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Abstract

Obesity has been tagged by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the new crisis in public health because of increasing evidence that the condition easily leads to a host of life-threatening diseases like arteriosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, asthma, arthritis, etc. An enormous amount of scientific research has been done on obesity but there is as yet no consensus on what constitutes obesity, what are its exact causes and contributory factors, and how exactly does obesity deteriorate into serious medical cases. The only point of agreement seems to be that a determined and concentrated effort needs to be undertaken to arrest the growing number of lives that have been wasted by obesity, which also causes an enormous drain on a nation’s health service resources. For such an effort to be effective, however, everyone involved should have a clear understanding of why it happens so that appropriate steps can be taken. This dissertation set out to do just that: provide a clearer grasp of the causes of obesity and the extent to which the problem has degenerated to guide future activities designed to mitigate the prevalence of obesity.

For the purpose of this paper, UK was made the focus of the study because of increasing concern that obesity has reached unwieldy proportions in this country, especially among children. In fact, childhood obesity is now the object of a Public Service Agreement that the British government usually reserves for problems with serious national repercussions.

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CONTENTS PAGE

1. Introduction 2. Rationale 2.a. Aim 2.b. Objectives 3. Methodology 4. Literature Review 4.a. Obesity-related Diseases 4.b. Public Heath Issue 4.c. Obesity in UK 4.d. PSA Target 4.e. Prevention and Intervention 5. Causes and Effects 6. Influencing Factors 6.a. Diet 6.b. Nutrition 6.c. Physical Activity 6.d. Media advertising 7. Findings & Analysis 8. Conclusion & Recommendation 9. Reference List

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1. Introduction

The 2002 Health Survey for England made a disturbing declaration that over half of the UK population was overweight or obese. In the same year, the National Office of Statistics (NOS) came up with a more detailed report, blowing up the problem by saying that obesity was affecting children more than adults. The NOS revealed that 22 percent of all boys and 28 percent of all girls in the 2-15 age bracket were either overweight or obese. The study raised the same alarm by asserting that about 1 million of all obese persons in UK were less than 16 years old, indicating a steady and rapid yearly increase in the prevalence rate for childhood obesity in the country. This is a cause for general concern because obesity in childhood tends to be irreversible and obese adults are highly vulnerable to a range of ailments that include heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and certain strains of cancer. Since the future of a nation lies in the hands of its children, what future awaits a nation with a disease-prone citizenry?

This upward trend in the prevalence rate of obesity started as early as the 1970s with the release of a number of government studies, notably the 1974-94 National Study of Health and Growth and the 1995 Health Survey for England. Between 1984 and 1994, the reports noted a doubling in the prevalence of obesity among British children, from 0.6 percent to 1.7 percent in boys and from 1.3 percent to 2.6 percent in girls. Among adults, the prevalence rate rose from 6 percent in 1980 to 17 percent in 1998 in men and from 8 percent to 21 percent in women. Obesity is determined by measuring a person’s body mass index (BMI), or the body weight according to height, rate of growth, sex and age. Among boys, they are obese if 25 percent of body weight

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is fat, while it is 32 percent in girls. Based on the BMI measurement of the general population in the succeeding 10-year period (DoH, 2004; POST, 2003; RCP, 2003; Comptroller & Auditor General, 2006), there is a steady and worrisome increase in the number of obese persons in UK. This calls for an organized and concentrated multi-sector action, which requires a thorough and definitive study beforehand to see where to plug the holes in the public health system.

2. Rationale

According to the WHO (WHO, 2002) obesity may have assumed the proportions of a global epidemic but UK presents an interesting case for a country-specific study because it holds the distinction of being the country where the first obesity-related case of type-2 diabetes was reported (NHS, 2002). This is an indication that obesity has become a runaway problem in UK, which is supported by recent public health bulletins expressing due alarm over the situation. It is necessary then that an

attempt must be made to assess the overall picture so that it can be properly determined if an organised, resource-intensive and massive intermediation effort is warranted, and what particular strategies are appropriate. This can only be accomplished by examining the exact influences of diet, physical inactivity, nutrition and media on the supposed increase of obesity cases in UK; by seeking to determine the magnitude and extent of the problem in the UK context; by underscoring the social and psychological factors that brought about and contributed to the situation; and by evaluating the effectiveness of the prevention and intermediation measures that have been tested for government adoption to mitigate the problem. A close

