NETAPP UNIVERSITY

Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide
Course Number: STRSW-ILT-ANCDA-D87M Revision, Date: 2.0, 25MAY2010

ATTENTION
The information contained in this guide is intended for training use only. This guide contains information and activities that, while beneficial for the purposes of training in a closed, non-production environment, can result in downtime or other severe consequences and therefore are not intended as a reference guide. This guide is not a technical reference and should not, under any circumstances, be used in production environments. To obtain reference materials, please refer to the NetApp product documentation located at http://now.netapp.com/ for product information.

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© 2010 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. Specifications subject to change without notice. No part of this book covered by copyright may be reproduced in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or storage in an electronic retrieval system—without prior written permission of the copyright owner. NetApp reserves the right to change any products described herein at any time and without notice. NetApp assumes no responsibility or liability arising from the use of products or materials described herein, except as expressly agreed to in writing by NetApp. The use or purchase of this product or materials does not convey a license under any patent rights, trademark rights, or any other intellectual property rights of NetApp. The product described in this manual may be protected by one or more U.S. patents, foreign patents, or pending applications.

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2 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATION DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................................5 EXAM NS0-154 – STORAGE NETWORKING CONCEPTS .............................................................................6
SKILLS TESTED.......................................................................................................................................................................... 6 RECOMMENDED COURSES ...................................................................................................................................................... 6 EXAM PREPARATION ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

DATA ONTAP .....................................................................................................................................................8
CONFIGURATION ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 10 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 13 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 14

SAN ...................................................................................................................................................................15
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 19 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 20 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 22 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 23

CIFS ..................................................................................................................................................................24
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 24 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 25 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 26 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 27 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 27

MULTIPROTOCOL ...........................................................................................................................................28
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 28 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 28 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 29

NFS ...................................................................................................................................................................31
CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 31 ADMINISTRATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 32 PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 33 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................................... 34

EXAM NS0-154 – DATA PROTECTION CONCEPTS .....................................................................................35
SKILLS TESTED........................................................................................................................................................................ 35 RECOMMENDED COURSES .................................................................................................................................................... 35 EXAM PREPARATION .............................................................................................................................................................. 35

SNAPSHOT ......................................................................................................................................................37
3 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

........................................... 57 METROCLUSTER / SYNCMIRROR ................................................................................... This material is intended for training use only....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 SNAPMIRROR ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 40 SNAPRESTORE .................................................................................................... 62 FURTHER READING ........................................................................ 39 PERFORMANCE .........................................62 PRACTICE EXAM ................................................................................................................................................ 43 ADMINISTRATION.................................................................................................. 51 SECURITY ........................................................................................................................ 50 PERFORMANCE ................................................................................... 55 TROUBLESHOOTING .............. 60 PERFORMANCE ......................................................................................................................................... 54 SECURITY ........................................................................... 45 PERFORMANCE ....................... 37 ADMINISTRATION.................................................................................................................................................................................. Not authorized for reproduction purposes........................................................................................................... 55 HIGH-AVAILABILITY CONFIGURATION (HA PAIR) ......................................................................................................... 41 SECURITY .................................... 58 ADMINISTRATION................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 47 TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 61 SECURITY ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 62 4 Data ONTAP 8...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................56 CONFIGURATION .......................................................................... ...............................................................................................53 CONFIGURATION .......................0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................49 CONFIGURATION ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 57 SECURITY ....................................................................................... 42 TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................. 51 TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 61 TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................................................................... 56 ADMINISTRATION..................................... Inc....................................................... 49 ADMINISTRATION................................................41 CONFIGURATION ................................................................................................................. 56 PERFORMANCE ................................................................... 52 OPEN SYSTEMS SNAPVAULT (OSSV) ........................................................................................................................................................................... 61 ADDITIONAL MATERIALS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 48 SNAPVAULT .............................. 53 ADMINISTRATION.......... 39 SECURITY ....................................................................................................................................................58 CONFIGURATION ........................... 41 PERFORMANCE ............ 41 ADMINISTRATION....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 47 SECURITY .......................................................................................................................................................................................43 CONFIGURATION ............................................................ 57 TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 39 TROUBLESHOOTING ..........................................................................................................................................................................CONFIGURATION ............................................................................... 54 PERFORMANCE .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

This material is intended for training use only. candidates had to pass two exams (NS0-153 and NS0-163). CERTIFICATION DESCRIPTION As a NetApp Certified Data Management Administrator (NCDA). This study guide focuses on the newer exam but maintains the structure of the NS0-153 and NS0-163 exams for backwards compatibility. to achieve NCDA certification.0 7-Mode course.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. NOTE: Neither successful completion of the Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8. SCSI.PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE This guide helps you prepare for the NCDA (NSO-154) certification exam. and SnapVault® products to manage and protect data FIGURE 1: NETAPP CERTIFIED DATA MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATOR (NCDA) Previously. FC. iSCSI. While this option is still available at the time of this writing. you are an expert in managing and optimizing a NetApp® storage system that runs the Data ONTAP® operating system in NFS and Windows® (CIFS) multiprotocol environments: You have proven your ability to: Work with multiple issues and within multiple environments—CIFS. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The guide reviews generally the material that is provided in the Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8. 5 Data ONTAP 8. TCP/IP Provide in-depth support Perform administrative functions Manage performance Implement high-availability (active-active) controller configurations and SyncMirror® and MetroCluster® solutions to ensure data availability and recovery Use the SnapMirror®. . NFS. NCDA candidates may now sit for one exam (NS0-154) based on Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode operating system. At least six months of experience administering NetApp storage systems is expected. SnapRestore®.0 7-Mode course nor the successful learning of the contents of this guide guarantees passing the exam. Inc.

Not authorized for reproduction purposes. configure.EXAM NS0-154: STORAGE NETWORKING CONCEPTS As a NetApp Certified Data Management Administrator. commands. and permissions Analyze storage system statistics and identify potential performance issues Analyze NFS performance by using the sysstat and nfsstat commands Investigate. and implement solutions in CIFS and NFS environments Identify the supported storage area network (SAN) configurations and the necessary hardware and software components (including NetApp Support Console) Identify concepts. NFS. troubleshoot. the section provides a summary of a range of NetApp technologies. and procedures for using the UNIX® file system. groups.0 7-Mode EXAM PREPARATION This section describes various NetApp FAS learning points. and applications Configure 64-bit aggregates for a system running Data ONTAP 8. The points are relevant to the NS0-153 and NS0154 exams and are related to storage networking concepts. as well as storage system commands.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. operating systems. and manage CIFS shares. you will have proven skills in performing in-depth support.0 7-Mode RECOMMENDED COURSES    Web-based: Data ONTAP 8. to gather data for performance and problem analysis Collect data to assist with troubleshooting hardware. 6 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Fundamentals Instructor-led: Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Administration Instructor-led: Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8. and FC for SCSI or iSCSI for TCP/IP protocols on a NetApp storage system that runs the Data ONTAP operating system in NFS and Windows (CIFS) multiprotocol environments. . identify. in addition to discussing the exam topics. Inc. and performance management for CIFS. Figure 2 highlights the subjects covered in the NS0-154 exam (white text) and the topics covered within each subject (black text). SKILLS TESTED               Describe the configuration requirements for NFS in a storage system environment Configure the storage system to support Kerberos™ security Explain and identify the frequently used CIFS components Create. administrative functions. However. especially in relationship to creating and mounting file systems that use UFS on storage system-based logical unit numbers (LUNs) Identify the components and tools that are required to create a LUN Install or update HBA drivers and firmware to enable Fibre Channel (FC) protocols for SCSI and TCP/IP protocols for iSCSI Use the sio_ntap utility. This material is intended for training use only.

0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. 7 Data ONTAP 8. .FIGURE 2: TOPICS COVERED IN THE NS0-153 AND NS0-154 EXAM The 154 exam covers these topics and additional topics that are not identified here. Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

DATA ONTAP SOFTWARE The operating system of the NetApp FAS storage controller is named Data ONTAP. The NetApp FAS storage controllers are designed around the NetApp Unified Storage architecture and support numerous storage protocols. supporting a wide range of storage protocols and storage-management software features. FIGURE 3 . Data ONTAP is the foundation of the NetApp Unified Storage architecture. This material is intended for training use only. management. and Network Information Service (NIS) are not shown. Refer to Figures 3 for identification of the supported protocols. such as the NetApp API (Manage ONTAP Solution or ZAPI). 8 Data ONTAP 8. some protocols. software features.PROTOCOLS SUPPORTED BY THE NETAPP FAS CONTROLLERS NOTE: This figure identifies only the major storage. Inc.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. and authentication protocols. . For brevity. and storage tiers in an appliance-like design.

NOTE: The fcadmin command applies only to the built-in FC ports. To enable persistence after a reboot. network IP addresses. The fcp show adapter command returns only the FC ports that are configured to function in target mode. you must enter the changes into the /etc/rc file. it runs the setup script. Target mode – Use target mode to connect to host systems (that is.CONFIGURATION When the storage controller is powered on for the first time. This material is intended for training use only.255. for example: ifconfig ns0 192. The fcp show initiator command returns all host FC initiator ports that are visible via the controller‘s FC target ports. –  Use the fcadmin config <adapter_name> -t initiator command to set an adapter to initiator mode. You may also need to configure the built-in FC ports (located on the motherboard). Windows or UNIX servers). 9 Data ONTAP 8. To manually reconfigure the FAS controller‘s Ethernet network interfaces. Any FC HBA adapter that you purchase is predefined as either an initiator or target adapter. This script configures fundamental parameters such as hostname.255.1 netmask 255. The built-in FC ports can function in one of two modes:  Initiator mode (the default) – Use the initiator mode to connect to disk expansion drawers.168. . and CIFS authentication (if licensed). you use the NetApp System Manager interface or the ifconfig command. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.0 NOTE: Most changes made from the command-line interface are transient. – Use the fcadmin config <adapter_name> -t target command to set an adapter to target mode. Inc.1. You can rerun the setup script manually at any time to reconfigure the parameters.

This material is intended for training use only. Operations Manager: a licensed tool that is installed on a host and that provides sophisticated management tools for one or more storage systems. Inc. ADMINISTRATION The administration of the NetApp FAS controller can be performed via various administrative interfaces. Remote Shell (RSH). . Operations Manager includes the following products: – – – Performance Advisor Protection Manager Provisioning Manager 10 Data ONTAP 8. Command-line interface: accessed via Telnet. or Secure Shell (SSH) – – – The aggr status command displays the existing aggregates.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Open protocols (such as RSH and Telnet) are disabled by default. NetApp recommends use of the default. The cifs shares –add … command defines a CIFS share. NetApp System Manager: a GUI designed for single-system configuration 2. The options dns.FIGURE 4: FIBRE CHANNEL INITIATOR-TARGET PORT RELATIONSHIPS NOTE: Similar initiator-target relationships exist in iSCSI connections. NOTE: In Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode.enable on command enables Domain Name System (DNS) name resolution (which requires further configuration). only secured protocols (such as SSH) are enabled by default. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. 3. 1.

an aggregate can accommodate only nineteen 1-TB data drives. NAS storage uses the file system on the controller—the WAFL® (Write Anywhere File Layout) system. This material is intended for training use only. You should become familiar with the NOW site. However. used to review all known software bugs Release Comparison. even if a SAN hardware failure occurs. For a SAN device. Protection Manager and Provisioning Manager are separately licensed products. for all NetApp products Software downloads.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. aggregates and. First. there are redundant physical paths (two or more) between a host and the controller. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. in Data ONTAP 7. with iSCSI‘s inherent multiple connections per second (MCS) You choose the multipath solution that best meets the needs of your environment. as the size of each disk drive increases. and the controller provides shared file-level access to multiple remote systems (hosts). as it is a primary resource for questions regarding the configuration or performance of a FAS storage controller. Both FC and iSCSI SANs support multipathing. and others use Ethernet. ext3). and NAS provides file-level access. On the other hand. used to request replacement of failed hardware Bugs online. consequently. Some of the resources available on the NOW site include:       A knowledgebase (searchable) of NetApp product information Online manuals. Second. the 16-TB limitation causes three major issues. including updates and evaluation versions Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA). Both tools are optional purchases and require licenses. the controller provides block-level access to the hosts. The various SAN and network-attached (NAS) protocols differ in many technical details: SAN provides block-level access. NetApp supports various multipathing options for both FC and iSCSI. Multipathing ensures storage availability. the volumes within the aggregates were based upon a 32-bit architecture. performance is directly affected. and the local file system is typically not shared with other hosts. NOTE: Management of the FAS storage infrastructure can be promoted to the host operating system (Windows or UNIX) by the SnapDrive® tool and to the application layer by the SnapManager® tool. . Refer to Figure 4 for an example.3. both SAN and NAS provide remote systems (hosts) with access to centralized. the read and write performance that can be realized from an aggregate also decreases. As storage demands increase.  FC and iSCSI multipathing – With the host platform‘s native multipath I/O (MDIO) driver – – With the NetApp device-specific module (DSM) for Windows With the Veritas Dynamic Mulitpath (VxDMP)software  iSCSI only multipathing. some protocols use FC connections. used to identify the version of Data ONTAP in which a particular bug was fixed 64-BIT AGGREGATES Before Data ONTAP 8. Perhaps the simplest way to define the difference between SAN and NAS is by describing how the file system is managed and how access is shared.0. As the number of drives decreases. The hosts then create and manage their own local file system (for example. The NetApp on the Web (NOW)® online support and services site is available to all customers and business partners. For example. With multipathing. Additionally. shared storage.The license for Operations Manager enables Performance Advisor. 11 Data ONTAP 8. Inc. the number of drives per aggregate must decrease. This architecture effectually limits the size of an aggregate to 16 TB.

The 32 parameter is the default. Similarly. Inc. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. if a storage administrator enters the following: aggr create sales aggr -B 64 24. you must migrate data from a 32-bit aggregate to a 64-bit aggregate. NetApp added the -B switch to the aggr create command.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.0. This architecture overcomes the disadvantages of the 16-TB limitation. you may use the ndmpcopy command. . For example. Data ONTAP 8.0.0 Cluster-Mode.0 7-Mode supports aggregates of up to 100 TB—running on top-of-line hardware with greater aggregate sizes available in the future.The third issue with the 16-TB limitation is that aggregate management becomes more complex and less efficient. This switch accepts 32 or 64 as a valid parameter. you cannot directly convert a 32-bit aggregate to a 64-bit aggregate. aggr create <aggr-name> [-B {32 | 64}]… The 32 parameter designates a 32-bit aggregate architecture. and the 64 parameter designates a 64-bit aggregate architecture. are added the new 64-bit aggregate. As in earlier Data ONTAP releases. NetApp is pleased to announce that its Data ONTAP 8. 12 Data ONTAP 8. To migrate data. The new aggregate is named ―sales aggr.‖ and 24 spare disks. Such a requirement greatly increases the complexity of managing large storage arrays.07-Mode operating system supports 64-bit aggregates. volumes within a 32-bit aggregate cannot be moved directly to a 64-bit aggregate. all existing aggregates are designated as 32-bit aggregates. In Data ONTAP 8. the storage administrator can manually choose the disks to be added by specifying a -d switch and the disk names. * Supported only through a Policy Variation Request (PVR) FIGURE 5: 64-BIT AGGREGATES—MAXIMUM AGGREGATE SIZE PER PLATFORM In Data ONTAP 8. chosen by Data ONTAP. NOTE: The command succeeds only if the specified number of spare disks exists. See Figure 5 for information about platforms and maximum aggregate sizes. a 64-bit aggregate is created. a FAS6070 system with 500 TB of storage requires a minimum of 32 aggregates. This material is intended for training use only.3 or earlier to Data ONTAP 8. To create a 64-bit aggregate. you must explicitly use the 64 parameter. For example. NOTE: In Data ONTAP 8.0. If you want to take advantage of the 64-bit aggregate feature. When a storage administrator upgrades a storage system from Data ONTAP 7. 64-bit aggregates are not available.

Performance data can consist of a broad summary of system performance or of details about specific performance parameters. and collision values  ifstat: The ifstat –a command displays a low level view of interface performance data. This material is intended for training use only. – The command displays many performance items. This section deals only with Data ONTAP security. CPU. nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). Characteristics of the perfstat command:      Captures all needed performance information Captures information from hosts and filers Captures all information simultaneously and thus enables cross correlation Operates on all host platforms and all filer platforms Records all captured data in one plain-text output file DATA ONTAP SECURITY The security of the FAS controller. .  statit – This command can output performance data on various object types.PERFORMANCE You can use several commands on the FAS storage controller to collect system performance data. FC and iSCSI) performance to the output. then you may need to download the perfstat command from the NOW online support and services site. Inc. the number of in and out network packets. the security of the Data ONTAP operating system. including consistency point (CP) time and type. stats – This advanced mode command can provide low-level performance data. – – Example: The stats show cifs:cifs:cifs_latency command displays the average latency value for the CIFS protocol. status. – – Example: The sysstat –s 5 command runs every five seconds and prints a summary on termination. netstat. including per-disk performance data. Some common commands for collecting performance data are:  sysstat – The default output includes CIFS. including transmitted (Tx) and received (Rx) bytes per second If you cannot resolve a performance problem by using the systat. stats. network interface card (NIC). and other performance counters. and disk performance values. Performance counters can also be accessed via the Windows PerfMon GUI (but only if CIFS is enabled). NFS. and the security of the data stored on the controller are different topics. The default interval is 15 seconds. The –b parameter adds block-level (that is. 13 Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The command can be used to identify when a controller is busy. HTTP. errors. specific instances of object type.  Some commands for collecting statistics about the performance of the Ethernet network interface and other data are:  netstat: The netstat -i command identifies the network interfaces. or ifstat commands. Example: The sysstat –u command displays extended utilization data. Outputs such as cp_from_log_full (‗F‘) and cp_from_cp (‗B‘) indicate that the controller is busy.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.

groups. to add. The useradmin command is used to create and modify local admin accounts.org) – netmon (download from 14icrosoft.com) NOTE: You must first convert the tcpdump output to netmon format by using the capconv. Examples of the useradmin command:     To create an administrative user useradmin user add <username> -g <groupname> To list the local groups useradmin group list To delete a role useradmin role delete <rolename> To assign a capability to a role useradmin role modify <rolename> -a <capability> You can use the useradmin commands.exe command that you can download from the NOW online support and services site. Produces output in standard tcpdump format. so you can analyze a protocol level problem. root. Characteristics of the pktt command:   Is normally run for a short period. with their obvious variations. NOTE: There is always at least one administrative account. or roles. or modify users. delete. Inc. can be bound to groups. list. The assigned users can perform only the tasks that the roles assigned to their groups allow them to perform. This material is intended for training use only. capturing network traffic on a particular interface. with specific capabilities. one or more accounts are usually defined on the FAS storage controller. Individual users are then assigned to the groups. The output can be analyzed in third-party network monitoring tools. . potentially filtered to target a particular client. then you could use the pktt command on the FAS controller. 14 Data ONTAP 8. TROUBLESHOOTING If you need to capture a network packet trace. FIGURE 6: ROLE BASED ACCESS CONTROL For administrative purposes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.The Data ONTAP operating system supports role-based access control (RBAC). Not authorized for reproduction purposes. where defined roles. such as the following: – ethereal (download from wireshark. The capabilities are predefined and cannot be changed. which cannot be deleted.

15 Data ONTAP 8. In a high-availability configuration. which is called ―single image. This flexibility allows for easy migration between the SAN access protocols.‖ has been the default failover mode for FC controllers since the release of Data ONTAP 7. but it can be exposed to a host via either or both protocols.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. If you require a description of the earlier FC cluster modes. The failover modes for FC controllers are:  single_image (the default since Data ONTAP 7. Therefore.SAN The NetApp FAS storage controllers support both the FC and iSCSI SAN standards. a LUN that is being accessed via FC is visible from every FC target port on both FAS storage controllers (even though the LUN is actually ―owned‖ by only one controller).2 software. refer to the product documentation. You can change from one to another failover mode (with caution) by using the fcp cfmode command. a NetApp LUN is not an FC LUN or an iSCSI LUN. you must reboot the controller. The following table details some of the features and limitations of the various failover modes: FIGURE 7: FAILOVER MODES FOR FC CONTROLLERS NOTE: Failover mode for FC controllers is an FC-specific concept. This material is intended for training use only. partner mixed dual_fabric standby Although all of the failover modes for FC controllers are supported for existing systems. After you change modes.2) – LUNs are visible on all FC target ports labeled by their worldwide port names (or WWPNs) on both controllers. –     A worldwide node name (WWNN) is shared by both controllers. The iSCSI protocol handles controller failover in a completely different manner. even simultaneously. This FC access mode. only the single_image mode is supported for new storage systems. Inc. . One feature (among many) that distinguishes the NetApp SAN architecture from competitive solutions is that the LUNs are defined below the SAN protocol layer. CONFIGURATION Refer to Figure 4 and the accompanying text for a description of the initiator and target configuration of the controller‘s built-in FC ports. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

whereas iSCSI travels on top of a TCP connection). When you use the wizard. and the LUN ID. they both provide block-level services to a host. However. IDs can conflict only within a host.Conceptually. You use the license add <licnum> command to license a feature (such as FC or iSCSI) on the controller. To create everything from a wizard. run the lun create. Inc. not between hosts. which allows you to manage storage from the host NOTE: When you create a LUN. if you create a LUN manually. to return the status of the protocol iscsi start. although they vary greatly in detail and implementation (for example. This material is intended for training use only. you do not need to manually create the igroups or map the LUNs. target-mode FC port on a specialized FC HBA adapter. Each host can have its own IDs. for the local controller ISWTb. to start the protocol fcp status. run the lun setup script and follow the prompts. The LUN ID is the means by which a host identifies a LUN and distinguishes between multiple LUNs. However. However. you must use the igroup create and lun map commands. If a standard Ethernet port is used. to return the status of the protocol iSCSI Another difference between the FC and iSCSI protocols concerns ports and adapters. you need to know certain facts. multiple commands are rolled up into the script.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. No configuration or host access can occur until the protocols are started. the OS of the respective host. and the LUNs and LUN IDs of each host are independent of the LUNs and LUN IDs of all other hosts. If you are using ISWT support in a high-availability controller configuration. After the SAN protocols are licensed. then you may notice two ISWT devices:   ISWTa. so the host can access a LUN. 16 Data ONTAP 8. Use the following commands to start each of the SAN protocols:  FC – –  – – fcp start. LUN that is presented to a host must be unique to the host.   Multiple LUNs to the same host must have unique LUN IDs. each host has its own LUNs and LUN IDs. as follows:   NetApp System Manager. SnapDrive. the end result is the same. The only difference between the protocols is that the iSCSI license is provided for no charge with the every FAS controller. Both FC and iSCSI are licensed protocols. using either of the following two methods – –  To create each item manually. To filter which LUNs are visible to which hosts (sometimes called ―LUN masking‖). of course. . the capacity required. such as the location (path) of the LUN. The FC protocol can use only a dedicated. a GUI downloadable from the NOW online support and services site Command-line interface. to start the protocol iscsi status. FC and iSCSI are very similar. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. An iSCSI protocol can use either a specialized iSCSI HBA adapter or any standard Ethernet port. then the controller uses the iSCSI software target (ISWT). then you must run two additional commands—to make the LUN accessible from a host. When a LUN is created via the lun setup wizard. they must be started. You can create the LUNs by using various tools. FC is a wire-level protocol. igroup create and lun map commands. for the partner controller. Therefore. used for controller failover The SAN protocols provide block-level access to the LUNs on the storage controller.

This material is intended for training use only. igroup create defines a relationship between a host (WWPN) and the OS type and identifies whether the current connection is an FC or iSCSI connection. thus guaranteeing that writable capacity is always available to the host. the LUN capacity problem creates a very undesirable scenario. refer to the NOW online support and services site and host platform documentation. Some of the parameters to be configured for this method are volume fractional reserve to 100% and LUN space reservation to Yes. For more detailed information.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Refer to the Figure 8: FIGURE 8: SUPPORTED LUN SIZES PER HOST PLATFORM NOTE: Not all supported operating system platforms are shown here. space reservation was the recommended method to guarantee space for writes to a LUN (regardless of the number of Snapshot copies). There are several ways to prevent the LUN capacity problem from occurring:  Space reservation—former best practice – – Until recently. the host should now be able to rescan for and connect to the new LUN. lun map </path/lun> <ig_name> <lun_id>  NOTE: Assuming that the SAN zoning is correct. the volume is filled with Snapshot data. the host may think that the volume has space available for writing data while. When the host attempts to write data.) lun set reservation (to change the space reservation of a LUN) – Configuration of the parameters causes an amount of space equal to the size of the LUN (100%) to be excluded from Snapshot copies. How a LUN consumes capacity on its parent volume and how LUN capacity is affected by the creation of Snapshot® copies is a complex topic. If a volume that contains a LUN is incorrectly configured. Obviously. – 17 Data ONTAP 8. . Not authorized for reproduction purposes. You need to be aware of the minimum and maximum LUN sizes that are supported by each of the host operating systems. in reality. and manual rectification is required. Inc. vol options <vol> fractional_reserve 100 (100% by default) lun create (LUN space reservation is on by default. the LUN goes offline. Such a configuration is sometimes referred to the ―two times plus Delta (2X+Δ)‖ overhead. igroup create -f -t windows <ig_name> <wwpn> lun map defines a relationship between a LUN and the igroup and sets the LUN ID.

the Volume Fractional Reserve can be safely set to 0%.CONFIGURING VOLUME AND LUN PROVISIONING NOTE: Some documentation may still refer to these former best practices. refer to the product documentation. two automatic utilization thresholds were introduced. – FIGURE 10 .FIGURE 9 . When the parameters are configured. This material is intended for training use only. vol autosize <vol-name> on (off by default) snap autodelete <vol-name> on (off by default) vol options <vol> fractional_reserve 0 – This parameter configuration sets a utilization threshold at which the containing volume automatically grows and/or at which certain existing Snapshot copies are deleted. . replacing the former best practice (use of the 100% fractional reserve) with the current best practice. 18 Data ONTAP 8. Some of the parameters to be configured for this method are Volume AutoGrow and Snapshot AutoDelete. Use of the threshold changes the capacity required to ―one times plus Delta (1X+Δ).CONFIGURING AUTOMATIC CAPACITY MANAGEMENT NOTE: For more information about volume and LUN space management. Inc.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.  Volume AutoGrow and Snapshot AutoDelete—current best practice – – In the last few years. Use of the threshold ensures that space is always available for the host to write to the LUN.‖ Use of thin provisioning can produce an even better result.

having the volume containing only a single LUN).snapshot/lun1 /vol/vol1/lun2  lun clone split. it is recommended that. Therefore. assume that you configure a 400-GB volume and then create a 300-GB LUN inside the volume.  On the host – –  Quiesce the application or database Flush the host‘s file system buffers to disk (LUN) snap create /vol/vol1 <snapshot_name> The copy now contains a consistent image of the host‘s file system and application database in an idle or offline state. displays various types of information about LUNs – –  To display the LUN to igroup mappings: lun show -m To display the LUNs operating system platform types: lun show -v lun clone. So. instantly creates an read/writable LUN as a clone of an existing LUN The new LUN is thin provisioned (no space is consumed until new data is written). it is often necessary to coordinate with the relevant host during the Snapshot backup of a LUN. Remember that the Snapshot copy of a LUN is created at the volume level. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Therefore. and the two LUNs share blocks with a snapshot of the original LUN (known as the ―backing‖ snapshot) lun create –b /vol/vol1/. A LUN can contain a file system that is managed by the host and/or contain a database that is managed by an application on the host. there would be insufficient free capacity in the volume to allow the host to continue to write to the LUN. you must consider the free capacity in the containing volume. then a subsequent attempt to create a Snapshot copy fails. the relationship be split lun clone split start /vol/vol1/lun2 NOTE: For more detailed descriptions of the lun command options. it is best practice to simplify the Snapshot copy process by one-to-one (1:1) relationship between volume and LUN (or in other words. unquiesce the application or database. makes a LUN unavailable for host access lun move. when Snapshot copies are created. On the controller. only the host and the application can ensure the consistency of the file system and database. For example. all data in the volume is captured in the Snapshot copy including multiple LUNs and NAS data if present in the volume. Inc. splits a LUN clone from its backing snapshot Because a LUN clone locks the backing snapshot (that is. Usually. This material is intended for training use only. create the Snapshot copy of the LUN. NOTE: The NetApp host attachment kit includes a utility to flush the host‘s file system buffers to disk. 19 Data ONTAP 8. The failure occurs because. For detailed information about the various capacity management methods that are relevant to Snapshot backup of volumes and LUNs.  On the host. the coordination process occurs with no disruption to service. for long-term use. if the Snapshot copy were created. . refer to the Snapshot section.ADMINISTRATION You can use lun commands not only to create LUNs but also to perform various other LUN-related actions:    lun offline.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. refer to the product documentation. In this case. prevents the backing snapshot from being deleted). If you fill the LUN with data. relocates a LUN from one to another path within the same volume lun show. When you create a Snapshot backup of a LUN.

You can then copy individual files back to the original LUN. there is a SnapDrive package. for a very large file. This material is intended for training use only. deduplication. NOTE: If the Snapshot backup contains NAS data (rather than a LUN). and so on) Switch – Network speed – Port oversubscription – Switch workload Host – Workload type (random versus sequential and read versus write) – Network speed   20 Data ONTAP 8. then you can browse to the . Many examples of the scripts can be downloaded from the NOW online support and services site. RAID scrub. there is a SnapManager package.  LUN clone: You create a clone of the LUN and then mount the clone. To do so. Inc. . you must create the required automation scripts.  SnapDrive – Create a LUN – Connect to a LUN – Trigger a new consistent Snapshot copy of a file system – Restore a Snapshot backup – Clone a LUN – Manage iSCSI connections SnapManager – Trigger a new consistent Snapshot copy of an application – Manage the retention of Snapshot backups – Restore a Snapshot backup of an application – Clone an application or database (only for specific applications) – Migrate application data onto LUNs  NOTE: You can perform Snapshot application integration without SnapManager support. Perhaps the best way to manage (and create Snapshot copies of) SAN storage is to use the NetApp host and application integration tools.To restore from a Snapshot backup of a LUN. for many popular business applications. These tools provide an easy-to-use.snapshot directory and copy the individual files back to the active file system or. PERFORMANCE The performance of the SAN is dependent on the available physical resources and the host. – The LUN must be offline or unmapped.  Controller – Model (versus expected performance level) – Number of spindles supporting the LUNs – Network speed – Number of ports or paths – Balanced workload between high-availability controllers – Background tasks (replication. switch. highly functional interface for managing the storage controller. you can use single file SnapRestore. and controller configurations. and. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. RAID rebuild. you can use either of two methods:  Volume SnapRestore – This method restores the entire volume and the LUN. For each supported host operating system platform.

21 Data ONTAP 8. Inc.  Single connection per session (1:1) – Creates one iSCSI connection per TCP session – Is supported by the Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO) and NetApp DSM for Windows Multiple connections per session (MCS) – Creates multiple iSCSI connections per TCP session – Provides a native iSCSI multipathing capability  FIGURE 11. This material is intended for training use only.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.ISCSI SESSIONS AND CONNECTIONS The commands to list the iSCSI connections and sessions are: iscsi session show iscsi connection show –v NOTE: The advantages and disadvantages of the multipathing methods are beyond the scope of this document. The connections-to-sessions relationship can be configured in either of two modes. . Not authorized for reproduction purposes. you can list connections (an iSCSI initiator-totarget relationship) and sessions (TCP) separately.– – – – Multipathing configuration (high-availability or failover only) Number of paths HBA tuning Correct partition alignment Because all iSCSI traffic is carried over the TCP protocol.

SECURITY

The security of the SAN is enforced at several levels—some on the controller, some in the fabric, and some in conjunction with the hosts.  FC – LUN masking – Port masking – SAN zoning iSCSI – LUN masking – Port masking – Ethernet VLANs – Passwords – Encryption (igroups) (portsets)

(igroups) (iscsi accesslist) (iscsi security) (ipsec)

In an FC SAN, the ability of the various devices to discover each other and communicate across the fabric is controlled by the zone definitions. Only devices that reside in the same zone can communicate. The two main types of SAN zones are:  Soft zones – Is usually defined using the WWPN of the host‘s and controller‘s FC ports; allows communication between the device‘s FC ports – Blocks inter-zone traffic by filtering device discovery at the fabric name service but does not explicitly block traffic Hard zones – Is usually defined using the physical port numbers of the FC switch; allows communication between the physical switch ports – Blocks inter-zone traffic by filtering device discovery at the fabric name service and by preventing traffic between switch ports

When designing FC SAN zones, apply the following recommendations:  Decide on a naming convention and use only the naming convention that you decided on  Keep disk and tape devices in separate zones  Define a zone for every required initiator-target pairing A concern with an iSCSI SAN is that the block-level traffic and other, less-sensitive data might be travelling over the same physical network. In this situation, the iSCSI traffic is exposed to network snooping and other attacks. The NetApp FAS controllers support port masking, bidirectional password access, and network encryption of the iSCSI traffic.  iSCSI port masking allows you to deny specified network adapters the ability to expose an iSCSI initiator group to the hosts:

iscsi interface accesslist remove ig0 e0a
 iSCSI password requires an iSCSI host that is trying to access a LUN to respond to a password challenge. It can also require a controller to answer a password challenge from the host. iscsi security add -i <igroup_name> -s CHAP -p <inpassword> -n <inname> [ -o <outpassword> -m <outname> ]

22 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

IPSec encryption enables encryption of the Ethernet network traffic. Because it is not an iSCSI specific setting, it encrypts all Ethernet traffic (but the client, of course, needs to know how to decrypt the traffic). options ip.ipsec.enable on and ipsec policy add

NOTE: Network encryption, although effective, can negatively affect the performance of what should be a high performance iSCSI solution. Therefore, many sites choose not to encrypt iSCSI traffic and instead deploy a separate network infrastructure or a virtual local area network (VLAN) to isolate the iSCSI traffic.
TROUBLESHOOTING

Troubleshooting a SAN problem requires knowledge of the host, the SAN switches and network infrastructure, and the storage controller. Much of the information associated with this knowledge is outside the scope of this document. However, here are some actions that you can perform to troubleshoot a simple LUN access problem:  On the controller – Can the storage controller see the host‘s FC adapters? fcp show initiator – Is the LUN being presented to the host? lun map –v igroup show –  If there a problem with iSCSI password access? iscsi security show On the SAN switches, are the host‘s FC initiator ports and the controller‘s FC target ports in the same zone? – Run the zoneshow command (Brocade). – Run the show zone command (Cisco MDS). On the host (Solaris 9) – Is the host configured to detect the LUN? – Is the LUN ID in the /kernel/drv/sd.conf file? – Has the host rescanned to detect the LUN? – Run the devfsadm command.

NOTE: For additional troubleshooting recommendations, refer to the product documentation.

23 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

CIFS
The Common Internet File System (CIFS) is the default NAS protocol included with Microsoft Windows. The NetApp storage controller can participate in an Active Directory domain and present files via the CIFS protocol.
CONFIGURATION

The CIFS protocol is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used to present files for client access. license add <licnum> NOTE: If the controller was ordered with the CIFS license, then CIFS license will already be installed, and the CIFS setup wizard will start automatically when the system is booted. The easiest way to configure the CIFS protocol is to run the CIFS setup wizard. The wizard prompts you for all aspects of the CIFS configuration, such as the NetBIOS host name, the authentication mode (for example, Active Directory), and the local administrator password. To start the wizard, you run the cifs setup command: The choices for CIFS user authentication are:  Active Directory  NT Domain  Windows Workgroup  Non-Windows workgroup NOTE: If you wish to configure Active Directory mode for user authentication, then the system time on the storage controller must be within five minutes of the system time on the Active Directory server. This requirement is inherited from the Kerberos protocol, which Active Directory uses for improved security. It is recommended that both systems be configured to use the same network time server, if one is available. You can not only use an external authentication system such as Active Directory but you can also define local users and groups. It is recommended that a local administrator be defined—to be used if the Active Directory server is unavailable. You can add domain users (such as a Domain Admin) to local groups. This ability can be useful when you are managing the storage controller as part of a larger enterprise. For example, to add the domain user ―Steven‖ to the local Administrators group, run the following command: useradmin domainuser add steven -g Administrators For information about how to manage local users and groups, refer to Figure 6 and to the text related to Figure 6.

24 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp, Inc. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

the controller sends only a Simple Network Time Protocol (SNMP) trap. Inc.   List the active quotas quota status Enable quotas 25 Data ONTAP 8. . The client displays a ―filesystem full‖ error. controls how much data the specified user can store – Group. –  Default.  Quota targets – User. limits the amount of disk space that can be used (sets a maximum) – Files. Hard: When the specified threshold is reached. controls how much data can be stored in the specified qtree (similar to a directory) NOTE: The Administrator and root users are exempt from the all quota types except the qtree quota type. The user‘s write succeeds. applies only if the specified quota is not defined for the current user or group Quota objects – Capacity. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. limits on the number of files that can be stored (sets a maximum) Quota thresholds – – Soft: When the specified threshold is reached. This material is intended for training use only. Both methods store the quota configuration in the /etc/quotas file on the controller‘s root volume.ADMINISTRATION To create and manage CIFS shares. There are several types of quotas and various options to enforce each type of quota. the controller prevents the user‘s attempt to write more data. you can create shares to expose the following object types for user access:  Volume /vol/vol1 Qtree /vol/vol1/qtree1  Directory /vol/vol1/dir1 It is sometimes desirable to set a quota on the amount of disk space that an individual user or group can consume via the CIFS (or NFS) protocol.  Quotas are configured and managed via either the quota command or NetApp System Manager (1.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Here are some examples of the use of the cifs command and the shares parameter: List the existing shares cifs shares Create a share cifs shares –add <sharename> /vol/vol1 Change a share cifs shares –change <sharename> -comment Using the CIFS protocol. controls how much data the specified group of users can store – Qtree. you must use the cifs command and the shares parameter.1 and later) interface.

displays the most active CIFS clients.neg_buf_size <value> This command changes the buffer size. you must enable the cifs. various CIFS-specific performance-analysis commands are available. CIFS statistics are cumulative for all clients. and statit).per_client_stats. For detailed information about the controller-performance commands that are not specific to CIFS (for example. Also. PERFORMANCE The FAS storage controller has numerous performance counters.   vol options <volume_name> convert_ucode on vol options <volume_name> create_ucode on 26 Data ONTAP 8. and other metrics. sysstat.quota on <volume_name> A file system scan is required.enable option. stats. statistics. However. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Inc. refer to the Data ONTAP section.  Report on quota usage quota report A report that details the current file and space consumption for each user and group that is assigned a quota and for each qtree is printed. 3. . To collect statistics for individual clients. as determined by various criteria NOTE: By default. 2. For a large file system. the file system scan is not needed only if you modify the limits on an existing quota.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. a file system scan is not needed. which begins with an asterisk (*). cifs restart This command restarts the CIFS service (the clients can now reconnect). cifs terminate This command halts the CIFS service and disconnects all clients. Here is an example process: 1. options cifs. Here is an example of an /etc/quotas configuration file: FIGURE 6 : AN EXAMPLE QUOTA CONFIGURATION FILE NOTE: The second line.  Resize a quota quota resize <volume_name> When you modify the limits of a quota. displays CIFS performance statistics cifs top. This material is intended for training use only. Changing some CIFS performance parameters is disruptive. is a default quota. Such changes can be performed only when no clients are connected. for example:   cifs stat. the scan can require a significant amount of time. One easy way to improve CIFS performance is to set Unicode mode on the volume that contains the shared files.

Here is an example of how user access rights are evaluated:  You issue the command that identifies shares and access rights. the access protocol is CIFS. Inc. 27 Data ONTAP 8. configuring a volume for Unicode support may increase performance. access is either granted or denied. Therefore. but. the CIFS protocol enforces it.  If mandatory file locking is requested by the client. which is usually provided at login time by the Active Directory server. but the containing volume or qtree may have a UNIX security style. On a file-by-file basis. cifs access <share> <user> <access rights> The list of share-level access rights are: – No Access – Read – Change – Full Control  The system evaluates the user‘s security ID (SID). if a volume is not configured for Unicode support. For detailed troubleshooting information. which is called ―multiprotocol access.Because the CIFS protocol always uses Unicode. Kerberos security (Active Directory).‖ is discussed in the next section. analyzes the network protocol statistics to ensure correct operation and displays. A full description of CIFS troubleshooting is outside the scope of this document. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. and host name resolution. In this case. remarkably. the CIFS protocol has numerous potential points of failure. then the controller must continuously convert between Unicode mode and non-Unicode mode. If you suspect that connectivity problems are the source of your CIFS problems. against the user‘s share permissions. provides a standard TCP connection test testdc. as required. refer to the ANCDA Boot Camp training materials. tests communication with the Active Directory server ifstat. you can try the following commands:     ping. The system evaluates the user‘s SID against the file or directory permissions. suggested remedial actions Another potential issue is file access permissions. This configuration.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. SECURITY To manage user access to CIFS shares. TROUBLESHOOTING CIFS is a complex protocol that uses several TCP ports and interacts with various external systems for user authentication. Therefore. it is usually very reliable. displays a low-level view of network-interface performance data netdiag. Access to the share is either granted or denied. . you use the cifs command and the access parameter. This material is intended for training use only.

you use the following commands:  qtree status. refer to the CIFS and NFS administration sections. 28 Data ONTAP 8. the shares and exports. it is recommended that mixed mode be used only when it is needed to accommodate a particular requirement. For detailed information about the administration of the CIFS and NFS protocols. the operation is seamless. refer to the CIFS and NFS performance sections. even when they refer to the same file system. NOTE: Because the use of mixed mode can complicate the troubleshooting of file-access problems. Where <value> = mixed Each file and directory can have either UNIX or NTFS permissions (but not both at the same time). displays the list of volumes and qtrees and their security styles  qtree security <path> [ unix | ntfs | mixed ]. and the file system must be mapped. sets the security mode for a nominated volume or qtree Although the security-style setting controls the underlying file system‘s security type. ADMINISTRATION The CIFS and NFS protocols are managed separately. The mappings that do not need to be configured are discussed in the Security section. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. some unavoidable complexities arise.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Therefore. Where <value> = ntfs All files and directories have New Technology File System (NTFS) permissions. . To manually set or view the security style for a volume or qtree. Consider the following example:   Evaluate the user‘s SID or user ID against the share or export permissions. the protocols should not be the source of any multiprotocol concern. Inc. Of course. Access to the share or export is either granted or denied.MULTIPROTOCOL The NetApp storage controller can present files via the CIFS protocol and the NFS protocol simultaneously. The multiprotocol environment introduces additional complexity because the relationships between the security semantics of the users. CONFIGURATION The only requirement for multiprotocol access is that CIFS access and NFS access be configured to the same file system. For detailed performance information. This material is intended for training use only. access via CIFS or NFS to the file data is controlled by the normal user-authorization process. Because the controller includes sophisticated mappings between Windows and UNIX user names and file system permissions. PERFORMANCE Multiprotocol access should not be the source of any performance concern. because Windows systems and UNIX systems use different security semantics. Some security settings and user-name mappings do need to be configured. Evaluate the user‘s SID or user ID against the file or directory permissions. SECURITY The default security style for all new volumes is controlled by a WAFL option: options wafl.default_security_style <value>    Where <value> = unix All files and directories have UNIX permissions.

cfg file Default. Windows and UNIX). To identify how user-name mappings are being resolved. In this case. wcc –s <windows_user> This command displays the Windows to UNIX user-name mapping.default_nt_user <username> options wafl. The /etc/usermap. This material is intended for training use only.nt_admin_priv_map_to_root on 29 Data ONTAP 8.If the ID and the permissions are of different types (for example. FIGURE 7: MULTIPROTOCOL ACCESS AND USER-NAME MAPPING The user-name mapping is defined in the /etc/usermap.cfg file. On a file-by-file basis. then it may be necessary to map the user name to the correct type.cfg file is a simple text file in the root volume of the storage controller. for example: Domain\Administrator => root If you are connecting as the Administrator or root user to a volume with a foreign security style. . access is either granted or denied. The following diagram identifies where user-name mapping may need to occur. attempt to use the defined default UNIX or Windows user name (if any). the easiest way to overcome an access problem may be to set the following options:  options wafl. if the user names are defined in /etc/username. if the user names differ and there is no specific mapping. Inc. options wafl. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The process of mapping user names between Windows and UNIX contexts is reasonably straightforward:    Automatic. if the Windows and UNIX user names match Specified (win_user = unix_user).0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. issue one of the following commands:   wcc –u <unix_user> This command displays the UNIX to Windows user-name mapping.default_unix_user <username> TROUBLESHOOTING Most problems with multiprotocol access are caused by incorrect security styles or incorrect user-name mappings.

create both a CIFS share and an NFS export. You can use the cifs sessions command to list the clients that have active CIFS connections. then a CIFS client can successfully resolve any symbolic-link problem that was created by an NFS client. . Inc. you may need to debug a file-access problem (for example. due to variances in user populations and variances in CIFS and NFS file locking abilities.enable option to on (the default value).nfs_root_ignore_acl on The wafl and cifs options grant superuser privileges on the foreign volume to Administrator and root users. Another possible issue with mixed NFS and CIFS access is that NFS clients support symbolic links in the file system and CIFS clients generally do not support symbolic links. if you set the cifs.symlinks. an NFS client can‘t open a file because it is locked by a CIFS client). 30 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. options cifs. refer to the product documentation. respectively. NOTE: For detailed information about the interaction of CIFS clients with the various types of symbolic links. In some cases. This material is intended for training use only. However. to avoid) the simplest of all access problems. To resolve (better yet.

31 Data ONTAP 8. Inc. Identification – NSF clients can be identified by their host names. This material is intended for training use only. license add <licnum> The NFS server configuration is described in the /etc/exports file. IP subnets.NFS The Network File System (NFS) is the default NAS protocol that is included with all UNIX platforms. and so on: – Example: 10. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. read-write or read-only). . IP addresses.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. DNS subdomains. FIGURE 8: AN EXAMPLE /ETC/EXPORTS FILE NOTE: Any volume (or qtree and so on) that is to be exported is listed in the configuration file. CONFIGURATION The NFS protocol is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used to present files for NFS client access. and specifies privilege levels (for example.38  Authorization – Exports specify access permissions for NFS clients. –  Example: /vol/flexvol1 identifies a resource that is to be exported. – Example: rw and nosuid specify access permissions.254. The /etc/exports file contains three types of information:  Resource list – Exports are resources that are available to NFS clients.134. specifies who can access the exports. The NetApp storage controller can present files via the NFS protocol and can also participate in a Kerberos domain. The file lists all NFS exports.

For example. both /vol/vol1 and /vol/vol1/qtree1 can be exported. Here are some examples of their use:     List the current exports (in memory) exportfs List the persistent exports (available after a reboot) rdfile /etc/exports Create an export (in memory) exportfs –i –o rw=host1 /vol/vol1 Create a persistent export (available after a reboot) wrfile –a /etc/exports /vol/vol1 –rw=host1 <CNTL>-C exportfs -a With the NFS protocol. . can export ancestors and descendants). thus. refer to the CIFS configuration section.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. the FAS controller can successfully export nested directories (and. you can create exports to expose the following object types for user access:     Volume /vol/vol1 Qtree /vol/vol1/qtree1 Directory /vol/vol1/dir1 File /vol/vol1/file1. and the NFS client must satisfy only the access controls that are associated with the mount point that was initially accessed. This material is intended for training use only. you use the exportfs command and the /etc/exports file. 32 Data ONTAP 8. For a description of file system quotas.ADMINISTRATION To perform NFS server administration tasks.iso NOTE: Unlike most UNIX variants. Inc.

stats. integrity checking is performed. you must enable the nfs. for example:   nfsstat. run the time dd command  To read/write traffic. security has been seen as a weak spot for the NFS protocol.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. displays NFS performance statistics nfs_hist. and statit). data-integrity evaluation. The script can be downloaded from the NOW online support and services site at the following location: http://now. krb5i: Authentication occurs with each NFS request and response. then the system time on the storage controller must be within five minutes of the system time on the Kerberos server. krb5p: Authentication occurs with each NFS request. iozone. but recent versions of NFS support very strong security. NOTE: By default. the NFS client (remote UNIX server) must be able to mount the export. Before a user can access an export.com/NOW/download/tools/ntaptop/.  NOTE: If you wish to configure Kerberos mode for user authentication. and Kerberos authenticates that the NFS client is genuine. and other metrics. Inc. and bonnie++ and the NetApp sio tool.    krb5: Authentication occurs with each NFS request and response.PERFORMANCE The FAS storage controller has numerous performance counters. Performance testing is a complex topic that is beyond the scope of this document. Various NFSspecific performance-analysis commands are available. This material is intended for training use only. the user‘s access to the shared files in the export is evaluated against the user‘s UNIX user ID and 33 Data ONTAP 8. to verify that requests and responses have not been tampered with. run the time mkfile command  To read traffic. The traditional security model is called ―AUTH_SYS.pl. you can perform some very basic performance analysis by using the following procedure (from the NFS client):  To write traffic. and integrity checking is performed. the NFS statistics that are reported are cumulative for all clients. This requirement is inherited from the Kerberos protocol. Kerberos – User authentication is performed on the remote NFS client.‖ and the newer model is called ―Kerberos. a Perl script that lists the most active NFS clients. if one is available. Then. – There are three levels of Kerberos security. and data encryption is performed on each request and response. For detailed information about the controller-performance commands that are not specific to NFS (for example. Nevertheless. sysstat.‖ Here is a summary of the differences between the two security models:  AUTH_SYS – User authentication is performed on the remote NFS client (which is typically a UNIX server). To collect statistics for individual clients.netapp. statistics. The script is run on a client system. This scenario implies that the authentication process on the NFS client is trusted and that the NFS client is not an impostor. – No additional authentication. It is recommended that both systems be configured to use the same network time server. then you should investigate utilities such as iometer. or data encryption is performed. run the time cp command NOTE: If you are concerned about repeatable performance testing. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. the number of I/O operations per millisecond grouping)  netapp-top. . an advanced mode command that displays NFS delay time distributions (that is.enable option.per_client_stats. SECURITY Traditionally. refer to the Data ONTAP section.

Check the /etc/fstab file on the host for errors. A full description of NFS troubleshooting is outside the scope of this document. As such. Kerberos security. refer to the ANCDA Boot Camp training materials. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. and the NFSv4 protocol enforces mandatory file locking. If you are experiencing ―stale NFS handle‖ errors.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.group ID (UID and GID). and host name resolution. This is a two step process. which is usually provided at login time by the NFS client. TROUBLESHOOTING NFS is a complex protocol that uses several TCP ports and interacts with various external systems for user authentication. displays low-level statistics that are useful in debugging a mount problem. Inc. Check the controller‘s current exports in memory by running the exportfs command. remarkably. you can try the following actions:  Verify that RCP is enabled  Verify that NFS daemons are running  Verify that mount points exist If you are having problems mounting an NFS export. if it is requested by the client. which is run from the controller. which is run from the NFS client. This material is intended for training use only. r/w or r/o). List the exports that are available on the NFS server by running the showmount –e command on the NFS client Check the controller‘s /etc/exports file. you can try the following commands:   showmount –e This command. lists the exports that are available on the NFS server. . for example:   Evaluate the server‘s host name against the export permissions Access is either granted or denied (to mount the export. If you suspect that RPC problems are the source of your NFS problems. NFS has numerous potential points of failure. you can try the following actions:      34 Data ONTAP 8. For detailed troubleshooting information. Check connectivity between the two systems by using the ping command. it is usually very reliable. but. Evaluate the user‘s UID/GID against the file or directory permissions Access is either granted or denied (on a file-by-file basis). The NFSv2 and NFSv3 protocols use advisory file locking. nfsstat –d This command.

35 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Administration Instructor-led: NetApp Protection Software Administration Instructor-led: Accelerated NCDA Boot Camp Data ONTAP 8. These learning points focus on data protection concepts.0 7-Mode Web-based: Implementing SyncMirror on Data ONTAP8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Rather. Figure 14 highlights the main subjects covered in the exam (white text) and the range of topics covered within each subject (black text). SKILLS TESTED          Set up and maintain Snapshot™ copies Configure and administer SnapRestore technology Configure and administer asynchronous SnapMirror product Configure and administer synchronous SnapMirror product Configure and administer Open Systems SnapVault application Configure and administer Operations Manager application Configure and administer SnapLock® technology (not applicable in Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Web-based: Planning and Implementing MetroCluster on Data ONTAP 8. you can implement an active-active controller configuration and use SyncMirror software to ensure continuous data availability and rapid recovery of data and use the SnapMirror®. SnapRestore®.0 7-Mode EXAM PREPARATION This section describes various NetApp FAS learning points that are relevant to the NS0-163 and NS0-154 exams. and SnapVault® products to manage and protect data. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.0 7-Mode RELATED COURSES    Web-based: High Availability on Data ONTAP 8. it also summarizes information about a range of NetApp technologies.0 7-Mode or the corresponding NS0-154 exam) Analyze and resolve data protection problems Implement high-availability (active-active) controller configuration (including SyncMirror) RECOMMENDED COURSES    Instructor-led: Data ONTAP 8. Inc. .EXAM NS0-154: DATA PROTECTION CONCEPTS As a NetApp Certified Data Management Administrator. the section is not limited to the exam topics. However. This material is intended for training use only.

Inc.FIGURE 9 : TOPICS COVERED IN THE NS0-163 AND NS0-154 EXAMS 36 Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. .0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. This material is intended for training use only.

20 The default schedule creates four hourly Snapshot copies (at 8:00. the WAFL file system uses inodes to reference the data blocks on the disk. as required. The data blocks that are referenced by a Snapshot copy are locked against overwriting. Refer to Figure 16 for an example of how the Snapshot process occurs. FIGURE 10: THE PROCESS OF A SNAPSHOT COPY LOCKING SOME BLOCKS IN THE AFS NOTE: Each volume can retain up to 255 Snapshot copies. However. a Snapshot copy is a root inode that references the data blocks on the disk.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. NetApp Snapshot technology is particularly efficient. like most UNIX file systems. Inc. retaining 2 at a time and zero weekly Snapshot copies (if created. This material is intended for training use only. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.  List the default Snapshot schedule. a daily Snapshot copy (at 24:00 Monday through Saturday and Sunday if a weekly Snapshot copy is not taken).SNAPSHOT TECHNOLOGY A Snapshot copy is a read-only image of a volume or an aggregate. – The command: snap sched <vol> – The output: Volume <vol>: 0 2 6@8.12. so any update to the active file system (AFS) is written to other locations on the disk. . Snapshot copies are created according to the schedule‘s default settings. The copy captures the state of the file system at a point in time. 16:00. Many Snapshot copies may be kept online or vaulted to another system. providing for instant creation of Snapshot copies with near-zero capacity overhead. these would occur at 24:00 on Sunday). And. and 20:00) and retains 6 total. to be used for rapid data recovery. When you create a volume. Initially. 12:00. you can modify or disable the default settings to satisfy your local backup requirements. CONFIGURATION The Snapshot capability of the FAS storage controller is a native capability that is provided by the WAFL file system layer.  Modify the Snapshot schedule by running a command similar to the following: 37 Data ONTAP 8.16. This efficiency is possible because. a default Snapshot schedule is created. Both SAN and NAS data can be captured in a Snapshot copy.

21  Disable the Snapshot schedule by running one of the following commands. 38 Data ONTAP 8. snap reserve <vol> <percentage> Refer to Figure 17 to identify where the Snapshot reserve values apply.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. .9. FIGURE 11: AGGREGATE AND VOLUME SNAPSHOT RESERVES NOTE: The value for the volume Snapshot reserve is the minimum amount of space that is reserved for Snapshot data. you normally disable the controller initiated Snapshot copies because the consistency of the file system in the LUN can be guaranteed only by the host that accesses the LUN. A percentage of every new volume and every new aggregate is reserved for storing Snapshot data.18. You can modify the default values by running the snap reserve command. Inc.‖ The default reserve is 5% for aggregates and 20% for volumes.15. snap sched <vol> 0 0 0 vol options <vol> nosnap on NOTE: On volumes that contain LUNs. is the reserved space is known as the ―Snapshot reserve.snap sched <vol> weekly nightly hourly@<time> snap sched <vol> 2 7 6@6.12. This material is intended for training use only. The Snapshot copies can consume more space than the initial reserve value specifies. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. You should then use a tool such as SnapDrive to initiate the Snapshot copies from the host.

create a volume Snapshot copy (If you want an aggregate level Snapshot copy. The storage administrator can configure the visibility of the Snapshot directory (for NAS clients). Therefore. Inc. Use the following command to disable the Snapshot directory per volume. Use the following command to disable the Snapshot directory per volume: vol options <volume_name> nosnapdir on  For CIFS access The default CIFS settings do not allow the Snapshot directory to be seen by CIFS clients. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. These Snapshot copies are created. and deletion of Snapshot copies make no significant impact on performance. and deleted under the control of the host and application integration agents. This problem arises because the previous security settings are preserved in the Snapshot view. PERFORMANCE Typically. refer to the SnapRestore performance section.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. User access to the data in a Snapshot copy is controlled by the file system security settings (for example. a Snapshot copy is a read-only view of the state of the file system at the time that the copy was created. NOTE: If the security style of the volume changes after the Snapshot copy is created. retained. NTFS ACLs) that were in place when the Snapshot copy was created. then the users may not be able to access the file system view in the Snapshot directory (unless their user-name mapping is configured to allow them to access the foreign security style). deletes the specified Snapshot copy and makes its disk space available NOTE: Some special types of Snapshot copies (for example. The following commands either enable or disable client access to the Snapshot directory:  Per volume The default volume settings do allow the Snapshot directory to be seen by the NAS protocols. Snapshot copies created with SnapMirror and SnapVault software) are created and managed by the storage controller and should not be interfered with.show_snapshot on  For NFS access The default NFS settings do allow the Snapshot directory to be seen by NFS clients. for example:   snap list. Snapshot copies that are created with SnapDrive and SnapManager software should not be managed from the storage controller. Because the copies contain consistent backup images that are being retained by schedules and policies on the agents. For information about performance. because Snapshot technology is very efficient. retention.ADMINISTRATION Almost all Snapshot management is performed by running the snap command. .  snap delete <vol_name> <snap_name>. they should not be deleted manually. This material is intended for training use only. options nfs. the contents of the copy cannot be modified by end users. SECURITY By definition. the creation. options cifs. Use the following command to enable the Snapshot directory. then specify –A .hide_snapshot on 39 Data ONTAP 8. shows the currently retained Snapshot copies snap create <vol_name> <snap_name>.

0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. an ―out of space‖ error occurs (because the host assumed that space was available).TROUBLESHOOTING Usually. The controller then takes the LUN offline in an attempt to prevent data corruption. . more and more of the space in the containing volume is consumed. there are no problems with creating Snapshot copies per se. and space within controller volumes The host that accesses a LUN assumes that it has exclusive control over the contents of the LUN and the available free space. Refer to Figure 8 and to the text that accompanies Figure 8 for descriptions of Fractional Reserve and of the Volume AutoGrow and Snapshot Autodelete options and for an explanation of how Fractional Reserve. the file system in the LUN may or may not be in a consistent state. Inc. If all of the space in a volume is consumed and the host attempts to write to a LUN within the volume. If the file system is corrupt.  Inconsistent file system If you create a Snapshot copy of a volume that contains a LUN. These complications are usually a result of incorrect scheduling or lack of disk space. you may not be able to use the LUN Snapshot copy to recover data. they eventually consume all of the space in the volume. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The consistency of the file system in the LUN can be guaranteed only by the host that accesses the LUN. LUNs.  40 Data ONTAP 8. Hosts. This material is intended for training use only. If the Snapshot copies are not managed correctly. and Snapshot Autodelete ensure adequate free space and guarantee LUN availability. Volume AutoGrow. as Snapshot copies are created. but complications can arise. You should use a tool such as SnapDrive to initiate the LUN Snapshot copies from the host (so the tool can flush the local file system buffers to disk). However.

Before a Snapshot copy is deleted. The command. regardless of the size of the data. It does not recover the following settings:     Snapshot copies schedule Volume option settings RAID group size Maximum number of files per volume NOTE: The volume SnapRestore command reverts the entire active file system (AFS) back to the point at which the Snapshot copy was created. The only prerequisite for using the SnapRestore feature (other than licensing) is the existence of Snapshot copies.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. . the feature cannot be enabled or disabled at a per-volume level. the active maps across all Snapshot copies must be checked for active blocks that are related to the restored file. license add <licnum> NOTE: The SnapRestore feature is licensed system-wide. Inc. When using the SnapRestore feature. ADMINISTRATION The SnapRestore feature is an extension of the snap command. The SnapRestore feature recovers only volume and file content. when used with the restore parameter. Entire volumes. Therefore. can restore an entire volume or an individual file or LUN from a Snapshot copy. All Snapshot copies that were created between the time that the Snapshot backup copy was created and the time that the Snapshot backup copy was used to restore the AFS are deleted. Snapshot copies that you have not created or retained cannot be used to restore data. depending on the workload and scheduling.SNAPRESTORE TECHNOLOGY The SnapRestore feature enables you to use Snapshot copies to recover data quickly.  snap restore –t vol –s <snap_name> <vol_name> – –  – – This command reverts the entire volume back to exactly how it was when the Snapshot copy was created. add the –r <new_path_and_file_name> parameter. Be aware that all subsequent Snapshot copies are deleted. CONFIGURATION SnapRestore is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. snap restore –t file –s <snap_name> <file_name> This command reverts an individual file back to exactly how it was when the Snapshot copy was created. To recover to a file name or directory location other than the original file name or directory location. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. be very careful! You cannot back out of your changes. The SnapRestore feature restores data from Snapshot copies. NOTE: You can run the SnapRestore command (volume or file) only on a volume that is online. This material is intended for training use only. PERFORMANCE Using the SnapRestore feature to restore one file may impact subsequent snapshot delete performance. This performance impact may be visible to the hosts that access the controller. individual files. 41 Data ONTAP 8. and LUNs can be restored in seconds.

to link the destination‘s Snapshot copy to a new writable volume. it is restored in its infected state (whether or not it was cleaned after the Snapshot copy was created). there is always the possibility that users may access files on the volume as the restore process is in progress. This material is intended for training use only. so you should run a full backup.    Security settings: The security settings of the file have been reverted to their earlier values. you should review the security settings. You should schedule a virus scan on any recovered file or volume. If you want to restore a SnapMirror destination volume. Virus scanning: If a virus-infected file was captured in the Snapshot copy. If you suspect that the revision may have created a problem. are reverted to exactly what they were when the Snapshot copy that was used to perform the restore was created. which must be licensed. TROUBLESHOOTING Because the volume remains online and writeable during the SnapRestore activity.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. 42 Data ONTAP 8. then you should use the FlexClone® feature. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. File timestamps: After reversion. the file timestamps are invalid for incremental backups. This overlap can cause file corruption and can generate NFS errors such as ―stale file handle.‖ There are several methods of avoiding or correcting such issues:  Disconnect the users before you begin the SnapRestore operation  Have the users re-open files that might present a problem The SnapRestore destination volume cannot be a SnapMirror destination volume. such as security settings and timestamps. .SECURITY After you perform a SnapRestore operation (at the volume or file level). the file system metadata. If you are using a third-party backup tool. Inc.

NOTE: For a qtree SnapMirror relationship. license the SnapMirror Sync and SnapMirror Semi-Sync functions (if required). This material is intended for training use only. CONFIGURATION SnapMirror is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. run the vol status –b command. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Thus. 43 Data ONTAP 8. the destination volume remains in an online and writeable state (not restricted) and the destination qtrees are created automatically when the baseline transfer is performed. You need to know what the requirements and states of the source and destination volumes are and to understand how the requirements and states of volume SnapMirror relationships and qtree SnapMirror relationships can differ.   First. offsite disaster-recovery capability. The second step (after licensing) in configuring a volume SnapMirror relationship is to create the destination volume. SnapMirror products provide a consistent. production and disaster recovery systems). run the following commands on the destination system: vol create <vol_name> (with parameters to suit) vol restrict <vol_name>  To check the volume‘s status and size. The SnapMirror feature actually has two licenses. NOTE: Some older NetApp controllers (FAS820 and prior) cannot support the SnapMirror Sync function. The volume must be online but in a restricted state to initialize a volume SnapMirror relationship. The TCP connection is usually over an Ethernet or TCP WAN link and is usually the most costeffective transport.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.SNAPMIRROR PRODUCTS The SnapMirror product family enables you to replicate data from one volume to another volume or. NOTE: The SnapMirror feature must be licensed on both the source and the destination systems (for example. license add <licnum> Then. typically. customers with access to inter-site Fibre connections can install the model X1024 FC adapter and replicate across the optical media. license add <licum> The no-charge SnapMirror Sync license code is printed in the Data ONTAP Data Protection Online Backup and Recovery Guide.  To create a restricted mode destination volume. The source and destination volume may be located on the same controller (for data migration) or on different controllers (for disaster recovery). However. from a local controller to a remote controller. The no-charge license is available only if the for-charge license is purchased. recoverable. The first is a for-charge license that provides the asynchronous replication capability. the SnapMirror feature uses a TCP connection to send the replication data between the two controllers. and the second is a no-charge license that provides the synchronous and semi-synchronous capabilities. . By default. license the SnapMirror Async function. Inc.

This relationship controls the mode and/or the schedule for replication of the changed data from the source volume to the destination volume. Resizing can cause problems when (if) the relationship is resynchronized. the destination volume changes to a writable state. As shown in Figure 19.20 * * sync semi-sync FIGURE 13: EXAMPLE SNAPMIRROR.conf file is configured on the destination controller. 44 Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.conf file. Inc. the destination volume is an exact replica of the source volume (at that point in time). copying all of the data from the source volume to the destination volume. synchronous. you also perform the initial baseline transfer. After the source and destination volumes are defined. snapmirror initialize –S src:vol1 dst:vol2 When the baseline transfer is completed. Before you can enable a SnapMirror relationship. These actions prevent the inadvertent resizing of the destination volume. This material is intended for training use only. you must configure the SnapMirror access control between the primary and secondary storage controllers. Next you must configure the ongoing replication relationship. For a description of the required settings. and the fs_size_fixed parameter is enabled on the volume. performing asynchronous. as shown in Figure 19: # Source src:/vol/vol1/q1 src:vol2 src:/vol/vol3 src:vol4 Destination dst:/vol/vol1/q1 dst:vol2 dst:/vol/vol3 dst:vol4 Options – – – Mode/Schedule 15 * * * 10 8. or semi-synchronous replication.FIGURE 12 :SNAPMIRROR VOLUME AND QTREE CONFIGURATION NOTE: If a volume SnapMirror relationship is stopped (broken or released). Not authorized for reproduction purposes. . The SnapMirror replication parameters are defined in the snapmirror.CONF FILE NOTE: The snapmirror. the SnapMirror relationship can operate in any of three modes. refer to the Security section. As you configure the relationship. you can configure the SnapMirror relationship.

– – The host receives acknowledgment only after the write is committed to both the source and destination volumes. – – – – The host receives acknowledgment after the write is committed to the source volume. refer to the product documentation. ADMINISTRATION A SnapMirror relationship can be administered from either the source or the destination system. Failover: The first path that is specified is active. The paths are configured in the snapmirror. . – – – – The host receives acknowledgment after the write is committed to the source volume. You use the snapmirror status command to display the state of the currently defined SnapMirror relationships. The paths can be TCP or FC connections or a mixture of TCP and FC connections. as shown in Figure 20: 45 Data ONTAP 8. Inc.   Multiplexing: Both paths are used at the same time for load balancing. It is possible to configure the SnapMirror feature to use two redundant data paths for replication traffic. NOTE: Editing the /etc/snapmirror. This material is intended for training use only. The following key words are used. although some functions are available only on their respective systems. The following is an example of the previously used syntax: src:vol1 dst:vol1 outstanding=5s sync The following is an example of the current syntax: src:vol1 dst:vol1 – semi-sync NOTE: For descriptions of the various replication options (such as schedule definitions or throughput throttling). incremental updates to the destination volume are based on schedules.conf file.10 8. Performance with minimal delay minimizes the performance impact on the host system.conf file on the destination causes an in-sync relationship to fall temporarily out-of-sync. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Block-level.20 * * The following is a QSM example: src:/vol/vol1/q1 dst:/vol/vol1/q1 – 15 * * *  Synchronous – Writes are replicated from the source volume to the destination volume at the same time that they are written to the source volume.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. The following is an example command: src:/vol/vol1/q1 dst:/vol/vol1/q1 – sync  Semi-synchronous – Writes are replicated from a source volume or qtree to a destination volume or qtree with minimal delay. Asynchronous – Snapshot copies are replicated from a source volume or qtree to a destination volume or qtree. The following is a VSM example: src:vol2 dst:vol2 . The second path is in standby mode and becomes active only if the first path fails.

   The process of capturing consistent Snapshot copies on the source volume and then transferring the copies to the destination system varies. The snapmirror command is used to manage all aspects of the SnapMirror relationship. snapmirror update <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system. snapmirror break <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system. the replication mode. snapmirror release <src_vol> <dst_hostname:dst_vol> – The command is executed on the source system. – The relationship is deleted and cannot be restarted.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. – Halt the application. Inc. and the intended result. – The command performs an immediate update from the source volume to the destination volume.FIGURE 14: EXAMPLE OF SNAPMIRROR STATUS OUTPUT The Lag column identifies the amount of time that has elapsed since the last successful replication of the Snapshot source-volume copy that is managed by the SnapMirror relationship. if the command is executed on the source system. 46 Data ONTAP 8. The synchronization overwrites the new data on the controller on which the command was executed (bringing the execution-controller volume back into sync with the opposite volume). snapmirror resume <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system. snapmirror resync <hostname:vol> – The command identifies the most recently created Snapshot copy that is common to the source and destination volumes and that is managed by a SnapMirror relationship and re-synchronizes the data between the source and destination volumes. – The direction of synchronization is determined by whether the command was executed on the source or destination volume. then the relationship continues in its original direction (source  destination) – However. – Flush the file system buffers. 2. – The relationship is still defined and can be resynchronized. then the relationship reverses its original direction (destination  source). depending on your application‘s capabilities. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. . The command stops the replication and converts the destination volume to a writable state. Quiesce the SnapMirror relationship. The following are examples of common snapmirror functions:  snapmirror quiesce <dst_vol> – The command is executed on the destination system. This material is intended for training use only. such as suspending or restarting the replication or destroying the relationship. The command stops the replication and converts the destination volume to a writable state. The destination volume remains read-only. The command temporarily pauses the replication. Make the source volume consistent on disk. –  The relationship is still defined and can be resumed. –  The command resumes the volume replication. the use of SnapDrive and SnapManager software. – If the command is executed on the destination system. The following is one example of a process to create a consistent Snapshot copy at the destination of a qtree SnapMirror relationship: 1.

the process can be performed with no disruption to the application. After the initial baseline transfer is completed. 4.allow file. 47 Data ONTAP 8. Even after the data is received. but only the latest version is included in the less frequent replication schedules. Resume the SnapMirror relationship.3. RAID group size. If you require a ―sync-like‖ replication feature beyond 100 km or want to reduce the performance impact on the source system. NOTE: In environments that use SnapManager software. The initial baseline transfer is usually constrained by the bandwidth of the connection. then you should consider using the semi-synchronous mode. semi-synchronous. The visibility_interval parameter controls the apparent performance of the SnapMirror synchronization. or asynchronous) is often driven by the latency of the WAN connection.‖ Data is rewritten throughout the day. Because latency increases over distance. Although the WAN connection may be adequate to handle the incremental synchronization traffic. And the destination controller needs to grant access to the source controller so that the replication relationship can be reversed after a disaster event is resolved (synchronizing back from the disaster recovery site to the production site). you should configure the source and destination volumes with the same RAID size. This material is intended for training use only. PERFORMANCE One of the challenges in a new SnapMirror configuration is the transfer of the baseline copy from the source to the destination system.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. The parameter controls the view of the data on the destination system. the asynchronous mode uses scheduled replication and is not affected by connection latency. for best SnapMirror performance. Create a Snapshot copy of the destination volume. This method can use physical tape media to perform the initial baseline transfer. The default visibility interval is three minutes. the Snapshot copy and replication process is usually automated via the SnapManager utility. the physical characteristics of traditional volumes affect SnapMirror performance. The source controller needs to grant access to the destination controller so that the destination controller can ―pull‖ updates from the source. the destination file-system view is not updated until the visibility interval elapses. you must configure the SnapMirror access control between the source and destination storage controllers. you might consider using the SnapMirror to Tape function. In contrast to flexible volumes. This increase allows for ―file system churn. SECURITY Before you can enable the replication relationship. it may not be adequate to complete the baseline transfer in a timely manner. this functionality is now supported with the new smtape commands. The appropriate choice of SnapMirror mode (synchronous. In this case. There are two ways to configure SnapMirror access control on the storage controllers:  Method 1 options snapmirror. Inc. In contrast.0 7-Mode. One way to improve asynchronous performance is to increase the interval between the replication times. and number of RAID groups. latency effectively limits the synchronous mode to a range of less than 100 km. In this case. Reducing the internal is not recommended because deviation from the default value can have a detrimental impact on controller performance. and the incremental synchronization is usually constrained by the latency of the connection. . When you use traditional volumes. the incremental synchronization occurs. with a minimum setting of 30 seconds. In Data ONTAP 8. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. NOTE: It is possible to throttle the SnapMirror traffic so as to reduce its impact on other applications that use the WAN connection.access host=legacy – Edit the /etc/snapmirror.

Some status information is available only on the destination controller.–  Add the other storage controller‘s host name. you can set the option to host=<hostname>. In this case. this option is set to the keyword ―legacy. Method 2 options snapmirror.allow file for access control. to enable the SnapMirror relationship to be accessed from the remote controller. An encrypting Ethernet switch is used to encrypt data-at-rest.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. NOTE: Method 2 is the preferred way to enable the remote access. The details of the process of troubleshooting and rectification are determined by the stage that the relationship was in when the failure occurred. TROUBLESHOOTING Comprehensive logging of all SnapMirror activity is enabled by default. Inc. For example. and possibly reestablishes a broken mirror.‖ Use of the keyword causes the system to refer to the snapmirror. synchronizes data (level-1). The snapmirror status command displays the current status of all SnapMirror relationships. then the destination is incomplete. to use the NetApp DataFort™ encryption devices). The log file is saved to the /etc/log/snapmirror. it may be necessary to implement some type of network-level encryption for the replication traffic (for example. 48 Data ONTAP 8. not data-in-transit.log. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The DataFort security system is designed to encrypt data-at-rest. FIGURE 15: SAMPLE OUTPUT OF SNAPMIRROR STATUS A SnapMirror relationship passes through several defined stages as it initializes the baseline transfer (level-0). you must rerun the initialization. .access host=<other controller> – – By default. rather than trying to re-establish synchronization to the incomplete mirror. The log can be disabled by executing the following command: options snapmirror. The traffic between the source and destination controllers is not encrypted. This material is intended for training use only. if communications failed during the initial baseline transfer.enable [on|off]. Alternatively.[0-5] file(s). In a security-conscious environment.

The SnapVault feature has two licenses. license add <licnum> NOTE: The two licenses enable different functionalities.   License the primary controller (sv_ontap_pri). long-term backup and archive capability.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or SATA disks). CONFIGURATION SnapVault is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. The second step in configuring a SnapVault relationship (after licensing) is to create the destination volume. NOTE: Although the destination volume remains writable. This material is intended for training use only. .  Do not create the destination qtrees. 49 Data ONTAP 8. The feature provides a consistent. license add <licnum> License the secondary controller (sv_ontap_sec). recoverable.   Create a normal destination volume by running the following command on the destination system: vol create <vol_name> (with parameters to suit) Check the volume‘s status and size by running the following command: vol status –b NOTE: The volume must be online and in a writable state. Inc. Typically. offsite. and the other license is for the secondary controller (the archive destination).SNAPVAULT FEATURE The SnapVault feature enables you to create and archive Snapshot copies from one volume to another volume or. the production or the disaster recovery controller). It is important that you know the requirements and states of the source and destination volumes and that you understand how SnapMirror requirements for the source and destination volumes differ. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The destination qtrees are created automatically when the SnapVault relationship is initialized. from a local controller to a remote controller. and the correct license must be enabled on the appropriate controller (for example. you create the destination volume on a remote controller that provides lower-cost storage (for example. One license is for the primary controller (the backup source). the individual destination qtrees are read-only. typically.

You can also perform the initial baseline transfer. FIGURE 16: SNAPVAULT VOLUME AND QTREE CONFIGURATION The technology behind the SnapVault feature is based on the qtree SnapMirror function. copying the data from the source qtree to the destination qtree. Configure the primary controller and define a SnapVault schedule. Because the day of the week is specified as a mnemonic expression. 1. This material is intended for training use only. After the source and destination volumes are defined. as shown in Figure 23: 50 Data ONTAP 8. This request reports the current file system state and then creates a Snapshot copy to retain the data. and all SnapVault transfers are based on schedules for asynchronous mode. Inc. You use the snapvault status command to display the state of the currently defined SnapVault relationships. refer to the Security section. snapvault start –S pri:/vol/vol1/q1 sec:/vol/vol1/q1 When the baseline transfer is completed. Before you can enable the SnapVault relationship. 3. . you can configure the SnapVault schedules on the primary and secondary controllers and start the incremental backups. Configure the secondary controller and perform the baseline transfer. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.Figure 22 illustrates the requirements of the source and destination volumes. you can define the schedule as the following: <snapshots_to_retain><@hour_of_the_day>@<day_of_the_week> ADMINISTRATION The administration of a SnapVault relationship can be performed from either the primary or the secondary system. although some functions are available only on their respective systems. For descriptions of the access control settings. you must configure the SnapVault access control between the source and destination storage controllers. snapvault snap sched –x vol1 sv_hourly 5@mon-fri@9-19 The –x parameter instructs the secondary controller to request a resynchronization with the primary controller. the destination volume is an exact replica of the source volume. snapvault snap sched vol1 sv_hourly 5@mon-fri@9-19 2. Define a SnapVault schedule. NOTE: The SnapVault schedule definition is in the following format: <snapshots_to_retain>@<day_of_the_week><@hour_of_the_day> The schedule can be specified in more than one way. the basic unit of SnapVault backup is the qtree. This function determines many of the features and limitations of the SnapVault feature.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. For example.

it may not be adequate to complete the baseline transfer in a timely manner. this command resynchronizes the relationship and resumes backup operations after the SnapVault restore is completed. they are constrained only by the bandwidth of the connection and are not significantly affected by the link latency. The following are examples of frequently used snapvault functions:  snapvault update sec_hostname:/vol/vol_name/qtree When executed on the secondary system. This material is intended for training use only. In this case. this command deletes the SnapVault relationship. you must enable the NDMP protocol and define the user name and password for the application. Similar to the qtree SnapMirror process. – To restore a small amount of data (like one file). such as a USB drive connected to a laptop computer. you may prefer to copy the files from a CIFS share on the secondary qtree. the secondary qtree is written in the original capacity. To enable these applications to communicate with the controller. Some third-party backup applications use SnapVault integration. you should consider using the Logical Replication (LREP) function. snapvault start –r <path> When executed on the secondary system. PERFORMANCE One of the challenges of a new SnapVault configuration is the transfer of the baseline copy from the primary to the secondary system.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Further deduplication can be scheduled on the secondary system. no access is granted for SnapVault traffic. and specific access must be granted to any remote controller in a backup relationship. Although the WAN connection may be adequate to handle the incremental backup traffic. snapvault release <path> <other_hostname>:<path> When executed on either system. this command triggers a manual (unscheduled) update of the specified qtree destination. Because SnapVault backups are scheduled activities (asynchronous). 51 Data ONTAP 8. you must break the SnapVault relationship or restore to a new qtree (and rename later). snapvault restore –S sec_hostname:/vol/vol_name/qtree pri_hostname:/vol/vol_name/qtree – When executed on the primary system. Inc.FIGURE 17: EXAMPLE OF SNAPMIRROR STATUS OUTPUT NOTE: You can use the snapvault status –c option to display the SnapVault qtree configuration parameters.    NOTE: For information about the other SnapVault commands. The LREP function can perform the initial baseline transfer by using external disk media. SECURITY By default. Although this process may cause more data to be sent across the WAN than is expected. You can use the snapvault command to manage all aspects of the SnapVault relationship. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. – To restore to the original qtree location on the primary system. . this command restores the qtree contents from the backup. such as updating the secondary system or restoring the backup. the SnapVault process accesses the primary qtree at the file-system level and therefore sees (and backs up) the original version of any deduplicated data. refer to the product manual.

log. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. .[0-5] files. The log information is saved to the /etc/log/snapmirror. all log information for the SnapVault and qtree SnapMirror functions is stored to the same file. This material is intended for training use only.The primary controller must grant access to the secondary controller so that the secondary controller can ―pull‖ backups from the source. And the secondary controller must grant access to the primary controller so that the primary controller can request restores of the backups. The log can be disabled by executing the following command: options snapmirror. SnapVault access can be configured on the primary and secondary controllers by using the following command: options snapvault.enable [on|off] 52 Data ONTAP 8. Because the SnapVault function is based on the qtree SnapMirror function.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Inc.access host=<other controller> TROUBLESHOOTING Comprehensive logging of all SnapVault activity is enabled by default.

enable debugging. It uses the SnapVault protocol to send the SnapVault backup data to a NetApp controller (secondary). UNIX. a setup EXE is used for the Windows platform. The other license is for the NetApp ONTAP secondary controller (the archive destination). Inc. . Not authorized for reproduction purposes. 53 Data ONTAP 8.  License the secondary controller (sv_ontap_sec) license add <licnum> The installation details for the OSSV agent are operating system dependant. Some of the OSSV utilities:    svconfigpackager Unattended installation utility svinstallcheck Automatic post-installation check svconfigurator (GUI) The primary configuration tool. One license is for the OSSV primary server type (the Windows or UNIX backup source).OPEN SYSTEMS SNAPVAULT (OSSV) The OSSV agent is a software application that allows SnapVault-like backups (block-level. set the NDMP password. the configuration of the secondary controller is identical to the configuration of a SnapVault relationship. and so on svsetstanza Command line alternative to the svconfigurator GUI tool  NOTE: To read configuration changes. In the OSSV configuration tool (on the primary host). The OSSV software is installed on the host (primary). The backup data is then retained using normal SnapVault schedules on the NetApp controller. CONFIGURATION OSSV is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. incremental forever) to be performed by a non-NetApp platform (a Windows. This material is intended for training use only. In general. used to start and stop the OSSV service.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. For example. you must restart the OSSV service.  License the primary host (sv_windows_pri) license add <licnum> NOTE: The OSSV primary license key must be enabled on the secondary controller and not on the Windows or UNIX host. and installation scripts are used for the various UNIX platforms. The OSSV feature requires two licenses. enable file tracing. you must configure the access controls and the NDMP user name and password and specify which directories to include in the SnapVault backup. or Linux host).

The maximum number of concurrent backup streams can be increased by enabling the NearStore® Personality License (NPL) on the secondary controller. Some documentation may refer to the original NearStore hardware requirement. This block-level incremental (BLI) mechanism requires free space on the OSSV client to store a database of previously backed-up files and their block checksum values. NetApp marketed a purpose-built NearStore appliance. but the software implementation provides both a primary and a secondary system.ADMINISTRATION The mechanism that the OSSV agent uses to determine which changed blocks to back up differs greatly from the method used by the SnapVault feature on a primary NetApp controller. Inc. sometimes. Because the OSSV backup traffic concentrates on the SnapVault primary controller. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Because the backup traffic is a non-latency sensitive. NOTE: The NearStore feature was originally available only on the dedicated NearStore controller. The NPL feature is available for all NetApp controller models. according to the software version. You can use the Free Space Estimator Utility to determine whether there is sufficient disk space on the OSSV primary client to store the database and to perform a BLI backup. The number varies according to the model type and. This material is intended for training use only. it is generally recommended that the secondary backup data be stored on a SATA disk. However. Subsequent backups are compared to this database to determine which changed data to back up. but it is now available as a licensed feature on all NetApp FAS controllers. PERFORMANCE Many of the considerations for SnapVault performance apply to OSSV performance. OSSV may differ from a controller based-SnapVault primary by the scale of the backup environment. the administration of the OSSV agent and the SnapVault feature is very similar.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. sequential workload. 54 Data ONTAP 8. Even a modest OSSV implementation can have tens (if not hundreds) of OSSV agents installed on Windows and UNIX hosts. as the two features perform almost identical functions. some thought must be given to the number of concurrent backup streams. Previously. similar to how you restore a SnapVault client One difference between an OSSV client and a SnapVault client is that the clients use different mechanisms to identify which changed blocks to back up. use the snapvault restore command. Each model of NetApp controller supports a specified number of concurrent backup streams.  To back up the OSSV client: – Perform an initial baseline backup to the destination – Schedule block-level incremental backups  To restore the OSSV client. . which combined SATA-only storage and the NPL function. A difference between the NearStore hardware and software implementations is that the hardware implementation provides a primary system or a secondary system.

Inc. This material is intended for training use only.yyyymmdd Secondary NetApp SnapVault controller /etc/log/snapmirror. You can use either the client configuration GUI or the svpasswd command. The OSSV primary host (Windows or UNIX) must grant access for the secondary controller so that the secondary controller can ―pull‖ backups from the source.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. no access is granted for OSSV traffic. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The secondary controller must be granted access to the OSSV primary host so that the host can request restores of the backups.[0-5] 55 Data ONTAP 8. run the following command: options snapvault. use the client configuration tool to edit the QSM Access List field and enter the host name of the secondary controller.access host=<other controller> You must set the NDMP user name and password on the OSSV client. . OSSV and SnapVault access can be configured as follows:   On the primary (Windows or UNIX) host. TROUBLESHOOTING The log-file locations for the OSSV agents are operating-system dependant. On the secondary (NetApp) controller .SECURITY By default.yyyymmdd Primary UNIX and Linux OSSV client /usr/snapvault/snapvault. and specific access must be granted for any remote controller in a backup relationship.    Primary Windows OSSV client c:\Program Files\netapp\snapvault\etc\snapvault.

it must be assigned to one or the other controller. Power down and remove or relocate the controller failover interconnect card. This process is known as ―software disk assignment. and both controllers must be provided access to the same IP subnets. NetApp used the term ―active-active‖ to describe the high-availability (HA) controller failover configuration. such as NVRAM mirroring. then it cannot be used by either controller for any purpose. both controllers must be provided Fibre connections to all expansion drawers. and the host-based MPIO drivers direct all FC traffic via the interfaces (assuming that single-image cfmode is being used) The process of removing a high-availability configuration is as follows: 1. if it is listed as ―not owned‖). Not authorized for reproduction purposes.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. Two controller heads are configured as a pair. This material is intended for training use only. license add <licnum> License the second node. Inc. Delete the controller failover license (license delete …). For example. you must configure various settings. all disks are visible to both controllers. with each node providing failover support for its partner. The highavailability feature must be licensed on both HA nodes. the HA pair interconnect cable must be attached. 2. and make sure the partner-sysid is blank. which enables the controllers to provide failover support for each other. . Remove the partner‘s network entries from the /etc/rc file. Repeat the process on the other controller ADMINISTRATION In a high-availability configuration. CONFIGURATION High-availability is a licensed feature that must be enabled before it can be configured and used. Before you enable the high-availability feature. 3.‖ If a disk is not assigned to a controller (in order words. if a controller failure occurs:     The surviving node spawns a virtual instance of the failed node The virtual node accesses its mirrored NVRAM to complete any interrupted write The local network interface assumes the IP address of both the local and partner interfaces (for Ethernet traffic) The local FC interfaces retain their original WWPN addresses. you can unlicense it only when the HA pair is in a normal state and the controller failover services are manually disabled. The high-availability feature activates numerous high availability capabilities. Disable the controller failover feature (cf disable). After the high-availability feature is enabled. Before a disk can be used in an aggregate or a spare. For example. 56 Data ONTAP 8. 4. 6. Halt. 5.HIGH-AVAILABILITY CONFIGURATION In the past.   License the first node. license add <licnum> NOTE: You must then reboot and start the controller failover feature.

after a failed controller is rebooted and ready to assume its old identity and workload. the administrator enters the cf giveback command on the operational controller to return the failed controller back to the normal state. it displays a ―waiting for giveback‖ or "waiting for mb giveback" message. and so on. ensure that the host-based multipathing support is correctly configured. a high-availability configuration and a non-clustered configuration are identical. In an FC SAN environment. NOTE: For more information about controller failover management. It is recommended that multipath HA cabling be used for the disk-expansion shelf connections. but automatic) failover is triggered. This mode is not supported on any current-generation controller. At this point. use Asymmetric Logical Unit Access (ALUA) support. TROUBLESHOOTING In a high-availability configuration. An even distribution of the workload is usually attributable to good solution planning and to automatic load balancing in the host-based MPIO drivers (for FC traffic). In most other ways. For example. administration of a high-availability configuration and administration of two non-clustered controllers are identical. It is not possible to have a shelf connected to one controller and not to the other controller. One of the features that you must master is the process of HA pair failover and failback. If a controller loses access to one of the disk shelves. both controllers require connectivity to all of the disk expansion shelves. where ownership was determined by the Fibre Channel cabling topology. This material is intended for training use only.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. refer to the product manuals. ESH module failure. The clustered controllers are managed separately. SECURITY In almost all aspects of security. The cabling prevents unnecessary controller failover for non-critical reasons. . although some configuration settings must be synchronized between the two controllers. Generally.Use the following commands to manage disk ownership:   Assign disk ownership disk assign List disk ownership (several methods) disk show –v storage show disk sysconfig –r NOTE: Earlier versions of Data ONTAP supported hardware disk assignment. Where appropriate. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. 57 Data ONTAP 8. loop breaks. the performance concerns of a high-availability configuration and of a non-clustered configuration are identical. Inc. a negotiated (clean. such as SFP failure. PERFORMANCE Optimum performance is usually achieved when the controllers in a high-availability configuration share the client workload evenly.

The maximum supported distance between the two controllers is 100 km. disk ownership is determined by where the controller's HBAs connect to the switch and where the disk shelves connect to the switch. the MetroCluster pair maybe on a separate subnet and use the /etc/mcrc file to configure the interfaces appropriately. Fabric-attached mode supports only FC type expansion shelves (although SATA shelves can be present if they are not mirrored).3.2 and later.3. Other factors. the limitation may be less than 100 km. Inc.  Distance / Latency limitations – Stretch mode   The maximum cable distance between the two controllers is 500 m. you can fail over the HA pair.2. Prior to Data ONTAP 7.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. This process involves the use of a SyncMirror configuration to mirror the data between the two locations. such as the type of laser small form-factor pluggable (SFP) that is used or whether fiber optic repeaters or wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) devices are used. The 100-km limitation is primarily a limitation of the latency across the distance. If additional latency is present. All of the components must be connected and enabled before they can be configured and used. The 500-m limitation is primarily a limitation of the MultiMode Fibre cable that is used to connect the two controllers. the limitation may be less than 500 m. Then. This material is intended for training use only. Stretch mode supports both FC and SATA expansion shelves. If cable type and patches are not adequate. both controllers (at their individual sites) require connectivity to the same IP network subnet ranges or VLANs. With Data ONTAP 7.  Networking – 58 Data ONTAP 8. – Fabric-attached mode     Disk types and expansion shelves – – – – Both controllers require connectivity to all expansion shelves.METROCLUSTER FEATURE AND SYNCMIRROR SOFTWARE You can use MetroCluster technology to split two controllers of a high-availability pair and position them in two physical locations. . require different hardware configurations.  Hardware requirements – – High-availability controller heads In fabric mode only    – – – MetroCluster FC/VI adapter FC switches Software license requirements Cf license Cf_Remote license SyncMirror license There are a number of prerequisites and limitations that you should be aware of before you attempt to configure a MetroCluster environment. and minimize disruption. also affect the maximum supported distance. if a site disaster occurs. CONFIGURATION The MetroCluster feature combines two hardware configurations and several licensed features. The two MetroCluster modes. stretch mode and fabric-attached mode. In fabric mode. restore operations at the remote site. Not authorized for reproduction purposes.

refer to the product documentation. In other words. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. The following diagrams illustrate the main components of MetroCluster and the differences between stretch mode and fabric-attached mode. 59 Data ONTAP 8. FIGURE 24:STRETCH MODE METROCLUSTER DIAGRAM NOTE: The number and ownership of the disk expansion shelves is indicative only. Before attempting to design or install a MetroCluster environment. SyncMirror configuration – – – An even number of disks are required.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. For more information about the supported expansion shelf configurations in a MetroCluster environment. This material is intended for training use only. refer to the product manuals. . All disks must be of the same type. If the disks are not the same size. Inc. they are resized. The disks must be divided evenly between the two controller locations. NOTE: This section summarizes configuration requirements and capabilities. All disks must be the same size. you cannot mirror FC disks to SATA disks.

The use of the forcetakeover option is very dangerous. In this scenario. then at some point you may wish to split a mirrored volume and disable the SyncMirror software. with MetroCluster. failover occurs automatically. Intervention protects against the split-brain scenario. Check the current status. Normally. . NOTE: For more information about MetroCluster takeover and giveback procedures. and so on). An exception to this equivalency concerns failover management of HA pairs. However. where a site disaster has made the partner controller unresponsive (offline or destroyed). Inc. The following is an example of the process that you use to split a mirror and disable SyncMirror software: 1. The command allows HA pair failover to proceed even when configuration problems might otherwise prevent the implementation of a takeover command. refer to the product documentation. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Use the forcetakeover command only if the remote MetroCluster partner node is powered off and inaccessible. This material is intended for training use only. both plexes should be online and operational. In a MetroCluster environment.FIGURE 18: FABRIC-ATTACHED MODE METROCLUSTER DIAGRAM ADMINISTRATION After the MetroCluster-specific configuration is completed (disk pool assignment. In extreme cases. If you are using SyncMirror software to provide local mirroring (not in a MetroCluster configuration). If the partner controller is operational and able to access its storage. SyncMirror configuration.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. and each controller attempts to assume the partner‘s role. a communications outage causes both controllers to assume that the other controller has failed. the storage administration is generally equivalent to the storage administration for a highavailability controller. 60 Data ONTAP 8. The command also splits the SyncMirror relationship. the state of the partner controller determines which takeover command is used. use of the forcetakeover option can corrupt the data. Before you split a SyncMirror volume. you may need to use the cf forcetakeover –d command. failover requires administrative intervention.

then you should consider a standard SnapMirror (semi-synchronous or asynchronous) configuration. in some environments. then the system generates a warning and continues normal operation. typically spanning two sites. It is good design to ensure that the various redundant inter-site connections (assuming that they exist) are located in physically separate conduits. a MetroCluster configuration and a standard high-availability controller configuration are identical. the volume does not go into degraded mode or shut down after the RAID timeout. each site is assigned its own disks. A prolonged disruption of the communications between the two controllers is classified as a disaster. . if a disaster occurs. known as a pool. then you should double-check the connectivity by running the following command: storage show disk –p In a multipath HA configuration. both controllers in a high-availability and MetroCluster configuration are enabled. The spare disks assigned to a site are. If a disk in a RAID-4 SyncMirror volume fails (or if two disks in a RAID-DP volume fail) and the pool contains no spare disks. or you can isolate the remote controller by powering off the remote node (If a disaster occurs. Split the mirrored volume by running the vol split vol0/plex0 vol0new command. manual NFS fencing). the performance of the MetroCluster feature and the performance of a standard high-availability controller are identical. TROUBLESHOOTING A MetroCluster configuration. Both controllers need connectivity to all expansion shelves (over fiber). you may want to limit or prevent access to the remote controller. SECURITY In almost all aspects of security. For example.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp. If you need to replicate across a greater distance or where the latency may be higher than 1 ms. 61 Data ONTAP 8. you can configure the appropriate SAN and NAS security (for example. Systems uses multipath HA cabling. including its own spare disks. Disk-site assignment ensures that adequate spare disks are located at each site. Such a disruption requires administrative action to resolve the MetroCluster site failover. Usually. 3.2. This result can be achieved in several ways. as a group. storage service is provided to both sites. NOTE: If one or more mirrored volumes exist. the node must be manually powered on to enable a takeover to be performed. If you specified multipath HA cabling to the disk expansion shelves. and. The 100-km maximum-distance limitation for a fabric MetroCluster environment is intended to limit the additional latency to a maximum of 1 ms. Disable the SyncMirror license by running the license delete <licnum> command. Always remember the maxim—men with backhoes are irresistibly drawn to network cabling. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. Therefore. The two controller heads must maintain communication by way of at least one of the two interconnect ports (over fiber) and over IP (over the WAN). you cannot disable the SyncMirror license. the output should list two paths to each disk. You should now have two unmirrored volumes. This material is intended for training use only. In a MetroCluster configuration. This result (lack of result) occurs because the volume‘s data integrity is guaranteed by the mirror plex at the other site (or pool). Inc. Even though there is no disk redundancy in the volume in which the failure occurred. PERFORMANCE Except for the potential for additional latency in the SyncMirror configuration. the simplest and fastest site failover is provided. is more vulnerable to communications disruptions than a standard high-availability controller.). However. The 1-ms maximum is usually seen as the practical limit for synchronous replication.

html Best-practice guides http://now. Volume 1 Commands: Manual Page Reference.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/docs.netapp.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/ontap/ontap_index.netapp. Not authorized for reproduction purposes. This material is intended for training use only. Volume 2 Core Command Quick Reference   Technical reports http://www.ADDITIONAL MATERIALS The following resources are recommended as preparation for the NCDA certification exams.shtml – – – – – – – – – – – System Administration Guide Storage Administration Guide High Availability Configuration Guide Network Management Guide File Access and Protocols Management Guide Block Access Management Guide Data Protection Online Backup and Recovery Guide Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide Commands: Manual Page Reference.0 7-Mode Administrator http://now.html FURTHER READING  Product documentation http://now. . Inc.com/NOW/products/education/public/certification/NS0-154-PRACTICE/index.com/us/library/technical-reports. PRACTICE EXAM NS0-154—Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode NCDA NSO-154 Certification Study Guide © 2010 NetApp.netapp.netapp.cgi 62 Data ONTAP 8.

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