NETAPP UNIVERSITY

Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide
Course Number: STRSW-ILT-ANCDA-D87M Revision, Date: 2.0, 25MAY2010

ATTENTION
The information contained in this guide is intended for training use only. This guide contains information and activities that, while beneficial for the purposes of training in a closed, non-production environment, can result in downtime or other severe consequences and therefore are not intended as a reference guide. This guide is not a technical reference and should not, under any circumstances, be used in production environments. To obtain reference materials, please refer to the NetApp product documentation located at http://now.netapp.com/ for product information.

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© 2010 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. Specifications subject to change without notice. No part of this book covered by copyright may be reproduced in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or storage in an electronic retrieval system—without prior written permission of the copyright owner. NetApp reserves the right to change any products described herein at any time and without notice. NetApp assumes no responsibility or liability arising from the use of products or materials described herein, except as expressly agreed to in writing by NetApp. The use or purchase of this product or materials does not convey a license under any patent rights, trademark rights, or any other intellectual property rights of NetApp. The product described in this manual may be protected by one or more U.S. patents, foreign patents, or pending applications.

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2 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATION DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................................5 EXAM NS0-154 – STORAGE NETWORKING CONCEPTS .............................................................................6
SKILLS TESTED.......................................................................................................................................................................... 6 RECOMMENDED COURSES ...................................................................................................................................................... 6 EXAM PREPARATION ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

DATA ONTAP .....................................................................................................................................................8
CONFIGURATION ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 10 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 13 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 14

SAN ...................................................................................................................................................................15
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 19 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 20 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 22 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 23

CIFS ..................................................................................................................................................................24
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 24 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 25 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 26 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 27 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 27

MULTIPROTOCOL ...........................................................................................................................................28
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 28 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 28 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 29

NFS ...................................................................................................................................................................31
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 31 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 32 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 33 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 34

EXAM NS0-154 – DATA PROTECTION CONCEPTS .....................................................................................35
SKILLS TESTED........................................................................................................................................................................ 35 RECOMMENDED COURSES .................................................................................................................................................... 35 EXAM PREPARATION .............................................................................................................................................................. 35

SNAPSHOT ......................................................................................................................................................37
3 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 54 SECURITY ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... This material is intended for training use only................................................................. 42 TROUBLESHOOTING .......................................................................................... 39 TROUBLESHOOTING ..................................................................................... 57 SECURITY ...........CONFIGURATION ...................................................................................................................................... 52 OPEN SYSTEMS SNAPVAULT (OSSV) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 41 ADMINISTRATION.............................................................................. 49 ADMINISTRATION.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 41 PERFORMANCE ................................................................................................................. 61 TROUBLESHOOTING ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 SNAPMIRROR .................................... 62 FURTHER READING .................................................................................................................................................................................... 56 ADMINISTRATION...................................................................................................................................................................................43 CONFIGURATION ............................................................................................................................ 54 PERFORMANCE ..................................................................................................................... Inc............ 62 4 Data ONTAP 8............... 37 ADMINISTRATION........................................................ 61 SECURITY .................................................. 45 PERFORMANCE .....................................................................53 CONFIGURATION .............................................................................................................................................. 43 ADMINISTRATION........................................................ 47 TROUBLESHOOTING .... 61 ADDITIONAL MATERIALS ............................................................................................................................................................................62 PRACTICE EXAM .........................58 CONFIGURATION ............................................................................................................................................... 47 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 58 ADMINISTRATION.............................................. 55 TROUBLESHOOTING .................. 57 TROUBLESHOOTING ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp....................................................................................................................................................................... Not authorized for reproduction purposes....................................... 53 ADMINISTRATION............................................................................................................. 39 SECURITY .................................................................................................................. 48 SNAPVAULT .................................................................................................................................................................... 50 PERFORMANCE .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................49 CONFIGURATION ....................................................................................................56 CONFIGURATION ...................... 60 PERFORMANCE .........................................................41 CONFIGURATION ............................................................................... 57 METROCLUSTER / SYNCMIRROR ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 51 SECURITY .............................................................................................. 51 TROUBLESHOOTING ....................................................................................................................................................... 39 PERFORMANCE ..... 41 SECURITY .............................................................................................. 55 HIGH-AVAILABILITY CONFIGURATION (HA PAIR) ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 40 SNAPRESTORE ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................ 56 PERFORMANCE .......................................................................................................................................................................

candidates had to pass two exams (NS0-153 and NS0-163). TCP/IP Provide in-depth support Perform administrative functions Manage performance Implement high-availability (active-active) controller configurations and SyncMirror® and MetroCluster® solutions to ensure data availability and recovery Use the SnapMirror®. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. iSCSI. 5 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode course nor the successful learning of the contents of this guide guarantees passing the exam. Inc. you are an expert in managing and optimizing a NetApp® storage system that runs the Data ONTAP® operating system in NFS and Windows® (CIFS) multiprotocol environments: You have proven your ability to: Work with multiple issues and within multiple environments—CIFS. This material is intended for training use only.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. CERTIFICATION DESCRIPTION As a NetApp Certified Data Management Administrator (NCDA). The guide reviews generally the material that is provided in the Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8. While this option is still available at the time of this writing. At least six months of experience administering NetApp storage systems is expected. FC. NCDA candidates may now sit for one exam (NS0-154) based on Data ONTAP 8. to achieve NCDA certification.PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE This guide helps you prepare for the NCDA (NSO-154) certification exam. and SnapVault® products to manage and protect data FIGURE 1: NETAPP CERTIFIED DATA MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATOR (NCDA) Previously. . This study guide focuses on the newer exam but maintains the structure of the NS0-153 and NS0-163 exams for backwards compatibility. SCSI.0 7-Mode course. SnapRestore®.0 7-Mode operating system. NOTE: Neither successful completion of the Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8. NFS.

Figure 2 highlights the subjects covered in the NS0-154 exam (white text) and the topics covered within each subject (black text). administrative functions. and procedures for using the UNIX® file system. in addition to discussing the exam topics. especially in relationship to creating and mounting file systems that use UFS on storage system-based logical unit numbers (LUNs) Identify the components and tools that are required to create a LUN Install or update HBA drivers and firmware to enable Fibre Channel (FC) protocols for SCSI and TCP/IP protocols for iSCSI Use the sio_ntap utility. Inc. and implement solutions in CIFS and NFS environments Identify the supported storage area network (SAN) configurations and the necessary hardware and software components (including NetApp Support Console) Identify concepts. and FC for SCSI or iSCSI for TCP/IP protocols on a NetApp storage system that runs the Data ONTAP operating system in NFS and Windows (CIFS) multiprotocol environments. operating systems. NFS. SKILLS TESTED               Describe the configuration requirements for NFS in a storage system environment Configure the storage system to support Kerberos™ security Explain and identify the frequently used CIFS components Create. This material is intended for training use only. and applications Configure 64-bit aggregates for a system running Data ONTAP 8. and manage CIFS shares. However. 6 Data ONTAP 8. identify.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. the section provides a summary of a range of NetApp technologies. to gather data for performance and problem analysis Collect data to assist with troubleshooting hardware. as well as storage system commands. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. and performance management for CIFS.0 7-Mode EXAM PREPARATION This section describes various NetApp FAS learning points. and permissions Analyze storage system statistics and identify potential performance issues Analyze NFS performance by using the sysstat and nfsstat commands Investigate. . groups. configure.0 7-Mode Fundamentals Instructor-led: Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Administration Instructor-led: Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode RECOMMENDED COURSES    Web-based: Data ONTAP 8.EXAM NS0-154: STORAGE NETWORKING CONCEPTS As a NetApp Certified Data Management Administrator. commands. troubleshoot. The points are relevant to the NS0-153 and NS0154 exams and are related to storage networking concepts. you will have proven skills in performing in-depth support.

This material is intended for training use only. 7 Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Inc.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.FIGURE 2: TOPICS COVERED IN THE NS0-153 AND NS0-154 EXAM The 154 exam covers these topics and additional topics that are not identified here. .

. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.PROTOCOLS SUPPORTED BY THE NETAPP FAS CONTROLLERS NOTE: This figure identifies only the major storage. such as the NetApp API (Manage ONTAP Solution or ZAPI). software features. and storage tiers in an appliance-like design. supporting a wide range of storage protocols and storage-management software features.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Data ONTAP is the foundation of the NetApp Unified Storage architecture. some protocols. Refer to Figures 3 for identification of the supported protocols.DATA ONTAP SOFTWARE The operating system of the NetApp FAS storage controller is named Data ONTAP. For brevity. This material is intended for training use only. management. Inc. FIGURE 3 . and Network Information Service (NIS) are not shown. and authentication protocols. The NetApp FAS storage controllers are designed around the NetApp Unified Storage architecture and support numerous storage protocols. 8 Data ONTAP 8.

Any FC HBA adapter that you purchase is predefined as either an initiator or target adapter. This script configures fundamental parameters such as hostname. –  Use the fcadmin config <adapter_name> -t initiator command to set an adapter to initiator mode.168.255.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. 9 Data ONTAP 8. .1. To manually reconfigure the FAS controller‘s Ethernet network interfaces.1 netmask 255. Inc. you use the NetApp System Manager interface or the ifconfig command. Windows or UNIX servers).255. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The fcp show initiator command returns all host FC initiator ports that are visible via the controller‘s FC target ports. network IP addresses.0 NOTE: Most changes made from the command-line interface are transient. You can rerun the setup script manually at any time to reconfigure the parameters. and CIFS authentication (if licensed). NOTE: The fcadmin command applies only to the built-in FC ports. Target mode – Use target mode to connect to host systems (that is. – Use the fcadmin config <adapter_name> -t target command to set an adapter to target mode. You may also need to configure the built-in FC ports (located on the motherboard).CONFIGURATION When the storage controller is powered on for the first time. This material is intended for training use only. The fcp show adapter command returns only the FC ports that are configured to function in target mode. To enable persistence after a reboot. it runs the setup script. for example: ifconfig ns0 192. The built-in FC ports can function in one of two modes:  Initiator mode (the default) – Use the initiator mode to connect to disk expansion drawers. you must enter the changes into the /etc/rc file.

3. Inc. The cifs shares –add … command defines a CIFS share.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. NetApp System Manager: a GUI designed for single-system configuration 2. Operations Manager includes the following products: – – – Performance Advisor Protection Manager Provisioning Manager 10 Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Open protocols (such as RSH and Telnet) are disabled by default. . NetApp recommends use of the default. ADMINISTRATION The administration of the NetApp FAS controller can be performed via various administrative interfaces. or Secure Shell (SSH) – – – The aggr status command displays the existing aggregates. The options dns. 1. NOTE: In Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode. Operations Manager: a licensed tool that is installed on a host and that provides sophisticated management tools for one or more storage systems. This material is intended for training use only. Command-line interface: accessed via Telnet.FIGURE 4: FIBRE CHANNEL INITIATOR-TARGET PORT RELATIONSHIPS NOTE: Similar initiator-target relationships exist in iSCSI connections. only secured protocols (such as SSH) are enabled by default.enable on command enables Domain Name System (DNS) name resolution (which requires further configuration). Remote Shell (RSH).

On the other hand. used to identify the version of Data ONTAP in which a particular bug was fixed 64-BIT AGGREGATES Before Data ONTAP 8. This architecture effectually limits the size of an aggregate to 16 TB. as the size of each disk drive increases. As storage demands increase. With multipathing. Inc. ext3). the volumes within the aggregates were based upon a 32-bit architecture. used to request replacement of failed hardware Bugs online. an aggregate can accommodate only nineteen 1-TB data drives. 11 Data ONTAP 8. for all NetApp products Software downloads. Protection Manager and Provisioning Manager are separately licensed products. Second. The NetApp on the Web (NOW)® online support and services site is available to all customers and business partners. with iSCSI‘s inherent multiple connections per second (MCS) You choose the multipath solution that best meets the needs of your environment. even if a SAN hardware failure occurs. However. The hosts then create and manage their own local file system (for example. and others use Ethernet. and NAS provides file-level access.3. Multipathing ensures storage availability. aggregates and. . You should become familiar with the NOW site. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. in Data ONTAP 7.The license for Operations Manager enables Performance Advisor. Some of the resources available on the NOW site include:       A knowledgebase (searchable) of NetApp product information Online manuals. the controller provides block-level access to the hosts. NAS storage uses the file system on the controller—the WAFL® (Write Anywhere File Layout) system. Refer to Figure 4 for an example. As the number of drives decreases. The various SAN and network-attached (NAS) protocols differ in many technical details: SAN provides block-level access.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. consequently. Perhaps the simplest way to define the difference between SAN and NAS is by describing how the file system is managed and how access is shared. NOTE: Management of the FAS storage infrastructure can be promoted to the host operating system (Windows or UNIX) by the SnapDrive® tool and to the application layer by the SnapManager® tool. the read and write performance that can be realized from an aggregate also decreases. the 16-TB limitation causes three major issues. the number of drives per aggregate must decrease. performance is directly affected. Both tools are optional purchases and require licenses. and the local file system is typically not shared with other hosts.0. some protocols use FC connections. shared storage.  FC and iSCSI multipathing – With the host platform‘s native multipath I/O (MDIO) driver – – With the NetApp device-specific module (DSM) for Windows With the Veritas Dynamic Mulitpath (VxDMP)software  iSCSI only multipathing. This material is intended for training use only. First. Additionally. For a SAN device. including updates and evaluation versions Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA). NetApp supports various multipathing options for both FC and iSCSI. as it is a primary resource for questions regarding the configuration or performance of a FAS storage controller. For example. both SAN and NAS provide remote systems (hosts) with access to centralized. there are redundant physical paths (two or more) between a host and the controller. used to review all known software bugs Release Comparison. Both FC and iSCSI SANs support multipathing. and the controller provides shared file-level access to multiple remote systems (hosts).