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2.com Dissertation Writing Service examination of these factors may give stakeholders an idea of where to start attacking the problem and where to concentrate the effort. In putting up these trends for closer inspection. 2) Investigate whether obesity has become so widespread a health problem as to warrant drastic measures and a concentration of government resources © 2009 ThesisBlog. Objectives 1) Give an accurate perspective on the influence of the modern environment on obesity. 2. focusing on factors suspected as responsible for increasing the number of obese persons in UK. such as improper diet and nutrition. Aim The principal aim of this dissertation is to determine how deleterious has been the effects of media advertising and programming.com 5 . physical activity and diet and nutrition on the overall health and fitness of the British population as regards to obesity.a. the emergence of a sedentary lifestyle and media’s unwitting promotion of these unhealthy habits.ThesisBlog.b. the aim of the dissertation is to ascertain the extent of their influence on public health so that they serve as basis for the remedial measures that should be undertaken.

Methodology 3. The quantitative conduct of research was given preference over the qualitative approach. 4) Evaluate the effectiveness of measures that have been undertaken to combat obesity and identify the measures that can be undertaken to reverse the upward trend in the prevalence of obesity in UK. Choice of Research Design Research for this paper has leaned heavily on the observation method. which employs the direct communication method.com 6 . which were useful in helping meet the varied requirements of this research. The study also takes on the characteristics of both the descriptive and causal research strategies. The main requirements included descriptive research of this condition as well as a discussion of its causes. characteristics and scope of the problem. We believe both methods are useful to this paper as it focuses on the problem of childhood obesity and the behaviour relating to the unhealthy eating habits of British children.com Dissertation Writing Service 3) Identify the factors that contributed to the unwieldy increase of obese children and adults in UK. while the causal research determines which factors or variables are causing a particular behaviour.ThesisBlog. 3. which used the quantitative approach to generate what is known as secondary research data.a. © 2009 ThesisBlog. because of the universality and multi-dimensional nature of obesity as a growing social and public health problem. Descriptive research helps describes the history.

The overall advantage of secondary data in research is flexibility. journal articles and reports. while internal secondary data comes from organisationinitiated surveys. papers from seminars and other institutional publications. government studies.ThesisBlog. research is conducted by face-to-face or telephone interviews with the use of surveys and questionnaires. eating patterns. food intake. By using the observation method of research to collect secondary data from what others have written and expressed on obesity. The theories and findings include: girls are more prone to obesity than boys. the research panned out to gather data from all possible sources which include books.com Dissertation Writing Service In the direct communication method. websites.46) can come from within or outside the organisation. Since obesity is a multi-sided subject. to give us the widest choice of perspective on the subject area. Therefore this method would be of little use to this study anyway. is narrow and is carried out to reveal only specific data. a mass of information is required to make realistic comparisons between theories and evolving concepts and therefore validate our theory that the problem encompasses the whole range of human behaviour. Its scope of coverage. On the other hand with the observation method used for this research. however. External secondary data are those collected from research involving textbooks. trade journals. this writer was able to pin down the theories and findings to fill in the gaps and make comparisons on what has been done and what still needs to be done to address the problem of obesity. physical exertions and media advertisement. obesity is more prevalent in children than adults. Secondary data according to Curwin (1996.com 7 . since it is often information that an individual organisation cannot collect on its own. annual reports and service feedback. which was carried out with a wide variety of tools to bear on an equally large range of study related to obesity. p. obesity leads to life © 2009 ThesisBlog.

It also allows the researcher to determine which behaviours. because society tends to exclude and discriminate against overweight persons. There is a more practical reason for choosing the observation method of research in this project over the direct communication approach. such that no person would ever relish being called ‘fatso’ to his/her face no matter how overweight he/she is. the researcher also gained valuable insights and understanding of the problem by focusing attention on its broader implications. and obesity is influenced by diet. a clear case of discrimination at the workplace. Experience confirms what the literature suggests that obesity threatens one’s pride and self-image. which often leads to self-pity and depression.com Dissertation Writing Service threatening diseases. for example. nutrition. The researcher believes this is © 2009 ThesisBlog. noted that overweight workers receive less income and occupy lower job classifications than average normal-weight persons. Obesity is a condition that no one can be proud about.ThesisBlog. The 2000 poverty and social exclusion survey in UK. media and physical activity. As research developed with emphasis on secondary data collection.com 8 . the probability is high that a study employing the direct communication method of research would give no useful insight because obese persons are expected to clam up if personally interviewed about their weight problem. habits and activities are contributing to both child and adult obesity. the researcher can pinpoint the specific techniques used in intervention and prevention programs and specify which of these elements have a high or low efficiency ratings. RCP (2003) found that obese women especially are often depressed women who lose interest in studies and are discriminated at work. In a study that hews as close as possible to the descriptive and causal type of research. For this reason.

physical activity. media and advertising. is whether the measurement for body mass index is appropriate for both children and adults. (2000) – the authors claim that BMI is the universal standard for obesity measurement long accepted as accurate for both children and adults. Construction of the Method The research method was constructed such that the reference materials selected for this paper separately address the issues discussed in sections four and six. et al. which include the main factors. for example. This contention is supported by both the authors’ use of primary research and outside references dealing with the same subject.b.com 9 . They used the primary research method on obese persons seeking their professional service by measuring the patients’ BMI and then employed the secondary research method by reviewing the works of health professionals dealing with the subject of obesity. Royal College of Physicians (2003) – the RCP research team suggests that the BMI measurements may not be applicable to children because they grow faster during © 2009 ThesisBlog. which reached an acceptable number of over 50 works.com Dissertation Writing Service the most suitable research design and method for this paper to achieve its aim and objectives. 3. which indicate that they have no bias for the blanket acceptance of the BMI measurement since their main interest is the relationship between behaviour and obesity. One of the more important issues. The authors are psychologists by profession.ThesisBlog. diet and nutrition. The resource materials and assessment schematic of the research on the reliability of BMI are as follow: Epstein.

the sources used for this paper include those of the UK. Also most of the references used by these agencies were based on experiments and hypotheses made by dieticians. WHO (2003). media and advertisement on childhood obesity. diabetes.com 10 . Luce (2005) and McLaren (2006) found strong links between childhood obesity and unhealthy diet. the RCP calls for the development of a new measurement system that considers this basic difference between children and adults. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003).based POST (2003). Social Issues Research Centre (2005) and Issue Briefs on-line. DoH (2004) and © 2009 ThesisBlog.ThesisBlog. physical activity. Therefore. nutritionists and other experts on obesity. The main references to support the claim that lack of physical activity causes obesity were Issue Briefs (2006). while BUPA (2004) and WHO (2003) believe the lack of nutritional value in children’s food intake worsens the problem.com Dissertation Writing Service puberty. mainly the high intake of energy-dense food. For this reason. and Comptroller and Auditor General (2006) – these UK agencies agree that the BMI measurements of UK children are enough indication that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in UK. asthma and cancer. BUPA (2004). Separate works were also scanned to establish the influence of diet and nutrition. For the research linking obesity to such diseases as hypertension. the above-named agencies suggest that the nutrition standards in all schools be examined and that early breastfeeding must be encouraged based on studies that breastfed babies are less prone to obesity. No less than 30 references were used by each of those three agencies in supporting the argument that childhood obesity is a cause for alarm in UK.

and WHO (2003) mainly to see how other countries are coping with the same problem. Sample To help collect data on the larger perspective of obesity. Kaiser Family Foundation attaches importance to the role of media in childhood obesity. Lyness (2005). data was gathered from nonUK studies that include those of James. Social Issues Research Centre (2005) and POST © 2009 ThesisBlog. and the WHO (2003) report blames improper diet and nutrition as the cause of obesity that leads to chronic diseases. et al. Bredbenner (2002). Issue Briefs (2005). et al. which requires a concentration of efforts and resources. Mclaren (2006). All these experts and agencies present their views with the suitable clinical and empirical evidence. Steinbeck (undated). McLaren (2006). Livingstone (2002). (2006).ThesisBlog. Luce (2005) links the fast food culture with childhood obesity. For example James. An in-depth study of children’s responses to television advertisements by Roedder (1981) was considered as another reference but eventually excluded since there are enough materials on the same subject that are based on the UK context. These reports are useful to this research in many ways. (2006) set global strategies for preventing childhood obesity. et al.com Dissertation Writing Service RCP (2003). Steinbeck of the University of Australia suggested treatment for both childhood and adult obesity.c.. Issue Briefs of the US-based Henry J. The influence of media and advertising is discussed persuasively by Bredbenner (2002).com 11 . Among these are BUPA (2004). POST (2003) and Luce (2005). Luce (2005). such that they may have influenced in to UK authorities into taking childhood obesity as a serious health problem as to be eventually chosen as a public service Agreement. (2000). Epstein. 3.

et al. such as the applicability to children of the BMI measurements for obesity. © 2009 ThesisBlog. The last part will report on the prevention and intervention measures adopted in UK through BUPA (2004). (2000). The second part examines the medical diseases related to obesity. BUPA (2005) and Epstein. as may be gleaned from the reports of WHO and Social Issues Research Centre.com Dissertation Writing Service (2003). On that note. which are also more recent. RCP (2003) and POST (2003). Luce. Literature Review A literature review is an interpretation and synthesis of published research on a particular field and should provide the reader with a statement of the major questions and issues related to the field under study. for one argues persuasively that media advertisements exert a great influence on UK children’s choice and POST (2003) puts a large part of the blame on advertisers for promoting food high in fat. The first part of the review emphasizes that inaccurate data sometimes come from research based on exaggeration and professional lapses. through the studies of the Royal College of Physicians (2003). sugar and salt content.ThesisBlog. the review focuses on the extent of the problem in UK. Parliamentary Office Of Science and Technology (2003). which led to its being set as target of a Public Service Agreement.com 12 . this literature review is preceded by a discussion of the questions and issues surrounding obesity. For the fourth and fifth subsection. The third part synthesises the papers of WHO and Issue Briefs (online) on how obesity became a public health issue in many parts of the world.

socio-economic implications and possible measures to prevent obesity and reduce its prevalence. This is usually done by measuring the body mass index (BMI). The fact is there is even some disagreement on the accuracy of the current measurement standards for obesity.com Dissertation Writing Service Literature Review Matrix Author Bredbenner BUPA Caraher. et al Graves. et al Curwin Epstein.com 13 . causes. et al Livingstone Luce Lyness McLaren NHS POST Feilly & Dorosty Roedder RCP SIRP Steinbeck WHO Wilson. choosing the materials that discuss the nature. et al Issues Briefs James. which apply for both children and adults. et al Golan.ThesisBlog. It also evaluated the validity of the arguments raised by those who dismiss the problem of obesity as something similar to making an issue of ugliness in some people. which is arrived at by comparing one’s weight with his © 2009 ThesisBlog. et al C Year 2002 2004 2005 1996 2000 1998 1988 2004 2006 2002 2005 2005 2006 2002 2003 1999 1981 2003 2005 2002 2003 2003 Conducted Experiment √ √ √ Process Theories √ New Theories √ √ Measuring Performance √ Used Staff Feedback √ Job Satisfaction √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ S D D E √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ D K √ √ √ 4a) Questions and Issues The dissertation examined the available literature on obesity. epidemiology.

were set based on exaggeration and hype. as it were. The CDC was later forced to an embarrassing 10 percent reduction in its estimates.ThesisBlog. In children. This is considered to be fairly accurate for adults whose height stays put after 18 years of age. RCP (2003) noted that during puberty. In a report titled “Childhood Obesity: The New Crisis in Public Health. These findings include: • The relationship between parent and child fatness may be stronger between mother and child. et al. Moreover. the BMI method does not distinguish if the body mass consists of fat or muscular physique. Partly because of these doubts about the applicability of the BMI measurement to children. According to Epstein. the BMI measurement is suspect because their weight-to-height ratio changes in the normal growth process. warnings have been aired against rushing into complex and costly measures to reduce the incidence of obesity. for example.com Dissertation Writing Service height and dividing the weight in kilograms by the height in metres. Some baseline data on obesity.” the WHO (2003) came up with findings that set the tone for many of the subsequent studies on obesity.com 14 . one is obese or overweight. children’s weight doubles and their height increases by 20 percent. © 2009 ThesisBlog. lifestyles and attitudes of people. which call for changing the eating habits. (2000) if the result of the calculation exceeds certain limits. SIRC (2005) observed that in the US. however. the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention had ran into severe criticism when it set figures on obesity-related deaths that many found too high.

