NETAPP UNIVERSITY

Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide
Course Number: STRSW-ILT-ANCDA-D87M Revision, Date: 2.0, 25MAY2010

ATTENTION
The information contained in this guide is intended for training use only. This guide contains information and activities that, while beneficial for the purposes of training in a closed, non-production environment, can result in downtime or other severe consequences and therefore are not intended as a reference guide. This guide is not a technical reference and should not, under any circumstances, be used in production environments. To obtain reference materials, please refer to the NetApp product documentation located at http://now.netapp.com/ for product information.

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© 2010 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. Specifications subject to change without notice. No part of this book covered by copyright may be reproduced in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or storage in an electronic retrieval system—without prior written permission of the copyright owner. NetApp reserves the right to change any products described herein at any time and without notice. NetApp assumes no responsibility or liability arising from the use of products or materials described herein, except as expressly agreed to in writing by NetApp. The use or purchase of this product or materials does not convey a license under any patent rights, trademark rights, or any other intellectual property rights of NetApp. The product described in this manual may be protected by one or more U.S. patents, foreign patents, or pending applications.

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NetApp, the NetApp logo, Go Further, Faster, Data ONTAP, Appliance Watch, ASUP, AutoSupport, Bolt Design, Center-to-Edge, ComplianceClock, ComplianceJournal, ContentDirector, Cryptainer, Data Motion, DataFabric, DataFort, Decru, Decru DataFort, Evolution of Storage, Exec-Vault, FAServer, FilerView, FlexCache, FlexClone, FlexShare, FlexVol, FPolicy, Get Successful, gFiler, LockVault, Manage ONTAP, MultiStore, NearStore, NetApp Availability Assurance, NetApp IT As A Service, NetApp ProTech Expert, NetCache, NOW, NOW (NetApp on the Web), ONTAPI, Raid-DP, Replicator-X, SANscreen, SecureAdmin, SecureShare, Shadow Tape, Simulate ONTAP, SmartClone, SnapCache, SnapCopy, SnapDrive, SnapLock, SnapManager, SnapMirror, SnapMover, SnapRestore, Snapshot, SnapStore, SnapSuite, SnapValidator, SnapVault, Spinnaker Networks, Spinnaker Networks logo, SpinCluster, SpinFlex, SpinFS, SpinHA, SpinMove, SpinServer, SpinStor, StoreVault, SyncMirror, Tech OnTap, Topio, vFiler, VFM, VFM (Virtual File Manager), WAFL, and Web Filer are either trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of NetApp, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Not all common law marks used by NetApp are listed on this page. Failure of a common law mark to appear on this page does not mean that NetApp does not use the mark nor does it mean that the product is not actively marketed or is not significant within its relevant market. Apple and QuickTime are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft and Windows Media are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. RealAudio, RealNetworks, RealPlayer, RealSystem, RealText, RealVideo, RealMedia, RealProxy, and SureStream are either trademarks or registered trademarks of RealNetworks, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. All other brands or products are either trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders and should be treated as such. NetApp is a licensee of the CompactFlash and CF Logo trademarks.

2 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATION DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................................5 EXAM NS0-154 – STORAGE NETWORKING CONCEPTS .............................................................................6
SKILLS TESTED.......................................................................................................................................................................... 6 RECOMMENDED COURSES ...................................................................................................................................................... 6 EXAM PREPARATION ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

DATA ONTAP .....................................................................................................................................................8
CONFIGURATION ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 10 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 13 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 14

SAN ...................................................................................................................................................................15
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 19 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 20 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 22 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 23

CIFS ..................................................................................................................................................................24
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 24 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 25 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 26 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 27 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 27

MULTIPROTOCOL ...........................................................................................................................................28
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 28 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 28 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 29

NFS ...................................................................................................................................................................31
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 31 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 32 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 33 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 34

EXAM NS0-154 – DATA PROTECTION CONCEPTS .....................................................................................35
SKILLS TESTED........................................................................................................................................................................ 35 RECOMMENDED COURSES .................................................................................................................................................... 35 EXAM PREPARATION .............................................................................................................................................................. 35

SNAPSHOT ......................................................................................................................................................37
3 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

................... 51 SECURITY ...............................49 CONFIGURATION ............................................................... 56 ADMINISTRATION.................. 49 ADMINISTRATION............................................................................................................................................................................... 62 4 Data ONTAP 8............................................................................................................................................................................... 47 TROUBLESHOOTING .............. 39 SECURITY ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 55 HIGH-AVAILABILITY CONFIGURATION (HA PAIR) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 53 ADMINISTRATION.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 61 ADDITIONAL MATERIALS .................................................. 37 ADMINISTRATION................................ 57 TROUBLESHOOTING ...................................................................................................................................................... 41 ADMINISTRATION................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 47 SECURITY .................................................................................. 39 PERFORMANCE .. 42 TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 41 PERFORMANCE ......................................................................................................................................................................... Inc..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 SECURITY ............................................................................................................................................58 CONFIGURATION ...........................................................................56 CONFIGURATION ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.................................................................................... 61 SECURITY ...................................................................................................................... 58 ADMINISTRATION....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 SNAPMIRROR ....................................................................... 50 PERFORMANCE .......................................................41 CONFIGURATION ............................................................. ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 51 TROUBLESHOOTING ........................................................................................................................ Not authorized for reproduction purposes..................................62 PRACTICE EXAM .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................53 CONFIGURATION ............................... 60 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................... 39 TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................... 41 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................ 62 FURTHER READING ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 57 METROCLUSTER / SYNCMIRROR .................................................................................................................................................................................CONFIGURATION ............................................................................................................................................ 56 PERFORMANCE ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................43 CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................................................... 54 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 52 OPEN SYSTEMS SNAPVAULT (OSSV) ............................................................................................................................. 43 ADMINISTRATION................................................................................................ 57 SECURITY .............................................................. 45 PERFORMANCE .... 48 SNAPVAULT ....................................................................................................... 40 SNAPRESTORE ................................................................................................................................................................................. This material is intended for training use only.... 55 TROUBLESHOOTING . 61 TROUBLESHOOTING ...........................................................................................................................

SCSI. . 5 Data ONTAP 8. This study guide focuses on the newer exam but maintains the structure of the NS0-153 and NS0-163 exams for backwards compatibility. The guide reviews generally the material that is provided in the Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8. iSCSI. Inc. FC. NCDA candidates may now sit for one exam (NS0-154) based on Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. NFS. you are an expert in managing and optimizing a NetApp® storage system that runs the Data ONTAP® operating system in NFS and Windows® (CIFS) multiprotocol environments: You have proven your ability to: Work with multiple issues and within multiple environments—CIFS.0 7-Mode course. While this option is still available at the time of this writing.0 7-Mode course nor the successful learning of the contents of this guide guarantees passing the exam.0 7-Mode operating system. At least six months of experience administering NetApp storage systems is expected. TCP/IP Provide in-depth support Perform administrative functions Manage performance Implement high-availability (active-active) controller configurations and SyncMirror® and MetroCluster® solutions to ensure data availability and recovery Use the SnapMirror®.PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE This guide helps you prepare for the NCDA (NSO-154) certification exam. and SnapVault® products to manage and protect data FIGURE 1: NETAPP CERTIFIED DATA MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATOR (NCDA) Previously. candidates had to pass two exams (NS0-153 and NS0-163). NOTE: Neither successful completion of the Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8. to achieve NCDA certification. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. CERTIFICATION DESCRIPTION As a NetApp Certified Data Management Administrator (NCDA). This material is intended for training use only. SnapRestore®.

SKILLS TESTED               Describe the configuration requirements for NFS in a storage system environment Configure the storage system to support Kerberos™ security Explain and identify the frequently used CIFS components Create. and permissions Analyze storage system statistics and identify potential performance issues Analyze NFS performance by using the sysstat and nfsstat commands Investigate. and procedures for using the UNIX® file system. This material is intended for training use only. and FC for SCSI or iSCSI for TCP/IP protocols on a NetApp storage system that runs the Data ONTAP operating system in NFS and Windows (CIFS) multiprotocol environments. commands. the section provides a summary of a range of NetApp technologies. you will have proven skills in performing in-depth support. and implement solutions in CIFS and NFS environments Identify the supported storage area network (SAN) configurations and the necessary hardware and software components (including NetApp Support Console) Identify concepts. Figure 2 highlights the subjects covered in the NS0-154 exam (white text) and the topics covered within each subject (black text). and performance management for CIFS. and manage CIFS shares. configure. administrative functions. 6 Data ONTAP 8. operating systems.EXAM NS0-154: STORAGE NETWORKING CONCEPTS As a NetApp Certified Data Management Administrator. especially in relationship to creating and mounting file systems that use UFS on storage system-based logical unit numbers (LUNs) Identify the components and tools that are required to create a LUN Install or update HBA drivers and firmware to enable Fibre Channel (FC) protocols for SCSI and TCP/IP protocols for iSCSI Use the sio_ntap utility. as well as storage system commands. The points are relevant to the NS0-153 and NS0154 exams and are related to storage networking concepts. .0 7-Mode Administration Instructor-led: Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8. Inc. in addition to discussing the exam topics.0 7-Mode Fundamentals Instructor-led: Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. to gather data for performance and problem analysis Collect data to assist with troubleshooting hardware. and applications Configure 64-bit aggregates for a system running Data ONTAP 8. NFS. identify. groups.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. troubleshoot.0 7-Mode EXAM PREPARATION This section describes various NetApp FAS learning points.0 7-Mode RECOMMENDED COURSES    Web-based: Data ONTAP 8. However.

FIGURE 2: TOPICS COVERED IN THE NS0-153 AND NS0-154 EXAM The 154 exam covers these topics and additional topics that are not identified here.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Inc. 7 Data ONTAP 8. . This material is intended for training use only.

Refer to Figures 3 for identification of the supported protocols. Data ONTAP is the foundation of the NetApp Unified Storage architecture. supporting a wide range of storage protocols and storage-management software features. The NetApp FAS storage controllers are designed around the NetApp Unified Storage architecture and support numerous storage protocols. such as the NetApp API (Manage ONTAP Solution or ZAPI). some protocols.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. and authentication protocols. Inc.PROTOCOLS SUPPORTED BY THE NETAPP FAS CONTROLLERS NOTE: This figure identifies only the major storage. FIGURE 3 . and storage tiers in an appliance-like design. . For brevity. management. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. This material is intended for training use only.DATA ONTAP SOFTWARE The operating system of the NetApp FAS storage controller is named Data ONTAP. 8 Data ONTAP 8. and Network Information Service (NIS) are not shown. software features.

– Use the fcadmin config <adapter_name> -t target command to set an adapter to target mode.CONFIGURATION When the storage controller is powered on for the first time. for example: ifconfig ns0 192.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. and CIFS authentication (if licensed).255. You may also need to configure the built-in FC ports (located on the motherboard). Any FC HBA adapter that you purchase is predefined as either an initiator or target adapter. The fcp show adapter command returns only the FC ports that are configured to function in target mode. . NOTE: The fcadmin command applies only to the built-in FC ports. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.1. This script configures fundamental parameters such as hostname. it runs the setup script. –  Use the fcadmin config <adapter_name> -t initiator command to set an adapter to initiator mode. The fcp show initiator command returns all host FC initiator ports that are visible via the controller‘s FC target ports. 9 Data ONTAP 8. To enable persistence after a reboot.255.0 NOTE: Most changes made from the command-line interface are transient. Inc. Target mode – Use target mode to connect to host systems (that is. The built-in FC ports can function in one of two modes:  Initiator mode (the default) – Use the initiator mode to connect to disk expansion drawers.1 netmask 255. you use the NetApp System Manager interface or the ifconfig command. Windows or UNIX servers). To manually reconfigure the FAS controller‘s Ethernet network interfaces. network IP addresses. You can rerun the setup script manually at any time to reconfigure the parameters. you must enter the changes into the /etc/rc file.168. This material is intended for training use only.

0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Open protocols (such as RSH and Telnet) are disabled by default. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Operations Manager: a licensed tool that is installed on a host and that provides sophisticated management tools for one or more storage systems. NetApp System Manager: a GUI designed for single-system configuration 2. Operations Manager includes the following products: – – – Performance Advisor Protection Manager Provisioning Manager 10 Data ONTAP 8. 3. The cifs shares –add … command defines a CIFS share. NOTE: In Data ONTAP 8. NetApp recommends use of the default.enable on command enables Domain Name System (DNS) name resolution (which requires further configuration). The options dns. Command-line interface: accessed via Telnet. . ADMINISTRATION The administration of the NetApp FAS controller can be performed via various administrative interfaces.FIGURE 4: FIBRE CHANNEL INITIATOR-TARGET PORT RELATIONSHIPS NOTE: Similar initiator-target relationships exist in iSCSI connections. or Secure Shell (SSH) – – – The aggr status command displays the existing aggregates.0 7-Mode. Inc. only secured protocols (such as SSH) are enabled by default. 1. Remote Shell (RSH).

Protection Manager and Provisioning Manager are separately licensed products. even if a SAN hardware failure occurs. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. This material is intended for training use only. and the local file system is typically not shared with other hosts. the controller provides block-level access to the hosts. as it is a primary resource for questions regarding the configuration or performance of a FAS storage controller. there are redundant physical paths (two or more) between a host and the controller. shared storage. in Data ONTAP 7.The license for Operations Manager enables Performance Advisor. as the size of each disk drive increases. With multipathing. As storage demands increase. and the controller provides shared file-level access to multiple remote systems (hosts). Second. Some of the resources available on the NOW site include:       A knowledgebase (searchable) of NetApp product information Online manuals. You should become familiar with the NOW site. aggregates and. for all NetApp products Software downloads. Additionally. the volumes within the aggregates were based upon a 32-bit architecture. Both tools are optional purchases and require licenses. Both FC and iSCSI SANs support multipathing. used to identify the version of Data ONTAP in which a particular bug was fixed 64-BIT AGGREGATES Before Data ONTAP 8. NOTE: Management of the FAS storage infrastructure can be promoted to the host operating system (Windows or UNIX) by the SnapDrive® tool and to the application layer by the SnapManager® tool. an aggregate can accommodate only nineteen 1-TB data drives. both SAN and NAS provide remote systems (hosts) with access to centralized. NetApp supports various multipathing options for both FC and iSCSI. NAS storage uses the file system on the controller—the WAFL® (Write Anywhere File Layout) system. The various SAN and network-attached (NAS) protocols differ in many technical details: SAN provides block-level access. Inc. The NetApp on the Web (NOW)® online support and services site is available to all customers and business partners. On the other hand. the number of drives per aggregate must decrease. . used to request replacement of failed hardware Bugs online. For a SAN device. The hosts then create and manage their own local file system (for example. and NAS provides file-level access. Refer to Figure 4 for an example. the 16-TB limitation causes three major issues. and others use Ethernet. 11 Data ONTAP 8. This architecture effectually limits the size of an aggregate to 16 TB. consequently. First. some protocols use FC connections. However. including updates and evaluation versions Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA).0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.  FC and iSCSI multipathing – With the host platform‘s native multipath I/O (MDIO) driver – – With the NetApp device-specific module (DSM) for Windows With the Veritas Dynamic Mulitpath (VxDMP)software  iSCSI only multipathing. Multipathing ensures storage availability. performance is directly affected. As the number of drives decreases.0. used to review all known software bugs Release Comparison. ext3). with iSCSI‘s inherent multiple connections per second (MCS) You choose the multipath solution that best meets the needs of your environment. For example.3. the read and write performance that can be realized from an aggregate also decreases. Perhaps the simplest way to define the difference between SAN and NAS is by describing how the file system is managed and how access is shared.

This material is intended for training use only.0. For example. When a storage administrator upgrades a storage system from Data ONTAP 7. If you want to take advantage of the 64-bit aggregate feature. To migrate data. This switch accepts 32 or 64 as a valid parameter. See Figure 5 for information about platforms and maximum aggregate sizes. if a storage administrator enters the following: aggr create sales aggr -B 64 24. Such a requirement greatly increases the complexity of managing large storage arrays. For example. The 32 parameter is the default.0. This architecture overcomes the disadvantages of the 16-TB limitation.3 or earlier to Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. * Supported only through a Policy Variation Request (PVR) FIGURE 5: 64-BIT AGGREGATES—MAXIMUM AGGREGATE SIZE PER PLATFORM In Data ONTAP 8. you cannot directly convert a 32-bit aggregate to a 64-bit aggregate. Data ONTAP 8. chosen by Data ONTAP. Inc. NetApp is pleased to announce that its Data ONTAP 8. aggr create <aggr-name> [-B {32 | 64}]… The 32 parameter designates a 32-bit aggregate architecture.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.‖ and 24 spare disks. and the 64 parameter designates a 64-bit aggregate architecture. To create a 64-bit aggregate. NOTE: The command succeeds only if the specified number of spare disks exists.0. you may use the ndmpcopy command. a 64-bit aggregate is created.0 7-Mode supports aggregates of up to 100 TB—running on top-of-line hardware with greater aggregate sizes available in the future.The third issue with the 16-TB limitation is that aggregate management becomes more complex and less efficient. the storage administrator can manually choose the disks to be added by specifying a -d switch and the disk names. 64-bit aggregates are not available. . you must explicitly use the 64 parameter. NOTE: In Data ONTAP 8.07-Mode operating system supports 64-bit aggregates. The new aggregate is named ―sales aggr. As in earlier Data ONTAP releases.0 Cluster-Mode. 12 Data ONTAP 8. you must migrate data from a 32-bit aggregate to a 64-bit aggregate. all existing aggregates are designated as 32-bit aggregates. a FAS6070 system with 500 TB of storage requires a minimum of 32 aggregates. NetApp added the -B switch to the aggr create command. Similarly. In Data ONTAP 8. volumes within a 32-bit aggregate cannot be moved directly to a 64-bit aggregate. are added the new 64-bit aggregate.

including per-disk performance data. and collision values  ifstat: The ifstat –a command displays a low level view of interface performance data. stats – This advanced mode command can provide low-level performance data. – – Example: The sysstat –s 5 command runs every five seconds and prints a summary on termination. CPU. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Outputs such as cp_from_log_full (‗F‘) and cp_from_cp (‗B‘) indicate that the controller is busy. then you may need to download the perfstat command from the NOW online support and services site. Performance data can consist of a broad summary of system performance or of details about specific performance parameters. network interface card (NIC). specific instances of object type. FC and iSCSI) performance to the output. NFS. The command can be used to identify when a controller is busy. The –b parameter adds block-level (that is. or ifstat commands. Example: The sysstat –u command displays extended utilization data. stats. including transmitted (Tx) and received (Rx) bytes per second If you cannot resolve a performance problem by using the systat. and disk performance values. This material is intended for training use only. the number of in and out network packets. errors. the security of the Data ONTAP operating system. . Characteristics of the perfstat command:      Captures all needed performance information Captures information from hosts and filers Captures all information simultaneously and thus enables cross correlation Operates on all host platforms and all filer platforms Records all captured data in one plain-text output file DATA ONTAP SECURITY The security of the FAS controller. This section deals only with Data ONTAP security. – – Example: The stats show cifs:cifs:cifs_latency command displays the average latency value for the CIFS protocol. nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). The default interval is 15 seconds. HTTP.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. netstat. and other performance counters.  Some commands for collecting statistics about the performance of the Ethernet network interface and other data are:  netstat: The netstat -i command identifies the network interfaces. status. Performance counters can also be accessed via the Windows PerfMon GUI (but only if CIFS is enabled). and the security of the data stored on the controller are different topics.  statit – This command can output performance data on various object types. 13 Data ONTAP 8.PERFORMANCE You can use several commands on the FAS storage controller to collect system performance data. Some common commands for collecting performance data are:  sysstat – The default output includes CIFS. including consistency point (CP) time and type. – The command displays many performance items. Inc.

with their obvious variations. The capabilities are predefined and cannot be changed. with specific capabilities. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. to add. Characteristics of the pktt command:   Is normally run for a short period. groups. 14 Data ONTAP 8. Examples of the useradmin command:     To create an administrative user useradmin user add <username> -g <groupname> To list the local groups useradmin group list To delete a role useradmin role delete <rolename> To assign a capability to a role useradmin role modify <rolename> -a <capability> You can use the useradmin commands. potentially filtered to target a particular client. one or more accounts are usually defined on the FAS storage controller. delete. FIGURE 6: ROLE BASED ACCESS CONTROL For administrative purposes. where defined roles.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. or modify users. then you could use the pktt command on the FAS controller. so you can analyze a protocol level problem. or roles.com) NOTE: You must first convert the tcpdump output to netmon format by using the capconv. capturing network traffic on a particular interface.org) – netmon (download from 14icrosoft. root. such as the following: – ethereal (download from wireshark. The assigned users can perform only the tasks that the roles assigned to their groups allow them to perform. Inc. The output can be analyzed in third-party network monitoring tools. NOTE: There is always at least one administrative account. The useradmin command is used to create and modify local admin accounts. . which cannot be deleted. Individual users are then assigned to the groups. This material is intended for training use only. can be bound to groups. Produces output in standard tcpdump format.exe command that you can download from the NOW online support and services site. TROUBLESHOOTING If you need to capture a network packet trace. list.The Data ONTAP operating system supports role-based access control (RBAC).

This FC access mode. but it can be exposed to a host via either or both protocols. The failover modes for FC controllers are:  single_image (the default since Data ONTAP 7. You can change from one to another failover mode (with caution) by using the fcp cfmode command. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. a NetApp LUN is not an FC LUN or an iSCSI LUN. which is called ―single image. This flexibility allows for easy migration between the SAN access protocols. CONFIGURATION Refer to Figure 4 and the accompanying text for a description of the initiator and target configuration of the controller‘s built-in FC ports. This material is intended for training use only.‖ has been the default failover mode for FC controllers since the release of Data ONTAP 7. Inc. One feature (among many) that distinguishes the NetApp SAN architecture from competitive solutions is that the LUNs are defined below the SAN protocol layer. Therefore. If you require a description of the earlier FC cluster modes. only the single_image mode is supported for new storage systems. –     A worldwide node name (WWNN) is shared by both controllers. a LUN that is being accessed via FC is visible from every FC target port on both FAS storage controllers (even though the LUN is actually ―owned‖ by only one controller). The iSCSI protocol handles controller failover in a completely different manner.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. refer to the product documentation. you must reboot the controller.2) – LUNs are visible on all FC target ports labeled by their worldwide port names (or WWPNs) on both controllers. . In a high-availability configuration. even simultaneously. The following table details some of the features and limitations of the various failover modes: FIGURE 7: FAILOVER MODES FOR FC CONTROLLERS NOTE: Failover mode for FC controllers is an FC-specific concept. After you change modes.SAN The NetApp FAS storage controllers support both the FC and iSCSI SAN standards.2 software. 15 Data ONTAP 8. partner mixed dual_fabric standby Although all of the failover modes for FC controllers are supported for existing systems.

If you are using ISWT support in a high-availability controller configuration. each host has its own LUNs and LUN IDs. To create everything from a wizard.   Multiple LUNs to the same host must have unique LUN IDs. SnapDrive. run the lun setup script and follow the prompts. Each host can have its own IDs.Conceptually. This material is intended for training use only.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. to return the status of the protocol iSCSI Another difference between the FC and iSCSI protocols concerns ports and adapters. used for controller failover The SAN protocols provide block-level access to the LUNs on the storage controller. When a LUN is created via the lun setup wizard. Use the following commands to start each of the SAN protocols:  FC – –  – – fcp start. not between hosts. LUN that is presented to a host must be unique to the host. target-mode FC port on a specialized FC HBA adapter. they both provide block-level services to a host. An iSCSI protocol can use either a specialized iSCSI HBA adapter or any standard Ethernet port. However. such as the location (path) of the LUN. When you use the wizard. you do not need to manually create the igroups or map the LUNs. then the controller uses the iSCSI software target (ISWT). then you must run two additional commands—to make the LUN accessible from a host. you must use the igroup create and lun map commands. Therefore. as follows:   NetApp System Manager. igroup create and lun map commands. you need to know certain facts. they must be started. which allows you to manage storage from the host NOTE: When you create a LUN. the capacity required. However. to return the status of the protocol iscsi start. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. to start the protocol fcp status. for the partner controller. run the lun create. a GUI downloadable from the NOW online support and services site Command-line interface. 16 Data ONTAP 8. using either of the following two methods – –  To create each item manually. so the host can access a LUN. The only difference between the protocols is that the iSCSI license is provided for no charge with the every FAS controller. However. and the LUN ID. although they vary greatly in detail and implementation (for example. FC and iSCSI are very similar. You can create the LUNs by using various tools. You use the license add <licnum> command to license a feature (such as FC or iSCSI) on the controller. After the SAN protocols are licensed. The FC protocol can use only a dedicated. IDs can conflict only within a host. and the LUNs and LUN IDs of each host are independent of the LUNs and LUN IDs of all other hosts. Both FC and iSCSI are licensed protocols. multiple commands are rolled up into the script. to start the protocol iscsi status. of course. for the local controller ISWTb. Inc. No configuration or host access can occur until the protocols are started. the end result is the same. the OS of the respective host. To filter which LUNs are visible to which hosts (sometimes called ―LUN masking‖). if you create a LUN manually. then you may notice two ISWT devices:   ISWTa. whereas iSCSI travels on top of a TCP connection). The LUN ID is the means by which a host identifies a LUN and distinguishes between multiple LUNs. . FC is a wire-level protocol. If a standard Ethernet port is used.