Such a requirement greatly increases the complexity of managing large storage arrays. Data ONTAP 8. a 64-bit aggregate is created. * Supported only through a Policy Variation Request (PVR) FIGURE 5: 64-BIT AGGREGATES—MAXIMUM AGGREGATE SIZE PER PLATFORM In Data ONTAP 8. To create a 64-bit aggregate. NOTE: In Data ONTAP 8. Similarly. The new aggregate is named ―sales aggr. are added the new 64-bit aggregate.3 or earlier to Data ONTAP 8. In Data ONTAP 8.07-Mode operating system supports 64-bit aggregates.0. all existing aggregates are designated as 32-bit aggregates.0 7-Mode supports aggregates of up to 100 TB—running on top-of-line hardware with greater aggregate sizes available in the future.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. . Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Inc.‖ and 24 spare disks. the storage administrator can manually choose the disks to be added by specifying a -d switch and the disk names. you must migrate data from a 32-bit aggregate to a 64-bit aggregate. This material is intended for training use only. and the 64 parameter designates a 64-bit aggregate architecture. The 32 parameter is the default. you must explicitly use the 64 parameter. When a storage administrator upgrades a storage system from Data ONTAP 7.The third issue with the 16-TB limitation is that aggregate management becomes more complex and less efficient. For example. See Figure 5 for information about platforms and maximum aggregate sizes. you cannot directly convert a 32-bit aggregate to a 64-bit aggregate. chosen by Data ONTAP. If you want to take advantage of the 64-bit aggregate feature. you may use the ndmpcopy command. For example.0 Cluster-Mode. As in earlier Data ONTAP releases. NetApp added the -B switch to the aggr create command. 64-bit aggregates are not available.0. 12 Data ONTAP 8. a FAS6070 system with 500 TB of storage requires a minimum of 32 aggregates.0. This architecture overcomes the disadvantages of the 16-TB limitation. if a storage administrator enters the following: aggr create sales aggr -B 64 24. This switch accepts 32 or 64 as a valid parameter. NOTE: The command succeeds only if the specified number of spare disks exists. To migrate data. NetApp is pleased to announce that its Data ONTAP 8. aggr create <aggr-name> [-B {32 | 64}]… The 32 parameter designates a 32-bit aggregate architecture. volumes within a 32-bit aggregate cannot be moved directly to a 64-bit aggregate.

The command can be used to identify when a controller is busy. This material is intended for training use only. netstat. HTTP. NFS. – – Example: The stats show cifs:cifs:cifs_latency command displays the average latency value for the CIFS protocol. and disk performance values. the security of the Data ONTAP operating system.  Some commands for collecting statistics about the performance of the Ethernet network interface and other data are:  netstat: The netstat -i command identifies the network interfaces. including consistency point (CP) time and type. Example: The sysstat –u command displays extended utilization data. and other performance counters. including per-disk performance data. including transmitted (Tx) and received (Rx) bytes per second If you cannot resolve a performance problem by using the systat. network interface card (NIC). Characteristics of the perfstat command:      Captures all needed performance information Captures information from hosts and filers Captures all information simultaneously and thus enables cross correlation Operates on all host platforms and all filer platforms Records all captured data in one plain-text output file DATA ONTAP SECURITY The security of the FAS controller.  statit – This command can output performance data on various object types. The default interval is 15 seconds. then you may need to download the perfstat command from the NOW online support and services site. specific instances of object type. Inc. nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). This section deals only with Data ONTAP security. Performance counters can also be accessed via the Windows PerfMon GUI (but only if CIFS is enabled). errors. FC and iSCSI) performance to the output. . Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Outputs such as cp_from_log_full (‗F‘) and cp_from_cp (‗B‘) indicate that the controller is busy. Performance data can consist of a broad summary of system performance or of details about specific performance parameters. – – Example: The sysstat –s 5 command runs every five seconds and prints a summary on termination. Some common commands for collecting performance data are:  sysstat – The default output includes CIFS. 13 Data ONTAP 8. stats – This advanced mode command can provide low-level performance data. – The command displays many performance items. or ifstat commands.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.PERFORMANCE You can use several commands on the FAS storage controller to collect system performance data. CPU. and the security of the data stored on the controller are different topics. the number of in and out network packets. stats. The –b parameter adds block-level (that is. status. and collision values  ifstat: The ifstat –a command displays a low level view of interface performance data.

with their obvious variations. delete. which cannot be deleted. The output can be analyzed in third-party network monitoring tools.The Data ONTAP operating system supports role-based access control (RBAC). This material is intended for training use only. The capabilities are predefined and cannot be changed. 14 Data ONTAP 8. so you can analyze a protocol level problem. FIGURE 6: ROLE BASED ACCESS CONTROL For administrative purposes. one or more accounts are usually defined on the FAS storage controller.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. with specific capabilities. where defined roles. can be bound to groups. NOTE: There is always at least one administrative account. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. such as the following: – ethereal (download from wireshark. or modify users.org) – netmon (download from 14icrosoft. TROUBLESHOOTING If you need to capture a network packet trace. . to add.com) NOTE: You must first convert the tcpdump output to netmon format by using the capconv. Examples of the useradmin command:     To create an administrative user useradmin user add <username> -g <groupname> To list the local groups useradmin group list To delete a role useradmin role delete <rolename> To assign a capability to a role useradmin role modify <rolename> -a <capability> You can use the useradmin commands.exe command that you can download from the NOW online support and services site. or roles. The useradmin command is used to create and modify local admin accounts. Characteristics of the pktt command:   Is normally run for a short period. groups. Individual users are then assigned to the groups. capturing network traffic on a particular interface. list. The assigned users can perform only the tasks that the roles assigned to their groups allow them to perform. Inc. Produces output in standard tcpdump format. root. potentially filtered to target a particular client. then you could use the pktt command on the FAS controller.

This flexibility allows for easy migration between the SAN access protocols. –     A worldwide node name (WWNN) is shared by both controllers. One feature (among many) that distinguishes the NetApp SAN architecture from competitive solutions is that the LUNs are defined below the SAN protocol layer.2 software. Inc. a LUN that is being accessed via FC is visible from every FC target port on both FAS storage controllers (even though the LUN is actually ―owned‖ by only one controller). refer to the product documentation. CONFIGURATION Refer to Figure 4 and the accompanying text for a description of the initiator and target configuration of the controller‘s built-in FC ports. In a high-availability configuration.SAN The NetApp FAS storage controllers support both the FC and iSCSI SAN standards. you must reboot the controller.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. After you change modes. Therefore. which is called ―single image. 15 Data ONTAP 8.‖ has been the default failover mode for FC controllers since the release of Data ONTAP 7. only the single_image mode is supported for new storage systems. You can change from one to another failover mode (with caution) by using the fcp cfmode command. partner mixed dual_fabric standby Although all of the failover modes for FC controllers are supported for existing systems. If you require a description of the earlier FC cluster modes. a NetApp LUN is not an FC LUN or an iSCSI LUN. The iSCSI protocol handles controller failover in a completely different manner. The failover modes for FC controllers are:  single_image (the default since Data ONTAP 7. This FC access mode. even simultaneously.2) – LUNs are visible on all FC target ports labeled by their worldwide port names (or WWPNs) on both controllers. The following table details some of the features and limitations of the various failover modes: FIGURE 7: FAILOVER MODES FOR FC CONTROLLERS NOTE: Failover mode for FC controllers is an FC-specific concept. . This material is intended for training use only. but it can be exposed to a host via either or both protocols.

An iSCSI protocol can use either a specialized iSCSI HBA adapter or any standard Ethernet port. the end result is the same. you do not need to manually create the igroups or map the LUNs. so the host can access a LUN. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Inc. to start the protocol iscsi status. used for controller failover The SAN protocols provide block-level access to the LUNs on the storage controller. run the lun setup script and follow the prompts. LUN that is presented to a host must be unique to the host. whereas iSCSI travels on top of a TCP connection). The only difference between the protocols is that the iSCSI license is provided for no charge with the every FAS controller. Each host can have its own IDs. such as the location (path) of the LUN. To create everything from a wizard. No configuration or host access can occur until the protocols are started. each host has its own LUNs and LUN IDs. for the local controller ISWTb. igroup create and lun map commands. for the partner controller. To filter which LUNs are visible to which hosts (sometimes called ―LUN masking‖). although they vary greatly in detail and implementation (for example. Use the following commands to start each of the SAN protocols:  FC – –  – – fcp start. The LUN ID is the means by which a host identifies a LUN and distinguishes between multiple LUNs. This material is intended for training use only. If you are using ISWT support in a high-availability controller configuration. as follows:   NetApp System Manager. Therefore. Both FC and iSCSI are licensed protocols. you need to know certain facts. and the LUNs and LUN IDs of each host are independent of the LUNs and LUN IDs of all other hosts. When a LUN is created via the lun setup wizard. the OS of the respective host. multiple commands are rolled up into the script. However.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.   Multiple LUNs to the same host must have unique LUN IDs. to return the status of the protocol iscsi start. However. then you must run two additional commands—to make the LUN accessible from a host. The FC protocol can use only a dedicated. which allows you to manage storage from the host NOTE: When you create a LUN. When you use the wizard. a GUI downloadable from the NOW online support and services site Command-line interface. SnapDrive. not between hosts. they must be started. You can create the LUNs by using various tools. to start the protocol fcp status. using either of the following two methods – –  To create each item manually. if you create a LUN manually. of course. IDs can conflict only within a host. the capacity required. 16 Data ONTAP 8. FC is a wire-level protocol. run the lun create. then you may notice two ISWT devices:   ISWTa. . target-mode FC port on a specialized FC HBA adapter. then the controller uses the iSCSI software target (ISWT). However.Conceptually. you must use the igroup create and lun map commands. they both provide block-level services to a host. You use the license add <licnum> command to license a feature (such as FC or iSCSI) on the controller. After the SAN protocols are licensed. If a standard Ethernet port is used. to return the status of the protocol iSCSI Another difference between the FC and iSCSI protocols concerns ports and adapters. and the LUN ID. FC and iSCSI are very similar.

How a LUN consumes capacity on its parent volume and how LUN capacity is affected by the creation of Snapshot® copies is a complex topic. If a volume that contains a LUN is incorrectly configured. the host may think that the volume has space available for writing data while. This material is intended for training use only. There are several ways to prevent the LUN capacity problem from occurring:  Space reservation—former best practice – – Until recently. vol options <vol> fractional_reserve 100 (100% by default) lun create (LUN space reservation is on by default. space reservation was the recommended method to guarantee space for writes to a LUN (regardless of the number of Snapshot copies). Obviously. igroup create defines a relationship between a host (WWPN) and the OS type and identifies whether the current connection is an FC or iSCSI connection. thus guaranteeing that writable capacity is always available to the host. . You need to be aware of the minimum and maximum LUN sizes that are supported by each of the host operating systems. the host should now be able to rescan for and connect to the new LUN. in reality. When the host attempts to write data.) lun set reservation (to change the space reservation of a LUN) – Configuration of the parameters causes an amount of space equal to the size of the LUN (100%) to be excluded from Snapshot copies.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. – 17 Data ONTAP 8. lun map </path/lun> <ig_name> <lun_id>  NOTE: Assuming that the SAN zoning is correct. For more detailed information. Inc. refer to the NOW online support and services site and host platform documentation. Refer to the Figure 8: FIGURE 8: SUPPORTED LUN SIZES PER HOST PLATFORM NOTE: Not all supported operating system platforms are shown here. igroup create -f -t windows <ig_name> <wwpn> lun map defines a relationship between a LUN and the igroup and sets the LUN ID. the volume is filled with Snapshot data. the LUN goes offline. Such a configuration is sometimes referred to the ―two times plus Delta (2X+Δ)‖ overhead. the LUN capacity problem creates a very undesirable scenario. and manual rectification is required. Some of the parameters to be configured for this method are volume fractional reserve to 100% and LUN space reservation to Yes. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Use of the threshold changes the capacity required to ―one times plus Delta (1X+Δ). – FIGURE 10 . vol autosize <vol-name> on (off by default) snap autodelete <vol-name> on (off by default) vol options <vol> fractional_reserve 0 – This parameter configuration sets a utilization threshold at which the containing volume automatically grows and/or at which certain existing Snapshot copies are deleted. 18 Data ONTAP 8. Some of the parameters to be configured for this method are Volume AutoGrow and Snapshot AutoDelete.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. . When the parameters are configured. two automatic utilization thresholds were introduced. refer to the product documentation.FIGURE 9 . This material is intended for training use only. replacing the former best practice (use of the 100% fractional reserve) with the current best practice.CONFIGURING AUTOMATIC CAPACITY MANAGEMENT NOTE: For more information about volume and LUN space management.CONFIGURING VOLUME AND LUN PROVISIONING NOTE: Some documentation may still refer to these former best practices.‖ Use of thin provisioning can produce an even better result. Use of the threshold ensures that space is always available for the host to write to the LUN. the Volume Fractional Reserve can be safely set to 0%.  Volume AutoGrow and Snapshot AutoDelete—current best practice – – In the last few years. Inc.

Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Usually.snapshot/lun1 /vol/vol1/lun2  lun clone split.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Inc. the relationship be split lun clone split start /vol/vol1/lun2 NOTE: For more detailed descriptions of the lun command options. it is often necessary to coordinate with the relevant host during the Snapshot backup of a LUN. splits a LUN clone from its backing snapshot Because a LUN clone locks the backing snapshot (that is. Therefore. it is recommended that. it is best practice to simplify the Snapshot copy process by one-to-one (1:1) relationship between volume and LUN (or in other words. then a subsequent attempt to create a Snapshot copy fails. If you fill the LUN with data. the coordination process occurs with no disruption to service. if the Snapshot copy were created.ADMINISTRATION You can use lun commands not only to create LUNs but also to perform various other LUN-related actions:    lun offline.  On the host – –  Quiesce the application or database Flush the host‘s file system buffers to disk (LUN) snap create /vol/vol1 <snapshot_name> The copy now contains a consistent image of the host‘s file system and application database in an idle or offline state. assume that you configure a 400-GB volume and then create a 300-GB LUN inside the volume. when Snapshot copies are created. relocates a LUN from one to another path within the same volume lun show. and the two LUNs share blocks with a snapshot of the original LUN (known as the ―backing‖ snapshot) lun create –b /vol/vol1/. Remember that the Snapshot copy of a LUN is created at the volume level. all data in the volume is captured in the Snapshot copy including multiple LUNs and NAS data if present in the volume. For detailed information about the various capacity management methods that are relevant to Snapshot backup of volumes and LUNs. instantly creates an read/writable LUN as a clone of an existing LUN The new LUN is thin provisioned (no space is consumed until new data is written). makes a LUN unavailable for host access lun move. . unquiesce the application or database. NOTE: The NetApp host attachment kit includes a utility to flush the host‘s file system buffers to disk. only the host and the application can ensure the consistency of the file system and database. prevents the backing snapshot from being deleted). So. having the volume containing only a single LUN). displays various types of information about LUNs – –  To display the LUN to igroup mappings: lun show -m To display the LUNs operating system platform types: lun show -v lun clone. create the Snapshot copy of the LUN. On the controller. you must consider the free capacity in the containing volume. 19 Data ONTAP 8. The failure occurs because. for long-term use. refer to the Snapshot section. there would be insufficient free capacity in the volume to allow the host to continue to write to the LUN. A LUN can contain a file system that is managed by the host and/or contain a database that is managed by an application on the host. In this case. refer to the product documentation. This material is intended for training use only. For example. When you create a Snapshot backup of a LUN.  On the host. Therefore.

– The LUN must be offline or unmapped. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. highly functional interface for managing the storage controller. for a very large file. Inc. Many examples of the scripts can be downloaded from the NOW online support and services site. and so on) Switch – Network speed – Port oversubscription – Switch workload Host – Workload type (random versus sequential and read versus write) – Network speed   20 Data ONTAP 8. then you can browse to the . you can use single file SnapRestore.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. switch. You can then copy individual files back to the original LUN.  SnapDrive – Create a LUN – Connect to a LUN – Trigger a new consistent Snapshot copy of a file system – Restore a Snapshot backup – Clone a LUN – Manage iSCSI connections SnapManager – Trigger a new consistent Snapshot copy of an application – Manage the retention of Snapshot backups – Restore a Snapshot backup of an application – Clone an application or database (only for specific applications) – Migrate application data onto LUNs  NOTE: You can perform Snapshot application integration without SnapManager support.  LUN clone: You create a clone of the LUN and then mount the clone. Perhaps the best way to manage (and create Snapshot copies of) SAN storage is to use the NetApp host and application integration tools. deduplication. This material is intended for training use only. there is a SnapDrive package. These tools provide an easy-to-use. you must create the required automation scripts. and. you can use either of two methods:  Volume SnapRestore – This method restores the entire volume and the LUN. To do so. there is a SnapManager package.  Controller – Model (versus expected performance level) – Number of spindles supporting the LUNs – Network speed – Number of ports or paths – Balanced workload between high-availability controllers – Background tasks (replication. . and controller configurations.snapshot directory and copy the individual files back to the active file system or.To restore from a Snapshot backup of a LUN. RAID rebuild. RAID scrub. For each supported host operating system platform. PERFORMANCE The performance of the SAN is dependent on the available physical resources and the host. NOTE: If the Snapshot backup contains NAS data (rather than a LUN). for many popular business applications.

ISCSI SESSIONS AND CONNECTIONS The commands to list the iSCSI connections and sessions are: iscsi session show iscsi connection show –v NOTE: The advantages and disadvantages of the multipathing methods are beyond the scope of this document. This material is intended for training use only. The connections-to-sessions relationship can be configured in either of two modes. . you can list connections (an iSCSI initiator-totarget relationship) and sessions (TCP) separately. Inc.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. 21 Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.– – – – Multipathing configuration (high-availability or failover only) Number of paths HBA tuning Correct partition alignment Because all iSCSI traffic is carried over the TCP protocol.  Single connection per session (1:1) – Creates one iSCSI connection per TCP session – Is supported by the Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO) and NetApp DSM for Windows Multiple connections per session (MCS) – Creates multiple iSCSI connections per TCP session – Provides a native iSCSI multipathing capability  FIGURE 11.

SECURITY

The security of the SAN is enforced at several levels—some on the controller, some in the fabric, and some in conjunction with the hosts.  FC – LUN masking – Port masking – SAN zoning iSCSI – LUN masking – Port masking – Ethernet VLANs – Passwords – Encryption (igroups) (portsets)

(igroups) (iscsi accesslist) (iscsi security) (ipsec)

In an FC SAN, the ability of the various devices to discover each other and communicate across the fabric is controlled by the zone definitions. Only devices that reside in the same zone can communicate. The two main types of SAN zones are:  Soft zones – Is usually defined using the WWPN of the host‘s and controller‘s FC ports; allows communication between the device‘s FC ports – Blocks inter-zone traffic by filtering device discovery at the fabric name service but does not explicitly block traffic Hard zones – Is usually defined using the physical port numbers of the FC switch; allows communication between the physical switch ports – Blocks inter-zone traffic by filtering device discovery at the fabric name service and by preventing traffic between switch ports

When designing FC SAN zones, apply the following recommendations:  Decide on a naming convention and use only the naming convention that you decided on  Keep disk and tape devices in separate zones  Define a zone for every required initiator-target pairing A concern with an iSCSI SAN is that the block-level traffic and other, less-sensitive data might be travelling over the same physical network. In this situation, the iSCSI traffic is exposed to network snooping and other attacks. The NetApp FAS controllers support port masking, bidirectional password access, and network encryption of the iSCSI traffic.  iSCSI port masking allows you to deny specified network adapters the ability to expose an iSCSI initiator group to the hosts:

iscsi interface accesslist remove ig0 e0a
 iSCSI password requires an iSCSI host that is trying to access a LUN to respond to a password challenge. It can also require a controller to answer a password challenge from the host. iscsi security add -i <igroup_name> -s CHAP -p <inpassword> -n <inname> [ -o <outpassword> -m <outname> ]

22 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

IPSec encryption enables encryption of the Ethernet network traffic. Because it is not an iSCSI specific setting, it encrypts all Ethernet traffic (but the client, of course, needs to know how to decrypt the traffic). options ip.ipsec.enable on and ipsec policy add

NOTE: Network encryption, although effective, can negatively affect the performance of what should be a high performance iSCSI solution. Therefore, many sites choose not to encrypt iSCSI traffic and instead deploy a separate network infrastructure or a virtual local area network (VLAN) to isolate the iSCSI traffic.
TROUBLESHOOTING

Troubleshooting a SAN problem requires knowledge of the host, the SAN switches and network infrastructure, and the storage controller. Much of the information associated with this knowledge is outside the scope of this document. However, here are some actions that you can perform to troubleshoot a simple LUN access problem:  On the controller – Can the storage controller see the host‘s FC adapters? fcp show initiator – Is the LUN being presented to the host? lun map –v igroup show –  If there a problem with iSCSI password access? iscsi security show On the SAN switches, are the host‘s FC initiator ports and the controller‘s FC target ports in the same zone? – Run the zoneshow command (Brocade). – Run the show zone command (Cisco MDS). On the host (Solaris 9) – Is the host configured to detect the LUN? – Is the LUN ID in the /kernel/drv/sd.conf file? – Has the host rescanned to detect the LUN? – Run the devfsadm command.

NOTE: For additional troubleshooting recommendations, refer to the product documentation.

23 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

CIFS
The Common Internet File System (CIFS) is the default NAS protocol included with Microsoft Windows. The NetApp storage controller can participate in an Active Directory domain and present files via the CIFS protocol.
CONFIGURATION

The CIFS protocol is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used to present files for client access. license add <licnum> NOTE: If the controller was ordered with the CIFS license, then CIFS license will already be installed, and the CIFS setup wizard will start automatically when the system is booted. The easiest way to configure the CIFS protocol is to run the CIFS setup wizard. The wizard prompts you for all aspects of the CIFS configuration, such as the NetBIOS host name, the authentication mode (for example, Active Directory), and the local administrator password. To start the wizard, you run the cifs setup command: The choices for CIFS user authentication are:  Active Directory  NT Domain  Windows Workgroup  Non-Windows workgroup NOTE: If you wish to configure Active Directory mode for user authentication, then the system time on the storage controller must be within five minutes of the system time on the Active Directory server. This requirement is inherited from the Kerberos protocol, which Active Directory uses for improved security. It is recommended that both systems be configured to use the same network time server, if one is available. You can not only use an external authentication system such as Active Directory but you can also define local users and groups. It is recommended that a local administrator be defined—to be used if the Active Directory server is unavailable. You can add domain users (such as a Domain Admin) to local groups. This ability can be useful when you are managing the storage controller as part of a larger enterprise. For example, to add the domain user ―Steven‖ to the local Administrators group, run the following command: useradmin domainuser add steven -g Administrators For information about how to manage local users and groups, refer to Figure 6 and to the text related to Figure 6.