there is an increasing agreement that diabetes is not just a simple childhood disease as previously suspected but is strongly linked with obesity. 4b) Obesity-Related Diseases One research aspect of obesity where there is little disagreement relates to life threatening diseases to which obese persons are highly vulnerable.com • Dissertation Writing Service When both parents are obese. The National Audit Office (NAO) for its © 2009 ThesisBlog.ThesisBlog. Obesity is also known to lead easily to chronic inflammatory conditions. Babies who are heavier than most become obese in their growing up years. asthma.com 15 . with women 12 times more prone to it than men. adverse lipid profiles. the greatest risk is posed by coronary artery disease consisting of increased blood pressure. the likelihood of their children being obese is 80 percent. change in the left ventricular mass and hyperinsulinaemia. 20-40 percent when only one parent is overweight. and cancer. • • • Intra-uterine exposure to cigarette smoke raises the risk of childhood obesity. In UK. the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003) found strong evidence that diabetes is closely associated with obesity. • Children from non-white backgrounds living in westernised societies are more prone to obesity than white children. the largest number of obese persons comes from the socio-economically deprived sectors. various types of diabetes. According to RCP (2003). abnormal foot structure and function. On diabetes as a complication of obesity. In most western countries. a pancreatic abnormality similar to diabetes.

In 1998.000 incidents of stroke and 750. NAO attributed to obesity about 28. they need the same medical attention as those suffering from physiological diseases.com 16 . POST (2003) noted that the existing literature is less clear but evidence is beginning to trickle in that obesity increases the risk of colon cancer three times among both men and women. which can influence eating or weight control.com Dissertation Writing Service part estimated that 250. particularly to reduced levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore. depression is also linked to diet. they lose interest in studies and in improving their lives. saying that obese children have increased psychological problems. RCP (2003) also maintains that since obese persons often suffer from depression. however.ThesisBlog.000 cases of hypertension throughout UK. is coronary heart disease. As for the risks of cancer. Lyness (2005) points out that like obesity. (2000) support this view. The simple explanation is that cholesterol from too much consumption of fatty food clings and clogs the coronary vessels to block the circulation of blood and oxygen. The most common of the obesity-related diseases. Obesity is also associated with depression. According to BUPA (2004) another type of cancer associated with obesity is bowel cancer. et al. Epstein. such that obese children lose self-confidence and self-esteem leading to isolation and depression. which is as much a psychological as a physiological disease. Obesity causes distress because of the jokes that their appearance draw from others. 4c) Public Health Issue © 2009 ThesisBlog.000 cases of type-2 diabetes occurred in 1998 as a direct result of obesity.

. 2006). middle and high-income countries. cancer and mental disorders. et al. the American Academy of Paediatricians (AAP) warns (Issue Briefs Online). A growing number of paediatricians. and tobacco consumption.com Dissertation Writing Service When the WHO released its 2003 Global Strategy on Diet. This is reflected in the updated WHO Millennium Development Goals. which holds true for low. with obesity affecting as much as 10 percent of all children in the developing world. excess weight from too much sugar. The medical consequences include hypertension. many disputed this view contending that obesity is solely an issue for advanced western nations experiencing no problem on food production and supply. orthopaedic © 2009 ThesisBlog. all of which are suspected complications of obesity.ThesisBlog. evidence continued to pour in that obesity contributes to the rising diabetes. high cholesterol and high blood levels in middle and low-income countries (James. increased blood cholesterol levels. fat and salt in the typical diet. Obesity began to be considered a serious health concern worldwide. obesity was yanked out as a component of the WHO global strategy in 2004. However. respiratory ailments. The growing consensus is that it is no longer communicable diseases that are bringing on the disease burden of the world but non-communicable diseases like heart disease. physical inactivity. child development experts and media researchers around the world agree that the prevalence of obesity is on the upswing. This represents an “unprecedented burden” on children’s health. which lists 10 obesity-related factors as determinants of the world’s health problems – high blood pressure. Physical Activity and Health indicating that obesity was spreading throughout the world because of the wrong kind of diet and lifestyles. poor intakes of fruits and vegetables.com 17 . type-2 diabetes. In deference to this argument.

