform area of the beam cross section.
• L = Undeformed length of the beam along the x-axis.
• Py = 12 E Izz ASY/(G A L2)
• z = 12 E Iyy ASZ/(G A L2)
• ASY = Correction factor (shear area ratio) for shear deflection in the y direction for Timoshenko
beams.
• ASZ = Shear area ratio for shear deflection in the z direction for Timoshenko beams.
Adams/Solver applies an equilibrating force and torque at the J marker on the reaction body, as defined
by the following equations:
L is the instantaneous displacement vector from the J marker to the I marker. While the force at the J
marker is equal and opposite to the force at the I marker, the torque is usually not equal and opposite,
because of the force transfer.
Creating Beams
To create a beam:
1. From the Create Forces palette or tool stack, select the Massless Beam tool .
2. Select a location for the beam on the first part. This is the action body.
3. Select a location for the beam on the second part. This is the reaction body.
4. Select the direction in the upward (y) direction for the cross-section geometry.
Modifying Beams
After you’ve created a Beam, you can modify the following:
• Markers between which the beam acts.
• Stiffness and damping values.
• Material properties of the beam, such as its length and area.
27
Forces
Learn about Constitutive Equations for Beams.
To modify a beam:
1. Display the Force Modify Element Like Beam dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog
Boxes.
2. In the New Beam Name text box, enter a new name for the beam, if desired.
3. In the Solver ID text box, assign a unique ID number to the beam.
4. Enter any comments about the beam that might help you manage and identify the beam.
5. Enter values for the beam properties as explained in the table below, and then select OK.
To set: Do the following:
Area moments of
inertia
Enter the following:
• In the Ixx text box, enter the torsional constant. The torsional constant
is sometimes referred to as the torsional shape factor or torsional
stiffness coefficient. It is expressed as unit length to the fourth power.
For a solid circular section, Ixx is identical to the polar moment of
inertia J= . For thin-walled sections, open sections, and non-
circular sections, you should consult a handbook.
• In the Iyy and Izz text boxes, enter the area moments of inertia about
the neutral axes of the beam cross sectional areas (y-y and z-z). These
are sometimes referred to as the second moment of area about a given
axis. They are expressed as unit length to the fourth power. For a solid
circular section, Iyy=Izz= . For thin-walled sections, open
sections, and non-circular sections, you should consult a handbook.
Area of the beam cross
section
In the Area of Cross Section text box, enter the uniform area of the beam
cross-section geometry. The centroidal axis must be orthogonal to this cross
section.
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Shear area ratio In the Y Shear Area Ratio and Z Shear Area Ratio text boxes, specify the
correction factor (the shear area ratio) for shear deflection in the y and z
direction for Timoshenko beams. If you want to neglect the deflection due to
shear, enter zero in the text boxes.
For the y direction:
where:
• Q
y
is the first moment of cross-sectional area to be sheared by a force
in the z direction.
• l
z
is the cross section dimension in the z direction.
For the z direction:
where:
• Q
z
is the first moment of cross-sectional area to be sheared by a force
in the y direction.
• l
y
is the cross section dimension in the y direction.
Common values for shear area ratio based on the type of cross section are:
• Solid rectangular - 6/5
• Solid circular - 10/9
• Thin wall hollow circular - 2
Note: The K1 and K2 terms that are used by MSC/NASTRAN for
defining the beam properties using PBEAM are the inverse of the y
shear and z shear values that Adams/View uses.
Young’s and shear
modulus of elasticity
In the Young’s Modulus and Shear Modulus text boxes, enter Young’s and
shear modulus of elasticity for the beam material.
Length of beam Enter the undeformed length of the beam along the x-axis of the J marker on
the reaction body.
To set: Do the following:
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Forces
Damping ratio or
damping matrix
Select either:
• Damping Ratio and enter a damping value to establish a ratio for
calculating the structural damping matrix for the beam. To obtain the
damping matrix, Adams/Solver multiplies the stiffness matrix by the
value you enter for the damping ratio.
• Matrix of Damping Terms and enter a six-by-six structural damping
matrix for the beam. Because this matrix is symmetric, you only need
to specify one-half of the matrix. The following matrix shows the
values to input:
Enter the elements by columns from top to bottom, then from left to
right. The damping matrix defaults to a matrix with thirty-six zero
entries; that is, r1 through r21 each default to zero.
The damping matrix should be positive semidefinite. This ensures
that damping does not feed energy into the model. Adams/Solver does
not warn you if the matrix is not positive semidefinite.
To set: Do the following:
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Field Elements
A field element applies a translational and rotational action-reaction force between two locations.
Adams/View creates markers at each location. The marker on the first location you specify is called the
I marker. The marker on the second location you specify is called the J marker. Adams/View applies the
component translational and rotational forces for a field to the I marker and imposes reaction forces on
the J marker.
The field element can apply either a linear or nonlinear force, depending on the values you specify after
you create the field.
• To specify a linear field, enter values that define a six-by-six stiffness matrix, translational and
rotational preload values, and a six-by-six damping matrix. The stiffness and damping matrixes
must be positive semidefinite, but need not be symmetric. You can also specify a damping ratio
instead of specifying a damping matrix.
• To specify a nonlinear field, use the User-written subroutine FIESUB to define the three force
components and three torque components and to enter values to pass to FIESUB. (See the
Adams/Solver Subroutines online help.)
Markers that define
the beam
Specify the two markers between which to define a beam. The I marker is on
the action body and the J marker is on the reaction body. The J marker
establishes the direction of the force components.
By definition, the beam lies along the positive x-axis of the J marker.
Therefore, the I marker must have a positive x displacement with respect to
the J marker when viewed from the J marker. In its undeformed configuration,
the orientation of the I and the J markers must be the same.
When the x-axes of the markers defining a beam are not collinear, the beam
deflection and, consequently, the force corresponding to this deflection are
calculated. To minimize the effect of such misalignments, perform a static
equilibrium at the start of the simulation.
When the beam element angular deflections are small, the stiffness matrix
provides a meaningful description of the beam behavior. When the angular
deflections are large, they are not commutative; so the stiffness matrix that
produces the translational and rotational force components may not correctly
describe the beam behavior. Adams/Solver issues a warning message if the
beam translational displacements exceed 10 percent of the undeformed
length.
To set: Do the following:
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Forces
Constitutive Equations for Field Elements
The following constitutive equations define how Adams/Solver uses the data for a linear field to apply a
force and a torque to the I marker depending on the displacement and velocity of the I marker relative to
the J marker.
For a nonlinear field, the following constitutive equations are defined in the FIESUB subroutine:
Adams/Solver applies the defined forces and torques at the I marker. In the linear and nonlinear
equations:
• Fx, Fy, and Fz are the three translational force measure numbers.
• Tx, Ty, and Tz are the three rotational force measure numbers associated with unit vectors
directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes of the J marker.
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• K is the stiffness matrix.
• x0, y0, z0, a0, b0, and c0 are the free lengths.
• x, y, z, a, b, and c are the translational and the rotational displacements of the I marker with
respect to the J marker expressed in the coordinate system of the J marker.
• Vx, Vy, and Vz are the scalar time derivatives of x, y, and z, respectively.
• x, y, and z are the measure numbers of the angular velocity of the I marker as seen by the J
marker, expressed in the J marker coordinate system.
• C is the damping matrix.
• F1, F2, F3, T1, T2, and T3 are the translational and rotational pre-tensions.
Adams/Solver computes all variables and time derivatives in the J marker coordinate system.
Adams/Solver applies an equilibrating force and torque at the J marker, as defined by the following
equations:
Fj = - Fi
Tj = - Ti - L Fi
L is the instantaneous displacement vector from the J marker to the I marker. While the force at the J
marker is equal and opposite to the force at the I marker, the torque is usually not equal and opposite,
because of the force transfer.
Cautions for Field Elements
• For the constitutive equations of a field element to be accurate, at least two of the rotations (a, b,
c) must be small. That is, two of the three values must remain smaller than 10 degrees. In
addition, if a becomes greater than 90 degrees, b becomes erratic. If b becomes greater than 90
degrees, a becomes erratic. Only c can become greater than 90 degrees without causing
convergence problems. For these reasons, it is best to define your field such that angles a and b
(not a and c and not b and c) remain small.
• The three rotational displacements (a, b, and c) that define the field are not Euler angles. They
are the projected angles of the I marker with respect to the J marker. Adams/Solver measures
them about the x-, y-, and z-axes of the J marker.
• The K and C matrices must be positive semidefinite. In other words:
xtK x > 0 for all non-zero displacements x, and
ytC y > 0 for all non-zero velocities y
If this is not true, the stiffness matrix of the field may be removing energy from the system.
Similarly, the damping matrix may be adding energy to the system. Both of these situations are
uncommon. Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) does not warn you if the C matrix, K matrix, or both are
not positive semidefinite. While Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) does not require that these matrices
be symmetric, it is most realistic.
33
Forces
Defining the Elements of the Stiffness and Damping Matrices
The elements of the stiffness and damping matrices for a field element have mixed units because each of
the 6x6 matrices is assembled from four 3x3 matrices, each having consistent units within itself, but
different from each other.
The stiffness matrix is multiplied by displacements (both linear and angular) to give the forces (both
linear and torsional). Here (x, y, z) is the displacement vector and (a, b, c) are the displacement angles. F
and T are the force and torque vectors.
[ | ] [ x ] [ Fx ]
[ Force/Length | Force/Angle ] [ y ] [ Fx ]
[ | ] [ z ] [ Fx ]
-----------------|--------------- =
[ | ] [ a ] [ Tx ]
[ Torque/Length | Torque/Angle ] [ b ] [ Ty ]
[ | ] [ b ] [ Tz ]
Creating Field Elements
When you create a Field element, you define the location of the force element. SD Suspension creates I
and J markers defining the location and direction of the field. To define other properties of the field
element, such as its damping values, you must modify the field.
To create a field element:
1. From the Create Forces tool stack or palette, select the Field tool .
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
How you want the force applied to parts. You can select the following:
• 1 Location
• 2 Bodies - 1 Location
• 2 Bodies - 2 Locations
Learn about Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts.
How you want the force oriented. You can select:
• Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force using the x-, y-, and z-axes of the current
Working grid, if it is displayed, or using the x-, y, and z-axes of the screen.
• Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a feature in your model,
such as the face of a part. The direction vector you select defines the z-axis for the force;
Adams/View automatically calculates the x- and y-axes.
The translational and rotational stiffness and damping properties for the bushing.
3. Click the bodies unless Adams/View is automatically selecting them.
4. Click one or two force-application points depending on the location method you selected.
5. If you selected to orient the force along a direction vector on a feature, move the cursor around in
your model to display an arrow that shows the direction along a feature where you want the force
oriented. When the direction vector shows the correct z-axis orientation, click.
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34
Modifying Field Elements
After creating a Field element, you can modify it to define a linear or nonlinear force.
To modify a field element:
1. Display the Force Modify Element Like Field dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog
Boxes.
2. In the New Field Name text box, enter a new name for the field element, if desired.
3. In the Solver ID text box, assign a unique ID number to the beam.
4. Enter any comments about the beam that might help you manage and identify the beam.
5. Enter the values in the dialog box as explained the table below, and then select OK.
To set: Do the following:
Markers that define the
field
In the I marker Name and J marker Name text boxes, specify the two
markers between which the force and torque are to be exerted.
Translational and
rotational preload of
field
Enter the preload translational and rotational force for the field element in the
Preload text boxes.
• Translation at Preload to define three reference lengths. This is the
nominal (x0, y0, z0) position of the I marker with respect to the
J marker, resolved in the J marker coordinate system.
• Rotation at Preload to define the reference rotational displacement
of the axes of the I marker with respect to the J marker, resolved in
the J marker axes (a0, b0, and c0) (specified in radians).
If the reference force is zero, then the preload is the same as the free length.
Entering preload values is optional and defaults to a six zero entry.
Force preload or
parameters to a User-
written subroutine
Select one of the following:
• Define Using Standard Values and enter values for the text boxes
that appear in the dialog box as explained in the next rows of this
table.
• Define Using Subroutine and enter parameters to be passed to the
user-written subroutine FIESUB. to define a nonlinear field. Enter up
to 30 values (r1[,...,r30]) that Adams/View is to pass to FIESUB. For
more on the FIESUB subroutine and nonlinear fields, see the
Adams/Solver online help.
You can also specify an alternative library and name for the
subroutine in the Routine text box. Learn about specifying your own
routine with ROUTINE Argument.
If you selected Define Using Standard Values, the following options appear:
35
Forces
Force and torque
preload
In the Force Preload and Torque Preload text boxes, define three preload
force components and three preload torque components transferred by the
field element when the I and J markers are separated/misaligned by the values
specified in the Translation at Preload and Rotation at Preload text boxes.
The terms are the force components along the x-, y-, and z-axis of the J marker
and the torque components about the x, y-, and z-axis of the J marker,
respectively. Entering values for Force Preload and Torque Preload is optional
and defaults to six zero entries.
To set: Do the following:
Adams/View
Forces
36
Stiffness matrix In the Stiffness Matrix text box, define a six-by-six matrix of stiffness
coefficients. The following matrix shows the values to input.
Enter the elements by columns from top to bottom, then from left to right.
Learn about Defining the Elements of the Stiffness and Damping Matrices for
field elements.
Tip: A finite element analysis program can give you the values for
the stiffness matrix.
To set: Do the following:
37
Forces
Modal Forces
A modal force, or MFORCE, allows you to distribute a force to one or more, or all nodes of a flexible
body. The force can vary in time or position and can even be made dependent on a state variable.
Examples of modal force applications are pressures on journal bearings, simulating magnetically induced
fields, or the modeling of airfoil flutter. Modal forces are a special class of forces called distributed loads
that can only be applied to flexible bodies.
For a detailed overview of distributed loads and a tutorial that steps you through an example of adding
modal forces to your model, see Modeling Distributed Loads and Predeformed Flexible Bodies.
Adams/View provides three options for defining MFORCEs on flexible bodies. All options require
additional work outside of Adams/View to complete the definition and simulation of modal forces.
Damping coefficients Enter either a matrix of damping terms or a damping ratio if you want to
include damping coefficients in the calculation of the field forces as explained
below. The damping matrix defaults to a matrix with thirty-six zero entries.
• To define a six-by-six matrix of viscous damping coefficients, select
Matrix of Damping Terms and enter the elements. The following
matrix shows the values to input.
Enter the elements by columns from top to bottom, then from left to right.
Learn about Defining the Elements of the Stiffness and Damping Matrices for
field elements.
• To enter a damping ratio that defines the ratio of the damping matrix
to the stiffness matrix, select Damping Ratio and enter the value. If
you enter a damping ratio, Adams/Solver multiplies the stiffness
matrix by the ratio to obtain the damping matrix. Do not enter a ratio
without also entering a stiffness matrix.
Tip: A finite element analysis program can give you the values for
the damping matrix.
To set: Do the following:
Adams/View
Forces
38
• Reference and scale a load case defined in the flexible body's modal load matrix. This option can
only be used in Adams/View on flexible bodies that have been built with Modal Neutral File
(MNF) that contains modal load case information. For more information on flexible bodies, their
modal load matrix, and how to generate modal load case information in an MNF, see Creating
Loadcase Files.
• Specify the modal force as a product of a modal load case and scale function defined in a User-
written subroutine. The scale function can depend on time or the state of the system. The load
case can only be a function of time.
• Directly specify the components of a modal force in a User-written subroutine. Each component
can depend on time or the state of the system. This option is only available in Adams/Solver
(C++).
The last two options provide much more capability in defining modal forces. To take advantage
of these options, however, you need to develop a MFOSUB routine that is built into the
Adams/Solver. For more information, see the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online
help.
More than one modal force can be defined on a flexible body. For each modal force defined on a flexible
body a modal force icon appears at its local part reference frame. You can transfer modal forces from one
flexible body to another.
Learn more:
1. Creating a Modal Force
2. Modifying a Modal Force
3. Copying and Deleting a Modal Force
4. Viewing Modal Preloads of Flexible Bodies
Creating Modal Forces
To create a modal force:
1. From the Main toolbox, from the Create Forces tool stack, select the Modal Force tool .
The Create/Modify Modal Force dialog box appears.
2. In the Create Modal Force dialog box, specify the following:
39
Forces
Options in Create Modal Force Dialog Box
To: Do the following:
Assign a name to the
MFORCE
In the Force Name text box, enter the name of the modal force to be created.
Adams/View automatically assigns a default name of MFORCE followed by
an underscore and a number to make the name unique (for example,
MFORCE_1).
Specify the flexible
body to which the
MFORCE is applied
In the Flexible Body text box, enter the name of the flexible body.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Adams/View
Forces
40
3. If you select to specify a flexible body with modal load case information, you also specify:
• Load Case - Lets you select a modal load case label from a list. The list of modal load case
labels is generated from the MNF. Learn about Creating Loadcase Files.
Apply the reaction of
the modal force
resultant to a part
If desired, in the Reaction Part text box, enter the name of an existing part. If
you enter a part name, Adams/View automatically creates a Floating marker
associated with this part when it creates the MFORCE. Adams/View keeps the
marker coincident with the flexible body analysis coordinate system during the
simulation. Therefore, the need for the point of reaction to be a floating marker.
In addition, because floating markers cannot be defined on flexible bodies, the
reaction part is restricted to rigid bodies only.
Note: You can use the Info command to see the floating marker that
Adams/View creates when you reference a reaction part. Learn about
Displaying Object Information and Accessing Information Window.
Select how you want
to define the modal
force.
Select the following from Define Using:
• Function - Lets you select the modal load case and scale function of
the MFORCE. Note that you cannot select Function when defining an
MFORCE on a flexible body that does not contain any modal load case
information in its corresponding MNF.
• Subroutine - Lets you specify up to thirty user-defined constants to be
passed to the user-defined subroutine, MFOSUB to directly compute
the modal load case and scale function whose product is the modal
force applied to the flexible body. The scale function can depend on
time or the state of the system. The load case can only be a function of
time.
• Force - Lets you specify up to thirty user-defined constants to be
passed to the user-defined subroutine, MFOSUB to directly compute
the modal force on the flexible body. Each component of the modal
force can depend on time or the state of the system. (Adams/Solver
(C++) only. Learn about switching solvers with Solver Settings -
Executable dialog box help.)
To use a subroutine, you need to build a version of the Adams/Solver
that contains your version of the MFOSUB routine that quantifies the
modal force. For more information, see the Subroutines section of the
Adams/Solver online help.
You can also specify an alternative library and name for the user
subroutine in the Routine text box. Learn about specifying your own
routine with ROUTINE Argument.
To: Do the following:
41
Forces
• Scale Function - Lets you specify an expression for the scale factor to be applied to the
modal load case.
4. Select OK.
Modifying Modal Forces
You can modify an existing MFORCE in the following ways:
• The flexible body to which the modal forces is applied.
• The part to which the reaction resultant of the modal force is applied.
• The definition of the modal force.
To modify a MFORCE:
1. Display the Create/Modify Modal Force dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog
Boxes.
2. Follow the instructions in the dialog box help.
3. Select OK.
Copying and Deleting a Modal Force
You can copy and delete MFORCEs just like you copy and delete other objects in Adams/View. See
Copying Objects and Deleting Objects.
Viewing Modal Preloads of Flexible Bodies
A special form of a modal load in a flexible body is a modal preload. Since modal preloads are an integral
property of the flexible body, you do not have the ability to modify these loads in Adams/View. You can,
however, inspect the values of these preloads for each mode. In Adams/View, there are two ways to
review the modal preloads of a flexible body.
For a detailed overview of modal preloads and a tutorial that steps you through an example of modeling
preloads, see Modeling Distributed Loads and Predeformed Flexible Bodies.
To review the modal preloads using the Flexible Body Modify dialog box:
1. Double-click the flexible body to display the Flexible Body Modify dialog box.
Note: When you copy a MFORCE that has a reaction part specified or as a result, a Floating
marker referenced, Adams/View also creates a new floating marker.
In addition, when you delete a MFORCE that has a reaction part specified, Adams/View
does not delete its referenced floating marker.
Adams/View
Forces
42
2. From the Flexible Body Modify dialog box, select Modal ICs.
The Modify Modal ICs... dialog box appears. Preloads for the flexible body appear in the last
column.
3. Review the preloads, and then select Close.
To obtain a listing of the preloads using the Info command:
1. Display information on the flexible body as explained in Displaying Object Information and
Accessing Information Window.
2. In the Information Window, select Verbose, and then select Apply.
The modal preload values appear in the last column of the modal frequency table.
Viewing Modal Forces
You can review modal forces on flexible bodies in Adams/PostProcessor as:
• Curves
• Contour plots
• Vector plots
No matter what form, the modal force results are presented with respect to the flexible body’s local part
reference frame. This is unlike most other Adams force elements that are plotted with respect to the
ground coordinate system, by default. For a detailed overview of modal forces and a tutorial that steps
you through an example of creating a modal force, see Modeling Distributed Loads and Predeformed
Flexible Bodies.
To review a modal force component as a curve:
1. Start Adams/PostProcessor, and then set its mode to plotting (see Modes).
2. From the Dashboard, set Source to Result Sets.
The dashboard changes to show the results available for plotting.
3. From the Result Set list, select the modal force object whose characteristics you want to plot.
4. From the Component list, select the component of the modal force. FX, FY, FZ, TX, TY, and TZ
are the resultant force and torque components with respect to the flexible body’s local part
reference frame. FQi is the i
th
modal component of the modal force.
5. Select Add Curves to add the data curve to the current plot.
Note: • To create a contour or vector plot of a modal force, the MNF of the associated
flexible body must contain nodal masses. You can use the MNF browser to check
if the MNF contains nodal masses, see Browsing an MNF or an MD DB.
• Because modal forces can depend on the state of the system, you must run a
simulation before viewing the results of a modal force.
43
Forces
To review a modal force as a contour plot:
1. Set the Adams/PostProcessor mode to animation.
2. Right-click the background of a viewport, and then select Load Animation.
3. From the Treeview in Adams/PostProcessor, select the flexible body on which you want to display
the modal force plot.
4. In the Property Editor, set Plot Type to Both.
5. In the dashboard, select the Contour Plots tab.
6. Set Contour Plot Type to the component of the modal force you want to review. Remember that
the modal force components are with respect to the flexible body’s local part reference frame.
Next, Adams/PostProcessor computes the minimum and maximum values of the modal force.
This can take a few minutes because it requires interrogating the modal force values at every node
in every mode at every animation frame.
7. Select the Play button to animate the modal force contour plot.
To review a modal force as a vector plot:
1. Follow steps 1. through 4. in To Review a modal force as a contour plot above.
2. Select the Vector Plots tab in the dashboard.
3. Set Vector Plot Type to either Force or Torque.
4. Select the Play button to animate the modal force contour plot.
Adams/View
Forces
44
Contacts
Overview
Using contacts, you can go beyond just modeling how parts meet at points and model how solid bodies
react when they come in contact with one another when the model is in motion.
For more on the theory behind contact forces, see the CONTACT statement in the Adams/Solver online
help.
See Solver Settings - Contacts dialog box help.
About Contact Forces
Contacts allow you to model how free-moving bodies interact with one another when they collide during
a simulation.
Contacts are grouped into two categories:
• Two-dimensional contacts, which include the interaction between planar geometric elements (for
example, circle, curve, and point)
• Three-dimensional contacts, which include the interaction between solid geometry (for example,
spheres, cylinders, enclosed shells, extrusions, and revolutions).
You currently cannot model contact between a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional geometry,
except for sphere-to-plane contact.
For more on the theory behind contact forces, see the CONTACT statement in the Adams/Solver online
help.
Click here to see an Example of Using Contact Forces.
Contact Force Algorithms
Contact forces use two distinct normal force algorithms:
• Restitution-based contact
• IMPACT-Function-Based Contact
Note: Contact defined between planar geometry (for example, circle to curve) must be
constrained to lie in the same plane. You usually accomplish this using planar joints or an
equivalent set of Constraints that enforce the planarity.
Failure to enforce planarity will result in a run-time error when the bodies go out of plane
during a Simulation.
Adams/View
Contacts
2
You can also create your own contact force model by entering parameters to a User-written subroutine.
Supported Geometry in Contacts
Two-Dimensional Contacts
Adams/View supports two-dimensional contact between the following geometry:
• Arc
• Circle
• Polylines
• Splines
• Point
• Plane
For flexible bodies, only point-to-plane and point-to-curve contacts are supported, where the point is on
the flexible body. Adams/Solver (C++) can treat multiple points per CONTACT statement.
Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) can only treat one point per CONTACT statement.
Three-Dimensional Contacts
Adams/View supports three-dimensional contact between the following solid geometry:
• Sphere
• Cylinder
• Frustum
• Box
• Link
• Torus
• Extrusion
• Revolution
• Constructive, solid geometry (geometry combined from several geometries)
• Generic three-dimensional Parasolid geometry, including extrusion and revolution
• Shell (enclosed-volume only)
You can also create a contact between a three-dimensional elliposoid and a plane (sphere only).
Note: You cannot have contacts between a point and another point and a plane and another plane.
3
Contacts
In case of Adams/Solver C++, you can create three-dimensional contacts between flexible bodies as well
as between a flexible body and a Solid geometry. When a three-dimensional contact is created between
a flexible body and a solid geometry, it is mandatory that the rigid body is always the J geometry.
Adams/View also supports nonsolid, three-dimensional geometries, such as shells. Adams/View allows
you to select the free edges of shell elements. You can create contacts between flexible body edges as
well as between flexible body edge and a plane or a curve.
Creating/Modifying Contact Forces
To create or modify a contact force:
1. From the Force tool stack or palette, select the Contact Force tool .
The Create/Modify Contact dialog box appears.
2. Enter values in the dialog box as explained in the table below, and then select OK.
Tip: You can change the direction of the force on some geometry (for example, circle, curve,
plane, and sphere) by selecting the Change Direction tool .
Adams/View
Contacts
4
To: Do the following:
Define type and geometry To define the geometry/flexible body that comes into contact:
1. Set Type to the type of geometry to come into contact. In case of
flexible bodies, you must either select the Flex Body To Flex Body
or Flex Body to Solid options. Flexible bodies can participate in
the contact only for Adams/Solver C++. In case of flex edge
contacts, select Flex Edge To Flex Edge or Flex Edge To Curve or
Flex Edge To Plane.
The text boxes change depending on the type of contact force you
selected.
2. In the text boxes, enter the name of the geometry or flexible body
objects. For solids and curves, you can enter more than one
geometry, but the geometry must belong to the same part. You can
select the objects from the screen or Database Navigator or type it
directly in the text box. If you type the geometry object name
directly in the text box, you must press Enter to register the value.
In case of "Flex Body to Solid" type of contacts, the rigid body
should always be the J geometry. Similarly in case of Flex Edge to
Curve or Plane type of contacts, Curve or Plane should always be
J geometries.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
If you want to change the direction of the force, in the Direction
pull-down menu, select the geometry on which you want to change
the force, and then select the Change Direction tool . This
is disabled in case of "Flex Body to Flex Body" and "Flex Body to
Solid" contacts but is available in all the Flex Edge contacts.
Turn on the force display
for both normal and
friction forces and set its
color
Select Force Display, and then from the option menu, select a color for
the force display.
Note: If you are using an External Adams/Solver, you must set the
output files to XML to view the force display. See Solver
Settings - Output dialog box help
Refine the normal force
between two sets of rigid
geometries that are in
contact
Select Augmented Lagrangian.
When you select Augmented Lagrangian, Adams/View uses iterative
refinement to ensure that penetration between the geometries is minimal.
It also ensures that the normal force magnitude is relatively insensitive to
the penalty or stiffness used to model the local material compliance
effects.
Note: Augmented Lagrangian is only available when defining a
Restitution-based contact.
5
Contacts
Define a restitution-based
contact
To define the normal force as restitution-based:
1. Set Normal Force to Restitution.
2. Enter a penalty value to define the local stiffness properties
between the contacting material.
A large penalty value ensures that the penetration of one geometry
into another will be small. Large values, however, will cause
numerical integration difficulties. A value of 1E6 is appropriate
for systems modeled in Kg-mm-sec. For more information on how
to specify this value, see the Extended Definition for the
CONTACT statement in the Adams/Solver online help.
3. Enter the coefficient of restitution, which models the energy loss
during contact.
4. A value of zero specifies a perfectly plastic contact between the
two colliding bodies.
5. A value of one specifies a perfectly elastic contact. There is no
energy loss.
The coefficient of restitution is a function of the two materials that are
coming into contact. For information on material types versus commonly
used values of the coefficient of restitution, see the table for the
CONTACT statement in the Adams/Solver online help. Restitution based
contacts is not available when flexible bodies are participating in the
contact.
To: Do the following:
Adams/View
Contacts
6
Define an impact contact To define the normal force as based on an impact using the IMPACT
function:
1. Set Normal Force to Impact.
2. Enter values for the following:
• Stiffness - Specifies a material stiffness that is to be used to
calculate the normal force for the impact model.
In general, the higher the stiffness, the more rigid or hard the
bodies in contact are.
Note: When changing the length units in Adams/View, stiffnesses in
contacts are scaled by (length conversion factor**exponent).
When changing the force unit, stiffness is only scaled by the
force conversion factor.
• Force Exponent - Adams/Solver models normal force as a
nonlinear springdamper. If the damping penetration, above, is
the instantaneous penetration between the contacting
geometry, Adams/Solver calculates the contribution of the
material stiffness to the instantaneous normal forces as:
STIFFNESS * (PENALTY)**EXPONENT
For more information, see the IMPACT function in the
Adams/Solver online help.
• Damping - Enter a value to define the damping properties of
the contacting material. A good rule of thumb is that the
damping coefficient is about one percent of the stiffness
coefficient.
• Penetration Depth - Enter a value to define the penetration at
which Adams/Solver turns on full damping. Adams/Solver
uses a cubic STEP function to increase the damping coefficient
from zero, at zero penetration, to full damping when the
penetration reaches the damping penetration. A reasonable
value for this parameter is 0.01 mm. For more information,
refer to the IMPACT function in the Adams/Solver online help.
Define your own contact
model
1. Set Normal Force to User Defined.
2. Enter parameters to the user-defined subroutine. You can also
specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine in
the Routine text box. Learn about ROUTINE Argument.
To: Do the following:
7
Contacts
Model the friction effects
at the contact locations
using the Coulomb
friction model
Note: The friction
model models
dynamic friction
but not stiction.
For more on friction in
contacts, see Contact
Friction Force Calculation.
In addition, read the
information for the
CONTACT statement in
the Adams/Solver online
help.
1. Set Friction Force to Coulomb.
2. Set Coulomb Friction to On, Off, or Dynamics Only to define
whether friction effects are to be included.
3. In the Static Coefficient text box, specify the coefficient of
friction at a contact point when the slip velocity is smaller than the
value for Static Transition Vel. For information on material types
versus commonly used values of the coefficient of static friction,
see Material Contact Properties Table.
Excessively large values of Static Coefficient can cause
integration difficulties.
Range: Static Coefficient 0
4. In the Dynamic Coefficient text box, specify the coefficient of
friction at a contact point when the slip velocity is larger than the
value for Friction Transition Vel. For information on material
types versus commonly used values of the coefficient of the
dynamic coefficient of friction, see Material Contact Properties
Table.
Excessively large values of Dynamic Coefficient can cause
integration difficulties.
Range: 0 Dynamic Coefficient Static Coefficient
5. In the Static Transition Vel. text box, enter the static transition
velocity. Learn more about this value.
6. In the Friction Transition Vel. text box, enter the friction
transition velocity.
Adams/Solver gradually transitions the coefficient of friction from
the value for Static Coefficent to the value for Dynamic
Coefficient as the slip velocity at the contact point increases.
When the slip velocity is equal to the value specified for Friction
Transition Vel., the effective coefficient of friction is set to
Dynamic Coefficient.
Note: Small values for this option cause the integrator difficulties.
You should specify this value as:
Friction Transition Vel. 5* ERROR
where ERROR is the integration error used for the solution. Its
default value is 1E-3.
Range: Friction Transition Vel. Static Transition Vel. > 0
To: Do the following:
Adams/View
Contacts
8
Simulation Results of Contact Forces
When you run a simulation, Adams/View automatically calculates specific attributes of contact forces.
The results appear in Adams/PostProcessor in plotting mode for objects.
For contact force:
• element_force
• element_torque
For tracks:
• Double-click a track to view:
• I_Point
• I_Normal_Force
• I_Friction_Force
• I_Normal_Unit_Vector
• I_Friction_Unit_Vector
• J_Point
• J_Normal_Force
• J_Friction_Force
Model the friction effects
at the contact locations
using your own model
1. Set Friction Force to User Defined.
2. Enter parameters to a user-defined subroutine, CNFSUB, and enter
the name of the routine.
3. In the Static Transition Vel. text box, enter the static transition
velocity.
Adams/Solver gradually transitions the coefficient of friction from
the value in Dynamic Coefficient to the value in Static Coefficent
as the slip velocity at the contact point decreases. When the slip
velocity is equal to the value you specify for Static Transition Vel.,
the effective coefficient of friction is set to the value in Static
Coefficient.
Range: 0 < Static Transition Vel. Friction Transition Vel
Note: A small value for Static Transition Vel. causes numerical
integrator difficulties. A general rule for specifying this value
is:
Static Transition Vel. ERROR
where ERROR is the accuracy requested of the integrator. Its
default value is 1E-3. See Solver Settings - Dynamic.
To: Do the following:
9
Contacts
• J_Normal_Unit_Vector
• J_Friction_Unit_Vector
• Slip_Deformation
• Slip_Velocity
• Penetration
Learning More about the Contact Detection Algorithm
To greatly simplify the contact detection algorithm, Adams/Solver assumes that the volume of
intersection between two solids will be much, much less than the volume of either solid. This means that,
for example for a sphere in a V-groove, the Adams/Solver algorithm breaks down when the two contact
volumes merge into one. This assumption is not as drastic as it may first appear. The reason is that most
users are interested in contact between rigid bodies (that is, bodies that do not undergo a large
deformation). Also, rigid bodies generally do not penetrate very far into one another. Note that we do not
recommend that you use the contact detection algorithm in the modeling of very soft bodies.
After contact occurs between two solids, Adams/Solver computes the volumes of intersection. There may
be only one volume of intersection, or there may be multiple volumes of intersection (this would
correspond to multiple locations of contact). In this discussion, we assume that there is only a single
volume of intersection. The algorithm is the same for every intersection volume.
Once there is contact, Adams/Solver finds the centroid of the intersection volume. This is the same as the
center of mass of the intersection volume (assuming the intersection volume has uniform density).
Next, Adams/Solver finds the closest point on each solid to the centroid. The distance between these two
points is the penetration depth.
Adams/Solver then puts this distance into the formula:
F = K*(distance)
n
where:
• K - material stiffness
• n - exponent
• F - force
to determine the contact force due to the material stiffness (there can also be damping and friction forces
in the contact).
For example, if you apply this algorithm to a sphere on a plate, the intersection volume is some type of
spherical shape with a flat side. The centroid of this volume can be computed (this is where most of the
time is spent in the algorithm). It will be below the plate and inside the sphere. The nearest point on the
plate (to the centroid) and the nearest point on the sphere (to the centroid) can also be computed. In this
case, the line between them will pass through the center of the sphere (this will also be the direction in
which the contact force acts).
Adams/View
Contacts
10
Again, the algorithm can handle the case of a sphere in a V-groove. There will be two volumes of
intersection and two separate forces will be applied to sphere and to the V-groove (equal and opposite
forces).
Contact Friction Force Calculation
Adams/Solver uses a relatively simple velocity-based friction model for contacts. Specifying the
frictional behavior is optional. The figure below shows how the coefficient of friction varies with slip
velocity.
Coefficient of Friction Varying with Slip Velocity
11
Contacts
In this simple model:
Material Contact Properties Table
The table below shows material types and their commonly used values for the dynamic coefficient of
friction and restitution.
Material 1: Material 2: Mu static: Mu dynamic: Restitution Coefficient:
Dry steel Dry steel 0.70 0.57 0.80
Greasy steel Dry steel 0.23 0.16 0.90
Greasy steel Greasy steel 0.23 0.16 0.90
Dry aluminium Dry steel 0.70 0.50 0.85
Adams/View
Contacts
12
Dry aluminium Greasy steel 0.23 0.16 0.85
Dry aluminium Dry aluminium 0.70 0.50 0.85
Greasy aluminium Dry steel 0.30 0.20 0.85
Greasy aluminium Greasy steel 0.23 0.16 0.85
Greasy aluminium Dry aluminium 0.30 0.20 0.85
Greasy aluminium Greasy aluminium 0.30 0.20 0.85
Acrylic Dry steel 0.20 0.15 0.70
Acrylic Greasy steel 0.20 0.15 0.70
Acrylic Dry aluminium 0.20 0.15 0.70
Acrylic Greasy aluminium 0.20 0.15 0.70
Acrylic Acrylic 0.20 0.15 0.70
Nylon Dry steel 0.10 0.06 0.70
Nylon Greasy steel 0.10 0.06 0.70
Nylon Dry aluminium 0.10 0.06 0.70
Nylon Greasy aluminium 0.10 0.06 0.70
Nylon Acrylic 0.10 0.06 0.65
Nylon Nylon 0.10 0.06 0.70
Dry rubber Dry Steel 0.80 0.76 0.95
Dry rubber Greasy steel 0.80 0.76 0.95
Dry rubber Dry aluminium 0.80 0.76 0.95
Dry rubber Greasy aluminium 0.80 0.76 0.95
Dry rubber Acrylic 0.80 0.76 0.95
Dry rubber Nylon 0.80 0.76 0.95
Dry rubber Dry rubber 0.80 0.76 0.95
Greasy rubber Dry steel 0.63 0.56 0.95
Greasy rubber Greasy steel 0.63 0.56 0.95
Greasy rubber Dry aluminium 0.63 0.56 0.95
Greasy rubber Greasy aluminium 0.63 0.56 0.95
Greasy rubber Acrylic 0.63 0.56 0.95
Greasy rubber Nylon 0.63 0.56 0.95
Greasy rubber Dry rubber 0.63 0.56 0.95
Greasy rubber Greasy rubber 0.63 0.56 0.95
Material 1: Material 2: Mu static: Mu dynamic: Restitution Coefficient:
13
Contacts
References
The friction values used in the material interaction table are generalized values based on the following
references:
• Bowden & Tabor, "The Friction and Lubrication of Solids," Oxford.
• Fuller, "Theory and Practice of Lubrication for Engineers," Wiley.
• Ham & Crane, "Mechanics of Machinery," McGraw-Hill.
• Bevan, "Theory of Machines," Longmans.
• Shigley, "Mechanical Design," McGraw-Hill.
• Rabinowicz, "Friction and Wear of Materials," Wiley.
Adams/View
Contacts
14
System Elements
System elements allow you to add your own algebraic and differential equations, and corresponding
states, to your model. Adams/Solver solves your equations simultaneously with the equations it generates
from other modeling elements.
Your user-defined equations can depend on any states in the model, such as time, part motions, forces, or
other user-defined states. In turn, you can reference your states in forces, system elements, and other
modeling elements.
System elements enable you to model system components that are not as easily represented by standard
Adams/View modeling objects, such as parts, constraints, and forces. They are useful for modeling
components or subsystems that have dynamics of their own. You can use system elements to represent a
control system, for example, or to model the dynamics of an electro-mechanical, hydraulic, or pneumatic
actuator. You can also use system elements to compute simulation output. For example, you might
calculate the energy dissipated in a damper.
The system elements are listed in the table below.
Example of Using System Element
We've provided a complete example of using System elements in a model in the examples directory of
your Adams installation directory. The example contains the following elements:
• State variables
• Arrays
• Matrices
• Implicit and explicit differential equations
The system
element: Defines:
Differential equation Differential equation that describes a user-defined variable in terms of its time
derivative.
General state
equation
System of explicit differential and (optionally) algebraic equations in state-
space form. You use array data elements to specify inputs, outputs, and
statements.
Linear state equation System of constant coefficient, explicit, differential, and algebraic equations in
the classic state-space format when used with associated array and matrix data
elements.
Transfer function Single-input, single-output transfer function as a ratio of two polynomials in
the Laplace domain when used with associated array data elements.
State variable Scalar algebraic equation for independent use or as part of the plant input, plant
output, or array data elements.
Adams/View
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2
• Linear state equations
• Transfer functions
The files you use to run the example are:
• system_tutorial.cmd - Contains an Adams/View command file that builds a model containing the
elements listed above.
• system_tutorial.txt - Describes the model and its construction.
The path to the files is /install_dir/aview/examples/user_guide, where install_dir is where the Adams
software is installed.
Controlling Equilibrium Values When Using System Elements
During a static simulation, Adams/Solver finds equilibrium values for user-defined differential variables
(differential equations, general state equations, linear state equations, and transfer functions), as well as
for the displacement and force variables. The equilibrium values it finds change the initial conditions for
subsequent simulations. To help you control the static simulation results, Adams/View provides an option
that you can set to keep the values constant. This option is called static hold. Static hold retains the user-
specified initial conditions as the static equilibrium values.
If you do not set static hold, Adams/Solver sets the time derivatives of the user-defined variables to zero
during a static simulation, and uses the user-supplied initial-condition values only as initial guesses for
the static solution. Generally, the final equilibrium values are not the same as the initial condition values.
Adams/Solver then uses the equilibrium values of the user-defined variables as the initial values for any
subsequent simulation, just as with the equilibrium displacement and force values.
If you do set static hold, Adams/Solver retains the user-specified initial conditions as the static
equilibrium values. Therefore, the final equilibrium values are the same as the user-specified initial
conditions. Note that this does not guarantee that the time derivatives of the user-defined variable are zero
after a static simulation.
Using Arrays with System Elements
You use array elements to represent the system states and outputs for linear state equations, general state
equations, and transfer functions. You use the run-time function ARYVAL to reference states and outputs
for these elements, instead of using Adams functions that are dedicated expressly to the equations. For
more information on arrays, see Creating and Modifying Arrays. For more information on the ARYVAL
function, see Adams/View Function Builder online help.
The state variable and differential equation elements do not use arrays. You reference a state variable with
the VARVAL function, and reference a differential equation with the DIF and DIF1 functions. Again, for
more information on these functions, see Adams/View Function Builder online help.
3
System Elements
Terminology Used in System Elements
The terminology used in the dialog boxes for creating linear state equations, general state equations, and
transfer function follows standard control systems terminology, where:
• x is the state array
• y is the output array
• u is the input array
• IC is the initial conditions array, x(t=0)
You define each of these arrays using an array data element stored in the current Modeling database. All
array sizes must be consistent with the definition of the system elements. Do not define arrays with zero-
size and zero-valued partial-derivative matrices. Adams/Solver correctly formulates the system equations
based on those arrays and derivatives that do exist.
About Using Differential Equations
A differential equation creates a user-defined state variable and defines a first-order differential equation
that describes it. The equation can be dependent on any Adams/Solver state variable available in a
function expression except Point-Curve Constraints and 2D Curve-Curve Constraints. You can create
systems of differential equations using more than one differential equation, linear state equation, or
general state equation.
You describe the variable in a differential equation either by writing a function expression or User-written
subroutine. Because it is easier to write function expressions than subroutines, you should use function
expressions whenever possible to describe user-defined differential variables.
Ways to Define Differential Equations
You can define the differential equation in either explicit or implicit form. The following equation defines
the explicit form of a differential equation:
where:
• is the time derivative of the user-defined state variable.
• y is the user-defined state variable itself.
• is a vector of Adams/Solver-defined state variables.
You need to use the implicit form if the first derivative of the state variable cannot be isolated. The
following equation defines the implicit form of a differential equation:
y
·
f y q q
·
t . . . ( ) =
y
·
q
0 F y y
·
q q
·
t . . . . ( ) =
Adams/View
System Elements
4
Ways You Can Use Differential Equations
Differential equations are best for creating single equations or small sets of equations. Although you can
create sets of differential equations to represent higher-order equations or large systems of equations,
other Adams/Solver elements, such as transfer functions, linear state equations, or general state
equations, can be more convenient in these cases.
You can use the solution to the differential equation in function expression that define a number of other
elements in Adams, such as a force, or in User-written subroutines. Both function expressions and user-
written subroutines can access the user-defined state variable and its derivative. Therefore, you can use
Adams/Solver to solve an independent initial value problem, or you can fully couple the differential
equations with the system of equations that governs the dynamics of the problem.
Function expressions access the state variable using the function DIF(i1) and the derivative using
DIF1(i1). In each case, i1 specifies the name of the differential equation that defines the variable. User-
written subroutines access the value and derivative by calling the subroutine SYSFNC. For more
information on functions, see Adams/View Function Builder online help. For more information on
subroutines, see the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help.
Creating and Modifying Differential Equation
The following procedure explains how to create or modify a differential equation.
To create or modify differential equations:
1. From the Build menu, point to System Elements, point to Differential Equation, and then select
either New or Modify.
2. If you selected Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a differential equation to modify.
The Create/Modify Differential Equation dialog box appears. Both dialog boxes contain the same
options.
3. If you selected New, change the name of the differential equation element, if desired.
4. Set Type to either Explicit or Implicit to indicate that the function expression or User-written
subroutine defines the explicit or implicit form of the equation. Learn about Ways to Define
Differential Equations.
5. Do either of the following:
• Set Definition to Run-time Expression, and, in the y' = text box, enter a function expression
that Adams/Solver evaluates during a Simulation. In the function expression, the system
variable DIF(i) is the value of the dependent variable that the differential equation defines, and
DIF1(j) is the first derivative of the dependent variable that the differential equation defines.
Select the More button to display the Function Builder and build an expression. See
Function Builder and Adams/View Function Builder online help.
• Set Definition to User Written Subroutine and in the y' = text box, enter parameters that are
passed to a user-written subroutine DIFSUB or specify an alternative library and name for the
user subroutine in the Routine text box. Learn about Adams/Solver Subroutines. Learn about
specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.
5
System Elements
6. In the Initial Conditions text box, specify:
• The initial value of the differential equation at the start of the simulation.
• Optionally, if you are defining an implicit equation, an approximate value of the initial time
derivative of the differential equation at the start of the simulation. (You do not need to supply
a second value when you enter a explicit equation because Adams/Solver can compute the
initial time derivative directly from the equation.)
7. Adams/Solver might adjust the value of the time derivative when it performs an initial conditions
simulation. Entering an initial value for the time derivative helps Adams/Solver converge to a
desired initial conditions solution.
8. Select whether or not Adams should hold constant the value of the differential equation during
static and quasi-static Simulations. Learn about Controlling Equilibrium Values When Using
System Elements.
Creating and Modifying General State Equations
The following procedure teaches you how to represent a subsystem that has well defined inputs (u),
internal states (x), and a set of well defined outputs (y).
See GSE statement in the Adams/Solver online help for an extensive discussion on General State
equations.
To create or modify a general state equation:
1. From the Build menu, point to System Elements, point to General State Equation, and then
select either New or Modify.
2. If you selected Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a system element to modify.
The Create/Modify General State Equation dialog box appears. Both dialog boxes contain the
same options.
3. If you selected New, change the name of the general state equation element, if desired, and assign
a unique ID to it.
4. Set up the GSE by filling in the following text boxes:
• In the U Array (Inputs) text box, specify the array element that defines the input variables
for the GSE. The U array is optional. When not specified, there are no system inputs. The
number of inputs to the GSE is inferred from the number of variables in the U array.
• In the Y Array (Outputs) text box, specify the array element that defines the output variables
for the GSE.
• In the User Function Parameters text box, specify the parameters that are to be passed to the
User-written subroutines that define the constitutive equations of a GSE, viz., Equations (1),
(2), and (3).
Three user subroutines are associated with a GSE:
• GSE_DERIV is called to evaluate fc() in Equations 1.
Adams/View
System Elements
6
• GSE_UPDATE is called to evaluate fd() in Equations 2.
• GSE_OUTPUT is called to evaluate g() in Equations 3.
See the Subroutines help in the Adams/Solver online help.
If you specified a user function, in the Interface Function Names, enter function names to use
other than the standard names GSE_DERIV, GSE_UPDATE, and GSE_OUTPUT.
5. Set States to the type of system to define:
• Continuous Systems
• Discrete Systems
• Sampled Systems
• None (No options appear; defines a Feed-Forward Only System)
The dialog box changes depending on the type of system. See the next tables for the values to enter
depending on the systems you are creating. For a sampled system, you enter both continous and
discrete values.
6. Add or change any comments about the GSE that you want to enter to help you manage and
identify it.
7. Select OK.
Options for Defining Continuous and Sampled Systems
For the option: Do the following:
X Array (Continous) Enter the array element that defines the continuous states for the GSE. The
array element must be of the X type, and it cannot be used in any other linear
state equation, general state equation, or transfer function.
IC Array (Continous) Enter the array element that specifies the initial conditions for the continuous
states in the system.
When you do not specify an IC array for a GSE, all the continuous states are
initialized to zero.
Static Hold Indicate whether or not the continuous GSE states are permitted to change
during static and quasi-static simulations.
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System Elements
Options for Discrete and Sampled Systems
Creating and Modifying Linear State Equations
The following procedure explains how to create a linear state equation.
See LSE statement in Adams/Solver online help for an extensive discussion on Linear State Equations.
To create or modify a linear state equation:
1. From the Build menu, point to System Elements, point to Linear State Equation, and then
select either New or Modify.
2. If you selected Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a linear state equation to modify.
The Part Create Equation Linear State Equation or Part Modify Equation Linear State Equation
dialog box appears. Both dialog boxes contain the same options.
3. If you selected New, change the name of the linear state equation element, if desired, and assign
a unique ID number to it.
For the option: Do the following:
X Array (Discrete) Enter the array element that is used to access the discrete states for the GSE.
It must be of the X type, and it cannot be used in any other linear state
equation, general state equation, or transfer function.
IC Array (Discrete) Enter the array element that specifies the initial conditions for the discrete
states in the system. The array is optional. The array element must be of the
IC type.
When you do not specify an IC array for a GSE, all the discrete states are
initialized to zero.
First Sample Time Specify the Simulation time at which the sampling of the discrete states is to
start. All discrete states before the first sample time are defined to be at the
initial condition specified. The default is zero.
Sample
Function/Sample User
Parameters
Specify the sampling period associated with the discrete states of a GSE. This
tells Adams/Solver to control its step size so that the discrete states of the GSE
are updated at:
last_sample_time + sample_period
In cases where an expression for the sampling period is difficult to write, you
can specify it in a user-written subroutine GSE_SAMP. Adams/Solver will
call this function at each sample time to find out the next sample period.
Select the More button to display the Function Builder and build an
expression. See Function Builder and Adams/View Function Builder online
help.
Adams/View
System Elements
8
4. Add or change any comments about the equation element that you want to enter to help you
manage and identify the element.
5. Enter the arrays and matrices in the next text boxes as explained below.
• X State Array Name - Enter the array element that defines the state array for the linear
system. The array must be a states (X) array. It cannot be used in any other linear state
equation, general state equation, or transfer function.
• U Input Array Name - Enter the array element that defines the input (or control) array for the
linear system. Entering an inputs (U) array is optional. The array must be an inputs (U) array.
If you enter an inputs (U) array, you must also specify either a B input matrix, a D feedforward
matrix, or both.
The B and D matrices must have the same number of columns as there are elements in the
inputs (U) array.
• Y Output Array Name - Enter the array element that defines the column matrix of output
variables for the linear system. Entering an outputs (Y) array is optional. If you enter an
outputs (Y) array, you must also specify a C output matrix or a D feedforward matrix. The
corresponding matrix elements must have the same number of rows as there are elements in
the outputs (Y) array. It also must be an outputs (Y) array, and it cannot be used in any other
linear state equation, general state equation, or transfer function.
• IC Array Name - Enter the array element that defines the column matrix of initial conditions
for the linear system. Entering the IC array is optional. The IC array must have the same
number of elements as the states (X) array (equal to the number of rows in the A state matrix).
When you do not specify an IC array, Adams/Solver initializes all states to zero.
• A State Matrix Name - Enter the matrix data element that defines the state transition matrix
for the linear system. The matrix must be a square matrix (same number of rows and columns),
and it must have the same number of columns as the number of rows in the states (X) array.
• B Input Matrix Name - Enter the matrix data element that defines the control matrix for the
linear system. The B input matrix must have the same number of rows as the A state matrix
and the same number of columns as the number of elements in the inputs (U) array.
Entering a B input matrix is optional. If you enter a B input matrix, you must also include an
inputs (U) array.
• C Output Matrix Name - Enter the matrix data element that defines the output matrix for the
linear system. The C output matrix must have the same number of columns as the A state
matrix and the same number of rows as the number of elements in the outputs (Y) array.
Entering a C output matrix is optional. If you enter a C output matrix, you must also include
an outputs (Y) array name.
• D Feedforward Matrix Name - Enter the matrix data element that defines the feedforward
matrix for the linear system. The D feedforward matrix must have the same number of rows
as the number of elements in the Y output array and the same number of columns as the
number of elements in the inputs (U) array.
When you enter a D feedforward matrix, you must also include both a Y output matrix and an
inputs (U) array.
9
System Elements
6. Set Static hold to yes to hold states at the constant value determined during static and quasi-static
simulations; no if they can change. Learn about Controlling Equilibrium Values When Using
System Elements.
7. Select OK.
Creating and Modifying Transfer Functions
The following procedure examples how to create or modify a transfer function.
See TFSISO statement in Adams/Solver online help for an extensive discussion on Transfer functions.
To create or modify a transfer function:
1. From the Build menu, point to System Elements, point to Transfer Function, and then select
either New or Modify.
2. If you selected Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a system element to modify.
3. The Create/Modify Transfer Function dialog box appears. Both dialog boxes contain the same
options.
4. If you selected New, change the name of the transfer function element, if desired.
5. Enter the arrays for the transfer function in the next three text boxes as explained below:
• Input Array Name (U) - Enter the array that defines the input (or control) for the transfer
function. The array must be an inputs (U) array. If you specified the size of the array when you
created it, it must be one.
• State Array Name (X) - Enter the array that defines the state variable array for the transfer
function. The array must be a states (X) array, and it cannot be used in any other linear state
equation, general state equation, or transfer function. If you specified the size of the array
when you created it, it must be one less than the number of coefficients in the denominator.
• Output Array (Y) - Enter the array that defines the output for the transfer function. The array
must be an outputs (Y) array, and it cannot be used in any other linear state equation, general
state equation, or transfer function. If you specify the size of the array when you created it, its
size must be one.
6. In the Denominator Coefficients and Numerator Coefficients text boxes, specify the
coefficients of the polynomial in the numerator and denominator of the transfer function. List the
coefficients in order of ascending power of s, starting with s to the zero power, including any
intermediate zero coefficients. The number of coefficients for the denominator must be greater
than or equal to the number of coefficients for the numerator. The number of coefficients for the
denominator must be greater than or equal to the number of coefficients for the numerator.
7. Select Check Format and Display Plot to display a plot of the transfer function. (see Plots
Transfer Function dialog box help)
8. Select whether or not Adams should hold constant the value of the transfer equation during static
and quasi-static Simulations. Learn about Controlling Equilibrium Values When Using System
Elements.
Adams/View
System Elements
10
9. Select OK.
About State Variables
You create state variables to define scalar algebraic equations for independent use or as part of the plant
input, plant output, or array elements. The computed value of the variable can depend on almost any
Adams system variable. Note that you cannot access reaction forces from Point-Curve Constraints and
Curve-Curve Constraints.
You use state variables in the following ways:
• With plant input and plant output elements to identify inputs and output for an Adams/Linear
solution. For information on using Adams/Linear and plant inputs and plant outputs, see the
Adams/Solver online help.
• With array elements to identify inputs to linear state equations, general state equations, and
transfer functions.
• Independently to break up long function expressions into several parts or to compute common
values that you need in several other function expressions. Using state variables to compute
intermediate values can make complex expressions easier to read and modify. If you use the
expression in many places, computing it once in a state variable can also be faster
computationally.
Ways to Define State Variables
You can define the computed value of a variable by either:
• Writing a function expression in the model.
• Calling a VARSUB User-written subroutine.
Function expressions and user-written subroutines can access the computed value of the variable using
the Adams/View function VARVAL(variable_name) to represent the value, where variable_name
specifies the name of the variable. User-written subroutines access a single variable by calling the
subroutine SYSFNC.
For more information on functions, see Adams/View Function Builder online help. For more information
on subroutines, see the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help.
Cautions When Using State Variables
You should use caution when defining variables that are dependent on other variables or on Adams/View
elements that contain functions. It is possible to create equations that cannot be solved. If a defined
system of equations does not have a stable solution, convergence can fail for the entire Adams model.
For example, if you define your state variable my_variable using the function expression:
F = varval(my_variable) + 1
You are defining the following algebraic equation that has no solution:
11
System Elements
V = V + 1
When Adams/Solver tries to solve this equation using the Newton-Raphson iteration, the solution
diverges and a message appears on the screen indicating that the solution has failed to converge.
Creating and Modifying State Variables
The following procedure explains how to create or modify a state variable.
To create and modify a state variable:
1. From the Build menu, point to System Elements, point to State Variable, and then select either
New or Modify.
2. If you selected Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a system element to modify.
The Create/Modify State Variable dialog box appears.
3. If you selected New, change the name of the state variable element, if desired
4. Set Definition to either of the following:
• Run-time Expression
• User written subroutine
Learn more about Ways to Define State Variables.
5. If you selected:
• Run-time Expression, enter the function expression that defines the variable. Select the More
button to display the Function Builder and build an expression. See Function Builder and
Adams/View Function Builder online help.
• User written subroutine, enter constants to the User-written subroutine VARSUB to define a
variable. See the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help.
6. If desired, select Guess for F(1, 0..), and then specify an approximate initial value for the variable.
Adams/Solver may adjust the value when it performs an Initial conditions simulation. Entering an
accurate value for initial conditions can help Adams/Solver converge to the initial conditions
solution.
Adams/View
Data Elements
12
Data Elements
Arrays
Types of Arrays
There are four types of arrays:
• General/Initial Conditions - Define an array of constants used as initial conditions for a system
element or User-written subroutine.
• States (X) and Outputs (Y) - Designate the state or output variable arrays for a system element,
such as a linear state equation, general state equation, or transfer function. Adams/Solver
computes these values during a Simulation.
To use the arrays, you reference them in function expressions. You can reference the array as the
state or output variable array of only one system element in a model (for example, only one
linear state equation or one general state equation).
Learn about System Elements.
• Inputs (U) - An array that groups together a set of variables used to define the inputs for a system
element. Adams/View computes variable values from the specified variable data elements.
The inputs (U) and the initial conditions arrays can exist independently, and do not need to be
referenced by another system element.
Both function expressions and user-written subroutines can access the array values. Function
expressions use the function ARYVAL (ARRAY_NAME, COMPONENT) to access the values.
ARRAY_NAME specifies the name of the array, and COMPONENT specifies the position of
the desired value in the array definition.
You should note that you can only access states (X), outputs (Y), and inputs (U) arrays in
functions because the initial condition array is not accessible in the model definition. You can
access the initial condition array in a user-written subroutine. To access all the elements of an
array, call the subroutine SYSARY. To access one element of an array in a subroutine, call the
subroutine SYSFNC. See the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help.
Determining Array Size
For the states (X) and outputs (Y) arrays, the system element in which the arrays are referenced
automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the array size, if you specify one. For
initial conditions and general arrays, Adams/View determines the actual size of the array during parsing,
as it counts the number of values. When you provide an array size, Adams/View checks the count for
consistency if you request size checking.
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Data Elements
If you specify the size of an array, it should match the number of values or variables in the array or the
size needed for the associated element. The following table lists the sizes for arrays used in different
system element equations.
To create or modify an array data element:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to Array, and then select either New or
Modify.
2. If you selected:
• New, the Create/Modify Solver Array dialog box appears, and you should continue with Step 3.
• Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a data element array to modify. The
Create/Modify Solver Array appears. Continue with Step 4.
3. If creating the array, accept the default name or assign a new name.
4. Select the type of array that you want to define. Learn about the Types of Arrays. The dialog box
changes depending on the selection you make.
For arrays used in: The array size is:
Linear state equation
(LSE)
• States (X) array size must be the same size as the row dimension of the
matrix used to define the state transition matrix for the linear system.
• Outputs (Y) size must be the same size as the row dimension of the
matrix used to define the output matrix for the linear system or the
matrix used to define the feed forward matrix for the linear system.
Transfer functions
(TFSISO)
• States (X) size is determined by the transformation from polynomial
ratio type to canonical state-space form, which is a set of coupled,
linear, constant-coefficient differential equations and a single algebraic
equation.
• Outputs (Y) size is always 1.
General state equations
(GSE)
• States (X) size is the same as the number defined in the matching
general state equation definition.
• Outputs (Y) size is the same as the number of output equations, as
defined in the same general state equation definition.
Tip: You might find it easier to track which array element goes with which system
element if you name the array elements and the corresponding system elements
with like names. For example, the states (X) array that goes with general state
equation GSE_100 would be ARRAY_100; the inputs (U) array would be
ARRAY_101; and the outputs (Y) array would be ARRAY_102.
Adams/View
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14
5. Depending on the type of array you are creating or modifying, enter or change the values in the
dialog box as explained in the next table, and then select OK.
Strings
A string element defines a character string that you can refer to later in the execution of Adams/View or
Adams/Solver. The character string cannot be broken and continued on the next line. It can, however, be
longer than a single line. You can use the GTSTRG subroutine to retrieve the character string in a User-
written subroutine. For example, you could use a string element to pass a file name to a user-written
subroutine. For more information, see the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help.
To create or modify a string:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to String, and then select either New or
Modify
2. If you selected:
• New, the Create/Modify String dialog box appears, and you should continue with Step 3.
• Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a data element string to modify. The Data
Element Modify String Element dialog box appears. It contains the same options as the Data
Element Create String Element dialog box.
3. In the Name text box, enter the name that you want assigned to the string.
4. In the String text box, enter the string values.
5. Select OK.
Curves
Learn more:
• About Data Element Curves
• Uses for Data Element Curves
• Steps in Defining Curves
• Using Curve Elements in Your Model
• Creating and Modifying Curve Data Elements
To create/modify: Do the following:
General and initial
conditions array
In the Numbers text box, enter the values to be stored in the array.
States (X) In the Size text box, enter the size of the array.
Outputs (Y) In the Size text box, enter the size of the array.
Inputs (U) In the Variables text box, enter the variables to be stored. If the array is used
as input to a transfer function, then you can enter only one variable.
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About Curve Data Elements
The x, y, and z coordinates of a point on a parametric curve are functions of an independent parameter,
alpha. As alpha varies from its minimum value to its maximum value, the functions x(alpha), y(alpha),
and z(alpha) sweep out points on the curve. A simple example of a parametric curve is the helix defined
by the following equations:
x = cos(alpha)
y = sin(alpha)
z = alpha
Ways to Use Curve Data Elements
A curve data element defines a three-dimensional parametric curve that you can reference when:
• Creating a higher-pair constraint - When you create or modify a Point-Curve Constraints or
2D Curve-Curve Constraints, you can pick the geometric curves that you've created from the
curve element or you can modify the point- or curve-curve constraint to use a different curve.
• Creating a part - You can use the curve that you create in the definition of a part. For example,
when you create a construction geometry spline using the geometric modeling tools as explained
in Creating Splines, Adams/View automatically creates a curve element defining the spline. You
could replace the default curve element with a curve element that you create. You could also
create an empty part using the Table Editor, and modify it to contain a curve element.
• Writing function expressions - You can use the curve element as the input to a function, such as
CURVE(B-Spline fitting method). For more information on using curves in a function
expression, see Spline Functions in Adams/View Function Builder online help.
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Defining Data Element Curves
You can define a data element curve using:
• Data points in a matrix - When you create a curve data element, you define the curve points to
which Adams/View matches a curve. You set the way in which Adams/View fits the curve to the
curve points by setting the interpolation order. In addition, you specify whether or not the curve
is open or closed. Learn About Specifying Open or Closed Curves.
• Subroutine - To use a different type of curve or to model an analytically defined curve, such as
a helix, you can write a CURSUB User-written subroutine to compute the curve coordinates and
derivatives. See the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help. You can also specify an
alternative library and name for the user subroutine. Learn about specifying your own routine
with ROUTINE Argument.
Adams/View defines a b-spline using control points that form a polygon in space and a knot vector. It
computes the control points internally from the curve points. Adams/View uses a non-uniform knot
vector with quadruple multiplicity at both ends. The curve starts at the first control point and ends at the
last. In between, it is attracted to, but does not necessarily hit, the intermediate control points.
Adams/View parameterizes a b-Spline starting at -1 and ending at +1. The figure below shows a set of
control points and the b-spline curve it defines.
Control Points and the Resulting B-Spline
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Steps in Defining a Curve
To create a curve using curve or data points that are defined in a matrix element or using a User-written
subroutine, you perform the steps listed in the figure below.
About Specifying Open or Closed Curves
A data element curve can be open or closed. A closed curve meets at the ends, connecting the curve at
minimum and maximum parameter values. An open curve does not meet at the ends.
If you create an open curve, Adams/View does not allow a point-curve (see Point-Curve Constraints) or
2D curve-curve (see Curve-Curve Constraints) contact point to move beyond the end of the curve.
Adams/View, however, automatically moves a point-curve or curve-curve constraint contact point across
the closure of a closed curve, if needed. For example, you can model a cam profile as a closed curve, and
Adams/View allows the follower to move across the closure as the cam rotates.
Adams/View stops the simulation if a point-curve or curve-curve constraint contact point is prescribed
to move off the end of the curve. You should ensure that the curve defined includes the expected range
of contact.
Using Curve Elements in Your Model
Once you've created a curve element, you can use it to define a higher-pair constraint, as geometry of a
part, or in a function expression.
• Higher-Pair Constraint - When you create or modify either Point-Curve Constraints or Curve-
Curve Constraints, you can pick the geometric curves that you've created from the curve element
or you can modify the point- or curve-curve constraint to use a different curve.
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• Geometry of a part - You can use the curve that you create in the definition of a part. For
example, when you create a Construction geometry spline using the geometric modeling tools as
explained in Creating Splines, Adams/View automatically creates a curve element defining the
spline. You could replace the default curve element with a curve element that you create. You
could also create an empty part using the Table Editor, and modify it to contain a curve element.
• Function expression - You can use the curve element as the input to a function, such as CURVE
(B-Spline fitting method). See Spline Functions in Adams/View Function Builder online help.
Creating and Modifying Curve Data Elements
To create or modify a curve data element:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to Curve, and then select either New or
Modify.
2. If you selected:
• New, the Data Element Create Curve dialog box appears and you should continue with Step 4.
• Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a data element curve to modify. The Data
Element Modify Curve dialog box appears. It contains the same options as the Data Element
Create Curve dialog box.
3. If creating the curve, accept the default name or assign a new name.
4. Assign a unique ID number to the curve element, if desired.
5. Add or change any comments about the curve element to help you manage and identify it.
6. Set Closed to no to create an open curve or yes to create a closed curve.
7. Set the pull-down menu in the middle of the dialog box for how you want to define the curve
(either from a matrix or a User-written subroutine). The dialog box changes depending on the
selection you made. Learn more about Defining Data Element Curves.
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8. If you are entering values using a matrix, enter values in the dialog box as explained in the table
below, and then select OK.
9. If you are entering values using a subroutine, enter values in the dialog box as explained in the
table below, and then select OK.
Splines
A spline creates a continuous function from a set of data points.
Learn about:
• About Data Element Splines
To set: Do the following:
Matrix to be used In the Matrix Name text box, enter the matrix name.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Interpolation order Specify the order of the b-spline interpolating the curve. The order is 1 plus the
degree of the functions used to define the spline. The order also affects the
number of points used to determine each spline segment. For example, splines
of order 2 are basically polylines, while the segments used to create an spline of
order 4 are of the 3rd order. 4 is the default order of splines, which is a cubic b-
spline.
Note: B-splines of order K will have K - 2 continious derivatives. The
discontinuities appear where the polynomial segments join together.
Increasing the order of the b-spline arbitrarily may introduce
unwanted oscillation into the curve.
To set: Do the following:
User-written subroutine
to be used
In the User Function text box, enter the subroutine name. You can also
specify an alternative library and name for the subroutine in the Routine
text box. Learn about specifying your own routine with ROUTINE
Argument.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Minimum and maximum
curve parameters
Enter the following:
Minimum Parameter - Enter the minimum value of the curve parameter
for a user-written curve.
Maximum Parameter - Enter the maximum value of the curve parameter
for a user-written curve.
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• Ways to Create Splines
• Curve-Fitting Techniques
• Creating Splines Using the Spline Editor
• Creating Splines Using the General Method
• Modifying Splines
• Tips and Cautions When Creating Splines
• Example of Using Splines
About Data Element Splines
A spline creates a continuous function from a set of data points. Splines are useful when you have test
data or manufacturer specifications that specify the value of a function at several points. The spline can
define a curve (two-dimensional, x, y) or a surface (three-dimensional, x, y, z).
You can use splines to create nonlinear functions for motions, forces, or other elements that use functions.
In the case of a motion, the points define the displacement, velocity, or acceleration as a function of time,
displacement, velocity, or another Adams quantity.
The Adams/View spline element contains the x, y or x, y, z data points that you want to interpolate. To
use the spline element, you must write a function expression that includes Adams spline functions (such
as AKISPL or CUBSPL) or create a User-written subroutine that calls one of the spline utility subroutines
(AKISPL or CUBSPL subroutine). The functions or subroutines interpolate the discrete data.
Ways to Create Splines
You can enter spline data into Adams/View in several ways:
• Use the Spline Editor (see Create/Modify Spline dialog box help) to create a spline in
Adams/View. The Spline Editor provides you with a table for inputting values and a plotting
window for viewing the results and the effects of different curve-fitting techniques.
• Use the general method to define spline data points by referencing either a file containing a set
of points or results from a simulation. You can also enter numerical values directly. See Creating
Splines Using the General Method.
• Import tabular data into Adams/View and save it as a spline. For information on how to import
test data as splines, see Import - Test Data.
• Use the data from a plot and save it as a spline. For more information, see Creating Splines from
Curves in the Adams/PostProcessor online help.
General Method for Creating Splines
Creating splines using the general method lets you define the data points of the spline using:
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• File - The file is in RPC III, DAC, or user-defined format. The file contains x, y, and, optionally,
z values that define the spline data points. You can specify that Adams/View only use a particular
named block or channel within the file. You can only enter time response data in RPC III and
DAC files if you are using Adams/Durability. For more information on using splines in
Adams/Durability, see Adams/Durability online help.
Entering a user-defined file causes Adams/Solver to call the User-written subroutine
SPLINE_READ, which you must provide. For more on how to define a SPLINE using a user-
defined file, see the example in SPLINE_READ of the Adams/Solver Subroutines online help.
• Results of a simulation - You can also use the results of a Simulation as input to a spline by
referencing Result set components. For more on result set components, see About Simulation
Output.
• Numerical values directly input in the dialog box - You can directly input x, y, and, optionally,
z values in the dialog box.
Curve-Fitting Techniques in Adams/View
Adams/View uses curve-fitting techniques to interpolate between data points to create a continuous
function. If the spline data has one independent variable, Adams/View uses a cubic polynomial to
interpolate between points. If the spline data has two independent variables, Adams/View first uses a
cubic interpolation method to interpolate between points of the first independent variable and then uses
a linear method to interpolate between curves of the second independent variable.
For information on the different spline functions that use these curve fitting techniques, see the
definitions of the functions in Adams/View Function Builder online help, and for a comparison of the
different methods, refer to Spline Functions in the same help.
Creating Splines Using the Spline Editor
The Spline Editor provides a tabular or plot view of your spline data for editing and plotting. You can
drag points on your spline plots and see the effect of different curve-fitting techniques on your spline.
You can also select linear extrapolation and view its effect.
Using the Spline Editor, you can create a two- or three-dimensional splines.
Learn more:
General Procedures
• Displaying the Spline Editor and Setting the View
• Setting Spline Units and Dimensions
• Specifying Linear Extrapolation
Plotting a Spline:
• Setting the View of the Spline Plot
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• Viewing a Three-Dimensional Plot in the Spline Editor
• Editing Spline Plot Data
• Changing Plotting Methods and Recomputing the Plot
• Transferring Plot to Adams/PostProcessor
Editing a Spline in a Table:
• Working with Tables
• Adding and Removing Rows
Displaying the Spline Editor and Setting the View
You can choose to view your spline as a plot or as a table in tabular format:
• Plot view
• Tabular view
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Spline Editor in Plot View
Viewing the spline as a plot lets you view the data in the spline as a curve and apply several operations
on the curve, such as change the curve-fitting techniques being used to create the curve, view the results
of linear extrapolation, or view the changes you made against the original spline values.
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Spline Ediotr in Tabular View
Viewing a spline in tabular view gives you the most accuracy for setting the location of the spline data
points. It also lets you quickly add points by inserting rows of data.
To display the Spline Editor:
• From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to Spline, and then select New.
To set the view of the Spline Editor:
• Set View As to either Tabular Data or Plot.
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Data Elements
Setting Spline Units and Dimensions
You can specify the units that you want assigned for values in your spline in the Spline Editor. If you set
the units for your data points, Adams/View automatically performs any necessary unit conversions if you
ever change your default modeling units.
You can also select to create two- or three-dimensional splines. When you create a three-dimensional
spline in tabular view, the Spline Editor displays a second column for adding z values as shown below.
Note that you can view the z dimension in the 3D Spline Plot Viewer. You also need to recompute the
spline in plot view to set a three-dimensional spline. (Learn about Viewing a Three-Dimensional Plot in
the Spline Editor.)
To set units:
• Set Units to the desired units. Select no_units if you do not want units associated with the
values.
To specify two- or three-dimensional splines:
1. Set Type to either:
• y=f(x) (2D) to create or edit a two-dimensional, curve spline.
• y=f(x,z) (3D) to create or edit a three-dimensional, surface spline.
2. If you are in plot view to see the effect of the changes, select Recompute. Learn about Changing
Plotting Methods and Recomputing the Plot.
Specifying Linear Extrapolation
Linear extrapolation extends the curve created from the spline values by estimating the values that follow
from the spline values.
To specify linear extrapolation:
• Select Linear extrapolation.
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To view the results of the linear extrapolation on the spline:
• Change the Spline Editor to plot view and select Extrapolation Tails.
Learn about Curve-Fitting Techniques in Adams/View.
Setting the View of the Spline Plot
When the Spline Editor is in plot view, there are several ways you can change the view of the spline plot,
including viewing the slope of the curve, turning off the display of the data points that make up the spline,
and more. Be default, Adams/View displays a curve and hotpoints representing the spline data points.
(Learn about Viewing a Three-Dimensional Plot in the Spline Editor.)
To view the curve that Adams/View generates from the data points:
• Select Spline Curves.
If creating a 3D spline, you can view a 3D plot of the curves.
To view the slope (derivative) of a curve:
• Select Slope Curves.
To view the spline data points:
• Select Symbols.
You can edit the data points and, if creating a 3D spline, you can view a 3D plot of the points.
To retain the original curve as you edit the data points:
• Select Memory Curves.
To view the effect of linear extrapolation:
• Select Extrapolation Tails.
For more on setting up linear extrapolation, see Specifying Linear Extrapolation.
Viewing a Three-Dimensional Plot in the Spline Editor
In the Spline Editor, in either plot view or tabular view, you can display a three-dimensional (3D) plot of
your spline. You must have set the type of the spline to 3D. (Learn about Setting Spline Units and
Dimensions and Displaying the Spline Editor and Setting the View.)
In plot view, you can display two different 3D plots:
• Data Points - Using the 3D button next to Symbols displays the 3D spline using the raw data
points (that is, the points represented by the curve symbols in the 2D plot). This is the same plot
you see when you select to view a 3D plot in tabular view.
• Spline Representation - Using the 3D button next to Spline Curves displays a 3D plot using the
spline representations Adams/View generates from the raw data points. Each of the curves in the
2D plot represents one of the rows in the 3D preview plot.
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In tabular view, to display a 3D plot of the data points:
• From the bottom right corner, select 3D Preview.
In plot view, to display a 3D plot of the data points:
• Next to Symbols, select 3D.
In plot view, to display a 3D plot of spline representations:
• Next to Spline Curves, select 3D.
To display the coordinates of a vertex on a 3D plot (called Probe mode):
1. Type a lowercase p.
2. Place the cursor over the vertex of interest.
The Spline Editor displays the coordinates (x, y, z values).
Editing Spline Plot Data
The left side of the Spline Editor in plot view displays a plot of the data points in the spline in plot view.
Hotpoints appear on the curve in the plot window at each data point in the spline. You can drag the
hotpoints to change the data point locations.
To edit data points:
1. Click the data point that you want to edit. Note that you must turn on the viewing of symbols.
Hotpoints appear at each data point.
2. Position the cursor on a hotpoint and drag the hotpoint to the desired location.
Changing Plotting Methods and Recomputing the Plot
By default in plot view, the Spline Editor displays a curve from your spline data points using 50 curve
points and the Akima curve-fitting method. You can change the number of points and the method used
to calculate the curve. You must recompute the spline to see the effect of these changes. As you
recompute the spline, you can select to use the values stored for the spline in the modeling database or
use the values as you've edited them.
To change the number of points used to display a curve:
• In the Points text box of the Spline Editor, enter the number of points.
To set the curve-fitting technique:
• Set Spline Type to either AKISPL or CUBSPL.
Learn about Curve-Fitting Techniques in Adams/View.
Note: Changing the number of points only changes the display of the curve, making it smoother
or more coarse. It does not change the number of data points in the curve.
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To recompute the curve:
1. Select Recompute.
Adams/View asks you if you want to use the current values for the spline or the ones stored in the
modeling database.
2. Select one of the following:
• Yes to use the values in the database.
• No to use the edited values.
Transferring Plot to Adams/PostProcessor
As you work on a spline in the Spline Editor, you can transfer its plot to Adams/PostProcessor where you
can save your plot and have it be accessible in Adams/PostProcessor for such operations as creating
reports. Note that any changes you make to the plot in Adams/PostProcessor are not reflected in the actual
spline object because you are editing the plot, not the spline data.
To transfer a spline plot:
1. In the lower right corner of the Spline Editor, select Transfer to Full Plot.
2. Display Adams/PostProcessor to view the plot.
Working with Tables
The left side of the Spline Editor in tabular view displays the data points for the current spline. You can
change any of the values in the cells of the Spline Editor and work with the cell much as you do in any
spreadsheet editor.
To enter text in a cell:
1. Click the cell. The text cursor appears in the cell.
2. Type the text you want and press Enter.
To move to the next cell:
• Press Tab.
To move to the previous cell:
• Press Shift + Tab.
To move up to the previous row or down to the next row:
• Select the up or down arrow keys.
To cut or copy text in cells:
1. Select the text in the cell that you want to cut or copy.
2. Right-click the cell containing the text to be cut or copied, and then select Copy or Cut.
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To paste text:
• Right-click the cell where you want to insert the text, and then select Paste.
To view the entire contents of a cell:
Often, information displayed in a cell of the Spline Editor is longer than the width of the cell. When this
happens, Adams/View displays the first portion of the information. In UNIX, it also displays an arrow
next to the cell to indicate that there is more information than can fit in the cell.
• Click in the cell. Adams/View displays the last portion of the information in the cell.
To resize a column:
1. Point to the right border of the column heading that you want to resize. The cursor changes to a
double-sided arrow.
2. Drag the cursor until the column is the desired size.
3. Release the mouse button.
Adding and Removing Rows
You can add rows to the X and Y table and to the Z table if you are creating a three-dimensional spline.
To add a row to the beginning of the X and Y table:
• Select Append row to X & Y data.
To add a row to the end of the X and Y table:
• Select Prepend row to X & Y data.
To add a row after a particular X and Y row:
• Enter a row number in the Insert Row After text box and select Insert Row After.
To add a row to the end of the Z table:
• Select Append Z Value.
To remove a row from either the X and Y or Z table:
• Enter the row number in the Remove Row text box and select Remove Row.
Creating Splines Using the General Method
To create a general spline using the general method:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to Spline, and then select General.
The Data Element Create Spline dialog box appears.
2. Accept the default name or assign a new name.
3. Assign a unique ID number to the spline, if appropriate.
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4. Add any comments about the spline that you want to enter to help you manage and identify it.
5. Set Linear Extrapolate to yes to extrapolate a spline by applying a linear function over the first
or last two data points. By default, for user-defined files, Adams/Solver extrapolates a spline that
exceeds a defined range by applying a parabolic function over the first or last three data points.
For RPC III or DAC files, the default method of extrapolation is zero-order (constant). Learn
about spline extrapolation in Curve-Fitting Techniques in Adams/View.
6. Depending on how you are creating the spline, enter or change the values in the dialog box as
explained in the next table, and then select OK. See General Method for Creating Splines for
available options.
Modifying Splines
The method you use to modify a spline (Spline Editor or general method) depends on the input to the
spline.
To create a spline
from: Do the following:
File 1. Set the pull-down menu to File.
2. Enter the name of the file.
3. If desired, enter the block within the file from which you want
Adams/View to take the data. The block must be specifically named in
the file.
4. Set the channel from which to take the data. This option is for use with
time response data in RPC III files only. See Adams/Durability online
help.
Result set components 1. Set the pull-down menu to Result Set Component.
2. Select the result set components to be used for the x and y values.
Numerical input 1. Set the pull-down menu to Numerical.
2. Enter the x, y, and, optionally, z values in the text boxes. Note the
following:
• Specify at least four x and y values. The maximum number of x
values, n, depends on whether you specify a single curve or a
family of curves.
• Values must be constants; Adams/Solver does not allow
expressions.
• Values must be in increasing order:
• x1 < x2 < x3, and so on.
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• Numerical values or Result set components - If the input for the spline data points was numerical
values or result set components, then when you select to modify the spline, Adams/View
displays the Spline Editor because it provides the most convenient method for directly editing
values.
• File - If the method of input for the spline data points was a file, Adams/View displays the Data
Element Modify Spline dialog box, for you to change the file or interpolation method using the
general method.
Note that because you do not always modify splines using the same method that you used to create them,
you cannot change the input to the spline data points without first deleting the spline and making it again.
For example, if you created a spline using the result set component TIME as the x values, and you want
to change the spline to reference the result set component that defines the force on a part, you would have
to delete the spline and create it again referencing the new component. In addition, if you defined spline
data points using direct numerical values and you want to instead reference a file, you must delete the
spline and make it again using the general method.
To modify a spline:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to Spline, and then select Modify.
The Database Navigator appears.
2. Select a data element spline to modify.
The Spline Editor or Data Element Modify dialog box appears.
3. Follow the instructions in Creating Splines Using the Spline Editor or Creating Splines Using the
General Method, as appropriate.
Tips and Cautions When Creating Splines
When selecting points to represent a curve or surface:
• Crowd points in regions with high rates of change.
• Spread out points in regions with slow rates of change.
The x and z data must cover the anticipated range of values. However, the following situations sometimes
cause Adams/Solver to evaluate a spline outside of its defined range:
• Adams/Solver occasionally approximates partial derivatives using a finite differencing
algorithm.
• Adams/Solver occasionally attempts an iteration that moves the independent variable outside of
its defined range. If this occurs, Adams/Solver issues a warning message and extrapolates the
four closest spline points. If the extrapolation is poor, Adams/Solver can have difficulty reaching
convergence, which may affect the results.
To avoid these problems, try to use real points, and extend spline values 10 percent beyond the total
dynamic range.
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Example of Using Splines
In this example, we use a spline to relate the force of a spring to its deformation. The values in the
following Table show the relation of a force in a spring to its deformation.
Data Relating Spring Force to Spring Deflection Force
Using this table, you can determine the force when deflection equals -0.33, and the force when deflection
equals -0.17. You cannot, however, determine the force when the deflection is -0.25. To determine the
force at any deflection value, Adams/View creates a continuous function that relates deflection and force.
The continuous approximation is then used to evaluate the value of the spring force at a deflection of -
0.25. If you input two sets of values (x and y) using a spline data element, you can define the curve that
the data represents.
You would then use the spline data element in a function or subroutine that uses cubic spline functions
to fit a curve to the values. The curve allows Adams/View to interpolate a value of y for any value of x.
Procedure
Briefly, the steps that you’d perform to use the spline data element to define the force deflections are:
1. Create the spline using the spline editor or the general method.
When the deflection
is:
The force
is:
-0.33 -38.5
-0.17 -27.1
-0.09 -15.0
0.0 0.0
0.10 10.0
0.25 30.0
0.40 43.5
0.70 67.4
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2. Build a simple nonlinear spring-damper, and then modify it to use the spline. To use the spline in
the spring-damper definition, under Stiffness and Damping in the Spring-Damper Modify dialog
box, change the stiffness coefficient to Spline: F= f(defo). Adams/View builds a function
expression for you, using AKISPL and modeled spring length as free length.
Matrices
When creating or modifying a data element matrix, you can specify its values:
• Using Full Format
• Using Sparse Format
• Using Result Set Components
• Using Data Files
Matrix Format Types
• A data element matrix is a general M x N array that can be a rectangular or square two-
dimensional matrix or a row or column matrix. You can enter the data in:
• Full format - You list all the M x N values or specify the results of a Simulation (Result set
components).
• Sparse format - You list the row position, column position, and value for only nonzero entry
values.
• External file - Enter a file containing a matrix.
If one-third or more of the entries in a matrix are nonzero, we recommend that you use full format since
it takes less time to create. If the matrix is mostly empty and entering each nonzero entry's row position,
column position, and value takes less time than entering all of the values, you should use the sparse
format
About the Format for Matrix Data Files
You can use a data file to read a large matrix into Adams/View. There is no limit to the size of an array
read from the file. The data file can be in one of three formats:
Note: You can also use a single- or multi-component force to define the force deflections.
In this case, you would select Custom as you create the force, and then modify the
force by entering a function expression, such as:
-akispl(dm(.model_1.PART_1.MAR_4,.model_1.ground.MAR_2)
- 200.0, 0.0, .model_1.SPLINE_1)
You can use the Function Builder for assistance in building the expression
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34
• Adams/Solver format - An ADAMSMAT or ADAMSMAT2 format file consists of variable-
length records that must be laid out as described in the following paragraphs. Header Characters
and File Formats lists the file format details.
Example of Matrix File in ADAMSMAT Format
Example of Entering Matrix File in ADAMSMAT2 Format
• Standard FSAVE or the optional MATSAVE format supported by the MATRIXx software
package - See the MATRIX
x
literature for a description of the FSAVE and MATSAVE formats.
Although no other formats are supported, the ADAMSMAT option is fairly general because the format
for reading in the data is specified within the file, and should meet your requirements.
The first record in any file type contains an 80-character header that indicates the format of the file as
listed in the table below. The remainder of the first record can be used as a title to identify the kind of
data in the file.
Header Characters and File Format Types
Note that the specifications for the format of the data file are case-sensitive. Uppercase letters and a
lowercase x must be used to indicate MATRIX
x
.
The second record contains only an integer n, right-justified within the first five spaces (the I5
FORTRAN format). It tells how many matrices are contained in the file. The next several records (one
or more) contain the alphanumeric names (eight characters or less) of all of the matrices in the file. The
names are listed sequentially, four to a line, in eight-character fields separated by ten blanks. That is, the
FORTRAN format for the records containing the matrix names is A8, 10X, A8, 10X, A8, 10X, A8.
Sets of contiguous records define each matrix. Without any intervening blank lines, the blocks of records
begin immediately after the last line of matrix names. The first record in each block contains the name
of the matrix in the first eight characters of the line. The code searches through the file until it finds the
block of records corresponding to the name of the matrix element.
The first record of the block contains the type of matrix (either FULL or SPARSE ) within the second
eight spaces on the record. If the type is FULL, the next eight spaces (from 17 through 24) contain the
string CORDER or RORDER to indicate that the values are listed by column or by row, respectively.
Otherwise, if the type is SPARSE, the space is left blank. Learn about Matrix Format Types.
The numerical values specified on the first record of the block include the:
• Number of rows M in the matrix.
• Number of columns N.
If the characters are: Then the file format is:
ADAMSMAT or ADAMSMAT2 Adams/Solver code format
MATRIXx FSAVE format of the MATRIXx software package
MATSAVE MATSAVE format of the MATRIXx software package
35
Data Elements
• Total number of entries to be assigned values from the file.
If the matrix type is SPARSE, then the total number of entries must be less than or equal to (generally
much less than) M x N. If the matrix is FULL, the total number must be equal to Mx N.
• For a matrix in the ADAMSMAT format, the values for M, N, and the total number of entries
must be right justified in the fields 25 to 29, 30 to 34, and 35 to 39, respectively.
• For a matrix in the ADAMSMAT2 format, the values for M, N, and the total number of entries
must be separated by spaces.
The final entry on the first line of the block of records defining each matrix is the format specification
for the records containing the values of the matrix. Beginning in column 40, 41 spaces are allowed for
the character string containing the FORTRAN format specification, which must include delimiting
parentheses. The lines of data begin on the next record and continue with successive records until the
code has read into storage either M x N values if the matrix is full or the total number specified if the
matrix is sparse.
Specifications for ADAMSMAT Data File
Item:
Number of
records: Contents:
Argument/S
ymbol:
FORTRAN
format:
1 1 Header for the file ADAMSMAT A
2 1 Number of matrices in the file n I5
3 (n +3)/4 Names of the n matrices NAME 4 (8A,10X)
4 1 Name of the matrix
{FULL or SPARSE }
{CORDER or RORDER if FULL or
blank if SPARSE }
NAME A8,
A8,
A8,
Number of rows, columns M , N , 315,
Total number of entries number
FORTRAN format specification FORMAT A41
5 variable All entries in the matrix if FULL.
The indexes and nonzero entries in the matrix if
SPARSE.
A(I,J) or
I,J, A(I,J)
FORMAT
FORMAT
Note: Items 4 and 5 have to be repeated n times, once for each matrix named in Item 3.
Adams/View
Data Elements
36
Specifications for the ADAMSMAT2 Matrix File
For a full matrix, the code simply reads matrix entries sequentially from the file. If the matrix is sparse,
organize the data in triplets; Adams/View reads the row and column indexes followed by the
corresponding entry in the matrix. One triplet follows another until Adams/View has read the specified
total number of values into the storage arrays.
If the file contains another matrix, the block of records defining its structure and containing its values
must follow immediately after the last line of data for the previous matrix.
Example of Matrix File in ADAMSMAT Format
In the following example, the prob.dat is in the directory, /home/staff/demo, and contains the following
data:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
ADAMSMAT Floating platform example
3
TRF VALK STL
TRF FULL RORDER 4 2 8 ( 8F8.5 )
1.36400 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 -3.54600 4.00800 0.00000 0.79900
VALK FULL CORDER 3 3 9 ( 3F6.3 )
1.970 0.000-3.440
0.000 4.510 6.020
-3.440 6.020 2.110
STL SPARSE 6 1 4 ( 2( 2I5, E14.6 ) )
1 1 0.169805E+02 2 1 -0.230745E+02
4 1 0.016390E+00 5 1 0.011271E+00
Item:
Number of
records: Contents:
Argument or
symbol:
FORTRAN
format:
1 1 Header for the file ADAMSMAT2 A
2 1 Number of matrices in the file n I5
3 (n +3)/4 Names of the n matrices NAME 4 (8A,10X)
4 1 Name of the matrix
{FULL or SPARSE}
{CORDER or RORDER if FULL or blank if
SPARSE}
NAME A8,
A8,
A8,
Number of rows, columns, and total number
of entries
M,N,
number
Values
separated
by spaces
FORTRAN format specification FORMAT A41
5 variable All entries in the matrix if FULL.
The indices and nonzero entries in the matrix
if SPARSE.
A(I,J) or
I,J, A(I,J)
FORMAT
FORMAT
Note: Items 4 and 5 have to be repeated n times, once for each matrix named in Item 3.
37
Data Elements
The second and third records are read with format I5 and 4(A8,10X), respectively. Then, the first record
of each of the blocks corresponding to the three matrices TRF, VALK, and STL is read with the format
3A8, 3I5, A41. Finally, as can be seen in the copy of the file shown above between the two strings of 80
characters that mark the columns (which, of course, are not part of the file), the single record of data for
the matrix TRF is read with the format 8F8.5; the three records for VALK are read with 3F6.3; and the
two records for STL with 2(2I5,E14.6).
Example of Entering Matrix File in ADAMSMAT2 Format
ADAMSMAT2 KILOGRAM METER SECOND NEWTON TTTTFTTTF [bar_se.mnf@Thu Jan 18
16:11:41 2003 ]
12
SELMOD SELNOD GENSTIFF INVAR1
INVAR2 INVAR3 INVAR4 INVAR6
INVAR7 INVAR8 T_MODE R_MODE
SELNOD FULL RORDER 3 4 12 ( 1I8, 3E14.6 )
1 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
11 1.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
11 1.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
SELMOD FULL RORDER 10 2 20 ( 1I8, 1E14.6 )
2 2.653209E+03
3 5.241086E+03
4 7.699911E+03
5 9.969139E+03
6 1.199289E+04
7 1.372134E+04
8 1.511193E+04
9 1.613041E+04
10 1.675170E+04
11 1.696051E+04
INVAR1 FULL RORDER 1 1 1 ( 1E14.6 )
7.830000E-01
INVAR2 FULL RORDER 1 3 3 ( 3E14.6 )
3.915000E-01 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
INVAR3 SPARSE 3 10 1 ( 2I8, E14.6 )
1 1 0.000000E+00
INVAR4 SPARSE 3 10 1 ( 2I8, E14.6 )
1 1 0.000000E+00
INVAR6 SPARSE 10 10 10 ( 2I8, E14.6 )
1 1 1.000000E+00
2 2 1.000000E+00
3 3 1.000000E+00
4 4 1.000000E+00
5 5 1.000000E+00
6 6 1.000000E+00
7 7 1.000000E+00
8 8 1.000000E+00
9 9 1.000000E+00
10 10 1.000000E+00
INVAR7 FULL RORDER 3 3 9 ( 3E14.6 )
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 2.623050E-01 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.623050E-01
INVAR8 FULL RORDER 10 9 90 ( 9E14.6 )
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 -2.556825E-01 0.000000E+00
Adams/View
Data Elements
38
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 -2.556825E-01
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 -3.035794E-02 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 -3.035794E-02
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 1.251399E-02 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.251399E-02
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 -7.881414E-03 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 -7.881414E-03
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 -6.413957E-03 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 -6.413957E-03
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
GENSTIFF SPARSE 10 10 10 ( 2I8, E14.6 )
1 1 2.779090E+08
2 2 1.084432E+09
3 3 2.340622E+09
4 4 3.923513E+09
5 5 5.678161E+09
6 6 7.432809E+09
7 7 9.015700E+09
8 8 1.027189E+10
9 9 1.107841E+10
10 10 1.135632E+10
T_MODE FULL CORDER 3 30 90 ( 3E14.6 )
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.130106E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.130106E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
39
Data Elements
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
1.598211E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
-1.130106E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
R_MODE FULL CORDER 3 30 90 ( 3E14.6 )
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
Defining Matrices Using User-Entered Values in Full Format
When creating a data element matrix in full format, you specify all the values in the matrix. Learn more
about Matrix Format Types.
Note: You must create additional matrix elements in your Adams/View model if multiple
matrices are to be read from the same file.
Adams/View
Data Elements
40
To create or modify a matrix using full format:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to Matrix, and then select either New or
Modify.
2. If you selected:
• New, the Create Matrix dialog box appears, as shown in Create/Modify Matrix Dialog Box, and
you should continue with Step 3.
• Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a data element matrix to modify. The
Create/Modify Matrix dialog box appears.
3. In the Matrix Name text box, accept the default name or enter a new name.
4. Select the units that you want assigned for values in your matrix. Select no_units if you do not
want units associated with the values. If you set the units for your matrix values, Adams/View
automatically performs any necessary unit conversions if you ever change your modeling units.
5. Select Full Matrix to enter all the values for the M x N array or enter names of Result set
components.
6. Select either of the following:
• To specify that matrix values are arranged in order by columns, select Enter Input Ordered
by Columns.
• To specify that matrix values are arranged in order by rows, select Enter Input Ordered by
Rows.
7. Select User Entered Numbers to enter the values yourself.
8. In the Row Count and Column Count text boxes, enter the number of rows and columns in the
matrix.
9. In the Values text box, enter the values in the matrix in either row or column order depending on
the order you selected in Step 6. You can separate the values using a comma or by pressing Enter
after each value.
10. Select OK.
Example of Entering Matrix in Full Format
If you want to enter the following matrix of values in full format:
enter the following in the text boxes:
• Row Count - 4
• Column Count - 2
1.364 0.000
0.000 0.000
3.546 – 4.008
0.000 0.7999
41
Data Elements
• Values - 1.364, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, -3.546, 4.008, 0.000, 0.7999
Defining Matrices Using Sparse Format
When you create or modify a matrix using sparse format, you enter only nonzero values.
Learn more about Matrix Format Types.
To create or modify a matrix using sparse format:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to Matrix, and then select either New or
Modify.
2. If you selected:
• New, the Create Matrix dialog box appears, as shown in Create/Modify Matrix dialog box, and
you should continue with Step 3.
• Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a data element matrix to modify. The
Create/Modify Matrix dialog box appears.
3. In the Matrix Name text box, accept the default name or enter a new name.
4. Select the units that you want assigned for values in your matrix. Select no_units if you do not
want units associated with the values. If you set the units for your matrix values, Adams/View
automatically performs any necessary unit conversions if you ever change your modeling units.
5. Select Sparse Matrix to enter the row position, column position, and value for only nonzero
values.
6. Enter the following:
• Row Index - Enter the row numbers, separated by commas, in your matrix containing nonzero
values. Enter the row number each time there is a value in the row.
• Column Index - Enter the column numbers, separated by commas, containing nonzero
values. Enter the column number each time there is a value in the column.
• Values - Enter the nonzero values in your matrix starting with the first column. Separate each
value with a comma.
7. Select OK.
Defining Matrices Using Result Set Components
You can only use a Result set component as matrix values using full format and entering all the values
stored in the result set component.
Note: You must create additional matrix elements in your Adams/View model if multiple
matrices are to be read from the same file.
Adams/View
Data Elements
42
Learn more about Matrix Format Types.
To create or modify a matrix using sparse format:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to Matrix, and then select either New or
Modify.
2. If you selected:
• New, the Create Matrix dialog box appears, as shown in Create/Modify Matrix Dialog Box, and
you should continue with Step 3.
• Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a data element matrix to modify. The
Create/Modify Matrix dialog box appears.
3. In the Matrix Name text box, accept the default name or enter a new name.
4. Select the units that you want assigned for values in your matrix. Select no_units if you do not
want units associated with the values. If you set the units for your matrix values, Adams/View
automatically performs any necessary unit conversions if you ever change your modeling units.
5. Select either of the following:
• To specify that matrix values are arranged in order by columns, select Enter Input Ordered
by Columns.
• To specify that matrix values are arranged in order by rows, select Enter Input Ordered by
Rows.
6. To obtain the values from the results of a Simulation, select Result Set Component.
7. In the Result Set Component Names text box, enter the name or names of the components.
8. Select OK.
Defining Matrices Using Data Files
When creating or modifying a data element matrix, you can define any size matrix using an external data
file. You can also specify in the data file whether you are entering the matrix values in full or sparse
format.
Learn more about:
• Matrix Format Types
• About the Format for Matrix Data Files
Note: You must create additional matrix elements in your Adams/View model if multiple
matrices are to be read from the same file.
Note: You must create additional matrix elements in your Adams/View model if multiple
matrices are to be read from the same file
43
Data Elements
To create or modify a matrix using full format:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to Matrix, and then select either New or
Modify.
2. If you selected:
• New, the Create Matrix dialog box appears, as shown in Create/Modify Matrix Dialog Box, and
you should continue with Step 3.
• Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a data element matrix to modify. The
Create/Modify Matrix dialog box appears.
3. In the Matrix Name text box, accept the default name or enter a new name.
4. Select the units that you want assigned for values in your matrix. Select no_units if you do not
want units associated with the values. If you set the units for your matrix values, Adams/View
automatically performs any necessary unit conversions if you ever change your modeling units.
5. Select From a File.
6. Enter the name of the file containing the matrix values and the name of the matrix in the file. The
name of the matrix is necessary even if the file contains only one matrix. You will need to create
additional matrices to read other matrices from the same file.
7. Select OK.
Defining FE Model Data for Output
You can also set up Adams/View to produce data files of component loads, deformations, stresses, or
strains for input to subsequent finite-element or fatigue-life analysis for use in third-party products. You
use the Settings -> Solver -> Output -> More -> Durability (see Solver Settings - Output dialog box
help) command to specify the type of file to produce. Adams/View will not output to any files unless you
specify the format.
To output FE model data:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to FEMdata, and then select either New or
Modify.
The Create FEMDATA dialog box appears.
2. In the Name text box, enter the name of the FEMDATA element in the modeling database to
create or modify.
3. Set Type to the information you want to output, and then enter the values in the dialog box as
explained in the FEMDATA Output Dialog Box Options Table, depending on the type of format.
4. In the File text box, enter the output file name for the FEM data. You can specify an existing
directory, root name, and/or extension. By default, the file name will be composed of the Adams
run ID and body ID according to the type of data and file format that you specified in the Solver
-> Settings -> Output -> More -> Durability Files.
5. Specify the start and end times for outputting the data:
Adams/View
Data Elements
44
• From - Enter the time at which to start outputting the data. The default is the start of the
simulation.
• To - Enter the time at which to end the output of the data or the search of a peak load. The
default is to output to the end of the simulation.
6. Select OK.
45
Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit
Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit
Learn about the Adams/View Controls toolkit, which provides simple linear control and filter blocks to
quickly build PID controls, prefilters, or other linear continuous time-element representations:
• Process for Building Controls Blocks and Prefilters
• Available Controls Blocks
• Creating Control Blocks
• Modifying Controls Blocks
• Checking Block Connections
• Creating Custom Blocks
Process for Building Controls Blocks and Prefilters
Follow the process below for building controls blocks and prefilters into your Adams/View models using
the Adams/View Controls Toolkit:
1. Draw a picture with your model and the controls and filters you want to add.
2. Create all input blocks.
3. Create remaining blocks one at a time and connect them to each other and the model.
4. Check all input and output connections.
Step 1 - Draw a Picture
Before adding filters and controls to your model, draw a block diagram showing the model, the inputs to
the control and filter blocks from the model, and the outputs from the control and filter blocks to the
model. A graphical representation of a typical block diagram to use for adding filters and controls is
shown in the figure below.
.
Example Block Diagram for Using Control and Filter Blocks
The inputs to the control and filter blocks that you need to diagram include:
Adams/View
Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit
46
• Time-based forcing functions, which might be considered "external inputs" such as Input A in
the figure above.
• Feedback loops, which might be considered "internal inputs" or closed, control loops such as
Input B in the figure above.
The outputs from the control and filter blocks that should be in your diagram include:
• Filtered measures of your model that you want to track for display or plotting purposes.
• Outputs from your model that are used as inputs to the control blocks you will be adding.
Consider adding switches to your models at places where you might want to "open the feedback loop,"
either for debugging your model or for seeing the change in performance that controls provide.
Once you have identified the inputs and outputs for the control and filter blocks, you are ready to create
the necessary blocks and connect them together and to the model.
Step 2 - Create All Input Blocks
You must first create an input block to connect to other control blocks. For example, if you want to use
a displacement from your model as an input to your control block, you must first create an input block to
set up the signal for the control block.
Step 3 - Create Other Control and Filter Blocks and Connect Them
Once you have created the input blocks, you can then create controls blocks and specify how they
interconnect with each other and input functions. The input to a control or filter block must be given as
the name of another existing control block or input block. The output of controls blocks can be referenced
in function expressions. Each control block maintains a state variable value. The name of the Adams state
variable can be found using the Database Navigator for a PID block (see Picture of Database Navigator
with PID Block). This value is then referenced in elements, such as forces, by simply typing in the element
name as the function expression. See Picture of referencing element.
Step 4 - Check All Input and Output Connections
Available Controls Blocks
Learn about the different controls blocks available in Adams/View Controls Toolkit:
Input Function Block
Input function blocks are needed wherever a control or filter block does not receive its input from another
control or filter block. This includes external time functions that need to be passed into a block, as well
as measures of your model that represent error signals to pass into a block.
An input function block takes any valid solver expression as its input. The input function block is a valid
controls block to reference as the input to any other controls block.
47
Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit
Summing Junction Block
Summing junction blocks are used to add or subtract the outputs from other standard blocks. You can
select whether the positive or negative value of an input to a summing junction is used by single clicking
on the +/- sign button.
A summing junction block takes any valid controls block output as its input. Specify the assembly name
of any controls block, including input function blocks, in either the Input 1 text box or the Input 2 text
box.
Gain, Integrator, Low-pass Filter, and Lead-lag Filter Blocks
Gain, integrator, low-pass filter, and lead-lag filter blocks are used to create the s-domain (Laplace
domain) representation of basic linear transfer functions. For each of these blocks, the block gain or the
filter coefficients are specified as an Adams/View scalar real value. You can parametrize this constant
with an Adams/View real design variable to quickly study the effect of varying the bandwidth or gain of
the associated block.
Specify the assembly name of any controls block as the input field to these blocks.
User-Defined Transfer Function Block
The user-defined transfer function block is used to create general rational polynomial blocks by
specifying the polynomial coefficients. Coefficients are specified in the order n0, n1, n2 for the
numerator where the underlying polynomial representation is given as ****** and similarly for the
denominator. Specify the assembly name of any controls block as the input field to this block.
Second-Order Filter
The second-order filter block is used to create a second-order filter by specifying the undamped natural
frequency and the damping ratio. You can parametrize the undamped natural frequency or damping ratio
constant with an Adams/View real design variable to quickly study the effect of varying the frequency or
damping ratio of the associated block.
PID Controller
The PID controller is used to create a general proportional-integral-derivative control block. Two inputs
are necessary for this block: the proportional input and the derivative input. You must specify the
derivative state for input to this block that is consistent with the proportional state. For example, if the
proportional input is the measured x position of a part, the derivative input should be the linear velocity
in the x direction.
This block automatically creates the integrated state of the proportional input for use as the integrated
input. You can parameterize the P, I, and D gains of this block with Adams/View real design variables to
quickly study the effect of changing control gains.
Adams/View
Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit
48
Switch
The switch is a convenient means to "zero" the signal into any block. Connect the switch at a point in the
feedback loop to quickly see the change from open loop control to closed loop control. The switch takes
any control block as its input.
Creating Controls Blocks
To create a block in the Adams/View Controls Toolkit:
1. From the Build menu select Controls Toolkit.
The Create/Modify Standard Controls Block dialog box appears.
2. Select an icon representing the type of block that you want to create. The choices in the Create
Controls Block dialog box change to those for creating the selected control block. Learn about the
different types of blocks.
3. Enter the block name, all required inputs, and all required parameters. Inputs to controls blocks
are required to be existing controls blocks, with the exception of the input function block. Learn
about the options for each control block:
• Input-Signal Function Block
• Summing Junction Block
• Gain Block
• Integrator Block
• Low-Pass Filter Block
• Lead-Lag Filter Block
• User-Defined Transfer Function Block
• Second-Order Filter Block
• PID Controller
• Switch Block
4. Select OK.
Modifying Controls Blocks
You modify blocks in the Adams/View Controls Toolkit by selecting their assembly name in the
Database Navigator.
Checking Block Connections
In the Adams/View Controls Toolkit, you can verify that all control and filter blocks are properly
connected. When you verify the connections, Adams/View checks that all blocks have defined inputs and
then checks that all block outputs are referenced either in other blocks or as inputs to your model.
49
Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit
To check block connections:
• Select on the Create/Modify Standard Controls Block.
Creating Custom Blocks
Adams/View defines each type of control in the Adams/View Controls Toolkit as an assembly. Each time
you use a controls block of a particular type, you create an instance of that assembly type. Using the
Database Navigator, you can find the controls assemblies as well as other assemblies defined under the
Adams library.
The controls block assembly definition combines Measures, Adams/View Design variables,
Adams/Solver variables, Adams/Solver transfer functions, and Adams/Solver arrays into one database
object. When Adams/View creates a control block instance, it creates all the appropriate variables,
functions, and arrays underneath that block, all with that block name.
You can create your own control blocks by first creating an assembly definition, and then adding your
assembly to the controls library. Your control blocks can have any set of equations that you require by
adding the appropriate Adams/Solver functions and variables to the block definition.
Plant Inputs and Outputs
Plant output defines the set of measured outputs from the system and Plant input defines a set of inputs
to the mechanical system. Adams/Linear linearizes the system equations to the following form:
where:
• x is the linearized system state array.
• u is the array of system inputs defined by plant input.
• y is the array of system outputs defined by plant output.
This form is commonly referred to as the state-space form of the system equations in control theory.
Adams/Solver outputs the A, B, C, and D matrices for use in a control-system design or any other linear
system analysis software. If only the A matrix is required, plant input and plant output are not necessary.
Ways to Use Plant Input and Output
The plant outputs with the plant inputs, variables, arrays, transfer functions, linear state equations, and
general state equations define the interface between Adams and control design and analysis packages
such as MATRIXx and MATLAB.
Adams/View
Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit
50
As shown below, plant inputs and outputs act as socket for input and output to your controller, organizing
the variable wires.
Adams/Linear uses plant inputs and outputs to identify which variables to consider system inputs and
outputs when generating state matrices. A control design program can use these matrices to design a
controller for the system. The resulting controller can then be included in the model using variables,
arrays, transfer functions, linear state equations, or general state equations. See the LINEAR command in
the Adams/Solver online help.
Creating Plant States
(Adams/Solver (C++) only. Learn about switching solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box
help.)
Adams/Linear requires a minimum representation of the system to generate the state matrix from which
eigenvalues can be computed. For non-stationary systems, the state matrix is a function of the states used
to linearize the system. In Adams/Solver (C++), you can define a set of states that are to be used in the
linearization scheme. You can specify as many states as there are degrees-of-freedom. If a smaller set of
states are provided, then the system will fill in by choosing a set of internally available states for the ones
that were not explicitly specified. If too many states are specified, Adams/Solver identifies and discards
the redundant states.
Plant states are a list of variables. The variables contain expressions that specify the states that are to be
used in linearizing the system. Plant state objects are defined in the model. The LINEAR command can
instruct Adams/Solver (C++) to use a specific plant state object for generating the linear model. A model
can contain any number of plant state objects. You can use any one of them with the LINEAR command.
• For more information, see the Adams/Solver (C++) LINEAR command.
• For theoretical details, see the white paper in Knowledge Base Article 12721.
51
Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit
• For an example of using PSTATE, see Knowledge Base Article 12663.
To create a plant state:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements -> Plant -> Plant State, and then select New.
2. Enter the name you want assigned to the plant state.
3. In the Adams Id text box, assign a unique ID number to the plant state.
4. In the Comments text box, add or change any comments about the plant state to help you manage
and identify the plant state.
5. Enter the list of variables. To help you create a variable for a plant state object, select Create State
Variable for Plant State. You can set values for the state variables in the Create State Variable
for Plant State dialog box.
6. Select OK.
To run a linear modes simulation using the plant state object:
1. Set the solver to Adams/Solver (C++).
2. In the Interactive Simulation palette, right-click the Compute Linear Modes tool , and then
select the Compute Linear Modes with Pstate tool .
The Compute Linear Modes dialog box appears.
3. Enter the plant state object you created and the reference marker.
4. Select OK.
See an Example of Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit.
Adams/View
Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit
52
Editing Modeling Objects
Basics
Adams/View
Selecting Objects
2
Selecting Objects
When you create a modeling object, such as a part or force, Adams/View automatically selects it so that
you can edit it. When you create a Rigid body, Hotpoints and an Object position handle appear on the body
so that you can rotate and position the body's geometry.
You can also select objects for editing. You can select one or more objects or select a group of objects
based on their type, such as select all link geometry.
Select Tool
Main toolbox -> Select tool
Selects modeling objec such as parts or forces. Selecting the object deselects any currently selected
object. If you select a rigid body, Adams/View selects the entire body including its geometry.
To select a single object:
1. From the Main toolbox, select the Select tool .
2. Click anywhere on the object.
The object appears with a thicker line width. If the object is a rigid body, its Hotpoints and object
position handle appear on the body so that you can rotate and position the body’s geometry.
To select several objects:
1. From the Main toolbox, select the Select tool .
2. Position the cursor on the screen where you want a corner of the selection box and drag the mouse
to draw a rectangle that encloses or touches the objects that you want to select.
3. Release the mouse button.
The selected objects appear with a thicker line width. If the object is a rigid body, its hotpoints
and the object position handle appear on the body so that you can rotate and position the body’s
geometry.
Selecting Objects from a Crowd
When you are performing an operation, such as setting an object’s appearance, and you need to select an
object from the screen but the object is obscured by other objects, you can display a list of all objects in
that area and then select the desired object from the list. Note that this only works during a modeling
operation.
To display a list of all objects in an area of the screen:
1. Start the operation you want to perform.
2. Click the right mouse button when the cursor is the area of the screen containing the desired
object.
3 Basics
Selecting Objects
A selection box of all the objects in the area appears.
3. Highlight the desired object from the list, and then select OK.
Selecting a Single Object Using a Shortcut Menu
As an alternative to the Select tool, you can select a single object using the shortcut menu.
To select a single object using the shortcut menu:
1. Place the cursor over the object that you want to select.
2. Click and hold down the right mouse button.
A shortcut menu appears.
3. Point to the object name and then select Select.
The object appears with a thicker line width. If the object is a Rigid body, its Hotpoints and Object
position handle appear on the body so that you can rotate and position the body’s geometry.
Managing the List of Selected Objects
You can use the Select List Manager to view objects you've selected and add to and remove objects from
the Select list. You can add and remove objects based on their name, type, group, and parent.
Learn more:
• Displaying the Select List Manager
• Adding a Single Object to the Select List
• Adding or Removing Objects
• Updating the Select List Display
• Selecting Objects in a Group
Displaying the Select List Manager
To display the Select List Manager:
• From the Edit menu, select Select List.
The Select List Manager appears.
The current objects in the select list appear in the Select List Manager window.
Adding a Single Object to the Select List
To add a single object to the select list:
• In the Object Name text box, enter the name of the object that you want to add, and then select
the Add button next to the text box.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Adams/View
Selecting Objects
4
Adding or Removing Objects
You can add multiple objects to or remove multiple objects from the select list. Adams/View gives you
the flexibility to:
• Broaden the search for objects to be included or removed by entering wildcards. You can specify,
for example, to remove all objects that contain a particular character, such as an h. Learn more
about Using Wildcards.
• Limit the scope of the objects to be added or removed to only objects that belong to a particular
object. For example, you can limit the scope from all markers to only markers belonging to a
PART_1.
To add or remove multiple objects to and from the select list based on search criteria:
1. In the Name Filter text box, enter the name of the objects that you want to add to or remove from
the select list. Type any wildcards that you want included.
2. Set Type Filter to the type of object or objects that you want to add or remove. To display all the
different object types, select Browse.
3. In the Scope text box, limit the scope of objects to be added or removed to only objects belonging
to a certain object by entering the name of the parent object.
4. Select Add or Remove.
To remove selected objects from the list:
1. Select Remove Objects.
A list of currently selected objects appears.
2. Select the object or objects to remove. Tips To select objects:.
3. Select OK.
To quickly remove all objects from the list:
• Select Clear All.
Updating the Select List Display
You can update the list of objects in the Select List Manager window so that it reflects any selections that
you made using the mouse or shortcut menus as explained in the previous sections.
To update the select list display:
• Select Refresh.
Selecting Objects in a Group
You can add to or remove objects in a group to the Select List Manager just as you would for any type of
object as explained in Adding or Removing Objects. Before adding the object to the select list, you can
set whether or not you want to list each object in the group in the Select List Manager or just list the name
of the group.
5 Basics
Selecting Objects
To list all objects in a group in the Select List Manager:
• Select Expand Groups.
Deselecting Objects
To deselect objects:
• From the Edit menu, select Deselect All.
• Click when the cursor is anywhere on the background of the screen.
Tip: Ctrl + D.
Adams/View
Editing Objects Using the Table Editor
6
Editing Objects Using the Table Editor
The Table Editor is a convenient way to manage the objects in your model. It displays the objects in your
Modeling database in table format so you can compare the objects and quickly update them. For example,
you can update the x, y, and z locations of all parts in your model at once or parameterize the locations
of parts to the locations of other parts. The information that you can view and update about an object
depends on the type of object. The Table Editor also lets you create and delete objects.
Learn about:
Display Options
• Displaying the Table Editor
• Setting Types of Objects Displayed in the Table Editor
• Sorting Objects in the Table Editor
Working with Objects and Cells
• Copying Objects in the Table Editor
• Creating Objects in the Table Editor
• Deleting Objects in the Table Editor
• Working with Cells in the Table Editor
Applying and Saving Information
• Reloading Database Values in the Table Editor
• Applying Changes in the Table Editor
• Saving Table Editor Information
For general information on using tables in Adams/View, see Using Tables to Enter Values.
Displaying the Table Editor
To display the Table Editor:
• From the Tools menu, select Table Editor.
7 Basics
Editing Objects Using the Table Editor
By default, the Table Editor displays the x, y, and z location of parts in your model.
Setting Types of Objects Displayed in the Table Editor
You can display any type of object that is in your current Modeling database through the Table Editor.
For example, you can select to view all Markers or all motions. You can only view one type of object at
a time.
Adams/View provides option buttons for selecting the most common modeling objects. The option
buttons appear along the bottom of the Table Editor.
To set the type of objects displayed:
• From along the bottom of the Table Editor, select a check box of the desired object type.
Adams/View updates the Table Editor to display the selected type of object.
If you do not see any objects in the Table Editor, the filter may not be set correctly for the type of object
you selected. For example, by default, the filter for joints is set to only display revolute joints. Therefore,
if you have no revolute joints in your model, you will not see any joints displayed in the Table Editor
when you select Joints as the type of object.
You can change the filter the categories of information that the Table Editor displays. You can also narrow
the display of objects based on an object's name or parent, such as to display only markers that belong to
PART_1, which is called setting the scope. You can also narrow the display based on the names of
objects. For example, you can set the name filter to only display the names of objects that contain the
number 2 (MARKER_20, MARKER_21, and so on). Using the scope and name filter together, you can
focus on those objects of interest and filter out the rest.
Adams/View
Editing Objects Using the Table Editor
8
The categories of information that you can display about an object depend on the type of object. For
example, for parts, you can display their location, initial conditions, and attributes, such as whether they
are visible or active in the current simulation. For markers, you can view their locations, as well as their
locations relative to ground. For forces, you cannot change the information displayed, only the types of
forces displayed. For joints, you can change the information displayed as well as the type of joints
displayed.
To filter the information displayed in the Table Editor:
1. Set the type of object displayed to a standard object as explained in To set type of objects
displayed.
2. Select Filters from the Table Editor.
A Table Editor Filters dialog box appears. The options in the dialog box depend on the type of
object currently displayed.
3. In the Scope text box, limit the scope of the search, if desired, to all objects beneath a particular
object in the database hierarchy by entering the name of the object. Note that you cannot enter
wildcards in the Scope text box.
For example, enter .model_1 to display all objects under your entire model or enter
.model_1.PART_3 to display objects belonging only to PART_3.
4. In the Name Filter text box, enter the name of the object or objects that you want to display. Type
any wildcards that you want included. By default, Adams/View displays all objects that meet the
scope entered in the previous step regardless of their name. Learn more about Using Wildcards.
For example, enter the following to display all markers whose names start with MARKER_2 or
MARKER_3 (MARKER_20, MARKER_30, MARKER_31, and so on).
MARKER_[23]*
5. Select the categories of information or set the type of object that you want displayed and select
OK.
The following figure shows an example of displaying information about markers. In the example,
you first select Markers from the bottom of the Table Editor. When the Markers Table Editor
Filters dialog box appears, you set the types of information to display about markers. The result
in the Table Editor is a listing of six markers.
Sorting Objects in the Table Editor
You can sort the information in the Table Editor by object name or by a particular column and set the type
of sorting. You can select:
• Alphanumeric sorting, which sorts the information so that alphabetic characters are first
followed by numeric characters.
9 Basics
Editing Objects Using the Table Editor
• Numeric sorting, which sorts objects based on their numeric value. It sorts any alphabetic
characters as zeros.
To sort objects in the Table Editor:
1. Select Sorting in the Table Editor.
The Sorting Settings dialog box appears.
2. Set the sorting options as explained in the table below, and then select OK.
Copying Objects in the Table Editor
You can create a new object by copying an existing object in the Table Editor. Adams/View assigns the
new object a default name and displays its information in the last row of the Table Editor.
To copy an object:
1. Select the row containing the object you want to copy.
2. Right-click a cell in a row that is not selected. From the shortcut menu that appears, select Copy
Object.
Adams/View creates a duplicate of the object. It places the object in the last row of the Table
Editor.
Note: When you sort the Table Editor, Adams/View sets the values displayed in cells back
to those stored in the Modeling database. Therefore, you lose any changes that you
made to cells and did not apply to your modeling database
To set: Select one of the following:
The category on which
objects are sorted
• No sorting - Objects appear in the Table Editor in the order they are
stored in the modeling database.
• Sort By Name - Sorts the objects by their name (by rows).
• Sort By Column Labelled and enter the name of the column on which
to sort the objects. To select a column name from a list, select Select.
Sort order • Alphabetic to sort alphabetic characters first.
• Numeric to sort in numeric order. It sorts any alphabetic characters as
zeros.
Note: The operations you perform with the Table Editor are not stored in your Modeling
database until you apply them. Learn Applying Changes in the Table Editor.
Adams/View
Editing Objects Using the Table Editor
10
Creating Objects in the Table Editor
Using the Table Editor, you can create certain types of modeling objects. For most types of objects, you
can only create an object if another object of that type already exists in the Modeling database. For
example, if the Table Editor is set to display forces but you currently have no forces in your modeling
database, you cannot create a force through the Table Editor.
You can create parts, points, and coordinate system markers, however, regardless of whether or not an
object of that type already exists in the modeling database. For example, you can create a new marker if
the Table Editor is set to display coordinate system markers. You do not have to have an object of this
type already in the database.
Note that you cannot create a joint through the Table Editor.
To create a part, marker, or point with default values:
1. Display parts, markers, or points in the Table Editor. Learn about Displaying the Table Editor.
2. Select the Create button along the bottom of the Table Editor.
Adams/View creates an object with default values. It displays the object's information in the last
row of the Table Editor.
To create other types of objects:
1. Display the type of object you want to create in the Table Editor. An object of the type to be
created must already exist in the database.
2. Right-click a cell that is not selected. From the shortcut menu that appears, select Create Object.
Adams/View displays a dialog box that helps you create the object.
3. Enter the values in the dialog box, and then select OK.
Deleting Objects in the Table Editor
You can delete any object in the Modeling database using the Table Editor. Be careful, however, when
you delete non-standard objects, such as view layouts or interface objects. Deleting a non-standard object
may have more consequences that you are not aware of.
To delete an object:
1. Select the row containing the object you want to delete.
2. Right-click a cell in the row. From the shortcut menu that appears, select Delete Object.
Note: The operations you perform with the Table Editor are not stored in your Modeling
database until you apply them. Learn Applying Changes in the Table Editor.
11 Basics
Editing Objects Using the Table Editor
Adams/View deletes the object from the Table Editor.
Working with Cells in the Table Editor
The cells of the Table Editor display information about the objects in your Modeling database. You can
modify the information displayed about objects to make changes to the objects in the modeling database.
For example, you can move a point by changing its x location in the Table Editor from 50 inches to 60
inches.
Learn about:
• Entering Text in Cells
• Inserting Text into a Multiple Cells
• Entering Object and Information Names in Cells
• Modifying Cells Based on Their Current Contents
Entering Text in Cells
While you can enter text directly into the cells of the Table Editor, you can also use the input box that
appears at the top of the Table Editor, as shown below. The input box lets you add text to more than one
cell at a time and quickly update the values in the cell.
To enter text in a cell:
1. Click the cell. The text cursor appears in the cell.
2. Type the text you want.
Note: The operations you perform with the Table Editor are not stored in your Modeling
database until you apply them. Learn Applying Changes in the Table Editor.
Note: The operations you perform with the Table Editor are not stored in your modeling
database until you apply them. Learn Applying Changes in the Table Editor.
Adams/View
Editing Objects Using the Table Editor
12
To enter text through the input box:
1. Click the cell whose text you want to edit.
The text in the cell appears in the input box.
2. Place the cursor in the input box and type the text you want.
3. To insert the text in the input box into the cell, do either of the following:
• Select the Lock tool .
• Press Enter.
Inserting Text into a Multiple Cells
You can use the input box to insert the same text into multiple cells at once.
To insert text into multiple cells:
1. Select the cells in which you want to insert the text.
2. In the input box, enter the text that you want to insert as explained in Entering Text in Cells.
3. Select the Insert tool ..
Entering Object and Information Names in Cells
When you create function expressions or parameterize your model, you often need to include the full
name of a modeling object, which is the name of the object's parent followed by the object's name, and
the name assigned to the information you want associated with the object as it appears in the modeling
database. For example, when building a function for a force, you often refer to a marker's displacement
in the x direction. In a function expression, enter the following:
.model_1.PART_2.MAR_1.Loc_X
The Table Editor provides a shortcut for entering the object and field names so that you can build
functions and parameterize your model quickly.
To quickly enter an object's full name and information field into the input box:
1. Place the cursor in the input box where you want the object name to be inserted.
2. Select the Object Name & Field tool f(x) on the Table Editor.
3. Select any cell in the row containing the object whose name you want to input.
Adams/View inserts the object's full name and field information into the cell.
For more information on building functions, see the Adams/View Function Builder online help. For
information on parameterizing your model, see Improving Your Model Designs.
Modifying Cells Based on Their Current Contents
Using the Table Editor, you can quickly update the current value in many cells at once. For example, you
can update the x location of all markers to be that of their current location plus 3. The Table Editor creates
a variable based on the current contents of a cell ( $cell), which you can use to update the cells.
13 Basics
Editing Objects Using the Table Editor
For a marker example, the Table Editor would create a text string in the input box that represents the
current x location of all selected markers. You would then create an expression to add 3 to any current
cell value. The input box would look like the following:
$cell + 3
When you insert the expression into the x location cell of a selected marker, the variable changes to the
current value of the selected cell. For the marker example, the cell for MARKER_1 whose current value
is 20, now looks like the following:
(20 + 3)
When you apply the changes to the modeling database, Adams/View stores the value as an expression
(an expression in Adams/View always is enclosed in parenthesis ( )):
(20 + 3)
To have Adams/View evaluate the expression and store only a number, enter eval in front of the
expression in the input box as shown below and then insert the expression to the cells:
eval($cell + 3)
To modify the cells based on their current contents:
1. Display the type of object you want to update in the Table Editor, if necessary. Learn about Setting
Types of Objects Displayed in the Table Editor.
2. Select the cells you want to update.
3. Enter how you want to update the cells in the input box as explained in Entering Text in Cells.
4. Select the Cell Variable tool to create a variable representing the current contents of the
cells.
5. Select the Insert tool .
Adams/View updates the cells with the information in the input box.
Reloading Database Values in the Table Editor
If you have made changes to values in the Table Editor that you would like to clear out and reset to the
current values of the object, you can reload the table.
To reload the Table Editor:
• Select Reload.
Applying Changes in the Table Editor
You must apply any changes you make to objects in the Table Editor before Adams/View saves them in
the Modeling database.
Adams/View
Editing Objects Using the Table Editor
14
To apply changes:
• From the Table Editor, select Apply.
Saving Table Editor Information
You can save the current contents of the Table Editor in ASCII format. Adams/View places spaces
between each cell.
To save the current contents:
1. From the Table Editor, select Write.
The File Selection dialog box appears.
2. In the Directories list box, select the directory in which you want the file located.
3. In the Selection text box, enter the file name.
4. Select OK.
15 Basics
Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes
Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes
You use the modify dialog box associated with an object to change the properties of that object. For
example, you modify a simple idealized joint using the Modify Joint dialog box. Follow the instructions
below to learn how to display a modify dialog box band follow the instructions in the appropriate help
topics to learn how to modify a particular type of object using the dialog box.
To display a modify dialog box for an object on the screen:
• Right-click the object whose properties you want to modify, point to the type of object, and then
select Modify. For example, for a joint, the shortcut menu displays the word Joint. You would
point to Joint, and then select Modify.
The modify dialog box appears.
To use the Database Navigator to display a modify dialog box:
1. Double-click the background of the Adams/View main window to clear any selections.
2. From the Edit menu, select Modify.
The Database Navigator appears.
3. Select the object whose properties you want to modify. Learn about Showing , Hiding, and
Selecting Objects in the Database Navigator.
4. Select OK.
The modify dialog box appears.
Tip: You can zoom in on the object on the screen to more easily place the cursor over just
that object. Learn about Defining a Zoom Area.
Tip: Double-click the object to display its modify dialog box or select the object and then
enter Ctrl + e.
Adams/View
Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes
16
Working with Objects
Copying Objects
You can copy any selected objects within the same model. Adams/View creates an identical copy of the
selected object. Adams/View assigns a default name to the duplicated object using the copied object
name as the base name and appending _2 to the name. For example, if Adams/View copies a rigid body
called PART_1, it assigns the new object the name PART_1_2.
To copy selected objects:
1. Select the objects that you want to copy. Learn about Selecting Objects.
2. Select one of the following:
• From the Edit menu, select Copy.
• From the Standard toolbar, select the Copy tool .
Adams/View creates a copy of the objects. It selects the copied objects so you can edit or move
them.
To copy an object on the screen using the shortcut menu:
1. Right-click the object you want to copy.
2. From the shortcut menu that appears, select Copy.
To copy objects using the Database Navigator:
1. To clear any selections, click the background of the Adams/View main window.
2. From the Edit menu, select Copy.
The Database Navigator appears.
3. Select the object you want to copy. Learn about Showing , Hiding, and Selecting Objects in the
Database Navigator.
4. Select OK.
Tip: Select Ctrl + C.
Tip: You can zoom in on the object on the screen to more easily place the cursor over just
that object.
Adams/View
Working with Objects
2
Deleting Objects
You can delete any object that you created in the current modeling database, including deleting a model.
Learn about Deleting a Model.
You can delete any object that has a graphical representation on the screen, such as a rigid body or link,
by selecting them first and then deleting them. You can also select objects that do not have graphical
representations by searching for them through the Database Navigator and then deleting them.
To delete selected objects:
1. Select the objects that you want to delete. Learn about Selecting Objects.
2. From the Edit menu, select Delete.
3. Adams/View deletes the selected objects.
To delete an object on the screen using the shortcut menu:
1. Right-click the object you want to delete.
2. From the shortcut menu that appears, select Delete.
To delete objects using the Database Navigator:
1. Double-click the background of the Adams/View main window to clear any selections.
2. From the Edit menu, select Delete.
The Database Navigator appears.
3. Select the object you want to delete from the Database Navigator. Learn about Showing , Hiding,
and Selecting Objects in the Database Navigator.
4. Select OK.
Renaming Objects Through Menu Commands
About Object Naming
As you create objects in Adams/View, Adams/View automatically assigns names to them. The name
consists of the type of object and a unique ID. For example, it names a joint JOINT_1 and a motion
MOTION_1.
Tip: Select the Del. key.
Tip: You can zoom in on the object on the screen to more easily place the cursor over just
that object.
3
Working with Objects
An object also has a full name, which is the name of the object’s parent followed by the name of the
object. A full name always begins with a “.” (dot). For example, a part with the name PART_1 in the
model SLA has the full name .SLA.PART_1.
Objects must have a unique name relative to other objects that belong to their parents. For example, you
cannot have two points named PT1 on part PART_1, but you can have PT1 on more than one part because
the full names of each point would be unique (.SLA.PART_1.PT1 and .SLA.PART_2.PT1).
Adams/View allows you to change the default name assigned to any object but you cannot change its full
name. Adams/View often shows you just the name of the object and not its full name to simplify the
display of objects.
To rename a selected object:
1. Select the object that you want to rename. Learn about Selecting Objects.
2. From the Edit menu, select Rename.
The Rename Object appears.
3. In the New Name text box, enter the name you want to assign to the object.
4. To rename another object, select the More button to display the Database Navigator.
5. Select OK.
To rename an object on the screen using the shortcut menu:
1. Right-click the object you want to rename.
2. From the shortcut menu that appears, select Rename.
The Rename Object dialog box appears.
3. In the New Name text box, enter the name you want to assign to the object.
4. Select OK.
To rename any object in the database:
1. Double-click the background of the Adams/View main window to clear any selections.
2. From the Edit menu, select Rename.
The Database Navigator appears.
3. Select the object that you want to rename from the Database Navigator.
The Rename Object dialog box appears.
4. In the New Name text box, enter the name you want to assign to the object.
5. Select OK.
Tip: You can zoom in on the object on the screen to more easily place the cursor over just
that object.
Adams/View
Working with Objects
4
To rename an object as you modify it:
You can also rename an object when you are modifying it. You cannot, however, change the name of the
object directly in the Name text box of the modify dialog box. Instead, you display the shortcut menu,
and then select Rename. The example shows how to change the name of JOINT_1 as you are modifying
it.
1. Display the object’s modify dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Right-click in the Name text box, point to the name of the object (such as .model_1.JOINT_1),
and then select Rename.
3. In the New Name text box, enter the name you want to assign to the object.
4. Select OK.
Adding Comments to Objects
You can add notes about the objects in your model to help you manage and identify them. The types of
objects about which you can add comments are listed below. For parts, constraints, and forces, you add
comments when you modify the object. For models, you can add the comments as you create the model,
and you can also modify the comments.
• Models
• Parts
• Constraints
• Forces
• Materials
The comments that you create appear in the following:
• Information window
• Adams/View Log files
• Adams/View command files or
• Adams/Solver dataset files
To add comments to an object:
1. From the object's modify dialog box or from the Create/Modify model dialog box, select the
Comment tool . Learn about Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
The Modify Comment dialog box appears.
2. In the Comment Text section of the dialog box, enter the comments that you want associated with
the object.
3. Select Time or Date to add the time and date when you created the comments.
4. Select OK.
5
Working with Objects
About Activation Status
Objects in Adams/View have two states during a Simulation: active and inactive. When an object is
active, Adams/Solver includes the object in any simulations that you run. If an object is inactive,
Adams/Solver ignores the object. For example, if you constrain two parts using a Fixed joint to
temporarily keep them fixed, you can deactivate the fixed joint during the simulation. The two parts are
then free to move relative to each other.
You may find activating and deactivating objects helpful in the following circumstances:
• You have imported part graphics from a CAD program and you haven’t constrained all of the
parts yet. By deactivating some of them, you can keep them in your Modeling database without
having them affect the simulation. You can also test each Constraint that you create individually.
• You are debugging your model and you want to see which objects are causing problems. You can
deactivate those you think are most likely to be generating errors.
• You are studying design variations and you want to alternate between different variations. For
example, you could create both a Bushing and a Joint between two parts in your model. During
the first simulation, you could activate the bushing and deactivate the joint. During the second
simulation, you could deactivate the bushing and activate the joint. Finally, during a third
simulation, you could activate both.
You can also create a Scripted simulation to turn on and off the activation states of objects during a
simulation. For example, to simulate the launching of a missile, you can fix the missile to the plane with
a fixed joint and then deactivate the joint during the simulation to simulate the release of the missile.
Learn about Performing a Scripted Simulation.
You can set the activation status of the following objects. All objects are active by default.
• Groups (You set the activation status of groups as you create them. Learn about Grouping and
Ungrouping Objects.)
• Parts (rigid bodies, point masses, and flexible links)
• Differential equations
• Markers
• Constraints
• Forces
• Data elements
• Output controls
About Inheriting Activation Status
When you activate an object, it only becomes truly active if and when all of its ancestors are active. In
addition, if you deactivate an object, you also deactivate all its children. For example, if you have a part
(PART_1) with two markers (MARKER_1 and MARKER_2), you can only activate MARKER_1 if
Adams/View
Working with Objects
6
PART_1 is also active. Also, if you deactive PART_1, you also deactivate its markers. The following
figure shows the possible activation states for PART_1 and its markers.
Learn about:
• About activation status
• Activating and deactivating objects
Activating and Deactivating Objects
Any objects that you deactive appear dimmed in the display of the Main window and Database Navigator.
In addition, the text OFF appears next to the object in the Database Navigator Tree list.
Note that any geometry that you deactivate will not be included in mass calculations.
To activate or deactivate a selected object:
1. Select the object to be activated or deactivated.
2. From the Edit menu, select either Activate or Deactivate.
If you deactivated an object, Adams/View changes its color to indicate it is not active.
To change the activation status of an object on the screen and its children:
1. Right-click the object you want to activate or deactivate.
Tip: You can zoom in on the object on the screen to more easily place the cursor over just
that object.
7
Working with Objects
2. From the shortcut menu that appears, select (De)activate.
The Deactivate/Activate Object dialog box appears.
3. Set the activation of the object and select whether or not you want the object's children to inherit
the activation status of the parent. Learn About Inheriting Activation Status.
4. Select OK.
To activate or deactivate an object using the Database Navigator:
1. Double-click the background of the Adams/View main window to clear any selections.
2. From the Edit menu, select Activate or Deactivate.
The Database Navigator appears.
3. Select the object you want to activate or deactivate from the Database Navigator.
4. Select OK.
To determine the activation status of an object:
• Display information about the object as explained in Viewing Object Information. Be sure that
Verbose is selected in the Information window so that the window displays all information about
the object.
Grouping and Ungrouping Objects
If several objects make up a unit or subsystem of your model, you can group them so that you can work
on them as a single object. For example, you could group all the objects that make up a suspension system
or a handle of a latch. Once you've grouped the objects, you can add them to the select list all at once so
that you can perform editing operations on them, such as move or copy them. You can also set up their
activation and deactivation status during simulations. (Learn about Activating and Deactivating Objects.)
When you create a group, you can specify the objects to be included or set up a filter to specify the objects
in the group. You can also enter an expression that sets whether or not the objects are active or deactive
during a simulation.
To create a group of objects:
1. From the Build menu, select Group.
The Group Create dialog box appears.
2. Enter a name for the group of objects. Adams/View assigns a default name for you.
3. Add any comments about the group that you want to enter to help you manage and identify the
group.
Note: The pull-down menu Expand Groups is only present to provide backward
compatibility. We recommend that you not use it.
Adams/View
Working with Objects
8
4. Specify the objects to be included in the group as explained in the table below.
5. Specify whether or not the group of objects is active during a simulation. You can enter an
expression that evaluates to 0 (not active) or 1 (active) or enter 1 or 0. If you do not specify a value,
Adams/View uses the activation status you set using the Activate and Deactivate commands as
explained in Activating and Deactivating Objects.
6. Select OK.
To ungroup objects:
1. From the Build menu, select Ungroup.
The Delete Group dialog box appears.
2. Enter the name of the group of objects you want to ungroup.
3. Select OK.
Setting Object Appearance through Edit -> Appearance
Command
You can set how individual or types of objects appear in Adams/View.You can set:
• Visibility of the object and of its name on the screen.
• Color, line style, line width, rendering, and transparency of the object. For example, you can set
the color of the object’s outline or its name.
• Size of the screen icons that represent the object in your model. Note that these changes take
precedence over the size you specify globally for the Modeling database.
You can also set appearance through the Database Navigator. You cannot, however, set rendering mode,
but you can additionally set the state of the object during a Simulation. Learn about Setting Appearance
of Objects Through the Database Navigator.
To: Do the following:
Explicitly specify the
objects to be grouped
In the Objects in Group text box, enter the names of the objects. Separate
each name with a comma (,).
You can select an object on the screen or browse for an object in the
Database Navigator. If you select objects to group using the shortcut menu,
Adams/View enters commas between the objects.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Set filters for specifying
objects to be grouped
In the Objects in Group text box, enter a wildcard, and then specify the
type of objects in the Type Filter text box. For example, enter Parts to
include only rigid bodies or Markers to include only coordinate system
markers.
9
Working with Objects
To set the appearance of an object:
1. If desired, select the object whose appearance you want to set. Otherwise, you can use the
Database Navigator to select the object. It appears after Step 2.
2. From the Edit menu, select Appearance.
If you did not select an object, the Database Navigator appears.
3. If necessary, select the object from the Database Navigator. Learn about Showing , Hiding, and
Selecting Objects in the Database Navigator.
4. Do one of the following:
• To explicitly specify an object, in the Entity text box, enter the name of the object whose
appearance you want to set.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Once the name of the object is in the text box, press Enter to update the dialog box.
• To specify an entire type of object whose appearance you want to set, in the Entity text box,
enter a wildcard, and then specify the type of object in the Type text box. For example, enter
Parts to set the appearance of all rigid bodies or Markers to set the appearance of all markers.
5. Set Visibility to how you want the visibility of the selected object or objects. You can select:
• On - Turns on the display of the objects.
• Off - Turns off the display of the objects.
• Inherit - Lets the object simply inherit the display settings from its parent. For example, a
coordinate system marker inherits settings from its parent part.
6. Set Name Visibility to whether or not you want the name of the objects displayed in the View
window. Refer to the options above for Visibility for an explanation of the choices.
7. Set Color Scope to the color you want used for the objects and set which elements of the objects
should be affected by the selected color. You can select:
• Polygon Fill - Sets the color of those areas of a graphic that can be shaded (they include sides
of a cylinders, frustums, boxes, and so on).
• Edge - Sets the color of the lines making up the edges of the facets of a graphic that can be
shaded.
• Outline - Sets the color of the lines that make up those graphics that cannot be shaded or filled
like the coil of a spring damper.
• All - Sets the selected color for all elements of an object.
To browse for a color in the Database Navigator or create a new color, right-click the Color text
box, and select Browse or Create.
8. Set the Render choices to:
Tip: Right-click the object on the screen, point to the name of the object, and then select
Appearance.
Adams/View
Working with Objects
10
• Filled - Adds shading to a solid fill to give a more realistic appearance. It does not show edges.
The light source is from the upper left.
• Wireframe - Shows only the edges of objects so that you can see through the objects. Helps
you select points and edges.
9. Set how transparent the object or objects are. The higher the value, the more transparent the object
is, allowing other objects to show through. The lower the value, the more opaque the object is,
covering other objects.
10. In the Icon Size text box, enter the size you want for the icons or, in the Icon Scale text box, enter
the amount by which you want to scale the icons. The scale factor is relative to the current size
set. A scale factor of 1 keeps the icons the same size. A scale factor less than 1 reduces the size
of the icons and a scale factor greater than 1 increases the size of the icons. Note that these changes
take precedence over the size you specify globally for the modeling database as explained in
Setting Screen Icon Display.
Setting Up Material Types
You can create or modify a material, which you can then assign to parts. You define a material by its
composition, such as restitution coefficient, Young's modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and mass density. Part
material properties are important in determining the mass moments of inertia of a part.
To create or modify a material type:
1. From the Build menu, point to Materials, and then select either New or Modify.
2. If you selected Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a material type to modify, and
then select OK.
The Create/Modify Material dialog box appears.
3. Change the default name assigned to the new material type, if desired.
4. Enter the values for Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, and mass density.
5. Select the Comments tool on the dialog box and enter any comments you want associated
with the material type. Learn about Comments.
6. Select OK.
Tip: Setting the transparency of objects can have a negative impact on graphical
performance if you are using a graphics card without hardware acceleration for
OpenGL. Instead of setting an object’s transparency, consider setting the object’s
render mode to wireframe.
11
Working with Objects
Standard Material Properties
The following table shows the material properties for the standard material types in Adams/View. All
material types in Adams/View are assumed to be linearly elastic. Adams/View automatically calculates
the material’s Shear Modulus (G) from the Young’s Modulus (E) and Poisson’s Ratio () according to the
equation:
.
Setting Object Colors
By default, Adams/View displays each of the objects you create in a different color using its palette of
objects colors. You can also:
• Change the color of any object.
• Modify any of the colors in the palette.
• Create a color of your own.
• Change the background color of the Main window and any View windows that you create.
Learn about:
• Changing an Object's Color
The material
Young’s Modulus value
(Newton/meter2) Poisson’s Ratio Density (kg/meter3)
Aluminum 7.1705E+ 10 0.33 2740.0
Cast iron 1.0E+11 0.211 7080.0
Steel 2.07E+11 0.29 7801.0
Stainless steel 1.9E+11 0.305 7750.0
Magnesium 4.48E+10 0.35 1795.0
Nickel 2.07E+11 0.291 7750.0
Glass 4.62E+10 0.245 2595.0
Brass 1.06E+11 0.324 8545.0
Copper 1.19E+11 0.326 8906.0
Lead 3.65E+10 0.425 11370
Titanium 1.0204E+11 0.3 4850.0
Tungsten 3.447E+11 0.28 19222\
Wood 1.1E+10 0.33 438.0
Adams/View
Working with Objects
12
• Modifying and Creating Object Colors
Changing an Object's Color
You can change an object's color using either the Object Color Tool Stack on the Main Toolbox, which
contains 15 colors to which you can set the color of a object, or you can use the Edit Appearance Dialog
Box. The Edit Appearances dialog box lets you select all the colors defined in the Modeling database.
To change an object's color using the Object Color tool stack:
1. Select the object or objects whose color you want to change as explained in Selecting Objects.
2. Select a color from the Object Color tool stack.
To change an object's color using the Edit Appearances dialog box:
1. Select the object or objects whose color you want to change.
2. From the Edit menu, select Appearance.
3. In the Color text box, enter the name of a color.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Learn more about Setting Object Appearance through Edit -> Appearance Command.
Modifying and Creating Object Colors
You can change the colors that are available for displaying objects and define new colors. Note that the
color changes are not reflected in the color tools on the Object Color tool stack. These are fixed and
remain the same colors as the default colors.
To modify or create a color:
1. From the Settings menu in either the main or plotting window, select Colors.
The Edit Color dialog box appears.
2. Do one of the following:
• To modify a color, set Color to the the color that you want to modify. You can also select
Background to edit the color of the view window background. The selected color appears in
the Old color box.
• To create a new color, select New Color. The Create New Color dialog box appears. Enter the
name of the color, and then select OK.
3. Select Color Picker, and then select a color.
The selected color appears in the New color box.
4. Select OK.
13
Working with Objects
Using the Color Picker to Select Colors
You can use the Color Picker to select a color from a preset palette of basic colors or colors you define
yourself.
Selecting a Basic Color
There are forty-eight basic colors already defined for you.
To select a basic color:
1. Select the color’s square in the Basic Colors box. The selected color, its red, green, and blue
(RGB), and hue, Saturation, and luminosity values (HSV) appear in the lower right corner of the
Color Picker.
2. Select OK.
Defining a New Color
To define a new color:
1. Click anywhere in the color matrix to select a color.
2. Change the RGB or HSV values or use the Luminosity slider to the right of the color matrix to
adjust the lightness or luminosity of the color. See a Picture of Color Picker.
3. Select OK.
Tip: You can define a custom color by clicking the closest basic color in the Basic Color palette
and then modifying it.
Tip: There are sixteen Custom Color squares that you can fill with colors that you want to use
throughout the current session of Adams/View. To store a custom color, select a Custom
Color square, define a color, and then select Add to Custom Colors. The colors are only
available for the current session of Adams/View.
Adams/View
Measuring Distance Between Positions
14
Measuring Distance Between Positions
You can quickly have Adams/View calculate the relative distance and orientation between positions in
your model defined as Markers or Points. You can also calculate the distance from a position and ground.
It's a quick way to check the relationship between two positions without creating a measure or request.
You will find it helpful to check, for example, if two markers in your model are at the proper distance or
orientation.
Adams/View calculates the following distance information:
• Magnitude
• x, y, and z component
• Angular displacement
You can also select that Adams/View calculate the results relative to a reference marker. When you select
a reference marker, Adams/View calculates the distance information in the coordinate system of the
reference marker. If you do not specify a reference marker, Adams/View calculates the distance relative
to the ground part.
You can select to measure the distance at the model’s initial configuration (how you built it) or at
particular Simulation step. You can specify a time, frame number, or a configuration of the model. For the
model configuration, you can select:
• Model input - The model configuration that was input to Adams/Solver, the analysis engine,
before it ran a simulation.
• Initial conditions - The model configuration after initial conditions were met.
• Equilibrium - The configuration after an equilibrium simulation.
• Forward - One frame forward from the currently displayed frame.
• Backward - One frame backward from the currently displayed frame.
You can view the results in an information window or have Adams/View store the results in a file.
To calculate the distance between markers or points:
1. From the Tools menu, select Measure Distance.
The Measure Distance dialog box appears.
2. Enter the marker or points whose distance you want to calculate in the first three text boxes:
• First Position - Enter the marker or point from which you want to measure the distance.
• Second Position - Enter the marker or point to which you want measure the distance.
• Ref Position - Enter the marker or point defining the coordinate system in which to represent
distance information. Leave blank to represent distance information in global coordinate
system. Using a point as the reference position is the same as using a marker whose orientation
is identical to the global orientation.
15
Measuring Distance Between Positions
3. In the Write Result to File Name text box, enter the name of the file in which you want to save
the distance information. If you want the information written to a directory other than the one from
which you are running Adams/View, include the path.
4. Select either:
• Model Name if you want to calculate the distance based on the current configuration of a
model.
• Analysis Name if you’d like to calculate the distance based on a configuration, frame, or
Simulation time from a particular simulation.
5. The elements in the dialog box change depending on your selection.
6. Enter the options in the dialog box as explained in the table below and select OK. As you set
options, remember that you can use the shortcut menu that appears when you hold down the right
mouse button in a text box to select an object from the screen or a list.
If you selected: Do the following:
Model Name In the Model Name text box, enter the name of the model. If you
want to measure distances in the current model, you do not need to
enter a model name.
Analysis Name 1. Enter the name of a simulation.
2. Select to use a particular time, frame, or configuration
stored in the selected simulation.
Adams/View
Calculating Aggregate Mass of Parts
16
Calculating Aggregate Mass of Parts
You can have Adams/View calculate the total mass and inertia of a part or parts in your model.
Adams/View returns the information in the Information window or in a specified file. It ignores the ground
part or any part that has no mass.
By default, Adams/View calculates all location coordinates and orientation angles in the current global
coordinate system. You can select a different coordinate system or reference frame relative to which you
would like the coordinates and angles returned. When you express the aggregate mass in the global
coordinate system, Adams/View essentially places a temporary marker at the center of mass location and
then it provides the inertia properties in principal moments, not off-diagonal terms.
The orientation shown is the orientation of the principal moments of inertia.
To calculate aggregate mass:
1. From the Tools menu, select Aggregate Mass.
The Aggregate Mass dialog box appears.
2. Set Bodies to one of the following:
• Selected to calculate the mass of only certain parts.
• All to calculate the aggregate mass of all the bodies in your model.
3. If you selected to calculate the aggregate mass of only a selected set of parts, select Select . A list
of parts in your model appears. Select the desired parts. Tips To select objects:.
4. In the Relative to text box, if desired, enter another coordinate system, with respect to which
you'd like calculations to be relative. By default the calculations are relative to the global
coordinate system.
5. Set Info Window to one of the following:
• Replace to replace existing information.
• Append to append existing information.
• None
6. Select how you want the output displayed. You can display it in the information window and to a
file. (Note that currently, Brief Output has no impact on the type of information displayed.)
7. If you want to save the results to a file, in the File Name text box, enter the name of the file in
which you want to save the information. If you want the information written to a directory other
than the one from which you are running Adams/View, enter the path.
8. Select OK.
17
Defining a New Ground Part
Defining a New Ground Part
Using the Modify Body dialog box, you can define a new part as the ground part.
Learn About the Ground Part.
To define a new ground part:
1. Display the Modify Rigid Body as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Set Category to Ground Part.
3. In the New Ground text box, enter a new or existing part to be ground.
4. Select OK.
Adams/View
Defining a New Ground Part
18
Moving Objects
Adams/View
Using Object Position Handle
2
Using Object Position Handle
The Object position handle is a powerful tool for translating and rotating various objects in your model.
Displaying the Object Position Handle
To display the object position handle on an object:
• Select the object on which you want to display the handle. To see the handle, you can have only
one object selected.
The position handle appears over the first point of the geometry that you created or in the center
of spherical geometry.
Translating an Object Along Its Axes
You can use the Object position handle to translate an object along an axis of the object position handle.
To translate an object along its axes:
1. Display the position handle as explained in Displaying the Object Position Handle.
2. Click on any of the axis stems of the object position handle and drag the stem. The position handle
moves the object in either direction along the selected axis.
3 Moving Objects
Using Object Position Handle
Rotating an Object About Its Axes
You can use the Object position handle to rotate an object about an axis of the object position handle.
To rotate the object about any of its three axes:
1. Display the position handle as explained in Displaying the Object Position Handle.
2. Click on the ball at the end of any of the axes of the handle and pivot the axis around the origin
of the handle. Moving the x-axis ball rotates about the y-axis, moving the y-axis ball rotates about
the z-axis, moving the z-axis ball rotates about the x-axis.
3. You can also use the object position handle to rotate an object in the plane of the screen when one
axis of the object is perpendicular to the screen.
Creating a Global Position Handle
You can create a global position handle with respect to the which you can translate and rotate selected
objects.
To set a global position handle:
1. Do either of the following:
• From the Settings menu, select Object Position Handle.
• From the Move Toolstack on the Main toolbox, select Object Position Handle tool .
Tip: To gain more precise control on the rotation angles, move the mouse away from the
center of the position handle as you rotate the object. The farther you move the
mouse away from the position handle, the smaller Adams/View makes the angles of
rotation.
Tip: You can also locate the global position handle by entering precise locations as
explained in Exact Position Tool - Moving Objects Exactly. If other objects are also
selected, Adams/View moves them to positions relative to the new position of the
global position handle.
Adams/View
Using Object Position Handle
4
The Object Position Handle dialog box appears.
2. Select Set Handle Location, and then click on the screen to indicate the location for the handle.
3. If desired, orient the axes of the handle as explained below. By default, the orientation of the
position handle is set to that of the current Working grid axes.
• Set Orientation Via to how you want to orient the handle.
• Select Orientation Via, and then define axes as necessary.
4. Select Close.
To reset the global position handle to the default location for the selected object:
• Select Reset from the Object Handle Settings dialog box.
Tip: You can also delete the global position handle just as you would any object as
explained in Deleting Objects.
5 Moving Objects
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
The move tools available from the Move Toolstack on the Main toolbox provide many different ways to
move objects.
Translating Objects by Dragging
You can quickly translate objects by dragging them. To protect you from accidentally translating objects,
you need to press Ctrl and Shift before you can translate the objects. You can translate objects in the
Working grid if it is turned on or about the global coordinate system.
To translate objects by selecting and dragging:
1. Select the objects that you want to translate as explained in Selecting Objects.
2. Hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys.
3. Click anywhere on the selected objects and hold down the mouse button.
4. Drag the selected objects to the desired location and release the mouse button.
Moving Objects By Increments
Main toolbox -> Move tool stack -> By Increments
You can position an object incrementally using the By Increments tool . It lets you specify the angle
of rotation or the translational distance. The next two sections explain how to translate and rotate objects
by increments:
• Rotating Object by Increments
• Translating Object by Increments
Note: Four of the tools in the Move tool stack are not explained here because they are shortcuts
to other operations or apply more to parameterization. The tools are:
• Coordinate System tool
• Working Grid tool
• Parameterization tools f(x) and f(theta)
Adams/View
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
6
Rotating Object by Increments
Rotates an object by increments about the center (origin) of the View window. As you rotate the object,
you can select where the origin of the view window is.
To incrementally rotate an object:
1. Select the object that you want to move.
2. From the Move Toolstack, select the By Increments tool .
See a Picture of rotating by increments.
3. If desired, select a new view center about which to rotate the object. To select a new center:
• Select the blank box in the center of the rotation arrows.
• Select a point on screen about which you want to rotate the object.
4. In the Angle text box, set the amount by which you want to incrementally rotate the object.
5. Select the appropriate rotation arrows to rotate the object. Adams/View rotates the object each
time you select an arrow.
Translating Object by Increments
Translates an object by increments.
To incrementally translate an object:
1. Select the object that you want to move.
7 Moving Objects
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
2. From the Move Toolstack on the Main toolbox, select the By Increments tool . The settings
in the Main toolbox container change as shown below
.
3. In the Distance text box, set the amount by which you want to incrementally translate the object.
4. Select the appropriate translation arrows to translate the object along the x- or y-axis of the view
coordinate system. Adams/View translates the object each time you select an arrow.
Exact Position Tool - Moving Objects Exactly
Main toolbox -> Move toolstack -> Exact Position Tool
You can position an object precisely by specifying the translational coordinates and the rotational angles
of the object’s position handle relative to the Working grid axes, global coordinate system, or any object
on the screen. In addition, you can display the current position of an object’s position handle.
Adams/View
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
8
The following figure shows an example of entering the exact location of a box’s object handle position
so that the handle is in the same position as the handle of a second box.
If more than one object is selected or you’ve created a global position handle, Adams/View moves the
first object you selected or the handle to the specified location and moves all other selected objects to
positions relative to the first selected object or the handle.
To position an object precisely or get the location of an object:
1. Select the object or objects that you want to position or the object whose coordinate location you
want to display.
9 Moving Objects
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
2. From the Move Toolstack on the Main toolbox, select the Exact Position tool . The settings
in the Main toolbox change as shown below.
3. Do one or more of the following:
• Select Get to obtain the coordinates of the selected object.
• In the 1, 2, or 3 Location and Orientation text boxes, enter the locations and orientations to
which you want to move the object.
The coordinate locations are in the current coordinate system. For example, if the coordinate
system is set to Cartesian, then Location 1 is the x coordinate.
Orientation 1 is the first rotation angle, Orientation 2 is the second, and Orientation 3 is the
third. The axis to which Adams/View applies these angles depends on the current rotation
sequence. Learn about Rotation Sequences. For example, if the rotation sequence is body-
fixed 313, Adams/View applies Orientation 1 to the z-axis.
4. Select the object to which the locations and orientations are relative. The coordinates are relative
to the location of the object’s position handle. By default, the coordinates are relative to the
working grid.
5. If you selected that the coordinates are relative to an object, enter the object in the lower text box.
To browse for an object or select an object from a list, right-click the lower text box, and then
select the appropriate command.
6. Select Set.
Adams/View
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
10
Point-to-Point Tool - Translating from Initial Location to
Another
Main toolbox -> Move toolstack -> Point-to-Point Tool
Moves objects by translating them from an initial location to another. There are two ways to move an
object from one location to another:
• Pick two locations. The first location defines the location from which to move and the second
location defines the point to which to move the selected object. The objects move relative to the
selected locations.
• Define a distance and a vector along which to translate the selected objects.
The following figures show a link (LINK_2) being centered over a hole of LINK_1 by moving the link
from position A to position B.
As you translate the objects, you can rotate an object that you select during the translation operation or
translate all objects currently selected. In addition, you can translate a copy of the selected objects instead
of the actual objects.
To translate objects from one location to a another by defining two points:
1. From the Move Toolstack on the Main toolbox, select the Point-to-Point tool .
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
• If desired, select Selected to translate the currently selected objects.
• If desired, select Copy to translate a copy of the selected object or objects.
• Select From To from the pull-down menu.
3. If you did not choose Selected in the settings container, select the object that you want to translate.
4. Select the first point on the screen from which to translate the object or objects.
5. Select the second point on the screen to which to translate the object.
11 Moving Objects
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
To translate objects along a vector:
1. From the Move tool stack, select the Point-to-Point tool .
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
• If desired, select Selected to translate the currently selected objects.
• If desired, select Copy to translate a copy of the selected object or objects.
• Select Direction Distance from the pull-down menu, and then enter the distance to translate
the object in the Distance text box.
3. Select the object that you want to translate. if you did not select Selected in the settings container.
4. Select an axis or define the vector along which to translate the object by selecting two points on
the screen.
Align & Rotate Tool - Rotating Objects About or Along Grid
or Features
Main toolbox -> Move tool stack -> Align & Rotate Tool
Rotates objects about an axis or aligns them with the axes of other objects. You can set the alignment in
the following ways:
• About - Rotates an object about the axis of another object.
• Align - Rotates an object about its axis to align it with another object.
• Align Same As - Aligns an object to the orientation of another object.
• Align One Axis - Orients an axis of an object to be in the same direction as the axis of another
object. This is useful if the axis of a joint or force is defined by a marker in your model.
• Align Two Axes - Orients an object so it is the same direction as the axis of another object and
rotates the object about that axis to place a second axis in the plane defined by the two directions.
Adams/View
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
12
You can rotate an object that you select during the rotate operation or rotate all objects currently selected.
In addition, you can rotate a copy of the selected objects instead of the actual objects.
To rotate objects about an axis or axes:
1. From the Move Toolstack, select the Align & Rotate tool .
2. In the settings container, specify the following:
• To rotate the currently selected objects, select Selected.
• To rotate a copy of the selected object or object, select Copy.
• From the pull-down menu, select the method you want to use to rotate or align objects. If you
selected About, enter the amount to rotate the object in the Angle box.
3. If you did not choose Selected in the settings container, select the object or objects that you want
to rotate.
4. Follow the prompts in the status bar to select the axis or axes about which to rotate or align the
objects. Refer to the table below for assistance.
If you
selected: Do the following:
About Select the axis about which to rotate the object or objects.
Align Select the axis about which to rotate the object or objects.
Select the axis to move.
Select the axis with which to align the object.
Align Same As Select the object to which you want to align the already selected objects.
13 Moving Objects
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
Mate Faces Tool - Positioning Objects by Aligning Faces
Main toolbox -> Move toolstack -> Mate Faces Tool
Positions an object by mating one object face with another object face so they are in the same plane. The
following figure shows two objects whose top and bottom faces were mated.
The objects must be in shaded render mode to mate their faces. See Rendering mode.
Align One Axis Select the axis of the object to align.
Select the object to which to align the axis.
Align Two
Axes
Select the first axis of the object to control (x, y, or z).
Select the object to which to direct the first axis.
Select the second axis of the object to control.
Select the object towards which to direct the second object.
Note: Adams/View rotates the object so that the first axis points toward the first
object, and the second axis points as closely as possible towards the second
object.
Depending on the locations that you selected, it may not be possible for both axes to
pass through the locations. Adams/View orients the object so that the first axis passes
through the first location, and the plane defined by the two axes passes through the
second location. This means that the second axis comes as close as possible to the
second location, but may not pass through it.
If you
selected: Do the following:
Adams/View
Moving Objects Using the Move Tools
14
To align an object’s face with another object’s face:
1. From the Move Toolstack, select the Mate Faces tool .
2. Select the face of the object to be aligned.
3. Select the face with which to align the selected object’s face.
15 Moving Objects
Moving Objects Using the Precision Move Dialog Box
Moving Objects Using the Precision Move Dialog Box
Adams/View provides a Precision Move dialog box to help you move objects:
• By increments
• To precise coordinates
You can select to move the objects relative to a specified object's coordinate system, called the reference
coordinate system. You can also select to move objects relative to the screen. In addition, you can use the
Precision Move dialog box to view the coordinates of one object in relation to another.
The Precision Move dialog box consolidates some operations that are available using the By Increments
and Precise Coordinates tools and provides new functionality for rotating objects by increments relative
to any object.
Overall Procedure for Using the Precision Move Dialog Box
The following provides general instructions for moving objects using the Precision Move dialog box.
To move objects using the Precision Move dialog box:
1. Select the objects to be moved.
2. If you want to move the objects along or about axes that another object in the model defines (the
reference coordinate system), then select either Relative to the or About the, and enter the name
of the object that is to define the reference coordinate system.
3. If you do not enter a reference coordinate system, Adams/View moves the objects about the
default coordinate system.
4. Then, either:
• If you know the destination coordinates of the objects you are moving, enter the destination
coordinates into the C1 through C3 (for translation) and A1 through A3 (for rotation) text
boxes, and then select OK.
• Use the Rotate and Translate dials to move the objects by incremental values.
Accessing the Precision Move Dialog Box
To display the Precision Move dialog box:
• From the Move Toolstack, select the Precision Move tool .
Selecting the Objects to Move
When you display the Precision Move dialog box, Adams/View places all selected objects in it so you can
quickly move them. You can also change the objects to be moved.
Adams/View
Moving Objects Using the Precision Move Dialog Box
16
To select an object to move:
1. Set Relocate the to the desired object type (for example, part or marker).
2. Enter the name or names of the objects to move.
Selecting the Reference Coordinate System
By default, the Precision Move dialog box moves the selected objects relative to the default coordinate
system. You can specify that Adams/View use a different coordinate system as the reference coordinate
system. The rotational and translational coordinates you enter for the move or the incremental values you
select are with respect to the origin and orientation of this coordinate system. You can select the following
types of objects:
• Model - Global coordinate system.
• Part or marker - Part or marker in your model.
• View - Adams/View defined view, such as front, right, or left. Use the Database Navigator to
select the name of the view.
• Entity - Any entity, including those that are not on the screen. Entities also include the working
grid and gravity.
• Screen - The plane of the screen. When you select to move objects relative to the screen, the
Precision Move dialog box changes. Learn about Translating and Rotating Objects Using Screen
Coordinates.
You can specify two options for the reference coordinate system: Relative to the or About the:
• If you specify the Relative to the option for rotations, objects rotate in place (their locations do
not change) and their rotations are with respect to the coordinate system specified in the Relative
to the text box.
• If you specify the About the option for rotations, the objects rotate about the origin of the
coordinate system specified (their locations change) and the rotations are with respect to the
coordinate system specified in the About the text box.
• Translations are with respect to the coordinate system defined as either Relative to the or the
About the.
To set the reference coordinate system:
1. Set the second option to either Relative to the or About the.
2. In the text box to the right, enter the object whose coordinate system is to be used as the reference
coordinate system.
3. If you do not enter a reference coordinate system, the Precision Move dialog box moves the
objects about the current default coordinate system.
17 Moving Objects
Moving Objects Using the Precision Move Dialog Box
Moving Objects Relative to or About Coordinate System by
Increments
The Rotate and Translate dials on the left side of the Precision Move dialog box move an object with
respect to a body-fixed or reference coordinate system in incremental amounts. You specify the reference
coordinate system using the Relative to the and About the options Learn about Selecting the Reference
Coordinate System.
Examples

To change the incremental value:
• Enter new values for translation or rotation in the text boxes below the cubes, and then press
Enter.
To change the direction of the move:
• Click the + or - .
To move an object relative to or about another object:
1. Select the object to move.
2. Set the reference coordinate system.
3. Click a cube for the direction you want to translate or rotate the object.
Example 1
Rotate a marker (MAR2) 180 degrees relative to the y axis of the coordinate system that MAR1 defines:
1. Set Relocate the to marker, and then enter MAR2 in the text box to the right.
2. Set Relative to the, and then enter MAR1 in the text box to the right.
3. Set the increment value to 180.
Adams/View
Moving Objects Using the Precision Move Dialog Box
18
4. Click the y cube on the Rotate dial
.
Example 2
Rotate a marker (MAR2) 45 degrees about the y axis of MAR1:
1. Set Relocate the to marker , and then enter MAR2 in the text box to the right.
2. Set About the , and then enter MAR1 in the text box to the right.
3. Set the increment value to 45.
4. Click the y cube on the Rotate dial.
Viewing Locations of Objects Relative to Other Objects
You can use the Precision Move dialog box to view the current coordinates of an object with respect to
the coordinate system of another object (reference coordinate system). Adams/View displays the
coordinates in the six position text boxes (C1 through C3 for translation and A1 through A3 for rotation)
of the Precision Move dialog box.
For example, if you want to ensure that two markers, which you want to connect using an inplane joint,
are in the same plane, you can set one marker as the object to be moved and the other object as the relative
to object. You can then view the rotation coordinates of the first marker to ensure that they are (0, 0, 0).
19 Moving Objects
Moving Objects Using the Precision Move Dialog Box
To view current coordinates:
1. Select the object to move.
2. Set the reference coordinate system.
3. Select Load.
Adams/View loads the current coordinates relative to the reference coordinate system.
Moving Objects Relative to or About Coordinate System by
Precise Coordinates
Using the Precision Move dialog box, you can move an object to precise coordinates relative to another
object's coordinate system (the reference coordinate system). You specify the reference coordinate
system using the Relative to the and About the options (Learn about Selecting the Reference Coordinate
System). You enter the coordinates in the six position text boxes (C1 through C3 for translation and A1
through A3 for rotation) of the Precision Move dialog box.
To move an object to coordinates relative to a reference frame:
1. Select the object to move.
2. Set the reference coordinate system.
3. Change the values in the C1 through C3 and A1 through A3 text boxes.
4. Select OK.
Example
Move a marker (MAR2) to (0, -4, -4) in another marker's (MAR1) coordinate system.
1. Set Relocate the to marker , and then enter MAR2 in the text box to the right.
2. Set Relative to the , and then enter MAR1 in the text box to the right.
3. In the C1 through C3 text boxes, enter:
• C1: 0
• C2: -40
• C3: -40
Adams/View
Moving Objects Using the Precision Move Dialog Box
20
4. Select OK.
Translating and Rotating Objects Using Screen Coordinates
Using the Precision Move dialog box, you can move an object based on screen-fixed coordinates. The
active view defines the screen-fixed coordinate system. Regardless of the object's orientation in the active
view, the move is relative to the screen coordinates.
When you select to move an object based on screen coordinates, the Precision Move dialog box changes
the dials on the left to those shown in the figure below. The dials translate and rotate the objects:
• Think of the translation as pulling the object in the direction of the arrow. For example, when
you select the small arrow that points up, you pull an object up along the vertical axis. The
double arrows to the right translate an object along an axis that is normal to the screen (works
only if the view is in perspective mode).
21 Moving Objects
Moving Objects Using the Precision Move Dialog Box
• Think of the rotation as pushing on an object at that point. For example, if you select the arrow
that points to the right, you are pushing the horizontal axis back, resulting in a positive rotation
around the vertical axis.
To move an object in screen coordinates:
1. Select the object to move.
2. Set the reference coordinate system.
3. Click an arrow for the direction you want to translate or rotate the object.
Adams/View
Moving Objects Using the Precision Move Dialog Box
22
Modifying Geometry and Part Properties
Adams/View
Modifying Rigid Body Geometry
2
Modifying Rigid Body Geometry
You can modify the geometry of a rigid body using:
• Hotpoints that appear on the geometry when you select it.
• A dialog box to enter information about the geometry, such as the location of anchor points, its
width, or its depth. In addition, some dialog boxes let you easily edit profile point locations
through a Location Table.
Using Hotpoints to Graphically Modify Geometry
You can use hotpoints to resize and reshape the geometry of a rigid body. The hotpoints appear at various
locations on the geometry depending on the type of geometry.
Refer to the help on creating a geometry to see where Adams/View places hotpoints on the different types
of geometry.
To display hotpoints on geometry:
• Click the geometry using the left mouse button.
To use the hotpoints to resize and reshape geometry:
• Drag the hotpoint to the desired location and release the mouse button. See a Picture of dragging
hotpoints.
3 Modifying Geometry and Part Properties
Modifying Rigid Body Geometry
Using Dialog Boxes to Precisely Modify Geometry
You can precisely control the size, location, and shape of rigid body geometry using modify dialog boxes.
In addition, you can change the name of the geometry as you modify it.
To see all the different types of geometry that make up a part:
• Place the cursor on a part and hold down the right mouse button.
Adams/View displays the names of the geometry near the cursor location. If it is a very complex
part, you may need to move the cursor to different locations on the part to see all the different
types of geometry.
To display a modify dialog box for geometry and modify geometry:
1. Place the cursor over the part containing the geometry and hold down the right mouse button.
2. Point to the name of the geometry that you want to modify and then select Modify.
The modify dialog box for the geometry appears.
3. Change the name of the geometry, if desired, and assign a unique ID number to the geometry, if
appropriate.
4. Add any comments about the geometry that you want to enter to help you manage and identify
the geometry.
To enter comments for extrusions, revolutions, lines, and polylines, select the Comments tool
at the bottom of the dialog box.
5. Enter the values for the geometry, and then select OK. To get help with entering the values, press
F1 when the cursor is in the dialog box.
Editing Locations Using the Location Table
To specify the location of points in lines, polylines, splines, Extrusions, and revolutions, you can use the
Location table. The Location Table lets you view the points in lines, polylines, splines, extrusions, and
revolutions and edit them. You can also save the location information to a file or read in location
information from a file.
Learn more:
Note: To modify a point, you use the Table Editor because a point only consists of a location. In
addition, for lines, polylines, extrusions, and revolutions, you can use the Location Table
that lets you edit the locations of profile points. For more information, see Editing Locations
Using the Location Table.
Note: You can also use the Info command to view the geometry that belongs to a part. Learn about
Viewing Model Topology Map Through Information Window.
Adams/View
Modifying Rigid Body Geometry
4
• Displaying the Location Table
• Working in the Location Table
• Reading and Writing Location Information
For general information on using tables in Adams/View, see Using Tables to Enter Values.
Displaying the Location Table
To display the Location table:
• From a polyline, extrusion, spline, or revolution modify dialog box, select the More button .
Working in the Location Table
To enter values in a cell of the Location table:
1. Click the cell.
The text cursor appears in the cell.
2. Type the values in the selected cell.
To insert text into multiple cells:
1. In the Set Selected text box, enter the text that you want to insert.
2. Select the cells in which you want to insert the text.
3. Select Set Selected.
To resize a column:
1. Point to the right border of the column heading that you want to resize. The cursor changes to a
double-sided arrow.
2. Drag the cursor until the column is the desired size.
3. Release the mouse button.
To resize all columns equally in the Location table:
• Select either the Widen or Narrow tool.
To insert a row before a row:
1. Select the row above which you want to insert a new row.
2. Select Insert.
To insert a row after a row:
1. Select the row below which you want to insert a new row.
2. Select Append.
5 Modifying Geometry and Part Properties
Modifying Rigid Body Geometry
To delete a row:
1. Select the row or rows you want to delete.
2. Select Delete.
To reset the Location Table:
• Select Reset.
Reading and Writing Location Information
You can save the current location information in the Location table in ASCII format. Adams/View places
spaces between each cell.
You can also read in location information from an ASCII file to be used as the location of points in the
associated geometry. The information must be in the same format as numeric data that you input into
Adams/View using the Import command. For more information, see File Import dialog box help.
To read or write in location information:
1. Select Write or Read from the Location table.
The File Selection dialog box appears.
2. Double-click the directory that contains the file.
3. In the File Name text box, type the file name you want to open, or highlight the file in the list.
4. Select OK.
Note: Adams/View reads the location information starting at the first line that has numerical
information. If there are headers in the file, Adams/View reads the header information
when you first read in the file and changes the headers in the Location table accordingly. It
resets the headers to the default headers (X, Y, and Z), however, the next time you open the
Location table.
Adams/View
Modifying Rigid Body Geometry
6
7 Modifying Geometry and Part Properties
Modifying Part Properties
Modifying Part Properties
Each moving part in Adams/View can have the following properties in addition to having geometry:
• Location and name
• Mass and inertia
• Initial velocities
• Initial location and orientation
Adams/View automatically calculates the total mass of the part and its inertia based on the part's volume
and density. It also automatically calculates the initial velocity and position for the part based on any
other initial conditions and connections in your model. You can set how you want Adams/View to
calculate these properties as well as define these properties yourself as explained in the next sections.
Modifying Part Name and Location
While you are modifying a part, you can change its name and set its location relative to another location.
You can also set a rigid body so it is a planar part.
To modify part name and location:
1. If you haven't already done so, display the Modify Body dialog box as explained in Accessing
Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Set Category to Name and Position.
3. Change the name of the geometry, if desired, and assign a unique ID number to the body, if
appropriate.
4. In the Location text box, enter the location of the rigid body. Adams/View applies your location
coordinates in the coordinate system in the Relative To text box.
5. Specify either of three orientation methods and their appropriate value:
• Orientation
• Along Axis Orientation
• In Plane Oriention
6. In the Relative To text box, enter the reference frame relative to which the location and
orientation entries are defined. Leave blank or enter model name to use the global coordinate
system.
7. For a rigid body, to define it as planar, select Planar.
8. Select OK.
Note: You can also modify part properties using the Table Editor. Learn about Editing Objects
Using the Table Editor
Adams/View
Modifying Part Properties
8
Modifying Mass and Inertia for Rigid Bodies
By default, Adams/View calculates the mass and inertia for a rigid body part based on the part's geometry
and material type. The geometry defines the volume and the material type defines the density. The default
material type for rigid bodies is steel. (Note that any geometry that you deactivate will not be included in
mass calculations.)
You can change the material type used to calculate mass and inertia or simply specify the density of the
part. If you do not want Adams/View to calculate mass and inertia using a part's geometry, material type,
or density, you can enter your own mass and moments of inertia. Learn about Setting Up Material Types.
It is possible to assign zero mass to a part whose six degrees of motion you constrain with respect to parts
that do have mass. You should not assign a part zero mass, however. Any part that has zero mass and
translation degrees of freedom can causes simulation failure (since a = F/m). Therefore, we recommend
that you assign finite masses and inertias to all parts. In addition, a part without mass cannot have mass
moments of inertia.
Methods for Calculating Mass Properties
Adams/View uses two different methods to calculate mass properties. If you modify the number of sides
Adams/View uses to define a part’s geometry, such as cylinder, frustum, or torus, Adams/View may use
a different method to calculate the part’s mass properties depending on the number of sides, as explained
below.
• If the number of sides is greater than or equal to the default number of sides (usually 20),
Adams/View calculates the mass using an analytical equation for the geometry volume. It uses a
true solid that the name of the part indicates.
• If the number of sides is less than the default, Adams/View uses a prismatic solid, which you
actually see on the screen, to calculate mass properties. This method is slower but gives more
accurate results. For example, if you change the number of sides of a cylinder from 20 to 3, the
geometry on the screen is of a triangular solid. This solid’s mass properties will be significantly
different that a cylinder’s mass properties.
To modify mass and inertia:
1. If you haven't already done so, display the Modify Rigid Body dialog box as explained in
Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Set Category to Mass Properties.
9 Modifying Geometry and Part Properties
Modifying Part Properties
3. Set Define Mass By to how you want Adams/View to calculate mass and inertia, enter the
appropriate values, and select OK. Learn About Entering Mass Moments of Inertia.
About Entering Mass Moments of Inertia
In the Rigid Body Modify dialog box, you can enter either just the principal mass moments of inertia (Ixx,
Iyy, Izz) or enter the cross products of inertia (Ixy, Ixz, and Iyz). You will want to enter the mass products
of inertia if the inertia marker or center-of-mass (CM) marker is not at the center of mass of the part and
not aligned with the principal axes.
To enter cross-products of inertia, select the check box Off-Diagonal Terms. The Modify Rigid Body
dialog box displays text boxes for entering the cross products of inertia.
The inertia matrix is defined as follows:
From the pull-
down menu,
select: And enter:
Geometry and
Material Type
In the Material Type text box, the type of material for the part. Adams/View
displays the material's composition below the text box. Adams/View uses the
density associated with the material type and volume of the geometry of the part
to calculate the part's mass and inertia.
To select a material type from the Database Navigator or create a new material
type, right-click the text box, and then select the appropriate command. Learn
about Setting Up Material Types.
Geometry and
Density
In the Density text box, enter the density of the part. Adams/View uses the part's
density and the volume of the geometry to calculate its mass and inertia.
User Input Mass - In the Mass text box, enter the mass of the part.
Moments of inertia - Enter the mass moments of inertia.
Center-of-mass marker - In the Center of Mass Marker text box, enter the
marker that is to be used to define the center-of-mass (CM) for the part.
Inertia marker - In the Inertia Reference Marker text box, specify the marker that
defines the axes for the inertia properties. If you do not enter an inertia marker,
Adams/View uses the part CM marker for inertia properties.
Adams/View
Modifying Part Properties
10
The inertia matrix is a symmetrical, positive-definite matrix. You compute the individual terms in the
matrix as follows:
In the above formula, x, y, and z are the components of the displacement of an infinitesimal mass particle
of mass dm, measured from the origin of the inertia marker in the coordinate system of the inertia marker.
The integral is performed over the entire mass of the body. If you do not specify the inertia marker,
Adams/View uses the CM marker. In that case, you compute these quantities about the origin of the CM
marker in the coordinate system of the CM marker.
Displaying Calculated Mass Moments of Inertia
If you select to have Adams/View calculate the mass moments of inertia of a part based on the part's
geometry and material type or density, you can view the mass-inertia tensor matrix that Adams/View
calculates.
To view the matrix:
• In the Modify Rigid Body dialog box, select Show calculated inertia.
Modifying Initial Velocities
You can specify initial velocities for parts. Adams/View uses the initial velocity during the Initial
conditions simulation, which it runs before it runs a Simulation of your model.
You can specify translational and angular velocities for rigid bodies and flexible bodies and only
translational velocity for point masses.
• Translational velocity defines the time rate of change of a part's center of mass with respect to
ground or another marker in your model. You can specify translational velocity for each vector
component of the marker.
Note: Adams/View defines Ixy, Ixz, and Iyz as positive integrals, as shown. Some references
define these terms as the negative of these integrals. You should be sure to compute these
values as shown above.
11 Modifying Geometry and Part Properties
Modifying Part Properties
• Angular velocity defines the time rate of change of a part's rotational position with respect to the
CM marker of the part or another marker in your model. You can specify angular velocity for
each vector component of the marker.
If you specify initial velocities, Adams/View uses them as the initial velocity of the part during initial
conditions simulations regardless of any other forces acting on the part. You can also leave some or all
of the velocities unset. Leaving a velocity unset lets Adams/View calculate the velocity of the part during
an assemble operation depending on the other forces and constraints acting on the part. Note that it is not
the same as setting the initial velocity to zero. Setting an initial velocity to zero means that the part will
not be moving in the specified direction when the simulation starts regardless of any forces and
constraints acting upon it.
To modify initial velocities:
1. If the Modify Body or Create/Modify Point Mass dialog box is not already displayed, display it as
explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Set Category to Velocity Initial Conditions.
The dialog box changes so you can enter translational and angular velocity. If you selected
Velocity Initial Conditions from the Modify Point Mass dialog box, only the options for setting
translational velocity are available.
3. Set the translational and angular velocity as explained in the table below, and then select Apply.
Modifying Initial Location and Orientation
In addition to specifying initial velocities, you can also control the initial position for a part’s location
and orientation. You should specify the initial position when you do not want Adams/View to reposition
the part. Adams/Solver uses the initial position during an Initial conditions simulation, which it runs before
it runs a Simulation of your model.
To: Do the following:
Select the coordinate system
along or about whose axes the
translational or angular velocity
vector components will be
specified.
Select the following:
For translational velocity, select Ground or select Marker and enter
a marker in your model in the text box that appears.
For angular velocity, select Part CM to select the part's center-of-
mass (CM) marker or select Marker and enter a marker in your
model.
Set the velocity along or about
an axis
Select the axes along or about which you want to define velocity and
enter the velocity in the text box that appears next to the axes check
boxes. Remember, leaving a velocity unset lets Adams/View
calculate the velocity of the part during an initial conditions
simulation depending on the other forces and constraints acting on
the part. It is not the same as setting the initial velocity to zero.
Adams/View
Modifying Part Properties
12
You can control initial locations and orientations for rigid bodies and Flexible bodies and only initial
locations for Point masses.
• Location fixes any of the current translational coordinates (x, y, or z) of the part as the initial
location.
• Orientation fixes any of the current body-fixed 313 rotational coordinates (psi, theta, or phi
angles) as the initial orientation. These rotation angles are those associated with a body-fixed
313 rotation sequence regardless of which sequence you set as the default for the modeling
database. (Learn about Rotation Sequences.)
If Adams/Solver has to alter part positions to obtain consistent initial conditions during an initial
conditions simulation, it does not vary the coordinates you specify, unless it must vary them to satisfy the
initial conditions you specify for a joint or a motion.
If you fix the initial positions of too many parts, the initial conditions simulation can fail. Use initial
positions sparingly.
To modify initial position and orientation:
1. Display the Modify Body dialog box as explained in Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
2. Set Category to Position Initial Conditions.
The dialog box displays options for setting position initial conditions. If you selected Position ICs
from the Modify Point Mass dialog box, only options for setting location conditions are available.
3. Select the coordinates or angles that you want fixed during initial conditions simulation as
explained in the Modify Body - Position Initial Conditions and select Apply.
Testing Models
Simulation Basics
Adams/View
Simulation Basics
2
Simulation Basics
After creating your model, or at any point in the modeling process, you can run a Simulation of the model
to test its:
• Performance characteristics
• Response to a set of operating conditions
The entries in this section of the table of contents explain how to define the output desired from
simulations and perform simulations
During a Simulation, Adams/View performs the following operations:
• Sets the initial conditions for all the objects in your model.
• Formulates appropriate equations of motion based on the laws of Newtonian mechanics that
predict how objects in your model will move given the set of forces and constraints acting on
them.
• Solves the equations to within your specified accuracy tolerance for such information as part
displacements, velocities, and acceleration, as well as applied and constraint forces.
• Temporarily saves the data calculated so that you can investigate your results using animations,
plots, and numerical signal processing. You can also permanently save your results in your
Modeling database.
As Adams/View simulates your model and solves equations, it displays the calculated results as frames
of an animation. The animation helps you graphically view the overall behavior of your model and
pinpoint specific problems, such as improper connectivity or misapplied motions or forces. After the
simulation is complete, you can replay the animation. For more information, see Animation Controls
Basics.
Adams/View can display this information in Strip charts through measures or you can view the
information in Adams/PostProcessor for more in-depth investigation and manipulation. See the
Adams/PostProcessor online help.
Types of Simulations
You can run five types of Simulations in Adams/View:
• Dynamic simulation
• Kinematic simulation
• Static equilibrium
• Initial conditions simulation
• Linear simulation
3 Simulation Basics
Simulation Basics
About Dynamic Simulations
Unlike kinematic and static simulations, which involve the solution of only algebraic equations, dynamic
simulations are more complex because they involve the solution of differential and algebraic equations
(DAEs). Two basic types of algorithms are available in Adams/Solver to perform the numerical
integration required for dynamic analyses:
• Stiff solution methods that use implicit, backward difference formulations (BDF) to solve the
DAEs.
• Non-stiff solution methods that use explicit formulations to solve ordinary differential equations
(ODEs) that are obtained from the DAEs by way of coordinate partitioning methods.
In both cases, implicit methods are applied to the formulations to find a solution.
There are four stiff integrators and one non-stiff integrator currently available in Adams/Solver. The four
stiff integrators are:
• Gear (GSTIFF)
• Modified Gear (WSTIFF)
• Constant BDF (Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) only)
• RKF45 (Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) only)
The non-stiff integrator is Adams-Bashforth-Adams-Moulton (ABAM) (Adams/Solver (FORTRAN)
only).
There are two new integrators, HHT (Hilber-Hughes-Taylor) and Newmark, that are only for
Adams/Solver (C++).
About Controlling the Dynamic Solution
When you first build a model and decide to test it by performing a Dynamic simulation, you should always
run two tests: the first using the default integration accuracy and the second using an accuracy 10 times
tighter. Comparing results of these different simulations indicate if the numerical results are good
approximations of the true solution.
If you see noticeable differences in your corresponding plots between the two simulations you ran with
different tolerances, you should tighten the integration tolerance by a factor of 10 again, perform another
test, and compare the results of the last two simulations. Repeat this process until you see no noticeable
differences in results. When this happens, use the looser integration accuracy because it typically results
in a faster simulation.
You can change several dynamic simulation parameters to help you overcome convergence failures:
• Set accuracy - You should always begin by loosening or increasing the convergence tolerance
that must be met by all changes in part displacements and forces during the corrector phase.
• Change number of iterations - You can increase the number of iterations attempted by
Adams/Solver during each corrector phase.
Adams/View
Simulation Basics
4
• Recalculate the Jacobian matrix - You can increase the frequency with which Adams/Solver
recalculates the Jacobian matrix (the matrix of partial differentials) during the corrector phase. In
an attempt to gain greater efficiency, Adams/Solver uses a modified Newton-Raphson approach
that does not update the Jacobian at every iteration.
• Control the maximum step size
Note that you may not always help the solution when you change the default parameters for convergence
tolerance, maximum number of iterations, and pattern for updating the Jacobian. For example, if you
loosen the convergence tolerance, you can allow too much error to build up in your solution over time
and your overall solution accuracy could suffer.
If you increase the number of iterations that Adams/Solver attempts during each corrector phase, you
might be making the solution less efficient. Often, when Adams/Solver cannot get the corrector to
converge using the default number of iterations, it is better to let the solution step back in time and predict
forward using a smaller time step rather than attempt more corrector iterations.
For more information on the effects of making these changes and tips for controlling the dynamic
solution, see the INTEGRATOR statement in the Adams/Solver online help.
Comparison of Integrators
The integrator: Has the following characteristics:
GSTIFF • Uses backward differentiation formulas.
• Uses fixed coefficients for prediction and correction.
• Is the default method.
WSTIFF • Uses backward differentiation formulas.
• Uses variable coefficients for prediction and correction.
Constant BDF • Uses backward differentiation formulas.
• Uses fixed coefficients for prediction and correction.
• The maximum allowed step size controls the integrator accuracy.
• Does not calculate local integration error at each step.
ABAM • Uses coordinate partitioning to reduce the full set of differential and algebraic
equations (DAEs) to a smaller set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs).
• Uses Adams-Bashforth for prediction; uses Adams-Moulton for correction.
RKF45 • Single-step method.
• Primarily designed to solve non-stiff and mildly stiff differential equations
when derivative evaluations are not expensive.
• Not highly accurate.
5 Simulation Basics
Simulation Basics
Equation Formulation Comparison
The following briefly compares the different equation formulations. For more information, see the
INTEGRATOR statement in the Adams/Solver online help. See Solver Settings - Dynamic dialog box help.
HHT • Adams/Solver (C++) only
• Expected to result in a smaller number of Jacobian evaluations.
• Unlike BDF-type formulas, it behaves like a low pass filter; it cuts high
frequency spurious oscillations, while accurately preserving low frequency
oscillations.
• The cutoff frequency can be controlled by adjusting the option Alpha; the
smaller value, the lower the cutoff threshold.
• Stable at small value of the integration step size.
Newmark • Adams/Solver (C++) only
• Behavior similar to HHT.
• Lower order.
• Has two control parameters.
The equation
formulation: Has the following characteristics:
I3 • Ensures that the solution satisfies all constraints.
• Does not ensure that the the velocities and accelerations calculated satisfy all
first- and second-time derivatives.
• Monitors integration error only in system displacements, not in velocities.
• Is fast.
• The Jacobian matrix can become ill-conditioned at small step sizes.
The integrator: Has the following characteristics:
Adams/View
Simulation Basics
6
SI2 • Takes into account constraint derivatives when solving for equations of motion.
This process enables the GSTIFF integrator to monitor the integration error of
velocity variables, and, therefore, renders highly accurate simulations.
• Jacobian matrix remains stable at small step sizes, which in turn increases the
stability and robustness of the corrector at small step sizes.
SI1 • Takes into account constraint derivatives when solving for equations of motion.
• Monitors the integration error on the impulse of the Lagrange Multipliers in the
system. These additional safeguards enable the integrators to monitor the
integrator error in velocity variables and the impulse of the Lagrange
Multipliers.
• Very accurate.
• Jacobian matrix remains stable at small step sizes, which in turn increases the
stability and robustness of the corrector at small step sizes.
The equation
formulation: Has the following characteristics:
7 Simulation Basics
About Simulation Output
About Simulation Output
When you perform a Simulation of your model in Adams/View, think of it as performing a physical test
of your physical model. When you perform a physical test, you add instrumentation, such as gauges and
meters, so you can measure and extract useful information. You also examine the data in detail through
plots to see if your design performed as you expected it to.
The same is true in Adams/View. Adams/Solver is automatically set up to output generic information to
help you evaluate the quality of your design. You can also customize the output to obtain more specific
information. In general, you should set up the output for any information you think is useful for model
verification or system analysis.
Learn about:
• Default Simulation Results
• About Customizing Simulation Output
• Comparison of Measures and Requests
• Results Set Components
Default Simulation Results
The Simulation results that Adams/Solver generates by default include:
• Characteristics of objects in your model - Object characteristics return basic information
about parts, forces, and constraints in your model. For example, they return information about
the position of the center of mass of a part.
• Result set components - Result set components are a basic set of state variable data that
Adams/Solver calculates during a simulation. Adams/Solver outputs the data at each simulation
output step. A component of a result set is a time series of a particular quantity (for example, the
x displacement of a part or the y torque in a joint). Learn about result set components.
About Customizing Output
You can do the following to customize the output from a Simulation:
Note: Object characteristics correspond directly to object measures. You do not need to create
object measures to plot object characteristics because Adams/Solver automatically
calculates and outputs them for you. To use object measures in the definition of your model
or to save the object characteristics from one simulation to another, however, you should
create object measures. Learn about measuring object characteristics.
Adams/View
About Simulation Output
8
• Define measures that Adams/View tracks during and after a simulation. You can measure almost
any characteristic of the objects in your model, such as the force applied by a spring or the
distance or angle between objects. As you run the simulation, Adams/View displays strip charts
of the measures so you can view the results as the simulation occurs. Learn About Measures.
• Create requests to ask for standard displacement, velocity, acceleration, or force information that
helps you investigate the results of your simulation. You can also define other quantities (such as
pressure, work, energy, momentum, and more) that you want output during a simulation. (Learn
more about Creating Requests.)
• Define FE model data to be output for use in third-party programs. Learn about Defining FE
Model Data for Output.
Measures are more flexible than requests. Besides specifying output, you can use measures in the
definition of your model. Requests, on the other hand, let you specify several types of output through one
request. (See comparison of requests and measures.)
Note: You can also use the Measure Distance command to measure the distance between two
markers at different model configurations. This is a quick way to measure distances and
does not require that you run a simulation. For more information, see About Measuring
Distance Between Positions.
9 Simulation Basics
About Simulation Output
Comparison of Measures and Requests
Measures: Requests:
Measure one component. Measure up to six components.
Have a variety of different predefined types. Have only four types: Displacement, Velocity,
Acceleration, or Force.
Can be used when plotting and in the
definition of your model.
Can only be used when plotting.
Can be viewed during and after a simulation. Can only be viewed after a simulation.
Correspond to VARIABLE statements,
VARVAL functions, and REQUEST
statements in Adams/Solver.
Correspond to REQUEST statements in Adams/Solver.
Result Set Components
For: Calculated information is:
Joints, motion generators,
applied loads, and flexible
connectors
• Translational
components
(force):
• FX - X component of force
• FY - Y component of force
• FZ - Z component of force
• FMAG - Magnitude of force
• Rotational
components
(torque):
• TX - X component of torque
• TY - Y component of torque
• TZ - Z component of torque
• TMAG - Magnitude of torque
Adams/View
About Simulation Output
10
Screw joint, rackpin joint,
rotational motion, gear,
coupler, torsional spring-
damper, bushing, beam,
and field
Additional angle outputs. These outputs are the total angular
displacements of the element. They are more than +/-360 degrees if the
object twists more than one turn.
For the element: Component name(s):
Screw joint ANG
Rackpin joint ANG
Rotational motion ANG
Gear ANG1, ANG2
Coupler ANG1, ANG2, ANG3
Torsional spring-damper ANG
Bushing ANGX, ANGY, ANGZ
Beam ANGX, ANGY, ANGZ
Field ANGX, ANGY, ANGZ
Parts
• Displacement • X - X translational component
• Y - Y translational component
• Z - Z translational component
• MAG - Magnitude
• PSI - First rotation angle
• THETA - Second rotation angle
• PHI - Third rotation angle
Note: PSI, THETA, and PHI are automatically associated with a
body-fixed 313 rotation sequence. Uses measures or requests to
obtain rotation angles associated with different rotation
sequences.
Result Set Components (continued)
For: Calculated information is:
11 Simulation Basics
About Simulation Output
Object Characteristics You Can Measure
In general, all objects in your model have some pre-defined measurable characteristics. For example, you
can capture and investigate the power consumption of a motion, or measure a part’s center-of-mass
velocity along the global x-axis, taking time derivatives in the ground reference frame. The default
coordinate system is the ground coordinate system, but you can use any marker as the reference
coordinate system.
• Velocity • VX - X translational component
• VY - Y translational component
• VZ - Z translational component
• WX - X rotational component
• WY - Y rotational component
• WZ - Z rotational component
• Acceleration • ACCX - X translational component
• ACCY - Y translational component
• ACCZ - Z translational component
• WDX - X rotational component
• WDY - Y rotational component
• WDZ - Z rotational component
Note: All the results that Adams/Solver calculates automatically for
parts measure the movement of the part’s local coordinate
system, not its center of mass. You should use measures or
Requests if you want to measure the movement of a part’s
center of mass.
Result Set Components (continued)
For: Calculated information is:
Adams/View
About Simulation Output
12
The measurable characteristics of objects are shown in the table below. Click an object characteristic to
view the description.
The object: Has these measurable characteristics:
Marker • Total_Force_On_Point
• Total_Force_At_Location
• Total_Torque_On_Point
• Total_Torque_At_Location
• Translational_Displacement
• Translational_Velocity
• Translational_Acceleration
• Angular_Velocity
• Angular_Acceleration
Rigid body • CM_Position
• CM_Velocity
• CM_Acceleration
• CM_Angular_Velocity
• CM_Angular_Acceleration
• Kinetic_Energy
• Translational_Kinetic_ Energy
• Angular_Kinetic_Energy
• Translational_Momentum
• Angular_Momentum_ About_CM
• Potential_Energy_Delta
Point mass body • CM_Position
• CM_Velocity
• CM_Acceleration
• Kinetic_Energy
• Translational_Kinetic_ Energy
• Translational_Momentum
• Potential_Energy_Delta
13 Simulation Basics
About Simulation Output
Flexible body • CM_Position
• CM_Velocity
• CM_Acceleration
• CM_Angular_Velocity
• CM_Angular_Acceleration
• Kinetic_Energy
• Translational_Kinetic_ Energy
• Angular_Kinetic_Energy
• Translational_Momentum
• Angular_Momentum_ About_CM
• Potential_Energy_Delta
• Strain_Energy
Spring-damper force, single-
component force, field force,
bushing force
• element_force
• element_torque
• translational_displacement
• ax_ay_az_projection_ angles
• translational_velocity
• translational_acceleration
• Angular_Velocity
• Angular_Acceleration
Joint constraint, joint primitive
constraint
• element_force
• element_torque
• translational_displacement
• translational_velocity
• translational_acceleration
• Angular_Velocity
• Angular_Acceleration
• ax_ay_az_projection_ angles
Curve-curve constraint, point-
curve constraint
• pressure_angle
• element_force
• contact_point_location
The object: Has these measurable characteristics:
Adams/View
About Simulation Output
14
Joint motion, general point
motion
• power_consumption
• element_force
• element_torque
• translational_displacement
• translational_velocity
• translational_acceleration
• Angular_Velocity
• Angular_Acceleration
• ax_ay_az_projection_ angles
Three-component force, three-
component torque, general
force/torque
• element_force
• element_torque
Contact force • element_force
• element_torque
• Double-click a track to view:
• I_Point
• I_Normal_Force
• I_Friction_Force
• I_Normal_Unit_Vector
• I_Friction_Unit_Vector
• J_Point
• J_Normal_Force
• J_Friction_Force
• J_Normal_Unit_Vector
• J_Friction_Unit_Vector
• Slip_Deformation
• Slip_Velocity
• Penetration
The object: Has these measurable characteristics:
15 Simulation Basics
About Simulation Output
Object Measure Characteristic Descriptions
The following table describes the characteristics that object measures provide. For information on the
conventions used, see Conventions.
Characteristics: Description: Definition/Formula:
CM_Position Position vector of body's center of mass
relative to the global origin.
CM_Velocity Translational velocity vector of body's center
of mass relative to the reference frame that
you specify.
CM_Acceleration Acceleration of body's center of mass relative
to the reference frame that you specify.
CM_Angular_Velocity Angular velocity of body's center-of-mass
marker that you specify relative to the
reference frame.
Note: The center-of-mass marker is only
important for flexible bodies. For
rigid bodies, angular velocity is
independent of the marker used.
CM_Angular_Acceleration Angular acceleration of body's center of mass
marker relative to the reference frame that
you specify.
Note: The center-of-mass marker is only
important for flexible bodies. For
rigid bodies, angular acceleration is
independent of the marker used.
Kinetic_Energy Total kinetic energy of body (Translational _Kinetic_Energy +
Angular_Kinetic_Energy)
Note: For a flexible body,
Adams/View obtains the
value directly from
Adams/Solver without
performing additional
calculations.
cm R

cm R


cm R
 

cm cm e e

or } {
cm e


Adams/View
About Simulation Output
16
Translational_Kinetic_
Energy
Body's kinetic energy due to translational
velocity only
Note: For a flexible body, this
value is approximate
because the translational and
angular velocity cannot be
separated from the general
motion of the flexible body
in the presence of
deformation.
Angular_Kinetic_Energy Body's kinetic energy due to angular velocity
only
Note: For a flexible body, this
value is approximate
because the translational and
angular velocity cannot be
separated from the general
motion of the flexible body
in the presence of
deformation.
Translational_Momentum Body's momentum due to translational
velocity only
Angular_Momentum_
About_CM
Body's angular momentum due to angular
velocity only
Note: For a flexible body, this
value may be approximate,
depending on how [I
cm
] is
computed.
Potential_Energy_Delta Body's current change in potential energy
from time = 0
Strain_Energy Flexible body's strain energy
Characteristics: Description: Definition/Formula:
cm cm R R M




-
2
1
} ]{ [ } {
2
1
cm cm cm I
T
e e
) ( cm R M


} ]{ [ cm cm I e
) ( g R M cm


- A ÷
} ]{ [ } {
2
1
q K q
T
17 Simulation Basics
About Simulation Output
CM_Position_Relative_
To_Body
Deformed position of flexible body's center
of mass relative to undeformed position
element_force Element force vector { FX , FY , FZ }
relative to the reference frame that you
specify
element_torque Element torque vector { TX , TY , TZ }
relative to the reference frame that you
specify
translational_displacement Translational displacement of Marker I with
respect to Marker J, relative to the reference
frame that you specify
ax_ay_az_projection_
angles
Rotational displacement (in model units) of
Marker I about the x-axis, y-axis, or z-axis,
respectively, of Marker J.
Range: -180 to 180 degrees
Note: These angles are projections onto
planes and are not associated with
any rotation sequence (such as
Body 3-1-3). You typically use
them to measure planar moments.
translational_velocity Translational velocity vector of Marker I
with respect to Marker J, in the reference
frame that you specify
translational_acceleration Translational acceleration vector of Marker I
with respect to Marker J, in the reference
frame that you specify
angular_velocity Angular velocity vector of Marker I with
respect to Marker J, in the reference frame
that you specify
angular_acceleration Angular acceleration vector of Marker I with
respect to Marker J, in the reference frame
that you specify
power_consumption Total power consumed by motion.
Characteristics: Description: Definition/Formula:
M
q I I } { ] [ ] [
3 2
+
e F

e T

ij R

-
-
=

-
-
=

-
-
=
÷
÷
÷
j
j
j
j i
j i
j i
X i X
Y i X
Az
Z i Z
X Z
Ay
Y Y
Z Y
Ax
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
1
1
tan
tan
tan
ij R


ij R
 

ij e

ij e


ij e ij e T R F e - + -



 
Adams/View
About Simulation Output
18
pressure_angle Acute angle (in model units) between the line
of motion of the follower and the normal to
the cam surface at the point of contact
between the cam and the follower
(represented by angle o in the figure). Also,
in the figure:
• Line MM is the line of motion of the
follower.
• Line NN is the normal to line TT (the
tangent).
contact_point_location Instantaneous point of contact (location of
floating marker)
Currently not available
I_Point/J_Point • I_Point defines the instantaneous contact
point location on the body containing the I
geometry for a given contact track.
Components x, y, and z are provided.
• J_Point defines the instantaneous contact
point on the body containing the J
geometry for the same track. Components
x, y, and z are provided.
By default, all coordinates are calculated in
the ground coordinate system. Furthermore,
the common normal passes through both
points.
Picture
Characteristics: Description: Definition/Formula:

-
-
÷
j
j i
Z i Z
X Z
 
 
1
tan
19 Simulation Basics
About Simulation Output
I_Normal_Force/
J_Normal_Force
• I_Normal_Force defines the contact
normal force acting at I_Point, in the
direction of I_Normal_Unit_Vector (see
below). Components x, y, z, and
magnitude are provided.
• J_Normal_Force defines the contact
normal force acting at J_Point. (It is equal
but opposite to I_Normal_Force.)
By default, all force components are
calculated in the ground coordinate system.
I_Friction_Force/
J_Friction_Force
• I_Friction_Force defines the contact
friction force acting at I_Point. The
direction of the friction force is specified
by I_Friction_Unit_Vector (see below).
• J_Friction_Force defines the contact
friction force acting at J_Point. The
direction of the friction force is specified
by J_Friction_Unit_Vector (see below).
(It is equal but opposite to
I_Friction_Force.)
Additional information provided:
• Mu - The instantaneous coefficient of
friction at the contact point.
• Torque - The net friction torque caused
by the friction forces acting about the
contact point; it opposes the
boring_velocity.
By default, all force components are
calculated in the ground coordinate system.
Characteristics: Description: Definition/Formula:
Adams/View
About Simulation Output
20
I_Normal_Unit_Vector/
J_Normal_Unit_Vector
• I_Normal_Unit_Vector defines the
direction of the surface or curve normal at
I_Point. This is also the direction of
I_Normal_Force.
• J_Normal_Unit_Vector defines the
direction of the surface or curve normal at
J_Point. This is also the direction of
J_Normal_Force. (It is opposite to the
direction of I_Normal_Unit_Vector.)
By default, all direction cosines (x, y, z) are
calculated in the ground coordinate system.
I_Friction_Unit_Vector/
J_Friction_Unit_Vector
• I_Friction_Unit_Vector defines the
direction of slip at I_Point.
I_Friction_Force opposes motion of the
body containing IGEOM in this direction.
• J_Friction_Unit_Vector defines the
direction of slip at J_Point.
J_Friction_Force opposes motion of the
body containing JGEOM in this direction.
By default, all direction cosines (x, y, z) are
calculated in the ground coordinate system.
Slip_Deformation Defines the three components and magnitude
of the deformation vector at the contact point
since the onset of stiction. Slip_Deformation
is undefined during dynamic friction, and its
components are set to zero.
Slip_Velocity Defines the three components and speed (that
is, magnitude) of the slip velocity vector at
the contact point. By definition, this vector is
orthogonal to the contact normal force.
Characteristics: Description: Definition/Formula:
21 Simulation Basics
About Simulation Output
Penetration Defines kinematic information pertaining to
the two geometries in contact. Three pieces
of information are provided.
• Depth - The distance between the
I_Contact Point and the J_Contact_Point.
• Velocity - The penetration velocity at the
contact point. This is the relative velocity
along the common normal at the contact
point.
• Boring_Velocity - This is angular
velocity about the common normal of the
two geometries at the contact point.
Total_Force_On_Point Returns the total force acting on a body via
the marker referenced by the measure. If you
have two forces acting on a body in the same
location, and both forces use the same
marker, then the total force at point will be
the sum of the two forces. If a third force also
acts at the same point but was created using a
different marker, then this third force will not
be considered in the first measure.
For example, see Knowledge Base Article
12279.
Total_Force_At_Location Returns the sum of all forces acting on a body
at a specified location, regardless of how
many markers are involved.
For example, see Knowledge Base Article
12279.
Total_Torque_On_Point This is the same as Total_Force_On_Point
except the force is angular.
Total_Torque_At_Location This is the same as Total_Force_At_Location
except the force is angular.
Translational_Displacement Position vector of marker relative to the
global origin.
Translational_Velocity Translational velocity vector of marker
relative to the global reference frame.
Translational_Acceleration Acceleration of marker relative to the global
reference frame.
Characteristics: Description: Definition/Formula:
Adams/View
About Simulation Output
22
Conventions for Measure Characteristics
The measure characteristics in Measure Characteristic Descriptions use the following conventions.
Angular_Velocity Angular velocity of marker relative to the
global reference frame.
Note: The marker is only important for
flexible bodies. For rigid bodies,
angular velocity is independent of
the marker used.
Angular_Acceleration Angular acceleration of marker relative to the
global reference frame.
Note: The marker is only important for
flexible bodies. For rigid bodies,
angular acceleration is independent
of the marker used.
Characteristics: Description: Definition/Formula:
The characters: Represent:
M Total mass of a body.
cm The center of mass of a body.
Note: For flexible bodies, the location of the center of mass changes over
time relative to the body coordinate system.
[I
cm
] Inertia tensor of body about its center of mass.
Note: For flexible bodies, the inertia tensor actually changes as the body
deforms. Adams/View accounts for this by correcting the inertia
tensor of the flexible body,
[I] according to its specified modal formulation as follows:
• Rigid or Constant:
[I] = [I]
7
• Partial Coupling:
[I] = [I]
7
- [I]
8
{q}
• Full Coupling:
[I] = [I]
7
- [I]
8
{q} - [I]
9
{q}.{q}
T
The resulting [I] is then transformed from the local body reference frame
(LBRF) to the body's center of mass (cm) to obtain [I
cm
].
23 Simulation Basics
About Simulation Output
About Contact Result Tracks
A track is a sequence of individual impacts between two particular geometries specified by a single
contact object. The two geometries for a particular track should always be the same at every impact along
that track.
It is possible for a contact object and two of its geometries to have more than one track. For example, if
a contact and two of its geometries have more than one impact at the same time, each separate impact
must belong to a separate track to remove ambiguity. Also, when the separation between impacts is great
enough according to either an automatic or given criteria, the impacts may be assembled into separate
tracks.
Change in position of the center of mass of the rigid body relative to its
original position (at time=0).
{q} Generalized modal coordinates of active modes of flexible body (modal
deformations).
[K] Generalized modal stiffness matrix of flexible body.
Prescribed gravity vector.
Unit vectors of marker I's x-, y-, and z-axis, respectively.
Unit vectors of marker J's x-, y-, and z-axis, respectively.
N Current number of time steps.
M
i
Measured data value in time step i.
M
n
Measured data value at the current time step n.
[I]
2
Second invariant matrix of flexible body representing the undeformed center
of mass scaled by the total mass.
[I]
3
Third invariant matrix of flexible body representing the modal components of
the flexible body's mass.
[I]
7
Seventh invariant matrix of the flexible body representing the undeformed
moment of inertia tensor in the LBRF.
[I]
8
Eighth invariant matrix of the flexible body representing the first-order
corrections to the inertia tensor due to modal deformation.
[I]
9
Ninth invariant matrix of the flexible body representing the second-order
corrections to the inertia tensor [I]
7
due to modal deformation.
The characters: Represent:
cm R

A
g

i i i Z
ˆ
, Y
ˆ
, X
ˆ
j j j Z
ˆ
, Y
ˆ
, X
ˆ
Adams/View
About Simulation Output
24
There is an experimental method of specifying a delta value for the separation criteria that will make the
program skip the automatic criteria, sometimes saving a significant amount of time. This can be done by
setting the tolerance parameter using the analysis collate_contacts command. By using a large tolerance
value, you can coerce tracks together that may have been separated by the automatic criteria. See
Knowledge Base Article 10523 for more information.
Automatic criteria for a contact and an I and J geometry:
1. The geometric center (centroid) of all the impacts over the entire simulation is found in three
frames: the global frame and the I and J part frames.
2. The average distance of the impacts from the centroid is computed, again in each of the three
frames.
3. The standard deviation of the impacts from this average distance is computed in the three frames.
This value for the standard deviation is used as a delta to decide if any two impacts are close
enough to be considered to belong to the same track. The frame with the minimum distance is used
for the comparison.
To force a pair of locations on two different parts to belong to separate tracks you can place a small
separate piece of geometry at that particular point on each part. For example, instead of making a table
out of a single piece of geometry and letting the algorithm try to find the separate legs as four separate
tracks, placing a cap at the end of each leg will force separate tracks.
Defining FE Model Data for Output
You can also set up Adams/View to produce data files of component loads, deformations, stresses, or
strains for input to subsequent finite-element or fatigue-life analysis for use in third-party products. You
use the Settings -> Solver -> Output -> More -> Durability command to specify the type of file to produce.
Adams/View will not output to any files unless you specify the format.
To output FE model data:
1. From the Build menu, point to Data Elements, point to FEMdata, and then select either New or
Modify.
The Create FEMDATA dialog box appears.
2. In the Name text box, enter the name of the FEMDATA element in the modeling database to
create or modify.
3. Set Type to the information you want to output, and then enter the values in the dialog box as
explained in the FEMDATA Output Dialog Box Options Table, depending on the type of format.
4. In the File text box, enter the output file name for the FEM data. You can specify an existing
directory, root name, and/or extension. By default, the file name will be composed of the Adams
run ID and body ID according to the type of data and file format that you specified in the Solver
-> Settings -> Output -> More -> Durability Files.
5. Specify the start and end times for outputting the data:
25 Simulation Basics
About Simulation Output
• From - Enter the time at which to start outputting the data. The default is the start of the
simulation.
• To - Enter the time at which to end the output of the data or the search of a peak load. The
default is to output to the end of the simulation.
6. Select OK.
Adams/View
About Simulation Output
26
Measures
Adams/View
About Measures
2
About Measures
A measure lets you investigate several predefined and user-defined characteristics of your model during
or after a simulation. For example, you can use a measure to find the angle between two links connected
by a revolute joint, the x component of relative velocity between two parts, and more.
The following explain more about measures:
• Types of Measures
• Ways in Which You Can Use Measures
• Limitations of Measures
• Measure Reference Frames and Coordinate Systems
• Using Measures in the Definition of Your Model
• Measures in Adams/Solver Datasets
Types of Measures
There are two types of Measures available:
• Predefined measures that automatically output information.
3 Measures
About Measures
• User-defined measures that you define to obtain more specific information about your model.
Ways to Use Measures
You can use measures in a variety of ways. You can use measures to:
• Plot system characteristics during a Simulation. Because Adams/View computes most measures
during a simulation, you can monitor their values in strip charts to view them as the simulation
progresses.
• Plot characteristics after a simulation.
• Define other elements. For example, you can use a measure as an expression in a force
definition.
• Define the objective of a Design study, Design of experiments (DOE), or Optimization analysis.
You can also use the measure in a constraint function during optimization.
• Create user-defined expressions that take advantage of both the Adams/View and Adams/Solver
environments.
Predefined Measures
This type of
measure: Lets you capture and investigate:
Object Characteristics of the parts, forces, and constraints in your model.
Point Characteristics of a point, such as its location relative to the global coordinate
system or the sum of forces acting on it.
Point-to-point Kinematic characteristics of a point relative to another point, such as the
relative velocity or acceleration.
Orientation The orientation of one marker with respect to another marker using a variety
of known schemes, such as successive rotations, Euler parameters, direction
cosines, and so on.
Included angle The included angle defined by three points in space.
Range Statistical characteristics of another measure, such as its maximum, average,
and more.
User-Defined Measures
This type of measure: Lets you capture and investigate:
Adams/View computed A design expression that you want Adams/View to evaluate before or
after a simulation.
Adams/Solver function A function expression that you want Adams/Solver to evaluate during
a simulation.
Adams/View
About Measures
4
Limitations of Measures
The following are limitations to using measures:
• Many characteristics in measures are computed from the last Simulation of the model. If you
change your model after running a simulation, the characteristics will no longer be correct. You
need to simulate the modified model again.
• You cannot include Adams/View computed measures in an Adams/Solver run-time function
expression. Only Adams/View can process computed measures.
• Only Adams/Solver can evaluate Adams/Solver computed measures. Therefore, you must define
an Adams/Solver computed measure before you run a simulation. Adams/View cannot evaluate
the measure after a simulation.
Measure Reference Frames and Coordinate Systems
Reference Frames
When you define a velocity or acceleration measure, be sure to pay close attention to the motion reference
frame you use in defining the measure. The motion reference frame specifies the observer relative to
whom time-derivatives are performed.
Measure Coordinate Systems
There are two coordinate system options that you specify when you create a measure:
• Type of coordinate system in which location coordinates can be described. You can use any of
the three standard coordinate systems: Cartesian, spherical, and cylindrical.
• The coordinate system in which vector components are expressed. The global coordinate system
is used by default.
Using Measures in Definition of Model
You can use a measure in the definition of your model. For example, you can create two measures that
define a spring force (for example, Fk) and a damping force (for example, Fc), respectively. These two
measures, when combined to define the Single-component force element, actually create the equivalent
of an Adams spring-damper. The use of the measures and the single-component force, however, provides
a few advantages not available with the linear spring-damper. Because you used measures in your model,
you can:
• Automatically see the measures displayed in strip charts during Simulation and subsequent
animations.
• Plot the measures in Adams/PostProcessor after a simulation.
• Plot the individual effects of the spring force and the damping force. A linear Adams/View
spring-damper element shows the combined effects of both forces, and it is very difficult to
determine how much the spring and damping forces contribute individually to the total force.
5 Measures
About Measures
To use a measure in the definition of your model:
• In a text box that accepts a function expression, create an expression that uses the measure in its
definition.
For example, to use the two measures explained above in the definition of a single-component
force, you would select Custom as you create the force and then modify the force by entering a
function expression, such as:
.model_1.FUNCTION_MEA_Fk + .model_1.FUNCTION_MEA_Fc
You can use the Function Builder for assistance in building the expression.
Measures in Adams/Solver Datasets
How Measures Are Represented in a Dataset
Adams/Solver represents measures in Adams/Solver dataset files as algebraic state variables or
VARIABLE statements. Adams/Solver does not differentiate these variables from any other user-defined
algebraic state variable. If you export your model to an Adams/Solver dataset file, Adams/View defines
the measures as VARIABLE statements. Therefore, when you import your dataset file back into
Adams/View, Adams/View no longer recognizes the original measures, but, instead, recognizes them as
generic algebraic variables.
We recommend that you use Adams/View command files to archive your Adams/View models that
contain measures.
Measures Not Represented in Datasets
There are three kinds of measures that are currently not represented in an Adams/Solver dataset file:
• Kinetic energy associated with parts: rigid bodies, Point masses, Flexible bodies.
• Pressure angle associated with point-on-curve constraints.
• Power consumption associated with motions.
If you export your model to an Adams/Solver dataset, and then import it back into Adams/View, you lose
the associated measure information. We recommend that you use command files to archive models that
contain measures.
Adams/View
Point Characteristics you can measure
6
Point Characteristics you can measure
The characteristics of Markers that you can measure are shown in the table below. All types of markers
have the same measurable characteristics, but markers on flexible bodies have additional characteristics
for deformation.
The object : Has the measurable characteristics:
Markers on a Rigid body,
Point mass, or Flexible
bodies
• Total_Force_On_Point
• Total_Torque_On_Point
• Total_Force_At_Location
• Total_Torque_At_Location
• Translational_Displacement
• Translational_Velocity
• Translational_Acceleration
• Angular_Velocity
• Angular_Acceleration
Markers on flexible body • angular_deformation
• angular_deformation_velocity
• angular_deformation_acceleration
• translational_deformation
• translational_deformation_velocity
• translational_deformation_acceleration
7 Measures
Angle Measures
Angle Measures
About Measuring Included Angle Characteristics
The included angle measure captures the instantaneous angle between two vectors defined by three
markers. For example, you can use the angle measure to find the included angle between any two links
connected by a revolute joint. The default unit for angle measures is degrees.
To create an included angle, you select three markers, as illustrated in the figure below. These three
markers define two vectors:

It is the instantaneous angle between these vectors that Adams/View tracks in an included angle measure.
Note that the included angle changes over time as the markers move during a simulation.
Example of Points That Define Included Angles
There are two conventions used in Adams/View to define the sign and magnitude of an included angle
measure as it changes over time:
• The sign and magnitude is always calculated so as to have an initial value within the range [0, PI]
regardless of the order in which you select the points.
• The axis of rotation is automatically calculated as the cross-product of , which is
sensitive to the order in which you select the points. This, along with the right-hand rule,
determines all subsequent changes to the sign and magnitude of the included angle measure.
Methods for Creating Angle Measures
There are two methods you can use to create an angle measure.
• Select method - Lets you graphically select the markers to be measured using the Angle tool
on the Measure Toolstack of the Main toolbox. Learn how to use the Select method.
• Browse method - Displays the Angle Measure dialog box in which you browse for markers.
Adams/View
Angle Measures
8
Browsing for Markers to Define Angle Measures - Browse
Method
To browse for three markers that define the angle measure:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Angle, and then select New.
2. In the First Marker text box, enter the markers that defines the tip of the first vector.
3. In the Middle Marker text box, enter the second marker that defines the vertex.
4. In the Last Marker text box, enter the marker that defines the tip of the second vector.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
5. To display a Strip chart of the measure, select Create Strip Chart.
6. Select OK.
Selecting Markers to Define Angle Measures - Select Method
To select from the screen three points that define the angle measure:
1. From the Measure Toolstack on the Main toolbox, select the Included Angle tool .
2. Using the left mouse button, select the following markers:
• The marker that defines the tip of the first vector.
• Second marker that defines the vertex.
• Marker that defines the tip of the second vector.
9 Measures
Point-to-Point Measures
Point-to-Point Measures
Point-to-Point Measures let you measure kinematic characteristics, such as displacement or velocity,
between two locations during a simulation. For example, you can use a point-to-point measure to
calculate the global y-component of distance between any two specified markers.
You can also obtain point-to-point characteristics for geometric vertices. When you select vertices for the
markers, Adams/View automatically creates a marker at each vertex and uses it in the point-to-point
measure.
Point-to-Point Characteristics You Can Measure
The point-to-point kinematic characteristics that you can measure are shown in the table below.
Methods for Creating Point-to-Point Characteristics
There are two methods you can use to create a point-to-point measure.
• Simple method - Lets you graphically select the markers to be measured using the Point-to-
Point tool on the Measure Toolstack of the Main toolbox. This is the easiest method to use
and lets you select geometric vertices as points to measure. It, however, only lets you measure
the translational displacement, velocity, or acceleration between two markers.
In addition, the Simple method does not let you select a reference frame or coordinate system.
Instead, Adams/View uses the global coordinate system and the ground reference frame for
velocity and acceleration. Adams/View also creates a default name for the measure and a strip
chart.
Learn how to use the Simple method.
• Specific method - Displays the Point-to-Point Measure dialog box in which you enter values for
the point-to-point measure. The dialog box lets you select all characteristics listed in Point-to-
Point Characteristics that You Can Measure.
Learn how to use the Specific method.
The object: Has the measurable characteristics:
Two markers • Translational displacement
• Translational velocity
• Translational acceleration
• Angular velocity (not available when creating a point-to-point measure
from the Main toolbox)
• Angular acceleration (not available when creating a point-to-point measure
from the Main toolbox)
Adams/View
Point-to-Point Measures
10
Creating a Point-to-Point Measure Using the Simple Method
To use the Simple method to create a point-to-point measure:
1. From the Measure Toolstack on the Main toolbox, select the Point-to-Point tool .
2. The container in the Main toolbox displays settings for creating point-to-point measures.
3. From the Characteristic pull-down menu in the Measure container, select the kinematic
characteristic to be measured.
4. From the Component pull-down menu, select the vector component you want reported (global
coordinates only). You can select global x, global y, global z, or magnitude.
5. Select a marker or geometric vertex from which to measure.
6. Select a marker or geometric vertex to which to measure.
Creating a Point-to-Point Measure Using the Specific Method
To use the Specific method to create a point-to-point measure:
1. On the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Point-to-Point, and then select New.
1. The Point-to-Point Measure dialog box appears.
2. In the Measure Name text box, enter a name for the measure.
3. In the To Point text box, enter the marker or point to which to measure. In the From Point text
box, enter the marker or point from which to measure.
4. Set Characteristic in the Measure container to the kinematic characteristic to be measured.
5. Enter the values in the dialog box, depending on whether you selected a translational or angular
characteristic.
6. To display a Strip chart of the measure, select Create Strip Chart.
7. Select OK.
11 Measures
Orientation Measures
Orientation Measures
To learn about creating orientation measures:
• About Measuring Orientation Characteristics
• Orientation Characteristics You Can Measure
• Creating an Orientation Measure
About Measuring Orientation Characteristics
Orientation measures capture the orientation characteristics of one part or marker relative to another
coordinate system in a specified convention. For example, you could use orientation measures to
determine the:
• Yaw angle associated with a yaw, pitch, roll, or body-fixed 321 rotation sequence.
• First Euler parameter.
• Second rotation associated with a body-fixed 123 rotation sequence.
All such orientation characteristics are simply transformed from the direction cosine matrix.
The following example shows two markers whose orientation relative to each other you can capture using
orientation angles. When associated with a body-fixed 313 rotation sequence, the example returns the
rotation angles
1
= +90 °,
1
= +90 °, and
1
= +90°.
Adams/View
Orientation Measures
12
Orientation Characteristics You Can Measure
The orientation characteristics that you can measure are shown in the table below.
Creating an Orientation Measure
To access the orientation measure create dialog box, do one of the following:
• From the Build menu, point to Measure, and then select Orientation, and then select New.
The object: Has the measurable characteristics:
Part or marker • Euler angles
• Yaw, pitch, roll
• Ax, ay, az projection angles
• Bryant angles
• Any of 12 body- or Space-fixed rotation sequences (123, 132, and so on)
• Euler parameters
• Rodriguez parameters
• Direction cosines
Note:
• Euler parameters are P0, P1, P2, and P3. P0 is the cosine of one-half
the angle of rotation of the rotated frame with respect to the reference
frame. P1, P2, and P3 are the x, y, and z components, respectively, of
the unit vector around which the rotation occurs, multiplied by the sine
of one-half the angle. Rodriguez parameters (R1, R2, and R3) define
the relative rotation between two frames of reference. The relationship
between Rodrigues parameters and Euler parameters is R1 = P1/P0,
R2 =P2/P0, and R3 = P3/P0. Rodriguez parameters become undefined
when P0 = 0, that is, when the angle of rotation about the vector is 180
degrees.
• Many dynamics textbooks define some or all of these orientation
schemes. Refer to:
• Meriam, Kraige. Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 2 . John Wiley & Sons,
1992.
• Greenwood. Principles of Dynamics, Second Edition. Prentice-Hall,
Inc., 1988.
• Kane, Likins, Levinson. Spacecraft Dynamics. McGraw-Hill, 1983.
• Nikravesh. Computer-Aided Analysis of Mechanical Systems. Prentice-
Hall Inc., 1988.
13 Measures
Orientation Measures
• When creating an object or point measure, select the Orientation button.
The Orientation Measure dialog box appears.
To define the measure:
1. In the Measure Name text box, enter a name for the measure.
2. Set Characteristic to the characteristic convention with which to associate the component.
3. Set Component to the rotational component you want to measure.
4. In the To Marker text box, enter the coordinate system to which to measure. In the From Marker
text box, enter the coordinate system from which to measure.
5. To display a Strip chart of the measure, select Create Strip Chart.
6. Select OK.
Adams/View
Object Measures
14
Object Measures
In general, all objects in your model have some pre-defined measurable characteristics. For example, you
can capture and investigate the power consumption of a motion, or measure a part’s center-of-mass
velocity along the global x-axis, taking time derivatives in the ground reference frame. The default
coordinate system is the ground coordinate system, but you can use any marker as the coordinate system.
Learn about:
• Object Characteristics You Can Measure
• Point Characteristics you can measure
To access the object measure create dialog box, do one of the following:
• To create a measure for a selected object, select the object. Then, from the Build menu, point to
Measure, and then select Selected Object.
• To create a measure for any object in the database, when no objects are selected, from the Build
menu, point to Measure, point to Selected Object, and then select New. From the Database
Navigator, select the object on which you want to define a measure.
• To create a measure while modifying the object, from the object's modify dialog box, select the
Object Measure tool . Learn about Accessing Modify Dialog Boxes.
An Object Measure dialog box appears. Its content corresponds to the object type you are
creating. If you selected an object that is an assembly, the Assembly Measure dialog box
appears.
To define the measure:
1. In the Measure Name text box, enter a name for the measure.
2. Set Characteristic to the object characteristic to measure.
3. From the Component option buttons, select the component to report.
4. Set the pull-down menu to the desired coordinate system (Cartesian, spherical, or cylindrical).
5. If it is appropriate, in the From/At area, select a reference point indicating where the force will be
measured or from where the kinematic quantities will be measured.
6. In the Represent coordinates in text box, enter the marker on which the vector quantity is
projected. The default is the global coordinate system.
7. To display a Strip chart of the measure, select Create Strip Chart.
8. Select OK.
Tip: Right-click the object, and then select Measure.
15 Measures
Range Measures
Range Measures
You can use range measures to obtain statistical feedback about any existing measure. Ranges
dynamically calculate the maximum, minimum, average, or variation characteristics of any measure.
Range Measure Characteristic Descriptions
The following table describes the characteristics that range measures provide. For information on the
conventions used, see Conventions.
To create a range measure:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Range, and then select New.
The Range Measure dialog box appears.
2. In the Name text box, enter a name for the measure.
3. Set Type to the range characteristic to measure.
4. In the Of Measure text box, enter an existing, predefined measure to analyze.
5. To display a Strip chart of the measure, select Create Strip Chart.
6. Select OK.
The measure: Description: Definition/Formula:
Average Arithmetic mean of current set of measured data.
Minimum Minimum value in the current set of measured data. Min (M1, M2, ..., Mn)
Maximum Maximum value in the current set of measured data. Max (M1, M2, ..., Mn)
Variation Difference between the maximum and minimum value
in the current set of measured data.
Maximum - Minimum
Adams/View
Creating an Adams/View Computed Measure
16
Creating an Adams/View Computed Measure
Adams/View computed measures allow you to create measures in the Adams/View Expression language
that can be evaluated before a Simulation or any time after. You build them using Design-Time Functions
and typically use them in the initial model set up.
An Adams/View computed measure is convenient because it can reference any Adams/View variable.
For example, if you create two measures and you want to add or subtract them, you can use an
Adams/View computed measure to do so. You can also compute data from a run-time measure.
Be careful, however, about the changes you make in your model. Making changes can cause a potential
problem because model changes can invalidate the accuracy of any measure that depends on the results
of a simulation. The simulation redefines the model data and re-evaluates your Adams/View computed
measures.
Learn more:
• Adams/View Function Builder online help
• Example of Using User-Defined Measures in a Model of a Pendulum
To create an Adams/View computed measure:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Computed, and then select New.
The Function Builder dialog box appears in computed-measure mode. Example of Function
Builder in Computed Measure Mode.
2. Build your expression using the functions and object data and format the Strip chart using the
options in the Attributes area.
3. Select OK.
17 Measures
Creating an Adams/Solver Function Measure
Creating an Adams/Solver Function Measure
An Adams/Solver function measure allows you to create a measure in Adams/View that Adams/Solver
evaluates during Simulations. Because Adams/Solver function measures are only evaluated during
simulations, function measures remain unevaluated until you run a simulation. The Adams/Solver
function measure is convenient because it lets you reference any user-defined Adams/Solver function or
User-written subroutine. Function measures are built from Adams/Solver Run-Time Functions.
Be careful, however, about the number of Adams/Solver function measures you create because
Adams/View writes each measure to the Adams/Solver dataset as a VARIABLE statement. Each
VARIABLE statement adds another equation to the overall set of equations. The more equations
Adams/Solver must solve, the longer your simulation takes.
Learn more:
• Adams/View Function Builder online help
• Example of Using User-Defined Measures in a Model of a Pendulum
To create an Adams/Solver function measure:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Function, and then select New.
The Function Builder appears in Adams/Solver function-measure mode.
Example of Function Builder in Function Measure Mode.
2. Build your function expression using the function and object data, and then format the Strip chart
using the options in the Attributes area.
3. Select OK.
Adams/View
Deleting Measures
18
Deleting Measures
To delete a measure:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, and then select Delete.
2. From the Database Navigator, select the measure to delete.
19 Measures
Modifying Measures
Modifying Measures
To modify a measure:
1. For any type of measure, from the Build menu, point to Measure, point to the appropriate type
of measure, and then select Modify.
2. From the Database Navigator, select the measure to modify.
3. Change the options as desired.
4. Select OK.
Tip: For a shortcut to steps 1 and 2, in the strip chart containing the measure data, right-
click the background (not a curve), Point to Plot:scht1, and then select Measure
Modify.
Adams/View
Setting Up Strip Charts
20
Setting Up Strip Charts
By default, Adams/View displays measure data in a Strip chart. Strip charts are interactive and update
with each Output step from the Simulation. They are a convenient way to track the progress of a measure
while the simulation is running, and they let you see the model animation synchronized with the plotting
of the measure. If a strip chart gets in the way, you can delete it without losing the associated measure.
You can also select to create it again, if necessary.
• Creating, Displaying, and Closing Strip Charts
• Deleting Strip Charts and Curves
• Saving Curves to Establish a Baseline
• Setting Strip Chart Attributes
• Transferring a Strip Chart to Adams/PostProcessor
Creating, Displaying, and Closing Strip Charts
If you've made changes to the attributes of a Strip chart, such as changed its legend, you need to close the
strip chart and then redisplay it to see the changes. In addition, the procedure of redisplaying a strip chart
also creates a strip chart for an existing measure.
To create a strip chart as you create a measure:
• Create a measure, and then select Create Strip Chart from the measure create dialog box.
To display a strip chart or create a strip chart for an existing measure:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, and then select Display.
The Database Navigator appears with the current measures in the model.
2. Select the measure whose strip chart you want to display or create.
3. Select OK.
To close a strip chart:
• In the upper right corner of the strip chart, select the Close button (an X in Windows; a - in
UNIX).
Note: Displaying script charts during a simulation adversely affects the speed of the simulation.
The more strip charts you display, the slower your simulation.
21 Measures
Setting Up Strip Charts
Deleting Strip Charts and Curves
You can delete a Strip chart without deleting the measure associated with it. You can also delete any
curves in a strip chart. If you delete a strip chart and want to create it again, follow the instructions in
Creating, Displaying, and Closing Strip Charts.
To delete a strip chart:
1. In the strip chart, right-click the background (not on a curve).
2. Point to scht1, and then select Delete Strip Chart.
To delete a curve in a strip chart:
1. In the strip chart, right-click a curve.
2. Point to the name of the curve, and then select Delete.
To delete all curves in a strip chart:
1. In the strip chart, right-click the background (not on a curve).
2. Point to scht1, and then select Delete All Curves.
Saving Curves to Establish a Baseline
You can save any curve in a Strip chart. Once you save the curve, Adams/View keeps the curve in the
strip chart so you can use it as a baseline curve, against which you compare other curves that it generates
during a Simulation. Adams/View only preserves a saved curve from simulation to simulation.
To save a curve:
1. In the strip chart, right-click a curve.
2. Point to the name of the curve, and then select Save Curve.
Setting Strip Chart Attributes
When you modify a measure, you can set the attributes for a Strip chart, including creating a legend,
setting axis limits, and setting the color and line type for the curve.
To set strip chart attributes:
1. From a measure modify dialog box, select the Measure Attributes tool .
Note: • You have to redisplay the strip chart to see the effects of changing the legend, color,
line type, line symbol, and line thickness. Learn about redisplaying strip charts.
• The Lower, Upper, and Label text boxes currently are not available.
Adams/View
Setting Up Strip Charts
22
2. In the Legend text box, enter text that describes the data that the curve in the strip chart represents.
The text appears in the title bar of the strip chart. Note that you have to redisplay the strip chart to
see the effects of changing the legend.
3. In the Comment text box, enter text that describes the measure. The text appears in
Adams/PostProcessor when you transfer the strip chart to it for plotting. Learn how to transfer a
strip chart to Adams/PostProcessor.
4. Select the type of plot to be displayed in Adams/PostProcessor when you transfer the strip chart
to it for plotting:
• linear - Performs no transformation of data or axis values. This is the default.
• logar (Logarithmic) - Scales the axis values so that each power of 10 is separated by the same
distance. For example, the values 1, 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 are equally spaced.
• db (Decibel) - Displays 20 * log 10 (value) for each value.
• default - Selecting this means no specific axis type is requested and it appears in the default
axis type, which is usually linear.
Learn how to transfer a strip chart to Adams/PostProcessor.
5. Set Line Type to the type of line style for the curve. For example, you can select a line that
alternates between dots and dashes.
6. Set Symbol to the type of symbol displayed at data points along the curve.
7. In the Color text box, enter the color of the curve.
8. In the Thickness text box, change the weight of the curve line. Weight values range from 1 to 5
screen pixels.
9. Select OK.
Transferring a Strip Chart to Adams/PostProcessor
You can transfer a curve in a Strip chart, representing a measure, to Adams/PostProcessor so that you
can further investigate its results.
To transfer a measure:
1. Right-click a strip chart to display a menu of measure results currently in the window.
2. Point to the measure results that you want to display, and then select Transfer to Full Plot.
About Strip Charts of Adams/Solver Settings
You can display four types of debugging Strip charts during an Interactive Simulation to help you debug
your simulation. The first three apply to any default Transient simulation, and the last one applies to a
Note: You can also select to display a measure from Adams/PostProcessor. See the
Adams/PostProcessor online help.
23 Measures
Setting Up Strip Charts
Static equilibrium or Quasi-static simulation. The strip charts can provide you with insight into how the
Adams/Solver Integrator acts, particularly if you display strip charts of Measures of modeling objects,
such as key forces and accelerations, side-by-side with the debugging strip charts.
To help you interpret the solution-related information in the strip charts, see the DEBUG command in the
Adams/Solver online help.
The strip charts you can display are:
• Step Size - The Step Size strip chart displays the integrator step size (units of model time), as the
simulation progresses, on a logarithmic scale. The step size strip chart provides useful
information for debugging a model because, in general, the integrator step size becomes much
smaller in response to rapidly changing dynamics. Rapidly changing dynamics are, in some
cases, intentional (for example, contacts that engage or disengage over a short duration), but can
often be a symptom of modeling errors. For example, they can indicate that there is an incorrect
damping value in an IMPACT function that causes unrealistically high forces. It also can
indicate the use of discontinuous function expressions, such as an IF function.
• Iterations per Step - The Iterations per Step strip chart displays the number of iterations that
Adams/Solver needed to successfully progress to the next integration time step, over the course
of a simulation. These iterations occur during the corrector phase of the integration. For more
information on the phases in a dynamic simulation, see Extended Definition in the
INTEGRATOR statement in the Adams/Solver online help.
The information in the Iterations per Step strip chart can provide you with several insights into
your model:
• If your simulation progresses with very few iterations at each time step, Adams/Solver is
having an easy time simulating your model. You can further increase performance or speed
by increasing the allowed maximum time step.
• If Adams/Solver requires many iterations for any particular step, it is likely encountering a
period of rapidly changing dynamics that can require corrective action as described for the
Step Size strip chart explained in the previous section.
• If you notice that Adams/Solver requires many iterations right from the beginning of a
simulation, it is likely that you have chosen an integration step size that is too large for the
dynamics in your model. You can obtain better performance if you choose a smaller time step.
For information on changing the time step, see Running an Interactive Simulation.
• Integrator Order - The Integrator Order strip chart displays the order of the polynomial that
Adams/Solver uses during the predictor phase of integration. Adams/Solver uses a polynomial to
predict the future value of the state variables in an Adams model. In general, lower order
polynomials are required to successfully integrate more difficult portions of a simulation,
characterized either by nonlinearities or rapidly changing dynamics. For more information, see
Solver Settings - Dynamic.
Adams/View
Setting Up Strip Charts
24
Similar to the Iterations per Step strip chart, if the Integrator Order strip chart shows the
consistent use of high (three or more) order polynomials, you may be able to increase
performance by increasing the maximum allowed time step. If Adams/Solver consistently or
periodically uses low-order polynomials, it is symptomatic of a period of rapidly changing
dynamics that may require corrective action as described for the Step Size strip chart or the
integration step size may be too large for the dynamics in your model.
• Static Imbalance - The Static Imbalance strip chart displays the current imbalance in the
equilibrium equations that Adams/Solver computes during a static equilibrium simulation. A
static equilibrium simulation is an iterative process to compute a position in which your model
assumes a minimum energy configuration. Learn about Performing Static Equilibrium
Simulations.
The Static Imbalance strip chart displays a measure of how close the solution is coming to a
complete balance of the equilibrium equations at each equilibrium iteration, in units of your
selected force units.
Note: You need to select the option, Update Every Iteration, to watch the iteration-by-
iteration progress of an equilibrium simulation. For more information, see Solver
Settings - Display.
Requests
Adams/View
Creating Requests
2
Creating Requests
You can create Requests to ask for standard displacement, velocity, acceleration, or force information
that will help you investigate the results of your simulation. You can also define other quantities (such as
pressure, work, energy, momentum, and more) that you want output during a simulation.
To learn more:
• About Naming Results and Components in Requests
• Creating by Specifying Predefined Data Type and Marker
• Creating by Specifying Function Expression
• Creating by Specifying a Subroutine
• Creating by Specifying Variables
To define the output in which you are interested, you can specify:
• Predefined data to be output
• Function expressions
• Subroutine
• Variables (available for XML format only) Learn about Creating and Modifying State Variables.
Adams/Solver generates the data at each Output step in a Simulation. For more on output steps, see
Interactive Simulation Palette and Container.
By default, Adams/View does not save the requested data to external files, but will save it to your
modeling database. Learn about Solver Settings.
About Naming Results and Components in Requests
After a simulation, the data output from a request resides beneath an analysis in a results set. By default,
the results set has the same name as the request and its components all have generic names, such as X, Y,
and Z. If you set the output of the results to XML format (see Results (.res) Options), you can set the
name of the results set and its components.
Learn more:
• Results Set Naming
• Component Naming
• Using Naming to Delete Components
Note: Unlike measures, you must create requests before you run a simulation. Once you define
them, you can use them with different simulations.
3 Requests
Creating Requests
Results Set Naming
You can specify the name of the results set in which all result set components are placed. If there is an
existing result set with this name, then the result set components are placed in that result set.
This is helpful if you want to group the output from multiple requests into a single results set. For
example, you might have several different requests measuring driver input for a vehicle, and you might
want to place them all within a result set named Driver_Inputs for easier viewing in
Adams/PostProcessor.
Component Naming
By default, there are eight components per results set, and they have generic names, such as X, Y, Z, and
MAG. You can specify more descriptive names for them or specify a particular unit label or unit type
associated with each component.
• Component Units - You can identify the unit dimension of the result set components. If you do
not specify units, then the units of the components are predefined based upon standard request
type (for example, displacement, velocity, and acceleration).
The units can be:
• Component Labels - You can identify the labels to be used when plotting the result set
components.
Using Naming to Delete Components
You can delete result set components from storage in the database by omitting them when you specify
their names. For example, the following lists of names remove the first and fourth components from the
result set:
MASS AREA
TIME VOLUME
FORCE TORQUE
LENGTH PRESSURE
VELOCITY DENSITY
ACCELERATION ENERGY
ANGLE TORSIONAL_STIFFNESS
ANGULAR_VELOCITY TORSIONAL_DAMPING
ANGULAR_ACCELERATION FREQUENCY
INERTIA AREA_INERTIA
STIFFNESS FORCE_TIME
DAMPING TORQUE_TIME
Adams/View
Creating Requests
4
””, X_Comp, Y_Comp, Z_Comp, ““, R1, R2, R3
This can be helpful if you want to reduce the memory overhead of the simulation data.
Creating Requests by Specifying Predefined Data Type and
Marker
You can create a request by simply requesting predefined data and a marker with respect to which the
output will be calculated. Learn about specifying predefined data to be output.
To create a request by specifying data type and marker:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to REQUEST, and then select New.
The Create a Request dialog box appears.
2. Enter the name that you want assigned to the request.
3. In the Adams Id text box, assign a unique ID number to the request.
4. In the Comments text box, add any comments about the request to help you manage and identify
the request.
5. If the output of the results set is XML format (see Results (.res) Options), set the naming for the
results and components. Learn About Naming Results and Components in Requests.
• In the Components Name and Results Name text boxes, enter the names of the components
and results. Separate the component names by commas.
• If desired, set the first option menu to either of the following to define a unit type or label
associated with each of the components:
• Component Units, and then enter the units associated with each component. See Available
units.
• Component Labels, and then enter the labels to appear when plotting the result set
components. Labels can be strings that include white space. Quotes must be used to define
the string if special characters or white space are used.
6. Set the option menu to Define Using Type & Markers.
The elements of the dialog box change to those for entering a predefined data type and markers.
7. Select the type of output (Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, or Force).
8. Specify the markers with respect to which the output will be calculated.
9. Select OK.
Creating Requests by Specifying Variables
You can identify one or more variables that represent the components associated with a request.
This option is only available if the format of the results files is set to XML. See setting Results (.res)
Options.
5 Requests
Creating Requests
To create a request:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to REQUEST, and then select New.
The Create a Request dialog box appears.
2. Enter the name that you want assigned to the request.
3. In the Adams Id text box, assign a unique ID number to the request.
4. In the Comments text box, add any comments about the request to help you manage and identify
the request.
5. If the output of the results set is XML format, set the naming for the results and components.
Learn About Naming Results and Components in Requests.
• In the Components Name and Results Name text boxes, enter the names of the components
and results. Separate the component names by commas.
• If desired, set the first option menu to either of the following to define a unit type or label
associated with each of the components:
• Component Units, and then enter the units associated with each component. See Available
units.
• Component Labels, and then enter the labels to appear when plotting the result set
components. Labels can be strings that include white space. Quotes must be used to define
the string if special characters or white space are used.
6. Set the option menu to Define Using Variables.
The elements of the dialog box change to those for entering variables.
7. Enter the variables, separated by commas.
8. Select OK.
Creating Requests by Specifying Function Expressions
You can enter function expressions to specify output. Learn about specifying function expressions.
To create a request:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to REQUEST, and then select New.
The Create a Request dialog box appears.
2. Enter the name that you want assigned to the request.
3. In the Adams Id text box, assign a unique ID number to the request.
4. In the Comments text box, add any comments about the request to help you manage and identify
the request.
5. If the output of the results set is XML format, set the naming for the results and components.
Learn About Naming Results and Components in Requests.
• In the Components Name and Results Name text boxes, enter the names of the components
and results. Separate the component names by commas.
Adams/View
Creating Requests
6
• If desired, set the first option menu to either of the following to define a unit type or label
associated with each of the components:
• Component Units, and then enter the units associated with each component. See Available
units.
• Component Labels, and then enter the labels to appear when plotting the result set
components. Labels can be strings that include white space. Quotes must be used to define
the string if special characters or white space are used.
6. Set the option menu to Define Using Function Expressions.
The elements of the dialog box change to those for entering function expressions.
7. Enter function expressions in the boxes f2, f3, f4, f6, f7, and f8. Do no use f1 and f5. Adams/Solver
uses them to hold magnitudes for the three functions that follow. You do not need to enter a
function in every text box.
8. Select OK.
Creating Requests by Specifying a Subroutine
You can enter subroutines to specify output. Learn about specifying subroutines.
To create a request by specifying data type and marker:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to REQUEST, and then select New.
The Create a Request dialog box appears.
2. Enter the name that you want assigned to the request.
3. In the Adams Id text box, assign a unique ID number to the request.
4. In the Comments text box, add any comments about the request to help you manage and identify
the request. .
5. If the output of the results set is XML format, set the naming for the results and components.
Learn About Naming Results and Components in Requests.
• In the Components Name and Results Name text boxes, enter the names of the components
and results. Separate the component names by commas.
• If desired, set the first option menu to either of the following to define a unit type or label
associated with each of the components:
• Component Units, and then enter the units associated with each component. See Available
units.
• Component Labels, and then enter the labels to appear when plotting the result set
components. Labels can be strings that include white space. Quotes must be used to define
the string if special characters or white space are used.
6. Set the option menu to Define Using Subroutines.
The elements of the dialog box change to those for entering subroutines.
7 Requests
Creating Requests
7. In the User Function text box, enter parameters to the user-written subroutine REQSUB or
specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine in the Routine text box. (Learn
about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.)
Enter the USER function using the following format where r1 through r30 are constants passed to
the subroutine:
r1, ..., r30
8. If you specified to write an output file (.out), enter up to eight headings for columns of request
output. Separate each heading with a comma (,).
Each heading can have as many as eight alphanumeric characters, including underscores (_). The
first character in each heading must be alphabetic. You cannot use a comma (,), a semicolon (;),
an ampersand (&), or an exclamation point (!).
If you do not want to specify a title for a particular column, use two quotation marks (" ") with no
characters between them.
9. Select OK.
About Specifying Predefined Data To Be Output
You can choose to define Requests by specifying a predefined data type and one or more Markers with
respect to which the data is returned. You can select the following types of data, which are commonly
investigated quantities and are, therefore, predefined for you:
• Displacement
• Velocity
• Acceleration
• Force
All information types are vectors, except for rotational displacements. Adams/Solver internally calculates
all data in the global coordinate system, although you can specify that the data be calculated and reported
in another coordinate system.
Note that the units for rotational displacement data in the request output of the tabular output file default
to degrees. The units for all other angular output data default to radians.
Displacement
When you request predefined displacement output, Adams/Solver outputs the displacement of a specified
marker (I marker) with respect to a second marker (J marker). When you select displacement data,
Adams/Solver generates eight channels of output as follows:
• Time (Time)
• Translational magnitude (Mag)
• X component (X)
• Y component (Y)
Adams/View
Creating Requests
8
• Z component (Z)
• Psi angle (Psi)
• Theta angle (Theta)
• Phi angle (Phi)
The psi, theta, and phi angles are Euler or body-fixed 313 rotations of the I marker with respect to the J
marker. Adams/Solver calculates the displacement data in the global coordinate system. If you specify a
reference marker, Adams/Solver resolves the translational x, y, and z components in the coordinate
system of the reference marker. The reference marker does not affect psi, theta, and phi.
Rotational displacement information differs from all other standard output. Whether this information is
in psi, theta, and phi coordinates or in yaw, pitch, and roll coordinates, the rotation sequence is not a
vector. As a result, Adams/Solver outputs no magnitude column. In addition, the sequence of coordinates
is independent of any frame external to the I and the J markers. The reference marker has no effect on the
angular coordinates.
Velocity
When you request predefined velocity output, Adams/Solver outputs the velocity of the first marker that
you specify (I marker) with respect to a second marker (J marker). When you request velocity data,
Adams/Solver generates nine headings and nine columns of data. The nine columns include:
• Time (Time)
• Translational magnitude (Vm)
• Translational x component (Vx)
• Translational y component (Vy)
• Translational z component (Vz)
• Rotational magnitude (Wm)
• Rotational x component (Wx)
• Rotational y component (Wy)
• Rotational z component (Wz)
Adams/Solver calculates this velocity data (the first derivative of the displacement of the I marker with
respect to the J marker) in the global coordinate system. If you specify a reference marker, Adams
calculates the translational and rotational x, y, and z components in the coordinate system of the reference
marker.
Acceleration
When you request predefined acceleration output, Adams/Solver outputs the acceleration of the I marker
with respect to the J marker. This argument generates nine headings and nine columns of output. The
columns include:
• Time (Time)
9 Requests
Creating Requests
• Magnitude of translational acceleration (Accm)
• Translational x component (Accx)
• Translational y component (Accy)
• Translational z component (Accz)
• Magnitude of rotational acceleration (Wmdot)
• Rotational x component (Wxdot)
• Rotational y component (Wydot)
• Rotational z component (Wzdot)
Adams/Solver calculates the acceleration data (the second derivative of the displacement of the I marker
with respect to the J marker) in the global coordinate system. If you specify a reference marker,
Adams/Solver calculates the translational and rotational x, y, and z components in the coordinate system
of the reference marker.
Force
When you request predefined force output, Adams/Solver outputs the force associated with the I and the
J markers or outputs the action-only forces on the I marker if you specify the I marker. When you specify
both the I and the J markers, Adams/Solver sums the forces on the I marker due to those forces associated
with the I and the J markers. These forces can include both applied forces (such as Translational Spring
Dampers and Bushings) and reaction forces from constraints (such as Joints and Motions).
When you specify only the I marker, Adams/Solver sums all of the action-only forces that are applied to
the I marker. If you specify a reference marker, Adams/Solver reports the components of the resulting
vectors in the reference frame of the reference coordinate system. If you do not specify a reference
marker, Adams/Solver reports the components in the ground coordinate system.
Adams/Solver outputs nine columns of data:
• Time (Time)
• Translational force magnitude (Fmag)
• Three components of translational force (Fx, Fy, and Fz)
• Rotational force (torque) magnitude (Tmag)
• Three components of torque (Tx, Ty, and Tz)
Applied forces and torques are those generated by Beams, bushings, Field Elements, Single-Component
Forces, and spring-dampers. Adams/Solver outputs the applied forces and torques acting at the request I
marker (which can be either the applied force I marker or the applied force J marker). The magnitude and
point of force application on the part containing the applied force J marker varies according to the type
and source of the force:
• For spring-dampers and action-reaction single-component forces, the forces and torques acting
at the J marker are equal and opposite to the forces and torques acting at the I marker.
Adams/View
Creating Requests
10
• For action-only, single-component forces, there is no force or torque acting at the applied force J
marker.
• For beams, fields, and bushings, the forces acting at the applied force J marker are equal and
opposite to the forces acting at the applied force I marker. As long as the applied force I marker
and the applied force J marker are coincident, the torques acting at the applied force J marker are
equal and opposite to the torques acting at the applied force I marker. If there is a finite
separation between the I and the J markers, the torques acting at the applied force J marker are
opposite, but not equal, to the torques acting at the applied force I marker.
Reaction forces and torques are those generated by constraint-inducing elements. For revolute, spherical,
and universal joints and for orientation, parallel axes, and perpendicular joint primitives, Adams/Solver
outputs the reaction forces and torques acting at the request I marker (which can be either the constraint
I marker or the constraint J marker). The force and torque acting at the request J marker are equal and
opposite to the force and torque acting at the request I marker. Depending on the type of constraint, some
or all of the torques acting at the I marker are zero.
You must be careful when requesting a force with the I and the J markers reversed from those specified
in the force-producing element. Adams/Solver reports the force as if it were applied to the J marker of
the force-producing element. The translational force on the J marker of the force element will be equal
and opposite to the translational force on the I marker of the force element if it is not action only. The
force will be zero if it is action only.
The torque on the J marker of the force element has an extra component that can have significance. The
torque is the sum of two contributions. The first contribution is the opposite of the torque on the I marker.
The second contribution is due to the force acting across the separation between the I and the J markers.
If the force acts along the line of sight of the two markers, this extra torque will be zero. To minimize
misunderstandings, attach your request markers in the same order as the markers on the force-producing
element.
About Specifying a Subroutine
In requests, you can enter parameters that are passed to the user-written Adams/Solver User-written
subroutine REQSUB that is linked to Adams/View as a dynamic-linked library. For more information on
REQSUB and passing parameters to subroutines, see Adams/Solver online help. Also refer to the
appropriate instructions on creating and running the library you make in Running and Configuring Adams.
About Specifying Function Expressions
You can specify up to six function Expressions in one request. The function expressions are labeled f1
through f8, with f1 and f5 reserved by Adams/Solver to hold the magnitude of the function expressions
that follow.
Creating function expressions to define requests provides you with two significant advantages over
specifying a predefined data type and marker. The advantages are:
11 Requests
Creating Requests
• You can customize the expressions to output just what you want and are, therefore, more
versatile.
• The function expressions are very efficient, calculating in one or two requests what otherwise
might require eight or more requests.
The following example illustrates how to output quantities that could not be captured using predefined
outputs, especially not all within a single request:
f1 = (blank)
f2 = "0.5*17.49*VM(mar15, mar27)**2"
f3 = "FX(mar18, mar19, mar1)*DX(mar18, mar19, mar1)"
f4 = "FX(mar18, mar19, mar1)/TIME"
f5 = (blank)
f6 = "AZ(mar7, mar8)"
f7 = "JOINT(joi26, mar7, fy, mar99)"
f8 = "MOTION(joi26, mar7, tz, mar99)"
The easiest way to enter a function expression in Adams/View is to use the Function Builder. For more
information on the Function Builder and the built-in functions, see the Adams/View Function Builder
online help.
Adams/View
Creating Requests
12
Simulation
Adams/View
About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
2
About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
Before you begin your Simulation, you may want to do one or more preliminary operations to help ensure
a better simulation. You can do any of the following:
• Check to see if you have the expected number of movable parts and the expected number and
type of constraints in your model.
• Determine the total number of system Degrees of freedom (DOF) and which, if any, constraint
equations are redundant. Learn more.
• Check to see if any constraints are broken or incorrectly defined and, if so, perform an Initial
conditions simulation on your model to try to correct these broken joints. Learn more.
• Perform a static simulation to move your model into an equilibrium configuration immediately
before performing a dynamic simulation to reduce some of the initial, transient system response.
Learn more
• Calculate the natural frequencies of your model as linearized about a particular operating
configuration. See LINEAR command for more information.
Verifying Your Model
You can use the Model Verify Tool to check for error conditions in your model, such as misaligned joints,
unconstrained parts, or massless parts in dynamic models. The Model Verify tool alerts you to other
possible problems. It is a good tool to use periodically as you add detail to or refine your model. The
following sections explain how to verify your model and describe more about overconstraining your
model.
To learn more about avoiding improper connections, see Performing Initial Conditions Simulation. To
manage the mass properties of rigid bodies, see Modifying Mass and Inertia for Rigid Bodies.
Running a Verification of Your Model
To verify your model, do one of the following:
• From the Simulation Controls dialog box, select the Model Verify Tool .
• From the Tools menu, select Model Verify.
3 Simulation
About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
An information window appears with information about your model as shown in the figure below.
About the Algebraic Equations of Motion
Constraints in Adams/View remove DOF from your model by adding algebraic constraint equations to
the governing system of DAEs (Differential and Algebraic equations). The different constraints in the
Adams/View constraints library remove different types and number of DOF. Joints can remove anywhere
from one to six DOF, depending on their type. For more information on the type and number of DOFs
that each joint removes, see Constraints and Degrees of Freedom.
Mathematically, however, Adams/Solver represents similarly constrained DOF with similar algebraic
equations. The following are representative of the type of algebraic equations Adams/Solver uses to
represent DOF constrained by joints:
(1)
Tip: Select the Model Verify tool from the Information tool stack on the Status bar.
Adams/View
About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
4
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Equation (1) through Equation (3) constrain translational DOF, while Equation (4) through Equation (6)
constrain rotational DOF. The table below explains each of the mathematical equations. In the
explanations, the I marker is on the first part and the J marker is on the second part.
The table below lists some of the most commonly used joints and the equations that are used to represent
them:
Explanations of Equations of Motion
The equation: Means that:
Global x coordinate of the I marker must always remain identical to the global
x coordinate of the J marker.
Global y coordinate of the I marker must always remain identical to the global
y coordinate of the J marker.
Global z coordinate of the I marker must always remain identical to the global
z coordinate of the J marker.
Z-axis of the I marker must always remain perpendicular to the x-axis of the J
marker (which means no rotation about the common y-axis).
Z-axis of the I marker must always remain perpendicular to the y-axis of the J
marker (which means no rotation about the common x-axis).
X-axis of the I marker must always remain perpendicular to the y-axis of the
J marker (which means no rotation about the common z-axis).
Common Joints and Equations Used to Represent Them
The joint: Uses:
Fixed joint Six equations (Equations 1 through 6)
Spherical joint Three equations (Equations 1 through 3)
Revolute joint Five equations (Equations 1 through 5)
Translational joint 5 equations (Equations 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6)
Inline joint Two equations (Equations 1 and 2)
5 Simulation
About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
Notice that each of the five joints uses Equations 1 and 2. Duplicating constrained DOF between the same
parts can lead to overconstraining your model and introduce redundant constraint equations.
Adams/Solver outputs warning messages to help you understand which equations are redundant and,
therefore, which DOF are removed more than once. For some examples of warning messages in
Adams/View and how you can remove the redundancy that they indicate, See Examples of Redundant
Constraints Messages.
More on Redundant Constraint Checking
When building a model, you may find that you define a pair of constraints that constrain two parts in
exactly the same way, and so remove identical Degrees of freedom (DOF) from your model. For example,
when modeling a door that is connected to a ground-fixed door frame, you might add two hinges
(revolute joints) to restrict the door's movement but this is unnecessary. In mathematical terms, the
constraint equations of both constraints are redundant with each other because they each remove the same
five DOF.
In a physical mechanical system, it might be necessary to have two constraints that restrict the same DOF
because of deformation of the parts and joint-play in the connections. In an ideal mathematical model,
however, where parts are rigid and joints do not permit any play, only one of the constraints is required
and the other constraint is redundant.
Redundant constraints are considered to be either consistent or inconsistent. Redundant constraints are
consistent if a solution satisfying the set of independent constraint equations also satisfies the set of
dependent or redundant constraint equations. Using the example of the door, the constraints are
consistent whenever the axes of the two hinges are aligned. If, however, the axes of the two hinges are
not aligned, the door cannot move without breaking one of the hinges. In this case, the two hinges are
inconsistent.
When the analysis engine, Adams/Solver, encounters redundant constraints, it determines which
constraints are redundant, removes them from the set of equations, and provides a set of results that
characterizes the motion and forces in the model. In this way, Adams/Solver can solve the equations of
motion but only if the constraints are consistent. Note that models with redundant constraints do not have
a unique solution. Solutions other than the one Adams/Solver provides can also be physically realistic.
Redundant constraints that are initially consistent can become inconsistent as your model simulates over
time. Adams/Solver stops simulating as soon as the redundant constraints become inconsistent. For
example, consider a planetary gear system with redundant constraints. Slight misalignment errors can
accumulate over time, eventually resulting in a failure of the consistency check. If this occurs, you can
remove the redundant constraints or replace them with flexible connections.
Adams/View
About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
6
Consistent Gears that Become Inconsistent
In the case of the door with two hinges, Adams/Solver ignores five of the constraint equations that it finds
redundant. You do not know which equations Adams/Solver ignores, however. If Adams/Solver ignores
all of the equations corresponding to one of the hinges, then all the reaction forces are concentrated at the
other hinge in the Adams/Solver solution. Adams/Solver arbitrarily sets the reaction forces to zero at the
redundant hinge. But Adams/Solver might not discard all the equations for one hinge and retain all the
equations from the other. It might just as easily retain one or more equations from each, and discard one
or more from each.
Although Adams/Solver still provides the physically correct solution, the simulation may require extra
computational effort to constrain the motion when all of the constraint forces and torques are
concentrated at one end of the door. Consequently, it is always a good idea to carefully select your
constraints and define models without any redundancies. For example, you can construct the model of
the door with a spherical joint and a parallel-axes constraint instead of the single revolute joint.
Door Frame with Spherical and Parallel-axes Constraints
When you verify your model or run a simulation, Adams/Solver tells you which constraints are
redundant. To solve the redundancy, try replacing a redundant idealized joint with a joint primitive. You
may also want to replace redundant constraints with approximately equivalent flexible connections.
Adams/Solver does not always check the initial conditions set for a constraint when it performs
overconstraint checking. If you apply a motion on one joint and initial conditions on another joint, check
to ensure that they are not redundant because Adams/Solver does not check them for redundancy and
your model may lock up when simulation begins. As a general rule, do not specify more initial conditions
than the number of DOF in your model. For more on initial conditions for joints, see Setting Initial
Conditions.
7 Simulation
About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
Examples of Redundant Constraint Messages
The following sections provide examples of redundant constraint messages and ways to avoid the
redundancies:
• Example 1 - Converting a Revolute to a Spherical
• Example 2 - Converting a Translation to an Inline
• Example 3 - Removing Redundancies from Fourbar Mechanism
Example 1 - Converting a Revolute to a Spherical
If in your model, Joint_7 is a revolute joint, and Adams/View gives you the following warning messages,
then you have two redundant constraint equations:
Joint_7 unnecessarily removes Rotation Between Zi and Xj
Joint_7 unnecessarily removes Rotation Between Zi and Yj
These messages indicate that the rotational constraint equations 4 and 5 that the revolute joint introduces
are not needed. Therefore, you could replace the revolute joint with a spherical joint since it does not use
these equations.
Example 2 - Converting a Translation to an Inline
If in your model, Joint_29 is a translational joint, and Adams/View displays the following warning
messages, then you could change Joint_29 from a translational joint to an inline joint to remove the
redundancies:
Joint_29 unnecessarily removes Rotation Between Zi and Xj
Joint_29 unnecessarily removes Rotation Between Zi and Yj
Joint_29 unnecessarily removes Rotation Between Xi and Yj
Example 3 - Removing Redundancies from Fourbar Mechanism
If you build a fourbar mechanism with four revolute joints, Adams/View displays messages similar to the
following:
Joint_1 unnecessarily removes Rotation Between Zi and Xj
Joint_1 unnecessarily removes Rotation Between Zi and Yj
Joint_3 unnecessarily removes Rotation Between Zi and Xj
These messages indicate that you could change Joint_1 from a revolute joint to a spherical joint, and
change Joint_3 from a revolute joint to a universal or Hooke joint. By changing the joint types, you
eliminate the redundant constraint warnings and possibly improve the performance of your solution.
Alternatively, you could also remove the redundancies by changing just one of the revolute joints to an
inline joint. There is almost always more than one way to remove redundant constraints. The best way is
to select joint types so they match the way your physical system can move. Some of the possible
configurations are shown in the figure below.
Adams/View
About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
8
Alternative Configurations for Fourbar Mechanism
Remember that Adams/Solver does not calculate joint reaction forces in any directions associated with
redundant constraint equations because it automatically removes these equations when it performs a
simulation. Therefore, you may also want to select your joint types based on where you want to measure
joint reaction forces.
Performing Static Equilibrium Simulations
When you perform a static equilibrium simulation on your model, Adams/Solver iteratively repositions
all parts in an attempt to balance all the forces for one particular point in time.
To learn more:
• About Performing Static Equilibrium Simulations
• Finding Static Equilibrium for Your Model
• About Performing Dynamic Simulations to Find Static Equilibrium
About Performing Static Equilibrium Simulations
To perform a Static equilibrium simulation, Adams/Solver finds the configuration and static forces for
which all the static forces in the system balance after being evaluated at the current simulation time. This
process requires the solution of a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. Adams/Solver uses the modified
Newton-Raphson iteration to solve these equations. (To learn more about Newton-Raphson solutions, see
the DEBUG statement in the Adams/Solver online help.)
If your force and motion inputs change over time and you want to investigate how your equilibrium
configurations change, you can choose to perform a series of static simulations over an interval of time.
A series of static simulations is often referred to as a quasi-static simulation because time is allowed to
vary between static simulations but time-varying inertial effects are neglected for each individual static
simulation. Quasi-static simulations are useful for approximating the dynamic response of models that
move very slowly and for which you can assume that the effects of inertial force can be neglected.
Since Adams/Solver must be able to move parts around as it attempts to iterate to an equilibrium
configuration, it does not make sense to perform a static simulation on a model that has no degrees of
freedom (DOF). If the model has no DOF, no parts are allowed to move.
Finding Static Equilibrium for Your Model
To perform a single static simulation at time 0.0:
• From either the Simulation container on the Main toolbox or the Simulation Controls dialog box,
select the Static Equilibrium tool.
To perform a static simulation at a time other than time 0.0:
1. From either the Simulation container on the Main toolbox or the Simulation Controls dialog box,
set Simulation Type to Static.
9 Simulation
About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
2. From the option menu, select Duration and enter the desired time.
3. Select Steps and then set the number of output steps to 1.
4. Select the Simulation Start tool .
Adams/View actually calculates an equilibrium configuration for both time 0 and the request
time, so you get two output steps: one automatically at time 0 and one at the requested time.
To perform a series of static simulations until a specified time:
1. From either the Simulation container on the Main toolbox or the Simulation Controls dialog box,
set Simulation Type to Static.
2. From the option menu, select Duration and enter the desired time.
3. Select Step Size and then enter the information you desire between time 0 and the desired time.
4. Select the Simulation Start tool .
To perform a static simulation before performing a dynamic simulation:
• Do one of the following:
• On the Simulation Controls dialog box, select Start at equilibrium and then perform a
Dynamic simulation as explained in Performing an Interactive Simulation.
• Use the Static Equilibrium tool to perform a static equilibrium simulation at time 0.0. Then,
without resetting the simulation and with Start at Equilibrium cleared, perform a dynamic
simulation.
About Performing Dynamic Simulations to Find Static Equilibrium
When you select to perform a Dynamic simulation to find the Static equilibrium, Adams/Solver performs
a standard dynamic simulation, except for the following:
• The function-expression variable, TIME, whether accessed using function expressions or the
TIME variable passed to most User-written subroutines, is set to the starting time for the duration
of the simulation. This setting has the effect of freezing all time-dependent excitations.
• Body forces are applied to all rigid bodies (damping forces) that oppose motion relative to
ground. The magnitude of the forces depends on the velocity of the rigid bodies relative to
ground and on the Global Damping value used in Solver Settings - Equilibrium.
• The simulation time is reset to the starting time once the analysis is complete.
• The analysis terminates when one of the following occurs based on options in Solver Settings -
Equilibrium:
• A norm of the system acceleration falls below Acceleration Error and the system kinetic energy
simultaneously falls below Kinetic Energy Error.
• The simulation time has advanced by Settling Time.
Because a dynamic simulation occurs, the settings in Solver Settings - Dynamic specify the error
tolerances and other parameters normally associated with dynamic simulations.
Adams/View
About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
10
Performing Initial Conditions Simulation
You can perform an Initial conditions simulation to check for any inconsistencies in your model. The initial
conditions simulation is often referred to as an assemble model operation. An initial conditions
simulation tries to reconcile any positioning inconsistencies that exist in your model at its design
configuration and make it suitable for performing a nonlinear or Linear simulation. Most importantly, the
initial conditions simulation tries to ensure that all joint connections are defined properly.
For example, for a revolute joint to be defined properly, the origins of the markers that define the joint
must be coincident throughout a simulation. If the markers are not coincident, the joint is broken and
needs to be repaired. In this example, the initial conditions simulation helps repair the broken revolute
joint by moving the origins of the two markers until they are coincident, as shown in the following figure.
Repaired Revolute Joint
You can also use the initial conditions simulation if you are creating parts in exploded view. Exploded
view is simply creating the individual parts separately and then assembling them together into a model.
You might find this convenient if you have several complicated parts that you want to create individually
without seeing how they work together until much later. Adams/View provides options for specifying
that you are creating your model in exploded view as you create constraints.
To perform an initial conditions simulation:
• From the Simulation Controls dialog box, select the Initial Conditions Tool .
Adams/View tells you when it has assembled your model properly. You can revert back to your
original design configuration or you can save your assembled model as the new design
configuration for your model. For more information on how to do this, see Saving a Simulation
Frame.
11 Simulation
Performing an Interactive Simulation
Performing an Interactive Simulation
Interactive Simulations are the quickest and easiest way to perform a test of your model. See Interactive
Simulation Palette and Container.
Running an Interactive Simulation
You use either the Simulation container on the Main Toolbox or the Simulation Controls dialog box to
access the tools to run an interactive simulation. If you use the Simulation Controls dialog box, you have
the additional options to set your simulation so that it runs until you stop and selecting to not display
graphic.
Be sure to read Tips on Running an Interactive Simulation, before you run the simulation.
By default, the results of a simulation are only saved to the Modeling database, not to external
Adams/Solver analysis files. To save the results to external Adams/Solver analysis files, set the simulation
output before you run the simulation, as explained in Setting Simulation Controls. To export the results to
analysis files, see Export - Adams/Solver Analysis Files.
To run an interactive simulation:
1. On the Main Toolbox, select the Simulation tool .
2. If you want to display the complete set of tools on the Simulation Control palette, select the More
button.
The Simulation Controls palette appears.
3. Set Simulation Type to the type of simulation you want Adams/View to perform. Select Default
to have Adams/View determine the simulation type: Kinematic if your model contains zero
degrees of freedom (DOF), and dynamic if your model has one or more DOF. For information
checking the number of DOF in your model, see Verifying Your Model. Learn more about Types
of Simulations.
4. Enter the time interval over which the simulation takes place and set how you want it defined. You
can select:
• End Time - Specify the absolute point in time at which you want the simulation to stop.
• Duration - Specify the amount of time over which you want the simulation to run.
• Forever - Adams/View continues simulating until you stop the simulation or until it can no
longer solve the equations of motion to within your specified tolerance. This option is only
available on the Simulation Control dialog box.
5. Set the frequency with which Adams/View outputs data during your simulation. You can specify:
• Step Size, which represents the amount of time, in current model units, between output
steps. The output frequency remains constant even if you change your simulation end time
or duration. For example, enter a step size of 0.01 seconds to specify an output period of
0.01 seconds per step, which yields an output frequency of 100 steps/second.
Adams/View
Performing an Interactive Simulation
12
• Steps, which represents the total number of times you want Adams/View to provide output
information over your entire simulation. For example, specify 50 steps over a 1-second
simulation interval to define an output period of 0.02 seconds per step, which yields an
output frequency of 50 steps/second.
6. If you selected the More button to display the Simulation Controls palette, you can clear the
selection of Update graphics display if you do not want the model updated. This saves
simulation time, but you should only select it if you are sure that your simulation will run to
completion without difficulty. See Solver Settings - Display.
7. Select the Simulation Start tool .
Stopping an Interactive Simulation
To stop a Simulation:
• Select the Simulation Stop tool .
Adams/Solver stops any further processing, and the modeling objects appear in the positions that
Adams/Solver last successfully calculated.
Tips on Running an Interactive Simulation
The following are tips for running an Interactive Simulation.
• If you simulate your model once, then stop the simulation and select the Simulation Start tool
again without selecting the Reset tool, the simulation picks up from where it left off and
continues on.
If you want to pick up from where you left off, it is more convenient to set a simulation’s time
interval using the Duration option instead of the End Time option. You can use Duration with
any value because it adds an incremental time on to whatever was the end time of the last
simulation. Using the End option, however, you must be careful to set the end time to a number
greater than the end time of the earlier simulation.
• The model configuration that Adams/View calculates at time 0.0 may be different from your
initial design configuration. If Adams/View finds any conflicts or inconsistencies in the way you
built your model at your design configuration, it tries to reposition the problematic modeling
objects at time 0.0 to remove the inconsistencies before the actual simulation begins.
For more information on how to detect conflicts or inconsistencies in your model, see Verifying
Your Model.
• Give careful consideration to the output step size you specify. If you specify an output step size
that is too large, you may not be able to visualize higher frequencies of response. If you specify
an output step size that is too small, you could end up putting an artificial governor on
Adams/Solver, forcing it to use an internal solution step that is smaller than it really has to be.
This, in turn, would increase the time it would take Adams/View to perform the simulation.
13 Simulation
Performing an Interactive Simulation
The size of the output time step governs the highest frequency of response that you will be able
to visualize for your simulation. A rough rule-of-thumb is to use at least 5 to 10 output steps per
cycle of the response that you expect. To get a better estimate of the expected response, you
might want to investigate the use of the optional Adams/Linear product, which can calculate the
natural frequencies and mode shapes for your model. For additional information, see the LINEAR
command in the Adams/Solver online help.
Adams/View
Performing a Scripted Simulation
14
Performing a Scripted Simulation
Instead of letting Adams/View set the commands to be run during an Interactive Simulation, you can
create a simulation Script. A simulation script lets you program the simulation and add advanced options
to your simulation. Simulation scripts are useful when you have come up with a good set of simulation
parameters that you want to repeat again and again. They are also needed for Design study, Design of
experiments (DOE), and Optimization simulations.
Learn more:
• Types of Simulation Scripts
• Example Adams/Solver Script
• Creating a Simulation Script
• Modifying a Simulation Script
• Getting Assistance Entering Commands
• Importing an Adams/Solver Command File (.acf)
• Running a Scripted Simulation
Types of Simulation Scripts
You can create the following types of simulation scripts:
• Simple run - A set of options that correspond to the options on the Interactive Simulation
controls. It lets you store simulation settings so that you can use them again. A simple run
performs a single Transient simulation with an optional equilibrium at the start. If you want to do
your simulation in several parts or mix in other types of simulations, such as computations of
linear modes or a state matrix, you must create an Adams/View or Adams/Solver command
script.
• Adams/View - A set of Adams/View commands, including commands that change the model or
Adams/Solver settings. If you enter commands to change the model or Adams/Solver settings,
they do not affect a simulation that is in progress. For example, if you run a simulation to
5 seconds, then change the model, then continue the simulation, the continuation uses the
original model. You must restart the simulation to use the changes during a simulation.
The best way to get started with the Adams/View commands is to use the interactive controls to
perform a simulation, then look at the script that Adams/View creates, called Last_Sim. You can
then modify and rename it. Also, you can get assistance on entering basic simulation options as
you create the script. See Create/Modify Simulation Script dialog box.
• Adams/Solver - A set of Adams/Solver commands, including commands that change the model
or Adams/Solver settings. Unlike an Adams/View command script, you can use an
Adams/Solver command script to change your model or Adams/Solver settings during the
simulation. Also, you can get assistance on entering basic simulation options as you create the
script.
15 Simulation
Performing a Scripted Simulation
Example Adams/Solver Script
The following Adams/Solver script contains four commands that run a Simulation. The commands are
presented in uppercase for emphasis but they are not case-sensitive when you enter them in Adams/View.
Example of Create Simulation Script
The commands are explained in the table below.
Commands in Solver Script
The commands: Do the following:
! Insert ACF commands here Provide comments.
SIMULATE/STATIC Initially, at time 0.0, perform a static simulation to bring the model
into equilibrium.
SIMULATE/DYNAMIC,
END=4.2, DTOUT=0.1
Starting from equilibrium, perform a dynamic simulation from 0.0
to 4.2 seconds outputting data every 0.1 seconds.
INTEGRATOR/ERROR=1E-4,
HMAX=1E-3
At 4.2 seconds, tighten the integration tolerance by reducing the
default value of 1E-3 down to 1E-4 and manually limit the
maximum solution time step size to 1E-3.
SIMULATE/DYNAMIC,
END=5.0, DTOUT=0.01
Continue the dynamic simulation from 4.2 to 5.0 seconds, this time
outputting the data every 0.01 seconds.
Adams/View
Performing a Scripted Simulation
16
You would use a script like this if you wanted to make sure your solution remained more accurate at a
particular point in time, and you wanted to increase the frequency of data output. You would increase the
accuracy and output because you expect a high-frequency response to become active in your model
starting around the specified time. For example, an abrupt event, such as parts coming into contact,
causing forces to change magnitude quickly, might make you increase your number of output steps
during that interval so you can see more fidelity in your animations and plots.
Creating a Simulation Script
The following procedure explains how to create each type of simulation scripts. Learn about getting
assistance entering commands.
To create a script for a simulation:
1. From the Simulate menu, select Simulation Script, and then point to New.
The Create/Modify Simulation Script dialog box appears.
2. Set Script Type to the type of script that you want to create. Learn about types of scripts.
3. Do one of the following depending on the type of script you are creating:
• For a simple run script, enter the values as explained in Running an Interactive Simulation.
• For an Adams/View command script, enter commands below the comment line !Insert
/View commands here:. Learn about getting assistance entering commands.
• For an Adams/Solver command script, enter commands below the comment line !Insert
ACF commands here:. Learn about getting assistance entering commands.
4. Select OK.
Modifying a Simulation Script
You can modify any simulation script in your current Modeling database. Modifying a script is a good
way to get started in creating a new one. Also, the best way to get started creating Adams/View command
scripts is to use the script Last_Sim that Adams/View creates each time it runs an interactive simulation.
Note that you cannot change a simulation script's type after you create it. For example, if you create a
simple run script, you cannot change it to an Adams/View command script. Learn about Types of
Simulation Scripts.
To modify a script for a simulation:
1. From the Simulate menu, point to Simulation Script, and then select Modify.
The Database Navigator appears.
2. Select the script that you want to modify. Learn more about Database Navigator.
The script appears in the Create/Modify Simulation Script dialog box.
3. Modify the script as desired, and select OK. Learn about getting assistance entering commands.
17 Simulation
Performing a Scripted Simulation
Getting Assistance Entering Commands
Adams/View provides you with assistance on entering commands whether you are creating an
Adams/View command script or an Adams/Solver command script. Learn more
• Getting Assistance with Adams/View Commands
• Getting Assistance with Adams/Solver Commands
Getting Assistance with Adams/View Commands
Instead of having to know command names and syntax for many commands for running simulations and
for saving and resetting simulation, Adams/View lets you enter values for the operations and then
appends the appropriate commands to the current selected script. Assistance on modeling commands is
not available.
To get assistance with Adams/View simulation commands:
1. At the bottom of the Create or Modify Simulation Script dialog box when you are creating or
modifying an Adams/View script, select Append Run Commands.
Options for running simulations appear in the dialog box.
2. Select the simulation operation that you'd like to add to your script. For example, select Transient
- Dynamic to enter a command for performing a Dynamic simulation.
Options for the operation you selected appear in the dialog box. For example, text boxes and
button appear for setting the duration of a simulation.
3. Enter the appropriate values in the dialog box, and then select OK.
Adams/View appends the corresponding command and command parameters to your script.
For additional assistance, you can also:
• Use the help for the Adams/View Command language
• Use the Command Navigator to see the available Adams/View commands, their keywords, and
parameters. Learn more about the Command Navigator.
• Look at your aview.log file to see the commands that have been executed and their syntax. Learn
more about Using the Adams/View Log File.
Getting Assistance with Adams/Solver Commands
Instead of having to know command names and syntax for the Adams/Solver commands, Adams/View
lets you enter values for the commands in dialog boxes.
To get help with Adams/Solver commands:
1. Set Append ACF Command ... at the bottom of the Create/Modify Simulation Script dialog box
when you are creating or modifying an Adams/Solver script to the operation that you like to
perform. For example, select Dynamic Simulation to get assistance on entering the command to
perform a dynamic simulation.
A dialog box appears with options for the operation that you like to perform.
Adams/View
Performing a Scripted Simulation
18
2. Enter values in the dialog box, and then select OK.
For additional assistance with Adams/Solver commands, see the Commands section of the Adams/Solver
online help. Below is a list of the assist dialog box and its associated Adams/Solver command to help you
more quickly get help:
Importing an Adams/Solver Command File (.acf)
You can import an Adams/Solver command file (.acf) and run it as an Adams/Solver command script.
When you import an .acf, Adams/View removes the file names at the beginning and the STOP command
at the end. Learn more about Creating an Adams/Solver Command File.
To import a command file:
1. From the Simulate menu, point to Simulation Script, and then select Import ACF.
The Create/Modify Simulation Script dialog box appears with options for importing an
Adams/Solver script.
2. Enter the name of the script that you want to import.
3. Select OK.
The dialog box: Contains options for the command:
Initial Conditions SIMULATE/INITIAL_CONDITIONS
Transient Simulation SIMULATE/TRANSIENT
Kinematic Simulation SIMULATE/KINEMATICS
Dynamic Simulation SIMULATE/DYNAMICS
Quasi-static Simulation SIMULATE/STATICS
Static Calculation SIMULATE/STATICS
Nastran Export C++ - LINEAR/EXPORT
Activate ACTIVATE
Deactivate DEACTIVATE
Output File Separator OUTPUT/SEPARATOR and OUTPUT/NOSEPARATOR
Reload RELOAD
Save SAVE
Eigen Solution Calculation FORTRAN- LINEAR/EIGENSOL
C++ - LINEAR/EIGENSOL
General State Matrix FORTRAN- LINEAR/STATEMAT
C++ - LINEAR/STATEMAT
Import Adams Command File ... See the Importing an Adams/Solver Command File (.acf) section
below
19 Simulation
Performing a Scripted Simulation
Running a Scripted Simulation
To run a scripted simulation:
1. Do either of the following:
• On the Simulation Controls dialog box, select Scripted.
• From the Simulate menu, select Scripted Control.
2. In the Simulation Script Name text box, enter the name of the simulation script to use.
3. Select the Simulation Start tool .
See Scripted Simulation pallette dialog box help for more information.
Adams/View
Managing Simulation Results
20
Managing Simulation Results
You can save and delete simulation results, as well as create a new model based on the simulation results.
Learn more:
• Setting Model Back to Initial Design Configuration
• Saving Simulation Results
• Deleting Simulation Results
• Saving a Simulation Frame as New Model
Setting Model Back to Initial Design Configuration
After you animate your simulation results, you must set your model back to its initial design
configuration if you want to modify your model or perform another simulation starting at time 0.
Note that you do not have to set the model back to its design configuration to continue simulating. You
can pick up from the last frame of your animation and continue.
To set a model back to its design configuration, do either of the following:
• From either the Simulation container on the Main toolbox or the Simulation Controls dialog box,
select the Simulation Reset tool .
• Double-click the Select Tool .
Saving Simulation Results
By default, Adams/View saves the results of the last Simulation that you performed. You can save
simulation results so you can animate or plot the results at a later time. Saving simulation results is
particularly important when you want to compare the results from several design variations.
Be sure to save your Modeling database after you save your simulation results (File -> Save Database).
To save simulation results:
1. From the Simulation Controls dialog box, select Save Results to Database tool .
The Save Run Results dialog box appears.
Note: By default, the results of a simulation are only saved to the Modeling database, not to
external Adams/Solver analysis files. To save the results to external Adams/Solver analysis
files, set the simulation output before you run the simulation, as explained in Setting
Simulation Controls. To export the results to analysis files, see Export - Adams/Solver
Analysis Files.
21 Simulation
Managing Simulation Results
2. In the Name box, enter the name that you want to give to the results set that you are storing.
3. If you want Adams/View to automatically increment the run names when you save subsequent
simulations, select Auto-Increment Name.
4. Select OK.
Deleting Simulation Results
To delete simulation results:
1. From the Simulation Controls dialog box, right-click the Save Results to Database tool to
display its toolstack.
2. From the toolstack, select the Delete Results from Database tool .
The Database Navigator appears.
3. Select the names of the simulations you want to delete.
4. Select OK.
Saving a Simulation Frame as New Model
You can copy a frame from a simulation as a new model, and use it as your design configuration.
You will find this helpful, for example, when your original design configuration had broken joints in it
that result in warning messages during model verification. After performing an assemble simulation,
which repairs the broken joints, you can use the resulting animation frame as the starting configuration
for a new model. You could also save an equilibrium configuration resulting from a static simulation as
the starting configuration of a new model. This would help you avoid having to perform a static
simulation before each dynamic simulation.
To save a frame as a new model:
1. From the Simulation Controls dialog box or Animation Controls dialog box, select the Save Model
at Simulated Postion tool .
The Save Model at Simulation Position dialog box appears.
2. In the New Model text box, enter the name of the model to be created from the animation frame.
3. Enter the simulation and frame number you want to save as the initial configuration of the new
model.
4. Select OK.
Note: Note: You must have saved your Modeling database before you can delete simulation
results (File -> Save Database).
Adams/View
Setting Simulation Controls
22
Setting Simulation Controls
You can change the default simulation settings so you can have greater control over both the performance
of simulations and the output that is generated from them.
About Setting Simulation Controls
The Solver Settings dialog box contains options for controlling and managing Simulations and Parametric
analyses, including:
Setting the types of files output during the simulation
You can set up Adams/View so that it saves simulation data to external Adams/Solver files and control
what data Adams/View saves. Adams/View saves the files in the directory in which you started
Adams/View.
If you are using Adams/Durability, you can also save Adams/View RPC III and DAC output. For more
information, see Adams/Durability online help.
Controlling the display during the simulation
You can control how Adams/View displays your model during a single simulation or how it displays your
model during a parametric analysis, such as a design study or optimization. You can also set the
information that Adams/View displays during a parametric analysis.
Adams/View lets you set display options so you see just the amount of information you need during a
simulation. For example, when you perform a simulation on a new model, you can set up the display to
see the model change as the solution proceeds to determine if the simulation is working properly.
Updating the display of the model frequently can, however, slow down the overall solution process.
Once your model runs properly, you can change Adams/View so it only updates the model at the end of
the simulation. You can even set Adams/View so it never updates the model. You can then play an
animation of the simulation, as required.
Change solution settings for all types of simulations (kinematic, initial conditions,
dynamic, static)
The options for setting simulations match the arguments for the corresponding statements in
Adams/Solver. For example, options for setting a kinematic simulation match the arguments for the
KINEMATICS statement. Therefore, you will find it very easy to refer to the more extensive simulation
setting information in Adams/Solver online help.
Keep in mind that settings for individual simulations also affect the simulations during parametric
analyses, such as during a design study or optimization.
Set what type of Adams/Solver to run
In addition to running Interactive Simulation or Scripted simulations, you have several options for
performing simulations. You can choose:
23 Simulation
Setting Simulation Controls
• Internal - Run Adams/Solver from within Adams/View and animate the results as they are
calculated, which is the default and is explained in Setting Simulation Controls. In addition, if
you select the Internal option, you can select from two different types of solvers:
• FORTRAN - Our existing version of Adams/Solver.
• C++ - Our new version of Adams/Solver, which is C++-based and promises to be faster, provide
new linear analysis capabilities, and have an improved methodology for identifying and handling
redundant constraints. Currently, it does not support all modeling elements that the
Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) supports.
• External - Perform a simulation with Adams/Solver while in Adams/View, but without seeing
the model update on your screen during the simulation. Adams/View automatically plays an
animation of the simulation when the simulation is complete.
• Write Files Only - Instruct Adams/View to write out the files that are needed to run a simulation
using Adams/Solver from outside of Adams/View.
Accessing the Solver Settings Dialog Box
You can access the Solver Settings dialog box in three ways: from the Settings menu, from the Simulation
Controls dialog box, and from the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box.
To access the Settings dialog box from the Settings menu:
• From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select the desired command representing the
setting that you want to change.
The Solver Settings dialog box appears with options for the selected command.
To access the Solver Settings dialog box from the Simulation Control dialog box:
1. On the Simulation Control dialog box, select Simulation Settings to display the Solver Settings
dialog box.
2. At the top of the Solver Settings dialog box, set Category to the setting that you want to control.
To access the Solver Settings dialog box from the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box:
• From the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, select a button from the Settings area of the dialog
box.
You can select:
• Display to set the display of simulation results during a parametric analysis.
• Output to manage the results of the analysis.
• Optimizer to set options for optimizing.
Adams/View
Adding Sensors to Your Model
24
Adding Sensors to Your Model
A sensor monitors a simulation for a specified event and changes a set of simulation controls when the
event occurs. Learn more about sensors:
• About Sensors
• Defining Events for Sensors to Detect
• Triggering the Action of a Sensor
• Types of Actions for Sensors
• Creating a Sensor
• Example of Adding a Sensor
Also refer to the cautions for using sensors in the Adams/Solver SENSOR statement.
About Sensors
You can use sensors to trigger actions during simulations when a specified event occurs. The actions you
can trigger include:
• Stopping the simulation completely - You might want to monitor the vertical distance between
a wheel center and the ground and stop the simulation when it exceeds the undeformed radius of
the tire.
• Changing the parameters controlling the solution - You might want to monitor the distance
between two objects that are expected to collide during a simulation. Just before the objects
collide, you reduce the solution step size to avoid convergence problems and reduce the output
step size to capture the magnitude of the contact force.
• Changing inputs to the simulation - Sensors are often used in vehicle applications to transition
between different maneuvers, such as from a controlled, straight-line movement to a J-turn. Any
characteristic of the vehicle's movement that you can measure in Adams/View, you can monitor
through a sensor and trigger a change in simulation conditions. For vehicles, these include the
yaw, lateral, or longitudinal velocity; the yaw or slip angle; the engine or wheel speed; and so on.
25 Simulation
Adding Sensors to Your Model
• Changing the model topology - You can create a sensor that monitors the reaction force in a
connection and then deactivates the connection when the force exceeds a specified value. A
simple example of this is shown in the figure below.
Defining Events for Sensors to Detect
You define the event that a sensor is to detect by creating a function, which can depend on:
• Distance, velocity, acceleration, or force between markers
• User-defined variables
• Simulation time
You can also reference object data, such as measures.
When performing a Dynamic simulation, Adams/View evaluates the function after every successful
Integration step. When performing other types of simulations, it evaluates the function after every
successful solution step. To define the function, you can use a run-time expression or a user-written
subroutine.
The sensor function should be continuous because Adams/Solver tries to adjust the step size to find the
exact time the sensor becomes active. This process is inaccurate and time consuming when the function
is discontinuous. For that reason, functions of time or displacements work best for sensors; functions of
velocities, accelerations, and forces are less desirable.
Generally, Adams/Solver tests sensors after every successful integration step. If the triggering condition
or event that the sensor is monitoring occurs and persists, you may have to turn off the sensor so it doesn't
continue to trigger. You can turn off a sensor using the DEACTIVATE simulation script command. To
help reduce the possibility of the continuous triggering effect, once the sensor triggers the first time,
Adams/Solver does not test the sensor again until after three subsequent successful integration steps.
Adams/View
Adding Sensors to Your Model
26
Triggering the Action of a Sensor
You set the value to trigger the sensor by specifying a target value, providing an allowable tolerance from
the target value, and then setting a comparison for the sensor to evaluate, as explained in the next
sections:
• About Error Tolerance
• About Setting Comparisons
About Error Tolerance
Because a function rarely equals a target value exactly, you can specify the allowable error tolerance
between the target value and the actual value of the function. Adams/Solver compares the function’s
instantaneous value to the target value +/- the error tolerance at each integration step according to the
comparison that you specify. Note that the sensor error tolerance must be a positive number.
About Setting Comparisons
Specifies what kind of comparison Adams/Solver should make to determine if it should initiate the sensor
action. The comparisons can be one of those in the following table.
The figure below illustrates each of the comparisons. In the figure, the sensor triggers whenever the value
of the function being monitored is in the shaded areas. Be careful that your function does not evaluate in
The comparison: Initiates the action when the function value is:
Equal From (Target - Error) to (Target + Error).
Greater than or equal Greater than or equal to (Target - Error).
Less than or equal Less than or equal to (Value + Error).
27 Simulation
Adding Sensors to Your Model
the shaded area at the start of your simulation unless you want your sensor to trigger immediately. It is a
good idea to define a measure for your sensor function so you can check it by plotting it.
Types of Actions for Sensors
There are several actions a sensor can trigger. These are grouped into:
• Standard actions - Commonly used actions.
• Special actions - Actions used to assist in debugging your model.
Standard Actions
You can specify one or more of the following standard actions to occur when Adams/View senses the
event.
• Generate additional output step - Creates an extra Output step when Adams/Solver triggers
the sensor so you can capture the action.
• Set output step size - Redefines the time between consecutive output steps. Adams/Solver uses
this value until it is changed. The default is the current time between output steps for the
simulation.
• Terminate current step and stop, or continue with a simulation script - Stops simulation or
stops current command in simulation script and continues with next command. For information
on simulation scripts, see Performing a Scripted Simulation.
Adams/View
Adding Sensors to Your Model
28
Special Actions
• Set integration step size - Redefines the next Integration step size. This change is temporary and
lasts only for the next solution step.
The default is an integrator-determined value except when you’ve included restarting the
integrator as part of the sensor action as explained next. In this case, the step size defaults to the
integrator step size.
• Restart integrator - Restarts integration and reduces the integration order to one. If you also set
integration step size as explained above, Adams/Solver reinitializes the integration step size to
the specified value. If you do not specify the step size, Adams/Solver reinitializes the integration
step size to the integrator step size.
• Refactorize Jacobian - Causes Adams/Solver to generate a new pivot sequence for matrix
factorization. This can help the integrator produce more accurate data or proceed more robustly
through the simulation. Adams/Solver generates a pivot sequence for matrix factorization before
starting the simulation. Adams/Solver does not generate a new pivot sequence unless you specify
to refactorize the Jacobian or it is necessary to refactorize to reach convergence.
• Dump state variable vector - Writes the entire array of state variable values to a text file in your
current working directory.
Creating a Sensor
To create a sensor:
1. From the Simulate menu, point to Sensor, and then select New.
The Create/Modify Sensor dialog box appears.
2. Enter a name for the sensor.
3. To define the event to be detected:
• To define the event using a function expression, set Event Definition to Run-time
Expression, and then enter a function expression in the Expression text box.
To get help on entering a function expression, right-click the Expression text box, and then
select Function Builder to display the Adams/View Function Builder. For information on
using the Function Builder, see Adams/View Function Builder online help. Shortcut to
Function Builder: Click the More button .
• To define the event using a subroutine, set Event Definition to User Written Subroutine,
and then enter the parameters to be passed to the user-written subroutine SENSUB in the
Parameter List text box. Enter up to 30 values (r1[,...,r30]) that Adams/View is to pass to
SENSUB.
4. To specify a function expression or user-written subroutine to be evaluated with the event occurs:
• To define the evaluation using a function expression, set Event Evaluation to Run-time
Expression, and then enter a function expression in the Expression text box.
29 Simulation
Adding Sensors to Your Model
To get help on entering a function expression, right-click the Expression text box, and then
select Function Builder to display the Adams/View Function Builder. For information on
using the Function Builder, see Adams/View Function Builder online help. Shortcut to
Function Builder: Click the More button .
• To define the evaluation using a subroutine, set Event Evaluation to User Written
Subroutine, and then enter the parameters to be passed to the user-written subroutine
SEVSUB in the Parameter List text box. Enter up to 30 values (r1[,...,r30]) that Adams/View
is to pass to SEVSUB.
5. To set up the target value to trigger an action:
• Set the option menu to the comparison to be used to determine if the event is to be triggered.
For information on the different comparisons, see Triggering the Action of a Sensor.
• In the Value text box, enter the value to trigger an action.
• In the Error Tolerance text box, enter the absolute value of allowable error between the
targeted value and the actual sensed value.
6. To set up the action, select an action from the Standard or Special Actions areas of the dialog box
as explained in Types of Actions for Sensors. If you select to continue with a simulation script,
you must run the simulation with a script, as explained in Performing a Scripted Simulation.
Adams/View
Adding Sensors to Your Model
30
Reviewing results
Adams/View
Using Animations
2
Using Animations
You can replay an Animation again after the Simulation ends to investigate the results of a simulation, as
long as the results of the simulation have been stored in your Modeling database. By default,
Adams/View only stores the last simulation you performed. You can either manually store a particular
simulation, or you can set Adams/View so that it automatically stores all your simulations. Learn about
Saving Simulation Results.
You can play animation frames forwards or backwards, speed them up or slow them down, pause and
continue an animation, rewind to an earlier frame, continuously play an animation in a loop, or play only
a certain portion of the entire sequence of frames. The following sections explain how to control the
playing of your animations.
• Playing an Animation
• Stopping an Animation
• Rewinding an Animation
• Skipping Frames During an Animation
• Playing a Subset of Frames
• Repeating an Animation
• Displaying Specific Animation Frames
• Resetting the Model View
Playing an Animation
When you play an Animation, Adams/View plays every frame by default. You can rewind an animation
and play the animation at various speeds as explained in the table below. During fast-forward and fast-
backward play modes, Adams/View plays only every fifth frame.
The table below explains the options available on the Animation Controls dialog box for playing an
animation.
To play an animation: Select the tool:
Forwards Play-forward tool
Backward Play-backward tool
Fast-forward mode Play-fast-forward tool
Fast-backward mode Play-fast-backward tool
Tip: To run an animation using defaults, double-click the Animation tool .
3 Reviewing results
Using Animations
Stopping an Animation
You can pause an Animation at any time instead of waiting for it to complete.
To stop an animation, do one of the following:
• On the Animation container of the Main toolbox or the Animation Controls dialog box, select the
Pause tool
• . (To display the Animation container, select the Animate tool .)
• On the Status bar, select the Stop tool .
• Press the Esc key.
Rewinding an Animation
After an Animation has ended or stopped, you can rewind it to the beginning of the animation. When you
rewind an animation, Adams/View returns to the first frame calculated during the simulation, and not to
the initial design configuration. You can also rewind or advance one frame at a time. Learn about
displaying specific animation frames.
To rewind an animation to the first frame:
• On the Animation container on the Main toolbox or the Animation Controls dialog box, select the
Rewind tool
• . (To display the Animation container, select the Animate tool .)
Skipping Frames During an Animation
When you don't need to see every frame of an Animation to get an idea of how your model behaves, you
can skip frames. For example, you can skip every other frame or skip every fifth frame. While skipping
frames can help speed up an animation, it can also cause you to miss events that occurred in your
simulation. By default, Adams/View does not skip any frames when playing an animation.
To skip frames while playing an animation:
• On the Animation Controls dialog box, enter the number of frames to skip in the Frame
Increment box. For example, enter 5 to have Adams/View display only every fifth frame.
Playing a Subset of Frames
You can choose to play only a subset of the complete sequence of frames in an Animation. By default,
Adams/View plays the complete sequence of frames. You can set the interval to view based on time or
frame number.
Adams/View
Using Animations
4
For example, if you performed a simulation from 0.0 to 10.0 seconds and asked for output every 0.1
seconds, Adams/Solver records data at 101 steps or frames. It creates an animation frame every tenth of
a second for ten seconds plus one at time 0.0. To only view the animation between 3.0 and 5.5 seconds,
set the start time to 3.0 and the end time to 5.5. To achieve the same effect by specifying the frame
number, set the start frame to 31 and the stop frame to 56. Remember that frame 1 corresponds to time
0.0.
To play frames associated with a time interval:
• On the Animation Controls dialog box, and then do one of the following:
• Set the last option menu to Time Range, and enter a start time and a stop time. Adams/View
replays those frames whose time is within the specified range.
• Select Frame Range and enter a start frame and a stop frame.
Repeating an Animation
By default, Adams/View plays the specified sequence of frames once. You can replay the animation as
many times as desired.
To specify the repetition for an animation, do one of the following:
• On the Animation Controls dialog box, in the Cycles text box, enter a whole number representing
the number of times you want Adams/View to play the animation. Adams/View automatically
rewinds the animation before each replay.
• On the Animation container in Main toolbox, select Loop. (To display the Animation container,
select the Animate tool .)
Displaying Specific Animation Frames
Adams/View provides you with several options for playing specific Animation frames. You can play one
frame, display each frame one at a time, or display a frame associated with a particular time.
To display a frame from an animation, do one of the following:
• On the Animation Controls dialog box or the Animation container on the Main toolbox, click and
drag on the slider until you reach the number of the frame you want to display. (To display the
Animation container, select the Animate tool .)
• On the Animation Control dialog box:
• From last option menu, select Frame.
• In the box that appears to the right of the option menu, enter the number of the frame you want
displayed and select Apply.
5 Reviewing results
Using Animations
To display the frames of an animation one at a time, do one of the following:
• On the Animation Control dialog box, select the:
• Forward Frame tool to advance one frame.
• Backward Frame tool to rewind one frame.
• From the Animation container on the Main toolbox, select the:
• Forward Frame tool to advance one frame.
• Backward Frame tool to rewind one frame.
To display a frame from an animation associated with a particular time:
1. On the Animation Control dialog box, from the last option menu, select Time.
2. In the box that appears to the right of the option menu, enter the time closest to the frame you want
displayed.
3. Select Apply.
Resetting the Model View
After you've animated your model, you need to set Adams/View to modeling view to make any changes
to your model.
To return to modeling view, do one of the following:
• Close the Animation Controls dialog box.
• Double-click the Select Tool .
Replaying Animation of Simulation Results
You can replay an Animation of the last Simulation. Replaying an animation displays the results much
faster than if you simulate the model again and watch the frames update as the solution calculates results.
You can also replay an animation of a saved simulation.
How Adams/View replays your simulation depends on whether or not you have finished the simulation
and reset the model back to its initial design configuration.
• If you have run a simulation, or part of a simulation, but not set the model back to its initial
configuration, when you select to replay the animation, Adams/View animates the model up to
the last simulation step and leaves your model there.
Adams/View
Using Animations
6
• If you reset your model back to its initial configuration, when you select to replay the animation,
Adams/View automatically sets the model back to the initial design configuration when the
animation is complete.
To replay an animation of simulation results:
• From either the Simulation container on the Main toolbox or the Simulation Controls dialog box,
select the Animation Replay tool .
Animating Natural Frequencies
Learn more about how to view your model oscillating at one of its natural frequencies:
• About Animating Natural Frequencies
• Performing an Animation of Natural Frequencies
• Plotting and Viewing Modes and Frequencies
• Example of Animating Natural Frequencies
About Animating Natural Frequencies
The Linear Modes Controls command lets you view your model oscillating at one of its natural
frequencies. It cycles through the model deformation starting from the operating point of the requested
natural frequency of the eigensolution. You can also see the effect of the damping on the model and
display a table and plot of modes and frequencies.
When you perform a linear simulation of your model using Adams/Linear, Adams/Solver linearizes the
model at an operating point you specify and calculates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Adams/View
then uses the information to display the animated deformed shape as predicted from the eigensolution.
Because the linear solution eigenvectors are normalized, you can specify what the maximum amount the
animated deformed shape should translate or rotate to get a meaningful animation or recognizable shape.
The animation frames correspond to a picture of the model interpolated between the maximum
deformation in the positive and negative directions. The animation then cycles through the deformation
of the model mode shape, from undeformed, to maximum deformed, to negative maximum deformed,
and finally to the undeformed shape. This deformation is about the operating point of the requested
natural mode of the eigensolution.
You control the number of frames per cycle and the number of cycles in an animation. Adams/View
performs the interpolation between the frames using trigonometric functions; therefore, the frames tend
to be segregated at the maximum deformation in the positive and negative directions.
You can only animate periodic and aperiodic eigenmodes (that is, modes with an imaginary component
of the eigenvalue = 0). However, when animating aperiodic modes, Adams/View warns you that the node
has no oscillatory motion.
Performing an Animation of Natural Frequencies
To animate the natural frequencies of your model:
1. If necessary, run a Linear simulation.
2. From the Review menu, select Linear Modes Control.
The Linear Modes Controls dialog box appears. It loads the eigensolution associated with the last
linear simulation you ran.
Adams/View
Animating Natural Frequencies
2
3. If desired, enter the name of an eigensolution in an existing analysis and set the view for the
animation. The eigensolution must be in an existing analysis that is associated with the current
model.
4. If desired, set the option menu to define the mode to be used to calculate the deformation of the
model. Set it to either:
• Mode and enter the number of the mode to be used.
• Frequency and enter the frequency of the mode.
If you specify the frequency, Adams/View uses the mode closest to the specified frequency. If
you specify neither the mode nor the frequency, Adams/View deforms the model using the first
mode.
5. Set up the number of frames per cycle and number of cycles:
• Frames Per Cycles - Enter the number of frames to be displayed for each cycle.
Adams/View performs the interpolation between the frames using trigonometric functions;
therefore, the frames tend to be segregated at the maximum deformation in the positive and
negative directions.
• Number of Cycles - Parameter used to specify the number of complete cycles to animate.
6. Select any of the following to set up the animation:
• Show time decay - Specifies whether the amplitudes of the deformations are to remain
constant or decay due to the damping factor calculated in the eigensolution.
• Show trail - Shows the path, or trail, of parts from one frame to another. Showing the trail is
useful in showing the relationship of the model parts between frames but often obscures the
view of the motion.
• Show undeformed - Specifies whether the undeformed model is to be displayed with the
deformed shape superimposed on top of it. If you select Show undeformed, select a color for
the undeformed model. If you do not specify a color, Adams/View displays the undeformed
model using the same color as the deformed mode.
• Show icons - Turns on the display icons during an animation.
7. Set the maximum amount parts will translate or rotate from their undeformed position. If you do
not specify maximum amounts, Adams/View translates parts no more than 20 percent of model
size and 20 degrees.
Tip: To view the modes in the eigensolution to see which you should use, see Plotting and
Viewing Modes and Frequencies
Note: A full cycle goes from undeformed, to maximum positive displacement, back to
undeformed, then to maximum displacement in the negative direction, and finally
back to undeformed.
3
Animating Natural Frequencies
8. Select the Animate tool .
Plotting and Viewing Modes and Frequencies
Plot the eigenvalues or view a table of eigenvalues in the Information window.
• Plotting Eigenvalues
• Viewing Eigenvalues
Plotting Eigenvalues
You can plot the real eigenvalues against the imaginary eigenvalues.
To plot eigenvalues:
1. At the bottom of the Linear Modes Controls dialog box, select Plot.
A Linear Modes Eigenvalue Plot window appears.
2. After viewing the plot, select Close and Delete Plot.
To save the plot:
1. Select Save Plot.
2. Enter a name for the plot.
3. Select Close and Save Plot.
Viewing Eigenvalues
You can display information about all an eigensolution's predicted eigenvalues in the Information
window. Once you display the information in the Information window, you can save it to a file.
The information includes:
• Mode number - Sequential number of the mode that was predicted by the eigen solution.
• Frequency - Natural frequency corresponding to the mode.
• Damping - Damping ratio for the mode (the log decrement is another way to represent this
quantity).
• Eigenvalues - List the real and imaginary part of the eigenvalue.
To view eigenvalues:
1. At the bottom of the Linear Modes Controls dialog box, select Table.
The Information window appears.
2. After viewing the information, select Close.
Adams/View
Animating Natural Frequencies
4
Animation Controls Basics
Setting Up Lighting
You can enhance the quality and realism of your Animations. You can set:
• Overall intensity of the light (much like setting a dimmer switch in your home).
• Background, ambient light to control the diffusion of light sources to effect the amount of
lighting on edges.
• Reflections off of parts. (Note that this is computationally expensive and can slow down your
animations.)
• Focused lighting that comes from different directions, and define the angle of that lighting (how
far it is from the centerline). You can think of this as if you were swinging a light boom across
your model.
To access the lighting options:
• From the Settings menu, select Lighting.
• The Lighting Settings dialog box appears.
To set up overall light intensity, ambient lighting, and reflections:
1. Use the Intensity slider to set how bright the overall light is.
2. Use the Ambient slider to set the ambient light.
3. Toggle Reflections to set up reflections off of parts.
See Reflections Example
To set up focused lighting:
1. Use the light buttons to turn on different focused light sources.
2. Use the Angle slider to set how far from the center line the light source is. May not be appropriate
for all light sources, such as front.
Note: The number of light sources you can select depends on the graphics driver and system you
are using. If you selected OpenGL, the number of light sources depends on your graphics
card.
Adams/View
Animation Controls Basics
2
To set up one-sided lighting:
• Clear the selection of Two-Sided.
Specifying Which Simulation Results to Animate
By default, Adams/View animates the results from the last Simulation performed. You can animate the
results of any simulation that you have saved in your Modeling database. You can also animate the results
of more than one simulation at the same time and change the colors of animations belonging to different
simulations to help you differentiate between them.
• To run animations of different simulations in different colors, use Adams/PostProcessor. See the
Adams/PostProcessor online help.
• To store simulation results in your modeling database, see Saving Simulation Results.
To animate a specific simulation:
• On the Animation Controls dialog box, in the Analysis box, enter the name of a saved simulation,
and then play the animation as explained in Playing Animations.
To animate multiple simulations simultaneously:
• On the Animation Control dialog box, enter the names of the simulations that you want to
animate in the Analysis text box, and then play the animations. Separate each simulation name
with a comma.
The animations all play in the currently active or selected view. Learn how to select view
windows in which to display animations.
Selecting View Windows in Which to Display Animations
By default, Adams/View only displays Animations in the currently active View window. You can choose
to play animations in a different view window or play the animation in multiple view windows at the
same time. For more information on selecting the currently active view window or on setting up multiple
view layouts, see Setting Up the Window Layout.
Tip: To achieve the fastest animations, set the lighting options to:
• No reflections
• One-sided
• One light source
Note: When animating multiple simulations simultaneously, each simulation must have the same
number of output steps or frames associated with it, as well as the same output time step
size.
3
Animation Controls Basics
To animate your results in a window other than the currently active one:
• On the Animation Controls dialog box, enter the name of any view window that is currently
visible on your screen. The default name is the currently active view.
To animate your results in multiple views simultaneously:
• On the Animation Control dialog box, in the View text box, enter multiple view names,
separating each name with a comma.
Superimposing Animation Frames
By default, during an Animation, Adams/View erases the previous frame before drawing the next frame.
You can also overlay or superimpose frames on top of one another.
We recommend that you use the frame or time range features, as well as the frame increment so that only
certain frames are superimposed on top of one another. See Skipping Frames During an Animation and
Playing a Subset of Frames.
To superimpose animation frames:
• Before selecting the Play-forward tool on the Animation Control dialog box, select
Superimpose.
Setting Screen Icon Display During Animations
By default, Adams/View turns off all Screen icons during Animations to speed up the animation. If you
need to examine the behavior of particular portions of your model to see if they are working properly, it
may be helpful, however, to display the icons. When you display screen icons during an animation, all
the screen icons that are visible when building your model are also displayed in the animation.
For example, displaying screen icons during animations allows you to see if joints or forces applied to
parts are behaving as expected because you can see their icons move as the animation progresses.
Displaying screen icons can also help you see how coordinate system markers move during animations
since they control the locations and directions for constraints and forces.
Learn about Setting Screen Icon Display.
To display screen icons during an animation:
1. On the Main Toolbox, select the Icons button.
2. On the Animation Controls dialog box, select Icons.
Note: If you choose to animate in more than one view simultaneously, every view specified must
animate the same simulation results. You cannot display one simulation in one view and
another simulation in another view.
Adams/View
Animation Controls Basics
4
3. Run the animation.
Tracing Paths of Points During Animations
During an Animation, you can draw curves on the screen that represent the path that one or more points
in your model traveled. This can be useful when you are trying to design a mechanical system to produce
a certain motion, and you would like to see whether or not the parts move as intended.
Tracing the paths of points can also be useful when performing envelope studies to see if any parts move
outside a particular working envelope as the mechanical system completes a typical work cycle. By
default, Adams/View does not trace the paths of any points in your model during animation.
To draw paths on the screen, you specify one or more markers for which you want paths generated.
Adams/View draws curves representing the path of the marker during each animation frame. The more
frames you have in your animation, the smoother the curves appear.
To trace the paths of particular points during an animation:
1. On the Animation Controls dialog box, from the Point Trace pull-down menu, select Trace
Marker.
2. In the box that appears, enter the names of one or more markers for which you want Adams/View
to generate paths.
To search for or select a marker from the screen, right-click the box, and select the appropriate
command.
Specifying the View Perspective of Animations
By default, Adams/View uses the same view perspective or camera angle for an Animation as that of the
View window you were using just before you ran the animation. You can also change your viewing
perspective. For example, you can change the perspective to always look at a particular part as it moves
or to always look from a particular vantage point, possibly one that moves with a part. Setting different
animation view perspectives can be especially useful when parts undergo large motions and move off
your screen during an animation, such as with vehicle simulations.
A good example of setting the view perspective is when you simulate a vehicle driving through a slalom
course on a test track. By default, you view the simulation as a bystander alongside of the road whose
gaze is fixed in one direction. Unfortunately, as the vehicle moves forward, it quickly moves out of your
field of view. You can, however, set the animation view perspective to mimic the movement of your head
as it moves to follow the vehicle. Furthermore, rather than observe the vehicle as a bystander alongside
a road, you can also set your animation view perspective to mimic what the driver sees as he or she looks
out the front windshield of the vehicle.
5
Animation Controls Basics
The table below explains the different options available to you to set up your view perspective from the
Animation Controls dialog box.
Setting Up Force Graphics
Learn About Force Graphics.
To specify force graphics for animations:
1. From the Settings menu, select Force Graphics.
The Force Graphics Settings dialog box appears.
Note: The Camera option menu is only available in the Animation Controls dialog box.
To set the view
perspective to: Do the following:
Be the same as during
modeling
1. Set the Base option menu to Fixed Base.
2. Set the Camera option menu to Std Camera.
Look from a stationary
point to a movable point
1. Set the Base option menu to one of the following:
• Base Marker and enter the marker that you want to follow.
• Base Part and enter the part whose center-of-mass marker you
want to follow.
2. Set the Camera option menu to Std Camera.
Look from a movable
point towards a stationary
point
1. Set the Base option menu to Fixed Base.
2. Set the Camera option menu, to Camera Marker, and then select
the marker that you want to remain in the center of the screen.
Look from one movable
point to another
1. Set the Base option menu on the Animation Control dialog box to
one of the following:
• Base Marker, and then enter the marker that you want to follow.
• Base Part, and then enter the part whose center-of-mass marker
you want to follow.
2. Set the Camera option menu to Camera Marker, and then enter
the marker that you want to remain in the center of the screen.
Note: If you specify a camera and base marker, then the view direction points from the camera
marker towards the base marker. This does not, however, uniquely define the resulting
orientation of the view, so Adams/View uses the positive y-axis of the camera point marker
to define the “up” direction for your animation view perspective.
Adams/View
Animation Controls Basics
6
2. In the Force Scale and Torque Scale text boxes, enter the amount by which you want to scale
force (straight arrows) and torque (semi-circular arrows) graphics. The default scale is 1.0.
3. If you do not want to see the values of the force and torque magnitudes during animation, clear
Display Numeric Values. If you leave it selected, Adams/View continuously displays the
magnitudes for all force and torque graphics during the animation.
4. If you want to see the force and torque graphic arrows respresented as three-dimensional objects
instead of as simple lines and arcs, clear Always Wireframe Vectors. If you leave it selected
Adams/View shows the force graphics in Wireframe render mode even when you are rendering
the view in Shaded rendering mode.
5. Select Always in Foreground if you want Adams/View to show force graphics in the foreground
of the model so model geometry does not obscure them.
Tips on Speeding Up and Slowing Down Animations
The following tips will help you speed up the replay of Animations. To slow down an animation, do the
opposite of many of the tips below.
• Reduce the graphic information on the screen. You can:
• Turn off the visibility of your screen icons. Learn about setting screen icon display during
animations.
• Turn off the working grid. Learn about Displaying View Accessories.
• Turn off the visibility of parts that you do not need to see. Learn about Setting Part Display.
• Turn off the display of all measure strip charts, status bar, and numeric values associated with
force graphics.
• Skip frames while replaying the animation. Learn about Skipping Frames During an Animation.
• Play only the set of frames within a desired time interval. Learn about Playing a Subset of
Frames.
• Keep complex geometry to a minimum in your model.
• Perform the simulation again and request fewer output steps. You can either set fewer output
steps in the same time interval or use the same number of steps in a longer time interval. Be
careful if you request fewer output steps, however, because it could affect your solution accuracy
as well as the resolution of your plot data. For more on setting output steps, see Performing an
Interactive Simulation.
• Animate in only one view window at a time or animate only one set of simulation results at a
time.
• Use the Consolidate to Shells option when you import CAD geometry. Learn about Exchanging
Data in Adams.
Debugging Your Model
Adams/View
About Building Your Model Correctly
2
About Building Your Model Correctly
Consider the following tips as you build your model:
• Use the Crawl, Walk, Run Approach - As explained in the Modeling Process, you should start
out building a simple model and then add complexity as you are sure that the simple model
simulates correctly. For example, if your physical system has nonlinear bushings, start out by
creating linear bushings. After you've simulated the linear bushings, change them to nonlinear
bushings. Also, be sure to debug your model as you build it as explained in the later sections in
this chapter.
• Make Smart Modeling Choices - The design of a virtual model follows the same principles as
the design of a physical mechanical system. You want to be sure to make it simple. You want to
be sure that it contains the smallest number of parts and mimics the behavior that you are
studying in the physical system. Although Adams/View gives you the power to mimic the
behavior of your entire system, it is often better to only focus the system behaviors that you want
to study.
Be sure to ask yourself many questions as you build your model, including:
• What parts do I really need to include? You should only include those that affect the behavior of
the model. For example, ask yourself whether an anchor plate really matters in the virtual model.
• What forces do I include?
• How do my parts really interact?
• How can I validate my model? Is the model required to accurately portray behavior trends or is
absolute accuracy required?
Those of you with a finite element analysis background may want to consider whether or not certain parts
need to be modeled as flexible or can be approximated as rigid. Defining parts as rigid is easier and
provides a good first step even if you decide to convert them to flexible bodies after your initial
simulations are running smoothly.
Likewise, those of you with a CAD background may want to pay close attention when selecting which
parts are required for your mechanical model. You rarely need to include every nut and bolt from your
physical system or your CAD assembly.
3 Debugging Your Model
Debugging Your Model Before You Run a Simulation
Debugging Your Model Before You Run a Simulation
Adams/View provides you with several ways to view the connections in your model and verify your
model's correctness before running a Simulation.
View the Construction of Your Model
To view your model, you can:
• Use the Model Topology command to look at your model's topology - As you build your
model, you can display information about its topology, display how its parts are connected to
each other, and display detailed information about each object in the model, such as its parts,
constraints, and forces. For more information, see Viewing Model Topology Map Through
Information Window.
• Use the Table Editor to look at all objects in your model - The Table Editor provides a
spreadsheet-like overview of the objects that are in your model. It is a convenient way to inspect
or modify models, particularly large ones.
Check Your Model Using Model Verify
You can use the Model Verify tool to check for errors in your model, such as misaligned joints,
unconstrained parts, or massless parts in dynamic models. The Model Verify tool calculates the number
of degrees of freedom (DOF) in your model, as well as reports any redundant constraints. It is a good tool
to use periodically as you add detail to or refine your model. Learn about Verifying Your Model.
Visually Inspect Your Model
Adams/View uses broken screen icons to indicate joints or forces that are incorrectly defined. Therefore,
you can simply look at your model on the screen to see how it is constructed.
Check Your Function Expressions
The following are helpful tips for ways to debug your function when building function expressions:
• Verify a function - When working in the Function Builder in run-time mode, you can do a
cursory check of your function expression to determine if its syntax is correct. If the function
syntax is incorrect, Adams/View gives you an error message pointing out the problem area. For
more information on the Function Builder, see Adams/View Function Builder online help.
• Plot a function - The Adams/View Function Builder gives you the option to preview a plot of
your function. You can use the plotting feature whenever your function evaluates to multiple
values. You can plot all design-time functions and the run-time functions that are in the math
category and can be interpreted as design-time functions. For more information on the Function
Builder, see Adams/View Function Builder online help.
Adams/View
Debugging Your Model Before You Run a Simulation
4
• Create a measure of your entire function or key elements of it - In addition, you may find it
helpful to build measures of your entire function or key elements of it and view strip charts of the
measures as your simulation progresses.
For example, if you create a function that defines the force of a spring-damper, you can create an object
measure that tracks the force of the spring-damper over time. In addition, if you create a function that
defines an impact force, you can create a function measure of either the displacement or velocity term in
the impact function. Learn About Measures.
5 Debugging Your Model
Debugging Your Model Using Eprint
Debugging Your Model Using Eprint
Eprint prints a block of information for each kinematic, static, or dynamic step to a Command window and
to your ADAM/View Log file, aview.log. The information helps you monitor the simulation process and
to locate the source of the error if there is a problem. Each step consists of two phases:
• A forward step in time (the predictor for dynamics).
• The solution of the equations of motion (the corrector for dynamics).
Eprint displays the same information that the DEBUG command does when used with the argument
EPRINT. For more information, see the Adams/Solver online help.
To start Eprint from the Main toolbox:
1. From the Main Toolbox, select the Simulation tool .
2. Set the pull-down menu at the bottom of the toolbox to Eprint.
To start Eprint from the Main toolbar:
1. From the Simulate menu, select Interactive Controls.
2. Set the pull-down menu in the middle of the Simulation Controls dialog box to Eprint.
In both cases, a command window appears. It displays the most recent commands that
Adams/View executed.
Note: You can close the command window and use your aview.log file to view the debugging
information. Learn about Using the Adams/View Log File.
Adams/View
Using the Simulation Debugger
6
Using the Simulation Debugger
The Simulation Debugger has several options for how you want to view its debugging information:
• Running the Simulation Debugger
• Setting Up Tracking of Modeling Objects
• Stepping Through a Simulation
• Displaying Debugging Information in a Table
• Highlighting Objects During a Simulation
• Displaying Strip Charts of Adams/Solver Settings
You can select to view any or all of these options during a single simulation. Note, however, that the
options significantly slow down your simulation.
Running the Simulation Debugger
There are several ways to access the Simulation Debugger. You can access it from the Settings menu or
through the Solver Settings dialog box.
To access the Simulation Debugger from the Settings menu:
1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select Debugging.
The Solver Settings dialog box appears with options for the Simulation Debugger.
2. Set Debugger to On.
3. Select OK.
To turn on the Simulation Debugger and Debug table from the Simulation Control
dialog box:
1. From the Simulate menu, select Interactive Controls.
2. Set the pull-down menu in the middle of the Simulations Control dialog box to Table.
To turn on the Simulation Debugger and Debug table from the Main toolbox:
1. On the Main Toolbox, select the Simulation tool .
2. Set the pull-down menu at the bottom of the toolbox to Table.
Note: You can only use the Simulation Debugger with an Adams/View interactive custom or
standard library, not an Adams/Solver stand-alone executable. Learn how to Set what type
of Adams/Solver to run.
7 Debugging Your Model
Using the Simulation Debugger
Setting Up Tracking of Modeling Objects
As you run an Interactive Simulation, you can track modeling objects based on their having the most error
or the greatest change, acceleration, or force. You can display the objects in a table or highlight the
objects during a simulation. You can only select to track one element at a time. For more information on
how Adams/Solver tracks elements, see the DEBUG command in the Adams/Solver online help.
To set up the elements to be tracked:
1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select Debugging.
2. Set Track Maximum to one of the values explained below:
• Error - Track objects with the largest equation residual error. This number is an indicator of
how far Adams/Solver is from a solution. It should decrease with every iteration.
• Force - Track objects generating the greatest force. Includes forces and constraints.
• Change - Track variables with the most change.
• Acceleration - Track objects experiencing the greatest acceleration. Includes only parts.
3. Select OK.
Stepping Through a Simulation
You can set up the Simulation Debugger so it pauses after each Simulation Output step, time step, or
iteration so you can closely inspect the simulation behavior. You can step through a simulation with any
of the other debugger options selected, such as strip charts, tables, or object highlighting.
To step through a simulation:
1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select Debugging.
2. Select More and then set Single Step to Yes.
As you run a simulation, Adams/View displays a dialog box that gives you the option to continue
with the simulation or cancel it.
3. Select either Continue or Cancel.
Displaying Debugging Information in a Table
You can display debugging information in the Debug table (see Maximum Equation Error (Debug Table)
dialog box help). The table lets you track the object with the most error or the greatest amount of change,
acceleration, or force. You can also track Adams/Solver Integrator progress. The Debug table contains a
running count of the iterations needed to solve the equations of motion for the current simulation. You
can use the information as a measure of how many computations Adams/Solver is performing.
Adams/View
Using the Simulation Debugger
8
Displaying the Debug Table
To display the Debug table from the Solver Settings dialog box:
1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select Debugging.
2. In the Solver Settings dialog box, set Display to Table.
The Debug table appears.
3. Set Track Maximum to the element that you want to track. Learn about Setting Up Tracking of
Modeling Objects.
4. Run an interactive simulation as explained in Performing an Interactive Simulation.
5. Select Debug from the Simulation container on the Main Toolbox or the Simulation Controls
dialog box.
Setting Debug Table Options
You can set the following options for the information that the Debug table displays:
• Number of objects that can appear in the maximum element list. By default, Adams/View
displays three objects in the list at any one time.
• Number of elements that appeared in the last number of iterations.
To set the maximum number of objects:
• In the Show text box in the Debug table, enter the number of objects, and select Apply.
To set the history:
• In the History text box in the Debug table, enter the number of iterations to track, and select
Apply.
Highlighting Objects During a Simulation
Throughout a Simulation, you can highlight those objects experiencing the most error or the most change,
force, or acceleration, depending on the element you selected to track. If you selected to also display the
Debug table, the objects highlighted are the same objects shown at the top of the Element list in the
Debug table.
To highlight objects:
1. Turn on the debugging tool as explained in Running the Simulation Debugger.
2. From the Solver Settings dialog box, set Track Maximum to select the element that you want to
track. Learn about Setting Up Tracking of Modeling Objects.
3. Set Display to Highlighting.
Note: Selecting highlighting of objects will significantly slow down your simulation.
9 Debugging Your Model
Using the Simulation Debugger
4. Run an interactive simulation as explained in Performing an Interactive Simulation.
As the simulation runs, Adams/View highlights the objects.
Displaying Strip Charts of Adams/Solver Settings
You can display four types of debugging strip charts during an Interactive Simulation to help you debug
your simulation. The first three apply to any default Transient simulation, and the last one applies to a
static or quasi-static equilibrium simulation. The strip charts can provide you with insight into how the
Adams/Solver Integrator acts, particularly if you display strip charts of measures of modeling objects,
such as key forces and accelerations, side-by-side with the debugging strip charts.
To turn on the display of strip charts:
1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select Debugging.
2. At the bottom of the Solver Settings dialog box, select More.
3. From the Display Stripcharts area of the dialog box, select the type of strip chart you want to
display, as explained below. Learn about the Types of Strip Charts.
4. To help you interpret the solution-related information in the strip charts, see the DEBUG
command in the Adams/Solver online help.
Types of Strip Charts
The strip charts you can display are:
• Step Size - The Step Size strip chart displays the integrator step size (units of model time), as the
simulation progresses, on a logarithmic scale. The step size strip chart provides useful
information for debugging a model because, in general, the integrator step size becomes much
smaller in response to rapidly changing dynamics. Rapidly changing dynamics are, in some
cases, intentional (for example, contacts that engage or disengage over a short duration), but can
often be a symptom of modeling errors. For example, they can indicate that there is an incorrect
damping values in an IMPACT function that causes unrealistically high forces. It also can
indicate the use of discontinuous function expressions, such as an IF function.
For more information on the step size and how to control it, see Running an Interactive
Simulation.
• Iterations per Step - The Iterations per Step strip chart displays the number of iterations that
Adams/Solver needed to successfully progress to the next integration time step, over the course
of a simulation. These iterations occur during the corrector phase of the integration. For more
information on the phases in a dynamic simulation, see the INTEGRATOR statement in the
Adams/Solver online help.
The information in the Iterations per Step strip chart can provide you with several insights into
your model:
Adams/View
Using the Simulation Debugger
10
• If your simulation progresses with very few iterations at each time step, Adams/Solver is
having an easy time simulating your model. You can further increase performance or speed
by increasing the allowed maximum time step.
• If Adams/Solver requires many iterations for any particular step, it is likely encountering a
period of rapidly changing dynamics that can require corrective action as described for the
Step Size strip chart explained in the previous section.
• If you notice that Adams/Solver requires many iterations right from the beginning of a
simulation, it is likely that you have chosen an integration step size that is too large for the
dynamics in your model. You can obtain better performance if you choose a smaller time
step. For information on changing the time step, see Running an Interactive Simulation.
• Integrator order - The Integrator Order strip chart displays the order of the polynomial that
Adams/Solver uses during the predictor phase of integration. Adams/Solver uses a polynomial to
predict the future value of the state variables in an Adams model. In general, lower order
polynomials are required to successfully integrate more difficult portions of a simulation,
characterized either by nonlinearities or rapidly changing dynamics.
Similar to the Iterations per Step strip chart, if the Integrator Order strip chart shows the
consistent use of high-order (three or more) polynomials, you may be able to increase
performance by increasing the maximum allowed time step. If Adams/Solver consistently or
periodically uses low-order polynomials, it is symptomatic of a period of rapidly changing
dynamics that may require corrective action as described for the Step Size strip chart or the
integration step size may be too large for the dynamics in your model.
• Static Imbalance - The Static Imbalance strip chart displays the current imbalance in the
equilibrium equations that Adams/Solver computes during a static equilibrium simulation. A
static equilibrium simulation is an iterative process to compute a position in which your model
assumes a minimum energy configuration. Learn about Performing Static Equilibrium
Simulations.
The Static Imbalance strip chart displays a measure of how close the solution is coming to a
complete balance of the equilibrium equations at each equilibrium iteration, in units of your
selected force units.
You need to select Update Every Iteration to watch the iteration-by-iteration progress of an
equilibrium simulation. Learn about Setting Simulation Controls.
11 Debugging Your Model
Setting Simulation Display
Setting Simulation Display
To help you view a simulation, you should be sure to set up Adams/View to:
• Update Every Iteration
• Make Icons Visible During Simulation
• Use Force Graphics
Update Every Iteration
You will find it helpful to set up the display of your simulation so you can view the simulation at different
times. For example, you need to select the option, Update Every Iteration, to watch the iteration-by-
iteration progress of an equilibrium simulation. For more information, see Setting Simulation Controls.