the LUN goes offline. – 17 Data ONTAP 8.) lun set reservation (to change the space reservation of a LUN) – Configuration of the parameters causes an amount of space equal to the size of the LUN (100%) to be excluded from Snapshot copies. This material is intended for training use only. .0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. the host should now be able to rescan for and connect to the new LUN. For more detailed information. lun map </path/lun> <ig_name> <lun_id>  NOTE: Assuming that the SAN zoning is correct. space reservation was the recommended method to guarantee space for writes to a LUN (regardless of the number of Snapshot copies). How a LUN consumes capacity on its parent volume and how LUN capacity is affected by the creation of Snapshot® copies is a complex topic. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Inc. There are several ways to prevent the LUN capacity problem from occurring:  Space reservation—former best practice – – Until recently. and manual rectification is required. the host may think that the volume has space available for writing data while. Refer to the Figure 8: FIGURE 8: SUPPORTED LUN SIZES PER HOST PLATFORM NOTE: Not all supported operating system platforms are shown here. the LUN capacity problem creates a very undesirable scenario. When the host attempts to write data. refer to the NOW online support and services site and host platform documentation. Obviously. igroup create -f -t windows <ig_name> <wwpn> lun map defines a relationship between a LUN and the igroup and sets the LUN ID. Some of the parameters to be configured for this method are volume fractional reserve to 100% and LUN space reservation to Yes. in reality. igroup create defines a relationship between a host (WWPN) and the OS type and identifies whether the current connection is an FC or iSCSI connection. Such a configuration is sometimes referred to the ―two times plus Delta (2X+Δ)‖ overhead. thus guaranteeing that writable capacity is always available to the host. the volume is filled with Snapshot data. You need to be aware of the minimum and maximum LUN sizes that are supported by each of the host operating systems. If a volume that contains a LUN is incorrectly configured. vol options <vol> fractional_reserve 100 (100% by default) lun create (LUN space reservation is on by default.

Some of the parameters to be configured for this method are Volume AutoGrow and Snapshot AutoDelete.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. replacing the former best practice (use of the 100% fractional reserve) with the current best practice.  Volume AutoGrow and Snapshot AutoDelete—current best practice – – In the last few years. When the parameters are configured.‖ Use of thin provisioning can produce an even better result. the Volume Fractional Reserve can be safely set to 0%. refer to the product documentation. 18 Data ONTAP 8. two automatic utilization thresholds were introduced. This material is intended for training use only. Use of the threshold changes the capacity required to ―one times plus Delta (1X+Δ). Inc.CONFIGURING VOLUME AND LUN PROVISIONING NOTE: Some documentation may still refer to these former best practices.CONFIGURING AUTOMATIC CAPACITY MANAGEMENT NOTE: For more information about volume and LUN space management. . vol autosize <vol-name> on (off by default) snap autodelete <vol-name> on (off by default) vol options <vol> fractional_reserve 0 – This parameter configuration sets a utilization threshold at which the containing volume automatically grows and/or at which certain existing Snapshot copies are deleted. – FIGURE 10 . Not authorized for reproduction purposes.FIGURE 9 . Use of the threshold ensures that space is always available for the host to write to the LUN.

refer to the product documentation. refer to the Snapshot section. makes a LUN unavailable for host access lun move.snapshot/lun1 /vol/vol1/lun2  lun clone split. Remember that the Snapshot copy of a LUN is created at the volume level. . only the host and the application can ensure the consistency of the file system and database. NOTE: The NetApp host attachment kit includes a utility to flush the host‘s file system buffers to disk. it is best practice to simplify the Snapshot copy process by one-to-one (1:1) relationship between volume and LUN (or in other words. for long-term use. when Snapshot copies are created. Therefore. On the controller. unquiesce the application or database. For example. prevents the backing snapshot from being deleted). 19 Data ONTAP 8. relocates a LUN from one to another path within the same volume lun show. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. and the two LUNs share blocks with a snapshot of the original LUN (known as the ―backing‖ snapshot) lun create –b /vol/vol1/. Inc. assume that you configure a 400-GB volume and then create a 300-GB LUN inside the volume. Therefore.ADMINISTRATION You can use lun commands not only to create LUNs but also to perform various other LUN-related actions:    lun offline. For detailed information about the various capacity management methods that are relevant to Snapshot backup of volumes and LUNs. So. then a subsequent attempt to create a Snapshot copy fails. there would be insufficient free capacity in the volume to allow the host to continue to write to the LUN. displays various types of information about LUNs – –  To display the LUN to igroup mappings: lun show -m To display the LUNs operating system platform types: lun show -v lun clone. you must consider the free capacity in the containing volume. it is often necessary to coordinate with the relevant host during the Snapshot backup of a LUN. In this case. create the Snapshot copy of the LUN. Usually.  On the host – –  Quiesce the application or database Flush the host‘s file system buffers to disk (LUN) snap create /vol/vol1 <snapshot_name> The copy now contains a consistent image of the host‘s file system and application database in an idle or offline state. The failure occurs because. all data in the volume is captured in the Snapshot copy including multiple LUNs and NAS data if present in the volume. if the Snapshot copy were created. having the volume containing only a single LUN). the relationship be split lun clone split start /vol/vol1/lun2 NOTE: For more detailed descriptions of the lun command options. When you create a Snapshot backup of a LUN. A LUN can contain a file system that is managed by the host and/or contain a database that is managed by an application on the host. the coordination process occurs with no disruption to service. If you fill the LUN with data. instantly creates an read/writable LUN as a clone of an existing LUN The new LUN is thin provisioned (no space is consumed until new data is written).0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. This material is intended for training use only. splits a LUN clone from its backing snapshot Because a LUN clone locks the backing snapshot (that is. it is recommended that.  On the host.

and. – The LUN must be offline or unmapped. you can use either of two methods:  Volume SnapRestore – This method restores the entire volume and the LUN. then you can browse to the . You can then copy individual files back to the original LUN. you must create the required automation scripts. PERFORMANCE The performance of the SAN is dependent on the available physical resources and the host. deduplication. there is a SnapManager package. highly functional interface for managing the storage controller. for a very large file. there is a SnapDrive package. RAID scrub. you can use single file SnapRestore. For each supported host operating system platform. Perhaps the best way to manage (and create Snapshot copies of) SAN storage is to use the NetApp host and application integration tools. These tools provide an easy-to-use. RAID rebuild.  SnapDrive – Create a LUN – Connect to a LUN – Trigger a new consistent Snapshot copy of a file system – Restore a Snapshot backup – Clone a LUN – Manage iSCSI connections SnapManager – Trigger a new consistent Snapshot copy of an application – Manage the retention of Snapshot backups – Restore a Snapshot backup of an application – Clone an application or database (only for specific applications) – Migrate application data onto LUNs  NOTE: You can perform Snapshot application integration without SnapManager support. switch. for many popular business applications.  Controller – Model (versus expected performance level) – Number of spindles supporting the LUNs – Network speed – Number of ports or paths – Balanced workload between high-availability controllers – Background tasks (replication. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.To restore from a Snapshot backup of a LUN. and controller configurations. and so on) Switch – Network speed – Port oversubscription – Switch workload Host – Workload type (random versus sequential and read versus write) – Network speed   20 Data ONTAP 8. To do so.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. This material is intended for training use only. Inc. NOTE: If the Snapshot backup contains NAS data (rather than a LUN).snapshot directory and copy the individual files back to the active file system or.  LUN clone: You create a clone of the LUN and then mount the clone. . Many examples of the scripts can be downloaded from the NOW online support and services site.

Inc. 21 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. The connections-to-sessions relationship can be configured in either of two modes.ISCSI SESSIONS AND CONNECTIONS The commands to list the iSCSI connections and sessions are: iscsi session show iscsi connection show –v NOTE: The advantages and disadvantages of the multipathing methods are beyond the scope of this document. This material is intended for training use only.  Single connection per session (1:1) – Creates one iSCSI connection per TCP session – Is supported by the Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO) and NetApp DSM for Windows Multiple connections per session (MCS) – Creates multiple iSCSI connections per TCP session – Provides a native iSCSI multipathing capability  FIGURE 11. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. . you can list connections (an iSCSI initiator-totarget relationship) and sessions (TCP) separately.– – – – Multipathing configuration (high-availability or failover only) Number of paths HBA tuning Correct partition alignment Because all iSCSI traffic is carried over the TCP protocol.

SECURITY

The security of the SAN is enforced at several levels—some on the controller, some in the fabric, and some in conjunction with the hosts.  FC – LUN masking – Port masking – SAN zoning iSCSI – LUN masking – Port masking – Ethernet VLANs – Passwords – Encryption (igroups) (portsets)

(igroups) (iscsi accesslist) (iscsi security) (ipsec)

In an FC SAN, the ability of the various devices to discover each other and communicate across the fabric is controlled by the zone definitions. Only devices that reside in the same zone can communicate. The two main types of SAN zones are:  Soft zones – Is usually defined using the WWPN of the host‘s and controller‘s FC ports; allows communication between the device‘s FC ports – Blocks inter-zone traffic by filtering device discovery at the fabric name service but does not explicitly block traffic Hard zones – Is usually defined using the physical port numbers of the FC switch; allows communication between the physical switch ports – Blocks inter-zone traffic by filtering device discovery at the fabric name service and by preventing traffic between switch ports

When designing FC SAN zones, apply the following recommendations:  Decide on a naming convention and use only the naming convention that you decided on  Keep disk and tape devices in separate zones  Define a zone for every required initiator-target pairing A concern with an iSCSI SAN is that the block-level traffic and other, less-sensitive data might be travelling over the same physical network. In this situation, the iSCSI traffic is exposed to network snooping and other attacks. The NetApp FAS controllers support port masking, bidirectional password access, and network encryption of the iSCSI traffic.  iSCSI port masking allows you to deny specified network adapters the ability to expose an iSCSI initiator group to the hosts:

iscsi interface accesslist remove ig0 e0a
 iSCSI password requires an iSCSI host that is trying to access a LUN to respond to a password challenge. It can also require a controller to answer a password challenge from the host. iscsi security add -i <igroup_name> -s CHAP -p <inpassword> -n <inname> [ -o <outpassword> -m <outname> ]

22 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

IPSec encryption enables encryption of the Ethernet network traffic. Because it is not an iSCSI specific setting, it encrypts all Ethernet traffic (but the client, of course, needs to know how to decrypt the traffic). options ip.ipsec.enable on and ipsec policy add

NOTE: Network encryption, although effective, can negatively affect the performance of what should be a high performance iSCSI solution. Therefore, many sites choose not to encrypt iSCSI traffic and instead deploy a separate network infrastructure or a virtual local area network (VLAN) to isolate the iSCSI traffic.
TROUBLESHOOTING

Troubleshooting a SAN problem requires knowledge of the host, the SAN switches and network infrastructure, and the storage controller. Much of the information associated with this knowledge is outside the scope of this document. However, here are some actions that you can perform to troubleshoot a simple LUN access problem:  On the controller – Can the storage controller see the host‘s FC adapters? fcp show initiator – Is the LUN being presented to the host? lun map –v igroup show –  If there a problem with iSCSI password access? iscsi security show On the SAN switches, are the host‘s FC initiator ports and the controller‘s FC target ports in the same zone? – Run the zoneshow command (Brocade). – Run the show zone command (Cisco MDS). On the host (Solaris 9) – Is the host configured to detect the LUN? – Is the LUN ID in the /kernel/drv/sd.conf file? – Has the host rescanned to detect the LUN? – Run the devfsadm command.

NOTE: For additional troubleshooting recommendations, refer to the product documentation.

23 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

CIFS
The Common Internet File System (CIFS) is the default NAS protocol included with Microsoft Windows. The NetApp storage controller can participate in an Active Directory domain and present files via the CIFS protocol.
CONFIGURATION

The CIFS protocol is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used to present files for client access. license add <licnum> NOTE: If the controller was ordered with the CIFS license, then CIFS license will already be installed, and the CIFS setup wizard will start automatically when the system is booted. The easiest way to configure the CIFS protocol is to run the CIFS setup wizard. The wizard prompts you for all aspects of the CIFS configuration, such as the NetBIOS host name, the authentication mode (for example, Active Directory), and the local administrator password. To start the wizard, you run the cifs setup command: The choices for CIFS user authentication are:  Active Directory  NT Domain  Windows Workgroup  Non-Windows workgroup NOTE: If you wish to configure Active Directory mode for user authentication, then the system time on the storage controller must be within five minutes of the system time on the Active Directory server. This requirement is inherited from the Kerberos protocol, which Active Directory uses for improved security. It is recommended that both systems be configured to use the same network time server, if one is available. You can not only use an external authentication system such as Active Directory but you can also define local users and groups. It is recommended that a local administrator be defined—to be used if the Active Directory server is unavailable. You can add domain users (such as a Domain Admin) to local groups. This ability can be useful when you are managing the storage controller as part of a larger enterprise. For example, to add the domain user ―Steven‖ to the local Administrators group, run the following command: useradmin domainuser add steven -g Administrators For information about how to manage local users and groups, refer to Figure 6 and to the text related to Figure 6.

24 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

The user‘s write succeeds. Both methods store the quota configuration in the /etc/quotas file on the controller‘s root volume. Inc. Hard: When the specified threshold is reached. applies only if the specified quota is not defined for the current user or group Quota objects – Capacity. limits the amount of disk space that can be used (sets a maximum) – Files. There are several types of quotas and various options to enforce each type of quota. the controller sends only a Simple Network Time Protocol (SNMP) trap.   List the active quotas quota status Enable quotas 25 Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The client displays a ―filesystem full‖ error.1 and later) interface. controls how much data can be stored in the specified qtree (similar to a directory) NOTE: The Administrator and root users are exempt from the all quota types except the qtree quota type.  Quotas are configured and managed via either the quota command or NetApp System Manager (1. you must use the cifs command and the shares parameter. controls how much data the specified user can store – Group. limits on the number of files that can be stored (sets a maximum) Quota thresholds – – Soft: When the specified threshold is reached.ADMINISTRATION To create and manage CIFS shares. Here are some examples of the use of the cifs command and the shares parameter: List the existing shares cifs shares Create a share cifs shares –add <sharename> /vol/vol1 Change a share cifs shares –change <sharename> -comment Using the CIFS protocol. controls how much data the specified group of users can store – Qtree. .  Quota targets – User. you can create shares to expose the following object types for user access:  Volume /vol/vol1 Qtree /vol/vol1/qtree1  Directory /vol/vol1/dir1 It is sometimes desirable to set a quota on the amount of disk space that an individual user or group can consume via the CIFS (or NFS) protocol.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. This material is intended for training use only. the controller prevents the user‘s attempt to write more data. –  Default.

as determined by various criteria NOTE: By default. various CIFS-specific performance-analysis commands are available.   vol options <volume_name> convert_ucode on vol options <volume_name> create_ucode on 26 Data ONTAP 8. Inc. sysstat.  Resize a quota quota resize <volume_name> When you modify the limits of a quota. options cifs. displays the most active CIFS clients.enable option. the file system scan is not needed only if you modify the limits on an existing quota. refer to the Data ONTAP section. displays CIFS performance statistics cifs top. statistics.neg_buf_size <value> This command changes the buffer size. for example:   cifs stat. cifs restart This command restarts the CIFS service (the clients can now reconnect). stats. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.  Report on quota usage quota report A report that details the current file and space consumption for each user and group that is assigned a quota and for each qtree is printed.per_client_stats. However. PERFORMANCE The FAS storage controller has numerous performance counters. Here is an example of an /etc/quotas configuration file: FIGURE 6 : AN EXAMPLE QUOTA CONFIGURATION FILE NOTE: The second line. One easy way to improve CIFS performance is to set Unicode mode on the volume that contains the shared files. For a large file system. 3. 2. cifs terminate This command halts the CIFS service and disconnects all clients. and other metrics. . the scan can require a significant amount of time. is a default quota. Here is an example process: 1. you must enable the cifs. To collect statistics for individual clients. For detailed information about the controller-performance commands that are not specific to CIFS (for example. Also. CIFS statistics are cumulative for all clients. a file system scan is not needed. and statit).0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.quota on <volume_name> A file system scan is required. This material is intended for training use only. which begins with an asterisk (*). Such changes can be performed only when no clients are connected. Changing some CIFS performance parameters is disruptive.

Access to the share is either granted or denied. tests communication with the Active Directory server ifstat. displays a low-level view of network-interface performance data netdiag. Inc. refer to the ANCDA Boot Camp training materials. which is usually provided at login time by the Active Directory server. and host name resolution. The system evaluates the user‘s SID against the file or directory permissions. cifs access <share> <user> <access rights> The list of share-level access rights are: – No Access – Read – Change – Full Control  The system evaluates the user‘s security ID (SID). configuring a volume for Unicode support may increase performance. Therefore. as required. the access protocol is CIFS. In this case. TROUBLESHOOTING CIFS is a complex protocol that uses several TCP ports and interacts with various external systems for user authentication. On a file-by-file basis. Therefore. If you suspect that connectivity problems are the source of your CIFS problems. if a volume is not configured for Unicode support.Because the CIFS protocol always uses Unicode. Kerberos security (Active Directory). analyzes the network protocol statistics to ensure correct operation and displays. access is either granted or denied.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.  If mandatory file locking is requested by the client. provides a standard TCP connection test testdc. For detailed troubleshooting information. against the user‘s share permissions. then the controller must continuously convert between Unicode mode and non-Unicode mode. the CIFS protocol enforces it. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. the CIFS protocol has numerous potential points of failure.‖ is discussed in the next section. you use the cifs command and the access parameter. but the containing volume or qtree may have a UNIX security style. This configuration. 27 Data ONTAP 8. Here is an example of how user access rights are evaluated:  You issue the command that identifies shares and access rights. but. . SECURITY To manage user access to CIFS shares. suggested remedial actions Another potential issue is file access permissions. A full description of CIFS troubleshooting is outside the scope of this document. which is called ―multiprotocol access. remarkably. you can try the following commands:     ping. it is usually very reliable.

The mappings that do not need to be configured are discussed in the Security section. it is recommended that mixed mode be used only when it is needed to accommodate a particular requirement. Evaluate the user‘s SID or user ID against the file or directory permissions. Where <value> = ntfs All files and directories have New Technology File System (NTFS) permissions. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. CONFIGURATION The only requirement for multiprotocol access is that CIFS access and NFS access be configured to the same file system. because Windows systems and UNIX systems use different security semantics. access via CIFS or NFS to the file data is controlled by the normal user-authorization process. Some security settings and user-name mappings do need to be configured. NOTE: Because the use of mixed mode can complicate the troubleshooting of file-access problems. This material is intended for training use only. you use the following commands:  qtree status. sets the security mode for a nominated volume or qtree Although the security-style setting controls the underlying file system‘s security type. Of course. Inc. The multiprotocol environment introduces additional complexity because the relationships between the security semantics of the users. the protocols should not be the source of any multiprotocol concern. For detailed information about the administration of the CIFS and NFS protocols. and the file system must be mapped. Where <value> = mixed Each file and directory can have either UNIX or NTFS permissions (but not both at the same time). 28 Data ONTAP 8. Therefore. For detailed performance information. . the shares and exports.default_security_style <value>    Where <value> = unix All files and directories have UNIX permissions. Because the controller includes sophisticated mappings between Windows and UNIX user names and file system permissions.MULTIPROTOCOL The NetApp storage controller can present files via the CIFS protocol and the NFS protocol simultaneously. refer to the CIFS and NFS performance sections. Consider the following example:   Evaluate the user‘s SID or user ID against the share or export permissions. some unavoidable complexities arise. SECURITY The default security style for all new volumes is controlled by a WAFL option: options wafl.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. ADMINISTRATION The CIFS and NFS protocols are managed separately. even when they refer to the same file system. PERFORMANCE Multiprotocol access should not be the source of any performance concern. displays the list of volumes and qtrees and their security styles  qtree security <path> [ unix | ntfs | mixed ]. To manually set or view the security style for a volume or qtree. Access to the share or export is either granted or denied. refer to the CIFS and NFS administration sections. the operation is seamless.

cfg file. access is either granted or denied. In this case. Inc. attempt to use the defined default UNIX or Windows user name (if any). if the user names are defined in /etc/username. The process of mapping user names between Windows and UNIX contexts is reasonably straightforward:    Automatic.default_unix_user <username> TROUBLESHOOTING Most problems with multiprotocol access are caused by incorrect security styles or incorrect user-name mappings. The /etc/usermap. options wafl.default_nt_user <username> options wafl. The following diagram identifies where user-name mapping may need to occur. To identify how user-name mappings are being resolved. wcc –s <windows_user> This command displays the Windows to UNIX user-name mapping. for example: Domain\Administrator => root If you are connecting as the Administrator or root user to a volume with a foreign security style. if the Windows and UNIX user names match Specified (win_user = unix_user). if the user names differ and there is no specific mapping.If the ID and the permissions are of different types (for example. FIGURE 7: MULTIPROTOCOL ACCESS AND USER-NAME MAPPING The user-name mapping is defined in the /etc/usermap. then it may be necessary to map the user name to the correct type. Windows and UNIX). .nt_admin_priv_map_to_root on 29 Data ONTAP 8. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.cfg file Default. On a file-by-file basis. the easiest way to overcome an access problem may be to set the following options:  options wafl. issue one of the following commands:   wcc –u <unix_user> This command displays the UNIX to Windows user-name mapping.cfg file is a simple text file in the root volume of the storage controller.

nfs_root_ignore_acl on The wafl and cifs options grant superuser privileges on the foreign volume to Administrator and root users. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.symlinks. options cifs.enable option to on (the default value). To resolve (better yet. to avoid) the simplest of all access problems. 30 Data ONTAP 8. create both a CIFS share and an NFS export. Another possible issue with mixed NFS and CIFS access is that NFS clients support symbolic links in the file system and CIFS clients generally do not support symbolic links. Inc. This material is intended for training use only. you may need to debug a file-access problem (for example. NOTE: For detailed information about the interaction of CIFS clients with the various types of symbolic links. . refer to the product documentation. However. if you set the cifs. an NFS client can‘t open a file because it is locked by a CIFS client). You can use the cifs sessions command to list the clients that have active CIFS connections. due to variances in user populations and variances in CIFS and NFS file locking abilities.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. then a CIFS client can successfully resolve any symbolic-link problem that was created by an NFS client. respectively. In some cases.

0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. IP addresses. Identification – NSF clients can be identified by their host names. license add <licnum> The NFS server configuration is described in the /etc/exports file. and so on: – Example: 10. The /etc/exports file contains three types of information:  Resource list – Exports are resources that are available to NFS clients. FIGURE 8: AN EXAMPLE /ETC/EXPORTS FILE NOTE: Any volume (or qtree and so on) that is to be exported is listed in the configuration file. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.38  Authorization – Exports specify access permissions for NFS clients. IP subnets. – Example: rw and nosuid specify access permissions.254. DNS subdomains. specifies who can access the exports. 31 Data ONTAP 8. The NetApp storage controller can present files via the NFS protocol and can also participate in a Kerberos domain. . CONFIGURATION The NFS protocol is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used to present files for NFS client access.134. Inc. –  Example: /vol/flexvol1 identifies a resource that is to be exported. The file lists all NFS exports.NFS The Network File System (NFS) is the default NAS protocol that is included with all UNIX platforms. and specifies privilege levels (for example. This material is intended for training use only. read-write or read-only).

can export ancestors and descendants).0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. refer to the CIFS configuration section. 32 Data ONTAP 8. both /vol/vol1 and /vol/vol1/qtree1 can be exported. you use the exportfs command and the /etc/exports file. Inc. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. thus. the FAS controller can successfully export nested directories (and. you can create exports to expose the following object types for user access:     Volume /vol/vol1 Qtree /vol/vol1/qtree1 Directory /vol/vol1/dir1 File /vol/vol1/file1. This material is intended for training use only. and the NFS client must satisfy only the access controls that are associated with the mount point that was initially accessed. For a description of file system quotas.iso NOTE: Unlike most UNIX variants. . For example. Here are some examples of their use:     List the current exports (in memory) exportfs List the persistent exports (available after a reboot) rdfile /etc/exports Create an export (in memory) exportfs –i –o rw=host1 /vol/vol1 Create a persistent export (available after a reboot) wrfile –a /etc/exports /vol/vol1 –rw=host1 <CNTL>-C exportfs -a With the NFS protocol.ADMINISTRATION To perform NFS server administration tasks.

To collect statistics for individual clients. the number of I/O operations per millisecond grouping)  netapp-top. security has been seen as a weak spot for the NFS protocol. displays NFS performance statistics nfs_hist. The script is run on a client system. run the time mkfile command  To read traffic. a Perl script that lists the most active NFS clients. and statit). for example:   nfsstat. data-integrity evaluation. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. and integrity checking is performed. iozone. This material is intended for training use only. Kerberos – User authentication is performed on the remote NFS client. NOTE: By default. SECURITY Traditionally.PERFORMANCE The FAS storage controller has numerous performance counters. and other metrics.com/NOW/download/tools/ntaptop/. then you should investigate utilities such as iometer. The traditional security model is called ―AUTH_SYS. integrity checking is performed.netapp. refer to the Data ONTAP section. you must enable the nfs. or data encryption is performed. krb5i: Authentication occurs with each NFS request and response. but recent versions of NFS support very strong security. It is recommended that both systems be configured to use the same network time server.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.‖ and the newer model is called ―Kerberos. run the time dd command  To read/write traffic. Before a user can access an export. Inc. Various NFSspecific performance-analysis commands are available. This requirement is inherited from the Kerberos protocol.‖ Here is a summary of the differences between the two security models:  AUTH_SYS – User authentication is performed on the remote NFS client (which is typically a UNIX server). sysstat. you can perform some very basic performance analysis by using the following procedure (from the NFS client):  To write traffic. to verify that requests and responses have not been tampered with.  NOTE: If you wish to configure Kerberos mode for user authentication. . – There are three levels of Kerberos security. statistics. and Kerberos authenticates that the NFS client is genuine. if one is available. and bonnie++ and the NetApp sio tool. This scenario implies that the authentication process on the NFS client is trusted and that the NFS client is not an impostor. stats. the NFS client (remote UNIX server) must be able to mount the export. Then.pl. then the system time on the storage controller must be within five minutes of the system time on the Kerberos server. the user‘s access to the shared files in the export is evaluated against the user‘s UNIX user ID and 33 Data ONTAP 8. – No additional authentication. For detailed information about the controller-performance commands that are not specific to NFS (for example.    krb5: Authentication occurs with each NFS request and response. Nevertheless. Performance testing is a complex topic that is beyond the scope of this document. krb5p: Authentication occurs with each NFS request. an advanced mode command that displays NFS delay time distributions (that is. the NFS statistics that are reported are cumulative for all clients. The script can be downloaded from the NOW online support and services site at the following location: http://now.enable option. and data encryption is performed on each request and response.per_client_stats. run the time cp command NOTE: If you are concerned about repeatable performance testing.

displays low-level statistics that are useful in debugging a mount problem. refer to the ANCDA Boot Camp training materials. List the exports that are available on the NFS server by running the showmount –e command on the NFS client Check the controller‘s /etc/exports file. For detailed troubleshooting information. Check the /etc/fstab file on the host for errors.group ID (UID and GID). r/w or r/o). nfsstat –d This command. Kerberos security. which is usually provided at login time by the NFS client. you can try the following actions:  Verify that RCP is enabled  Verify that NFS daemons are running  Verify that mount points exist If you are having problems mounting an NFS export.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Check connectivity between the two systems by using the ping command. As such. but. If you suspect that RPC problems are the source of your NFS problems. which is run from the NFS client. you can try the following actions:      34 Data ONTAP 8. for example:   Evaluate the server‘s host name against the export permissions Access is either granted or denied (to mount the export. A full description of NFS troubleshooting is outside the scope of this document. you can try the following commands:   showmount –e This command. If you are experiencing ―stale NFS handle‖ errors. This material is intended for training use only. Inc. remarkably. . and the NFSv4 protocol enforces mandatory file locking. Check the controller‘s current exports in memory by running the exportfs command. if it is requested by the client. and host name resolution. The NFSv2 and NFSv3 protocols use advisory file locking. it is usually very reliable. NFS has numerous potential points of failure. which is run from the controller. Evaluate the user‘s UID/GID against the file or directory permissions Access is either granted or denied (on a file-by-file basis). lists the exports that are available on the NFS server. TROUBLESHOOTING NFS is a complex protocol that uses several TCP ports and interacts with various external systems for user authentication. This is a two step process. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.0 7-Mode EXAM PREPARATION This section describes various NetApp FAS learning points that are relevant to the NS0-163 and NS0-154 exams.0 7-Mode Web-based: Implementing SyncMirror on Data ONTAP8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. 35 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode or the corresponding NS0-154 exam) Analyze and resolve data protection problems Implement high-availability (active-active) controller configuration (including SyncMirror) RECOMMENDED COURSES    Instructor-led: Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode RELATED COURSES    Web-based: High Availability on Data ONTAP 8. SKILLS TESTED          Set up and maintain Snapshot™ copies Configure and administer SnapRestore technology Configure and administer asynchronous SnapMirror product Configure and administer synchronous SnapMirror product Configure and administer Open Systems SnapVault application Configure and administer Operations Manager application Configure and administer SnapLock® technology (not applicable in Data ONTAP 8. it also summarizes information about a range of NetApp technologies. . Figure 14 highlights the main subjects covered in the exam (white text) and the range of topics covered within each subject (black text). and SnapVault® products to manage and protect data. However. These learning points focus on data protection concepts. Inc.0 7-Mode Web-based: Planning and Implementing MetroCluster on Data ONTAP 8. Rather. the section is not limited to the exam topics. This material is intended for training use only. you can implement an active-active controller configuration and use SyncMirror software to ensure continuous data availability and rapid recovery of data and use the SnapMirror®.0 7-Mode Administration Instructor-led: NetApp Protection Software Administration Instructor-led: Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8.EXAM NS0-154: DATA PROTECTION CONCEPTS As a NetApp Certified Data Management Administrator. SnapRestore®.

Inc.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. . Not authorized for reproduction purposes. This material is intended for training use only.FIGURE 9 : TOPICS COVERED IN THE NS0-163 AND NS0-154 EXAMS 36 Data ONTAP 8.

and 20:00) and retains 6 total. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. a daily Snapshot copy (at 24:00 Monday through Saturday and Sunday if a weekly Snapshot copy is not taken). Snapshot copies are created according to the schedule‘s default settings.16. 12:00. 16:00.  Modify the Snapshot schedule by running a command similar to the following: 37 Data ONTAP 8. When you create a volume.SNAPSHOT TECHNOLOGY A Snapshot copy is a read-only image of a volume or an aggregate. CONFIGURATION The Snapshot capability of the FAS storage controller is a native capability that is provided by the WAFL file system layer. FIGURE 10: THE PROCESS OF A SNAPSHOT COPY LOCKING SOME BLOCKS IN THE AFS NOTE: Each volume can retain up to 255 Snapshot copies. The copy captures the state of the file system at a point in time. However.12.  List the default Snapshot schedule. providing for instant creation of Snapshot copies with near-zero capacity overhead. Inc. these would occur at 24:00 on Sunday). as required. so any update to the active file system (AFS) is written to other locations on the disk. to be used for rapid data recovery. you can modify or disable the default settings to satisfy your local backup requirements. This efficiency is possible because. Refer to Figure 16 for an example of how the Snapshot process occurs. a default Snapshot schedule is created. This material is intended for training use only. Both SAN and NAS data can be captured in a Snapshot copy. like most UNIX file systems. Many Snapshot copies may be kept online or vaulted to another system.20 The default schedule creates four hourly Snapshot copies (at 8:00. . And. NetApp Snapshot technology is particularly efficient. retaining 2 at a time and zero weekly Snapshot copies (if created. The data blocks that are referenced by a Snapshot copy are locked against overwriting. a Snapshot copy is a root inode that references the data blocks on the disk. the WAFL file system uses inodes to reference the data blocks on the disk.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Initially. – The command: snap sched <vol> – The output: Volume <vol>: 0 2 6@8.

0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. FIGURE 11: AGGREGATE AND VOLUME SNAPSHOT RESERVES NOTE: The value for the volume Snapshot reserve is the minimum amount of space that is reserved for Snapshot data. A percentage of every new volume and every new aggregate is reserved for storing Snapshot data. This material is intended for training use only.21  Disable the Snapshot schedule by running one of the following commands. You should then use a tool such as SnapDrive to initiate the Snapshot copies from the host.12. is the reserved space is known as the ―Snapshot reserve. 38 Data ONTAP 8. You can modify the default values by running the snap reserve command.9. you normally disable the controller initiated Snapshot copies because the consistency of the file system in the LUN can be guaranteed only by the host that accesses the LUN.‖ The default reserve is 5% for aggregates and 20% for volumes.snap sched <vol> weekly nightly hourly@<time> snap sched <vol> 2 7 6@6. The Snapshot copies can consume more space than the initial reserve value specifies. . Inc. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. snap sched <vol> 0 0 0 vol options <vol> nosnap on NOTE: On volumes that contain LUNs.15.18. snap reserve <vol> <percentage> Refer to Figure 17 to identify where the Snapshot reserve values apply.

they should not be deleted manually. Use the following command to disable the Snapshot directory per volume: vol options <volume_name> nosnapdir on  For CIFS access The default CIFS settings do not allow the Snapshot directory to be seen by CIFS clients. the contents of the copy cannot be modified by end users. The storage administrator can configure the visibility of the Snapshot directory (for NAS clients).0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. because Snapshot technology is very efficient.ADMINISTRATION Almost all Snapshot management is performed by running the snap command. Snapshot copies created with SnapMirror and SnapVault software) are created and managed by the storage controller and should not be interfered with. the creation. then the users may not be able to access the file system view in the Snapshot directory (unless their user-name mapping is configured to allow them to access the foreign security style). Use the following command to disable the Snapshot directory per volume. refer to the SnapRestore performance section. NTFS ACLs) that were in place when the Snapshot copy was created. retention. For information about performance.hide_snapshot on 39 Data ONTAP 8. deletes the specified Snapshot copy and makes its disk space available NOTE: Some special types of Snapshot copies (for example. options nfs. SECURITY By definition. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Inc. Use the following command to enable the Snapshot directory. This material is intended for training use only.show_snapshot on  For NFS access The default NFS settings do allow the Snapshot directory to be seen by NFS clients. then specify –A . NOTE: If the security style of the volume changes after the Snapshot copy is created. shows the currently retained Snapshot copies snap create <vol_name> <snap_name>. . User access to the data in a Snapshot copy is controlled by the file system security settings (for example. Because the copies contain consistent backup images that are being retained by schedules and policies on the agents. retained. The following commands either enable or disable client access to the Snapshot directory:  Per volume The default volume settings do allow the Snapshot directory to be seen by the NAS protocols. a Snapshot copy is a read-only view of the state of the file system at the time that the copy was created. Snapshot copies that are created with SnapDrive and SnapManager software should not be managed from the storage controller. This problem arises because the previous security settings are preserved in the Snapshot view. These Snapshot copies are created. for example:   snap list. PERFORMANCE Typically. and deleted under the control of the host and application integration agents. and deletion of Snapshot copies make no significant impact on performance. options cifs.  snap delete <vol_name> <snap_name>. Therefore. create a volume Snapshot copy (If you want an aggregate level Snapshot copy.

 40 Data ONTAP 8. you may not be able to use the LUN Snapshot copy to recover data. but complications can arise. the file system in the LUN may or may not be in a consistent state. You should use a tool such as SnapDrive to initiate the LUN Snapshot copies from the host (so the tool can flush the local file system buffers to disk). However.  Inconsistent file system If you create a Snapshot copy of a volume that contains a LUN. more and more of the space in the containing volume is consumed. and space within controller volumes The host that accesses a LUN assumes that it has exclusive control over the contents of the LUN and the available free space. This material is intended for training use only. there are no problems with creating Snapshot copies per se. . These complications are usually a result of incorrect scheduling or lack of disk space. LUNs. an ―out of space‖ error occurs (because the host assumed that space was available). they eventually consume all of the space in the volume. and Snapshot Autodelete ensure adequate free space and guarantee LUN availability. Inc.TROUBLESHOOTING Usually. Volume AutoGrow. If all of the space in a volume is consumed and the host attempts to write to a LUN within the volume. The controller then takes the LUN offline in an attempt to prevent data corruption. If the file system is corrupt. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The consistency of the file system in the LUN can be guaranteed only by the host that accesses the LUN. as Snapshot copies are created. If the Snapshot copies are not managed correctly.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Hosts. Refer to Figure 8 and to the text that accompanies Figure 8 for descriptions of Fractional Reserve and of the Volume AutoGrow and Snapshot Autodelete options and for an explanation of how Fractional Reserve.

individual files. ADMINISTRATION The SnapRestore feature is an extension of the snap command. depending on the workload and scheduling. To recover to a file name or directory location other than the original file name or directory location. the feature cannot be enabled or disabled at a per-volume level. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The only prerequisite for using the SnapRestore feature (other than licensing) is the existence of Snapshot copies. The SnapRestore feature restores data from Snapshot copies.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.  snap restore –t vol –s <snap_name> <vol_name> – –  – – This command reverts the entire volume back to exactly how it was when the Snapshot copy was created. It does not recover the following settings:     Snapshot copies schedule Volume option settings RAID group size Maximum number of files per volume NOTE: The volume SnapRestore command reverts the entire active file system (AFS) back to the point at which the Snapshot copy was created. The SnapRestore feature recovers only volume and file content. regardless of the size of the data. Snapshot copies that you have not created or retained cannot be used to restore data. can restore an entire volume or an individual file or LUN from a Snapshot copy. Therefore. when used with the restore parameter. add the –r <new_path_and_file_name> parameter. Before a Snapshot copy is deleted. Entire volumes. license add <licnum> NOTE: The SnapRestore feature is licensed system-wide. and LUNs can be restored in seconds. snap restore –t file –s <snap_name> <file_name> This command reverts an individual file back to exactly how it was when the Snapshot copy was created. the active maps across all Snapshot copies must be checked for active blocks that are related to the restored file.SNAPRESTORE TECHNOLOGY The SnapRestore feature enables you to use Snapshot copies to recover data quickly. CONFIGURATION SnapRestore is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. This performance impact may be visible to the hosts that access the controller. When using the SnapRestore feature. This material is intended for training use only. PERFORMANCE Using the SnapRestore feature to restore one file may impact subsequent snapshot delete performance. . The command. 41 Data ONTAP 8. NOTE: You can run the SnapRestore command (volume or file) only on a volume that is online. All Snapshot copies that were created between the time that the Snapshot backup copy was created and the time that the Snapshot backup copy was used to restore the AFS are deleted. Be aware that all subsequent Snapshot copies are deleted. be very careful! You cannot back out of your changes. Inc.