one in the US and one in UK.com Dissertation Writing Service problems. which actually decreased from 32.8kg in 1995 and had increased to 60.ThesisBlog.2 kilograms to 32. the average weight was 58. which is known to make people unproductive and even acquire suicidal tendencies. For example.” The House of Commons Committee on Health and the Royal College of Physicians echoed this view. sleeping difficulties and depression.” the RCP predicted.0 kilograms in 1995 for the same age group. The average weight of boys 3 to 14 years old was 31. This particular survey pointed to the average weight taken separately of children aged 3-14 and all 15-year-olds. “the prevalence will be in excess of 50 percent. 4d) Obesity in UK There is still some debate on whether obesity has reached epidemic proportions in UK.” This was contradicted by other official surveys. Among 15-year-old boys.4 kilograms such that the change was found insignificant. RCP (2003) acknowledged that obese boys may sometime grow into normal-weight adults but obese girls almost always become obese women.com 18 . agree that there is a strong correlation between childhood obesity and educational attainment and income levels in women. international obesity task Force chairman Phillip James told the European Union Conference on Obesity Strategy that obesity in UK took off in the 1980s and “looks as if it was accelerating in the last 5 to 10 years. Two studies.0 kilograms in 2003.7 kg in 2003. the Health Survey for England discounted an epidemic in general weight gain among British children since an epidemic would have raised the average weight to greater levels. © 2009 ThesisBlog. “If the rapid acceleration in childhood obesity in the last decade is taken into account. while the change in average weight between 1995 and 2003 was from 32. In 2005. and obese women are highly susceptible to depression.

For these reasons. SIRC studies purport to show that women aged 35 and above dominated the obese groups in many parts of UK and that there were more obese persons among senior citizens between 65 and 74 years old than children. the Department of Health launched the Social Marketing Programme to draw from all the scientific work already done on the subject and apply the data on effecting a behavioural change among the citizenry with the use of accepted marketing principles. Despite such doubts about the real magnitude of the problem. everyone seems to agree that something needs to be done about obesity.9kg. As its initial undertaking. 2005). pointing out that it is in the older generation where the problem is more evident. the team later came up with a white paper called “Choosing Health: Making Healthier Choice Easier. the Health Survey for England cautioned against exaggerating the numbers. which do not amount to an epidemic (SIRC.” which set forth the government commitment to stem the tide of © 2009 ThesisBlog. For this reason. which went up slightly to 58.com Dissertation Writing Service while the figure for girls in the same age group was 58. and then developing a costeffective framework for an anti-obesity campaign. According to DoH (2004). medical and financial resources that are channelled for the purpose may be diverted from where the problem really lies.com 19 . The Social Issues Research Centre also took exception to findings that it is the children that are most threatened by obesity.5 kg. This data on the average weight gains of children and young adults indicate a slight change over a 10-year spread.ThesisBlog. a Childhood Obesity Project Team was organised in 2005 with the assigned task of reviewing the whole body of literature towards providing a better understanding of the likely causes and effects of obesity. since the educational.

com 20 . The BBC News (2006) reported that obesity levels in UK have more than doubled in the past 20 years.7% and girls from 1. In the report titled “Child Obesity Doubles in Decade.6% to 1.6%) Adults © 2009 ThesisBlog. Proportion of Overweight Children in UK 1984-1994 Children 20 15 10 5 0 Boys Girls (Values in percentage for childhood obesity: boy from 0.com Dissertation Writing Service obesity prevalence among children below 11 years old on a year-to-year basis by 2010.3% to 2. BBC” noted that children as young as 2 and 3 years old are being classified as obese or overweight.ThesisBlog.

This indicates that more obese children come from low and middleincome families.7 percent in 2003. 17.2 percent among children in the more affluent fifth of the population. 2003) According to Reilly & Dorosty. (1999) the 2003 Health Survey for England established these interesting facts about childhood and adult obesity in UK: 1) The prevalence of obesity in 2 to 11 year old children has grown from 9.com 21 . © 2009 ThesisBlog.4 percent are children of parents holding managerial or professional jobs.1 percent come from semi-routine or routine households in which the heads of family are wage earners. 3) The levels of obesity increased by only 11. while 12.ThesisBlog. 2) Of the obese children. 4) Obese parents beget obese children. and obese children are most likely to become obese in their adult years.2 percent in the most deprived fifth.6 percent in 1995 to 13. which is another affirmation of a trend that sees more obese children coming from rich households.com Dissertation Writing Service 20 15 10 5 0 Women Men (Values in percentage for adult obesity: women from 6% to 17% and men from 8% to 21%) (Parliamentary Office of Science & Technology. and 16.