Make Icons Visible During Simulation
To help you monitor the behavior of modeling objects, you should turn on the display of screen icons.
You have a variety of options for how you want to set up the display. Learn about Setting Screen Icon
Display. Note, however, that turning on the display of screen icons significantly slows down your
simulation.
Use Force Graphics
Adams/View, by default, creates force and torque graphics that illustrate the magnitude and direction of
your applied force. It creates the graphics during a simulation and an animation. You will find these
graphics very helpful for debugging force elements, such as IMPACT functions. We recommend that you
do not turn off the graphics. Learn about Setting Up Force Graphics.
Adams/View
Possible Errors when Using Adams/View
12
Possible Errors when Using Adams/View
The above are some common errors in Adams/View.
• Errors in Geometric Associativity
• Errors as a Result of Mass Properties
• Errors from Incorrect Gravity and Inconsistent Units
For tips on how to build modeling objects so that you avoid problems when building or simulating your
model, see:
• Tips on Constraining Your Model
• Tips on Creating Higher-Pair Constraints
• Tips on Creating Motions
• Tips on Running an Interactive Simulation
Errors in Geometric Associativity
It is possible for you to create geometry or markers on the wrong part. If this occurs, your simulation
results can be invalid. If geometry belongs to the wrong part, it can change the mass properties and,
therefore, the dynamics of the model. If markers belong to the wrong part, you can get erroneous loads
or connections.
To ensure that you assigned geometry and markers to the correct parts, do one of the
following:
• Use the Model Topology by Connection tool to check the connections of your parts.
• Turn on icons during animations and watch carefully how markers move.
To assign geometry and markers to the correct part:
• Rename the markers so they belong to the correct part.
Errors as a Result of Mass Properties
Adams/View automatically calculates mass and inertia properties for geometric bodies that you create in
Adams/View. It does not, however, assign mass and inertia properties to geometric bodies that you
imported into Adams/View. For example, it does not assign mass and inertia to IGES geometry that you
imported.
To check and set mass and inertia:
• Use the Aggregate Mass command to perform a quick check of the total mass and inertia for
your entire model or any subset of parts. Learn about Calculating Aggregate Mass of Parts.
13 Debugging Your Model
Possible Errors when Using Adams/View
• Use the Table Editor to display all parts in your model so you can perform a quick check of each
part's mass and inertia and quickly fix the individual part masses and inertia. Learn about Editing
Objects Using the Table Editor.
• Use the Modify command to check an individual part's mass and inertia and to change it as
appropriate. Learn about modifying mass and inertia for rigid bodies in Modifying Part
Properties.
Errors from Incorrect Gravity and Inconsistent Units
Make sure the magnitude and direction that you selected for gravity is appropriate for your model. In
addition, make sure that the units that you are using are consistent throughout the model for:
• Time
• Geometric elements
• Mass
• Stiffness and damping
For example, often you set your length units in meters but data for bushing stiffness are given in Newtons
per millimeters. In this case, you need to convert your units.
Also, be sure that the constants that you use in applied force expressions and user-written subroutines are
consistent with the current set of Adams/View units. Adams/View does not change the units of constants
if you change the default units settings.
In addition, make sure that you select a set of units that minimizes the difference in magnitude (scale) of
all of your input data. For example, if you are modeling the vibration of a 75-ton industrial press, you
might want to select mass = Kilopounds mass and displacement = inches.
If you divide the mass (about 150 klbm) by the expected vibration magnitude (1.5 inches), you obtain a
model scale number of approximately 100, which is well within the range for an easy numerical solution.
Using grams and meters in the same model would result in a scale number of about 109; other units would
be even worse. Poorly scaled models can present numerical difficulties to Adams/Solver, and you should
avoid them.
Adams/View
Possible Errors when Using Adams/View
14
Improving Your Model Designs
Using the Adams/View parameterization and parametric analysis tools, you can efficiently improve your
model design. The entries below explain how to improve your model using these tools. It assumes that
you have a moderate level of knowledge about Design of experiments (DOE) and Optimization and that
you have access to in-depth references on them.
You can also perform more sophisticated design of experiments using Adams/Insight. Adams/Insight lets
you design sophisticated experiments for measuring the performance of your mechanical system model.
It also provides a collection of statistical tools for analyzing the results of your experiments so that you
can better understand how to refine and improve your model. For more information on Adams/Insight,
see Adams/Insight online help, if installed, or contact your MSC sales representative.
Parameterization Basics
Adams/View
Introducing Parameterization and Parametric Tools
2
Introducing Parameterization and Parametric Tools
You can learn a great deal by running an Adams Simulation of a single configuration. You can learn even
more by manually changing your model, and running simulations again and again, but the process
quickly becomes tedious. Instead, you can use parameterization and the parametric tools that
Adams/View provides to automate your changes.
Using parameterization, you can make a single change and your entire model automatically updates.
Using Parametric analyses, you can automatically run a series of simulations to see the effects of varying
your model.
About Parameterizing Your Model
Manually updating your model can be time-consuming because rarely is it as simple as changing just one
modeling object. Frequently, other objects depend on the object you are changing, which forces you to
change those objects as well.
Therefore, the first step in creating a parameterized model is to select the critical design inputs that you
want to vary to perform "what if" studies. When you change a critical design input, dependent model
characteristics update automatically. You parameterize your model by creating parameters and defining
how the model depends on them. You can parameterize your model as you build it, or build it first and
then add the parametric relationships.
Adams/View provides several parameterization methods. For example, you can parameterize your model
using:
• Points
• Design variables
• Parameterization move tools (f(x) and f( )that let you specify how one objects moves relative to
another object.
• Expressions, which are the basis of all parameterization.
About Parametric Analysis Tools
Parametric analyses help you investigate the influence of design variables on model performance.
During a parametric analysis, Adams/View runs a series of simulations with different values for the
design variables and gives you feedback on the effects of the changes.
• Adams/View has three types of parametric analyses:
• Design study, which shows the effects of varying one design variable.
• Design of Experiments (DOE), which shows the effects of varying several design variables
simultaneously.
• Optimization, which adjusts design variables to minimize or maximize a particular aspect of
your model's performance.
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3 Parameterization Basics
Introducing Parameterization and Parametric Tools
The first step in using parametric analyses is to understand design studies, DOEs, and optimizations, what
they do for you, and how they can work together. Depending on your model and interest, you may use
one, two, or all three to explore your model.
In all cases, you start by deciding which design variables to vary and how to measure the performance of
your model. In the latch model from the guide, Getting Started Using Adams/View, for example, the
design variables are the coordinates of the pivot points, and the performance measure is the maximum
spring force during the simulation.
Learn more about the different types of parametric analyses you can run and how you can use them
together:
• About Design Studies
• About Design of Experiments
• About Optimization
• Using Design Study, DOE, and Optimization Together
About Design Studies
A design study analysis is useful for understanding one design variable. A design study varies a single
design variable across a range or series of values you specify, runs a simulation at each value, and reports
the performance measure for each simulation.
Using a design study analysis, you can determine:
• How the performance varies with changes in the design variable.
• The best value for the design variable among the values simulated.
• The approximate design sensitivity of the variable; that is, the rate of change of the performance
measure with respect to the variable.
About Design of Experiments
A Design of Experiments (DOE) helps you understand how several design variables interact. While
design study analyses vary only one design variable at a time, a DOE varies as many variables as you
want. You specify the range or series of values for each variable and which combinations of values you
want to simulate. Adams/View runs the simulations and records the performance measure for each run.
If your model is complex and involves many design variables, choosing the runs by intuition or trial-and-
error can give you results that are more confusing than they are helpful. If so, you should consider using
a structured approach based on DOE techniques.
The field of DOE (also called experimental design) offers a collection of procedures and statistical tools
for planning experiments and analyzing the results. Although DOE techniques were developed around
physical experiments, they work just as well with virtual experiments in Adams/View. We've designed
DOE analyses to make it easy to apply DOE techniques to your model. For more information on DOE
techniques, see About Design of Experiments.
Using a DOE and appropriate DOE techniques, you can:
Adams/View
Introducing Parameterization and Parametric Tools
4
• Identify which design variables and combinations of design variables most affect the
performance of your model (screening).
• Control the effects of variations due to real-world manufacturing and operating conditions
(robust design or the Taguchi method).
About Optimization
An optimization adjusts design variables to minimize or maximize a performance measure. You can set
ranges on how far to vary the design variables and add general constraints to keep the optimized design
within overall limits. Using an optimization, you can find the best performing values for design variables.
For more information on optimization techniques, see About Optimization and Running Parametric
Analyses.
Using Design Study, DOE, and Optimization Together
• A design study, DOE, or optimization are useful individually, but combining several parametric
analyses can give you a fuller understanding of your model's performance. Design studies and
DOEs help you explore variations and trade-offs in performance, while optimizations try to find
a specific combination of design variable settings that achieve optimal performance.
• For example, you might start exploring your model with one or two design studies on design
variables that you know are important. The design studies show you the major effects of
changing your design and allow you to make a first guess at good values for these variables.
• You might then do a few more design studies or a screening DOE to find out if there are other
important design variables or interactions between design variables that you should consider.
• When you have determined which design variables are the most important, you can use
optimization to fine-tune their values.
• Once you have final values for the design variables, a design study or DOE can tell you what
happens when those values vary. This is important if you are concerned about variations in real-
world performance or you want to adjust your design to gain other advantages without
sacrificing performance.
• A design study or DOE can also help you set up an optimization. If you do not have good initial
values for the design variables, the optimization can fail, be slow, or may converge to a design
that is not an overall optimum. A design study or DOE over a range of values can help find good
initial values for optimization. It also can give you a polynomial approximation that you can
optimize separately to find a starting point for a full optimization.
Using Expressions
Expressions are the basis of all parameterization. You can specify most modeling data in Adams/View as
either a constant value or an expression that can change its value based on other objects and values in
your model. When you specify an expression, Adams/View stores the expression and automatically
updates the value whenever a value in the expression changes.
5 Parameterization Basics
Introducing Parameterization and Parametric Tools
For example, when you specify the mass of a part, you can supply a constant value, such as 5.0, or an
expression, such as:
(2 * .model_1.part_1.mass)
Using the expression above, the new part mass is always twice the mass of part_1, even if you change
the mass of part_1.
Expressions are always enclosed in parentheses and can include:
• Constants
• Standard mathematical operators and functions
• Special Adams/View functions
• References to other object data in your model
You enter an expression directly in the text box for the value you want to parameterize. You can enter an
expression when you create the object or modify it later to use an expression.
Adams/View contains a Function Builder to help you construct expressions. You access the Function
Builder by displaying the shortcut menu in a text box that accepts an expression, as explained in the next
section.
To access the Function Builder:
• Right-click a text box where you want to place an expression, point to Parameterize, and then
select Expression Builder.
For more information on creating expressions and using the Function Builder, see Adams/View
Function Builder online help.
To remove an expression, do either of the following:
• Modify the object and enter a constant value in the text box.
• Place the cursor in a text box containing the expression and hold down the right mouse button.
From the shortcut menu that appears, point to Parameterize, and select Unparameterize.
Using Points
Points are the easiest way to parameterize the geometry of your model. Points let you specify important
locations once and build other modeling objects from them. When you move a point, the related objects
update automatically.
You create points using the Geometric Modeling Palette and Tool Stack on the Main toolbox. For
information on points, also see the following sections:
• Building Parameterization into Your Model as You Create Parts
• Creating Points
Adams/View
Introducing Parameterization and Parametric Tools
6
You attach new modeling objects to points by selecting the points as you graphically construct the object.
When you build objects on points, Adams/View creates the necessary expressions for you.
You can also attach existing objects to a new point by using the Attach Near option when creating the
new point. In this case, Adams/View creates expressions, using the function LOC_RELATIVE, to attach
any nearby markers to the new point. With this option, you can parameterize model geometry, forces, and
constraints as you need to rather than creating all points first.
If you later try to move an object that is attached to a point, Adams/View warns you that doing so can
break the parameterization and asks you how you want to continue. The warning prevents you from
accidentally removing a relationship and also allows you to delete the relationship.
Usually you do not need to look at or understand the expressions that tie geometry to points. If you want
to create more complicated geometric relationships, however, understanding how points work can help
you write your own expressions.
If you draw a link between two points, for example, Adams/View locates markers at each end of the link
on top of the points. Adams/View also creates expressions to keep the markers tied to the points. If you
request information on one of the markers at the ends, you see something like the following for the
location of the marker:
Location: -150.0, 250.0, 0.0 (mm, mm, mm)
(LOC_RELATIVE_TO({0, 0, 0}, .model_1.ground.POINT_1))
The first line is the current value of the location of the marker relative to the link part. The second line is
the expression that Adams/View created to keep the marker at the point. If you change the location of the
point, Adams/View automatically evaluates the expression and computes a new location for the marker.
LOC_RELATIVE_TO is one of the Adams/View functions that lets you locate points and markers
relative to other objects in your model. For more on Adams/View functions, see the Adams/View Function
Builder online help.
Tip: Right-click near the point to display a list of all objects in the area and then select the
desired point from the list to ensure it gets selected.
7 Parameterization Basics
Using the Parameterization Move Tools
Using the Parameterization Move Tools
You can also create geometric relationships using the parameterization move tools on the Move Toolstack
and palette:
• f(x) tool controls modeling object locations.
• f( ) tool controls modeling object orientations.
For general information about the move tools, see Moving Objects Using the Move Tools.
f(x) Tool
Main toolbox -> Move toolstack -> f(x) Tool
Ties the location of a modeling object to a point or marker. You can either superimpose the object on the
point or marker (collapse the two objects) or keep the object offset from a point or marker (maintain
current distance).
The following figures show the two options for parameterizing locations using f(x). The first figure
shows how you can use the f(x) tool to collapse a marker that belongs to a link on a point. In the figure,
Adams/View replaces the specific location of MAR_1 in the database with the expression:
(LOC_RELATIVE_TO ( {0,0,0}, .model_1.part_1.POINT_1))
The second figures shows the effects of using the f(x) tool to maintain the position of a marker on the
link, relative to a point. If you set Adams/View to maintain their distance, when you move the point, the
marker moves so it and the point are always the same distance relative to each other. In the figure,
Adams/View replaces the specific location of MAR_1 in the database with the expression:
Note: The f(x) tool described in this section is not the same as the f(x) tool explained in the Table
Editor. They perform different operations. For more information on the f(x) tool in the
Table Editor, see Working with Cells in the Table Editor.
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Adams/View
Using the Parameterization Move Tools
8
(LOC_RELATIVE_TO ({0,10,0}, .model_1.part_1.POINT_1))
Using the F (x) Tool
To collapse an object onto another point or marker and lock it there:
1. From the Move Toolstack, select thef(x) Tool.
2. Select the option Collapse.
3. Select the object to lock.
4. Select the point or marker to which to lock.
Adams/View moves the object to the location of the point or marker and creates an expression in
the object to keep it superimposed on the point or marker. If you move the point or marker,
Adams/View moves the object to the same location.
To keep an object fixed relative to a point or marker:
1. From the Move tool stack, select the f(x) tool.
2. Position the objects as desired.
3. Select the option Maintain.
4. Select the object to lock.
5. Select the point or marker to which to lock.
Adams/View creates an expression in the object to maintain it at its current position relative to the point
or marker. If you move the point or marker, Adams/View moves the object to the same relative offset.
If you offset an object from a marker, Adams/View maintains the offset in the coordinate system of the
marker. This means that if you rotate the marker, Adams/View moves the object to the same position in
the marker’s coordinate system.
9 Parameterization Basics
Using the Parameterization Move Tools
f( ) Tool
Main toolbox -> Move toolstack -> f( ) Tool
Ties the orientation of a marker, constraint, or force to a marker. You have three options for tying the
orientation:
• Same As
• Along Axis
• In Plane
f( ) - Same As
Same As is similar to using the f(x) Tool. It keeps the orientation of the object the same as a marker or
keeps the orientation offset from a marker. The Collapse and Maintain options are similar to those in the
f(x) tool, and the steps for parameterizing are the same as when using the f(x) tool.
The following two figures show the two options you have available for parameterizing locations using
Same As. The first figure shows how you can use the maintain option. The maintain option sets one
object so its current orientation is locked relative to a second object. In the figure, when you rotate
MAR_2, MAR_1 on the cylinder also rotates so it maintains its orientation relative to MAR_2. In the
figure, Adams/View replaces the orientation of MAR_1 in the database with the expression:
(ORI_RELATIVE_TO ({90d, 90d, 0}, .MODEL_1.PART_1.MAR_2))
The next figure shows how to use the collapse option. The collapse option keeps the orientation of two
objects the same. The figure shows that when you lock the orientation of MAR_1 to that of MAR_2, the
cylinder changes accordingly when you rotate MAR_2. In the figure, Adams/View replaces the
orientation of MAR_1 in the database with the expression:
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Adams/View
Using the Parameterization Move Tools
10
(ORI_RELATIVE_TO ({0, 0, 0}, .MODEL_1.PART_1.MAR_2))
f( ) - Along Axis
Keeps an axis of a marker, constraint, or force pointed toward a marker. This is useful if a marker in your
model defines a unique axis used in a joint or force.
Along Axis only controls one axis of the object. Adams/View positions the object at an arbitrary angle
about the axis. If you need to completely control the orientation of the object, use the Same As or In Plane
options.
The following figure shows how you can set the alignment of the unique axis (z) of a revolute joint to that
of a marker using Along Axis so the joint always aligns to the marker. In the figure, Adams/View replaces
the orientation of the I and J markers that JOINT_1 references with the expression:
(ORI_ALONG_AXIS (.MODEL_1.PART_1.MAR_4, .MODEL_1.PART_1.MAR_1,
“z”))
f( ) - In Plane
Controls the orientation of a marker, constraint, or force by pointing one axis towards one marker and
another axis towards another marker. This completely determines the orientation because the third axis
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11 Parameterization Basics
Using the Parameterization Move Tools
must be perpendicular to the first two, with the positive direction based on the right-hand rule. In Plane
uses the function expression ORI_IN_PLANE.
Using the f( ) Tool
To tie an axis of a marker, constraint, or force so it points along the axis of another point or
marker:
1. From the Move Toolstack, select the f( ) tool.
2. Select the Along Axis option.
3. In the settings container, select the axis of the object to control (X, Y, or Z). For example, select
Z to control the z-axis of the object.
4. Now define two objects (markers or design points) that define the vector to use for the specified
axis. These are the axis start and end locations. The selected object can be one of these two
locations.
Adams/View rotates the object so that the axis you selected points toward the marker you
selected, and creates an expression to keep the axis directed at the marker. If you move the marker,
Adams/View rotates the object to realign the axis with the marker.
To tie two axes of a marker, constraint, or force to a plane defined by three markers:
1. From the Move tool stack, select the f( ) tool.
2. Select the option In Plane.
3. In the settings container, set the first and second axes of the object to control (X, Y, or Z).
4. Select the marker, constraint, or force to control.
5. Now define three locations to define the plane:
• The marker defining the axis start location.
• The marker defining the axis end location.
• A final location to complete the plane.
Adams/View rotates the object so that the first axis points toward the first point or marker, and the second
axis points as closely as possible towards the second point or marker. Adams/View also creates an
expression to keep the axes directed at the markers. If you move either of the markers, Adams/View
rotates the object to realign the axis with the marker.
Depending on the locations that you selected, it may not be possible for both axes to pass through the
locations. Adams/View orients the object so that the first axis passes through the first location, and the
plane defined by the two axes passes through the second location. This means that the second axis comes
as close as possible to the second location, but may not pass through it.
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Adams/View
Using Design Variables
12
Using Design Variables
Design variables let you invent your own independent parameters and tie modeling objects to them. For
example, if you have three cylinders in your model that you want to keep the same length, you can create
a design variable called cylinder_length and control all three cylinder lengths with the design variable.
Design variables also let you organize the critical parameters in your design into a concise list of values
that you can easily review and modify. In addition, you can use Parametric analyses to automatically
execute a series of simulations that vary your design variables.
Design variables are Adams/View variable objects. Variable objects are general-purpose places to store
data or expressions. A design variable is a variable you use specifically to parameterize your model. This
chapter and the parameterization tools use the term design variable. Some tools, such as the Command
Navigator and the Table Editor, apply to all variables, however. In those contexts, you see just the term
variable. It it applies to all variables, including design variables.
Also see Updating Variables.
Creating Design Variables
You create Design variables using the Create/Modify Design Variable dialog box or the Create Design
Variable command that appears in the shortcut menu of any text box that accepts a design variable.
• The Create Design Variable dialog box lets you select the type of design variable you want and
assign a value to the variable. It does not place the variable in your model where it is to be used,
however.
• The Create Design Variable command on the shortcut menu lets you create a design variable and
places the variable in your model where it will be used, all in one operation. It uses default
values for your variable. You must modify the variable to change its type or name.
You should choose whichever method is most convenient:
• Creating Design Variables using a Dialog Box
• Creating a Design Variable using the Shortcut Menu
Creating Design Variables using a Dialog Box
The following procedure explains how to create a design variable using a dialog box. You can create a
design variable of the following types: real, integer, string, and object. For real and integer variables, you
can also specify information about how to vary the value during a parametric analysis. These options are
described in Controlling Variable Values.
To create a design variable using the Create Design Variable dialog box:
1. From the Build menu, point to Design Variable, and then select New.
The Create/Modify Design Variable dialog box appears.
13 Parameterization Basics
Using Design Variables
2. In the Name text box, enter the name of the design variable. Adams/View creates a default name
for you. Select the type of design variable to create.
3. If you selected the type real, optionally select the type of units.
4. Enter a standard value for the design variable, and set any other options as explained in the
Create/Modify Design Variable dialog box.
5. Select OK.
Adams/View creates the design variable.
Now that you've created a design variable, you'll need to reference it in your model. You can enter the
design variable directly, using the Reference Design Variable command, or you can type it into a text
box. You can also use the Function Builder to create a more complex expression using the design
variable. When you reference your design variable, Adams/View places parentheses () around the
variable because you are creating a simple expression that references the value of the design variable.
To reference a design variable in your model:
1. Display the text box containing the value you want to parameterize:
• If you are creating a new object, select a tool from the Main toolbox to display a settings
container or display the appropriate create dialog box.
• If you are parameterizing an existing object, modify the object to display its modify dialog
box.
• If you are using the Table Editor, select the cell to parameterize and place your cursor in the
Input text box.
2. Right-click the text box representing the value to be parameterized, point to Parameterize, and
then select Reference Design Variable.
Adams/View displays the Database Navigator.
3. Select the design variable you just created, and then select OK.
Adams/View inserts an expression such as (.my_model.my_design_var) into the text box.
4. Create or modify the object as appropriate.
Adams/View creates or modifies the object using your design variable for the value you selected.
Creating a Design Variable using the Shortcut Menu
You can use the Create Design Variable command on the shortcut menu to create a design variable and
place the appropriate expression in a text box all in one operation. Adams/View uses the value currently
in the text box as the standard value.
To create a design variable using the Create Design Variable option:
1. Display the text box for the value you want to parameterize.
• If you are creating a new object, select a tool from the Main toolbox to display a settings
container or display the appropriate create dialog box.
• If you are parameterizing an existing object, display its modify dialog box.
Adams/View
Using Design Variables
14
• If you are using the Table Editor, select the cell to parameterize, and then place your cursor in
the Input text box.
2. Enter the desired value for the variable into the text box, if necessary.
3. Right-click the text box, point to Parameterize, and then select Create Design Variable.
Adams/View creates a new design variable with a default name and the value that was in the text
box and inserts an expression such as (.my_model.DV_1) into the text box.
4. Create or modify the object as appropriate.
Adams/View creates or modifies the object using your design variable for the value you selected.
Modifying Design Variables
You can modify a design variable, such as change its standard value. You can use the Create/Modify
Design Variable dialog box or the Table Editor.
To modify a design variable using the Modify Design Variable dialog box:
1. From the Build menu, select Design Variable, and then point to Modify.
The Database Navigator appears.
2. Select the design variable you want to modify, and then select OK.
Adams/View displays the Create/Modify Design Variable dialog box and loads the current
properties for the design variable you selected.
3. Change the properties as desired, following the instructions in the Create/Modify Design Variable
dialog box.
4. Select OK.
If you changed the value of the design variable, Adams/View immediately updates any objects
that refer to the design variable.
To modify a design variable using the Table Editor:
1. From the Tools menu, select Table Editor.
The Table Editor appears.
2. To display the variables in your model, at the bottom of the Table Editor window, select the
Variable check box.
3. Change the properties of any design variable as desired. Learn about Editing Objects Using the
Table Editor.
4. Select OK.
15 Parameterization Basics
Using Design Variables
If you changed the value of a design variable, Adams/View immediately updates any objects that
refer to the design variable.
Using Design Variables with Points
As explained in Using Points, points are an easy way to parameterize the geometry of your model. To
vary a point in a parametric analysis, however, you must create Design variables for one or more
coordinates of the point.
To parameterize a point coordinate:
1. Create the point as described in Creating Points.
Modify the point.
Adams/View displays the Table Editor showing the points in your model.
2. Select the cell for the coordinate you want to parameterize.
Adams/View displays the cell value in the Input text box.
3. Right-click the Input text box, point to Parameterize, point to Create Design Variable, and then
select Real.
Adams/View creates a new design variable with a default name and the value that was in the text
box and inserts an expression, such as (.my_model.DV_1), into the text box.
4. Select OK.
Adams/View modifies the point to use the design variable as the coordinate value.
Note: By default, the Table Editor displays only variables of the type real in your model. You can
display other types of variables, such as string, object, or integer, and control the columns
that are displayed using the Filters button, which displays the Variables Table Editor Filters
dialog box. Learn about Setting Types of Objects Displayed in the Table Editor.
Adams/View
Preparing for Parametric Analyses
16
Preparing for Parametric Analyses
Before running a parametric analysis, you may need to make some changes or additions to your model.
Controlling Variable Values
Before you run a Design study or Design of experiments (DOE), you must specify a range of values or
list of values for each design variable used in the analysis. These determine the values that Adams/View
uses during the design study or DOE simulations. These values are called the levels of the variable.
Before you run an Optimization analysis, you can optionally specify a range of values to keep design
variable values within particular limits.
If you specify only a value range (an upper and lower limit), then a design study and DOE use equally
spaced levels starting from the lower limit and ending with the upper limit. You specify the number of
levels to use when you run the design study or DOE.
If you want to use unequally spaced values or always use the same set of values, you can specify a list of
the values for the design study and DOE to use. By default, the list of values takes precedence over the
range in a design study or DOE.
If you specify a range, an optimization analysis only varies the variable value within that range, by
default. An optimization ignores a list of values.
For each design variable, you also specify whether the range and allowed values (if any) are absolute
(literal) values, increments relative to the standard value, or percentage increments relative to the
standard value. For example, if the value of the variable is 5, and you enter any of the following, they all
give an actual range of 4 to 6:
• Absolute range of 4 to 6
• Relative range of -1 to +1
• Percent relative range of -20 to +20
Adams/View may have set a default range when you created the design variable, so you may not need to
change the variable to run a parametric analysis. It is a good idea, however, to review the settings for a
variable before using it in a parametric analysis.
A good way to start is to set the variable range to include values you think are interesting and realistic for
your design. Using a range gives you the most flexibility in selecting the number of values to use in a
design study or DOE and it also keeps the optimization analysis from changing the variable to an
unrealistic value.
If only a certain range of values is possible, use absolute limits to keep the variable within that fixed
range. Otherwise, use relative or percent relative limits to include a reasonable amount above and below
your initial value. Relative and percent-relative limits tie the range to the value of the variable, so if you
change the value of the variable, the limits automatically change with it.
You control design variable values using the:
17 Parameterization Basics
Preparing for Parametric Analyses
• Create/Modify Design Variable dialog box
• Table Editor
To control variable values using the Modify Design Variable dialog box:
1. From the Build menu, point to Design Variable, and then select Modify.
Adams/View displays the Database Navigator.
2. Select the design variable, and then select OK.
Adams/View displays the Modify Design Variable dialog box and loads the current properties for
the design variable you selected.
3. Set the Value Range option menu to absolute, relative, or percent-relative limits and enter the
limits in the Min/Max or +/- Delta text boxes. Adams/View applies the Value Range setting to
both the range limits and the allowed values, if any.
4. If you want to allow an optimization to use any value for the variable, select Allow Optimization
to ignore range.
5. If you want to specify a list of values, select List of allowed values and enter the values in the
text box that appears. To keep the list of values and still use the range for a design study and DOE,
select the Allow Design Study to ignore list check box. By selecting Allow Design Study to
ignore list, you can switch back and forth between using the range and the list of values without
re-entering the list each time.
6. Select OK.
To control variable values using the Table Editor:
1. From the Tools menu, select Table Editor.
The Table Editor appears.
2. To display the variables in your model, at the bottom of the Table Editor window, select Variable.
3. Display all the variable properties for design variables:
• Select Filters.
Note: Selecting Allow Optimization to ignore range also disables the range for a design study and
DOE, however, so you should turn off this option when you are preparing for a design study
or DOE. If you try to start a design study or DOE while this option is selected, Adams/View
issues an error (unless you have also entered a list of values).
Note: The Value Range setting also affects the allowed values you enter. For example, if you
selected a Value Range of percent relative, then Adams/View interprets your entered
allowed values as percentages relative to the standard value.
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18
• In the dialog box that appears, select Range, Allowed Values, and Delta Type.
• Select OK.
The Table Editor displays columns for Range, Use_Range, Allowed_Values,
Use_Allowed_Values, and Delta_Type.
4. Change the properties of a design variable as explained the table below for the columns you
displayed, and then select OK. Learn about Editing Objects Using the Table Editor.
Options for Controlling Design Variables
Computing a Measure of Performance (Objective)
To run a parametric analysis, you must measure the performance of your design and reduce it to a single
value that Adams/View can compute for each simulation. In an optimization, this is called the objective
function or objective. In a design of experiment (DOE), this is called the response characteristic or
response. We will use the term objective for all types of parametric analyses.
Learn more about finding and creating objectives:
• Finding a Good Objective to Measure
• Using Measures
• Using Objective Objects
Finding a Good Objective to Measure
Many useful objectives are easy to define. You may want to minimize the maximum loads on one or
several components to improve product durability. You may want to minimize the time to run through a
Note: The Table Editor column headings are based on the Adams/View command language and
are more concise than the dialog box labels.
The column: Does the following:
Range Contains both the upper and lower limits.
Use_Range Turns the range on and off. Turning the range off allows an optimization to use
any value, but also hides the range from a design study or DOE. If you try to
start a design study or DOE with the range turned off, Adams/View issues an
error unless you have also entered a list of values.
Allowed_Values Contains the list of allowed values, if any.
Use_Allowed_Values Turns the allowed values on and off. Turning the allowed values off allows a
design study and DOE to use the range without losing the list of values.
Delta_Type Sets absolute, relative, or percent-relative range limits and allowed values. You
can enter absolute, relative, or percent_relative.
19 Parameterization Basics
Preparing for Parametric Analyses
work cycle for a piece of machinery. Finding a good objective, however, is not always easy. How do you
quantify a goal such as: Keep this component in position during a disturbance? Depending on your
application, it might mean:
• Keep the position from changing abruptly.
• Keep the maximum movement small.
• Return the component to position quickly.
In addition, improving one aspect can hurt others. It may take you some thought and experimentation to
formulate the right objective for your needs.
On the other hand, if you are concerned about aspects of performance such as noise, wear, or operator
comfort, you may need to do some investigation to be able to relate the objective to quantities you can
measure in Adams/View. Just as you model the mechanical aspects of your system, you may need to
develop a model of the performance of your system.
In many cases, the System elements (differential equations, transfer functions, and so on) can be helpful
in numerically integrating, filtering, or transforming model outputs into more useful objectives. Learn
more about System Elements.
Using Measures for Objectives
Once you have determined what to compute, you must create either a measure or an objective object to
compute the objective value for each Simulation.
The easiest way to compute an objective is to use a measure. When you run a design study, DOE, or
optimization, you select the measure and specify whether to use the minimum, maximum, average, or
last simulated value of the measure as the objective value.
Using measures, you can easily reference model outputs and do many types of computations on model
outputs or other measures. The minimum, maximum, average, and last options allow you to select most
points of interest from the measure's transient data. Learn About Measures.
Using Objective Objects
If a measure is not flexible enough, you can create an objective object instead. Objective objects have
options for processing simulation results and are valuable when you want to do complex or multi-step
computations on model outputs. The following sections explain the types of objectives you can create
and how to create them:
• Types of Objectives
• Creating an Objective Object
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20
Types of Objectives
Adams/View gives you four options for the type of objective to create:
This type of function: Is the following:
Minimum, maximum, average,
last value, absolute minimum, and
absolute maximum of a measure
This is the same as directly specifying the measure and value of
interest. The only advantage to doing this with an objective,
rather than directly, is that you can specify more than one
objective for a DOE. The DOE allows any number of objective
objects, but only one measure. So if you want to compute more
than one objective value, you must create objective objects for
each value.
Minimum, maximum, average, or
last value of a result set
component
This is similar to the measure option, but lets you reference any
Adams/Solver output data, such as data from a request. You enter
just the name of the Result set component, for example req1.x.
Adams/View uses the result set component in the analysis for
which Adams/View is computing the objective function. Learn
more about result set components.
This is similar to the measure option, but lets you reference any
Adams/Solver output data, such as data from a request. You enter
just the name of the result set and component, for example req1.x.
Adams/View uses the result set component in the analysis for
which Adams/View is computing the objective function. For
more on result set components, see About Simulation Output.
For example, if you wanted to monitor the maximum height
attained by a certain point during a simulation, you would create
a request to output the position of the point. If the request is REQ1
and the z component is the height, you would create an objective
as follows:
result_set_component = "REQ1/Z"
output_characteristic = maximum
21 Parameterization Basics
Preparing for Parametric Analyses
Adams/View function Adams/View applies the specified Adams/View function object
to the simulation results allowing you to compute any scalar
function of the model outputs. For example, this is useful for
combining scalar values from different outputs, such as summing
the maximums from several outputs.
The function must have one argument, which is an analysis object
containing the results. Adams/View evaluates the function with
the argument set to the name of the actual analysis for which
Adams/View is computing the objective.
You can create a function object through the Command Navigator
or use the command Function Create on the shortcut menu that
appears in the Function text box of the Create Objective Design
dialog box when you right-click the text box.
The following are two examples of creating objective functions.
Example 1: Function of Analysis Data
To compute the maximum height of a point using a function, first
create a request as shown on the previous page for result set
components, and then create a function using the following:
function_name = FUN1
text_of_expressions =
"max(analysis.req1.z.values)"
argument_names = analysis
type = real
Then, create the objective as explained in Creating an Objective
Object.
To compute the objective value, ADAM/View evaluates function
FUN1, substituting the name of the actual analysis being
evaluated. In this case, the expression for FUN1 computes the
maximum z value reported in request REQ1.
This type of function: Is the following:
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Example 2: Function of Model Data
If you want to measure model data in an objective, you can create
a function that includes references to model data. For example, to
create a constraint to limit the total mass of parts and par5 to 50,
first create a function as shown below:
function_name = FUN1
text_of_expression =".mod1.par4.mass +
.mod1.par5.mass - 50.0"
argument_names = analysis
type = real
Note that you still specify one argument named analysis, even
when you do not use analysis data.
Then, create the constraint as explained in Creating an Objective
Object.
Adams/View variable and macro Adams/View executes the macro you specify and uses the
resulting value of the specified variable as the objective value.
Entering a macro and variable lets you to execute a set of
Adams/View commands to compute the objective, which gives
you access to any capability in Adams/View, as well as external
utilities through the System command.
The macro must have one parameter, and the parameter must be
named analysis. Adams/View invokes the macro with parameter
analysis set to the name of the analysis for which Adams/View is
computing the objective. Your macro must perform the
computations, and put the resulting objective value into the
specified variable. For more information on creating macros and
parameters, see About Creating Macros.
This type of function: Is the following:
23 Parameterization Basics
Preparing for Parametric Analyses
Creating an Objective Object
To create an objective object:
1. From the Simulate menu, point to Design Objective, and then select New.
The Create Design Objective dialog box appears.
2. Set Definition by to the type of objective function that you want to use.
3. Enter the name of the measure, result set component, function, or macro and variable. If you are
entering a result set component, enter the name of the result set and component, for example
req1.x.
The following is an example of a variable and macro:
output_control create request &
request_name = .model_1.req4 &
adams_id = 1 &
output_type = displacement &
i_marker_name = .model_1.PART_3.MARKER_9 &
j_marker_name = .model_1.ground.MARKER_6
variable create
variable=.model_1.macro_objective_value &
real_value = 0.0
macro create macro=.objective_macro &
commands = "!$analysis:t=analysis", &
"variable modify &", &
"
variable=.model_1.macro_objective_value &", &
" real_value=(eval($analysis.req4.x[1] -
6))"
optimize objective create &
objective_name = .model_1.OBJ_mac &
variable_name =
.model_1.macro_objective_value &
macro_name = .objective_macro &
comments = "macro-base objective"
This type of function: Is the following:
Note: Objectives usually involve simulation results, but they are not required to do so.
You can create an objective that depends only on the model data, such as overall
weight or size. You can then use Adams/View to vary, or even optimize, the design
variables and immediately see the results on the model.
In this case, use the function or variable/macro option for the objective, and ignore
the analysis argument or parameter that Adams/View supplies. Because you do not
need simulation results, you should also create a dummy simulation script that does
nothing (see Creating a Simulation Script). Then, Adams/View repeatedly sets the
variables and evaluate the objective, but does not run any simulations.
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24
4. If you are using a measure or result set component, set the Design Objective's value is the option
menu to the selected value.
5. Select OK.
Creating Constraints (Optimization Only)
If you are preparing for an Optimization, you can create constraint objects to limit the changes that the
optimizer can make. Often an optimization finds a configuration that optimizes the objective you
provided, but is unrealistic because it violates overall design constraints such as weight, size, speed, or
force limits.
To avoid results that violate the design constraints, you can create constraints for the optimization. The
optimization analysis improves the objective as much as possible without violating the constraints.
Each constraint object creates an inequality constraint. The optimization keeps the value of the constraint
less than or equal to zero. You can create an equality constraint, in effect, by creating a pair of constraint
objects, each the negative of the other.
Constraints can involve the simulation results, but are not required to do so. You can constrain overall
size, weight, or other factors that depend only on model data. In these cases, use the function or
macro/variable option for the constraint, and ignore the analysis data that Adams/View supplies. Instead,
compute the constraint directly from the appropriate model data.
To create a constraint object:
1. From the Simulate menu, point to Design Constraint, and then select New.
2. Follow the procedures for creating an objective object as explained in Creating an Objective
Object.
Creating a Simulation Script
Before running a parameteric analysis, you must create a simulation script. To know more about this, read
about creating scripts and preforming a scripted simulation.
As those sections explain, there are three types of scripts: simple run, Adams/View, and Adams/Solver.
You can use a script of any type for a parametric analysis. An Adams/View script can be particularly
useful for complex parametric analysis.
An Adams/View script usually contains one or more Adams/View simulation commands, but it can
contain other commands as well. For example, if you want to activate or deactivate portions of your
model before each simulation you can include those commands before the simulation commands. If you
Note: You do not need to create an explicit constraint to limit the value of a design variable. You
can do this directly by setting properties for the variable. See Controlling Variable Values.
25 Parameterization Basics
Preparing for Parametric Analyses
want to do some post-processing of results before computing the objective, you can add those commands
after the simulation commands.
If you do not need a simulation to evaluate your model, you can even use a script with no simulation
commands or no commands at all. Perhaps your objective is a function of model data only and you want
to see the effects of the design variables on the model itself. In this case, you can use a dummy script with
only a blank line or comments in it. In addition, if you want to evaluate your model with an outside
program, your script can contain commands to write data, run an external utility, and read results back
into Adams/View.
Ensuring Accurate Run Results
It may seem strange at first, but Adams/View can introduce seemingly random variations in results from
run to run that affect the results of your parameteric analysis. This can lead to erratic results from any
parametric analysis and poor performance from the Optimization analysis in particular.
Even with the correct setup of simulation parameters, when you change a design variable even a small
amount, you can trigger other variations that obscure the actual effects of the design variable change.
An optimization is especially sensitive to these variations because it generates small differences itself to
approximate derivatives. By default, an optimization perturbs design variables by .1% to compute
derivatives. If the resulting output is not consistent to at least four digits, the derivative is inaccurate and
the optimization flounders or fails.
It is important to understand these variations and minimize them as much as possible. Three common
sources of unexpected variations are:
• Adams/Solver error tolerances that are too large.
• Output steps that are too large.
• Simulations that end too soon.
You should first check your settings for Adams/Solver error tolerances, such as digits of precision under
Dynamic on the Solver Settings dialog box. An error tolerance that is acceptable for a single run may not
accurately show the effects of a small design variable change. When Adams/View changes a design
variable, the results of the new simulation are still within the tolerance you specified, but if that tolerance
is large compared to the change due to the design variable, then comparing the results may be useless.
Learn about Setting Simulation Controls.
If your objective is the minimum or maximum value of an output, check the size of your output steps.
Adams/View reports the smallest or largest value seen at an output step. If your output step size is too
large, the reported value may not be accurate and may suddenly jump from output point to output point
as the model varies, giving discontinuous results.
Make sure that there are enough output steps to capture the peak or valley of the output. If not, you can
decrease the step size for the whole simulation, or if the minimum or maximum point falls in a predictable
time range, you can run the simulation in several parts and decrease the step size only in the portion
containing the minimum or maximum.
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26
If your objective is the last value of an output, check to make sure the simulation is not ending too soon.
If the output should reach a steady state, make sure that it really converges to an accurate value for all
simulations.
In all these cases, you may need to experiment to find the right setting. For example, you might try a
design study over a small range and check if the response is smooth and fairly linear. If not, you may need
to adjust one or more of these settings.
27 Parameterization Basics
Running Parametric Analyses
Running Parametric Analyses
After preparing your model, you are ready to run a parametric analysis.
Beginning a Design Study, DOE, or Optimization Analysis
The first steps in running a parametric analysis are the same for all types of parametric analyses. Follow
the instructions below to begin a parametric analysis and then follow the instructions at the end for
completing the different types of parametric analysis.
To begin a design study, DOE, or optimization analysis:
1. From the Simulate menu, select Design Evaluation.
The Design Evaluation Tools dialog box appears.
2. In the Model text box, enter the name of the model to analyze.
3. In the Simulation Script text box, enter the name of the simulation script to use. Learn about
Creating a Simulation Script.
4. Select either Measure or Objective to define the type of objective you are using. Learn about
computing a measure of performance (objective).
• If you selected Measure, select Last, Minimum, Maximum, or Average from the pull-down
menu, and enter the name of the measure in the text box.
• If you selected Objective, enter the name of the objective in the Objective text box.
Optimizations are limited to one objective. You can monitor more than one objective in a
design study or DOE, however, by entering more than one name separated by a comma.
5. Select Design Study, Design of Experiments, or Optimization. For a comparison of the types
of parametric analyses, see About Parametric Analysis Tools.
6. Follow the instructions in the following to complete the parametric analyses:
• Completing a Design Study
• Completing a DOE
• Completing an Optimization
Note: You may want to change the display, output, and optimizer options before you run a
parametric analysis. Learn more about Optimization Settings.
Tip: Before running the parametric analysis, you can preview it by selecting Preview. Preview
shows you each configuration of your model for every design variable. It displays an alert
box asking you if you want to pause after each configuration. Select YES to pause.
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28
Completing a Design Study
Learn about how to complete a Design study and how Adams/View stores the results of an analysis:
• Completing and Executing a Design Study
• Analysis Results
Completing and Executing a Design Study
To complete the information for a design study and execute the analysis:
1. Begin the analysis as explained in Beginning a Design Study, DOE, or Optimization Analysis.
2. In the Design Variable text box in the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, enter the name of the
design variable that you want to vary.
3. If you specified only a range for the design variable, enter the number of levels (values) you want
to use in the Default Levels text box.
4. Select Start.
Adams/View runs a simulation for each level of the design variable. When the simulations are
done, Adams/View returns the variable to its original value.
• If you specified only a range for the design variable, Adams/View uses equally spaced levels
across the range. You specify the number of levels in the Default Levels text box.
• If you specified a list of values for the design variable, Adams/View runs a simulation using
each value, ignoring the Default Levels text box.
For more information about variable ranges and values, see Controlling Variable Values.
Analysis Results
Adams/View creates an analysis object named Last_Multi under your model. The analysis contains a
result set named Design_Study_Results. The result set contains the following components:
• Trial, which contains the number of each run (one through the number of runs).
• Component with the same name as the design variable, which contains the values used for the
variable for each run.
Note: You cannot enter more than one design variable in the text box. If you need to enter more
than one design variable, then perform a DOE.
29 Parameterization Basics
Running Parametric Analyses
• For each measure or objective, a component with the same name as the objective or measure,
which contains the values of the performance measure for each run.
Completing a DOE
Learn how to complete a Design of experiments (DOE) analysis and how Adams/View stores the results
of the analysis:
• Completing and Executing a DOE
• Analysis Results
Completing and Executing a DOE
To complete the information for a DOE and execute the analysis:
1. Begin the analysis as explained in Beginning a Design Study, DOE, or Optimization Analysis.
2. In the Design Variable text box in the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, enter the name of the
design variables that you want to vary.
3. If you specified only a range for one or more of the design variables, enter the number of levels
(values) you want to use for those variables in the Default Levels text box.
4. Set Trails defined by to Built-In DOE Technique, Direct Input, or File Input.
• If you selected built-in techniques, use DOE Technique to select the technique. If you want
to check that the variables have the same number of levels and display the required number of
runs, select Check Variables, Guess # of Runs.
• If you selected direct input, enter the number of trials (simulations) and the trial matrix.
• If you selected file input, enter the name of the file containing the trial matrix.
5. Select Start.
Adams/View runs a simulation for each trial that the DOE technique or trial matrix defines. When
the simulations are done, Adams/View returns the variables to their original values.
Note: If the analysis Last_Multi already exists from a previous parametric analysis, Adams/View
deletes the previous results and replaces them with the new results. Learn how to save
results permanently at Saving Results.
Note: The enhanced DOE capabilities found in Adams/Insight, provide you with more
sophisticated experiments and improved results in an easy-to-use interface. For more
information, see the Adams/Insight online help, or contact your MSC sales representative.
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30
The DOE technique or trial matrix controls the number of simulations and the combination of
variable values to use for each simulation. For example, the Full Factorial technique simulates
every possible combination of levels. If you use two variables with three levels each,
Adams/View runs nine simulations. For more information on the DOE techniques and entering
your own trial matrix, see About Design of Experiments.
The DOE technique or trial matrix selects values for a variable based on the range or list of values
you defined for the variable.
• If you specified only a range for a design variable, Adams/View selects from equally spaced
values across the range. You enter the number of values in the Default Levels text box.
• If you specified a list of values for a design variable, Adams/View selects directly from those
values, ignoring the value in the Default Levels text box.
• For more information about variable ranges and values, see Controlling Variable Values.
Analysis Results
Adams/View creates an analysis named Last_Multi under your model. The analysis contains a result set
named DOE_Results. The result set contains:
• Component named Trial that contains the number of each run (one through the number of runs).
• For each design variable, a component with the same name as the variable, which contains the
values used for the variable in each run.
• For each measure or objective, a component with the same name as the objective or measure,
which contains the values of the performance measure for each run.
Completing an Optimization
Learn how to complete an Optimization and how Adams/View stores the results of an analysis:
• Completing and Executing an Optimization
• Analysis Results
Completing and Executing an Optimization
To complete the information for an optimization and execute the analysis:
1. Begin the analysis as explained in Beginning a Design Study, DOE, or Optimization Analysis.
Note: If analysis Last_Multi already existed from a previous parametric analysis, Adams/View
deletes the previous results and replaces them with the new results. For instructions on
permanently saving previous results, see Saving Results.
Note: If you simultaneously run optimizations of two Adams/View models, from the same
working directory, Adams/View may crash.
31 Parameterization Basics
Running Parametric Analyses
2. In the Design Variable text box in the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, enter the name of the
design variables to vary.
3. If you want to automatically save the original values of the design variables before starting the
optimization analysis, select Auto. Save.
4. If you want to immediately save the current values of the design variables, select Save.
5. Set Goal to Maximize or Minimize.
6. If you want to add constraints, select Constraints and enter the names of the constraints in the
text box that appears.
7. Select Start.
If you selected Maximize as the goal, Adams/View adjusts the design variable values to increase
the measure or objective as much as possible. If you selected Minimize, Adams/View reduces the
objective as much as possible.
If you specified value ranges on any of the design variables, Adams/View increases or decreases
the objective as much as possible without exceeding the value limits. For more information about
variable ranges, see Controlling Variable Values.
If you specified constraints, Adams/View increases or decreases the objective as much as possible
without violating the constraints. For information about using constraints to control the
optimization, see Creating Constraints (Optimization Only).
Adams/View iteratively adjusts the design variable values, attempting to improve the model
performance with each iteration. Adams/View may need to backtrack to avoid violating a
constraint or limit on a variable value. Therefore, the model performance does not necessarily
improve with each iteration. At each iteration, Adams/View runs several simulations to
approximate derivatives and converge on the next iteration.
The last iteration will be the best values that the optimization could find without violating
constraints or limits. Adams/View normally leaves the design variables set to the optimized
values. If you interrupt the analysis or Adams/View encounters an error during the analysis,
Adams/View resets the variables to their original values.
If you do not want to keep the optimized values, and you selected the Auto. Save check box or
used the Save button to save the original values, you can select the Restore button to return the
variables to their original values.
Analysis Results
Adams/View creates an analysis object named Last_Multi under the current model in the Modeling
database. The analysis contains a result set named Optimization_Results. The result set contains:
• Component named Iteration that contains the number of each iteration (one through the number
of iteration). Iteration zero is the initial model configuration.
• For each design variable, a component with the same name as the variable that contains the
values used for the variable for each iteration.
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32
• Component with the same name as the objective or measure that contains the values of the
performance measure for each iteration.
Note: If the analysis Last_Multi already existed from a previous parametric analysis,
Adams/View deletes the previous results and replaces them with the new results. Learn
about Saving Results.
33 Parameterization Basics
Reviewing and Using Parametric Analysis Results
Reviewing and Using Parametric Analysis Results
After running a parametric analysis, you can examine the results in tabular or plotted format. You can
also save or delete results or update your model to match one of the runs. You can perform these
operations using the tools at the bottom of the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box.
Saving Results
By default, Adams/View overwrites the current results if you perform another parametric analysis. You
can automatically and permanently save all parametric results using the Solver Settings dialog box. Learn
About Setting Simulation Controls. You can also save a single set of results using the Save Design Results
to Database tool at the bottom of the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box.
To save parametric analysis results:
1. From the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, select the Save Design Results to Database tool
.
The Save Design Evaluation Results dialog box appears.
2. Enter a name for the analysis.
3. If you want Adams/View to add a unique number at the end of the name, select Auto-Increment
Name.
4. Select OK.
Adams/View copies the current parametric results to a new analysis with the name you specify.
Deleting Results
To delete a single set of simulation results:
1. From the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, right-click the Save Design Results to Database
tool to display its Tool stack.
2. From the tool stack, select the Delete Results from Database tool .
The Database Navigator appears.
3. Select the names of the Simulations that you want to delete from your Modeling database. Learn
About the Database Navigator.
4. Select OK.
Note: Be sure to save your modeling database after you save the parametric analysis results.
Learn about Saving Modeling Database.
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34
Generating Plots
You can plot parametric results in the following ways:
Plotting using: Does the following:
Strip charts By default, Adams/View creates strip charts of the following:
• Objective versus variable value for a Design study.
• Objective versus trial for a Design of experiments (DOE).
• Objective versus iteration number for an Optimization.
Adams/View also saves curves on any displayed measure for each trial or
iteration. You turn these on or off by doing the following in the Solver
Settings dialog box:
1. At the top of the Solver Settings dialog box, set Category to Display.
2. Select More.
3. In the Design Evaluation Display area, select Chart objective and
Save Curve.
For more information, press F1 when the Solver Settings dialog box is
active.
Manual plots You can also transfer the strip chart to the plotting window for further use,
or you can use the Results option in the plotting window to plot the
parametric results directly. For more information on creating and modifying
plots using the plotting window, see Transferring a Strip Chart to
Adams/PostProcessor, and the Adams/PostProcessor online help.
35 Parameterization Basics
Reviewing and Using Parametric Analysis Results
Generating a Table
You can set up Adams/View to create a table that contains the following:
• Description of the model.
• measure or objective.
• Constraints (if any).
• Design variables used in the analysis.
• Table of the objective, constraint, and variable values for each trial or iteration.
For a Design study, the table also includes a column of approximate design sensitivities for each trial.
The approximate design sensitivity is the average of the sensitivity with respect to the preceding trial and
Automatic plots You can also automatically generate detailed plots using the Plot Results
tool. The plots are similar to the strip charts of the measure and objective, but
Adams/View adds appropriate titles, legends, and labels.
To automatically plot results of a parametric analysis:
1. From the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, select the Plot Results
tool .
Adams/View displays the Plot Design Evaluation Results dialog box.
2. In the Result Set text box, enter the name of the parametric analysis
result set you want to plot.
3. To generate a plot of the measure or objectives versus the variable
value, trial number, or iteration number, select Measure/Objective
vs. Run.
4. To generate a plot of the measure or objectives versus time with a
curve for each trial or iteration, select Measure vs. Time For All
Runs. If you use this option, you must have specified a measure or an
objective that refers to a measure or result set component (not a
macro or function). In addition, you must have saved the results from
the individual runs. For information on saving results from individual
runs, see Setting Simulation Controls.
5. Select OK.
Adams/View generates one or two plots and displays the plotting
window showing the last plot.
Plotting using: Does the following:
Adams/View
Reviewing and Using Parametric Analysis Results
36
the sensitivity with respect to the following trial, as shown in the formula below:

where:
• O - Objective value
• V - Design variable value
• i - Iterations
You can control the format of the numbers in the table, the width of the columns, and the precision of the
numbers. For the format of the numbers, you can select:
• Automatic - Selects either exponential or fixed, depending on the size of the number and the
column width. If you select automatic format, the value you enter for the precision of the
numbers sets the overall number of digits.
• Exponential or fixed - The value you enter for the precision sets the number of digits past the
decimal point.
To generate a table of results:
1. From the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, select the Tabular Report tool .
Adams/View displays the Design Evaluation Results Table dialog box.
2. In the Result Set text box, enter the name of the parametric analysis result set you want to display.
3. Enter values for column width and precision, and select the format that you want to use to control
the numeric format of the table.
4. If you want to write the table to a file, in the File Name text box, enter the file name.
5. If you want to display the table in the Information window, select the Display in Information
Window.
Adams/View displays the information window showing a tabular summary. If you entered a file
name, Adams/View writes the table to the specified file.
Note: For the first trial, Adams/View computes the value from the changes between the first and
second trial. For the last trial, it computes the value from the changes between the next-to-
last trial and the last trial.
Note: You can set Adams/View to automatically display a table at the end of a parametric
analysis. Setting Simulation Controls.
37 DOE/Optimization
Reviewing and Using Parametric Analysis Results
Updating Variables
You can use the Update Variables tool from the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box to set the design
variable values to those of a trial or iteration. This is helpful if you want to:
• Update your model to match the best trial of a Design study or Design of experiments (DOE)
analysis.
• Visualize the variable settings of a particular trial or iteration.
• Use an intermediate iteration in an Optimization instead of the final values.
To update the design variable values:
1. From the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box, select the Update Variables tool .
The Update Design Variables dialog box appears.
2. Enter the name of the parametric analysis result set that you want to use to update the variables.
3. In the Trial text box, enter the trial or iteration number you want to use.
4. Select OK.
Adams/View sets the design variable values to match those used in the specified trial or iteration,
and updates the model graphics to reflect the new values.
DOE/Optimization
Adams/View
About Design of Experiments
38
About Design of Experiments
Learn more about general information on Design of experiments (DOE) techniques and a description of
the DOE tools in Adams/View:
What is DOE?
Design of experiments (also called experimental design) is a collection of procedures and statistical tools
for planning experiments and analyzing the results. In general, the experiments may measure the
performance of a physical prototype, the yield of a manufacturing process, or the quality of a finished
product.
Although DOE techniques were developed around physical experiments, they work just as well with
virtual experiments in Adams/View. In the case of Adams/View, the experiments help you better
understand and refine the performance of your mechanical system. DOE techniques can improve your
understanding of your design, increase the reliability of your conclusions, and often get you an answer
faster than trial-and-error experimentation.
For simple design problems, it is often possible to explore and optimize the behavior of your system using
a combination of intuition, trial-and-error, and brute force. As the number of design options increases,
however, it becomes more and more difficult to do this quickly and systematically. Varying just one
parameter at a time does not tell you a lot about the interactions between parameters. Trying many
different parameter combinations can require many simulations, therefore leaving you with a great deal
of output data to sift through and understand.
DOE methods provide planning and analysis tools for running a series of experiments. The basic process
is to first determine the purpose of the experiments. You might want to identify which variations have the
biggest effect on your system, for example. You then choose a set of parameters (called factors) for the
system you are investigating and develop a way to measure the appropriate system response. You then
select a set of values for each parameter (called levels) and plan a set of experiments (called runs, trials,
or treatments) in which you vary the parameter values from one experiment to another. The combination
of actual runs to perform is called the design.
An experiment set up in this way is called a designed experiment, or matrix experiment. The runs are
described by the design matrix, that has a column for each factor and a row for each run. The matrix
entries are the level for each factor for each run. For an example of a design matrix, see Specifying a
Design Matrix.
You then execute the runs, recording the performance of the system at each run and analyze the changes
in performance across the runs. The type of analysis depends on the purpose of the experiment. Common
analyses are analysis of variance (ANOVA) that determines the relative importance of the factors, and
linear regression, which fits an assumed mathematical model to the results.
Note: For more on DOE techniques, see the Adams/Insight online help, if installed.
39 DOE/Optimization
About Design of Experiments
Experiments with two or three factors may only require five or ten runs. As the number of factors and
levels grows, however, the number of runs can quickly escalate to dozens, even hundreds. As a result, a
good design is critical to the success of the experiment. It should contain as few runs as possible, yet give
enough information to accurately depict the behavior of your system. The best design depends on the
number of factors and levels, the nature of the factors, assumptions about the behavior of the product or
process, and the overall purpose of the experiment.
DOE methods allow you to combine all of these requirements into a efficient, effective design for your
problem, and couple it with the appropriate analysis of the results.
What is DOE Used for For?
Three common uses of Design of experiments (DOE) are:
• Screening
• Robust design (the "Taguchi Method")
• Response surface methods (RSM)
Screening identifies which factors and combinations of factors most affect the behavior of the system.
You consider every factor that may potentially affect the response, and use a screening analysis to
determine how much each contributes to the response. This helps you narrow down further
experimentation to just the important factors, and also ensures that you do not leave out significant
factors. Screening is usually followed by a more in-depth experiment on the most important factors.
Robust design, developed by Dr. Genichi Taguchi, is a methodology for improving quality by controlling
the effects of variations in a system. All real-world systems encounter variations due to manufacturing
tolerances, material properties, age, wear, or operating conditions. These variations often decrease the
quality of the system. Robust design identifies which parameters contribute most to quality variations,
and helps you discover how to best minimize their impact on quality. This might mean choosing the least-
sensitive configuration from the best-performing combinations, or modifying your system to react less
to the variations.
Response surface methods (RSM) fit polynomials to the results of the runs, which gives you an easy-to-
use approximation of your system's behavior. The fitted relationships estimate the performance of your
system. You may use this model for plotting and evaluating, quick what-if studies, as input for an
optimization algorithm, or as a subsystem model in a larger system.
Although screening, robust design, and RSM all use the same basic DOE process as described above,
they use different means to generate the designs and analyze the results. Screening, robust design, and
RSM are all applicable to Adams models, and you can use Adams as the experimental evaluation for
screening and robust design methods.
Adams/View
About Design of Experiments
40
What About Optimization?
It may seem that automated Optimization techniques should make Design of experiments (DOE)
unnecessary with Adams/View. After all, you should be able to automatically perfect your design using
Adams/View since it includes optimization features. So, why use DOE?
Actually, DOE complements optimization techniques, and is often used in conjunction with optimization.
A screening analysis can determine which parameters are good candidates for optimization that improve
the reliability and speed of an optimization algorithm. Response surface methods can also create a
simplified mathematical model for optimization, that can be evaluated much more quickly and easily
than a full simulation or experiment. Even if the simplified model gives only an approximate optimum,
it can be used as a good starting point for a full optimization.
More than just helping you find the right answer, however, DOE also helps you explore the relationships
between the parameters and your system's performance. A design may combine the optimum parameters,
but what are the effects of real-life variations due to manufacturing, wear, or changes in operating
conditions? Or perhaps you only need to ensure that the performance stays within a certain tolerance, and
you want to know the range of values that will meet that tolerance.
Knowing the optimum point for your system is often important, but may not be the whole story. In many
cases, it is just as important to understand what happens in the area surrounding the optimum, and why.
DOE Tools in Adams/View
Adams/View contains very flexible tools for applying Design of experiments (DOE) techniques to your
models. You can build parametric relationships into your model and take advantage of them to run a
designed experiment and collect the results. For information on parameterizing your model and running
parametric analyses, including DOE, see Preparing for Parametric Analyses.
Adams/View also offers simple experiment design and analysis capabilities:
• Built-in Designs
• Using Adams/View with Outside Programs
• Specifying a Design Matrix
Built-in Designs
When you run a DOE in Adams/View, you may select from several built-in designs. If you select any one
of these, Adams/View generates the design matrix for you. Adams/View generates full-factorial designs.
The full-factorial design uses all of the combinations of levels. The total number of runs will be m
n
, where
m is the number of levels and n is the number of factors. Because this grows very quickly, full factorial
is only practical for a small number of factors and levels.
41 DOE/Optimization
About Design of Experiments
Using Adams/View with Outside Programs
For more sophisticated cases, or other types of DOE methods, MSC's Adams/Insight provides a better
means for performing DOE. For more information, see your MSC sales representative and the
Adams/Insight online help, if installed.
You should also consult a good reference guide on the particular method you are using. There are many
textbooks on DOE and related methods, such as robust design. Any math library should have references
on the statistical aspects of DOE, and engineering libraries have references on applying DOE to quality
and design problems.
For information about specifying your own trial matrix or transferring a design matrix from an outside
program into Adams/View, see Specifying a Design Matrix.
Specifying a Design Matrix
You can specify a design of your own, or a design you generated in an outside program, by directly
entering the design matrix or reading it from a file. You can specify the design matrix or file containing
the design matrix in the Design Study, DOE, Optimize dialog box or you can run the simulation
multi_run doe command.
The design matrix does not directly specify factor values. Instead, it specifies indexes to the levels for
each factor. The indexes center on zero. This means that for a two-level factor, the only possible values
are -1 and +1; for three-levels, -1, 0 and +1; for four-levels, -2, -1, +1, +2; and so on.
This convention implies that the levels (allowed values or range of values) are ordered from smallest to
largest, and cover a range above and below a baseline value. For example, if a factor has three levels, you
can think of the -1 index as the low value, the 0 index as the middle or baseline value, and the +1 index
as the high value. Note that Adams/View does not make any assumptions about the order of the allowed
values, therefore, you can use whatever order you find most convenient.
For example, consider an experiment with two factors, each with three levels, and four runs. A design
matrix might look like this:
0 +1
-1 0
+1 -1
+1 +1
Each row of the matrix represents a run, and each column represents a factor. A -1 indicates the first level
for the factor, a 0 the second, and a +1 the third.
If the levels for the first factor are 9, 10, and 11, and the levels for the second factor are 85, 90, and 95,
then the matrix would give the following runs:
run Factor 1 2 10 95<br> 2 9 90
3 11 85
4 11 95
To specify this matrix using the simulation multi_run doe command, enter the matrix by row:
user_matrix = 0,+1, -1, 0, +1,-1, +1,+1
Adams/View
About Design of Experiments
42
To specify the matrix in the Design Evaluation Tools dialog box:
1. From the Trials defined by: option menu, select Direct Input.
2. In the Number of Trials text box, enter 4.
3. Enter the following in the Trial Matrix text box:
0, +1,
-1, 0,
+1, -1,
+1, +1
You can also store your design matrix in a file and then specify the file name when running a DOE
analysis. The first line of the file contains three numbers. The first number is the number of factors
for this DOE. The second number is the number of levels for each factor. The third number is the
number of trials to be found on the subsequent lines of the file. Each line that follows contains
indexes to the levels for each factor.
The following is an example of a file that you could use for an experiment with two factors, three
levels, and four trials:
2 3 4
0 +1
-1 0
+1 -1
+1 +1
43 DOE/Optimization
About Optimization
About Optimization
Learn general information on Optimization, tips on using the optimization tools in Adams/View, and
additional reference material for the Adams/View optimization analysis:
Optimization Background
Learn general information on Optimization:
• Why Optimize?
• What is Optimization?
• Mathematics and Methods
• Additional References
Why Optimize?
Optimization is a sophisticated tool that helps you improve the overall design of your product. Having a
good design early in the process helps you shorten your design cycle.
Most designs have specific requirements, such as to support a specified load or trace a specified path.
There is usually some means of distinguishing a good design from a bad design: it is too heavy or it will
cost too much to produce. Some requirements can be restrictions on a design: packaging, end conditions,
or material availability.
Part of the design process is to manipulate the unknowns (variables) in a design to arrive at a good design
that satisfies all goals (objectives) and restrictions (constraints). If these features can be quantified,
optimization techniques can be used to analytically arrive at the theoretical best solution. The process of
optimization can also provide you with important information such as:
• Are there too many constraints on the solution, where relaxing certain specifications might
provide an acceptable result?
• Are there superfluous design constraints, and do some design constraints dictate the results?
• Is the overall design sensitive to certain design parameters and not others?
What is Optimization?
In general, an optimization problem is described as a problem to minimize or maximize an objective
function over a selection of design variables, while satisfying various constraints on the design and state
variables of the system. Various algorithms are available for finding a solution to an optimization
problem, given the problem has been formulated in the manner described in this section.
The objective function is a numerical representation of the quality, efficiency, cost, or stability of the
model. You decide whether the optimization chooses to find the minimum or maximum of the function.
The optimum value of this function corresponds to the best design possible using that particular
mathematical model. Examples of objective functions include execution time, energy (effort) required,
and total material costs.
Adams/View
About Optimization
44
Design variables can be thought of as the unknowns for the design problem. These are the parameters
you can alter to define the design. Changes in the design variables should result in changes to the
objective. Examples of design variables are part dimensions, force amplitudes, and individual part
masses.
Constraints are boundaries that directly or indirectly eliminate unacceptable designs. Constraints often
take the form of additional goals for the design:
• The overall weight of the machine must be less than 1 ton.
• The path traced by a robot arm must pass through certain points
• The fundamental frequency of a vehicle must be greater than 1 Hz.
Mathematics and Methods
A mathematical language for describing an optimization problem is typically used in textbooks. The
optimization problem is described with a set of conditions such as:
(read as: minimize the objective function J over choices of u, the design variables)
subject to:
with initial and final conditions given by:
If a solution exists, the output of the optimization gives the optimal design variables u* that satisfy all of
the constraints and minimize the objective function J. The formulation and solution of such an
optimization problem involves standard techniques of mathematical programming. You are only required
to describe the optimization problem in the terms outlined above.
Solutions
A local minimum or maximum exists where the gradient, or derivative of J with respect to u, goes to zero.
For this reason, the solution to an optimization is the solution to a system of nonlinear equations.
Nonlinear solvers are iterative methods that take steps of the form:
Where the u's are the iterates, S is referred to as the search direction, and is the step size. In English,
each step of the process tries to get close to the solution by traveling along the direction S by an amount
. The determination of and S distinguishes the solution algorithms. S is usually of the form:
minJ x u) . ( )
u
x
·
f x u . ( ) =
g x u . ( ) 0 s
u
i 1 + ( )
u
i ( )
oS – ÷
S HAJ =
45 DOE/Optimization
About Optimization
-J denotes the gradient of J. H is referred to as the Hessian (matrix) of J and is constructed to improve
the convergence of the algorithm. The best convergence is achieved when H is the Jacobian matrix of
second partial derivative of J. This is the Newton-Raphson method. Newton-Raphson is rarely used,
since the computation of these derivatives is often impossible or too expensive to calculate. Other
methods use various, less expensive approximations to the Jacobian.
Once the search direction, S, is chosen, the step size is chosen using a one-dimensional minimization
of J with as the design variable. This is usually referred to as the line search and uses the bisection
algorithm, golden search, or any of a number of minimization methods.
Additional References
• VMA Engineering. DOT User's Manual. Goleta, CA, 1993.
• J. J. More and S. J. Wright. Optimization Software Guide, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1993.
• D. E. Kirk. Optimal Control Theory. Prentice - Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1970.
• U. Kirsch. Optimum Structural Design. McGraw-Hill, 1981
Tips on Using Optimization
Preparing for Parametric Analyses contains detailed information on preparing your model for
Optimization and performing an optimization analysis. The following contain tips on getting the most
from an optimization analysis:
• Creating the Objective
• Testing the Objective or Constraint
• Making Your Model Robust
• Finding Global versus Local Optima
• Predicting Execution Time
• Validating the Optimum
• Refining an Optimization
Creating the Objective
The objective function, also called the cost functional, performance measure, or performance index, is a
numerical quantification that distinguishes or rates candidate designs. The optimum design is achieved
when the objective function is minimized or maximized. In the case of minimization, the objective grows
smaller as the design improves. In the case of maximization, the objective grows larger as the design
improves.
Typical objectives include time, energy, or displacement from a path. Some standard objective functions
may be created as follows:
Adams/View
About Optimization
46
• Minimum time - Use a SENSOR to stop an analysis when the conditions of the optimization are
satisfied. The time for the analysis is then written as the last record of a result set. If you use a
SENSOR to HALT the analysis, also set the PRINT argument on that SENSOR. Otherwise, the
optimizer only uses information from the previous output step.
• Minimum mass - Write an Adams/View function that sums the masses of all applicable parts.
The masses of the parts are the design variables.
• Minimum effort - Write a DIFF that describes the torques applied to the system that are to be
minimized. The integral of this differential equation is given as the last record in the result set.
Testing the Objective or Constraint
Adams/View allows you to interactively apply the objective or constraint to an analysis and print the
resulting value. This helps you develop and debug objectives and constraints. It is a good idea to test your
objective or constraint on an existing analysis before using it in an optimization.
To test one objective or constraint:
1. From the Simulate menu, point to Design Objective or Design Constraint, and then select
Evaluate.
Adams/View displays the Optimize Objective Evaluate dialog box or the Optimize Constraint
Evaluate dialog box.
2. In the Objective or Constraint Name text box, enter the objective or constraint name.
3. In the Analysis Name text box, enter the name of an analysis.
4. Select OK.
Adams/View prints the objective or constraint value in the Information window.
To test all objectives or constraints:
• From the Simulate menu, point to Design Objective or Design Constraint, and then select
Evaluate All with Default Analysis.
Adams/View prints the objective or constraint value in the Information window.
Making Your Model Robust
Optimization works best on robust models. There are two key elements to model robustness. First, you
should be sure that the model is physically realistic for the entire range of your design variables. For
example, it is usually impractical to allow zero damping, so keep the lower bound above zero if you use
damping as a design variable.
Second, you should make sure that your model is stable. Small changes in the design variables should
not lead to gross changes in the objective function. Like everything else, optimization algorithms work
best with smooth, stable functions. For more information on improving optimizer performance, see
Ensuring Accurate Run Results.
If the model is not robust, optimization is still possible, but more effort is required. In particular, the
parameters for the finite differencing need to be massaged. The key to accurate optimization is good
47 DOE/Optimization
About Optimization
gradient information. Presently, Adams uses finite differences to compute gradients. You have control
over the method and step size used. The forward difference method passes a line through the design point
and a forward perturbation. The central difference method passes a parabola through the design point and
both a forward and backward perturbation.
If you are certain that your model is robust, use forward differences since it is faster. If not, use central
differences to focus in on the optimum, then switch to forward differences.
The size of the perturbation can also reduce the effect of errors in the analysis. Naturally, you want to
remove as much of this as you can. If you are uncertain of the accuracy and smoothness of your model,
use a large perturbation at first, then reduce it as you get better designs. Remember that the accuracy of
the gradients generally improves as the perturbations get smaller.
When optimizing curves, try to define the curve using analytical functions. If you must use discrete
values, use control points. The optimizer tends to perturb curve points one at a time. The interpolation
using curve points (cubic splines) tends to be more oscillatory under single point perturbation, which can
confuse an optimization algorithm.
The scaling of the optimization variables (design, constraints, and objective) also affects the
performance. It is best to choose variables and functions that are similar in magnitude.
Monitor the scale of objectives, gradients, and constraints. Large values for objectives and gradients
impede optimization. Small values of constraints under-emphasize the constraints.
Finding Global versus Local Optima
One way to make sure you have converged to the global optimum is to cut local optima out of the design
space using constraints. If the optimizer has computed a local optimum (for example, OPT1) re-run the
optimization with a constraint that forces the objective function to be less than (for example, .8*OPT1).
The constraint function is the same as the objective function shifted 0.8*OPT1 downward. This has the
effect of removing the local optima from the design space and shifting the initial guess for the next
optimization closer to the global optimum. If OPT1 is the global optimum, the optimizer is not able to
find a solution. Otherwise, the new solution, OPT2, may be the global optimum, and you may want to
repeat the process.
Predicting Execution Time
You can compute a rough estimate of the number of runs that a particular model requires for each
iteration. You must know the number of design variables and the differencing technique.
Each iteration is broken into two phases: computing gradients and performing a line search. To compute
gradients in Adams/View, finite differencing is used. Each design variable is perturbed slightly and the
difference in the objectives and constraints is measured with respect to the change in the design variables.
When using forward differencing, one analysis is performed for each design variable. When central
differencing is used, two analyses are performed for each design variable.
Once the gradients are computed, the optimization algorithm determines a search direction. A line search
is performed in this direction, attempting to improve the design. The number of iterations performed by
the line search is determined greatly by the accuracy of the gradients. If the gradients are highly accurate,
Adams/View
About Optimization
48
then the line search often terminates after one or two analyses. If the gradients are poor, then the line
search can cause ten or more analyses to be performed. These estimates vary widely depending upon your
particular optimization algorithm.
So, for forward differencing:
runs_per_iteration =number_of_design_variables + length_of_line_search
For central differencing:
runs_per_iteration =2 * number_of_design_variables + length_of_line_search
Validating the Optimum
Always plot or chart the objective value versus the iteration. If it is not flat at the end, this indicates that
you have not reached the optimum design. You need to reduce the convergence tolerance in the Optimizer
settings section of the Solver Settings dialog box to force the optimization to proceed further and reach
the optimum. For more information on plotting the objective, see Generating Plots.
Refining an Optimization
Optimization is an iterative process in more ways than one. You will probably perform several
optimizations before you are satisfied with the results.
The way you define design variables, constraints, and objective functions has a profound effect on the
performance of the optimizer and on the results of the optimization. You may need to change your
objective, add constraints, or make other changes before you pose your problem in the right way.
The default values for optimization parameters may not always give the final answer, but can bring you
closer to the final answer. You may need to experiment with optimization settings to arrive at the best
combination for your application.
Optimization Settings
The optimization settings are accessible from the Solver Settings dialog box when you select
Optimization. Learn about Accessing the Solver Settings Dialog Box.
Learn about each of the optimizer settings:
• Algorithm
• Convergence Tolerance
• Maximum Iterations
• Rescale Iterations
• Differencing Technique
• Differencing Increment
• Debugging Output
• Minimum Number of Converged Iterations
• User Parameters
49 DOE/Optimization
About Optimization
Algorithm
Algorithm specifies the algorithm used to perform the optimization. The OPTDES algorithms are
provided with Adams/View. The DOT algorithms can be purchased from Vanderplaats R&D, Inc. You
can also include your own optimization algorithm. The contact information for Vanderplaats R&D, Inc.
is:
Vanderplaats R&D, Inc.
1767 S. 8th Street, Suite. 100
Colorado Springs, CO 80906
http://www.vrand.com/
http://www.vrand.com/dot.htm
• OPTDES-GRG - Use the GRG (Generalized Reduced Gradient) algorithm from the OptDes code
of Design Synthesis. This algorithm requires that design variables have range limits, since it
works in scaled space.
• OPTDES-SQP - Use the SQP (Sequential Quadratic Programming) algorithm from the OptDes
code of Design Synthesis. This algorithm requires that design variables have range limits, since
it works in scaled space.
• DOT1 - Use DOT with BFGS (Broydon-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno) for unconstrained
problems. Use DOT with MMFD (Modified Method of Feasible Directions) for constrained
problems.
• DOT2 - Use DOT with FR (Fletcher-Reeves) for unconstrained problems. Use DOT with SLP
(Sequential Linear Programming) for constrained problems.
• DOT3 - Use DOT with FR (same as DOT2) for unconstrained problems. Use DOT with SQP
(Sequential Quadratic Programming) for constrained problems.
• User 1, User 2, User 3 - Allows you to invoke a user-written optimization algorithm that has
been linked to Adams/View. (See Linking External Algorithms.)
Convergence Tolerance
Convergence tolerance is the limit below which subsequent differences of the objective must fall before
an optimization is considered successful. If the condition ABS(objective[now] - objective[now-1]) <
convergence_tolerance is true for a certain number of iterations (usually two), then the convergence
tolerance criterion is met. Note that this is only one test that is made by most optimization algorithms
before they terminate successfully.
Like other Adams/Solver tolerances, you may need to experiment with this tolerance to find the right
value for your application. Display the objective versus iteration strip chart. If the optimizer quits even
though the last iteration made noticeable progress, try reducing the tolerance. If the optimizer continues
iterating even after the objective has stopped changing very much, make the tolerance larger.
Maximum Iterations
Maximum iterations tells the optimization algorithm how many iterations it should take before it admits
failure.
Adams/View
About Optimization
50
Note that a single iteration can have an arbitrarily large number of analysis runs (see Predicting Execution
Time).
Rescale Iterations
Rescale iterations is the number of iterations after which the design variable values are rescaled. If you
set the value to -1, scaling is turned off.
Differencing Technique
The differencing technique controls how the optimizer computes gradients for the design functions.
Centered differencing perturbs each design variable in the negative direction from the nominal value,
then again in the positive direction using finite differencing between the perturbed results to compute the
gradient. If you choose forward differencing, each design variable is perturbed in a positive direction
only.
Centered differencing can sometimes generate smoother, more reliable gradients (especially in noisy
models), but it causes twice as many analysis runs to be performed.
Differencing Increment
The differencing increment specifies the size of increment to use when performing finite differencing to
compute gradients. When using forward differencing this value is added to the nominal value of each
design variable on successive runs. When using central differencing, this value is first subtracted from
the nominal value and then added to it.
Smaller increments may give more accurate approximations of the gradient, but are also more susceptible
to random variations from run to run. Larger increments help minimize the effects of variations, but gives
less accurate gradients. For more information on controlling variations, see Ensuring Accurate Run
Results.
Debugging Output
Turning on debugging output sends copious optimizer diagnostics to the window that launched
Adams/View. Keep an eye on that window anyway, as some important warnings might be written there.
The debugging output shows you the data the optimizer is receiving from Adams/View, among other
things. If the optimizer is behaving erratically, this may help you determine the source of the problem.
Minimum Number of Converged Iterations
The number of consecutive iterations for which the absolute or relative convergence criteria must be met
to indicate convergence in the DOT Sequential Linear Programming method.
User Parameters
Adams/View passes the user parameters to a user-written optimization algorithm. Realizing that there
may be parameter information that is not conveyed through the existing parameter set, this parameter was
added to allow you to pass any real numeric data to your algorithm.
51 DOE/Optimization
About Optimization
Linking External Algorithms
In addition to the algorithms provided in Adams/View, you have the option of linking in up to three other
Optimization algorithms of your choice. Once you have written the appropriate interface, compiled and
linked your code, you can invoke your algorithm by setting the optimization algorithm to user1, user2,
or user3.
User-supplied optimization algorithms must be registered by calling a function built in to Adams/View.
This function call must be placed in the registration function supplied in source code form with
Adams/View. Follow these steps to add your own optimization algorithm to Adams/View:
1. Locate and copy the appropriate source code templates from:
$topdir/aview/usersubs
2. Write your interface function by modifying the template.
3. Add your new function to the registration function.
4. Link your interface function and the modified registration function with Adams/View as
described in Running and Configuring Adams.
Adams/View
About Optimization
52
Customizing Adams/View
You can customize Adams/View so that it works and looks the way you want it to and mimics your design
environment. There are four major ways to customize it. You can:
• Customize the graphical interface - For example, you can create your own set of menus or
dialog boxes.
• Automate your work using macros - You can also speed up your work by creating macros to
perform complex or repetitive tasks. You can edit the macros to include design variables to
further customize and automate the modeling process.
• Create your own Adams/View library - The library you create can read in different
Adams/View functions and execute commands. For information on creating libraries, refer to
Running and Configuring Adams.
• Edit Adams/View startup files - You can edit the files that Adams/View reads when it first
starts. These files can automatically load a model, execute commands, or change menus or
dialog boxes. For information on editing startup files, refer to the Running and Configuring
Adams.
Automating Your Work Using Macros
You can automate repetitive processes by creating a macro of a command or a group of commands that
you use frequently. You can record, edit, save, and replay as many macros as you like.
Once you have your macros working properly, you can make them easier to use by associating them with
graphical user interface (GUI) objects you create. For more information, see Customizing Menus Using
the Menu Builder and Creating Dialog Boxes
Adams/View
About Adams/View Macros
2
About Adams/View Macros
A macro is a single command that you create to execute a series of Adams/View commands. To create a
macro, you give Adams/View the list of commands you want executed, as well as a new command that
will execute them. You write the commands that the macro executes using the Adams/View command
language.
You can use parameters in macros. Parameters give you a way to send data to the macro each time you
use it. They are placeholders for information that you will provide when you actually execute the macro.
When you issue a macro command containing a parameter, Adams/View substitutes the values that you
provide into the commands contained in the macro.
Adams/View treats a macro as it does all other Adams/View commands. You can enter the macro in the
command window, select it from the Command Navigator, include it in other macros, or execute it from
your own custom menus, dialog boxes, or buttons.
Among the tasks you can perform with macros are:
• Automate repetitive procedures.
• Build general-purpose extensions to Adams/View.
• Automatically create an entire model.
• Quickly build many variations of a mechanism.
To make it easy for you to create a macro, Adams/View contains tools to automate the creation of macros.
The tools let you interactively record, play, and test your macros and command files. You can also use
text-editing applications to modify existing macros or create them from scratch.
About Creating Macros
To create a Macro, give Adams/View the list of commands you want executed, as well as a new command
that will execute them. You write the commands that the macro executes using the Adams/View
command language.
You can use parameters in macros. Parameters give you a way to send data to the macro each time you
use it. They are placeholders for information that you will provide when you actually execute the macro.
When you issue a macro command containing a parameter, Adams/View substitutes the values that you
provide into the commands contained in the macro.
You can create macros in four different ways:
• Interactively by recording key strokes. Learn about how to record key strokes in Recording
Macros.
• Typing the commands to be executed into the Macro Editor. You can also use the Macro Editor to
edit an existing macro.
• Reading in a command file that contains the commands that the macro will execute. Learn about
Creating Macros from Existing Files.
3 Automating Your Work Using Macros
About Adams/View Macros
• Using the Command Navigator or Command window to type in the commands to create macros
as well as the commands to be executed. Learn about using the Command Navigator and
Command Window.
Recording a macro is easiest for simple macros, while reading in a file is best for more complex macros.
When you read in a file, you can also specify the help file or string that you want associated with the
macro. Using the Macro Editor is best for editing existing macros. If you use the Macro Editor to create
macros, you must type in the commands that the macro is to execute.
Editing and Creating Macros Using the Macro Editor
You can use the Macro Editor to edit macros that you recorded or that you created by importing a macro
file. You can also use the Macro Editor to create a macro.
To use the Macro Editor:
1. On the Tools menu, point to Macro, point to Edit, and then select either New or Modify.
2. If you selected Modify, the Database Navigator appears. Select a macro to modify.
The Macro Editor appears as shown below. If you chose to edit a macro, the macro commands
appear in the Commands text area of the Macro Editor.
3. If you are creating a macro, in the Macro Name text box, enter the name of the macro.
Adams/View
About Adams/View Macros
4
4. In the Command text box, enter the command string that executes the macro. To use the name of
the macro, select Use Macro Name.
5. Specify whether or not the entire macro can be undone with a single Undo command. Note that a
single Undo=yes, while convenient, can consume a great deal of memory for very large macros,
or slow macro execution noticeably, even if you do not ever use the Undo. You might want to
specify Undo=yes during initial creation and debugging until your macro works properly, then
switch to Undo=no to improve performance.
6. In the Commands text area, enter the commands that the macro is to execute, and select OK.
Recording Macros
Recording a Macro is easiest for simple macros.
To record a macro:
1. From the Tools menu, point to Macro, point to Record/Replay, and then select Record Start.
2. Perform the operations you want included in the macro.
3. To stop recording the macro, from the Tools menu, point to Macro, point to Record/Replay, and
then select Record Stop.
To play back a macro you recorded:
• From the Tools menu, point to Macro, point to Record/Replay, and select Execute Recorded
Macro.
To save a recorded macro:
• From the Tools menu, point to Macro, point to Record/Replay, and then select Write
Recorded Macro.
Adams/View saves the macro as the command file macro.cmd. If a file called macro.cmd already
exists, Adams/View asks you if you want to overwrite it or create a backup copy of it.
Creating Macros from Existing Files
You can use the Read command to read in an existing command file containing the commands to be
executed. You can also assign a help file or text string to the macro that explains the macro's use.
Note: The command string you enter must be unique. You cannot redefine an existing command,
although you can add a new keyword at any level to an existing command. For instance,
entering MARKER CREATE is invalid, because a MARKER CREATE command already
exists, but entering MARKER GENERATE is valid.
5 Automating Your Work Using Macros
About Adams/View Macros
The file you supply that contains the macro definition is a command file that can also contain parameters
embedded in the commands and can have special comments at the top.
Some of the comments in the file you supply can correspond to Read command parameters that are listed
in the Macro Read dialog box, such as the command users enter to execute the macro. These comments
must appear at the beginning of the file and must contain the name of one of the reserved parameters
(USER_ENTERED_COMMAND, WRAP_IN_UNDO, HELP_STRING, or HELP_FILE) followed by
an appropriate value.
These reserved parameters must be in uppercase letters and must immediately follow the comment
character (!). You enter the values without equal signs or quotes. Adams/View treats the values in the
comments as defaults. For example, the following comments set the default values for
USER_ENTERED_COMMAND and HELP_STRING.
!USER_ENTERED_COMMAND lmark
!HELP_STRING This command lists information on all markers in your database.
list_info marker marker_name=.*
If you specify values for these parameters using the Macro Read dialog box, the values in the dialog box
override the values in the comments.
To create a macro by reading in a file:
1. On the Tools menu, point to Macro, and then select Read.
The Macro Read dialog box appears.
2. In the Macro Name text box, enter the name of the macro that Adams/View uses to store the
macro in the current database.
3. In the File Name text box, enter the name of the file containing the commands to be executed.
4. In the User Entered Command text box, specify the command string that will execute the macro.
The command string defaults to the name of the macro if you do not enter a command string.
5. Specify whether or not the entire macro can be undone with a single Undo command. Note that
a single Undo, while convenient, can consume a great deal of memory for very large macros or
slow macro execution noticeably, even if you do not actually use the Undo.
6. Specify a text file containing help on the macro or enter a text string describing the macro.
Currently, you can only specify help for the entire macro command, not its parameters or leading
keywords.
7. To ensure that you do not create an outdated dialog box, from the Create Panel option menu,
select no.
Note: The Macro Read dialog box contains an option to create a panel. This option is no
longer supported or recommended.
Adams/View
About Adams/View Macros
6
8. Select OK.
Saving Macros
Adams/View automatically stores your macros in the current modeling session. You can also export your
macros to command (.cmd) files, which allows you to edit, archive, or import them into other modeling
session. It also lets you give the macro to another user, and also helps you to modify long macros when
you do not have the original file
If you used non-default values for the other macro data, such as the help string, the command file includes
comments with those values. You can read in the command file using the Macro Read command.
To save a macro to a command file:
1. On the Tools menu, point to Macro, and then select Write.
The Macro Write dialog box appears.
2. Enter the name of the macro to save to a file.
3. Enter the file name in which to save the macro.
4. Select OK.
Deleting Macros
To delete objects using the Database Navigator:
1. Clear the select list of any existing selections by selecting the Select Tool .
2. On the Edit menu, select Delete.
The Database Navigator appears.
3. Select the macro or macros that you want to delete. Learn about navigating through a modeling
database using the Database Navigator.
Note: To create an up-to-date dialog box to execute your macro, go to the Command
Navigator and double-click on the name of your macro after you have created it.
Adams/View automatically creates a dialog box whose name is based on the user-
entered commands associated with the macro. For example, if you create a macro
called mar_scale_down and associated with it the user-entered commands: marker
scale down, then Adams/View names the auto-generated dialog box
.gui.mar_sca_dow (Adams/View uses the first three characters of each command in
the user-entered commands to create the name of the dialog box). See also
Customizing Dialog Boxes Using the Dialog-Box Builder, and the example.
7 Automating Your Work Using Macros
About Adams/View Macros
4. Select OK.
Debugging Macros
Adams/View provides a debugging tool to help you troubleshoot your macros if they don't run or work
as expected. You can use the debugging tool to:
• View your macro and the output from it.
• Step through each command in the macro.
• Print your macro.
To access the macro debugging tool:
• On the Tools menu, point to Macro, and then select Debug.
Executing Macros
Once you have created a macro, you execute it by issuing the command that you specified when you
created the macro. You can issue the command by:
• Entering the command in the Command window. The full command is a combination of the
command and macro parameters, if any.
• Using the Command Navigator to execute the command. Selecting the macro command in the
Command Navigator, automatically displays a dialog box in which to enter parameters.
• Using a custom dialog box and menu command that you created to execute the macro. Learn
more about Customizing Dialog Boxes Using the Dialog-Box Builder.
Adams/View treats the macro as it does other Adams/View commands. For example, if you enter the
command in the command window, but do not enter all required parameters, Adams/View prompts you
for the missing required parameters.
Tips on Writing Macros
Command Echo and Screen Update
As Adams/View executes a macro, it updates the view windows each time their content changes. If you
execute a macro from the command window, Adams/View, by default, echoes each command to the
command information area of the command window as it executes the macro. This can be useful when
debugging because you can see the executed commands and their immediate effects.
Note: If the Database Navigator does not appear as indicated in Step 2, the select list was
not cleared before executing the Delete command. You can always use the Edit ->
Select List commands to be sure it is cleared.
Adams/View
About Adams/View Macros
8
It can also be slow and distracting, however, once your macro is working properly. You can prevent this
by including the following as the first command in the macro:
defaults command_file echo=off update=off
Including the command allows macros to run more quickly because Adams/View does not echo the
macro commands to the command information area and updates the views only once, when the macro is
finished. You can reset the defaults by including the following command as the last line in your macro:
defaults command_file echo=on update=on
If you execute a macro from a dialog box or menu, Adams/View, by default, updates the screen at each
change, but does not echo the macro commands to the command information area.
Using Conditionals and Loops
The Adams/View command language contains commands for creating conditional constructs and loops.
You will find these very useful in writing macros. The constructs are:
• FOR/END
• WHILE/END
• CONTINUE
• BREAK
• IF/ELSE/ELSEIF/END
• RETURN
For example, you can use an IF command to conditionally execute commands within your macro. You
can create a parameter to specify a choice of options, then use the IF statement to determine which option
was chosen and execute the appropriate commands.
For more information on the different conditional constructs, see Conditional Constructs and Loops.
Writing Text Files
To create macros that write formatted reports, command files, or other data files, you can use the
commands:
file text write=...
This command writes information from Adams/View into a text file. You control the format of the output
and, using database access expressions, you can write any model or simulation data from the
Adams/View database.
Executing System Commands
You can execute system commands using the Adams/View System command. Its Adams/View command
language is:
system command_text=...
9 Automating Your Work Using Macros
About Adams/View Macros
By including the System command, you can create macros that invoke outside utilities and programs.
You could, for example, create a macro that generates hardcopy files for a standard series of plots, then
use the System command to issue comments to print and delete the plots.
Ensuring Unique Names and Adams Identifiers
If your macro creates new entities, you must take special care to construct unique names and unique
Adams identifiers each time you execute the macro. Otherwise, the macro fails the second time you run
it because the names or identifiers already exist. One way to construct unique names is to create a string
parameter and use it in creating all the new names. If, for example, a macro creates three plots, use a
string parameter $pname to create three plot names such as $'pname'_1, $'pname'_2, and $'pname'_3.
Each time you run the macro, enter a new string and all the new names are unique.
If you want a special numbering scheme for the Adams identifiers, you can also pass in an integer
parameter for constructing them. It is usually easier, however, to leave them out and let Adams/View
create them automatically. If you do not specify an adams id, then it defaults to adams id=0. The next
time you write an Adams/Solver dataset, Adams/View replaces zero identifiers with unique, nonzero
identifiers.
Including a Literal "$" in a Macro
Normally, Adams/View interprets any "$" character as the start of a parameter name. You can avoid this
by using a backslash first: "\$". Adams/View deletes the "\ " and keeps the "$" as part of the macro text.
Speeding up Object References in Expressions
When Adams/View executes expressions in the macro command text, it must look up each referenced
object name in the database. Object names in expressions can refer to almost anything, so if you use a
local name such as MAR1, Adams/View must search the entire database for any object named MAR1.
This is relatively slow, and in large macros with several object references, it can consume a large portion
of the overall macro execution time.
You can drastically reduce the lookup time by using full database names in expressions within the macro.
Instead of referencing variable DV1, use .MOD1.DV1 for example. This way, Adams/View only needs
to search a fraction of the database to find the proper object.
Adams/View
Using Parameters in Macros
10
Using Parameters in Macros
Parameters are placeholders for information that you will provide when you actually execute a macro.
You include parameters in the text of the commands to be executed by a macro. You write parameters as
a "$" followed by the name of the parameter (the full format is explained below). You can include many
different parameters, and you can include the same parameter more than once.
When you create a macro, Adams/View scans the command text to identify all the parameters. When you
issue the command to execute the macro, you provide values for the parameters, or they assume a default
value. Adams/View substitutes the values into the commands in place of the parameters, then executes
the commands. If you used the same parameter more than once in the command text, Adams/View
substitutes the same value each place the parameter appears.
Example of a Macro with a Parameter
For example, the following macro shows how to change the size of all force and constraint icons in your
modeling sessions. The command in the macro, named icon_size, contains a parameter named size:
constraint attributes constraint_name=.* size_of_icons = $size
force attributes force_name=.* size_of_icons = $size
When you enter the command:
icon_size size=1.5
Adams/View executes the commands:
constraint attributes constraint_name=.* size_of_icons = 1.5
force attributes force_name=.* size_of_icons = 1.5
Expanding Parameter Values
In some cases, Adams/View may reformat or expand parameter values before substituting them into the
command text. Adams/View never changes values, however. In particular, Adams/View does not convert
units during the macro substitution. It passes the values you enter directly to the commands. The
commands themselves may convert units, as usual.
Adams/View expands database names into full names before substituting them into the macros. The
expanded names use "." to separate levels in the name. Using "." allows you to directly access database
values in expressions.
For example, the following is a macro lpart that contains a parameter name:
list_info part part_name=$name
When you enter the following command:
lpart name=left_wheel
Adams/View substitutes the full name of part left_wheel (for example, .mod1.left_wheel) for $name and
executes the command:
11 Automating Your Work Using Macros
Using Parameters in Macros
list_info part part_name=.mod1.left_wheel
Generalized Parameter Format
The general format of a parameter is $'name:q1:q2:q3...', where:
• name is the name of the parameter.
• q1, q2, q3... are one or more qualifiers that specify the characteristics of the parameter.
The single quotes and qualifiers are optional (see below), giving four possible formats:
• $name
• $'name'
• $name:q1:q2:q3...
• $'name:q1:q2:q3...'
Parameter Naming Conventions
A parameter name must start with an alphabetic character. The rest of the name can include numeric
characters and underscores ("_") as well as alphabetic characters (a-z, A-Z) but no spaces. The name ends
at the first character that is not alphabetic, numeric, or an underscore. Therefore, $P, $P1, and $PART_1
are valid parameter names while $PART#1 and $1P are invalid. Parameter names are not case sensitive,
meaning $PART, $Part, and $part are all the same parameter.
You use single quotes to explicitly separate the name or qualifiers from command text immediately
following the parameter. Normally, you place a space, comma, colon, or other special character after a
parameter, which separates it from the following text. If you want to concatenate text to the end of a
parameter, however, you must enclose the parameter name in single quotes. If, for example, you want to
add "_1" onto the end of parameter $part, you cannot write $part_1, because Adams/View would interpret
it as a parameter named part_1. Instead, you must write $`part'_1.
Parameter Qualifiers and Formats
You can use qualifiers on the first occurrence of the parameter to control the parameter characteristics.
Qualifiers are optional and can only be used the first time the parameter appears in the macro text.
Parameter can have one or more of the following qualifiers:
• Type
• Range
• Count
• Defaults
Adams/View
Using Parameters in Macros
12
You can use the qualifiers in any combination and any order, and you do not need to define all of them.
If you repeat a qualifier, Adams/View uses the last value. Qualifiers can be in upper or lowercase.
Examples of qualifiers are:
Type Qualifier
The type qualifier specifies the type of value a user must enter. The format for the type qualifier is:
• T = type
• T = type(additional data)
where:
• type is a basic type, database object type, or database object class type as explained in the next
sections.
• Additional data is either optional or required depending on the type.
Range Qualifiers
A range qualifier specifies the minimum and/or maximum values allowed. It only applies to numeric
types. The formats for the range qualifiers are listed in the table below.
Examples of Qualifiers
The qualifiers: Specify that the parameter requires:
$parts:t=part:c=2 Names for two existing parts.
$NSpokes:T=INTEGER:GE=3:LE=8:D=3 An integer from 3 to 8 and a constant default of 3.
$infile:t=file(*.dat) A file name. The File Selection dialog box lists all files
with the extension .dat.
Range Qualifier Formats
The format: Specifies values must be:
GT=r Greater than r
GE=r Greater than or equal to r
LT=r Less than r
LE=r Less than or equal to r
13 Automating Your Work Using Macros
Using Parameters in Macros
Count Qualifiers
Count qualifiers specify the number of values required. The formats for the count qualifier are listed in
the table below.
Default Qualifiers
Default qualifiers are optional. If a parameter has no default, users must enter a value when executing the
macro. There are three types of default qualifiers as well as a default value:
• Constant - The parameter is optional. Adams/View uses the default value if a user does not
supply a parameter value.
• Updated - The parameter is optional and Adams/View uses the last value the user entered if the
user does not supply a parameter value. If a user has not yet entered any value for a parameter,
Adams/View uses the default value.
• Database object - The default for database objects is automatic. If the type is an existing
database object, the automatic default is the current default object.
The table below lists the formats for the default qualifiers.
Default Parameter Characteristics
The first occurrence of a parameter in the command text defines the parameter characteristics. This is true
even if the first occurrence is in a comment. If the first occurrence includes qualifiers, the qualifiers
determine the parameter characteristics. If there are no qualifiers and the parameter appears immediately
after an "=" in a valid command, then the parameter inherits the type, range, count, and default from the
Count Qualifier Formats
The format: Specifies:
C=0 One or more values
C=n n values
C=n,0 n or more values
C=n,m n to m values
Default Qualifier Formats
The format: Specifies:
D=value Constant default
U=value Updated default
A Uses the default object for the specified type if no explicit value is given
Adams/View
Using Parameters in Macros
14
preceding command parameter. If there are no qualifiers and the parameter does not appear immediately
after an "=" in a valid command, the default characteristics are one string value with no default.
In the example below, parameter $text defaults to a string because it has no qualifiers and is not in a
command. Parameter $numbers has qualifiers that specify it as one or more integers greater than zero.
Parameter $part_1 is a part because it immediately follows an "=" and, therefore, inherits the type from
parameter part_name. Parameter $part_2 defaults to string because it does not immediately follow the
"=". Parameters $part_3 and $part_4 have qualifiers that specify them both as parts.
! Parameter $text is a string.
! $numbers:t=integer:c=0:gt=0
list_info part part_name=$part_1, $part_2
list_info part part_name=$part_3:t=part, $part_4:t=part
Tip: To avoid unexpected results, we recommend that you explicitly set the characteristics of
your parameters in comments at the beginning of your macro. For examples of setting the
characteristics in comments, see Example Macros.
15 Automating Your Work Using Macros
Helpful Commands in Macros
Helpful Commands in Macros
Two commands are particularly helpful in creating macros:
• FILE TEXT WRITE
• SYSTEM
file text write
Lets you write a general-purpose text file from Adams/View, using information and formatting that you
control. You can use a text file to create:
• Standard reports
• Data files for other applications
• Adams/View command files
• Scripts for executing other applications
You can specify to write to a file, a variable, both, or neither. If writing to a file, you must open it first
using the file text open command.
If you specify:
• Just the file_name, Adams/View writes the output to that file.
• Just the variable_name, Adams/View assigns the text string to that variable.
• Both file_name and variable_name, Adams/View performs both actions.
• Neither, Adams/View assumes the last opened, written, or read file is the intended destination. If
you perform a write after a read, you should explicitly identify the file with the file_name
parameter, so Adams/View does not overwrite the file you last read from.
Tip: For more help on using commands, see the online help available from the Command
Navigator. Simply select a command and then select the Help button at the bottom
of the Command Navigator.
Adams/View
Helpful Commands in Macros
16
Parameters
file_name
(optional)
Specifies the name of the text file to be written. The proper extension is the
default, but you can be override it by supplying a different extension.
It's not necessary to enclose the file name in quotes if it only contains alpha-
numeric characters and starts with a letter. If you want to include other
characters, such as a '.' for an extension or '/' or '[]' for directory paths, you
must enclose the name in quotes.
variable_name
(optional)
Specifies a variable to which Adams/View stores a formatted string.
format_for_output
(required)
Specifies the format of the output text. Output formats are a mixture of text
and conversion specifications. Each conversion specification usually has a
matching argument in the values_for_output parameter. A conversion
specification begins with a percent sign, %, and is terminated by a letter or
another percent sign.
The conversion specifications provided by Adams/View are a subset of those
used in the ANSI-C programming language. Valid conversion specifiers are:
% - Literal percent sign ("%%" is output as "%")
d - Integer in base 10, 1, or 123
e - Exponential floating point, 1.23e-04
E - Exponential floating point, 1.23E-04
f - Fixed point real, 345.67
g - General fixed or floating point (depending upon magnitude)
G - General fixed or floating point (depending upon magnitude)
i - Same as d, above
o - Unsigned integer in base 8 (o is for octal)
s - Character string
u - Unsigned integer in base 10
x - Unsigned integer in base 16 (decimal 10 is "a", 11 is "b", and so on)
X - Unsigned integer in base 16 (decimal 10 is "A", 11 is "B", and so on)
17 Automating Your Work Using Macros
Helpful Commands in Macros
Most conversion specifications can contain flags between the leading percent
sign and the terminating conversion specifier. These flags allow you to further
refine the format of your output. Some of the valid flags are:
- Indicates that the output is to be left justified in the field, with the default
being right justification. This is only useful when the field width is specified
(see below).
+ Forces a sign to be output for all numeric values. For example:
... FORMAT="%+d %+d" VALUES=(-1), (1)
produces:
-1 +1
0 Forces output of leading zeros when a field width is specified.
" " Blank. Same as + but no explicit + sign, only a blank.
Field width is specified by prefixing the conversion specifier with a number.
It determines how much space is to be reserved for the output text. For
example, the following format and values:
... FORMAT="%03d%6d" VALUES=(5),(7)
generates the following as output ('.' is used to denote blank space in this
example only):
"005.....7"
You specify precision by entering a decimal point followed by a number. You
enter the precision after the field width. For example:
... FORMAT="%5.2f %010.3e" VALUES=(2.3),(5.4)
produces the output:
" 2.30 05.400e+00"
Values for output are converted to the appropriate type for the conversion
specifier, and using expressions is extremely useful here.
You can write information from the Adams/View database to the text file by
using data access references in the value expressions. For example,
VALUES= (.mod1.par1.mass) writes the mass of part par1. For more
information on expressions and database access, see Adams/View Function
Builder online help.
Adams/View
Helpful Commands in Macros
18
system
Issues a device-dependent operating system command. You can select to display the results of the
command in the Information Window or the Adams/View Log file.
Parameters
Examples
The following example issues a UNIX-appropriate command to remove the file named test.txt without
displaying the command in either the Adams/View Information window or a log file:
SYSTEM COMMAND="rm test.txt" SEND=OFF ECHO=OFF
values_for_output
(optional)
Specifies the values to be placed in the output string.
newline
(optional)
Controls whether or not file write text causes the output to terminate the line
with this write command. If newline is no, then subsequent write commands
produce output on the same line. If newline is yes (the default), then any
succeeding write command produces content on a new line.
Values are: yes and no. The default is yes.
command_text Specifies the text for a device-dependent operating system
command. See your operating system documentation for more
information.
send_output_to_info_window Specifies whether or not to send the output from the command
to the Information window. The default is to send the output to
the Information window (on).
echo_to_logfile Specifies whether or not to send the standard output and
standard error streams from a system command to the
Adams/View log file. The default is to not send the output to the
log file (off).
19 Automating Your Work Using Macros
Conditional Constructs and Loops
Conditional Constructs and Loops
Learn about each of the conditional constructs in the Adams/View command language. The constructs
are listed in alphabetical order for reference.
BREAK
Use the BREAK command to exit the innermost FOR or WHILE loop immediately and stop execution
of the loop.
When Adams/View encounters a BREAK command inside a loop, it immediately exits the loop without
executing the remaining commands for that iteration.
The BREAK command affects only the innermost FOR or WHILE loop.
Format
BREAK
Example
In this example, Adams/View creates markers, named MAR1, MAR2, MAR3, MAR4, and MAR5,
unless a marker already exists with one of those names. As soon as it encounters an existing marker,
Adams/View exits the loop and does not create any more.
variable create variable_name=ip integer_value=0
while condition=(ip < 5)
variable modify variable_name=ip integer_value(eval(ip+1))
if condition=(eval(DB_EXISTS ("MAR"//ip)))
break
end
marker create marker_name=(eval("MAR"//ip)) &
location=(eval(ip-1)),0,0
end
variable delete variable_name=ip
CONTINUE
Use the CONTINUE command to skip commands inside the innermost FOR or WHILE loop and
continue with the next iteration of the loop.
When Adams/View encounters a CONTINUE command inside of a loop, it skips over the remaining
commands of the loop and goes directly to the END of the innermost loop. Adams/View tests the loop
condition and continues looping if the condition is still valid.
The CONTINUE command affects only the innermost FOR or WHILE loop.
Format
CONTINUE
Adams/View
Conditional Constructs and Loops
20
Example
In this example Adams/View creates four markers on the default part: MAR1, MAR2, MAR4, and
MAR5. Adams/View skips MAR3, because when ip evaluates to 3, Adams/View encounters the
CONTINUE command and skips to the END of the WHILE loop.
variable create variable_name=ip integer_value=0
while condition=(ip < 5)
variable modify variable_name=ip integer_value=(eval(ip+1))
if condition=(ip == 3)
continue
end
marker create marker_name=(eval("MAR"//ip)) &
location=(eval(ip-1)),0,0
end
variable delete variable_name=ip
The results of the example would be:
Results of CONTINUE Example
IF/ELSEIF/ELSE/END
Use the IF, ELSE, ELSEIF, and END commands to execute a group of commands conditionally. The
execution of commands bracketed by IF and END depends on the value of an expression.
You can nest any combination of looping (FOR/END, WHILE/END) and conditional constructs
(IF/ELSEIF/ELSE/END).
Format
You can use the IF command with or without the ELSE command. A few examples of many variations
are shown below.
Name: Loc_X: Loc_Y: Loc_Z:
MAR1 0.0 0.0 0.0
MAR2 1.0 0.0 0.0
MAR4 3.0 0.0 0.0
MAR5 4.0 0.0 0.0
Note: As with all Adams/View commands, you can use the IF, ELSE, ELSEIF, and END
commands on the command line, in macros, and in command files.
Tip: You can have any number of ELSEIF CONDITION commands.
21 Automating Your Work Using Macros
Conditional Constructs and Loops
IF CONDITION=(expression)
...
END
IF CONDITION=(expression)
...
ELSE
...
END
IF CONDITION=(expression)
...
ELSEIF CONDITION=(expression)
...
ELSE
...
END
If the expression evaluates to a non-zero value, Adams/View executes the commands following the IF or
ELSEIF command up to the ELSE, when present, or the END if you do not use the ELSE. If the
expression evaluates to zero and you used ELSE, Adams/View executes the commands between the
ELSE and the END commands.
The question-mark/colon (?:) operator used in a conditional expression replaces and IF/ELSE command
that distinguishes one of two values. The expression consists of three parts, a condition whose truth
determines which value is selected, and two expressions for the values.
condition expression ? expression a : expression b
When evaluated, the conditional takes on one of the two values. The expression that comes before the
question-mark is interpreted as boolean-valued. If it is true (non-zero), then expression a is used as the
value of the conditional, otherwise expression b is used as the value.
For example, consider the commands below:
if condition = (variable_a < variable_b) variable set variable =
variable_min real = (EVAL(variable_a)) else variable set
variable = variable_min real = (EVAL(variable_b)) end
This can be expressed more concisely by using a ?: conditional operator:
variable set variable = variable_min & real = (EVAL((variable_a <
variable_b)? variable_a : variable_b))
Example
In the following example, if the marker MAR1 exists, Adams/View modifies its location. If the marker
does not exist, Adams/View creates it and sets its location.
if condition=(DB_EXISTS ("MAR1"))
marker modify marker=mar1 location=2,0,0
else
marker create marker=mar1 location=2,0,0
end
Adams/View
Conditional Constructs and Loops
22
The next example illustrates how to use ELSEIF to determine the type of object and then perform an
operation on the object based on the object's type. The example assumes that an Adams/View variable
named .mdi.org exists and its type is database object.
! Bodies
variable create variable=object_type string=(eval(DB_TYPE(.MDI.obj)))
if condition=(object_type == "marker")
interface command_builder command="marker modify marker" initial=(.MDI.obj)
elseif condition=(object_type == "point")
interface dialog display dialog=.gui.main_objecttable parameter="Points"
elseif condition=(object_type == "flexible_body")
interface dialog display dialog=.gui.flx_dia_panel parameter=(.MDI.obj)
! Constraints - complex joints
elseif condition=(object_type == "coupler" )
interface dialog display dialog=.gui.coupler_cremod parameter=(.MDI.obj)
elseif condition=(object_type == "gear" )
interface command_builder command="constraint modify complex_joint gear"
initial=(.MDI.obj)
! Constraints - Higher Pair contact
elseif condition=(object_type == "curve_curve" )
interface command_builder command="constraint modify higher_pair_contact
curve_curve" init=(.MDI.obj)
elseif condition=(object_type == "point_curve" )
interface command_builder command="constraint modify higher_pair_contact
point_curve" init=(.MDI.obj)
end
FOR/END
The FOR and END commands allow you to execute a group of commands a fixed set of times. You can
use FOR either to perform numeric iteration or to operate on a set of Adams/View objects, such as
markers or parts. Adams/View executes the commands bracketed by the FOR and END for each value
of a variable in the specified range or upon the specified set of objects.
You can nest any combination of looping (FOR/END, WHILE/END) and conditional constructs
(IF/ELSEIF/ELSE/END).
Format
Using FOR/END to Perform Numeric Iteration
To perform numeric iteration, use this form of FOR/END:
FOR VARIABLE_NAME=var START_VALUE=REAL &
INCREMENT_VALUE=REAL &
END_VALUE=REAL
...
END
Adams/View executes the commands between the FOR and END for each value of var, in the range
START_VALUE to END_VALUE. At the beginning of the FOR loop, Adams/View creates a temporary
Adams/View variable named var of type REAL. Adams/View deletes the variable when the loop
terminates. If you use the loop variable in an expression that requires it to persist, Adams/View issues a
23 Automating Your Work Using Macros
Conditional Constructs and Loops
warning message and does not delete the variable at the termination of the loop. If you do not want this
behavior, you can use the EVAL function as described in Examples of Numeric Iteration for FOR/END.
START_VALUE, INCREMENT_VALUE, and END_VALUE can be any valid real expression.
INCREMENT_VALUE can be either positive or negative, and defaults to 1.0 if not specified. If
INCREMENT_VALUE is positive, Adams/View increments the value of var by the increment for each
iteration and stops looping when the value of var is greater than END_VALUE.
If INCREMENT_VALUE is negative, Adams/View decrements var by the increment for each iteration
and continues looping until var is less than END_VALUE.
The commands inside the FOR/END loop can use var as they would any other Adams/View variable of
type REAL.
Examples of Numeric Iteration for FOR/END:
In this example, Adams/View creates 10 markers, MAR1 through MAR10, on the default part, and
locates them one unit apart on the x-axis of the part's coordinate system.
for variable_name=tempreal start_value=1 end_value=10
marker create marker_name=(eval("MAR" // RTOI(tempreal))) &
location=(eval(tempreal-1)), 0, 0
end
The example demonstrates the use of the EVAL function when you want to assign the instantaneous value
of an expression rather than the expression itself. An expression's value changes whenever the value of
any variable in it changes. Sometimes you want this behavior; other times you do not. Using EVAL
avoids this behavior.
When Adams/View applies EVAL to an expression, it obtains the current value of the expression. For
example, when you use EVAL with the expression (tempreal-1), Adams/View assigns 0.0 to the x
component of the location for MAR1, 1.0 to MAR2, and so on. Without EVAL, Adams/View assigns the
expression, (tempreal-1), to the x component of the location, resulting in all the markers having locations
at (9, 0, 0) at the termination of the FOR loop. Another effect is that Adams/View does not delete the
variable tempreal when the FOR loop terminates, because the locations of the markers still depend on it.
The locations change again if you subsequently assign a different value to tempreal.
Using FOR/END To Operate on a Set of Objects
Use the following form of FOR/END to operate on a set of objects (for how to view the list of database
object types, see Database Object Type):
FOR VARIABLE_NAME=var OBJECT_NAMES=objects &
TYPE=database_object_type
...
END
For this type of FOR loop, Adams/View creates a temporary Adams/View variable named var of type
OBJECT and successively assigns the value of each object in the set to the variable. The commands
inside the FOR/END pair can use var as they would any other Adams/View variable of type OBJECT.
Adams/View deletes the variable when the loop terminates.
Adams/View
Conditional Constructs and Loops
24
In this example Adams/View renumbers the Adams IDs of markers belonging to the part follower,
starting at 5000, and incrementing by one for each marker in the set.
variable create variable_name=ip integer_value=5000
for variable_name=the_marker object_names=.fourbar.follower.*
type=marker
marker modify marker_name=(eval(the_marker))
adams_id=(eval(ip))
variable modify variable_name=ip integer_value=(eval(ip+1))
end
variable delete variable_name=ip
As in the previous example, you can use the EVAL function to get the instantaneous value of an
expression rather than assigning the expression itself.
As shown, you can use wildcards to specify the objects for the OBJECT_NAME parameter. The TYPE
parameter applies a filter to the set of objects, in this case, matching only children of the part that are
markers.
If you use a more general wildcard, Adams/View may execute the command more slowly than if you use
a more specific wildcard. For example, if you want all the markers in the model MOD1, use
OBJECT_NAME=.MOD1.* type=MARKER instead of OBJECT_NAME=* type=MARKER.
For more sophisticated searching and filtering, see the database functions, such as DB_CHILDREN, in
the Design-Time Functions section of the Adams/View Function Builder online help. You also may want
to use the miscellaneous function SELECT_OBJECT of the same guide.
WHILE/END
Use the WHILE and END commands to execute a group of commands zero or more times. Adams/View
executes the commands that WHILE and END bracket repeatedly until the condition associated with the
WHILE command is FALSE (zero).
You can nest any combination of looping (FOR/END, WHILE/END) and conditional constructs
(IF/ELSE/ELSEIF/END).
Format
The format of the WHILE command is:
WHILE CONDITION=(expression)
...
END
Adams/View evaluates the value of expression and executes the commands between the WHILE and the
END command if the value is non-zero. Adams/View evaluates the expression at the end of the loop and
continues looping as long as the value of the expression is non-zero.
25 Automating Your Work Using Macros
Conditional Constructs and Loops
Examples
In this example, Adams/View creates 10 markers, MAR1 through MAR10, on the default part, and
locates them one unit apart on the x-axis of the coordinate system.
variable create variable_name=ip integer_value=0
while condition=(ip < 10)
marker create marker_name=(eval("MAR"//ip+1)) &
location=(eval(ip)),0,0
variable modify variable_name=ip integer_value=(eval(ip+1))
end
variable delete variable_name=ip
You can use the EVAL function to get the value of an expression rather than assigning the expression
itself. Use of the EVAL function with loops is described in the FOR/END.
RETURN
Use the RETURN command to exit a command file or macro and return to the command file or macro
that invoked it. Its effect is similar to BREAK when you use it to exit a loop, skipping all remaining
commands in the command file or macro (including any cleanup commands you may have at the end of
your macro).
If a RETURN is executed within loops (nested to any depth), it exits those loops and performs all required
cleanup, just as multiple BREAKs would do. You can have as many RETURN commands in your
command files or macros as you want.
Format
RETURN
Example
RETURN is often used as a means for recovering from an error condition or allowing a user to cancel an
operation. Below are two examples.
Example 1
In the example, the RETURN command lists information on the contents of the select list, but only if
there are objects on the list. If it finds no objects, it returns and issues an error message.
if condition=(DB_COUNT(.SELECT_LIST, "objects_in_group")==0)
mdi gui_utl_alert_box_1 type="Error" text="Select List is
empty. Select objects first."
return
end !if
!
info empty
!
list_info group &
group_name = .SELECT_LIST &
brief = on &
Adams/View
Conditional Constructs and Loops
26
write_to_terminal = on
!
Example 2
This example macro determines if a particular file exists and asks the user if it should overwrite the
existing file.
variable create variable=$_self.fileName string="file.dat"
if condition=(file_exists($_self.fileName))
if condition=(alert("warning", "Delete existing
"//$_self.fileName//"?", "Ok", "Cancel", "", 2) == 2)
variable create variable=$_self.junk &
int=(alert("information", "File "//$_self.fileName//" not
destroyed.", "Ok", "", "", 1))
variable delete variable=$_self.*
return
end
variable create variable=$_self.junk &
int=(alert("information", "File "//$_self.fileName//" was
destroyed.", "Ok", "", "", 1))
end
! Write the new file.
file text open file=($_self.fileName) open_mode=overwrite
file text close
! Clean up.
variable delete variable=$_self.*
Ternary Conditional Operator
The ternary conditional operator used in a conditional expression replaces an IF/ELSE command that
distinguishes between one of two values. The expression consists of three parts: a condition whose truth
determines which value is selected, and two expressions for the values.
Format
condition expression ? expression a : expression b
When evaluated, the conditional takes on one of the two values. The expression that comes before the
question mark is interpreted as Boolean-valued. If it is true (nonzero), then expression a is used as the
value of the conditional, otherwise expression b is used as the value.
Example
For example, consider the commands below:
if condition = (variable_a < variable_b)
variable set variable = variable_min real = (EVAL(variable_a))
else
variable set variable = variable_min real = (EVAL(variable_b))
end
27 Interface
Conditional Constructs and Loops
You can express this more concisely using the ternary conditional operator:
variable set variable = variable_min &
real = (EVAL((variable_a < variable_b)? variable_a : variable_b))
Interface
Note: The ternary conditional operator has lower precedence than all other operators. Any
operations performed in sub expressions are performed before the ternary operator is
evaluated:
x < 10 ? x + 10 : x * 10
is the same as:
(x < 10) ? (x + 10) : (x * 10)
Likewise:
s == "Bob" ? "Hello" : "Goodbye" // ", " // s
is evaluated as:
(s == "Bob") ? ("Hello") : ("Goodbye" // ", " // s)
Adams/View
About Adams/View Menus and Dialog Boxes
28
About Adams/View Menus and Dialog Boxes
Many of the windows, menus, and dialog boxes you see in Adams/View are interface objects in the
Adams/View Modeling database. Using Adams/View commands, the Menu Builder, and the Dialog-Box
Builder, you can modify, delete, or add to the standard windows, menus, and dialog boxes. You can make
changes such as:
• Remove menu entries that you seldom use.
• Add a new shortcut menu to display a standard dialog box that you often use.
• Add a set of menus and dialog boxes to execute your own macros or command files. (For more
on macros, see Automating Your Work Using Macros.)
• Create a custom interface for your particular Adams application, perhaps simplifying virtual
prototyping for novice users.
Adams/View Interface Objects
Most of the Adams/View interface is stored in the Modeling database in a hierarchy similar to that of
modeling objects. All standard, customizable interface objects are stored under a library named GUI. The
library is a convenient place to collect all the standard interface objects.
The two top-level interface objects are windows and dialog boxes. The main modeling window, for
example, is named main. Its full database name is .gui.main.
Windows and dialog boxes look similar, although they are quite different. Windows usually stay on the
screen for some time as you work in them, while dialog boxes come and go as you need to enter data or
access controls. Windows can contain toolbars and menu bars. Both windows and dialog boxes contain
other interface objects such as buttons, labels, and so on.
Most customizing involves creating new dialog boxes or modifying standard dialog boxes. Unless you
are creating an entirely custom interface, you will not need to modify the standard windows themselves.
You may want to modify the menu bars, menus, and toolbars.
Dialog boxes and toolbars can contain interface objects such as labels, fields, buttons, toggle buttons,
radio boxes, option menus, and sliders. In addition, containers and button-stack objects allow you to
group other objects.
Most of the modeling menus and dialog boxes ar e available in the database, and you can customize these.
Some dialog boxes are controlled entirely from within Adams/View. These do not appear in the database,
and you cannot customize them. They include:
• Database Navigator
Note: You cannot customize all Adams/View dialog boxes and tools. For example, you cannot
customize the Plugin Manager or the Information window. The Dialog-Box Builder's
Dialog Box -> Open menu provides access to those dialog boxes, containers, and toolbars
that you can customize.
29 Interface
About Adams/View Menus and Dialog Boxes
• Dialog-Box Builder
• Command Navigator
• Data Browser in the plotting window
• File Selection dialog box
• Coordinate window
• Plugin Manager
List of Interface Objects
Below is a list of objects you can add to dialog boxes and their intended uses.
Object: Does the following:
Label Displays text or an image in a dialog box.
Field Provides space where you can enter text or numbers.
Button Activates an operation; has a picture (icon), label, or text on it, indicating what the
operation is.
Toggle Button Indicates an active status.
Separator Draws a horizontal line. Does not allow application interaction.
Slider Sets the numerical value of an object without having to type in data.
Option Menu Allows one of many selections; with a push graphic to allow the entire list to
appear.
Radio Box Sets states or modes.
Button Stack Allows multiple buttons to come up so you can select one by clicking and dragging
the right mouse button.
Container Allows overlaid information.
Tab Container Similar to a container but can be added to a dialog box or another container. When
you add a tab container, a tab appears in the parent container.
Data Table Displays numbers and allows you to add columns or rows.
Adams/View
About Adams/View Menus and Dialog Boxes
30
Hierarchy of Interface Objects
31 Interface
About Adams/View Menus and Dialog Boxes
Examples of Interface Objects
How the Interface Works
As you use the Adams/View interface to make changes to your model, the interface executes
Adams/View commands. For example, if you use a dialog box to change a spring's stiffness, when you
select OK, the interface issues the commands to modify the spring object, including the spring stiffness
you specified in the dialog box. You can see these commands in the Command