24 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

Hard: When the specified threshold is reached. limits on the number of files that can be stored (sets a maximum) Quota thresholds – – Soft: When the specified threshold is reached. . the controller prevents the user‘s attempt to write more data. you can create shares to expose the following object types for user access:  Volume /vol/vol1 Qtree /vol/vol1/qtree1  Directory /vol/vol1/dir1 It is sometimes desirable to set a quota on the amount of disk space that an individual user or group can consume via the CIFS (or NFS) protocol. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.ADMINISTRATION To create and manage CIFS shares.   List the active quotas quota status Enable quotas 25 Data ONTAP 8.  Quota targets – User. The client displays a ―filesystem full‖ error. controls how much data can be stored in the specified qtree (similar to a directory) NOTE: The Administrator and root users are exempt from the all quota types except the qtree quota type.1 and later) interface. applies only if the specified quota is not defined for the current user or group Quota objects – Capacity. you must use the cifs command and the shares parameter. Both methods store the quota configuration in the /etc/quotas file on the controller‘s root volume. This material is intended for training use only. –  Default.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Here are some examples of the use of the cifs command and the shares parameter: List the existing shares cifs shares Create a share cifs shares –add <sharename> /vol/vol1 Change a share cifs shares –change <sharename> -comment Using the CIFS protocol. the controller sends only a Simple Network Time Protocol (SNMP) trap. There are several types of quotas and various options to enforce each type of quota. controls how much data the specified user can store – Group. controls how much data the specified group of users can store – Qtree. limits the amount of disk space that can be used (sets a maximum) – Files. Inc.  Quotas are configured and managed via either the quota command or NetApp System Manager (1. The user‘s write succeeds.

Also. refer to the Data ONTAP section.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.  Resize a quota quota resize <volume_name> When you modify the limits of a quota. However.enable option. and statit). displays CIFS performance statistics cifs top. Inc. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. CIFS statistics are cumulative for all clients.quota on <volume_name> A file system scan is required. cifs restart This command restarts the CIFS service (the clients can now reconnect). displays the most active CIFS clients. options cifs. which begins with an asterisk (*). as determined by various criteria NOTE: By default. Changing some CIFS performance parameters is disruptive. for example:   cifs stat. you must enable the cifs.   vol options <volume_name> convert_ucode on vol options <volume_name> create_ucode on 26 Data ONTAP 8. For detailed information about the controller-performance commands that are not specific to CIFS (for example. For a large file system. Here is an example of an /etc/quotas configuration file: FIGURE 6 : AN EXAMPLE QUOTA CONFIGURATION FILE NOTE: The second line. 3.  Report on quota usage quota report A report that details the current file and space consumption for each user and group that is assigned a quota and for each qtree is printed. This material is intended for training use only. the scan can require a significant amount of time. Here is an example process: 1.neg_buf_size <value> This command changes the buffer size. stats. Such changes can be performed only when no clients are connected. a file system scan is not needed. 2. To collect statistics for individual clients.per_client_stats. One easy way to improve CIFS performance is to set Unicode mode on the volume that contains the shared files. various CIFS-specific performance-analysis commands are available. and other metrics. the file system scan is not needed only if you modify the limits on an existing quota. PERFORMANCE The FAS storage controller has numerous performance counters. statistics. is a default quota. . sysstat. cifs terminate This command halts the CIFS service and disconnects all clients.

it is usually very reliable. as required. TROUBLESHOOTING CIFS is a complex protocol that uses several TCP ports and interacts with various external systems for user authentication. A full description of CIFS troubleshooting is outside the scope of this document. In this case. you use the cifs command and the access parameter. remarkably. . the access protocol is CIFS.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. but.  If mandatory file locking is requested by the client. Therefore. configuring a volume for Unicode support may increase performance. access is either granted or denied. tests communication with the Active Directory server ifstat. refer to the ANCDA Boot Camp training materials. but the containing volume or qtree may have a UNIX security style. Therefore. cifs access <share> <user> <access rights> The list of share-level access rights are: – No Access – Read – Change – Full Control  The system evaluates the user‘s security ID (SID). Inc. then the controller must continuously convert between Unicode mode and non-Unicode mode. against the user‘s share permissions. suggested remedial actions Another potential issue is file access permissions. and host name resolution. the CIFS protocol enforces it.‖ is discussed in the next section. which is called ―multiprotocol access. which is usually provided at login time by the Active Directory server. provides a standard TCP connection test testdc. This configuration. 27 Data ONTAP 8. On a file-by-file basis. analyzes the network protocol statistics to ensure correct operation and displays. If you suspect that connectivity problems are the source of your CIFS problems.Because the CIFS protocol always uses Unicode. you can try the following commands:     ping. Kerberos security (Active Directory). if a volume is not configured for Unicode support. For detailed troubleshooting information. Access to the share is either granted or denied. This material is intended for training use only. The system evaluates the user‘s SID against the file or directory permissions. Here is an example of how user access rights are evaluated:  You issue the command that identifies shares and access rights. SECURITY To manage user access to CIFS shares. displays a low-level view of network-interface performance data netdiag. the CIFS protocol has numerous potential points of failure. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

Because the controller includes sophisticated mappings between Windows and UNIX user names and file system permissions. because Windows systems and UNIX systems use different security semantics.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Therefore. . SECURITY The default security style for all new volumes is controlled by a WAFL option: options wafl. Consider the following example:   Evaluate the user‘s SID or user ID against the share or export permissions. the shares and exports. ADMINISTRATION The CIFS and NFS protocols are managed separately. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. refer to the CIFS and NFS administration sections. Access to the share or export is either granted or denied. CONFIGURATION The only requirement for multiprotocol access is that CIFS access and NFS access be configured to the same file system. displays the list of volumes and qtrees and their security styles  qtree security <path> [ unix | ntfs | mixed ]. The mappings that do not need to be configured are discussed in the Security section. sets the security mode for a nominated volume or qtree Although the security-style setting controls the underlying file system‘s security type. Where <value> = mixed Each file and directory can have either UNIX or NTFS permissions (but not both at the same time). The multiprotocol environment introduces additional complexity because the relationships between the security semantics of the users. For detailed information about the administration of the CIFS and NFS protocols. To manually set or view the security style for a volume or qtree. some unavoidable complexities arise. For detailed performance information. and the file system must be mapped. refer to the CIFS and NFS performance sections. the operation is seamless. NOTE: Because the use of mixed mode can complicate the troubleshooting of file-access problems. Inc.default_security_style <value>    Where <value> = unix All files and directories have UNIX permissions. 28 Data ONTAP 8. Some security settings and user-name mappings do need to be configured. you use the following commands:  qtree status. Where <value> = ntfs All files and directories have New Technology File System (NTFS) permissions. the protocols should not be the source of any multiprotocol concern. Of course. Evaluate the user‘s SID or user ID against the file or directory permissions. even when they refer to the same file system. PERFORMANCE Multiprotocol access should not be the source of any performance concern.MULTIPROTOCOL The NetApp storage controller can present files via the CIFS protocol and the NFS protocol simultaneously. it is recommended that mixed mode be used only when it is needed to accommodate a particular requirement. access via CIFS or NFS to the file data is controlled by the normal user-authorization process. This material is intended for training use only.

Not authorized for reproduction purposes. wcc –s <windows_user> This command displays the Windows to UNIX user-name mapping. if the user names differ and there is no specific mapping.cfg file Default. if the Windows and UNIX user names match Specified (win_user = unix_user).default_unix_user <username> TROUBLESHOOTING Most problems with multiprotocol access are caused by incorrect security styles or incorrect user-name mappings. The following diagram identifies where user-name mapping may need to occur.cfg file. On a file-by-file basis. for example: Domain\Administrator => root If you are connecting as the Administrator or root user to a volume with a foreign security style. then it may be necessary to map the user name to the correct type.If the ID and the permissions are of different types (for example. This material is intended for training use only.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. In this case. issue one of the following commands:   wcc –u <unix_user> This command displays the UNIX to Windows user-name mapping.cfg file is a simple text file in the root volume of the storage controller. attempt to use the defined default UNIX or Windows user name (if any). The /etc/usermap. . options wafl.default_nt_user <username> options wafl. the easiest way to overcome an access problem may be to set the following options:  options wafl. Windows and UNIX). if the user names are defined in /etc/username. The process of mapping user names between Windows and UNIX contexts is reasonably straightforward:    Automatic.nt_admin_priv_map_to_root on 29 Data ONTAP 8. Inc. FIGURE 7: MULTIPROTOCOL ACCESS AND USER-NAME MAPPING The user-name mapping is defined in the /etc/usermap. To identify how user-name mappings are being resolved. access is either granted or denied.

if you set the cifs. .enable option to on (the default value). Another possible issue with mixed NFS and CIFS access is that NFS clients support symbolic links in the file system and CIFS clients generally do not support symbolic links. refer to the product documentation. you may need to debug a file-access problem (for example. respectively. However.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. 30 Data ONTAP 8. NOTE: For detailed information about the interaction of CIFS clients with the various types of symbolic links. create both a CIFS share and an NFS export. then a CIFS client can successfully resolve any symbolic-link problem that was created by an NFS client.nfs_root_ignore_acl on The wafl and cifs options grant superuser privileges on the foreign volume to Administrator and root users. To resolve (better yet. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Inc. You can use the cifs sessions command to list the clients that have active CIFS connections. to avoid) the simplest of all access problems. due to variances in user populations and variances in CIFS and NFS file locking abilities. This material is intended for training use only.symlinks. an NFS client can‘t open a file because it is locked by a CIFS client). options cifs. In some cases.

DNS subdomains. and specifies privilege levels (for example. Identification – NSF clients can be identified by their host names. 31 Data ONTAP 8. Inc. This material is intended for training use only. read-write or read-only). –  Example: /vol/flexvol1 identifies a resource that is to be exported.NFS The Network File System (NFS) is the default NAS protocol that is included with all UNIX platforms. and so on: – Example: 10. . specifies who can access the exports.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. IP addresses. The file lists all NFS exports. license add <licnum> The NFS server configuration is described in the /etc/exports file. The NetApp storage controller can present files via the NFS protocol and can also participate in a Kerberos domain.134. FIGURE 8: AN EXAMPLE /ETC/EXPORTS FILE NOTE: Any volume (or qtree and so on) that is to be exported is listed in the configuration file. The /etc/exports file contains three types of information:  Resource list – Exports are resources that are available to NFS clients. – Example: rw and nosuid specify access permissions. IP subnets. CONFIGURATION The NFS protocol is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used to present files for NFS client access.254.38  Authorization – Exports specify access permissions for NFS clients. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

Not authorized for reproduction purposes. thus. the FAS controller can successfully export nested directories (and. can export ancestors and descendants). you use the exportfs command and the /etc/exports file. Inc.iso NOTE: Unlike most UNIX variants. you can create exports to expose the following object types for user access:     Volume /vol/vol1 Qtree /vol/vol1/qtree1 Directory /vol/vol1/dir1 File /vol/vol1/file1. . refer to the CIFS configuration section.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. For example. and the NFS client must satisfy only the access controls that are associated with the mount point that was initially accessed. This material is intended for training use only. Here are some examples of their use:     List the current exports (in memory) exportfs List the persistent exports (available after a reboot) rdfile /etc/exports Create an export (in memory) exportfs –i –o rw=host1 /vol/vol1 Create a persistent export (available after a reboot) wrfile –a /etc/exports /vol/vol1 –rw=host1 <CNTL>-C exportfs -a With the NFS protocol.ADMINISTRATION To perform NFS server administration tasks. 32 Data ONTAP 8. both /vol/vol1 and /vol/vol1/qtree1 can be exported. For a description of file system quotas.

– There are three levels of Kerberos security. the user‘s access to the shared files in the export is evaluated against the user‘s UNIX user ID and 33 Data ONTAP 8. you must enable the nfs. . or data encryption is performed. SECURITY Traditionally. This scenario implies that the authentication process on the NFS client is trusted and that the NFS client is not an impostor. stats. Before a user can access an export. and statit).enable option. The traditional security model is called ―AUTH_SYS. Performance testing is a complex topic that is beyond the scope of this document. This requirement is inherited from the Kerberos protocol. For detailed information about the controller-performance commands that are not specific to NFS (for example. This material is intended for training use only. and data encryption is performed on each request and response. for example:   nfsstat. the NFS statistics that are reported are cumulative for all clients. krb5i: Authentication occurs with each NFS request and response. if one is available. run the time cp command NOTE: If you are concerned about repeatable performance testing. data-integrity evaluation.com/NOW/download/tools/ntaptop/.  NOTE: If you wish to configure Kerberos mode for user authentication. The script can be downloaded from the NOW online support and services site at the following location: http://now. run the time mkfile command  To read traffic.netapp. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. but recent versions of NFS support very strong security. a Perl script that lists the most active NFS clients. sysstat. the number of I/O operations per millisecond grouping)  netapp-top. then the system time on the storage controller must be within five minutes of the system time on the Kerberos server. It is recommended that both systems be configured to use the same network time server.PERFORMANCE The FAS storage controller has numerous performance counters.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Various NFSspecific performance-analysis commands are available. Nevertheless.    krb5: Authentication occurs with each NFS request and response.‖ and the newer model is called ―Kerberos. security has been seen as a weak spot for the NFS protocol. iozone. NOTE: By default. and other metrics. The script is run on a client system. then you should investigate utilities such as iometer. the NFS client (remote UNIX server) must be able to mount the export. statistics. and integrity checking is performed. run the time dd command  To read/write traffic. and Kerberos authenticates that the NFS client is genuine. to verify that requests and responses have not been tampered with.‖ Here is a summary of the differences between the two security models:  AUTH_SYS – User authentication is performed on the remote NFS client (which is typically a UNIX server). displays NFS performance statistics nfs_hist. krb5p: Authentication occurs with each NFS request. Then. and bonnie++ and the NetApp sio tool. you can perform some very basic performance analysis by using the following procedure (from the NFS client):  To write traffic.per_client_stats. integrity checking is performed. – No additional authentication. Kerberos – User authentication is performed on the remote NFS client. refer to the Data ONTAP section.pl. an advanced mode command that displays NFS delay time distributions (that is. To collect statistics for individual clients. Inc.

and host name resolution. This material is intended for training use only. you can try the following actions:      34 Data ONTAP 8. Check the /etc/fstab file on the host for errors. Check the controller‘s current exports in memory by running the exportfs command. for example:   Evaluate the server‘s host name against the export permissions Access is either granted or denied (to mount the export. you can try the following commands:   showmount –e This command. As such. which is run from the controller. but. r/w or r/o). and the NFSv4 protocol enforces mandatory file locking. Inc. NFS has numerous potential points of failure. A full description of NFS troubleshooting is outside the scope of this document. Evaluate the user‘s UID/GID against the file or directory permissions Access is either granted or denied (on a file-by-file basis). displays low-level statistics that are useful in debugging a mount problem. TROUBLESHOOTING NFS is a complex protocol that uses several TCP ports and interacts with various external systems for user authentication. Kerberos security. nfsstat –d This command. refer to the ANCDA Boot Camp training materials. lists the exports that are available on the NFS server. This is a two step process. which is usually provided at login time by the NFS client. it is usually very reliable. If you suspect that RPC problems are the source of your NFS problems. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. List the exports that are available on the NFS server by running the showmount –e command on the NFS client Check the controller‘s /etc/exports file. The NFSv2 and NFSv3 protocols use advisory file locking. For detailed troubleshooting information. Check connectivity between the two systems by using the ping command.group ID (UID and GID). which is run from the NFS client. If you are experiencing ―stale NFS handle‖ errors.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. remarkably. if it is requested by the client. . you can try the following actions:  Verify that RCP is enabled  Verify that NFS daemons are running  Verify that mount points exist If you are having problems mounting an NFS export.

However. you can implement an active-active controller configuration and use SyncMirror software to ensure continuous data availability and rapid recovery of data and use the SnapMirror®. the section is not limited to the exam topics. Rather.0 7-Mode Web-based: Implementing SyncMirror on Data ONTAP8. it also summarizes information about a range of NetApp technologies. This material is intended for training use only. These learning points focus on data protection concepts. Figure 14 highlights the main subjects covered in the exam (white text) and the range of topics covered within each subject (black text).0 7-Mode Administration Instructor-led: NetApp Protection Software Administration Instructor-led: Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8. 35 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Web-based: Planning and Implementing MetroCluster on Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode or the corresponding NS0-154 exam) Analyze and resolve data protection problems Implement high-availability (active-active) controller configuration (including SyncMirror) RECOMMENDED COURSES    Instructor-led: Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode EXAM PREPARATION This section describes various NetApp FAS learning points that are relevant to the NS0-163 and NS0-154 exams. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Inc. and SnapVault® products to manage and protect data.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.EXAM NS0-154: DATA PROTECTION CONCEPTS As a NetApp Certified Data Management Administrator. SnapRestore®. SKILLS TESTED          Set up and maintain Snapshot™ copies Configure and administer SnapRestore technology Configure and administer asynchronous SnapMirror product Configure and administer synchronous SnapMirror product Configure and administer Open Systems SnapVault application Configure and administer Operations Manager application Configure and administer SnapLock® technology (not applicable in Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode RELATED COURSES    Web-based: High Availability on Data ONTAP 8. .

FIGURE 9 : TOPICS COVERED IN THE NS0-163 AND NS0-154 EXAMS 36 Data ONTAP 8. Inc. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. This material is intended for training use only. .

CONFIGURATION The Snapshot capability of the FAS storage controller is a native capability that is provided by the WAFL file system layer. Refer to Figure 16 for an example of how the Snapshot process occurs.16. Snapshot copies are created according to the schedule‘s default settings. you can modify or disable the default settings to satisfy your local backup requirements. Many Snapshot copies may be kept online or vaulted to another system. the WAFL file system uses inodes to reference the data blocks on the disk. Both SAN and NAS data can be captured in a Snapshot copy.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Initially. This efficiency is possible because. And. – The command: snap sched <vol> – The output: Volume <vol>: 0 2 6@8. Inc. The copy captures the state of the file system at a point in time. 12:00. as required. This material is intended for training use only. these would occur at 24:00 on Sunday). providing for instant creation of Snapshot copies with near-zero capacity overhead. to be used for rapid data recovery.  Modify the Snapshot schedule by running a command similar to the following: 37 Data ONTAP 8. FIGURE 10: THE PROCESS OF A SNAPSHOT COPY LOCKING SOME BLOCKS IN THE AFS NOTE: Each volume can retain up to 255 Snapshot copies. and 20:00) and retains 6 total. so any update to the active file system (AFS) is written to other locations on the disk. When you create a volume. However. 16:00. retaining 2 at a time and zero weekly Snapshot copies (if created. like most UNIX file systems.  List the default Snapshot schedule. a daily Snapshot copy (at 24:00 Monday through Saturday and Sunday if a weekly Snapshot copy is not taken). NetApp Snapshot technology is particularly efficient.20 The default schedule creates four hourly Snapshot copies (at 8:00. a default Snapshot schedule is created. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. .12. a Snapshot copy is a root inode that references the data blocks on the disk. The data blocks that are referenced by a Snapshot copy are locked against overwriting.SNAPSHOT TECHNOLOGY A Snapshot copy is a read-only image of a volume or an aggregate.

12. FIGURE 11: AGGREGATE AND VOLUME SNAPSHOT RESERVES NOTE: The value for the volume Snapshot reserve is the minimum amount of space that is reserved for Snapshot data. snap reserve <vol> <percentage> Refer to Figure 17 to identify where the Snapshot reserve values apply. snap sched <vol> 0 0 0 vol options <vol> nosnap on NOTE: On volumes that contain LUNs. The Snapshot copies can consume more space than the initial reserve value specifies. you normally disable the controller initiated Snapshot copies because the consistency of the file system in the LUN can be guaranteed only by the host that accesses the LUN. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. .‖ The default reserve is 5% for aggregates and 20% for volumes. You should then use a tool such as SnapDrive to initiate the Snapshot copies from the host. You can modify the default values by running the snap reserve command.15.18.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. is the reserved space is known as the ―Snapshot reserve.snap sched <vol> weekly nightly hourly@<time> snap sched <vol> 2 7 6@6.9. This material is intended for training use only. 38 Data ONTAP 8.21  Disable the Snapshot schedule by running one of the following commands. Inc. A percentage of every new volume and every new aggregate is reserved for storing Snapshot data.

These Snapshot copies are created. create a volume Snapshot copy (If you want an aggregate level Snapshot copy. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. options nfs. options cifs. a Snapshot copy is a read-only view of the state of the file system at the time that the copy was created. and deletion of Snapshot copies make no significant impact on performance. shows the currently retained Snapshot copies snap create <vol_name> <snap_name>. NOTE: If the security style of the volume changes after the Snapshot copy is created. User access to the data in a Snapshot copy is controlled by the file system security settings (for example. retention. then specify –A . Snapshot copies created with SnapMirror and SnapVault software) are created and managed by the storage controller and should not be interfered with. The storage administrator can configure the visibility of the Snapshot directory (for NAS clients). for example:   snap list.  snap delete <vol_name> <snap_name>.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Snapshot copies that are created with SnapDrive and SnapManager software should not be managed from the storage controller. Use the following command to enable the Snapshot directory. For information about performance. The following commands either enable or disable client access to the Snapshot directory:  Per volume The default volume settings do allow the Snapshot directory to be seen by the NAS protocols. This material is intended for training use only. . because Snapshot technology is very efficient. NTFS ACLs) that were in place when the Snapshot copy was created.ADMINISTRATION Almost all Snapshot management is performed by running the snap command. the contents of the copy cannot be modified by end users.show_snapshot on  For NFS access The default NFS settings do allow the Snapshot directory to be seen by NFS clients. SECURITY By definition. Therefore. then the users may not be able to access the file system view in the Snapshot directory (unless their user-name mapping is configured to allow them to access the foreign security style). they should not be deleted manually. PERFORMANCE Typically. Use the following command to disable the Snapshot directory per volume.hide_snapshot on 39 Data ONTAP 8. Use the following command to disable the Snapshot directory per volume: vol options <volume_name> nosnapdir on  For CIFS access The default CIFS settings do not allow the Snapshot directory to be seen by CIFS clients. and deleted under the control of the host and application integration agents. Inc. refer to the SnapRestore performance section. retained. deletes the specified Snapshot copy and makes its disk space available NOTE: Some special types of Snapshot copies (for example. Because the copies contain consistent backup images that are being retained by schedules and policies on the agents. This problem arises because the previous security settings are preserved in the Snapshot view. the creation.

Refer to Figure 8 and to the text that accompanies Figure 8 for descriptions of Fractional Reserve and of the Volume AutoGrow and Snapshot Autodelete options and for an explanation of how Fractional Reserve. Inc.  40 Data ONTAP 8. the file system in the LUN may or may not be in a consistent state. Hosts. These complications are usually a result of incorrect scheduling or lack of disk space. You should use a tool such as SnapDrive to initiate the LUN Snapshot copies from the host (so the tool can flush the local file system buffers to disk). and space within controller volumes The host that accesses a LUN assumes that it has exclusive control over the contents of the LUN and the available free space. more and more of the space in the containing volume is consumed.TROUBLESHOOTING Usually. there are no problems with creating Snapshot copies per se. However. you may not be able to use the LUN Snapshot copy to recover data. and Snapshot Autodelete ensure adequate free space and guarantee LUN availability. LUNs. they eventually consume all of the space in the volume. If the file system is corrupt. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. The consistency of the file system in the LUN can be guaranteed only by the host that accesses the LUN. The controller then takes the LUN offline in an attempt to prevent data corruption.  Inconsistent file system If you create a Snapshot copy of a volume that contains a LUN. an ―out of space‖ error occurs (because the host assumed that space was available). If the Snapshot copies are not managed correctly. This material is intended for training use only. . If all of the space in a volume is consumed and the host attempts to write to a LUN within the volume. but complications can arise. as Snapshot copies are created. Volume AutoGrow.

When using the SnapRestore feature. The SnapRestore feature recovers only volume and file content. It does not recover the following settings:     Snapshot copies schedule Volume option settings RAID group size Maximum number of files per volume NOTE: The volume SnapRestore command reverts the entire active file system (AFS) back to the point at which the Snapshot copy was created. Inc. individual files. when used with the restore parameter. PERFORMANCE Using the SnapRestore feature to restore one file may impact subsequent snapshot delete performance. snap restore –t file –s <snap_name> <file_name> This command reverts an individual file back to exactly how it was when the Snapshot copy was created. The SnapRestore feature restores data from Snapshot copies. add the –r <new_path_and_file_name> parameter. Entire volumes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. All Snapshot copies that were created between the time that the Snapshot backup copy was created and the time that the Snapshot backup copy was used to restore the AFS are deleted. The command. can restore an entire volume or an individual file or LUN from a Snapshot copy. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. This performance impact may be visible to the hosts that access the controller. The only prerequisite for using the SnapRestore feature (other than licensing) is the existence of Snapshot copies. This material is intended for training use only. license add <licnum> NOTE: The SnapRestore feature is licensed system-wide. ADMINISTRATION The SnapRestore feature is an extension of the snap command. the feature cannot be enabled or disabled at a per-volume level. regardless of the size of the data. To recover to a file name or directory location other than the original file name or directory location. and LUNs can be restored in seconds. Before a Snapshot copy is deleted. 41 Data ONTAP 8. CONFIGURATION SnapRestore is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. Therefore.SNAPRESTORE TECHNOLOGY The SnapRestore feature enables you to use Snapshot copies to recover data quickly. the active maps across all Snapshot copies must be checked for active blocks that are related to the restored file. Snapshot copies that you have not created or retained cannot be used to restore data. depending on the workload and scheduling. NOTE: You can run the SnapRestore command (volume or file) only on a volume that is online. .  snap restore –t vol –s <snap_name> <vol_name> – –  – – This command reverts the entire volume back to exactly how it was when the Snapshot copy was created. be very careful! You cannot back out of your changes. Be aware that all subsequent Snapshot copies are deleted.

This overlap can cause file corruption and can generate NFS errors such as ―stale file handle. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. such as security settings and timestamps. You should schedule a virus scan on any recovered file or volume. which must be licensed. TROUBLESHOOTING Because the volume remains online and writeable during the SnapRestore activity.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. If you are using a third-party backup tool.    Security settings: The security settings of the file have been reverted to their earlier values. File timestamps: After reversion. If you suspect that the revision may have created a problem. If you want to restore a SnapMirror destination volume. so you should run a full backup.‖ There are several methods of avoiding or correcting such issues:  Disconnect the users before you begin the SnapRestore operation  Have the users re-open files that might present a problem The SnapRestore destination volume cannot be a SnapMirror destination volume. . This material is intended for training use only. are reverted to exactly what they were when the Snapshot copy that was used to perform the restore was created. 42 Data ONTAP 8.SECURITY After you perform a SnapRestore operation (at the volume or file level). the file timestamps are invalid for incremental backups. to link the destination‘s Snapshot copy to a new writable volume. there is always the possibility that users may access files on the volume as the restore process is in progress. Virus scanning: If a virus-infected file was captured in the Snapshot copy. Inc. then you should use the FlexClone® feature. you should review the security settings. it is restored in its infected state (whether or not it was cleaned after the Snapshot copy was created). the file system metadata.

Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The no-charge license is available only if the for-charge license is purchased. The volume must be online but in a restricted state to initialize a volume SnapMirror relationship. SnapMirror products provide a consistent. from a local controller to a remote controller. customers with access to inter-site Fibre connections can install the model X1024 FC adapter and replicate across the optical media. production and disaster recovery systems). CONFIGURATION SnapMirror is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. This material is intended for training use only. and the second is a no-charge license that provides the synchronous and semi-synchronous capabilities.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. The TCP connection is usually over an Ethernet or TCP WAN link and is usually the most costeffective transport.SNAPMIRROR PRODUCTS The SnapMirror product family enables you to replicate data from one volume to another volume or. license the SnapMirror Sync and SnapMirror Semi-Sync functions (if required). run the vol status –b command. Inc.  To create a restricted mode destination volume. the SnapMirror feature uses a TCP connection to send the replication data between the two controllers. Thus. However. recoverable. The SnapMirror feature actually has two licenses. offsite disaster-recovery capability.   First. The second step (after licensing) in configuring a volume SnapMirror relationship is to create the destination volume. The first is a for-charge license that provides the asynchronous replication capability. license add <licnum> Then. NOTE: For a qtree SnapMirror relationship. run the following commands on the destination system: vol create <vol_name> (with parameters to suit) vol restrict <vol_name>  To check the volume‘s status and size. license add <licum> The no-charge SnapMirror Sync license code is printed in the Data ONTAP Data Protection Online Backup and Recovery Guide. . 43 Data ONTAP 8. You need to know what the requirements and states of the source and destination volumes are and to understand how the requirements and states of volume SnapMirror relationships and qtree SnapMirror relationships can differ. NOTE: The SnapMirror feature must be licensed on both the source and the destination systems (for example. license the SnapMirror Async function. By default. typically. the destination volume remains in an online and writeable state (not restricted) and the destination qtrees are created automatically when the baseline transfer is performed. The source and destination volume may be located on the same controller (for data migration) or on different controllers (for disaster recovery). NOTE: Some older NetApp controllers (FAS820 and prior) cannot support the SnapMirror Sync function.

Next you must configure the ongoing replication relationship. performing asynchronous. you also perform the initial baseline transfer.conf file. the destination volume changes to a writable state.conf file is configured on the destination controller. This material is intended for training use only. refer to the Security section. The SnapMirror replication parameters are defined in the snapmirror. .CONF FILE NOTE: The snapmirror. Before you can enable a SnapMirror relationship. you can configure the SnapMirror relationship. or semi-synchronous replication. copying all of the data from the source volume to the destination volume. as shown in Figure 19: # Source src:/vol/vol1/q1 src:vol2 src:/vol/vol3 src:vol4 Destination dst:/vol/vol1/q1 dst:vol2 dst:/vol/vol3 dst:vol4 Options – – – Mode/Schedule 15 * * * 10 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. synchronous. For a description of the required settings. 44 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. After the source and destination volumes are defined. you must configure the SnapMirror access control between the primary and secondary storage controllers. Resizing can cause problems when (if) the relationship is resynchronized. the SnapMirror relationship can operate in any of three modes. Inc. snapmirror initialize –S src:vol1 dst:vol2 When the baseline transfer is completed. These actions prevent the inadvertent resizing of the destination volume. and the fs_size_fixed parameter is enabled on the volume. As shown in Figure 19. As you configure the relationship. the destination volume is an exact replica of the source volume (at that point in time).FIGURE 12 :SNAPMIRROR VOLUME AND QTREE CONFIGURATION NOTE: If a volume SnapMirror relationship is stopped (broken or released). This relationship controls the mode and/or the schedule for replication of the changed data from the source volume to the destination volume.20 * * sync semi-sync FIGURE 13: EXAMPLE SNAPMIRROR.

0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. although some functions are available only on their respective systems. . – – The host receives acknowledgment only after the write is committed to both the source and destination volumes. The following is a VSM example: src:vol2 dst:vol2 . Performance with minimal delay minimizes the performance impact on the host system. It is possible to configure the SnapMirror feature to use two redundant data paths for replication traffic. refer to the product documentation.20 * * The following is a QSM example: src:/vol/vol1/q1 dst:/vol/vol1/q1 – 15 * * *  Synchronous – Writes are replicated from the source volume to the destination volume at the same time that they are written to the source volume. – – – – The host receives acknowledgment after the write is committed to the source volume.   Multiplexing: Both paths are used at the same time for load balancing. The following is an example command: src:/vol/vol1/q1 dst:/vol/vol1/q1 – sync  Semi-synchronous – Writes are replicated from a source volume or qtree to a destination volume or qtree with minimal delay. The paths can be TCP or FC connections or a mixture of TCP and FC connections. Failover: The first path that is specified is active.10 8. The paths are configured in the snapmirror. The second path is in standby mode and becomes active only if the first path fails. Block-level.conf file. – – – – The host receives acknowledgment after the write is committed to the source volume. The following key words are used. ADMINISTRATION A SnapMirror relationship can be administered from either the source or the destination system. incremental updates to the destination volume are based on schedules. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. NOTE: Editing the /etc/snapmirror. The following is an example of the previously used syntax: src:vol1 dst:vol1 outstanding=5s sync The following is an example of the current syntax: src:vol1 dst:vol1 – semi-sync NOTE: For descriptions of the various replication options (such as schedule definitions or throughput throttling). as shown in Figure 20: 45 Data ONTAP 8. Inc. Asynchronous – Snapshot copies are replicated from a source volume or qtree to a destination volume or qtree.conf file on the destination causes an in-sync relationship to fall temporarily out-of-sync. You use the snapmirror status command to display the state of the currently defined SnapMirror relationships. This material is intended for training use only.

The destination volume remains read-only. – Halt the application. then the relationship continues in its original direction (source  destination) – However. depending on your application‘s capabilities. snapmirror resume <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system. –  The relationship is still defined and can be resumed. snapmirror resync <hostname:vol> – The command identifies the most recently created Snapshot copy that is common to the source and destination volumes and that is managed by a SnapMirror relationship and re-synchronizes the data between the source and destination volumes. if the command is executed on the source system. The command temporarily pauses the replication. –  The command resumes the volume replication. and the intended result. Make the source volume consistent on disk. – If the command is executed on the destination system. This material is intended for training use only. – The direction of synchronization is determined by whether the command was executed on the source or destination volume. such as suspending or restarting the replication or destroying the relationship. – Flush the file system buffers. the replication mode. snapmirror update <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system. 2. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. – The command performs an immediate update from the source volume to the destination volume. . Inc. The command stops the replication and converts the destination volume to a writable state. The following are examples of common snapmirror functions:  snapmirror quiesce <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system. 46 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Quiesce the SnapMirror relationship. – The relationship is still defined and can be resynchronized. The command stops the replication and converts the destination volume to a writable state.    The process of capturing consistent Snapshot copies on the source volume and then transferring the copies to the destination system varies. The synchronization overwrites the new data on the controller on which the command was executed (bringing the execution-controller volume back into sync with the opposite volume). the use of SnapDrive and SnapManager software. then the relationship reverses its original direction (destination  source).FIGURE 14: EXAMPLE OF SNAPMIRROR STATUS OUTPUT The Lag column identifies the amount of time that has elapsed since the last successful replication of the Snapshot source-volume copy that is managed by the SnapMirror relationship. The snapmirror command is used to manage all aspects of the SnapMirror relationship. – The relationship is deleted and cannot be restarted. The following is one example of a process to create a consistent Snapshot copy at the destination of a qtree SnapMirror relationship: 1. snapmirror release <src_vol> <dst_hostname:dst_vol> – The command is executed on the source system. snapmirror break <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system.

latency effectively limits the synchronous mode to a range of less than 100 km. The appropriate choice of SnapMirror mode (synchronous. This method can use physical tape media to perform the initial baseline transfer. SECURITY Before you can enable the replication relationship. you might consider using the SnapMirror to Tape function.allow file. The visibility_interval parameter controls the apparent performance of the SnapMirror synchronization. The parameter controls the view of the data on the destination system. The initial baseline transfer is usually constrained by the bandwidth of the connection. This material is intended for training use only. Although the WAN connection may be adequate to handle the incremental synchronization traffic. the asynchronous mode uses scheduled replication and is not affected by connection latency. Reducing the internal is not recommended because deviation from the default value can have a detrimental impact on controller performance. the incremental synchronization occurs. you must configure the SnapMirror access control between the source and destination storage controllers. the physical characteristics of traditional volumes affect SnapMirror performance.0 7-Mode. for best SnapMirror performance. you should configure the source and destination volumes with the same RAID size. NOTE: It is possible to throttle the SnapMirror traffic so as to reduce its impact on other applications that use the WAN connection. semi-synchronous. Resume the SnapMirror relationship.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. 4. If you require a ―sync-like‖ replication feature beyond 100 km or want to reduce the performance impact on the source system. or asynchronous) is often driven by the latency of the WAN connection. There are two ways to configure SnapMirror access control on the storage controllers:  Method 1 options snapmirror. When you use traditional volumes. . In Data ONTAP 8. NOTE: In environments that use SnapManager software. Create a Snapshot copy of the destination volume. PERFORMANCE One of the challenges in a new SnapMirror configuration is the transfer of the baseline copy from the source to the destination system. and the incremental synchronization is usually constrained by the latency of the connection. And the destination controller needs to grant access to the source controller so that the replication relationship can be reversed after a disaster event is resolved (synchronizing back from the disaster recovery site to the production site). This increase allows for ―file system churn. then you should consider using the semi-synchronous mode. and number of RAID groups. RAID group size. the destination file-system view is not updated until the visibility interval elapses. the Snapshot copy and replication process is usually automated via the SnapManager utility. Inc. Because latency increases over distance.3. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. the process can be performed with no disruption to the application. it may not be adequate to complete the baseline transfer in a timely manner. One way to improve asynchronous performance is to increase the interval between the replication times. In contrast to flexible volumes.‖ Data is rewritten throughout the day. The source controller needs to grant access to the destination controller so that the destination controller can ―pull‖ updates from the source. In contrast. with a minimum setting of 30 seconds. In this case. 47 Data ONTAP 8.access host=legacy – Edit the /etc/snapmirror. but only the latest version is included in the less frequent replication schedules. In this case. Even after the data is received. The default visibility interval is three minutes. this functionality is now supported with the new smtape commands. After the initial baseline transfer is completed.

The log can be disabled by executing the following command: options snapmirror. this option is set to the keyword ―legacy. The snapmirror status command displays the current status of all SnapMirror relationships. Method 2 options snapmirror. Alternatively.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. then the destination is incomplete. to enable the SnapMirror relationship to be accessed from the remote controller. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.access host=<other controller> – – By default. it may be necessary to implement some type of network-level encryption for the replication traffic (for example. 48 Data ONTAP 8. In a security-conscious environment. rather than trying to re-establish synchronization to the incomplete mirror. you must rerun the initialization. The traffic between the source and destination controllers is not encrypted. Inc.enable [on|off].allow file for access control. you can set the option to host=<hostname>. Some status information is available only on the destination controller. to use the NetApp DataFort™ encryption devices). . and possibly reestablishes a broken mirror. The details of the process of troubleshooting and rectification are determined by the stage that the relationship was in when the failure occurred. if communications failed during the initial baseline transfer.‖ Use of the keyword causes the system to refer to the snapmirror. FIGURE 15: SAMPLE OUTPUT OF SNAPMIRROR STATUS A SnapMirror relationship passes through several defined stages as it initializes the baseline transfer (level-0). An encrypting Ethernet switch is used to encrypt data-at-rest. In this case. For example. not data-in-transit. The DataFort security system is designed to encrypt data-at-rest. TROUBLESHOOTING Comprehensive logging of all SnapMirror activity is enabled by default.log. NOTE: Method 2 is the preferred way to enable the remote access. The log file is saved to the /etc/log/snapmirror.–  Add the other storage controller‘s host name. synchronizes data (level-1).[0-5] file(s).

Not authorized for reproduction purposes. . The SnapVault feature has two licenses. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or SATA disks). The feature provides a consistent. long-term backup and archive capability.  Do not create the destination qtrees. Typically.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. you create the destination volume on a remote controller that provides lower-cost storage (for example. the production or the disaster recovery controller).   Create a normal destination volume by running the following command on the destination system: vol create <vol_name> (with parameters to suit) Check the volume‘s status and size by running the following command: vol status –b NOTE: The volume must be online and in a writable state. and the correct license must be enabled on the appropriate controller (for example. NOTE: Although the destination volume remains writable. and the other license is for the secondary controller (the archive destination). The destination qtrees are created automatically when the SnapVault relationship is initialized. CONFIGURATION SnapVault is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used.   License the primary controller (sv_ontap_pri). recoverable. license add <licnum> License the secondary controller (sv_ontap_sec). The second step in configuring a SnapVault relationship (after licensing) is to create the destination volume. license add <licnum> NOTE: The two licenses enable different functionalities. typically. from a local controller to a remote controller. It is important that you know the requirements and states of the source and destination volumes and that you understand how SnapMirror requirements for the source and destination volumes differ.SNAPVAULT FEATURE The SnapVault feature enables you to create and archive Snapshot copies from one volume to another volume or. offsite. the individual destination qtrees are read-only. Inc. This material is intended for training use only. 49 Data ONTAP 8. One license is for the primary controller (the backup source).

This request reports the current file system state and then creates a Snapshot copy to retain the data. After the source and destination volumes are defined. For descriptions of the access control settings. Configure the primary controller and define a SnapVault schedule. . the destination volume is an exact replica of the source volume. snapvault snap sched –x vol1 sv_hourly 5@mon-fri@9-19 The –x parameter instructs the secondary controller to request a resynchronization with the primary controller. Inc. although some functions are available only on their respective systems. For example. as shown in Figure 23: 50 Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. you can define the schedule as the following: <snapshots_to_retain><@hour_of_the_day>@<day_of_the_week> ADMINISTRATION The administration of a SnapVault relationship can be performed from either the primary or the secondary system. Define a SnapVault schedule. Because the day of the week is specified as a mnemonic expression. you must configure the SnapVault access control between the source and destination storage controllers. you can configure the SnapVault schedules on the primary and secondary controllers and start the incremental backups. You use the snapvault status command to display the state of the currently defined SnapVault relationships. Configure the secondary controller and perform the baseline transfer. 1.Figure 22 illustrates the requirements of the source and destination volumes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. You can also perform the initial baseline transfer. FIGURE 16: SNAPVAULT VOLUME AND QTREE CONFIGURATION The technology behind the SnapVault feature is based on the qtree SnapMirror function. NOTE: The SnapVault schedule definition is in the following format: <snapshots_to_retain>@<day_of_the_week><@hour_of_the_day> The schedule can be specified in more than one way. and all SnapVault transfers are based on schedules for asynchronous mode. copying the data from the source qtree to the destination qtree. This material is intended for training use only. 3. Before you can enable the SnapVault relationship. This function determines many of the features and limitations of the SnapVault feature. snapvault start –S pri:/vol/vol1/q1 sec:/vol/vol1/q1 When the baseline transfer is completed. refer to the Security section. the basic unit of SnapVault backup is the qtree. snapvault snap sched vol1 sv_hourly 5@mon-fri@9-19 2.

Not authorized for reproduction purposes. refer to the product manual. this command resynchronizes the relationship and resumes backup operations after the SnapVault restore is completed. 51 Data ONTAP 8. such as a USB drive connected to a laptop computer. Because SnapVault backups are scheduled activities (asynchronous). snapvault start –r <path> When executed on the secondary system. You can use the snapvault command to manage all aspects of the SnapVault relationship. The LREP function can perform the initial baseline transfer by using external disk media. Although the WAN connection may be adequate to handle the incremental backup traffic. Some third-party backup applications use SnapVault integration. such as updating the secondary system or restoring the backup. you should consider using the Logical Replication (LREP) function. this command restores the qtree contents from the backup. the SnapVault process accesses the primary qtree at the file-system level and therefore sees (and backs up) the original version of any deduplicated data. SECURITY By default. this command deletes the SnapVault relationship. Inc. this command triggers a manual (unscheduled) update of the specified qtree destination.    NOTE: For information about the other SnapVault commands.FIGURE 17: EXAMPLE OF SNAPMIRROR STATUS OUTPUT NOTE: You can use the snapvault status –c option to display the SnapVault qtree configuration parameters. you must enable the NDMP protocol and define the user name and password for the application. snapvault release <path> <other_hostname>:<path> When executed on either system. . In this case. you may prefer to copy the files from a CIFS share on the secondary qtree. This material is intended for training use only. Although this process may cause more data to be sent across the WAN than is expected. snapvault restore –S sec_hostname:/vol/vol_name/qtree pri_hostname:/vol/vol_name/qtree – When executed on the primary system. Similar to the qtree SnapMirror process. you must break the SnapVault relationship or restore to a new qtree (and rename later). – To restore a small amount of data (like one file). PERFORMANCE One of the challenges of a new SnapVault configuration is the transfer of the baseline copy from the primary to the secondary system. – To restore to the original qtree location on the primary system. Further deduplication can be scheduled on the secondary system. and specific access must be granted to any remote controller in a backup relationship. The following are examples of frequently used snapvault functions:  snapvault update sec_hostname:/vol/vol_name/qtree When executed on the secondary system. no access is granted for SnapVault traffic. the secondary qtree is written in the original capacity.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. it may not be adequate to complete the baseline transfer in a timely manner. they are constrained only by the bandwidth of the connection and are not significantly affected by the link latency. To enable these applications to communicate with the controller.

Inc. The log information is saved to the /etc/log/snapmirror. The log can be disabled by executing the following command: options snapmirror.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.access host=<other controller> TROUBLESHOOTING Comprehensive logging of all SnapVault activity is enabled by default.enable [on|off] 52 Data ONTAP 8. Because the SnapVault function is based on the qtree SnapMirror function. . SnapVault access can be configured on the primary and secondary controllers by using the following command: options snapvault.[0-5] files.The primary controller must grant access to the secondary controller so that the secondary controller can ―pull‖ backups from the source. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. This material is intended for training use only. And the secondary controller must grant access to the primary controller so that the primary controller can request restores of the backups.log. all log information for the SnapVault and qtree SnapMirror functions is stored to the same file.

The backup data is then retained using normal SnapVault schedules on the NetApp controller. and so on svsetstanza Command line alternative to the svconfigurator GUI tool  NOTE: To read configuration changes. The OSSV feature requires two licenses. This material is intended for training use only. The OSSV software is installed on the host (primary).  License the primary host (sv_windows_pri) license add <licnum> NOTE: The OSSV primary license key must be enabled on the secondary controller and not on the Windows or UNIX host. CONFIGURATION OSSV is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. the configuration of the secondary controller is identical to the configuration of a SnapVault relationship. One license is for the OSSV primary server type (the Windows or UNIX backup source). Not authorized for reproduction purposes. . UNIX. The other license is for the NetApp ONTAP secondary controller (the archive destination). enable file tracing. In the OSSV configuration tool (on the primary host). incremental forever) to be performed by a non-NetApp platform (a Windows. It uses the SnapVault protocol to send the SnapVault backup data to a NetApp controller (secondary). For example. used to start and stop the OSSV service. set the NDMP password.  License the secondary controller (sv_ontap_sec) license add <licnum> The installation details for the OSSV agent are operating system dependant. and installation scripts are used for the various UNIX platforms. or Linux host). enable debugging. a setup EXE is used for the Windows platform. you must configure the access controls and the NDMP user name and password and specify which directories to include in the SnapVault backup. Some of the OSSV utilities:    svconfigpackager Unattended installation utility svinstallcheck Automatic post-installation check svconfigurator (GUI) The primary configuration tool. you must restart the OSSV service. Inc. 53 Data ONTAP 8. In general.OPEN SYSTEMS SNAPVAULT (OSSV) The OSSV agent is a software application that allows SnapVault-like backups (block-level.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.

NetApp marketed a purpose-built NearStore appliance. This block-level incremental (BLI) mechanism requires free space on the OSSV client to store a database of previously backed-up files and their block checksum values. as the two features perform almost identical functions. A difference between the NearStore hardware and software implementations is that the hardware implementation provides a primary system or a secondary system. Each model of NetApp controller supports a specified number of concurrent backup streams. the administration of the OSSV agent and the SnapVault feature is very similar. Subsequent backups are compared to this database to determine which changed data to back up. Because the backup traffic is a non-latency sensitive. . The number varies according to the model type and. but the software implementation provides both a primary and a secondary system.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. similar to how you restore a SnapVault client One difference between an OSSV client and a SnapVault client is that the clients use different mechanisms to identify which changed blocks to back up. NOTE: The NearStore feature was originally available only on the dedicated NearStore controller. which combined SATA-only storage and the NPL function.  To back up the OSSV client: – Perform an initial baseline backup to the destination – Schedule block-level incremental backups  To restore the OSSV client. Previously. 54 Data ONTAP 8. Even a modest OSSV implementation can have tens (if not hundreds) of OSSV agents installed on Windows and UNIX hosts. but it is now available as a licensed feature on all NetApp FAS controllers. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. it is generally recommended that the secondary backup data be stored on a SATA disk. sequential workload. PERFORMANCE Many of the considerations for SnapVault performance apply to OSSV performance.ADMINISTRATION The mechanism that the OSSV agent uses to determine which changed blocks to back up differs greatly from the method used by the SnapVault feature on a primary NetApp controller. use the snapvault restore command. Some documentation may refer to the original NearStore hardware requirement. You can use the Free Space Estimator Utility to determine whether there is sufficient disk space on the OSSV primary client to store the database and to perform a BLI backup. However. Inc. Because the OSSV backup traffic concentrates on the SnapVault primary controller. some thought must be given to the number of concurrent backup streams. OSSV may differ from a controller based-SnapVault primary by the scale of the backup environment. The NPL feature is available for all NetApp controller models. according to the software version. The maximum number of concurrent backup streams can be increased by enabling the NearStore® Personality License (NPL) on the secondary controller. This material is intended for training use only. sometimes.

OSSV and SnapVault access can be configured as follows:   On the primary (Windows or UNIX) host. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. use the client configuration tool to edit the QSM Access List field and enter the host name of the secondary controller. This material is intended for training use only. TROUBLESHOOTING The log-file locations for the OSSV agents are operating-system dependant. and specific access must be granted for any remote controller in a backup relationship. The OSSV primary host (Windows or UNIX) must grant access for the secondary controller so that the secondary controller can ―pull‖ backups from the source.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Inc.    Primary Windows OSSV client c:\Program Files\netapp\snapvault\etc\snapvault. no access is granted for OSSV traffic.SECURITY By default.access host=<other controller> You must set the NDMP user name and password on the OSSV client. The secondary controller must be granted access to the OSSV primary host so that the host can request restores of the backups.[0-5] 55 Data ONTAP 8. On the secondary (NetApp) controller .yyyymmdd Secondary NetApp SnapVault controller /etc/log/snapmirror. . run the following command: options snapvault.yyyymmdd Primary UNIX and Linux OSSV client /usr/snapvault/snapvault. You can use either the client configuration GUI or the svpasswd command.

all disks are visible to both controllers. and make sure the partner-sysid is blank.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. if it is listed as ―not owned‖). This process is known as ―software disk assignment. which enables the controllers to provide failover support for each other. 5. and the host-based MPIO drivers direct all FC traffic via the interfaces (assuming that single-image cfmode is being used) The process of removing a high-availability configuration is as follows: 1. you must configure various settings. . Halt. Inc. Disable the controller failover feature (cf disable). 6. Remove the partner‘s network entries from the /etc/rc file. Before a disk can be used in an aggregate or a spare. the HA pair interconnect cable must be attached. Repeat the process on the other controller ADMINISTRATION In a high-availability configuration. 4.HIGH-AVAILABILITY CONFIGURATION In the past.‖ If a disk is not assigned to a controller (in order words. license add <licnum> NOTE: You must then reboot and start the controller failover feature. This material is intended for training use only. 56 Data ONTAP 8. Two controller heads are configured as a pair. The high-availability feature activates numerous high availability capabilities. with each node providing failover support for its partner. 2. license add <licnum> License the second node. The highavailability feature must be licensed on both HA nodes. For example. NetApp used the term ―active-active‖ to describe the high-availability (HA) controller failover configuration. both controllers must be provided Fibre connections to all expansion drawers. Delete the controller failover license (license delete …). Power down and remove or relocate the controller failover interconnect card. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. it must be assigned to one or the other controller.   License the first node. such as NVRAM mirroring. After the high-availability feature is enabled. and both controllers must be provided access to the same IP subnets. you can unlicense it only when the HA pair is in a normal state and the controller failover services are manually disabled. Before you enable the high-availability feature. if a controller failure occurs:     The surviving node spawns a virtual instance of the failed node The virtual node accesses its mirrored NVRAM to complete any interrupted write The local network interface assumes the IP address of both the local and partner interfaces (for Ethernet traffic) The local FC interfaces retain their original WWPN addresses. 3. CONFIGURATION High-availability is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. then it cannot be used by either controller for any purpose. For example.

One of the features that you must master is the process of HA pair failover and failback. it displays a ―waiting for giveback‖ or "waiting for mb giveback" message. TROUBLESHOOTING In a high-availability configuration. This mode is not supported on any current-generation controller. It is not possible to have a shelf connected to one controller and not to the other controller. Where appropriate. and so on. the administrator enters the cf giveback command on the operational controller to return the failed controller back to the normal state. For example. both controllers require connectivity to all of the disk expansion shelves. PERFORMANCE Optimum performance is usually achieved when the controllers in a high-availability configuration share the client workload evenly. An even distribution of the workload is usually attributable to good solution planning and to automatic load balancing in the host-based MPIO drivers (for FC traffic). SECURITY In almost all aspects of security. At this point. It is recommended that multipath HA cabling be used for the disk-expansion shelf connections. administration of a high-availability configuration and administration of two non-clustered controllers are identical. ensure that the host-based multipathing support is correctly configured. In most other ways. . In an FC SAN environment. after a failed controller is rebooted and ready to assume its old identity and workload. ESH module failure. where ownership was determined by the Fibre Channel cabling topology. 57 Data ONTAP 8. such as SFP failure. Inc. refer to the product manuals.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. but automatic) failover is triggered.Use the following commands to manage disk ownership:   Assign disk ownership disk assign List disk ownership (several methods) disk show –v storage show disk sysconfig –r NOTE: Earlier versions of Data ONTAP supported hardware disk assignment. The cabling prevents unnecessary controller failover for non-critical reasons. although some configuration settings must be synchronized between the two controllers. Generally. The clustered controllers are managed separately. a high-availability configuration and a non-clustered configuration are identical. If a controller loses access to one of the disk shelves. a negotiated (clean. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. loop breaks. This material is intended for training use only. NOTE: For more information about controller failover management. the performance concerns of a high-availability configuration and of a non-clustered configuration are identical. use Asymmetric Logical Unit Access (ALUA) support.

If additional latency is present. Inc. The two MetroCluster modes. The maximum supported distance between the two controllers is 100 km. both controllers (at their individual sites) require connectivity to the same IP network subnet ranges or VLANs.2. also affect the maximum supported distance. Prior to Data ONTAP 7. the limitation may be less than 100 km. the MetroCluster pair maybe on a separate subnet and use the /etc/mcrc file to configure the interfaces appropriately. require different hardware configurations. Then. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.  Networking – 58 Data ONTAP 8.3. restore operations at the remote site. Stretch mode supports both FC and SATA expansion shelves. All of the components must be connected and enabled before they can be configured and used. . This material is intended for training use only. stretch mode and fabric-attached mode. With Data ONTAP 7. Fabric-attached mode supports only FC type expansion shelves (although SATA shelves can be present if they are not mirrored). the limitation may be less than 500 m. such as the type of laser small form-factor pluggable (SFP) that is used or whether fiber optic repeaters or wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) devices are used. This process involves the use of a SyncMirror configuration to mirror the data between the two locations. and minimize disruption.METROCLUSTER FEATURE AND SYNCMIRROR SOFTWARE You can use MetroCluster technology to split two controllers of a high-availability pair and position them in two physical locations. The 100-km limitation is primarily a limitation of the latency across the distance.3. if a site disaster occurs. If cable type and patches are not adequate. Other factors. – Fabric-attached mode     Disk types and expansion shelves – – – – Both controllers require connectivity to all expansion shelves.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.  Distance / Latency limitations – Stretch mode   The maximum cable distance between the two controllers is 500 m. CONFIGURATION The MetroCluster feature combines two hardware configurations and several licensed features.  Hardware requirements – – High-availability controller heads In fabric mode only    – – – MetroCluster FC/VI adapter FC switches Software license requirements Cf license Cf_Remote license SyncMirror license There are a number of prerequisites and limitations that you should be aware of before you attempt to configure a MetroCluster environment. disk ownership is determined by where the controller's HBAs connect to the switch and where the disk shelves connect to the switch. The 500-m limitation is primarily a limitation of the MultiMode Fibre cable that is used to connect the two controllers. In fabric mode. you can fail over the HA pair.2 and later.

NOTE: This section summarizes configuration requirements and capabilities. This material is intended for training use only. refer to the product documentation. In other words. Inc. For more information about the supported expansion shelf configurations in a MetroCluster environment. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Before attempting to design or install a MetroCluster environment. they are resized. The disks must be divided evenly between the two controller locations.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. . 59 Data ONTAP 8. SyncMirror configuration – – – An even number of disks are required. refer to the product manuals. The following diagrams illustrate the main components of MetroCluster and the differences between stretch mode and fabric-attached mode. All disks must be of the same type. All disks must be the same size. you cannot mirror FC disks to SATA disks. If the disks are not the same size. FIGURE 24:STRETCH MODE METROCLUSTER DIAGRAM NOTE: The number and ownership of the disk expansion shelves is indicative only.

60 Data ONTAP 8. with MetroCluster. Inc.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Check the current status. The following is an example of the process that you use to split a mirror and disable SyncMirror software: 1. SyncMirror configuration. and so on). The command allows HA pair failover to proceed even when configuration problems might otherwise prevent the implementation of a takeover command. use of the forcetakeover option can corrupt the data. then at some point you may wish to split a mirrored volume and disable the SyncMirror software. In extreme cases. failover requires administrative intervention. In this scenario. Use the forcetakeover command only if the remote MetroCluster partner node is powered off and inaccessible. In a MetroCluster environment. The command also splits the SyncMirror relationship. where a site disaster has made the partner controller unresponsive (offline or destroyed). refer to the product documentation. . the storage administration is generally equivalent to the storage administration for a highavailability controller. the state of the partner controller determines which takeover command is used. a communications outage causes both controllers to assume that the other controller has failed. both plexes should be online and operational. Normally. The use of the forcetakeover option is very dangerous. failover occurs automatically. you may need to use the cf forcetakeover –d command.FIGURE 18: FABRIC-ATTACHED MODE METROCLUSTER DIAGRAM ADMINISTRATION After the MetroCluster-specific configuration is completed (disk pool assignment. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Before you split a SyncMirror volume. NOTE: For more information about MetroCluster takeover and giveback procedures. If you are using SyncMirror software to provide local mirroring (not in a MetroCluster configuration). and each controller attempts to assume the partner‘s role. If the partner controller is operational and able to access its storage. Intervention protects against the split-brain scenario. However. An exception to this equivalency concerns failover management of HA pairs.

storage service is provided to both sites. if a disaster occurs. In a MetroCluster configuration. This material is intended for training use only. the volume does not go into degraded mode or shut down after the RAID timeout. is more vulnerable to communications disruptions than a standard high-availability controller.). Such a disruption requires administrative action to resolve the MetroCluster site failover. you may want to limit or prevent access to the remote controller. in some environments. as a group. Usually. the output should list two paths to each disk. you can configure the appropriate SAN and NAS security (for example. including its own spare disks. and. If a disk in a RAID-4 SyncMirror volume fails (or if two disks in a RAID-DP volume fail) and the pool contains no spare disks. Even though there is no disk redundancy in the volume in which the failure occurred. . 3. Inc. PERFORMANCE Except for the potential for additional latency in the SyncMirror configuration. The spare disks assigned to a site are. Systems uses multipath HA cabling. known as a pool. you cannot disable the SyncMirror license. the simplest and fastest site failover is provided. Disable the SyncMirror license by running the license delete <licnum> command. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. It is good design to ensure that the various redundant inter-site connections (assuming that they exist) are located in physically separate conduits. Both controllers need connectivity to all expansion shelves (over fiber). If you need to replicate across a greater distance or where the latency may be higher than 1 ms. then the system generates a warning and continues normal operation. This result (lack of result) occurs because the volume‘s data integrity is guaranteed by the mirror plex at the other site (or pool). TROUBLESHOOTING A MetroCluster configuration. manual NFS fencing). 61 Data ONTAP 8. then you should consider a standard SnapMirror (semi-synchronous or asynchronous) configuration. each site is assigned its own disks. Therefore. Split the mirrored volume by running the vol split vol0/plex0 vol0new command. the node must be manually powered on to enable a takeover to be performed. then you should double-check the connectivity by running the following command: storage show disk –p In a multipath HA configuration. or you can isolate the remote controller by powering off the remote node (If a disaster occurs. Disk-site assignment ensures that adequate spare disks are located at each site. both controllers in a high-availability and MetroCluster configuration are enabled. However. a MetroCluster configuration and a standard high-availability controller configuration are identical. The two controller heads must maintain communication by way of at least one of the two interconnect ports (over fiber) and over IP (over the WAN). For example. typically spanning two sites. The 100-km maximum-distance limitation for a fabric MetroCluster environment is intended to limit the additional latency to a maximum of 1 ms. Always remember the maxim—men with backhoes are irresistibly drawn to network cabling. SECURITY In almost all aspects of security.2. You should now have two unmirrored volumes. A prolonged disruption of the communications between the two controllers is classified as a disaster. If you specified multipath HA cabling to the disk expansion shelves. The 1-ms maximum is usually seen as the practical limit for synchronous replication. This result can be achieved in several ways.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. the performance of the MetroCluster feature and the performance of a standard high-availability controller are identical. NOTE: If one or more mirrored volumes exist.

Not authorized for reproduction purposes.com/us/library/technical-reports.netapp.com/NOW/products/education/public/certification/NS0-154-PRACTICE/index. . Inc.ADDITIONAL MATERIALS The following resources are recommended as preparation for the NCDA certification exams.cgi 62 Data ONTAP 8.netapp.netapp. Volume 2 Core Command Quick Reference   Technical reports http://www.html FURTHER READING  Product documentation http://now.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. This material is intended for training use only.0 7-Mode Administrator http://now.html Best-practice guides http://now.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/docs.netapp. PRACTICE EXAM NS0-154—Data ONTAP 8.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/ontap/ontap_index. Volume 1 Commands: Manual Page Reference.shtml – – – – – – – – – – – System Administration Guide Storage Administration Guide High Availability Configuration Guide Network Management Guide File Access and Protocols Management Guide Block Access Management Guide Data Protection Online Backup and Recovery Guide Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide Commands: Manual Page Reference.

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