The longterm goal of the PSA on obesity is to bring down the yearly increase in overweight children below 11-years-old through the Department of Health. obesity has been identified as the target of a Public Service Agreement (PSA). Public Service Agreement (PSA) Target Comptroller & Auditor General (2006). the Primary Care Trusts and schools.com 22 . cancer. Reilly & Dorosty (1999) and RCP (2003) say there is an epidemic because view that childhood obesity in UK has reached alarming proportions seems to outnumber the opinion that says it is still manageable. 7) Obesity increases the risk of heart disease. regional and local levels for greater efficiency. type-2 diabetes and high blood pressure. After the anti-obesity PSA was incorporated in the government’s 2004 Treasury Spending Programme. the government must be assured that the handling and flow of any project or activity © 2009 ThesisBlog.com Dissertation Writing Service 5) Children from Asian ethnics are four times more likely to become obese than whites. This in effect recognizes obesity as a serious public health issue representing a growing threat to children’s health and a drain on the National Health Service (NHS) resources. health authorities. 6) Obesity reduces life expectancy by an average of 9 years. 4. as well as their local offices.ThesisBlog. To be assigned as a PSA in UK. POST (2003). For this reason. and by much more if the obese person is a smoker.e. Media and Sports (DMCS). Education and Skills (DES) and Department of Culture. Other departments are given important roles in the programme. all the funding and activities directed at the problem to be expended by participating agencies and partners will be coordinated at the national.

2) reduce the average intake of saturated fat from 14. healthy schools. In a joint study. it was noted that there is a shortage of evidence on what works for obesity and what initiatives and programmes would be sufficient to achieve its target.ThesisBlog. children’s play. helping people lose weight. Accordingly. the authorities involved in the PSA against obesity were obliged to familiarize themselves with the problem by using more reliable data. 4) reduce the average intake of added sugar from the current 16-17 percent to 11 percent. the Comptroller and Auditor General observed that the PSA on obesity especially requires a more thorough and careful study because it calls for a multi-faceted approach. national obesity awareness campaigns. and 6) increase the initiation and duration of breastfeeding among lactating mothers. 3) maintain the current declining trend in total fat intake at 35 percent. In addition. The Comptroller & Auditor General (2006) noted that since a PSA involves a wider range of organisations of various disciplines and expertise. © 2009 ThesisBlog.com 23 . The goals of the PSA are: 1) increase average fruit and vegetable consumption to at least five portions a day.com Dissertation Writing Service are predictable and manageable so that the resources and efforts do not go to waste. 5) increase to 1 percent yearly the number of children meeting the physical activity recommendations of the Chief Medical Officer.3 percent to 11 percent. the resources may get lost. school sports. and healthy food promotion among children. simple labelling of packaged food. Comptroller & Auditor General (2006) assured that all these will be carried out through such intervention and prevention programmes as school meals. The main concern of government is that if the arrangements for the delivery of services are unclear. there is a need for a better understanding of the issues to make the programme more organized and efficient.

This was deemed essential in guiding decisions on where exactly to place resources and how the effectiveness of prevention and intervention activities can be monitored. 4. Prevention and Intervention © 2009 ThesisBlog. while the second increases the availability of services on childcare. which provides free pieces of fruit or vegetable each day to children aged 46 in nurseries. salt and sugar contents and increase fruit and vegetables in the meals consumed by children in school. prevention. sporting and play activities. It was acknowledged that the current measurement method is less accurate for children and so the PCTs were assigned to devise new weighing and measuring systems with a greater degree of efficiency. social services and cultural. There is also a School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme. treatment and weight management of overweight or obese children and adults. schools have been prevailed upon to follow a revised nutritional standard for school meals. Under the School Meals Programme. health and emotional development. for which 220 million pound sterling has been allotted for 2005-2008. In support of the PSA. The new nutritional standards were set by legislation passed in 2006. regional and local levels. identification. The first provides a range of services and activities on child and healthcare. which reduce the fat.com Dissertation Writing Service Under the PSA. The two key programmes under the PSA are called Extended Schools and Sure Start.ThesisBlog.f. whose first order of business is to clear the air on obesity measurement. the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence is also drawing up a set of guideline on the assessment.com 24 . teams of experts have been organised to compose the Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in the national.

