MHEC : LOSS CONTROL WORKSHOP

Electric Power Quality

1

Our Roadmap for this PQ Session
• To arm you with some useful power quality design recommendations and ideas • Illustrate Power Quality solutions using case studies • Industry Trends • Questions and Answers
2

What is Power Quality?
• “The concept of powering and grounding sensitive equipment in a manner that is suitable to the operation of that equipment.”1 • “Within the industry, alternate definitions or interpretations of power quality have been used, reflecting different points of view.”2 • The definition of Power Quality cannot be limited to the characteristics of the supply power. The definition must also include the requirements of the load. 1 1
3

IEEE 1100-1992 2 IEEE 1159-1995 2

Power Quality Paradigms Key Services/Technologies in the “Power Quality” Industry 4 .

Industry Trends Demand for Clean Power Fueled by 225% Growth in Microprocessors • Increased sensitivity to disturbances and poor grounding • Effects of harmonics on distribution systems • Increased problems from natural phenomenon 5 .

Industry Trends Growth in Electronics = Growth in PQ Solutions Power Quality Solutions/Electronic Loads Surge Suppressors Power-Conditioning Equipment Electronic Ballasts Variable Speed Drives Energy Efficient Motors Solid-State Motor Controls Programmable Logic Controls Voice/Data Cable System Power-Monitoring System EC&M Reader Survey (1995) 6 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 .

Power Quality Solution Strategy Good Grounding Practices Harmonic Solutions Surge Solutions Voltage Variation Solutions 7 .

Power Quality Design and Application Considerations • Ensure grounding system integrity • Limit creation of power quality problems • Attenuate power quality problems • Withstand poor power quality 8 .

Equipment Grounding • Related to Over Half • Foundation of a of All Power Quality reliable electrical Problems distribution system • Proliferation of communication and computer network systems Good Grounding Practices Harmonic Solutions Surge Solutions Grounding Voltage Variation Solutions 9 .

Equipment Grounding • Reasons for grounding • Personnel safety • Equipment protection • Power quality Grounding 10 .

Equipment Grounding and Power Quality • National Electrical Code Article 250 also provides the baseline requirements to ensure proper operation of sensitive equipment • FIPS 94 provides additional methods that are typically needed to ensure reliable operation of electronic equipment 11 Grounding .

Equipment Grounding National Electrical Code Article 250 provides requirements for personnel safety and equipment protection “Who omitted the safety equipment ground?” L N Improper omission of safety equipment ground conductor Grounding 12 .

Grounding Equipment Grounding and Power Quality Separate the inherent noise from communication signals • Avoid creating ground loops in the conductors that connect the frames of functional components • Minimize the influence or radiation of radio frequency noise • Provide a low impedance path to ground for noise 13 .

Electronic Equipment Grounding Tip • A ground loop creates noise because unwanted current flows in the conductors of a communications cable 14 Grounding Desktop Computer GND N 120 Communications Cable Server .

reducing loop current 15 Grounding Desktop Computer Desktop Computer Balun Balun GND N 120 Communications Cable Server Server .Electronic Equipment Grounding Tip • A balun is a coiled extension cord that creates an impedance in the ground loop.

Harmonic Distortion • Harmonic problems are becoming more apparent because more equipment that produce harmonics Good Grounding are being Practices applied Surge Harmonic Solutions Solutions to power Voltage Variation Solutions systems 16 .

Harmonics Harmonic Distortion Harmonics are multiples of the fundamental frequency Harmonics are multiples of the fundamental frequency + + f(x) = sin(x) f(x) = sin(5x) 5 = = sin(5x) f(x) = sin(x) + 5 When added When added together result together result in a distorted in a distorted waveform waveform 17 .

the wires become transmitters and radiate the noise at this frequency Surges and Surges and Noise Noise Harmonic Harmonic Disturbance Disturbance Transmitted Radio Transmitted Radio Frequency Frequency 50/60Hz 1 kHz 50/60Hz 1 kHz 1 MHz 1 MHz 18 Frequency Frequency 100 MHz 100 MHz Source: Dranetz Handbook for Power Quality Analysis Source: Dranetz Handbook for Power Quality Analysis .Harmonics Harmonic Frequencies • Harmonics are low frequency waveform distortions (< 1kHz) • Transients are higher frequency events (between 1 kHz and 1 MHz) • Above 1MHz.

