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Prepared by –
Anupriya Gupta
Electronics & Communication Engg.
SRMCEM , Lucknow

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Certified that Anupriya Gupta has done a training in Instrument factory (ALH
department) of HAL and has presented in this report for the award of Bachelor of
Technology from Gautam Buddh Technical University(GBTU),Lucknow. The training
report embodies the original work and studies carried out by the student himself and the
content do not form the basis for the award of any degree to the candidate or to anybody


Faculty (Training incharge) Head of Electronics Wing
Dept of Electronics & Communication Dept of Electronics & Communication
Engg Engg

Date: Date:

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With deep sense of gratitude, first and foremost express my profound
thanks to Mr.Rajnish Kumar Agnihotri chief Manager ALH for giving
me this opportunity to do my summer training in Instrument department of
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Lucknow during the summer session 2010.

Being renowned company of India & abroad, it gave me the

opportunity to learn the work carried out here, got a glimpse of new
environment & hard work of industrial unit.

Mr. A. K. Sharma Chief Engineer.of ALH I was posted under his

guidance. He was very helpful during my training.

I also wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to the staff of HAL

without whose cooperation; this training would not have been successful.

Anupriya Gupta

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Training has misinterpreted by most of us as a platform for

project performation. Industrial training in true sense has been included in
curriculum to make the student well versed with the technical procedure of
various industries, the basic criteria for management of various resources in
a company or industry.

The educational institution sole aim by industrial training is to

improve the technical knowledge and to have a hand on experienced to make
them realistic in thinking, to understand the procedure for manufacturing
keeping mind the minute detail which will benefit the customer like no
learning is proper without implementation.

Doctors, Lawyers, hotel management student surely hold a upper

hand. Its because right from the second year of their graduation the are made
to face the world and their problems with a tender mind. In due course of
time slowly but steadily they, develop a competitive attitude and have a
definite plan and aim as they complete their graduation.

Unlike the pitiable engineers like us who are completely isolated

from industry. Therefore their should be industry institutions made
compulsory for every engineering institutes.

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Hindustan Aeronautics Limited has blossomed into a major player in the
global aviation arena, and today is among the elite Navratna companies. The
history of Indian aircraft industry can be traced to the foundation of
Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in December 1940 in association
with the erstwhile princely state of Mysore and late Shri Seth Walchand
Hirachand, an industrialist of extra-ordinary vision. Govt. of India became
one of its shareholders in March 1941 and took over the management in
1942. Hindustan Aircraft Limited was merged with Aeronautics India
Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Department Kanpur to form HAL on

Today HAL has got 18 production divisions & 9 research & design
centers spread out in 7 different locations in India. Its product track record
consists of 12 types of aircraft from in house R & D and 13 types by license
production. HAL has so far produced about 3352 aircraft (which include 11
type of indigenous design), 3583 engines & overhauled over 8141aircraft &
27267 engines.

HAL has engaged & succeeded in number of R & D programs for

both the military and civil aviation sectors. Substantial progress has been
made in the current project like Dhruv –Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH),
Tejas-Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) &

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various military and civil upgrades. The deliveries of Dhruv were affected to
Indian Army, Navy, Air force & Cost Guards in March 2002, in its first year
of production which is a unique achievement.

The Government of India decided to set up a factory Lucknow

Division in 1969 to undertake License manufacture of accessories and
instrument for Hindustan Fighter HF-24 and Hindustan jet trainers HJT-16,
aircrafts. The factory building is ready by October 1973 and full fledged
manufacturing of the accessories to cover Ajeet,MIG-BIS Aircrafts, aero
engines and Helicopters.

HAL Accessories Division Lucknow was established in 1970 with

primary objective of manufacturing systems and accessories for varies
aircrafts and engines. At present it is turning out over 1100 different types of
accessories. The division manufactures various systems viz. Hydraulics;
engine Fuel systems, Air-conditioning Pressurization, Gyro and Barometric
Instruments, Electrical system items Undercarriage, Electronic items all
under one roof to meet the requirements of the aircrafts, helicopters and
engines being produced by HAL.

HAL has played a significant role for India’s space program in the
manufacturing of satellite launch vehicle like PSLV (Polar Satellite
Vehicle), GSLV (Geo Stationary Launch Vehicle), IRS (Indian Remote
Satellite) & INSAT (Indian National Satellite).

HAL has joint ventures companies BAEHAL, Software Limited & Indo-
Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL),Snecma-HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd. Apart
from these, other major diversification project & industrial marine gas
turbine & airport services. Several co-production & joint ventures with
international participation are under consideration.

HAL’s supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defense services, Coast

Guard & Border Security Force. Transport Aircraft & Helicopters have also
been supplied to Airlines as well as State Government of India. The
company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries,
having demonstrated its quality & price competitiveness.

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MISSION-“To become a global player in the aerospace
industry ‘’


The manufacturing range of this division can be grouped under three


1.) Mechanical and hydro-mechanical accessories,

2.) Engine Accessories
3.) Instrument accessories.

In addition, the division also manufactures the wide variety of ground

support equipment like Ground Power Unit, hydraulic trolley, weapon
loading trolley ,Test equipment etc.

The Aerospace & equipment research & design Centre is involved in

the design and development of hydraulic pumps, actuators, wheels and
brakes etc.

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Organizational chart


Managing Director

General Manager

AGM(Fuel) AGM(Design) AGM(Instrument) AGM(Mechanical)


Chief Manager Chief Manager Chief Manager Chief Manager

Senior Manager Senior Manager Senior Manager Senior Manager

Manager Manager Manager Manager

Deputy Manager Deputy Manager Deputy Manager Deputy Manager

Engineer Engineer Engineer Engineer

Employees Employees Employees Employees

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Head of HAL Lucknow division is General Manager. The factory is divided

into five sub Divisions:

• Instrument factory
• Mechanical factory
• Fuel factory
• Design and Development
• Sukhoi-30


This is further divided into two shops

1. Assembly shop
2. Manufacturing shop

Assembly shop is divided into: -

1. SHOP 1
2. SHOP 2
3. SHOP 3
4. SHOP 4
5. ALH

Manufacturing shop is divided into: -

1. NGL Shop
2. Smiths shop
3. Gyro shop
4. Press Shop

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Following systems or instruments are manufactured in Instrument factory.

1. Barometric instrument
2. Gyroscopic instruments
3. Electrical and Electronics equipments
4. Fuel gauging systems
5. Ground level navigation systems

All the above products are manufactured in specially designed rooms called
clean rooms. Following conditions are essential for the clean rooms for


TEMPERTURE: - 15 to 25 oC

HUMIDITY: - 45 TO 55%

DUST COUNT: - Less than 100,000 for class C shop(unmonitored)

Less than 100,000 for class B shop
Less than 10,000 for class A shop

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Initially production of accessories was planned for Marut and Kiran aircrafts
in 1972 which later expanded to include accessories for MIG-21 series and
helicopters during the late 1970,s in Lucknow Division.

The current products of HAL are-

 DO-228
 Kiran MK II
 HPT-32
 Cheetah
 Chetak
 MIG-21
 MIG-27
 Jaguar
 Engine Test beds
 Radars

There are some new products-

 HTT-35
 Industrial/marine Gas Turbine
 Modern Instruments

The division today has prime name in the Aviation market and various
international companies are interested to join hands it for future purpose.
The division has also made steady progress in the area of export.

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1950s & 1960s


HPT-32 MIG 21 M HS 748


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1970s & 1980s

HPT-32 MIG 21 M HS 748


1990s to Date

DO – 228 * LANCER



* Current products

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Products of HAL Lucknow division
 Instruments Sensors, Gyros
 Flight instruments, electrical indicators, Fuel Gauge probes, Gyros,
sensors and Switches

 Electrical power generation and control

 AC/DC Generator, Control and protection units, inverters,
Transformers Rectifier units, AC/DC Electrical system, Actuators.

 Land navigation system

 Microprocessor controller

 Under carriage, wheels and breaks

 Hydraulic system and power control

 Pumps, Accumulators, Actuators Electro-Selectors, Bootstrap
Reservoirs and various types.

 Environmental control system

 Pneumatics and oxygen system, cold air unit, water Extractors, valves.

 Ejection system
Ejection Seats, Release Units

 Engine fuel control system

 Booster pumps, main and Reheat Fuel systems, Nozzle Actuators.

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The division has manufactured more than 700 Aircraft & overhauled more
than 1300 Aircraft in last 3 decades. Having state-of-the-art technology &
facilities, the division is fully geared up to take the challenge future task
such as manufacture of SU-30 MK 1 & Advanced Jet Trainer.

The division has established full fledge infrastructure, facilities & system for
ensuring optimum level for customer’s satisfaction on the products &
services rendered. The major area includes

 Overhaul/ Repair of Rotable

The Division takes up over/repair of entire range of Electrical,
instrument, Mechanical & Armaments Rotables.

Supply of Spares & oth

 Ground support equipments and rigs
 Ground power unit, hydraulics trolley and power packs, dedicated test
Rigs, custom- build Fuel/ Hydraulics Test rigs.

 Site Repair
The Division undertakes site repair of Aircraft at IAF bases by
deputing site repair teams.

 Defect Investigation/Failure Analysis

The aggregate which was received on premature withdrawal from the
units are studied & the causes for defects /failures are investigated.
Repetitive cases are taken up for in the depth study & modifications
are incorporated in the unit to minimize the recurrence of such
defects/failures in future.

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 Product Training
The Division has positioned Service Engineers at various IAF bases to
closely liaise and to access the requirement of the customer. Based on
the feed back received from Service Engineers, the division renders
adequate support for fully exploiting the products.

Product flow chart

The instrument factory is divided into-

 Assembly shop
 Manufacturing shop

Assembly shop is divided into: -

 SHOP 1
 SHOP 2
 SHOP 3
 SHOP 4

Manufacturing shop is divided into: -

 NGL Shop
 Smiths shop
 Gyro shop
 Press Shop

Following systems or instruments are manufactured in Instrument factory.

 Barometric instrument
 Gyroscopic instruments
 Electrical and Electronics equipments
 Fuel gauging systems
 Ground level navigation systems

Process of product preparation follows certain steps. When the customer

places the order and it approved by the authorities the planning of steps for

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preparations are to be layer by authorities now assembly of the material is
done and stored in stored. Now these are collected as required and experts
prepare unit. Now the important step comes of testing. Testing is done under
specified conditions and assurance is done in all respect then certificate is
raised of being tested. Now the last step comes of proper packing and
storing. These are supplied to costumer under followed terms and

Product flow chart

Request of costumer

Planning of steps

Assembly of material

Manufacturing of units

Testing of unit under for conditions

Collecting and proper packing of unit

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Advanced Light Helicopter is a multi-role, multi-mission helicopter
designed & developed by HAL. The design of this 5.5 ton class, twin-engine
helicopter incorporates several state of the art technologies. Extensive use of
composites high cruise speed, long range & endurance, excellent high
altitude performance & capability to operate in hot & humid environment
are the key to design features. ALH has been designed for both civil &
military application in large variety of roles overland & sea.

Performance: -
Maximum cruise speed at maximum load: - 250 km/hr.
Maximum rate of climb: - 10 m/sec.
Range with 20 min reserve: - 650 km.
Endurance: - 4 hrs.
Hover in ground effect: - 1500 m.
Hover out of ground effect: - 1000m.

Leading Particulars: -
Overall length: - 15.87 m.
Overall height: - 4.91 m.
Width: - 3.91 m.
Empty weight: - 2500 kg.
Fuel capacity: - 1100 kg.
Maximum takeoff weight: - 5500 kg.
Maximum under slung weight: - 1500 kg.
Maximum height: - 2500 HT.


Military Role (Unarmed): -

 Hellebore attack.
 Reconnaissance
 Logistic support
 Casualty evacuation
 Air observation post

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Military Role (Armed): -
 Anti tank
 Close air support
 Anti submarine warfare
 Anti surface vessel warfare

Civil Role: -
 Commuter/ VIP
 Search & rescue
 Disaster relief
 Air ambulance
 Offshore operation

Salient Features: -
 Ergonomically designed cockpit
 Extensive use if composites, reduced radars signature
 Large cabin volume
 Ballistic damage tolerant
 Greater system redundancy
 Provisions for weapons hard points
 Twin engine with fully authority digital electronic control
 Adequate safety margin for single engine operation
 Four axis automatically flying control system
 Crash worthy crew seats, under floor and fuel tank
 Hinge less main rotor & bearing less tail rotor
 Excellent handling qualities at low as well as high speeds
 Low maintenance cost & high fuel efficiency
 Skid version & retractable wheel version available

 Auxiliary Tank Probe: -

The probes (AT) are a part of fuel system of ALH. It is installed from the top
of the tank. The AT probes is for gauging fuel content.

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The units consist of following main sub-assemblies: -
• Tube assembly – consisting of gauging & level sensing.
• Card assembly gauging – it consist of gauging circuit.
• Electronic assembly – it consist of receptacle & interconnection wires
connected to card and tube assembly.

Electrical Characteristics: -

I/P Characteristics: -

Electrical supply – for gauging 5V dc (nominal)

Current consumption – for gauge 2.5 mA with 5 mA o/p load.

 Supply Tank Probe: -

Probe is a part of a fuel system of ALH. It is installed from the bottom of
the tank. The s-probe is gauging the fuel content. It is also has built in
low level warning sensors which is electrically isolated from fuel content
sensing circuit

 Reference Sensor Probe: The probe is a part of the fuel system of

ALH. It is installed from the bottom of the tank. The RS Probe
transmits the reference frequency which is normally stable but varies
slightly to assist the computer to compensate the changes excepted in
other fuel gauging probe. O/P due to the change in temperature or
variation in grade of fuel, this probe is always immersed in fuel.

The unit consists of following sub assemblies –

1) NET FLANGE HEAD ASSEMBLY: - It consist of reference

frequency, sensing circuit, receptacle, interconnection – wires,
connecter to card & hold cup assembly.

2) HOLD CUP ASSEMBLY: - It consists of sensing probes.

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The indicating G – METER provides visual indication of acceleration
experienced along the vertical axis of ALH.
The dial presentation comprises three co – centric pointer moving over a
linearly divided scale. The front pointer indicates the instantaneous
acceleration & the middle and read pointers indicate the maximum positive
& negative accelerations respectively. This unit provided with a resting knob
to reset the pointers to align with the main pointer. The unit has a locking
facility to lock the mass of unit when installed, to prevent the unit from
damage candling & transit.
Weight: - 425 gm (max).
NVG (Night Vision Gauge).

Temperature switch is used in ALH to close on electrical circuit. When the

temperature in the area surrounding its sensor reaches a predetermined
value. The unit senses the oil temperature of the transmission system.

It works on vapour pressure action & consists of bulb containing Ethyl

Alcohol due to sufficient changes on temperature. The organic liquid
vaporizes & builds up pressure within a closed chamber. The high vapour
pressure compresses a below assembly, which is turn operates a snap –
action micro switch. The unit is normally open type switch.
 Gear box oil temperature senses.
 Ensure temperature is within 115 ± 4 °C (max),
110 ± 4 °C (min).
 Warning switch cockpit.

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The pressure switch is for use in ALH to close an electric circuit of the
system when the pressure falls below a predetermined value.

Leading Particulars: -

Name: - pressure switch.

Electric supply: - 28V dc.
Current consumption: - 500 mA (max).
Operating range: - 0 to 25 bar.

Functions: -

Pressure switch senses the oil pressure of the auxiliary gear box of
the transmission system.

Operation: -

The unit uses the below assembly as a pressure sensing element. The
upper end of the bellows assembly is being fixed leak proof to pipe union
with the help of sealing washer & sealing nut. When an external pressure is
applied to bellow assembly through the pipe union, bellow assembly
compresses & its free end moves toward up & it operates as a micro switch.
The micro switch opens an electric circuit when the pressure of the system
rises above predetermined value.

Outside Air Temperature Gauge is a panel mounted instrument & indicates

the outside temperature. The sensor portion of the instrument protrudes
outside the cockpit & senses the outside air temperature.

Leading Particulars: -

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Name: - Outside Air Temperature Gauge.
Weight: - 150 gm (max).
Size: - 56 * 155 mm.
Accuracy: - ± 1.5 °C.
Operating Temperature Range: - - 45 °C to + 75 °C.
Storage Temperature: - - 65 °C to + 75 °C.
Response Time: - 3 min.
Supply: - 5V dc.
Current: - 150 mA (max).
Storage Life: - 10 years.
Operation: -
The unit is bimetal type temperature indicator. The heart is a bi
metallic sensor wound in a helical form. One end of the metallic sensor is
clamped rigidly & the other end is connected to a steel rod, on the other end
of the rod, a pointer is connected which move over a linear dial to indicate
the temperature senses by the metallic sensor. Thus assembly is housed in a
tube and cup – type case.

RMI is a panel mounted (from front) air-borne instruments which provides

the pilot following function-

 Heading of aircraft.
 Relative bearing of radio station.
 Deviation from a set course.
 Additional heading error proportional to sine of the angle between
heading & course set pointer.

Physical Specification: -

Name: - Radio magnetic indicator.

Size: - 83 * 83 * 202025 mm.
Weight: - 1200 gm (max).
Location: - Cockpit instrument panel.
Power Supply: - a) 5V ± 0.5 dc.
b) 26V ± 10 % V, 400 Hz, single phase a.c.

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ASI is designed to provide continuous indication of the speed of an
A/C. The instrument is basically a differential air pressure gauge consisting
of a twin capsule assembly connected via suitable linkage & gearing to
pointer which moves over a circular diameter calibrated in km/hr. when
installed the interior at the capsule is connected by a capillary tube to A/C
pilot pressure line while the exterior of the capsule is open to static pressure
via the A/C static system. The pointer indicator on a dial which is calibrated
30-400 km/hr.

When the pilot & static pressure applied to the capsule are equal, the
pointer remains in null position. When differential pressure is applied, the
capsule will expand or contract accordingly. The resultant movement of the
free side of the capsule assembly is transmitted by the linkage to rotate the
rocking shaft & then causes the sector gear temperature range operation: -
45°C to +71°C.
Storage: - -54°C to + 85°C.


AC master box
DC master box
Filter Transformer Unit
Alternator Control and Protection Unit
Auxiliary Tank Probe
Radio Magnetic Indicator

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Excluding the two alternators and protection unit and static inverter,
primary AC distribution system consists of following boxes:

1. AC Master Box – 1
2. AC Master Box – 2
3. 115 V AC Emergency Bus Relay
4. 26 V AC Emergency Bus Relay

AC Master Box –1 consist of three phase main bus – 1(115 V), 1-φ
emergency bus – 1 & 2 (115 V), 1-φ main bus – 1 (26 V). During
normal operation (both alternator running), complete system – 1 is
powered from alternator – 1. In case of fault on alternator –1, all the
buses of system –1 are connected to alternator –2, with alternator –1
in failed condition, in the event of short circuits. On a main bus –1, it
goes disconnected from alternator –2. In case of both alternator fails
to supply power to AC main buses, emergency buses of system –1 are
powered from static inverter.

With AC ground power in & selected in the cockpit,

external power control card validates incoming ground power and
automatically energizes the external power contactor to supply ground
power to all buses of system –1 & system –2 through main bus –1 of
system –1. The external power control card inside AC master box –1
controls the energization of external power contactor to allow correct
quality of external AC power, as to be transmitted to the electrical
AC master box –2 is similar in construction and function to AC
MBX –1. This box dose not includes external power contactor &
control cards. However it has non-essential bus along with its
contactor, this bus is powered from the main bus –2 only when the
alternators are running.
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All the power O/P of different buses is protected with thermal
circuit breakers, which are provided in both master boxes.

AC master Box used in ALH distributes AC electrical power to different

three phase loads as per requirement. It is used in conjunction with two
alternators, two ACPU and static inverters.


Name – AC Master Box –1

Weight – 5.5 kg max.

Dimension – Length= 266± 5.0 mm

Width = 240± 5.0 mm
Height = 120± 5.0 mm

Input DC power supply – 28 V dc (nominal)

22 V dc to 29 V dc (normal)
20 V dc to 31 V dc (abnormal)

Input AC power supply – 115 V ac (nominal)

108 V ac to 118 V ac (normal)
100 V ac to 125 V ac (abnormal)

Power consumption – 5 KVA


 Under normal operation ACMBX – 1 distribute ac power. But in the

case when alternator –1 fails then ac power is distributed to different
loads through ACMBX –2 from alternator –2.
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 During normal operation (both alternator running) complete system is
powered from alternator –1 and ACMBX –1 distribute ac power to
different electrical system of ALH.

 External power control card (EPC) inside AC Master Box controls the
energization of external power contactor to allow correct quantity of
external AC power to be transmitted to electrical system.

AC Master Box –2 (AC MBX – 2) used in Advanced Light Helicopter

Distribute ac electric power to different three phase loads as per requirement
when alternator –1 is failed. It is used in conjunction with two alternators,
two ACPU’s and static inverter.


Name – AC Master Box –2

Weight – 5.0 kg max.
Dimensions –Length=266± 5.0 mm
Width =240± 5.0 mm
Height =120± 5.0 mm
Input DC power supply – 28 V dc (nominal)
22 V dc to 29 V dc (normal)
20 V dc to 31.5 V dc (abnormal)
Input AC power supply – 115 V ac (nominal)
108 V ac to 118 V ac (normal)
100 V ac to 125 V ac (abnormal)
Power consumption – 5 KVA


Under normal operation ACMBX –1 distribute ac power. In the

case when alternator –1 failed then ac power is distributed to different loads
through ACMBX –2 from alternator –2.

No external power card is used AC MBX – 2 as used in AC MBX.

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1. Over voltage protection test (in normal & environmental

2. Under voltage protection test (in normal & environmental
3. Over/Under frequency
4. Vibration test
5. Functional test.


DC Master Box is a part of dc power generation and distribution system for

re-engine Cheetah Helicopter. It is designed for use with an independent
starter/generator mounted on the engine accessories gearbox, and is
interfaced with GCPU, battery, and external power source and control panel
of DC power generator to the loads through its main bus. In the event of
failure of starter/generator, the dc master box will activated the battery
contactor, through which the on-board single battery (Ni-Cd 40 Ah) will get
connected to the main bus & supply power to the emergency loads. DC
External Power Receptacles (EPR) is provided at the port side of the
Helicopter with EPC in DC master box to supply the dc power from Ground
Power Unit (GPU).


DC Master Box distributes the complete dc power generation. It contains the

main bus through which dc power is directed to the overhead panel
through circuit breakers for dc power distribution.

During normal operation, the total dc power from starter/generator is

brought to the main bus through Normally Open (N.O.) contactor, which is
controlled by GCPU.

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In case of failure of starter/generator, the dc power will be available
from a single on-board internal battery through a normally closed battery
contactor. Provision has been made for receiving the dc external power
during ground operation through an external power receptacle. The external
dc power supply is transferred to main bus through N.O. contactor, which is
switched on by External Power Card (EPC). The EPC switches the external
power contactor ON only if the applied voltage is with in specified limit &
of correct polarity and therefore protects the dc system from over-voltage
conditions. As long as external power is connected to the Helicopter
(External Power Contactor is closed), battery should remain disconnected.


1. Input sources for DC Master Box:

−Starter/generator along with GCPU: 6 KW
−Battery (Ni-Cd): 40 Ah
−External power source on ground: 6 KW
2. Types of O/P Buses:
Main Bus – 200 A at 28 V DC through
−100 A circuit breaker: 1 no.
−50 A circuit breaker: 2 no.
−3 A circuit breaker: 2 no.
3. Capacity:
−Capacity of unit (Main Bus): 200 A at 28 V DC
−Overloading: 150% (300 A) for 2 min & 200% (400 A) for 5 sec

4. Protection Function –

 External Power control:

External Power Control (EPC) card housed inside the DC Master

Box provides the following functions when external power is
selected to the Helicopter.

a) Over voltage protection: At 30.5± 1 V with a fixed time

delay of 0.4± 0.1 sec.

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b) Reverse polarity protection: External Power fails to
connect itself to the system if the polarity of the
external power is reversed.


There may be multiple failure modes for each functioning. Design has been
found to meet the basic criterion for external system: -

a) Single fault at a time should not affect the normal flight. This
has been designed as MINOR failure. This may also be
called as CONTROLLED FAULT, which may be corrected
by appropriate design safety device or special
automatic/manual procedure. Hence, one fault at a time
should only lead to MINOR failure.
b) Double fault occurring simultaneously should not lead to an
emergency situation and may be counteracted by emergency
action. Hence, two faults simultaneously should only lead to
MAJOR failure.
c) Triple faults occurring simultaneously may lead to an
emergency situation. This may also require PILOTS
immediate action for emergency condition. This type of fault
has been called as CRITICAL failure.


The following precautions have been taken during design and development
stage of DC Master Box to control EMI/EMC

 All the grounding/reference lines used in the unit are connected to a

common negative point used inside the unit and then being brought
out through connector pins of 16 AWG.
 The chassis of the unit is kept isolated from the grounding points to
avoid the return currents to flow through the Helicopter structure.
 The bonding points are provided on the unit at the mounting points.

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 All contactors are used with coil having surge suppressors. Transient
suppressors and free wheeling diodes are also used in PCB circuit
 The length of the leads/wires is kept as short as possible and multi-
strand wires are used to reduce eddy current effects.


Alternator Control & Protection Unit regulates the alternator O/P voltage
within specified limit under various rated load & speed conditions. The unit
is having built in protections against over/under voltage, over/under
frequency, over load & feeder fault conditions. Under these faulty
conditions, the unit disconnects the alternator from AC electrical system by
de – energizing the contractor & field.

The unit will be interfaced with the alternator having characteristics: -

Type: - 3 – phase star connection.

O/P Power: - 5 kVA.
Voltage: - 115/200 V, 400 Hz.
Overloading: - 150 % for 5 min, 200 % for 5 sec.
Nominal Speed: - 1200 RPM.
Maximum Speed for Regulation: - 12600 RPM.
Minimum Speed for Regulation: - 11400 RPM.
Over Speed: - 15000 RPM.
Frequency at 12000 RPM: - 400 Hz.

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The Filter Transformer Unit (FTU - 01) is for Jaguar aircraft which gives
single phase 26 V, 400 Hz low distortion O/P, synchronized with phase AB
of the three – phase 200 VCC O/P, 400 Hz aircraft power source. The unit is
being operated from three phase 200 VCC, 400 Hz aircraft power source.
There are two no. of FTU’s in one A/C. in case of failure of one unit (FTU),
the entire A/C load will be automatically transferred to another healthy unit

Functional Description: -

The FTU is enclosed in an aluminum box & having natural cooling. The
heat sink fins made on two side walls are capable to provide the sufficient
heat conduction generated from four power transistors. The basic electronics
of this unit utilizes the conventional sine wave oscillator & push pull power
amplification principle. The unit provides single phase 26 V RMS, 400 Hz
O/P synchronized with phase AB of AC power. The unit is capable of 130 %
of FLUFF. The unit is having built in protection against O/P over voltage,
O/P under voltage. The unit also provides a single under above faulty

The total circuit is spited into 3 main functional parts: -

 Power supply.
 O/P voltage control & its phase synchronization.
 Protection.

Power Supply: -
Three phase power 200 VLL, 400 Hz available from A/C is being fed to step
down I/P transformer. The three phase bridge rectifier rectifies the O/P of
the I/P transformers. The rectifier O/P is filtered through capacitor & a dc
voltage of amplitude of approx. 26 V is available. This dc voltage is used to
bias the circuit within the unit & also to provide the O/P power. A new
reference i.e. 0 V is generated within the unit & w.r.t.0 V. The + VCC & -
VCC are generated to provide the biasing to the circuit.
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O/P Voltage & Phase Synchronization: -
A three phase oscillator consisting of IC’s & associated resistors &
capacitors produce 3 – phase sine wave, 120 degrees apart to each other. The
sine wave available is in phase with the sine wave signal received at control
card. The phase AB of A/C ac supply is fed to I/P of synchronization T/F.
The O/P of T/F is step down & is fed to the control card, so the sine wave
available is always in phase with AB of A/C ac power.

The sine wave O/P is followed by pre – amplifier is followed by the driver
transistor mounted on chassis. The T/F drives the class – B push pull
amplifier. The O/P available at the O/P T/F is filtered through a filter
consisting L & C. After filtration a low distortion 26 V RMS, 400 Hz O/P is
available at the connector.

The O/P T/F has voltage feedback winding. A sine wave proportional to
main O/P is being rectified & filtered through capacitor in the control card.

As unit O/P voltage decreases, the amplitude of the square wave increases,
hence the amplitude of the sine wave increases, hence the amplitude of the
sine wave increases, which in turn increases the O/P voltage & vice – versa,
so a regulated voltage within permissible range is available at the O/P of the

The O/P sine wave & I/P phase AB available at the secondary of the
phase synchronizing T/F are converted into square wave & fed to PLL. The
O/P of the PLL is a pulse whose width varies with phase difference b/w two
square waves. The O/P of PLL is followed by LPF. A smooth DC is at the
O/P of LPF whose amplitude is directly proportional to the width of the
pulse. The DC voltage available at the O/P of the LPF is compared with a
fixed reference voltage by the comparator. The comparator O/P is low as
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long as the phase error b/w O/P of the unit & I/P phase AB is less than the
specified value. When the phase error exceeds the specified limit, the
comparator of the O/P becomes high. The high signal is fed to the latching
cum time delay circuit & O/P becomes high after a specified time delay &
thus unit O/P falls to zero & the aircraft load gets transferred to the second

The d.c. voltage proportional to the O/P a.c. voltage is fed to the
comparator which compares this d.c. voltage to find a reference voltage. If
the O/P voltage becomes lower than the O/P under voltage threshold level,
then the O/P of the comparator becomes high, which in turn makes O/P of
the latching cum time delay circuit to high, after fixed time delay, & the unit
tripped off & the aircraft load is transferred to another FTU.

The a.c. voltage induced across the feedback winding of the O/P
transformer is rectified by bridge rectifier & filtered to obtain the d.c.
voltage is fed to the comparator which compares the fixed reference voltage.
If the O/P voltage exceeds the threshold limit of O/P over voltage, the O/P
of the comparators becomes high, which in turn males the O/P of the
latching cum time delay circuit to high, after fixed time delay the unit is
tripped off & the aircraft load is transferred to the another FTU.

The a.c. voltage is proportional to the O/P current is achieved by the current
transformer. The voltage is rectified & filtered to obtain the d.c. voltage
proportional to the O/P current. The d.c. voltage is compared by a
comparator with a fixed reference voltage. If the O/P becomes higher than
the specified limit, the O/P of the comparator becomes high, which in turns
makes the O/P of the latching cum delay circuit to high after a fixed time

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delay & the unit is tripped off & the aircraft load is transferred to another

Flight data reorder system is fitted in aircraft for recording of flight

parameters on aero photo film and preserving it in normal as well as in crash
This box is dark orange in color to give bright contrast for easy search
during any mishappening. Though it is called Black Box, as data are being
recorded on film and cannot be seen easily by everyone.
It mainly consist of-
1- Information storage system
2- Matching mechanism
3- Cassette
4- Transducers for various parameters.

Purpose &working

Flight data recorder system records automatically 6 continuously

changing parameters (altitude, engine speed, aircraft speed, vertical
acceleration, and horizontal acceleration and turn angle of stabilizer)
imposed on 3 continuously variable parameters, and timer line to indicate
the time on black and white aero photo film and preserve it in normal and
crash condition for study and analysis of flight conditions.
Inner structure consists of a light beam source and plane mirrors. There are
six sets of galvanometer is a plane mirror. These galvanometers are placed in
magnetic field.
When the signals are send to galvanometers the coils moves due to
magnetic effect, making the mirror move in different directions. Now, when
light beam passes the beam, it is reflected by plane mirror and when this
falls on galvanometers mirrors, and get light gets reflected in six parts and
falls on film forming different wave shapes.

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1. Aircraft SU-30MKI is a multipurpose twin seated supersonic
fighter designed to destroy air target in free space and against the
earth background both by day and at night under visual and
adverse weather conditions and to engage ground and surface
targets within tactical and operational depths under heavy noise
conditions as well.
2. To destroy aerial targets, a provision is made for employment of all
angle medium-range missiles (active, semi-active radar and infra-
red guided missiles) and short-range missiles (infra-red guided
missiles) capable of high target hit probability.
3. To destroy ground targets, use is made of unguided bombs, guided
bombs and missiles. The aircraft is also equipped with a rapid-fire
gun mount with caliber of 30mm.
4. The aircraft is also intended for training, acquisition (perfection) of
skills in flying techniques, air navigation and combat employment
including participation in group combat actions.
Main Features

 Fuselage: The fuselage of SU-30MKI aircraft is an integrated

aerofoil body that provides 40% of aircraft’s total lift. The fuselage is
built up of three sections; Nose sections, tall section and wing center
 Fuselage Nose Section: It is an all-metal semi monologue
construction. It includes nose cone, two cabins, nose LG well and
equipment compartment. For planes or canards and attached to the
last frame of this section.
 Wing Center Section: It is the main load carrying structure of the
aircraft. It provides attachment points for landing gears, outer wings,
fuselage nose section, and fuselage tail section and air intakes.
 Fuselage Tall Section : It comprises of air ducts, air Intakes and
two engine compartments interconnected by an intermediate
compartment. Horizontal stabilizers and vertical fins are attached to
the rear part of fuselage tail section
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 Outer Wings: Outer wings are an integrated part of the fuselage,
trapezoidal in shape and swept back by 420. The flaperons are
attached at the trailing edge, which operate as ailerons and flaps. The
leading edge flaps are located all along outer wingspan to improve
the aerodynamic characteristics.
 Air intakes: The engine air intakes are under slung and provided
with ramp panels the air intakes are closed by protective screen to
prevent the ingress of foreign objects.
 Landing Gear: The aircraft has tricycle type landing gear operated
by first hydraulic system. Only the main wheels are provided with
brakes, and the brakes are operated by hydraulic pressure. The nose
landing gear is provided with wheel steering system.
 Flight Controls: The aircraft longitudinal control is achieved by
synchronous deflection of stabilizers, lateral control by differential
deflection of stabilizers and flaperons and directional control by
rudders. Fly by wire system operates all the control surfaces. Fore
plane or canard is introduced for providing larger stability and
 Maneuverability at higher angle of attack and subsonic speeds. Wing
leading flaps also act as lift augmenting device at greater angle of
attack. The fly by wire system operates canards and leading edge
flaps automatically. All control surfaces are operated by both the
hydraulic systems.
 Hydraulic system: The hydraulic system comprises of two
independent systems i.e.: First or Left hydraulic system and Second
or Right hydraulic system.

• (a) Hydraulic oil used:AMG-10/OM-15

• (b) Hydraulic tank capacity: 15.8 liters (each system)
• (c) Left hydraulic system capacity: 40 liters
• (d) Right hydraulic system capacity:40 liters
• (e) System operating pressure: 280+15 kgf/cm2
 Fuel System: The ac carries fuel in five metallic fuel tanks, which
can be refueled in air also. On ground the ac can be refueled in two

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modes i.e. basic and full: in case of emergency the fuel can be
dumped in air. The capacity of fuel tanks is as follows.
 Tank No. 1: 3260 kg
 Tank No. 2: 4160 kg
 Tank No. 3: 1060 kg
 Tank No. 4: 350 kg
 Tank No. 5: 650 kg
 Total : 9480 kg
 Pneumatic System: There are three independent pneumatic
systems. All the system bottles are charged with nitrogen to a
pressure of 200-15 kgf/cm2
a) Canopy Pneumatic Control System: It ensures opening, closing and
sealing operation of canopy, jettisoning of canopy in case of emergency
and pressurization of alcohol tank used for canopy anti-icing. The bottle
capacity is 8 liters.
b) Emergency Extension of Landing Gears: It extends the landing gears
in case the first hydraulic system fails. The bottle capacity is 9 liters.
c) Emergency Extension of Refueling probe: It extends the air-to-air
refueling probe in case the second hydraulic system fails. The bottle
capacity is 3 liters.

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Marketing is the relation between costumer and organization. When
the costumer contacts the organization then it is seen that the request is of
our capability or not. If not then regret order is send. Else request is judged
under various points of cost, terms and conditions, time duration etc. and the
decided conditions are send to the customer now if the customer agree then
order is placed for further process.

Firstly HAL had only defense sector as the only customer, but now it
has decided to expand it capabilities to earn more and more profit.

Marketing mainly includes two units of marketing. They are Civil and
Export. It mainly deals with the defense requirements, but besides this there
are many other costumers in India and outside India.


Civil export

(ISRO, Sahara Airlines, kingfisher (Oman, UA, England,

kingfisher, JET airways, etc.) Romania, Zimbabwe,
Srilanka, etc.)

• CIVIL- In civil unit it mainly deals with the costumers of India

only. They are different airlines and research organizations, army,
navy, coast guard, air force, etc. They may contact for repairing of
parts and for requirements of parts.

• EXPORT- In this unit there are mainly customers of foreign they

are airways of England, Oman, UA, etc. There are very strict rules
for the trade between these organizations. These foreign
organization look to HAL as a faithful organization. When
customer contacts HAL then there are predefined steps to be
followed by the organization.

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These can be described in chart as—




al proposal
Preparation (export evolution,
pricing committee, etc.)

Vetting (finance)

Approval (competent authority)


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Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) has cruised past the Rs.7,500-crore
mark for the first time with a sales turnover of Rs.7,783.61 crores ($1.82
billion) during the Financial Year 2006-07, The Value of Production has
also gone up by 55.54% to Rs. 9,201.88 crores, while the Profit of the
Company (Profit Before Tax) soared to Rs.1,743.60 crores, which is an
increase of 54.88% over the previous year's performance.

The highlights are given below:

Rupees in Crores
Growth over
Particulars 2005-06 2006-07
Previous Year
Sales 5342 7783 45.69%
VOP 5916 9202 55.54%
Profit before
1126 1744 54.88%
Profit after tax 771 1149 49.03%
Gross Block 1694 2081 22.85%

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It is matter of great prestige to be a part of well& highly

organized Navaratna organization, HINDUSTAN
AERONAUTICS LIMITED. After being a part of such
organization one has the chance to learn a lot about a successful
organization. Besides this it also imparts the opportunities to
strengthen the particular’s professional skills.

Atmosphere of organization teaches one the characters of

Focusing, Planning, Decision making, Co-ordination etc. These
golden experiences help the student to sharpen his/her professional
as well personal skills. After being the training student of HAL a
particular department is assigned to study.

This department helps in all possible ways to guide the

functions, working process, units prepared of the organization. One
can learn a lot if he takes the proper interest.

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The joy of flying has fascinated the human race for centuries.
Defense avionics major &Navratana PSU Hindustan Aeronautics
Limited (HAL) is in the business of building a whole range of
aircraft helicopters and jet trainers. Besides, the company
manufactures aircraft components, overhauls fighter planes and
trains future pilot’s .its success in the design and development of
light combat aircraft Tejas and advanced light helicopter Dhruv
has won admiration. HAL is the backbone of India’s air defense
and continues to occupy the strategic importance reflecting a new
pace of growth.

Today the faster growing sector is the aviation sector & is

likely to be a boon for the entire job market. It deals with the
manufacture, design & development of aircrafts.

The project is based on the instruments that are used in the

manufacture of the various aircrafts. A deep knowledge of these
instruments is crucial in the perfect design & manufacture of the
aircrafts. The project will benefit those who have interest in the
instrument & will provide the reader with the deeper knowledge of
the topic.

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 Magazines of HAL

 Manuals of departments:






 Internet

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