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Obesity has been tagged by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the new crisis in public health because of increasing evidence that the condition easily leads to a host of life-threatening diseases like arteriosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, asthma, arthritis, etc. An enormous amount of scientific research has been done on obesity but there is as yet no consensus on what constitutes obesity, what are its exact causes and contributory factors, and how exactly does obesity deteriorate into serious medical cases. The only point of agreement seems to be that a determined and concentrated effort needs to be undertaken to arrest the growing number of lives that have been wasted by obesity, which also causes an enormous drain on a nation’s health service resources. For such an effort to be effective, however, everyone involved should have a clear understanding of why it happens so that appropriate steps can be taken. This dissertation set out to do just that: provide a clearer grasp of the causes of obesity and the extent to which the problem has degenerated to guide future activities designed to mitigate the prevalence of obesity.
For the purpose of this paper, UK was made the focus of the study because of increasing concern that obesity has reached unwieldy proportions in this country, especially among children. In fact, childhood obesity is now the object of a Public Service Agreement that the British government usually reserves for problems with serious national repercussions.
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1. Introduction 2. Rationale 2.a. Aim 2.b. Objectives 3. Methodology 4. Literature Review 4.a. Obesity-related Diseases 4.b. Public Heath Issue 4.c. Obesity in UK 4.d. PSA Target 4.e. Prevention and Intervention 5. Causes and Effects 6. Influencing Factors 6.a. Diet 6.b. Nutrition 6.c. Physical Activity 6.d. Media advertising 7. Findings & Analysis 8. Conclusion & Recommendation 9. Reference List
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The 2002 Health Survey for England made a disturbing declaration that over half of the UK population was overweight or obese. In the same year, the National Office of Statistics (NOS) came up with a more detailed report, blowing up the problem by saying that obesity was affecting children more than adults. The NOS revealed that 22 percent of all boys and 28 percent of all girls in the 2-15 age bracket were either overweight or obese. The study raised the same alarm by asserting that about 1 million of all obese persons in UK were less than 16 years old, indicating a steady and rapid yearly increase in the prevalence rate for childhood obesity in the country. This is a cause for general concern because obesity in childhood tends to be irreversible and obese adults are highly vulnerable to a range of ailments that include heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and certain strains of cancer. Since the future of a nation lies in the hands of its children, what future awaits a nation with a disease-prone citizenry?
This upward trend in the prevalence rate of obesity started as early as the 1970s with the release of a number of government studies, notably the 1974-94 National Study of Health and Growth and the 1995 Health Survey for England. Between 1984 and 1994, the reports noted a doubling in the prevalence of obesity among British children, from 0.6 percent to 1.7 percent in boys and from 1.3 percent to 2.6 percent in girls. Among adults, the prevalence rate rose from 6 percent in 1980 to 17 percent in 1998 in men and from 8 percent to 21 percent in women. Obesity is determined by measuring a person’s body mass index (BMI), or the body weight according to height, rate of growth, sex and age. Among boys, they are obese if 25 percent of body weight
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is fat, while it is 32 percent in girls. Based on the BMI measurement of the general population in the succeeding 10-year period (DoH, 2004; POST, 2003; RCP, 2003; Comptroller & Auditor General, 2006), there is a steady and worrisome increase in the number of obese persons in UK. This calls for an organized and concentrated multi-sector action, which requires a thorough and definitive study beforehand to see where to plug the holes in the public health system.
According to the WHO (WHO, 2002) obesity may have assumed the proportions of a global epidemic but UK presents an interesting case for a country-specific study because it holds the distinction of being the country where the first obesity-related case of type-2 diabetes was reported (NHS, 2002). This is an indication that obesity has become a runaway problem in UK, which is supported by recent public health bulletins expressing due alarm over the situation. It is necessary then that an
attempt must be made to assess the overall picture so that it can be properly determined if an organised, resource-intensive and massive intermediation effort is warranted, and what particular strategies are appropriate. This can only be accomplished by examining the exact influences of diet, physical inactivity, nutrition and media on the supposed increase of obesity cases in UK; by seeking to determine the magnitude and extent of the problem in the UK context; by underscoring the social and psychological factors that brought about and contributed to the situation; and by evaluating the effectiveness of the prevention and intermediation measures that have been tested for government adoption to mitigate the problem. A close
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2) Investigate whether obesity has become so widespread a health problem as to warrant drastic measures and a concentration of government resources © 2009 ThesisBlog. physical activity and diet and nutrition on the overall health and fitness of the British population as regards to obesity. such as improper diet and nutrition.a. the aim of the dissertation is to ascertain the extent of their influence on public health so that they serve as basis for the remedial measures that should be undertaken.com 5 . Aim The principal aim of this dissertation is to determine how deleterious has been the effects of media advertising and programming. 2. the emergence of a sedentary lifestyle and media’s unwitting promotion of these unhealthy habits. In putting up these trends for closer inspection. focusing on factors suspected as responsible for increasing the number of obese persons in UK.ThesisBlog. 2. Objectives 1) Give an accurate perspective on the influence of the modern environment on obesity.b.com Dissertation Writing Service examination of these factors may give stakeholders an idea of where to start attacking the problem and where to concentrate the effort.
Methodology 3. 4) Evaluate the effectiveness of measures that have been undertaken to combat obesity and identify the measures that can be undertaken to reverse the upward trend in the prevalence of obesity in UK. while the causal research determines which factors or variables are causing a particular behaviour. characteristics and scope of the problem. which employs the direct communication method. The study also takes on the characteristics of both the descriptive and causal research strategies. which were useful in helping meet the varied requirements of this research.com Dissertation Writing Service 3) Identify the factors that contributed to the unwieldy increase of obese children and adults in UK. Descriptive research helps describes the history. Choice of Research Design Research for this paper has leaned heavily on the observation method. We believe both methods are useful to this paper as it focuses on the problem of childhood obesity and the behaviour relating to the unhealthy eating habits of British children.ThesisBlog.com 6 . because of the universality and multi-dimensional nature of obesity as a growing social and public health problem. The main requirements included descriptive research of this condition as well as a discussion of its causes. The quantitative conduct of research was given preference over the qualitative approach.a. which used the quantitative approach to generate what is known as secondary research data. 3. © 2009 ThesisBlog.
physical exertions and media advertisement.ThesisBlog. Since obesity is a multi-sided subject. On the other hand with the observation method used for this research. The theories and findings include: girls are more prone to obesity than boys. to give us the widest choice of perspective on the subject area. the research panned out to gather data from all possible sources which include books.com Dissertation Writing Service In the direct communication method.com 7 . Its scope of coverage. this writer was able to pin down the theories and findings to fill in the gaps and make comparisons on what has been done and what still needs to be done to address the problem of obesity. which was carried out with a wide variety of tools to bear on an equally large range of study related to obesity. obesity is more prevalent in children than adults. a mass of information is required to make realistic comparisons between theories and evolving concepts and therefore validate our theory that the problem encompasses the whole range of human behaviour. p. journal articles and reports. since it is often information that an individual organisation cannot collect on its own. eating patterns. trade journals. government studies.46) can come from within or outside the organisation. Secondary data according to Curwin (1996. papers from seminars and other institutional publications. External secondary data are those collected from research involving textbooks. food intake. research is conducted by face-to-face or telephone interviews with the use of surveys and questionnaires. while internal secondary data comes from organisationinitiated surveys. websites. obesity leads to life © 2009 ThesisBlog. The overall advantage of secondary data in research is flexibility. is narrow and is carried out to reveal only specific data. however. By using the observation method of research to collect secondary data from what others have written and expressed on obesity. annual reports and service feedback. Therefore this method would be of little use to this study anyway.
noted that overweight workers receive less income and occupy lower job classifications than average normal-weight persons. such that no person would ever relish being called ‘fatso’ to his/her face no matter how overweight he/she is. habits and activities are contributing to both child and adult obesity.com Dissertation Writing Service threatening diseases.ThesisBlog. There is a more practical reason for choosing the observation method of research in this project over the direct communication approach. because society tends to exclude and discriminate against overweight persons. for example. and obesity is influenced by diet. It also allows the researcher to determine which behaviours. RCP (2003) found that obese women especially are often depressed women who lose interest in studies and are discriminated at work. In a study that hews as close as possible to the descriptive and causal type of research. which often leads to self-pity and depression. Experience confirms what the literature suggests that obesity threatens one’s pride and self-image. the researcher can pinpoint the specific techniques used in intervention and prevention programs and specify which of these elements have a high or low efficiency ratings.com 8 . The 2000 poverty and social exclusion survey in UK. The researcher believes this is © 2009 ThesisBlog. media and physical activity. a clear case of discrimination at the workplace. nutrition. As research developed with emphasis on secondary data collection. For this reason. the researcher also gained valuable insights and understanding of the problem by focusing attention on its broader implications. Obesity is a condition that no one can be proud about. the probability is high that a study employing the direct communication method of research would give no useful insight because obese persons are expected to clam up if personally interviewed about their weight problem.
physical activity.com 9 . They used the primary research method on obese persons seeking their professional service by measuring the patients’ BMI and then employed the secondary research method by reviewing the works of health professionals dealing with the subject of obesity. This contention is supported by both the authors’ use of primary research and outside references dealing with the same subject. is whether the measurement for body mass index is appropriate for both children and adults. Construction of the Method The research method was constructed such that the reference materials selected for this paper separately address the issues discussed in sections four and six. Royal College of Physicians (2003) – the RCP research team suggests that the BMI measurements may not be applicable to children because they grow faster during © 2009 ThesisBlog. diet and nutrition.com Dissertation Writing Service the most suitable research design and method for this paper to achieve its aim and objectives. which include the main factors.ThesisBlog. One of the more important issues. (2000) – the authors claim that BMI is the universal standard for obesity measurement long accepted as accurate for both children and adults. 3. which reached an acceptable number of over 50 works. The authors are psychologists by profession. for example. which indicate that they have no bias for the blanket acceptance of the BMI measurement since their main interest is the relationship between behaviour and obesity. et al. The resource materials and assessment schematic of the research on the reliability of BMI are as follow: Epstein. media and advertising.b.
mainly the high intake of energy-dense food. Therefore. The main references to support the claim that lack of physical activity causes obesity were Issue Briefs (2006). the sources used for this paper include those of the UK. asthma and cancer. DoH (2004) and © 2009 ThesisBlog. while BUPA (2004) and WHO (2003) believe the lack of nutritional value in children’s food intake worsens the problem.com 10 . Separate works were also scanned to establish the influence of diet and nutrition. physical activity. For this reason. BUPA (2004). Luce (2005) and McLaren (2006) found strong links between childhood obesity and unhealthy diet. media and advertisement on childhood obesity. Also most of the references used by these agencies were based on experiments and hypotheses made by dieticians.com Dissertation Writing Service puberty. and Comptroller and Auditor General (2006) – these UK agencies agree that the BMI measurements of UK children are enough indication that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in UK. For the research linking obesity to such diseases as hypertension. nutritionists and other experts on obesity. WHO (2003). diabetes. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003). the above-named agencies suggest that the nutrition standards in all schools be examined and that early breastfeeding must be encouraged based on studies that breastfed babies are less prone to obesity. No less than 30 references were used by each of those three agencies in supporting the argument that childhood obesity is a cause for alarm in UK.based POST (2003). Social Issues Research Centre (2005) and Issue Briefs on-line.ThesisBlog. the RCP calls for the development of a new measurement system that considers this basic difference between children and adults.
For example James. Among these are BUPA (2004). Lyness (2005). Sample To help collect data on the larger perspective of obesity.. et al. Luce (2005). Issue Briefs of the US-based Henry J. Issue Briefs (2005). Luce (2005) links the fast food culture with childhood obesity. POST (2003) and Luce (2005). such that they may have influenced in to UK authorities into taking childhood obesity as a serious health problem as to be eventually chosen as a public service Agreement.ThesisBlog. (2000). (2006) set global strategies for preventing childhood obesity.com Dissertation Writing Service RCP (2003). and the WHO (2003) report blames improper diet and nutrition as the cause of obesity that leads to chronic diseases. Kaiser Family Foundation attaches importance to the role of media in childhood obesity.com 11 . Bredbenner (2002). The influence of media and advertising is discussed persuasively by Bredbenner (2002). These reports are useful to this research in many ways. and WHO (2003) mainly to see how other countries are coping with the same problem. An in-depth study of children’s responses to television advertisements by Roedder (1981) was considered as another reference but eventually excluded since there are enough materials on the same subject that are based on the UK context. All these experts and agencies present their views with the suitable clinical and empirical evidence. which requires a concentration of efforts and resources. Social Issues Research Centre (2005) and POST © 2009 ThesisBlog. 3. McLaren (2006). Mclaren (2006). Livingstone (2002). et al. et al. data was gathered from nonUK studies that include those of James. Steinbeck (undated).c. Steinbeck of the University of Australia suggested treatment for both childhood and adult obesity. (2006). Epstein.
com 12 . RCP (2003) and POST (2003). which led to its being set as target of a Public Service Agreement.ThesisBlog. such as the applicability to children of the BMI measurements for obesity. © 2009 ThesisBlog. through the studies of the Royal College of Physicians (2003). the review focuses on the extent of the problem in UK. The first part of the review emphasizes that inaccurate data sometimes come from research based on exaggeration and professional lapses. The last part will report on the prevention and intervention measures adopted in UK through BUPA (2004). The third part synthesises the papers of WHO and Issue Briefs (online) on how obesity became a public health issue in many parts of the world. Parliamentary Office Of Science and Technology (2003). for one argues persuasively that media advertisements exert a great influence on UK children’s choice and POST (2003) puts a large part of the blame on advertisers for promoting food high in fat. For the fourth and fifth subsection. as may be gleaned from the reports of WHO and Social Issues Research Centre.com Dissertation Writing Service (2003). sugar and salt content. On that note. this literature review is preceded by a discussion of the questions and issues surrounding obesity. Literature Review A literature review is an interpretation and synthesis of published research on a particular field and should provide the reader with a statement of the major questions and issues related to the field under study. BUPA (2005) and Epstein. The second part examines the medical diseases related to obesity. et al. (2000). which are also more recent. Luce.
et al Graves. et al Golan.com 13 . It also evaluated the validity of the arguments raised by those who dismiss the problem of obesity as something similar to making an issue of ugliness in some people.ThesisBlog. et al Curwin Epstein. et al C Year 2002 2004 2005 1996 2000 1998 1988 2004 2006 2002 2005 2005 2006 2002 2003 1999 1981 2003 2005 2002 2003 2003 Conducted Experiment √ √ √ Process Theories √ New Theories √ √ Measuring Performance √ Used Staff Feedback √ Job Satisfaction √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ S D D E √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ D K √ √ √ 4a) Questions and Issues The dissertation examined the available literature on obesity. which apply for both children and adults. The fact is there is even some disagreement on the accuracy of the current measurement standards for obesity.com Dissertation Writing Service Literature Review Matrix Author Bredbenner BUPA Caraher. epidemiology. socio-economic implications and possible measures to prevent obesity and reduce its prevalence. which is arrived at by comparing one’s weight with his © 2009 ThesisBlog. et al Issues Briefs James. et al Livingstone Luce Lyness McLaren NHS POST Feilly & Dorosty Roedder RCP SIRP Steinbeck WHO Wilson. causes. This is usually done by measuring the body mass index (BMI). choosing the materials that discuss the nature.
© 2009 ThesisBlog. were set based on exaggeration and hype. lifestyles and attitudes of people. Some baseline data on obesity. et al. According to Epstein.com 14 . These findings include: • The relationship between parent and child fatness may be stronger between mother and child. In children. which call for changing the eating habits. Moreover. RCP (2003) noted that during puberty. for example. In a report titled “Childhood Obesity: The New Crisis in Public Health. warnings have been aired against rushing into complex and costly measures to reduce the incidence of obesity. however. children’s weight doubles and their height increases by 20 percent. This is considered to be fairly accurate for adults whose height stays put after 18 years of age. The CDC was later forced to an embarrassing 10 percent reduction in its estimates.ThesisBlog. the BMI measurement is suspect because their weight-to-height ratio changes in the normal growth process. the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention had ran into severe criticism when it set figures on obesity-related deaths that many found too high. one is obese or overweight. SIRC (2005) observed that in the US.com Dissertation Writing Service height and dividing the weight in kilograms by the height in metres.” the WHO (2003) came up with findings that set the tone for many of the subsequent studies on obesity. the BMI method does not distinguish if the body mass consists of fat or muscular physique. Partly because of these doubts about the applicability of the BMI measurement to children. as it were. (2000) if the result of the calculation exceeds certain limits.
change in the left ventricular mass and hyperinsulinaemia. a pancreatic abnormality similar to diabetes. Obesity is also known to lead easily to chronic inflammatory conditions. • Children from non-white backgrounds living in westernised societies are more prone to obesity than white children. with women 12 times more prone to it than men. In UK. various types of diabetes. In most western countries.com 15 . 4b) Obesity-Related Diseases One research aspect of obesity where there is little disagreement relates to life threatening diseases to which obese persons are highly vulnerable. adverse lipid profiles. • • • Intra-uterine exposure to cigarette smoke raises the risk of childhood obesity. asthma.ThesisBlog. 20-40 percent when only one parent is overweight. there is an increasing agreement that diabetes is not just a simple childhood disease as previously suspected but is strongly linked with obesity. the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003) found strong evidence that diabetes is closely associated with obesity. On diabetes as a complication of obesity.com • Dissertation Writing Service When both parents are obese. and cancer. the greatest risk is posed by coronary artery disease consisting of increased blood pressure. The National Audit Office (NAO) for its © 2009 ThesisBlog. Babies who are heavier than most become obese in their growing up years. abnormal foot structure and function. the likelihood of their children being obese is 80 percent. According to RCP (2003). the largest number of obese persons comes from the socio-economically deprived sectors.
they need the same medical attention as those suffering from physiological diseases. POST (2003) noted that the existing literature is less clear but evidence is beginning to trickle in that obesity increases the risk of colon cancer three times among both men and women. As for the risks of cancer. Epstein. RCP (2003) also maintains that since obese persons often suffer from depression. they lose interest in studies and in improving their lives.com Dissertation Writing Service part estimated that 250. (2000) support this view. depression is also linked to diet. which is as much a psychological as a physiological disease. such that obese children lose self-confidence and self-esteem leading to isolation and depression. The most common of the obesity-related diseases. 4c) Public Health Issue © 2009 ThesisBlog. is coronary heart disease. The simple explanation is that cholesterol from too much consumption of fatty food clings and clogs the coronary vessels to block the circulation of blood and oxygen. saying that obese children have increased psychological problems.000 incidents of stroke and 750. Obesity causes distress because of the jokes that their appearance draw from others. NAO attributed to obesity about 28.ThesisBlog. et al. Therefore. particularly to reduced levels of omega-3 fatty acids.000 cases of type-2 diabetes occurred in 1998 as a direct result of obesity.000 cases of hypertension throughout UK.com 16 . In 1998. Obesity is also associated with depression. Lyness (2005) points out that like obesity. According to BUPA (2004) another type of cancer associated with obesity is bowel cancer. however. which can influence eating or weight control.
which lists 10 obesity-related factors as determinants of the world’s health problems – high blood pressure. with obesity affecting as much as 10 percent of all children in the developing world. A growing number of paediatricians. This represents an “unprecedented burden” on children’s health. The medical consequences include hypertension. which holds true for low.com Dissertation Writing Service When the WHO released its 2003 Global Strategy on Diet. The growing consensus is that it is no longer communicable diseases that are bringing on the disease burden of the world but non-communicable diseases like heart disease. increased blood cholesterol levels.com 17 . evidence continued to pour in that obesity contributes to the rising diabetes. and tobacco consumption. This is reflected in the updated WHO Millennium Development Goals. Physical Activity and Health indicating that obesity was spreading throughout the world because of the wrong kind of diet and lifestyles. poor intakes of fruits and vegetables. high cholesterol and high blood levels in middle and low-income countries (James. many disputed this view contending that obesity is solely an issue for advanced western nations experiencing no problem on food production and supply.. physical inactivity. type-2 diabetes. child development experts and media researchers around the world agree that the prevalence of obesity is on the upswing. 2006). obesity was yanked out as a component of the WHO global strategy in 2004. et al.ThesisBlog. respiratory ailments. the American Academy of Paediatricians (AAP) warns (Issue Briefs Online). In deference to this argument. all of which are suspected complications of obesity. excess weight from too much sugar. However. fat and salt in the typical diet. Obesity began to be considered a serious health concern worldwide. middle and high-income countries. orthopaedic © 2009 ThesisBlog. cancer and mental disorders.
This particular survey pointed to the average weight taken separately of children aged 3-14 and all 15-year-olds. 4d) Obesity in UK There is still some debate on whether obesity has reached epidemic proportions in UK. international obesity task Force chairman Phillip James told the European Union Conference on Obesity Strategy that obesity in UK took off in the 1980s and “looks as if it was accelerating in the last 5 to 10 years. For example.” the RCP predicted. In 2005.” The House of Commons Committee on Health and the Royal College of Physicians echoed this view. © 2009 ThesisBlog. the Health Survey for England discounted an epidemic in general weight gain among British children since an epidemic would have raised the average weight to greater levels.4 kilograms such that the change was found insignificant. Among 15-year-old boys.0 kilograms in 2003. Two studies. “If the rapid acceleration in childhood obesity in the last decade is taken into account. agree that there is a strong correlation between childhood obesity and educational attainment and income levels in women.8kg in 1995 and had increased to 60. sleeping difficulties and depression. “the prevalence will be in excess of 50 percent. one in the US and one in UK.com 18 . RCP (2003) acknowledged that obese boys may sometime grow into normal-weight adults but obese girls almost always become obese women.com Dissertation Writing Service problems. The average weight of boys 3 to 14 years old was 31. while the change in average weight between 1995 and 2003 was from 32.2 kilograms to 32.” This was contradicted by other official surveys.ThesisBlog.0 kilograms in 1995 for the same age group. and obese women are highly susceptible to depression.7 kg in 2003. which is known to make people unproductive and even acquire suicidal tendencies. which actually decreased from 32. the average weight was 58.
For this reason.5 kg.9kg. since the educational. which went up slightly to 58. SIRC studies purport to show that women aged 35 and above dominated the obese groups in many parts of UK and that there were more obese persons among senior citizens between 65 and 74 years old than children. the team later came up with a white paper called “Choosing Health: Making Healthier Choice Easier. 2005). medical and financial resources that are channelled for the purpose may be diverted from where the problem really lies.ThesisBlog. a Childhood Obesity Project Team was organised in 2005 with the assigned task of reviewing the whole body of literature towards providing a better understanding of the likely causes and effects of obesity. For these reasons. which do not amount to an epidemic (SIRC. According to DoH (2004). everyone seems to agree that something needs to be done about obesity. This data on the average weight gains of children and young adults indicate a slight change over a 10-year spread. Despite such doubts about the real magnitude of the problem. the Department of Health launched the Social Marketing Programme to draw from all the scientific work already done on the subject and apply the data on effecting a behavioural change among the citizenry with the use of accepted marketing principles. pointing out that it is in the older generation where the problem is more evident.com 19 .com Dissertation Writing Service while the figure for girls in the same age group was 58.” which set forth the government commitment to stem the tide of © 2009 ThesisBlog. and then developing a costeffective framework for an anti-obesity campaign. The Social Issues Research Centre also took exception to findings that it is the children that are most threatened by obesity. As its initial undertaking. the Health Survey for England cautioned against exaggerating the numbers.
6%) Adults © 2009 ThesisBlog. Proportion of Overweight Children in UK 1984-1994 Children 20 15 10 5 0 Boys Girls (Values in percentage for childhood obesity: boy from 0.6% to 1.com Dissertation Writing Service obesity prevalence among children below 11 years old on a year-to-year basis by 2010. BBC” noted that children as young as 2 and 3 years old are being classified as obese or overweight.com 20 . The BBC News (2006) reported that obesity levels in UK have more than doubled in the past 20 years. In the report titled “Child Obesity Doubles in Decade.7% and girls from 1.ThesisBlog.3% to 2.
ThesisBlog. (1999) the 2003 Health Survey for England established these interesting facts about childhood and adult obesity in UK: 1) The prevalence of obesity in 2 to 11 year old children has grown from 9. © 2009 ThesisBlog. 2003) According to Reilly & Dorosty.com 21 .6 percent in 1995 to 13. and 16. 4) Obese parents beget obese children.1 percent come from semi-routine or routine households in which the heads of family are wage earners. This indicates that more obese children come from low and middleincome families.2 percent among children in the more affluent fifth of the population. 2) Of the obese children. while 12. which is another affirmation of a trend that sees more obese children coming from rich households.com Dissertation Writing Service 20 15 10 5 0 Women Men (Values in percentage for adult obesity: women from 6% to 17% and men from 8% to 21%) (Parliamentary Office of Science & Technology. and obese children are most likely to become obese in their adult years.7 percent in 2003.2 percent in the most deprived fifth.4 percent are children of parents holding managerial or professional jobs. 17. 3) The levels of obesity increased by only 11.
all the funding and activities directed at the problem to be expended by participating agencies and partners will be coordinated at the national. as well as their local offices. and by much more if the obese person is a smoker. the Primary Care Trusts and schools. Media and Sports (DMCS). Education and Skills (DES) and Department of Culture. obesity has been identified as the target of a Public Service Agreement (PSA). The longterm goal of the PSA on obesity is to bring down the yearly increase in overweight children below 11-years-old through the Department of Health. regional and local levels for greater efficiency. 7) Obesity increases the risk of heart disease. type-2 diabetes and high blood pressure. Other departments are given important roles in the programme.com Dissertation Writing Service 5) Children from Asian ethnics are four times more likely to become obese than whites. 6) Obesity reduces life expectancy by an average of 9 years. Public Service Agreement (PSA) Target Comptroller & Auditor General (2006). To be assigned as a PSA in UK. For this reason. POST (2003). Reilly & Dorosty (1999) and RCP (2003) say there is an epidemic because view that childhood obesity in UK has reached alarming proportions seems to outnumber the opinion that says it is still manageable. cancer. This in effect recognizes obesity as a serious public health issue representing a growing threat to children’s health and a drain on the National Health Service (NHS) resources. After the anti-obesity PSA was incorporated in the government’s 2004 Treasury Spending Programme.ThesisBlog.com 22 .e. the government must be assured that the handling and flow of any project or activity © 2009 ThesisBlog. health authorities. 4.
The main concern of government is that if the arrangements for the delivery of services are unclear. The Comptroller & Auditor General (2006) noted that since a PSA involves a wider range of organisations of various disciplines and expertise. healthy schools. school sports. and 6) increase the initiation and duration of breastfeeding among lactating mothers. 4) reduce the average intake of added sugar from the current 16-17 percent to 11 percent.com 23 . helping people lose weight. In addition.ThesisBlog. 2) reduce the average intake of saturated fat from 14. national obesity awareness campaigns. and healthy food promotion among children. © 2009 ThesisBlog. the resources may get lost. there is a need for a better understanding of the issues to make the programme more organized and efficient. 5) increase to 1 percent yearly the number of children meeting the physical activity recommendations of the Chief Medical Officer. children’s play. In a joint study. 3) maintain the current declining trend in total fat intake at 35 percent. The goals of the PSA are: 1) increase average fruit and vegetable consumption to at least five portions a day. it was noted that there is a shortage of evidence on what works for obesity and what initiatives and programmes would be sufficient to achieve its target. Accordingly. the Comptroller and Auditor General observed that the PSA on obesity especially requires a more thorough and careful study because it calls for a multi-faceted approach.com Dissertation Writing Service are predictable and manageable so that the resources and efforts do not go to waste. the authorities involved in the PSA against obesity were obliged to familiarize themselves with the problem by using more reliable data.3 percent to 11 percent. Comptroller & Auditor General (2006) assured that all these will be carried out through such intervention and prevention programmes as school meals. simple labelling of packaged food.
the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence is also drawing up a set of guideline on the assessment. 4. for which 220 million pound sterling has been allotted for 2005-2008.com Dissertation Writing Service Under the PSA. social services and cultural. The two key programmes under the PSA are called Extended Schools and Sure Start. It was acknowledged that the current measurement method is less accurate for children and so the PCTs were assigned to devise new weighing and measuring systems with a greater degree of efficiency. schools have been prevailed upon to follow a revised nutritional standard for school meals.f. Under the School Meals Programme.com 24 . teams of experts have been organised to compose the Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in the national. There is also a School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme. whose first order of business is to clear the air on obesity measurement. while the second increases the availability of services on childcare. treatment and weight management of overweight or obese children and adults. which reduce the fat. The first provides a range of services and activities on child and healthcare.ThesisBlog. identification. prevention. This was deemed essential in guiding decisions on where exactly to place resources and how the effectiveness of prevention and intervention activities can be monitored. Prevention and Intervention © 2009 ThesisBlog. regional and local levels. In support of the PSA. health and emotional development. The new nutritional standards were set by legislation passed in 2006. which provides free pieces of fruit or vegetable each day to children aged 46 in nurseries. sporting and play activities. salt and sugar contents and increase fruit and vegetables in the meals consumed by children in school.
which often consists of the following: 1) Eat at regular hours. et al. cereal. 5) Reduce consumption of high-fat foods like crisps. rice and potatoes in every meal. and 3) increase physical activity.com 25 . 2) make changes in the fast food-oriented eating habits.. The simple solution to child obesity that this research gleaned from the literature is three-pronged: 1) eat a healthy. Although the reasons and causes for obesity have been identified (among them: genetics. 4) Limit the consumption of food high in sugar like sweets and chocolate. The best that health authorities can do is issue a set of guidelines for healthy living (Golan. there is still a lack of qualitative evidence on the reliability and effectiveness of intervention and prevention measures presented by experts. balanced diet. 3) Eat some types of fruit and vegetable at each meal. particularly teenage girls who are vulnerable to such eating disorders as anorexia nervosa and bulimia if they go without food for prolonged periods. this should be done with medical supervision. pasta. RCP 2003). chips and pastries. BUPA (2004) advised that if children need to be put on a diet. unhealthy diet and nutrition. BUPA (2004) believes this task relatively easy based on evidence showing that it is much easier to change a child’s eating habits and physical activity than those of adults. © 2009 ThesisBlog. 6) Avoid fried foods. sedentary lifestyle).com Dissertation Writing Service Health and nutrition experts advise against withholding food from obese children to make them lose weight because this can actually harm the normal growth process. 2) Include bread. Unlike adults. there are no drugs considered effective in treating weight problems in children.ThesisBlog. 1998).
” which conducted aerobic classes for 43 overweight children aged 10-13 for 12 weeks at a frequency of three classes weekly. Family-based programmes that encourage an increase in physical activity. discourage sedentary behaviour and impart dietary education are also expected to yield beneficial effects. 8) Separate eating from TV watching and homework. 14) Attend PE lessons and courses on outdoor education A multi-pronged strategy. 12) Use the stairs instead of lifts or escalators. especially girls. The subjects were feed the modified school meals. the National Health Service (NHS) suggests. there were no significant changes in BMI scores. The result: not much change in BMI and heartbeat rates for both boys and girls. After one year of this regimen. taught healthier eating proper habits and told to undergo PE and playground activities.com 26 . may help prevent obesity among school children. notably an increase in vegetable consumption among the children. Another RCT that relied heavily on physical activity and excluded other intervention measures was called “Dance for Health.com Dissertation Writing Service 7) Exercise as often as possible and cut back on TV watching and playing computer games. 9) Eat regular meals and snacks and avoid the habit of “grazing. 13) Go for a walk and visit parks and playgrounds.” 10) Keep out of the house the kind of food that children should avoid. but there were encouraging changes in eating behaviour. This was shown in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) called Active Programme Promoting Lifestyle in Schools involving 636 children aged 7-11. A © 2009 ThesisBlog. 11) Walk instead of ride or drive.ThesisBlog.
2003). may be useful. This shows that the overall amount is less important than the type of dietary fat that is consumed (POST. but as the number of obese children with normal parents grew and obesity occurs in children without a history of any particular childhood disease. studies noted an increase in the prevalence of obesity even when the proportion of energy derived by children from fatty foods had fallen. school and the community. a noticeable reduction in weight was noted among the subjects. such that media use has become the major preoccupation of children. there were no significant changes but upon completion of the two-year study. Among the primary causes frequently identified are the increasing trend towards a lifestyle of unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity brought on by the “new media” which has children sitting for hours before the video screen.com 27 .com Dissertation Writing Service long-lasting and more intensified programme of this kind. Prevention and management of obesity on a national level require the coordination of a range of policies to improve the average diet and levels of physical activity in the early years. however. 2003). at home. broadcast.ThesisBlog. In the first 12 months of the programme. for example. 5. research turned its attention to other possible causes. as indicated by another NHS-conducted RCT that consisted of callisthenics. Livingstone (2002) observed that this phenomenon provided British a multi-media culture with integrated telecommunications. The reason is that not all population studies show consistent links between dietary fat intakes and body weight in children and young adults (RCP. © 2009 ThesisBlog. In the US. exercise and aerobics. computer and video access. Causes and Effects Much of the blame for obesity used to be heaped on genetics and medical problems.
the National Audit Office (NAO) reported that 250. On osteoarthritis.000 cases of type-2 adult diabetes in 1998 were attributed to obesity. it is so easy to become overweight. Among the specifics are: 1) transport policies that encourage driving instead of walking or cycling to school.000 cases of hypertension that were traced to obesity. increase in sedentary behaviour. As for social and psychological consequences. especially colon cancer. On diabetes. The NAO report was less clear on the risk of obese persons to cancer but it suggested that obesity increases the risk of cancer three times among both men and women. arthritis develops quickly on the leg joints of an obese person. obesity has been inextricably linked to low self-image and depression. An enquiry of the House of Commons health committee in 2003 established strong links of obesity with diabetes. BUPA (2004) suggested that as exercise ceases to be part of people’s daily routine and the national diet goes high in calorie content. osteoarthritis and social and psychological distress among British adults. 4) loss of school © 2009 ThesisBlog. cancer. NAO also cited 28. with obese persons the frequent objects of discrimination and prejudice. 3) health promotion policies that fail to focus on the need for dietary changes or to address issues of health inequality. 2) a food industry that targets children with advertisements on high-energy food.com 28 . Majority of these sufferers were obese women. The Royal College of Physicians blames obesity on three major factors: decrease in physical activity.000 instances of heart attack and 750.com Dissertation Writing Service Children are the first and foremost users of new media in the family. coronary heart disease.ThesisBlog. and increase in high-calorie food. which used to be considered a childhood disease. no figures were available but it was propounded that because of the excess weight.
This came about because of the extensive marketing of fast foods and high intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks and large-portion meals. Other studies place the excessive use of media higher on the list of causes. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.com 29 .a. Physical Activity and Health. Diet According to POST (2003). Influencing Factors In the WHO Global Strategy on Diet. The NAO projection is that by 2010. 1 out of every 4 adults will be obese. Tagging obesity as the new crisis in public health. POST © 2009 ThesisBlog. the WHO/FAO expert group has turned up with “convincing” evidence that high intake of energy-dense food accounts for much of the obesity problem in UK. Internet surfing and telephones. These include the surveys of the US Surgeon General. sugar and salt on the world’s dietary health problems. the heaviest emphasis was placed on the contribution of excess fat. 2003). and 6) increased time spend on TV. 6. 5) less walking because of greater use of cars.com Dissertation Writing Service playing fields. This translates to a cost of some 3. escalators and lifts.6-billion pound sterling for the National Health Service and the economy as a whole through direct and indirect costs. 6.ThesisBlog. computer games. WHO blamed the advent of an “obesogenic” environment. a condition that encourages the consumption of more energy food than necessary (WHO. Framingham Children’s Study and Youth Risk Behaviour Survey.
cakes and crisps. Other health and consumer groups expressed disappointment at the survey. both children and adults are stuffing themselves with high-fat foods like chocolate. fizzy drinks. and ice cream and donuts. For example. So are fresh fruits. eating out of habit even when not hungry. deep-fried food. freshly squeezed juices. ice cream. and donuts. alcoholic drinks and TV dinner and the growing habits of drinking and eating out. fried food. A healthy balanced diet.com 30 . biscuits. suggesting that it failed to consider such new consumption patterns as stocking the home larder with confectionery. crusty bread and crackers. fizzy drinks high in sugar. which comes mostly from fruits and vegetables. biscuits. BUPA (2004) suggests.ThesisBlog. cakes and crisps. and eating out as part of a weekly routine. starchy foods rich in complex carbohydrates like potatoes. bagels and dried or tinned fruits in natural juice. grilled or baked food.com Dissertation Writing Service (2003) agreed that the average diet in UK is characterized by increased eating frequency. frozen yoghurt. This finding was contested by a National Food Survey (NFS). The “what” has been identified as high-fat foods like chocolate. What and when people eat appears to be the deciding factors in child obesity. rice and chapatti are no longer part of the regular diet. will go a long way in combating obesity but the problem is that most British children are gorging on unhealthy and fattening foods. eating while watching TV or doing homework. indicating that dietary factors have nothing to do with the growing number of obese Britons. The “when” includes eating in-between meals. which argued that the average energy intake in UK has actually gone down since the 1970s. Instead. © 2009 ThesisBlog. periodic eating binge and less intake of fibre.
7) involve the children in food preparation so they are aware of what they are eating. fresh juices with water and sugar substitutes. RCP (2003) said the British are consuming less of the foodstuff that makes up a healthy and balanced diet. rice and chapatti that are rich in complex carbohydrates. buy a gift or bring to child to the cinema. BUPA (2004) advises British parents to encourage their children into changing their dietary habits through the following activities: 1) set an example with their own eating habits. 6) keep high-fat and high-sugar snacks out of the house. 2) prepare meals and snacks on appointed times with no in-between eating. Reilly & Dorosty. POST. 5) teach the children to chew slowly and savour food. crusty bread and crackers. 2003) show that the prevalence of obesity is increasing in UK because of the prevalence of unhealthy and less nutritious food in the average Briton’s diet. fresh fruits. © 2009 ThesisBlog. 6) don’t make fast-food outings part of a weekly routine.com Dissertation Writing Service To prevent childhood obesity. which consist of starchy foods like bread. 4) let the children eat when hungry rather than out of habit. frozen yoghurt and bagels.b. Nutrition Studies (RCP. 3) don’t let children eat while watching TV or doing homework. dried or tinned fruit in natural juice. 6. and 9) instead of a fast-food outing to reward. which is more filling and less prone to overeating. 2006.com 31 .ThesisBlog. potatoes. a good report card. which can reinforce the idea that food is a source of comfort. Comptroller & Auditor General. 2003. lowsugar cereal and milk. 8) don’t use food to comfort a child. 1999. grilled or baked food. pasta. let us say.
maternal weight. The first encourages breastfeeding based on the theory that breast milk gives children a good start towards a healthy life. the high glycaemic index (GI) in the diet of the average Briton is suspected as a prime cause of obesity in the country. cakes and biscuits. When the body absorbs high amounts of GI. This has also been linked to flab.com Dissertation Writing Service According to POST (2003). BUPA (2004) said foods with high-energy density but low satiety measure encourage snacking and increased energy intakes. Nonetheless. Fatty and fried foods are energydense. this idea has been incorporated in the UK prevention and management programme for obesity on the “Healthy Start” campaign and the National School Fruit Scheme. while the second activity provides one free piece of fruit a day to 4 and 6-year-old © 2009 ThesisBlog. Initial findings show that the effectiveness of breastfeeding depends on other factors like social class.ThesisBlog. it causes a sharp increase in blood glucose levels to stimulate hunger and overeating in teenagers. soft drinks. Satiety is the measure of the extent to which food satisfies hunger. heart disease and type-2 diabetes in adults. while the low-density food with high satiety measure are foods like boiled potatoes and fruits. etc. bread. The food with high density but low satiety measure is the fatty and fried ones. WHO (2003) pointed to studies suggesting that there are protective effects of early breastfeeding against obesity and the future risk of type-2 diabetes. Foods are either high or low in energy density.com 32 . Foodstuff with high GI content includes potatoes. but the evidence remains inconclusive and requires further study. smoking while pregnant. with more than twice as much energy content as that derived from the same weight of high-protein or high-carbohydrate foods. but those with low energy but high satiety reduce overall energy intake.
Physical Activity According to Caraher.ThesisBlog. All these kept children away from sports and other outdoor activities that involve physical exertion. and lately as the Internet Age. video games.. The 2000 National Diet and Nutrition Survey noted that children’s consumption of fruits and vegetables has drastically fallen in the last 20 years. the Nintendo generation in the 1990s. as the video generation in the 1980s. This was supported by the Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey held in the same year. specialised cable networks. Issue Briefs (2004) said there is an explosion in the modern world of children-targeted media that includes TV shows and videos.com 33 . an eating pattern at home that always includes fruits and vegetables is likely to be a habit that children will later stick to. the UK Department of Health reported in 2004 that 17 percent of boys and 22 percent of girls do less than 30 minutes of physical activity per day. Consequently.c. et al. © 2009 ThesisBlog. Both programmes are emphasised in a new nutrition standard made compulsory for school lunches in the whole of UK (BUPA. On the other hand.com Dissertation Writing Service school children. there is a growing trend of the sedentary lifestyle among a generation that was known as the TV generation in the 1960s. 2004). Studies consistently show that infants breastfed even for a brief period are less susceptible to obesity when they grow up. 6. such that half of the subjects covered in the survey had not eaten any fruit or vegetable in a given week. computer activities and Internet websites. which reported that 1 out of 10 children from poor families never include fresh fruit or vegetable in their daily diet. (2005).
play computer for the same span of time. some 1. the UK policy of obesity prevention and management calls for the promotion of school sports and PE and the healthy-travel-to-school programme. only 2 percent of high school students in UK cycled their way to school. 2) reduction of road space for walking or cycling to and from school.com Dissertation Writing Service Separate government surveys show a lifestyle veering away from muscle-stretching activities that are essential to healthy living.5 hours of television daily. 3) lessening amount of PE. PE was also made a compulsory subject in the national curriculum for students up to 16 years old. These include: 1) loss of school playgrounds to other real estate purposes.000 sports coordinators have been deployed in schools to promote an active lifestyle among students. revealed that 40 percent of school-age boys and 60 percent of girls fail to meet the physical activity recommendation of at least 1 hour of moderate intensity per day. For example. school and home sports. and 4) greater use of cars. That same year. © 2009 ThesisBlog.com 34 . To address this problem on obesity-causing lifestyle.ThesisBlog. and log on the Internet 10 times a month. Since 2004. down from 5 percent in 1989. The 2000 National Diet and Nutrition Survey. for its part. An Independent Television Commission survey also estimated that young Britons between age 4 and 15 watch an average of 2. RCP (2003) was more specific on the reasons for the diminishing physical activity of British children. This indicates an increasing sedentary habit among UK children. local authorities were assigned the task of encouraging school children to organise cycling clubs and walking groups. escalators and lifts. In the travel-to-school programme. POST (2003) reported that the number of people playing sports at school declined from 44 percent in 1994 to 33 percent in 1999.
6. which serves as media regulator. Advertising According to BUPA (2004). etc. umbrella organization of trade bodies representing the advertising and marketing industries. encourage trips to the park for a game of cricket. p.com Dissertation Writing Service In the effort to increase children’s physical activity. burgers and crisps.. The move gained the support of British parents who were found in a survey (Luce. the advertising and marketing sector opposed this measure as based on a wrong assumption. swimming and outdoor activities. For this reason. BUPA (2004) encourages parents to motivate their children in walking their way to school and stores instead of jumping in a car. Children must also be taught how to ride a bicycle and swim. 2006).e. children “tend to overeat and to eat quickly without paying attention to what they are consuming (McLaren.” However. pizza. the Office of Communications (Ofcom). The Advertising Association (AA).281) to be of the unanimous view that TV adverts are a strong influence over their children’s choice of food. argued in a position paper that advertising.com 35 . Among the foodstuff listed as junk were chocolates. was directed to implement a ban on TV commercials that promote junk foods especially on childrenoriented channels and programmes. reduce the children’s TV watching or computer games to no more than 2 hours daily or an average of 14 hours per week. Because of this influence. far © 2009 ThesisBlog. 2005. Frisbee. Other recommended steps: involve the whole family in bike riding. television advertising has a direct influence on the eating preferences and habits of British children.ThesisBlog.
websites and children television. The objective is to develop a framework for the most effective means of engaging children and their families in the anti-obesity campaign and what sort of programmes.com Dissertation Writing Service from influencing children to eat unhealthy food. advertising is just one of many influencing factors. To force the food industry into reducing the fat content of its products. a bill has passed first reading at the House of Commons prohibiting food and drink advertisements during the TV watching period of pre-school children. such as schools. In this connection. and a group called Food Aware is calling for a ban. The advertising industry. in fact encourages them to choose one brand over another and that with or without a ban on junk food advertisements. It is believed that information and educational campaigns promoting a healthy diet and increasing levels of physical activity would be more effective in addressing the problem of childhood obesity. warns that further regulation would harm this particular sector of the economy.ThesisBlog. the consumer and health groups in UK agitate for regulatory measures. on the advertising and marketing of fatty. advice and © 2009 ThesisBlog. children will want them anyway. Moreover. the Food Standards Agency (FSA) has commissioned a more expansive research to determine exactly how media advertising influences children’s eating preferences and patterns. Consequently. In effect. however. as a good start. POST (2003) acknowledged that the large amount of TV advertisements put out by the food service industry targets children and promotes processed food that are mostly high in fat. sugary and salty foods in places frequented by children. a tax system called “fat tax” has been proposed on fatty foods. Instead the industry is proposing a new code of practice that would penalise advertisers that discourage good dietary habits and encourage excessive consumption. sugar and salt.com 36 .
2) the impact of advertising on the attitudes. the writer of this paper © 2009 ThesisBlog. Up to now.com 37 . there is no clear consensus on the relationship between advertising and children obesity. 596-597). Findings and Analysis Epstein et.. al (2000) postulates that once children get overweight. p. children enter the cued model stage when they acquire the knowledge to argue with advertising claims but still unable to use this knowledge for their own good.com Dissertation Writing Service support are necessary. There are three stages involved in the development of advertising literacy among children based on a theory set by Roedder (1981): limited model. For this reason. 7. and 5) striking a balance between the rights of the advertising industry to promote products and ideas and the role of the state in protecting the health of its citizens and vulnerable groups (Caraher. 2005. et al. The strategic model stage comes after age 12 when children begin to demonstrate an advertising literacy and use it accordingly. 4) the “pester power” influence of food adverts on family food choices. The five areas of debate are: 1) the rights of children and the place of advertising in a child’s life. psychological and physiological problems develop such that reversing the process becomes difficult. The limited model applies to children aged 6-8 when they have as yet no capability to judge the intentions of advertisers. cued model and strategic model.ThesisBlog. From age 8 to 12. This happens because children who get used to stuffing themselves to overfilling begin to feel distressed when they eat less. behaviour and health of children. 3) the nutritional quality of advertised foods targeting children.
who participated in the experiment under the guidance of their parents. However. Test programmes in which parents acted as change agents. then conducted 14 sessions for children in the experimental group and 30 sessions for those in the control group. The trials conducted so far to test the effectiveness of intervention measures are either family-based. In the 1-year study. This gives obesity the appearance of a psychological problem that the affected children cannot handle on their own and need the support and guidance of parents. were found to have helped primary school children lose weight.com 38 . All of these were proven to have yielded positive results. 1998). et al. clinical experts are advised to see the parents and children separately on the theory that children are better at long-term maintenance of ideal weight than parents (Steinbeck).1 percent in the other group. One school-based randomised controlled trial that employed video games and instructional © 2009 ThesisBlog. and a control group in which the children were on their own. The common findings are that anti-obesity programmes yield better results if they involve not only health professionals but also the parents of obese children and the schools they are attending. for example. The result was that weight reduction was higher at 14. activity routines and other socio-demographic factors. which also recorded a 9 percent dropout rate.ThesisBlog. Such a study involved a clinical dietician with parents serving as agents of change and their obese children as change agents (Golan.com Dissertation Writing Service agrees with the content of most of the readings that obese children need professional and medical assistance to help them overcome the problem.. school-based or multi-faceted. the children aged 6-11 were split into an experimental group. The twin objectives of health professionals are to encourage obese persons to eat less processed food and engage in more physical activity. The dietician recorded the family’s eating patterns.6 percent in the experimental group and only 8.
no change in eating behaviour was observed among the subjects but there was a noticeable increase in their vegetable consumption. Conclusion and Recommendations There is some evidence that child obesity can be reduced by government initiatives that give schools bigger roles in health improvement and multi-pronged school-based programmes that promote physical activity and modification of diet and sedentary behaviours. 8.ThesisBlog. one such strategy consisting of instruction. After 1 year. they are worth taking rather than leaving the obese children alone. However.com Dissertation Writing Service tapes to effect changes in diet and physical activity found encouraging reduction in the BMI. This was seen as a good start in the children’s way to healthier living. waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio among obese children after 7 months of the experiment. skin-fold thickness. with society doing nothing at all. which confirms that there is no magic cure for obesity. what the prevention and intervention trials achieved was mostly point the obese children to the right direction. with high dropout rates. this paper proposes that future research be conducted that intends to generate better procedural quality. at longer duration and with © 2009 ThesisBlog. Although the outcomes of these steps are generally uncertain. These studies must involve a larger number of participants and held in appropriate settings. PE. the NHS admits that for the most part.com 39 . Therefore. tuck shops and playground activities were used in a trial involving obese in-school children aged 711. intervention measures are still unreliable as to effectiveness since they have been conducted with small-size samples. poor reporting and in settings different to UK conditions. In effect. modified meals. In the case of a multi-faceted intervention.
They also need to address concerns on the cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment programmes. The routine claim is that there has been a rapid acceleration of childhood obesity since the 1990s. In UK itself. Other areas worth looking into are the two curious phenomena pinpointed by the WHO and other research groups as possible risk factors of obesity. orlistat and sibutramine. some sectors of the health community are calling for a closer look at obesity. It may also be worthwhile for future studies to test the effectiveness of weight-loss drugs such as metformin. serum lipids. and involve families in the change process. It was observed that the prevalence of obesity is greater among people in the poorer sectors of society and the developing. but data on official surveys don’t bear this out.com 40 .ThesisBlog. decrease sedentary behaviours. This emphasises the need for a better quality research using such tools as mentioned above – larger number of test participants. serum leptins. longer duration of trials and more intensity. Such future research can work around the initial findings that obesity management has to concentrate on ways to reduce people’s energy intake through dietary changes.com Dissertation Writing Service greater intensity. Initial studies by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) revealed that the BMI scores of 29 obese young people aged 12 to 19 improved after use of metformin and serum leptin for six months. which is contrary to the popular wisdom that obesity is a sign of abundance and © 2009 ThesisBlog. increase physical activity. namely ethnicity and poverty. The Health Survey for England 2003 disagrees with the basic findings of the House of Commons committee on health and the International Obesity Task Force.
S.. no. “Treatment for Childhood and Adolescent Obesity.. N.B. C.. Comptroller & Auditor General (2006). 382-403. Oct.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. L. no. M. Lobstein. R..comms. & Weng.org James.. L. 9. K. 30. Kaiser Family Foundation. Gordy. L. 3... “Role of Media in Childhood Obesity.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56. 5.ThesisBlog. “Saturday Morning Children’s Television Advertising: A Longitudinal Content Analysis. “An Evaluation of Problem-Solving Training in the Behavioural Treatment of Childhood Obesity. M. Issue Briefs (2004). Graves. J. available online at: www. R. Meyers. Department of Health.uk/engage Epstein. pp. et al.gov. session 28-2-06. BUPA (2004).” Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal. & Ernest.uk/fact_sheets/html/child_obesity. (1998). M.” Available online at: www. 596-605. bupa. (1988). Healthcare Commission & National Audit Office. no. Rigby. A. “A Social Marketing Approach to Childhood Obesity. “Child and Parent Psychology Problems Influence Child Weight Control. Palluch. “Avoiding Childhood Obesity. Wisniewski. © 2009 ThesisBlog. Golan. B.kff.4..” Global Prevention Alliance.com Dissertation Writing Service affluence. C. R. 26-27. Saelens. T. Kumanyika. Vol. (2002). (1994). vol. T. W.. 1996.” Public Health Nutrition. “Tackling Child Obesity – First Steps.” Prepared jointly by the Audit Commission.co.html. Landon. “Television Advertising and Children: Lessons from Policy Development. 68. Leach. Curwin (1996). (2005). & Clark. & Dalmeny. McGill Integration Health Challenge. HC 801.. Vol. & Swinburn. “Quantitative Methods for Business Decisions. Epstein. “Problem Solving in the Treatment of Obesity. “Global Strategies to Prevent Childhood Obesity. (2006).” London: International Thomson Business Press.” Available online accessed 10-207 at: http://hcd2.. Caraher. pp. L.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (2000). Reference List Bredbenner..” Obesity Research 2. 2006. B. It will also be interesting to know why children of ethnic families in UK are more prone to obesity than whites.com 41 .” Henry J.
.html McLaren.” Clinical Paediatrics. K. (2003). Vol. “The Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity.com 42 .html National Health Service (2002). & Dorosty.. E. 6. “Childhood Obesity: The New Crisis in Public Health.org/teen/your mind/mental health/depression. Lyness.couk/article/0.. “Childhood Obesity. Roedder. pp. C.” London: Sage Publications. “Guidance on the Use of Sibutramine for the Treatment of Obesity in Adults. (2006). WHO (2002). “Management of Obesity in Children and Young People.” Technology Appraisal Guidance No. available online accessed 14-1-07 at: Ошибка! Недопустимый объект гиперссылки. “Treatment for Childhood and Adolescent Obesity. “Epidemic of Obesity in UK Children.timesonline. S. pp.” Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. & Kelly.ThesisBlog. Reilly. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. P.00. 2. vol. Social Issues Research Centre (2005). 144-153.” Joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. Vol. 31.” Journal of Consumer Research. D. “Young People and the New Media. “Junk Food Adverts Ban during Children’s Programmes. “Fast Food and Children and Adolescents: Implications for Practitioners.” NHS Centre for Review & Dissemination.” No. Royal College of Physicians (2003). WHO (2003).” Quality and Safety Health Care. UK. (1999). Australia. no. D. D. A. Steinbeck. Edinburgh. no. Luce. S.2-2458242. “The Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity.” February 2005.bmj. 205. (2005). S. J. Oxford. (1981). 44. “Age Difference in Children’s Responses to Television Advertising: An Information Processing Approach.L.” Lancet 1999. 5. 279-288. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2001).” University of Sydney. available online accessed 28-12-06 at: http://qshc.D. “Obesity and the Facts. “Who Can Help?” Available online accessed 5-11-06 at: http://wwwkidshealth. UK. Wilson. O’Meara. ISSN 0965-0288.’” Available online accessed 28-11-06 at: http://www. (2002). 8. 7.com/cqi/content/full/12/1/65 © 2009 ThesisBlog.” Geneva. Summerbell. no. “Diet. (2005). Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003).com Dissertation Writing Service Livingstone.
com Dissertation Writing Service © 2009 ThesisBlog.com 43 .ThesisBlog.
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