Sources of Harmonics • Harmonics are produced by the operation of nonlinear loads • General categories and common types of nonlinear loads are – Power electronic equipment – Arcing devices – Iron saturating devices – Rotating machines 19 Harmonics .

1-Phase Amps 480V Secondary Amps THD = 9% Neutral 120V Current Amps THD = 104% THD = 7% 480V Primary Amps 120V .PCs Amps Harmonics 480V .1-Phase 120V .Neutral Source: IEEE 1100-1992 1100THD = 30% 20 .3-Phase 480V Circuit #1 277V .Sources of Harmonics Variable Frequency Drive 480V Amps Fluorescent Lighting Amps THD = 15% Switch Mode .

Harmonics Common Symptoms of Harmonics Harmonic voltage and current distortion cause: • Heating caused by higher frequency current components • Insulation stress caused by higher frequency voltage components • Circuit malfunction caused by voltage distortion 21 .

Harmonics Common Symptoms of Harmonics Specific symptoms include: • Transformer heating • Motor and generator heating and vibrations • Neutral heating • Nuisance fuse operations • Insulation deterioration • Electronic control malfunctioning • Inconsistent meter readings • Voltage regulator misoperations 22 .

5 1.5 >138kV 1.Harmonics Harmonic Voltage Distortion Limits IEEE Standard 519 – 1992 Harmonic Distortion Standards Maximum Voltage Distortion in % at PCC* Below 69kV Maximum for Individual Harmonic Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) 3.0 69-138kV 1.5 * % of Nominal Fundamental Frequency Voltage 23 .0 1.0 5.

0 3.7 1.0 12.0 10.0 5.0 2.5 0.5 5.0 15.0 1.5 4.5 2.0 24 0.5 4.0 1.Harmonics Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion IEEE Standard 519 – 1992 Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) Isc/IL sc L <20* 20-50 50-100 >1000 Harmonic Distortion Standards <11 11<h<17 17<h<23 23<h<35 35<h %THD 4.5 2.0 20.0 7.0 6.6 1.0 2.0 8.0 1.5 0.5 7.0 In Percent of Fundamental .4 5.0 100-1000 12.0 15.3 0.

Corrective Actions • Passive harmonic filters • Active harmonic filters • Zero-sequence traps • Commutation reactors • 200% neutral conductors • K-Factor rated transformers • Harmonic cancellation • Isolation transformers 25 Harmonics .

Design Solutions • Low harmonic producing loads such as – Low harmonic drives – MG sets – 10% distortion lighting ballasts • Phase shifting transformers 26 Harmonics .

Harmonic Design Tip • Harmonic cancellation makes use of transformer connections and phase shifting to cancel harmonics generated from various sources 27 Harmonics Y Y .

Multi-Cycle Voltage Variations • Sags are responsible for a majority of upsets and nuisance trips of sensitive electrical equipment Good Grounding Practices Harmonic Solutions Surge Solutions Voltage Voltage Variation Solutions Variation Solutions 28 .

Voltage Variations • Sag – a decrease in RMS voltage lasting from a half-cycle to a few seconds Voltage 29 .

Voltage Variations • Interruption – complete loss of voltage Voltage 30 .

Voltage Variations • Overvoltage – an RMS increase in voltage lasting more than a few seconds Voltage 31 .

Voltage Variation Symptoms • Sag – Substandard product – Process interruption • Interruption – Complete loss of power • Overvoltage – Equipment damage 32 Voltage .

Voltage Variation Sources • Supply side variations • Short circuits • Capacitor switching • Load switching • Regulator malfunction • Load side variations • Motor starting 33 Voltage .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful