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1. Difference between group functions and single row functions. Group Function A group function operates on many rows returns one and returns single result. Not allowed in Pl/sql procedural eg SUM(),AVG,MIN,MAX etc Single Row Function A single row function result for one row. Allowed in Pl/Sql Procedural statements statements. eg UPPER,LOWER,CHR...

2. Difference between DECODE and TRANSLATE DECODE is value by value character replacement. Ex SELECT DECODE('ABC','A',1,'B',2,'ABC',3) from dual; o/p 3 TRANSLATE is character by replacement. eg SELECT TRANSLATE('ABCGH', 'ABCDEFGHIJ', 1234567899) FROM DUAL; o/p 12378

(DECODE command is used to bring IF,THEN,ELSE logic to SQL.It tests for the IF values(s) and then aplies THEN value(s) when true, the ELSE value(s) if not.) 3. Difference between TRUNCATE and DELETE TRUNCATE deletes much faster than DELETE Truncate It is a DDL statement It is a one way trip,cannot ROLLBACK Doesn't have selective features (where clause) Doesn't fire database triggers It requires disabling of referential constraints. 4. What is a CO-RELATED SUBQUERY Delete It is a DML statement One can Rollback Has Does Does not require

6. Outer Join--Its a join condition used where One can query all the rows of one of the tables in the join condition even though they don't satisfy the join condition. eg SELECT field1 from table1 X WHERE field2>(select avg(field2) from table1 Y where field1=X. Equi-join--Its a join condition that retrieves rows from one or more tables in which one or more columns in one table are equal to one or more columns in the second table. What are various constraints used in SQL NULL NOT NULL CHECK DEFAULT 7. What are various joins used while writing SUBQUERIES Self join-Its a join foreign key of a table references the same table. What is difference between Rename and Alias .A CO-RELATED SUBQUERY is one that has a correlation name as table or view designator in the FROM clause of the outer query and the same correlation name as a qualifier of a search condition in the WHERE clause of the subquery.field1).) 5. What are different Oracle database objects TABLES VIEWS INDEXES SYNONYMS SEQUENCES TABLESPACES etc 8. (The subquery in a correlated subquery is revaluated for every row of the table or view named in the outer query.

11. SQL*PLUS commands are used to format query result. Set options. The columns that compose PK are automatically define NOT NULL. Which datatype is used for storing graphics and images LONG RAW data type is used for storing BLOB's (binary large objects). What are various privileges that a user can grant to another user SELECT CONNECT RESOURCES 10. Its a command line tool that allows user to type SQL commands to be executed directly against an Oracle database. What is difference between SQL and SQL*PLUS SQL*PLUS is a command line tool where as SQL and PL/SQL language interface and reporting tool.DCL. 9. What is a view A view is stored procedure based on one or more tables. 14. How will you delete duplicating rows from a base table . whereas a column that compose a UNIQUE is not automatically defined to be mandatory must also specify the column is NOT NULL. What is difference between UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints A table can have only one PRIMARY KEY whereas there can be any number of UNIQUE keys. 15.Rename is a permanent name given to a table or column whereas Alias is a temporary name given to a table or column which do not exist once the SQL statement is executed.DDL). Edit SQL commands and PL/SQL. How you will avoid duplicating records in a query By using DISTINCT 13. Can a primary key contain more than one columns Yes 12. SQL is a language used to query the relational database(DML. it’s a virtual table.

') output 13 18. single row functions except group functions and it is written before GROUP BY clause if it is used. There is a string '120000 12 0 . What is a OUTER JOIN Outer Join--Its a join condition used where you can query all the rows of one of the . What will be the query to find it.delete from table_name where rowid not in (select max(rowid) from table group by duplicate_values_field_name).how you will find the position of the decimal place INSTR('120000 12 0 . 19. There is a '%' sign in one field of a column. 20.125' . '\' Should be used before '%'. Which is more faster .1.4) output BCDE INSTR provides character position in which a pattern is found in a string. What is difference between SUBSTR and INSTR SUBSTR returns a specified portion of a string eg SUBSTR('BCDEF'. eg INSTR('ABC-DC-F'. 21.125'.IN or EXISTS EXISTS is more faster than IN because EXISTS returns a Boolean value whereas IN returns a value.'. or delete duplicate_values_field_name dv from table_name ta where rowid <(select min(rowid) from table_name tb where ta.'-'.2) output 7 (2nd occurence of '-') 17. 16. When you use WHERE clause and when you use HAVING clause HAVING clause is used when you want to specify a condition for a group function and it is written after GROUP BY clause The WHERE clause is used when you want to specify a condition for columns.dv=tb.dv).

emp_no from emp where emp_no=1234. 22. ROWNUM. For Eg:Enter value for n: 2 SAL --------3700 .sal).What will be the query to select top three max payments. UID. SELECT /*+ FULL(a) */ ename. i. payments from customer C1 WHERE 3<=(SELECT COUNT(*) from customer C2 WHERE C1. Give some examples It is a column that is not an actual column in the table. payments. AND LEVEL.e using HINTS 23. NULL. 24. where rownum rowid in <=&upto Find out nth highest salary from emp table SELECT DISTINCT (a. ename from emp (select rowid from emp where minus select rowid from emp where rownum<&Start).tables in the join condition even though they don’t satisfy the join condition.payment) Display the records between two range select rownum. empno. i.sal)) FROM EMP B WHERE a. SELECT customer_no.sal) FROM EMP A WHERE &N = (SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT (b.e you have to concatenate the column name with space within codes in the where condition. How you will avoid your query from using indexes SELECT * FROM emp Where emp_no+' '=12345.payment <= C2. What is a pseudo column. ROWID. SYSDATE. Suppose customer table is there having different columns like customer no.sal<=b. eg USER.

Display Odd/ Even number of records Odd number of records: select * from emp where (rowid. SQL> select sal "Salary ".Display the number value in Words SQL> select sal. 1600 Rs. (to_char(to_date(sal.'JSP')) --------. mod(rownum.2) from emp) Output:2 4 6 'How do you find the numbert of rows in a Table ?' A bad answer is count them (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table_name) .'J'). Eight Hundred only. (' Rs. Three Thousand only. Output:1 3 5 Even number of records: select * from emp where (rowid. '|| (to_char(to_date(sal.0) in (select rowid.2) from emp). the output like. 14. 1250 Rs.1) in (select rowid.-----------------------------------------------------800 Rs. SAL (TO_CHAR(TO_DATE(SAL.'j').')) "Sal in Words" from emp / Salary Sal in Words ------. 'jsp')) from emp.'j'). One Thousand Two Hundred Fifty only. One Thousand Six Hundred only. Rs. mod(rownum.----------------------------------------------------800 eight hundred 1600 one thousand six hundred 1250 one thousand two hundred fifty If you want to add some text like. 'Jsp'))|| ' only.

where level=2 -. USER_TABLES or ALL_TABLES). max('col_name') from my_table where level = '&n' connect by prior ('col_name') > 'col_name') group by level.A good answer is :'By generating SQL to ANALYZE TABLE table_name COUNT STATISTICS Oracle System Catalogues ( number -. min(sal) from emp -. Example: Given a table called emp with the following columns: by level maxvalue.g. Example: Given a table called emp with the following columns: .sql Select the Nth Highest value from a table select level.sql Select the Nth lowest value from a table select varchar2(20) -.For the second lowest salary: -.sal number level. by querying The best answer is to refer to the utility which Oracle released which makes it unnecessary to do ANALYZE TABLE for each Table individually. minvalue.connect by prior sal < sal -. min('col_name') from my_table where level = '&n' connect by prior ('col_name') < 'col_name') group by level.

name varchar2(20) -. 27. Oracle does not allow a user to specifically locate tables. What is the purpose of a cluster. . Difference between an implicit & an explicit cursor. What is a cursor.connect by prior sal > sal -. However.queries that return more than one row you must declare an explicit cursor or use a cursor FOR by level PL-SQL QUESTIONS If you know pl-sql read it further otherwise better stop with sql alone and move to java at the bottom of the page (if you are a java guy). 26. PL/SQL declares a cursor implicitly for all SQL data manipulation statements.sal number --. max(sal) from emp -. for the purpose of increasing performance. number -.For the second highest salary: -. including quries that return only one row. 25.where level=2 -.-. A CLUSTER provides a means for storing data from different tables together for faster retrieval than if the table placement were left to the RDBMS. that should be sufficient. oracle allows a developer to create a level. Oracle uses work area to execute SQL statements and store processing information PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information A cursor is a mechanism used to fetch more than one row in a Pl/SQl block. since that is a part of the function of the RDBMS.

Explicit cursor is a cursor in which the cursor name is explicitly assigned to a SELECT statement via the CURSOR. . What 'WHERE CURRENT OF ' clause does in a cursor. A convenient way of modifying the rows is done by a method with two parts: the FOR UPDATE clause in the cursor declaration.. When the where clause of the explicit cursor does not match any rows the %NOTFOUND attribute is set to TRUE instead. UPDATE students SET current_credits=current_credits+v_numcredits WHERE CURRENT OF X.. Open.... 28... LOOP SELECT num_credits INTO v_numcredits FROM classes WHERE dept=123 and course=101. Cursor For Loop is a loop where oracle implicitly declares a loop variable.. What is a cursor for loop.. 31. Fetch. 32... 30. ..UPDATE[OF column-reference][NOWAIT] The processing done in a fetch loop modifies the rows that have been retrieved by the cursor.INTO statements. Difference between NO DATA FOUND and %NOTFOUND NO DATA FOUND is an exception raised only for the SELECT.IS statement. Close. DELETE and single row SELECT.. UPDATE. WHERE CURRENT OF CLAUSE in an UPDATE or declaration statement.INTO statements when the where clause of the querydoes not match any rows....FOR. What a SELECT FOR UPDATE cursor represent. the loop index that of the same record type as the cursor's record.. SELECT. What are cursor attributes %ROWCOUNT %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ISOPEN 29. An explicit cursors are used to process multirow SELECT statements An implicit cursor is used to process INSERT...FROM. An implicit cursor is used for all SQL statements Declare..

. A procedure all is a PL/SQL statement by itself.. Static cursors can only be associated with one run time query. How you were passing cursor variables in PL/SQL 2. 36.In order to free the resources used for the query CLOSE statement is used. Can cursor variables be stored in PL/SQL tables. In PL/SQL 2.Can we use a scalar data type as return type. 37. eg TYPE t_studentsref IS REF CURSOR RETURN students%ROWTYPE 35. 34. which can hold different values at run time.Why it is required.Statement CLOSE cursor variable In order to associate a cursor variable with a particular SELECT statement OPEN syntax is used. No.It can be declared explicitly as a user-defined or %ROWTYPE can be used. OPEN cursor variable FOR SELECT.This is because the storage for a cursor variable has to be allocated using Pro*C or OCI with version 2. while a Function call is called as part of an expression. What is use of a cursor variable? How it is defined. A cursor variable is reference type(like a pointer in C). Functions are named PL/SQL blocks that return a value and can be called with arguments procedure a named block that can be called with parameter.2. Difference between procedure and function. The return type for a cursor must be a record type.If yes how. a cursor variable points a row which cannot be stored in a two-dimensional PL/SQL table. A cursor variable is associated with different statements at run time. What should be the return type for a cursor variable.2.return_type is a record type indicating the types of the select list that will eventually be returned by the cursor variable.2 cursor variables cannot be declared in a package. Declaring a cursor variable: TYPE type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type type_name is the name of the reference type. END..the only means of passing a cursor variable to a PL/SQL block is via bind variable or a procedure parameter. How you open and close a cursor variable. 38. 33.END LOOP COMMIT.If not why.

45.. This form of PL/SQL is known as embedded pl/sql. What is difference between a formal and an actual parameter The variables declared in the procedure and which are passed.COBOL. The Precompilers are known as Pro*C. What is OCI.PL/1 AND ADA.C++.If not why.The output must be compiled and linked with this library to creater an executable. What is syntax for dropping a procedure and a function . as arguments are called actual. Using ORACLE PRECOMPILERS .the language in which pl/sql is embedded is known as the host language. Drop Procedure procedure_name Drop Function function_name 44. Can a function take OUT parameters.Are these operations possible. Actual parameters contain the values that are passed to a procedure and receive results. No.PASCAL.. FORTRAN. Formal parameters are the placeholders for the values of actual parameters 41.SQL statements and PL/SQL blocks can be contained inside 3GL programs written in C. Can the default values be assigned to actual OUT parameter cannot return a value. Oracle Call Interface is a method of accesing database . The prcompiler translates the embedded SQL and pl/sql ststements into calls to the precompiler runtime library.39. 43.Pro*Cobol. What are different modes of parameters used in functions and procedures. What are ORACLE PRECOMPILERS. Yes 42. What are its uses. IN OUT INOUT 40.A function has to return a value. the parameters in the procedure declaration..

ISOPEN. e) Can cause other database triggers to fire. FCLOSE_ALL and 5 procedures to output data to a file PUT. d) Can be fired from any session executing the triggering DML statements. 47. FFLUSH. What is an UTL_FILE. Difference between database triggers and form triggers. The OCI library provides -functions to parse SQL statemets -bind input variables -bind output variables -execute statements -fetch the results 46. FFLUSH. PUTF.000.PL/SQL blocks are executed like other DML statements. 48.but not other form triggers.NEW_LINE. Can you use a commit statement within a database trigger.PUT_LINE. No 49.000 . Uses--No precompiler is required. PUT_LINE.from a 3GL program. c) Can manipulate data stored in Oracle tables via SQL Can manipulate data in Oracle tables as well as variables in forms.Form trigger(FT) Fires when user presses a key or navigates between fields on the screen b) Can be row level or statement level No distinction between row level and statement level. NEW_LINE.ENABLE function? 1.FFLUSH.PUT. Can be fired only from the form that define the trigger. a) Data base trigger(DBT) fires when a DML operation is performed on a data base table.What are different procedures and functions associated with it. What is the maximum buffer size that can be specified using the DBMS_OUTPUT. Functions associated with it are FOPEN.Can cause other database triggers to fire. UTL_FILE is a package that adds the ability to read and write to operating system files Procedures associated with it are FCLOSE.

******************************************************************** WISH U ALL THE BEST . 2003 grads Conc more on datastructures and if you know sql then also conc on it. HOPE TO SEE YOU SOON AT ORACLE ******************************************************************** .forward() (in servlets) Types of JDBC statement i) statement ii) prepared statement iii) callable statement Uses of the above three and whats the significance of each. Data structures like hash table Mutable and immutable objects Lifecycle of servlet Diff between response.sendredirect and requestdispactcher. And conc on your projects and rest is all your hardwork and to an extent luck.JAVA For java conc on singlethread model and normal servlets Type of jdbc drivers.

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