This overlap can cause file corruption and can generate NFS errors such as ―stale file handle. Virus scanning: If a virus-infected file was captured in the Snapshot copy.SECURITY After you perform a SnapRestore operation (at the volume or file level). TROUBLESHOOTING Because the volume remains online and writeable during the SnapRestore activity. such as security settings and timestamps. Inc. You should schedule a virus scan on any recovered file or volume. If you suspect that the revision may have created a problem. there is always the possibility that users may access files on the volume as the restore process is in progress. . the file timestamps are invalid for incremental backups. so you should run a full backup. the file system metadata. are reverted to exactly what they were when the Snapshot copy that was used to perform the restore was created. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. which must be licensed.‖ There are several methods of avoiding or correcting such issues:  Disconnect the users before you begin the SnapRestore operation  Have the users re-open files that might present a problem The SnapRestore destination volume cannot be a SnapMirror destination volume.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. File timestamps: After reversion. This material is intended for training use only. If you want to restore a SnapMirror destination volume. you should review the security settings. it is restored in its infected state (whether or not it was cleaned after the Snapshot copy was created). If you are using a third-party backup tool. then you should use the FlexClone® feature. 42 Data ONTAP 8. to link the destination‘s Snapshot copy to a new writable volume.    Security settings: The security settings of the file have been reverted to their earlier values.

run the vol status –b command. license the SnapMirror Async function. . This material is intended for training use only. and the second is a no-charge license that provides the synchronous and semi-synchronous capabilities. typically. customers with access to inter-site Fibre connections can install the model X1024 FC adapter and replicate across the optical media.SNAPMIRROR PRODUCTS The SnapMirror product family enables you to replicate data from one volume to another volume or. By default. The first is a for-charge license that provides the asynchronous replication capability. NOTE: For a qtree SnapMirror relationship. offsite disaster-recovery capability. NOTE: Some older NetApp controllers (FAS820 and prior) cannot support the SnapMirror Sync function. license add <licnum> Then. from a local controller to a remote controller. Inc. You need to know what the requirements and states of the source and destination volumes are and to understand how the requirements and states of volume SnapMirror relationships and qtree SnapMirror relationships can differ. The source and destination volume may be located on the same controller (for data migration) or on different controllers (for disaster recovery). the destination volume remains in an online and writeable state (not restricted) and the destination qtrees are created automatically when the baseline transfer is performed. production and disaster recovery systems). The second step (after licensing) in configuring a volume SnapMirror relationship is to create the destination volume. recoverable. The volume must be online but in a restricted state to initialize a volume SnapMirror relationship.   First. run the following commands on the destination system: vol create <vol_name> (with parameters to suit) vol restrict <vol_name>  To check the volume‘s status and size. CONFIGURATION SnapMirror is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. license the SnapMirror Sync and SnapMirror Semi-Sync functions (if required). The SnapMirror feature actually has two licenses. However. 43 Data ONTAP 8. license add <licum> The no-charge SnapMirror Sync license code is printed in the Data ONTAP Data Protection Online Backup and Recovery Guide. The TCP connection is usually over an Ethernet or TCP WAN link and is usually the most costeffective transport. SnapMirror products provide a consistent. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. the SnapMirror feature uses a TCP connection to send the replication data between the two controllers. The no-charge license is available only if the for-charge license is purchased. NOTE: The SnapMirror feature must be licensed on both the source and the destination systems (for example. Thus.  To create a restricted mode destination volume.

you must configure the SnapMirror access control between the primary and secondary storage controllers. performing asynchronous. This relationship controls the mode and/or the schedule for replication of the changed data from the source volume to the destination volume. the destination volume is an exact replica of the source volume (at that point in time). or semi-synchronous replication. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. After the source and destination volumes are defined.conf file. Inc. Next you must configure the ongoing replication relationship.20 * * sync semi-sync FIGURE 13: EXAMPLE SNAPMIRROR. As you configure the relationship. you also perform the initial baseline transfer. This material is intended for training use only.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. copying all of the data from the source volume to the destination volume.conf file is configured on the destination controller. you can configure the SnapMirror relationship. Before you can enable a SnapMirror relationship. The SnapMirror replication parameters are defined in the snapmirror. For a description of the required settings. These actions prevent the inadvertent resizing of the destination volume. the SnapMirror relationship can operate in any of three modes. refer to the Security section.CONF FILE NOTE: The snapmirror. Resizing can cause problems when (if) the relationship is resynchronized. snapmirror initialize –S src:vol1 dst:vol2 When the baseline transfer is completed. synchronous. the destination volume changes to a writable state. as shown in Figure 19: # Source src:/vol/vol1/q1 src:vol2 src:/vol/vol3 src:vol4 Destination dst:/vol/vol1/q1 dst:vol2 dst:/vol/vol3 dst:vol4 Options – – – Mode/Schedule 15 * * * 10 8. As shown in Figure 19. and the fs_size_fixed parameter is enabled on the volume. 44 Data ONTAP 8. .FIGURE 12 :SNAPMIRROR VOLUME AND QTREE CONFIGURATION NOTE: If a volume SnapMirror relationship is stopped (broken or released).

It is possible to configure the SnapMirror feature to use two redundant data paths for replication traffic. Inc. . incremental updates to the destination volume are based on schedules. This material is intended for training use only. NOTE: Editing the /etc/snapmirror. as shown in Figure 20: 45 Data ONTAP 8. The second path is in standby mode and becomes active only if the first path fails. ADMINISTRATION A SnapMirror relationship can be administered from either the source or the destination system. The following is an example of the previously used syntax: src:vol1 dst:vol1 outstanding=5s sync The following is an example of the current syntax: src:vol1 dst:vol1 – semi-sync NOTE: For descriptions of the various replication options (such as schedule definitions or throughput throttling).conf file. – – – – The host receives acknowledgment after the write is committed to the source volume. The following key words are used. The following is a VSM example: src:vol2 dst:vol2 .conf file on the destination causes an in-sync relationship to fall temporarily out-of-sync. although some functions are available only on their respective systems. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. – – The host receives acknowledgment only after the write is committed to both the source and destination volumes. refer to the product documentation. The paths can be TCP or FC connections or a mixture of TCP and FC connections. – – – – The host receives acknowledgment after the write is committed to the source volume. You use the snapmirror status command to display the state of the currently defined SnapMirror relationships. The paths are configured in the snapmirror.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Performance with minimal delay minimizes the performance impact on the host system. The following is an example command: src:/vol/vol1/q1 dst:/vol/vol1/q1 – sync  Semi-synchronous – Writes are replicated from a source volume or qtree to a destination volume or qtree with minimal delay. Block-level.   Multiplexing: Both paths are used at the same time for load balancing.20 * * The following is a QSM example: src:/vol/vol1/q1 dst:/vol/vol1/q1 – 15 * * *  Synchronous – Writes are replicated from the source volume to the destination volume at the same time that they are written to the source volume. Failover: The first path that is specified is active.10 8. Asynchronous – Snapshot copies are replicated from a source volume or qtree to a destination volume or qtree.

depending on your application‘s capabilities. The command temporarily pauses the replication. The following is one example of a process to create a consistent Snapshot copy at the destination of a qtree SnapMirror relationship: 1. The command stops the replication and converts the destination volume to a writable state. –  The relationship is still defined and can be resumed. the use of SnapDrive and SnapManager software. snapmirror resync <hostname:vol> – The command identifies the most recently created Snapshot copy that is common to the source and destination volumes and that is managed by a SnapMirror relationship and re-synchronizes the data between the source and destination volumes. Quiesce the SnapMirror relationship. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. –  The command resumes the volume replication. 46 Data ONTAP 8. then the relationship reverses its original direction (destination  source). such as suspending or restarting the replication or destroying the relationship. snapmirror break <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system. – Flush the file system buffers. The following are examples of common snapmirror functions:  snapmirror quiesce <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. – If the command is executed on the destination system. snapmirror update <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system. – The command performs an immediate update from the source volume to the destination volume. Inc. 2. snapmirror resume <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system.FIGURE 14: EXAMPLE OF SNAPMIRROR STATUS OUTPUT The Lag column identifies the amount of time that has elapsed since the last successful replication of the Snapshot source-volume copy that is managed by the SnapMirror relationship. snapmirror release <src_vol> <dst_hostname:dst_vol> – The command is executed on the source system. . The snapmirror command is used to manage all aspects of the SnapMirror relationship. – The relationship is still defined and can be resynchronized. – The relationship is deleted and cannot be restarted. and the intended result. if the command is executed on the source system. The destination volume remains read-only.    The process of capturing consistent Snapshot copies on the source volume and then transferring the copies to the destination system varies. the replication mode. then the relationship continues in its original direction (source  destination) – However. The command stops the replication and converts the destination volume to a writable state. Make the source volume consistent on disk. – Halt the application. The synchronization overwrites the new data on the controller on which the command was executed (bringing the execution-controller volume back into sync with the opposite volume). – The direction of synchronization is determined by whether the command was executed on the source or destination volume. This material is intended for training use only.

but only the latest version is included in the less frequent replication schedules.3. the physical characteristics of traditional volumes affect SnapMirror performance. . There are two ways to configure SnapMirror access control on the storage controllers:  Method 1 options snapmirror. This material is intended for training use only. Inc.access host=legacy – Edit the /etc/snapmirror. Reducing the internal is not recommended because deviation from the default value can have a detrimental impact on controller performance. In contrast. Resume the SnapMirror relationship. And the destination controller needs to grant access to the source controller so that the replication relationship can be reversed after a disaster event is resolved (synchronizing back from the disaster recovery site to the production site). Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Even after the data is received. or asynchronous) is often driven by the latency of the WAN connection. The appropriate choice of SnapMirror mode (synchronous. PERFORMANCE One of the challenges in a new SnapMirror configuration is the transfer of the baseline copy from the source to the destination system. One way to improve asynchronous performance is to increase the interval between the replication times. latency effectively limits the synchronous mode to a range of less than 100 km. In this case.allow file. then you should consider using the semi-synchronous mode. the Snapshot copy and replication process is usually automated via the SnapManager utility. In contrast to flexible volumes. and number of RAID groups. the incremental synchronization occurs. with a minimum setting of 30 seconds. The visibility_interval parameter controls the apparent performance of the SnapMirror synchronization. this functionality is now supported with the new smtape commands. The default visibility interval is three minutes.‖ Data is rewritten throughout the day. The parameter controls the view of the data on the destination system. The initial baseline transfer is usually constrained by the bandwidth of the connection. This method can use physical tape media to perform the initial baseline transfer. it may not be adequate to complete the baseline transfer in a timely manner. you must configure the SnapMirror access control between the source and destination storage controllers. If you require a ―sync-like‖ replication feature beyond 100 km or want to reduce the performance impact on the source system. NOTE: It is possible to throttle the SnapMirror traffic so as to reduce its impact on other applications that use the WAN connection. The source controller needs to grant access to the destination controller so that the destination controller can ―pull‖ updates from the source. RAID group size. 47 Data ONTAP 8. you should configure the source and destination volumes with the same RAID size.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. semi-synchronous. NOTE: In environments that use SnapManager software. for best SnapMirror performance.0 7-Mode. Because latency increases over distance. When you use traditional volumes. you might consider using the SnapMirror to Tape function. Although the WAN connection may be adequate to handle the incremental synchronization traffic. SECURITY Before you can enable the replication relationship. After the initial baseline transfer is completed. This increase allows for ―file system churn. In Data ONTAP 8. the process can be performed with no disruption to the application. 4. the asynchronous mode uses scheduled replication and is not affected by connection latency. Create a Snapshot copy of the destination volume. In this case. and the incremental synchronization is usually constrained by the latency of the connection. the destination file-system view is not updated until the visibility interval elapses.

.allow file for access control. FIGURE 15: SAMPLE OUTPUT OF SNAPMIRROR STATUS A SnapMirror relationship passes through several defined stages as it initializes the baseline transfer (level-0). it may be necessary to implement some type of network-level encryption for the replication traffic (for example. Method 2 options snapmirror. The details of the process of troubleshooting and rectification are determined by the stage that the relationship was in when the failure occurred. Alternatively. In this case. The log file is saved to the /etc/log/snapmirror. In a security-conscious environment. then the destination is incomplete. An encrypting Ethernet switch is used to encrypt data-at-rest. this option is set to the keyword ―legacy.access host=<other controller> – – By default. NOTE: Method 2 is the preferred way to enable the remote access.‖ Use of the keyword causes the system to refer to the snapmirror. Inc. to enable the SnapMirror relationship to be accessed from the remote controller. you can set the option to host=<hostname>. This material is intended for training use only. rather than trying to re-establish synchronization to the incomplete mirror. The DataFort security system is designed to encrypt data-at-rest. not data-in-transit.log. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Some status information is available only on the destination controller. and possibly reestablishes a broken mirror.enable [on|off]. 48 Data ONTAP 8. The log can be disabled by executing the following command: options snapmirror. The traffic between the source and destination controllers is not encrypted. The snapmirror status command displays the current status of all SnapMirror relationships. For example. if communications failed during the initial baseline transfer. to use the NetApp DataFort™ encryption devices). synchronizes data (level-1).[0-5] file(s).–  Add the other storage controller‘s host name.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. you must rerun the initialization. TROUBLESHOOTING Comprehensive logging of all SnapMirror activity is enabled by default.

NOTE: Although the destination volume remains writable. license add <licnum> License the secondary controller (sv_ontap_sec). The feature provides a consistent. This material is intended for training use only. the production or the disaster recovery controller). typically. offsite.   License the primary controller (sv_ontap_pri). The destination qtrees are created automatically when the SnapVault relationship is initialized. Inc. 49 Data ONTAP 8. CONFIGURATION SnapVault is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. the individual destination qtrees are read-only. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or SATA disks). The second step in configuring a SnapVault relationship (after licensing) is to create the destination volume.   Create a normal destination volume by running the following command on the destination system: vol create <vol_name> (with parameters to suit) Check the volume‘s status and size by running the following command: vol status –b NOTE: The volume must be online and in a writable state. and the other license is for the secondary controller (the archive destination). long-term backup and archive capability. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. license add <licnum> NOTE: The two licenses enable different functionalities. recoverable. you create the destination volume on a remote controller that provides lower-cost storage (for example. It is important that you know the requirements and states of the source and destination volumes and that you understand how SnapMirror requirements for the source and destination volumes differ. from a local controller to a remote controller. and the correct license must be enabled on the appropriate controller (for example.SNAPVAULT FEATURE The SnapVault feature enables you to create and archive Snapshot copies from one volume to another volume or. . Typically. One license is for the primary controller (the backup source).  Do not create the destination qtrees. The SnapVault feature has two licenses.

you can configure the SnapVault schedules on the primary and secondary controllers and start the incremental backups. NOTE: The SnapVault schedule definition is in the following format: <snapshots_to_retain>@<day_of_the_week><@hour_of_the_day> The schedule can be specified in more than one way. and all SnapVault transfers are based on schedules for asynchronous mode. You use the snapvault status command to display the state of the currently defined SnapVault relationships. After the source and destination volumes are defined. You can also perform the initial baseline transfer. you can define the schedule as the following: <snapshots_to_retain><@hour_of_the_day>@<day_of_the_week> ADMINISTRATION The administration of a SnapVault relationship can be performed from either the primary or the secondary system.Figure 22 illustrates the requirements of the source and destination volumes. This function determines many of the features and limitations of the SnapVault feature. the destination volume is an exact replica of the source volume. . you must configure the SnapVault access control between the source and destination storage controllers. snapvault start –S pri:/vol/vol1/q1 sec:/vol/vol1/q1 When the baseline transfer is completed. copying the data from the source qtree to the destination qtree. the basic unit of SnapVault backup is the qtree. Configure the primary controller and define a SnapVault schedule. as shown in Figure 23: 50 Data ONTAP 8. 3. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. snapvault snap sched vol1 sv_hourly 5@mon-fri@9-19 2. refer to the Security section. snapvault snap sched –x vol1 sv_hourly 5@mon-fri@9-19 The –x parameter instructs the secondary controller to request a resynchronization with the primary controller. Before you can enable the SnapVault relationship. Configure the secondary controller and perform the baseline transfer. This material is intended for training use only. FIGURE 16: SNAPVAULT VOLUME AND QTREE CONFIGURATION The technology behind the SnapVault feature is based on the qtree SnapMirror function. Define a SnapVault schedule. Because the day of the week is specified as a mnemonic expression.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. although some functions are available only on their respective systems. 1. This request reports the current file system state and then creates a Snapshot copy to retain the data. Inc. For descriptions of the access control settings. For example.

and specific access must be granted to any remote controller in a backup relationship. . refer to the product manual. Similar to the qtree SnapMirror process. PERFORMANCE One of the challenges of a new SnapVault configuration is the transfer of the baseline copy from the primary to the secondary system. the SnapVault process accesses the primary qtree at the file-system level and therefore sees (and backs up) the original version of any deduplicated data. Further deduplication can be scheduled on the secondary system. this command deletes the SnapVault relationship. this command triggers a manual (unscheduled) update of the specified qtree destination. no access is granted for SnapVault traffic. you should consider using the Logical Replication (LREP) function. Some third-party backup applications use SnapVault integration.    NOTE: For information about the other SnapVault commands. In this case. The following are examples of frequently used snapvault functions:  snapvault update sec_hostname:/vol/vol_name/qtree When executed on the secondary system. snapvault start –r <path> When executed on the secondary system. such as a USB drive connected to a laptop computer. you must break the SnapVault relationship or restore to a new qtree (and rename later). such as updating the secondary system or restoring the backup. 51 Data ONTAP 8. it may not be adequate to complete the baseline transfer in a timely manner.FIGURE 17: EXAMPLE OF SNAPMIRROR STATUS OUTPUT NOTE: You can use the snapvault status –c option to display the SnapVault qtree configuration parameters. – To restore a small amount of data (like one file). you must enable the NDMP protocol and define the user name and password for the application. Although this process may cause more data to be sent across the WAN than is expected. Although the WAN connection may be adequate to handle the incremental backup traffic. you may prefer to copy the files from a CIFS share on the secondary qtree. snapvault restore –S sec_hostname:/vol/vol_name/qtree pri_hostname:/vol/vol_name/qtree – When executed on the primary system. The LREP function can perform the initial baseline transfer by using external disk media. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. the secondary qtree is written in the original capacity.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. this command restores the qtree contents from the backup. – To restore to the original qtree location on the primary system. they are constrained only by the bandwidth of the connection and are not significantly affected by the link latency. this command resynchronizes the relationship and resumes backup operations after the SnapVault restore is completed. snapvault release <path> <other_hostname>:<path> When executed on either system. You can use the snapvault command to manage all aspects of the SnapVault relationship. Because SnapVault backups are scheduled activities (asynchronous). Inc. To enable these applications to communicate with the controller. SECURITY By default. This material is intended for training use only.

access host=<other controller> TROUBLESHOOTING Comprehensive logging of all SnapVault activity is enabled by default.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Because the SnapVault function is based on the qtree SnapMirror function.log. SnapVault access can be configured on the primary and secondary controllers by using the following command: options snapvault.[0-5] files. all log information for the SnapVault and qtree SnapMirror functions is stored to the same file. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.The primary controller must grant access to the secondary controller so that the secondary controller can ―pull‖ backups from the source. Inc.enable [on|off] 52 Data ONTAP 8. . The log information is saved to the /etc/log/snapmirror. The log can be disabled by executing the following command: options snapmirror. And the secondary controller must grant access to the primary controller so that the primary controller can request restores of the backups.

One license is for the OSSV primary server type (the Windows or UNIX backup source). CONFIGURATION OSSV is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. enable file tracing. The backup data is then retained using normal SnapVault schedules on the NetApp controller. a setup EXE is used for the Windows platform. Inc. you must restart the OSSV service.OPEN SYSTEMS SNAPVAULT (OSSV) The OSSV agent is a software application that allows SnapVault-like backups (block-level.  License the primary host (sv_windows_pri) license add <licnum> NOTE: The OSSV primary license key must be enabled on the secondary controller and not on the Windows or UNIX host. The OSSV software is installed on the host (primary). The OSSV feature requires two licenses. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. UNIX. . enable debugging. you must configure the access controls and the NDMP user name and password and specify which directories to include in the SnapVault backup.  License the secondary controller (sv_ontap_sec) license add <licnum> The installation details for the OSSV agent are operating system dependant. used to start and stop the OSSV service. It uses the SnapVault protocol to send the SnapVault backup data to a NetApp controller (secondary). This material is intended for training use only. Some of the OSSV utilities:    svconfigpackager Unattended installation utility svinstallcheck Automatic post-installation check svconfigurator (GUI) The primary configuration tool. incremental forever) to be performed by a non-NetApp platform (a Windows.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. The other license is for the NetApp ONTAP secondary controller (the archive destination). and so on svsetstanza Command line alternative to the svconfigurator GUI tool  NOTE: To read configuration changes. In the OSSV configuration tool (on the primary host). or Linux host). the configuration of the secondary controller is identical to the configuration of a SnapVault relationship. set the NDMP password. and installation scripts are used for the various UNIX platforms. 53 Data ONTAP 8. For example. In general.

similar to how you restore a SnapVault client One difference between an OSSV client and a SnapVault client is that the clients use different mechanisms to identify which changed blocks to back up. Previously. it is generally recommended that the secondary backup data be stored on a SATA disk. the administration of the OSSV agent and the SnapVault feature is very similar. Each model of NetApp controller supports a specified number of concurrent backup streams. sometimes. 54 Data ONTAP 8. The maximum number of concurrent backup streams can be increased by enabling the NearStore® Personality License (NPL) on the secondary controller. You can use the Free Space Estimator Utility to determine whether there is sufficient disk space on the OSSV primary client to store the database and to perform a BLI backup. NOTE: The NearStore feature was originally available only on the dedicated NearStore controller.ADMINISTRATION The mechanism that the OSSV agent uses to determine which changed blocks to back up differs greatly from the method used by the SnapVault feature on a primary NetApp controller. Some documentation may refer to the original NearStore hardware requirement. OSSV may differ from a controller based-SnapVault primary by the scale of the backup environment. . use the snapvault restore command. Subsequent backups are compared to this database to determine which changed data to back up. This block-level incremental (BLI) mechanism requires free space on the OSSV client to store a database of previously backed-up files and their block checksum values. The number varies according to the model type and. according to the software version.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. This material is intended for training use only. However. The NPL feature is available for all NetApp controller models. but it is now available as a licensed feature on all NetApp FAS controllers. Even a modest OSSV implementation can have tens (if not hundreds) of OSSV agents installed on Windows and UNIX hosts. as the two features perform almost identical functions. Inc. but the software implementation provides both a primary and a secondary system. A difference between the NearStore hardware and software implementations is that the hardware implementation provides a primary system or a secondary system. Because the backup traffic is a non-latency sensitive. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. some thought must be given to the number of concurrent backup streams. NetApp marketed a purpose-built NearStore appliance. which combined SATA-only storage and the NPL function. PERFORMANCE Many of the considerations for SnapVault performance apply to OSSV performance.  To back up the OSSV client: – Perform an initial baseline backup to the destination – Schedule block-level incremental backups  To restore the OSSV client. sequential workload. Because the OSSV backup traffic concentrates on the SnapVault primary controller.

   Primary Windows OSSV client c:\Program Files\netapp\snapvault\etc\snapvault.access host=<other controller> You must set the NDMP user name and password on the OSSV client. This material is intended for training use only. You can use either the client configuration GUI or the svpasswd command. The secondary controller must be granted access to the OSSV primary host so that the host can request restores of the backups. TROUBLESHOOTING The log-file locations for the OSSV agents are operating-system dependant. The OSSV primary host (Windows or UNIX) must grant access for the secondary controller so that the secondary controller can ―pull‖ backups from the source. On the secondary (NetApp) controller .0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. run the following command: options snapvault.[0-5] 55 Data ONTAP 8. no access is granted for OSSV traffic. .yyyymmdd Primary UNIX and Linux OSSV client /usr/snapvault/snapvault. and specific access must be granted for any remote controller in a backup relationship.SECURITY By default. OSSV and SnapVault access can be configured as follows:   On the primary (Windows or UNIX) host. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. use the client configuration tool to edit the QSM Access List field and enter the host name of the secondary controller. Inc.yyyymmdd Secondary NetApp SnapVault controller /etc/log/snapmirror.

the HA pair interconnect cable must be attached.   License the first node. Disable the controller failover feature (cf disable). After the high-availability feature is enabled. all disks are visible to both controllers. and the host-based MPIO drivers direct all FC traffic via the interfaces (assuming that single-image cfmode is being used) The process of removing a high-availability configuration is as follows: 1. if a controller failure occurs:     The surviving node spawns a virtual instance of the failed node The virtual node accesses its mirrored NVRAM to complete any interrupted write The local network interface assumes the IP address of both the local and partner interfaces (for Ethernet traffic) The local FC interfaces retain their original WWPN addresses. then it cannot be used by either controller for any purpose. it must be assigned to one or the other controller. 6. Halt. This process is known as ―software disk assignment.‖ If a disk is not assigned to a controller (in order words. 3. Power down and remove or relocate the controller failover interconnect card. Repeat the process on the other controller ADMINISTRATION In a high-availability configuration.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. NetApp used the term ―active-active‖ to describe the high-availability (HA) controller failover configuration. For example. Inc. and make sure the partner-sysid is blank. and both controllers must be provided access to the same IP subnets. both controllers must be provided Fibre connections to all expansion drawers. CONFIGURATION High-availability is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. you can unlicense it only when the HA pair is in a normal state and the controller failover services are manually disabled. such as NVRAM mirroring. you must configure various settings. with each node providing failover support for its partner.HIGH-AVAILABILITY CONFIGURATION In the past. license add <licnum> License the second node. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The high-availability feature activates numerous high availability capabilities. The highavailability feature must be licensed on both HA nodes. which enables the controllers to provide failover support for each other. license add <licnum> NOTE: You must then reboot and start the controller failover feature. Remove the partner‘s network entries from the /etc/rc file. Delete the controller failover license (license delete …). . 2. 5. 4. Before a disk can be used in an aggregate or a spare. if it is listed as ―not owned‖). 56 Data ONTAP 8. This material is intended for training use only. Two controller heads are configured as a pair. For example. Before you enable the high-availability feature.

it displays a ―waiting for giveback‖ or "waiting for mb giveback" message. use Asymmetric Logical Unit Access (ALUA) support. It is not possible to have a shelf connected to one controller and not to the other controller. Inc. In an FC SAN environment. administration of a high-availability configuration and administration of two non-clustered controllers are identical. The cabling prevents unnecessary controller failover for non-critical reasons. loop breaks. ensure that the host-based multipathing support is correctly configured. SECURITY In almost all aspects of security. such as SFP failure. refer to the product manuals. although some configuration settings must be synchronized between the two controllers. At this point. a high-availability configuration and a non-clustered configuration are identical. both controllers require connectivity to all of the disk expansion shelves. . This mode is not supported on any current-generation controller. The clustered controllers are managed separately. An even distribution of the workload is usually attributable to good solution planning and to automatic load balancing in the host-based MPIO drivers (for FC traffic). the administrator enters the cf giveback command on the operational controller to return the failed controller back to the normal state. If a controller loses access to one of the disk shelves. and so on. PERFORMANCE Optimum performance is usually achieved when the controllers in a high-availability configuration share the client workload evenly. Generally. One of the features that you must master is the process of HA pair failover and failback.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Where appropriate. NOTE: For more information about controller failover management. after a failed controller is rebooted and ready to assume its old identity and workload. In most other ways. TROUBLESHOOTING In a high-availability configuration. It is recommended that multipath HA cabling be used for the disk-expansion shelf connections. ESH module failure. where ownership was determined by the Fibre Channel cabling topology. the performance concerns of a high-availability configuration and of a non-clustered configuration are identical. This material is intended for training use only. For example. 57 Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.Use the following commands to manage disk ownership:   Assign disk ownership disk assign List disk ownership (several methods) disk show –v storage show disk sysconfig –r NOTE: Earlier versions of Data ONTAP supported hardware disk assignment. but automatic) failover is triggered. a negotiated (clean.

Stretch mode supports both FC and SATA expansion shelves. This process involves the use of a SyncMirror configuration to mirror the data between the two locations. the MetroCluster pair maybe on a separate subnet and use the /etc/mcrc file to configure the interfaces appropriately.2 and later. With Data ONTAP 7.  Hardware requirements – – High-availability controller heads In fabric mode only    – – – MetroCluster FC/VI adapter FC switches Software license requirements Cf license Cf_Remote license SyncMirror license There are a number of prerequisites and limitations that you should be aware of before you attempt to configure a MetroCluster environment. and minimize disruption. . if a site disaster occurs. Then. – Fabric-attached mode     Disk types and expansion shelves – – – – Both controllers require connectivity to all expansion shelves. the limitation may be less than 100 km. you can fail over the HA pair. Inc. disk ownership is determined by where the controller's HBAs connect to the switch and where the disk shelves connect to the switch. CONFIGURATION The MetroCluster feature combines two hardware configurations and several licensed features. The 500-m limitation is primarily a limitation of the MultiMode Fibre cable that is used to connect the two controllers.  Networking – 58 Data ONTAP 8. also affect the maximum supported distance. both controllers (at their individual sites) require connectivity to the same IP network subnet ranges or VLANs.  Distance / Latency limitations – Stretch mode   The maximum cable distance between the two controllers is 500 m. require different hardware configurations. This material is intended for training use only. If cable type and patches are not adequate. such as the type of laser small form-factor pluggable (SFP) that is used or whether fiber optic repeaters or wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) devices are used. the limitation may be less than 500 m.2.3. The 100-km limitation is primarily a limitation of the latency across the distance. If additional latency is present.METROCLUSTER FEATURE AND SYNCMIRROR SOFTWARE You can use MetroCluster technology to split two controllers of a high-availability pair and position them in two physical locations.3. The two MetroCluster modes. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. All of the components must be connected and enabled before they can be configured and used. Prior to Data ONTAP 7. The maximum supported distance between the two controllers is 100 km. Other factors.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Fabric-attached mode supports only FC type expansion shelves (although SATA shelves can be present if they are not mirrored). stretch mode and fabric-attached mode. restore operations at the remote site. In fabric mode.

0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. The disks must be divided evenly between the two controller locations. This material is intended for training use only. All disks must be of the same type. The following diagrams illustrate the main components of MetroCluster and the differences between stretch mode and fabric-attached mode. 59 Data ONTAP 8. refer to the product manuals. SyncMirror configuration – – – An even number of disks are required. NOTE: This section summarizes configuration requirements and capabilities. you cannot mirror FC disks to SATA disks. Before attempting to design or install a MetroCluster environment. For more information about the supported expansion shelf configurations in a MetroCluster environment. In other words. FIGURE 24:STRETCH MODE METROCLUSTER DIAGRAM NOTE: The number and ownership of the disk expansion shelves is indicative only. they are resized. . Inc. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. If the disks are not the same size. refer to the product documentation. All disks must be the same size.

use of the forcetakeover option can corrupt the data. and each controller attempts to assume the partner‘s role. The command allows HA pair failover to proceed even when configuration problems might otherwise prevent the implementation of a takeover command. Check the current status. In a MetroCluster environment. where a site disaster has made the partner controller unresponsive (offline or destroyed).0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.FIGURE 18: FABRIC-ATTACHED MODE METROCLUSTER DIAGRAM ADMINISTRATION After the MetroCluster-specific configuration is completed (disk pool assignment. failover requires administrative intervention. . The command also splits the SyncMirror relationship. Before you split a SyncMirror volume. refer to the product documentation. Use the forcetakeover command only if the remote MetroCluster partner node is powered off and inaccessible. failover occurs automatically. 60 Data ONTAP 8. NOTE: For more information about MetroCluster takeover and giveback procedures. An exception to this equivalency concerns failover management of HA pairs. The use of the forcetakeover option is very dangerous. SyncMirror configuration. then at some point you may wish to split a mirrored volume and disable the SyncMirror software. This material is intended for training use only. Normally. However. Inc. The following is an example of the process that you use to split a mirror and disable SyncMirror software: 1. the storage administration is generally equivalent to the storage administration for a highavailability controller. a communications outage causes both controllers to assume that the other controller has failed. the state of the partner controller determines which takeover command is used. In extreme cases. both plexes should be online and operational. In this scenario. and so on). Intervention protects against the split-brain scenario. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. If the partner controller is operational and able to access its storage. you may need to use the cf forcetakeover –d command. If you are using SyncMirror software to provide local mirroring (not in a MetroCluster configuration). with MetroCluster.

In a MetroCluster configuration. the simplest and fastest site failover is provided. each site is assigned its own disks. manual NFS fencing). If a disk in a RAID-4 SyncMirror volume fails (or if two disks in a RAID-DP volume fail) and the pool contains no spare disks. and. If you specified multipath HA cabling to the disk expansion shelves. the node must be manually powered on to enable a takeover to be performed. . in some environments. Usually. Always remember the maxim—men with backhoes are irresistibly drawn to network cabling. you cannot disable the SyncMirror license. A prolonged disruption of the communications between the two controllers is classified as a disaster. including its own spare disks. typically spanning two sites. Disable the SyncMirror license by running the license delete <licnum> command. This result can be achieved in several ways. you can configure the appropriate SAN and NAS security (for example. SECURITY In almost all aspects of security. Both controllers need connectivity to all expansion shelves (over fiber). or you can isolate the remote controller by powering off the remote node (If a disaster occurs. The 1-ms maximum is usually seen as the practical limit for synchronous replication. Split the mirrored volume by running the vol split vol0/plex0 vol0new command. NOTE: If one or more mirrored volumes exist. This material is intended for training use only. TROUBLESHOOTING A MetroCluster configuration. PERFORMANCE Except for the potential for additional latency in the SyncMirror configuration. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. then you should double-check the connectivity by running the following command: storage show disk –p In a multipath HA configuration. Therefore. However. You should now have two unmirrored volumes. Systems uses multipath HA cabling. The two controller heads must maintain communication by way of at least one of the two interconnect ports (over fiber) and over IP (over the WAN).0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. For example. storage service is provided to both sites.). is more vulnerable to communications disruptions than a standard high-availability controller. the output should list two paths to each disk. the volume does not go into degraded mode or shut down after the RAID timeout. This result (lack of result) occurs because the volume‘s data integrity is guaranteed by the mirror plex at the other site (or pool). if a disaster occurs. 3. 61 Data ONTAP 8. then you should consider a standard SnapMirror (semi-synchronous or asynchronous) configuration. Disk-site assignment ensures that adequate spare disks are located at each site. known as a pool. The spare disks assigned to a site are. the performance of the MetroCluster feature and the performance of a standard high-availability controller are identical. Such a disruption requires administrative action to resolve the MetroCluster site failover. If you need to replicate across a greater distance or where the latency may be higher than 1 ms. It is good design to ensure that the various redundant inter-site connections (assuming that they exist) are located in physically separate conduits. you may want to limit or prevent access to the remote controller. Even though there is no disk redundancy in the volume in which the failure occurred.2. as a group. a MetroCluster configuration and a standard high-availability controller configuration are identical. both controllers in a high-availability and MetroCluster configuration are enabled. then the system generates a warning and continues normal operation. Inc. The 100-km maximum-distance limitation for a fabric MetroCluster environment is intended to limit the additional latency to a maximum of 1 ms.

com/us/library/technical-reports.netapp. PRACTICE EXAM NS0-154—Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Volume 2 Core Command Quick Reference   Technical reports http://www.html FURTHER READING  Product documentation http://now. Inc. Volume 1 Commands: Manual Page Reference.ADDITIONAL MATERIALS The following resources are recommended as preparation for the NCDA certification exams.html Best-practice guides http://now.netapp. .netapp.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.com/NOW/products/education/public/certification/NS0-154-PRACTICE/index.netapp.cgi 62 Data ONTAP 8.shtml – – – – – – – – – – – System Administration Guide Storage Administration Guide High Availability Configuration Guide Network Management Guide File Access and Protocols Management Guide Block Access Management Guide Data Protection Online Backup and Recovery Guide Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide Commands: Manual Page Reference.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/docs. This material is intended for training use only.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/ontap/ontap_index.0 7-Mode Administrator http://now.

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