© 2009 ThesisBlog. pasta. 3) Eat some types of fruit and vegetable at each meal.ThesisBlog. and 3) increase physical activity. RCP 2003). 4) Limit the consumption of food high in sugar like sweets and chocolate. particularly teenage girls who are vulnerable to such eating disorders as anorexia nervosa and bulimia if they go without food for prolonged periods. this should be done with medical supervision. which often consists of the following: 1) Eat at regular hours.com Dissertation Writing Service Health and nutrition experts advise against withholding food from obese children to make them lose weight because this can actually harm the normal growth process. chips and pastries. The best that health authorities can do is issue a set of guidelines for healthy living (Golan. cereal. 1998). 2) Include bread. 6) Avoid fried foods.com 25 . Unlike adults. there are no drugs considered effective in treating weight problems in children. 5) Reduce consumption of high-fat foods like crisps. rice and potatoes in every meal. The simple solution to child obesity that this research gleaned from the literature is three-pronged: 1) eat a healthy. there is still a lack of qualitative evidence on the reliability and effectiveness of intervention and prevention measures presented by experts. BUPA (2004) believes this task relatively easy based on evidence showing that it is much easier to change a child’s eating habits and physical activity than those of adults. unhealthy diet and nutrition. 2) make changes in the fast food-oriented eating habits. sedentary lifestyle). et al.. Although the reasons and causes for obesity have been identified (among them: genetics. BUPA (2004) advised that if children need to be put on a diet. balanced diet.

” which conducted aerobic classes for 43 overweight children aged 10-13 for 12 weeks at a frequency of three classes weekly. the National Health Service (NHS) suggests. there were no significant changes in BMI scores. A © 2009 ThesisBlog. Family-based programmes that encourage an increase in physical activity. The result: not much change in BMI and heartbeat rates for both boys and girls.ThesisBlog.com 26 . notably an increase in vegetable consumption among the children. 9) Eat regular meals and snacks and avoid the habit of “grazing. taught healthier eating proper habits and told to undergo PE and playground activities. 13) Go for a walk and visit parks and playgrounds.com Dissertation Writing Service 7) Exercise as often as possible and cut back on TV watching and playing computer games. 14) Attend PE lessons and courses on outdoor education A multi-pronged strategy. especially girls. Another RCT that relied heavily on physical activity and excluded other intervention measures was called “Dance for Health.” 10) Keep out of the house the kind of food that children should avoid. This was shown in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) called Active Programme Promoting Lifestyle in Schools involving 636 children aged 7-11. After one year of this regimen. 12) Use the stairs instead of lifts or escalators. but there were encouraging changes in eating behaviour. 11) Walk instead of ride or drive. The subjects were feed the modified school meals. 8) Separate eating from TV watching and homework. may help prevent obesity among school children. discourage sedentary behaviour and impart dietary education are also expected to yield beneficial effects.

com 27 . but as the number of obese children with normal parents grew and obesity occurs in children without a history of any particular childhood disease. however. In the first 12 months of the programme. for example. there were no significant changes but upon completion of the two-year study. This shows that the overall amount is less important than the type of dietary fat that is consumed (POST. The reason is that not all population studies show consistent links between dietary fat intakes and body weight in children and young adults (RCP.ThesisBlog. © 2009 ThesisBlog. Prevention and management of obesity on a national level require the coordination of a range of policies to improve the average diet and levels of physical activity in the early years. research turned its attention to other possible causes. at home. 2003).com Dissertation Writing Service long-lasting and more intensified programme of this kind. school and the community. 2003). 5. broadcast. a noticeable reduction in weight was noted among the subjects. such that media use has become the major preoccupation of children. may be useful. exercise and aerobics. computer and video access. Among the primary causes frequently identified are the increasing trend towards a lifestyle of unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity brought on by the “new media” which has children sitting for hours before the video screen. as indicated by another NHS-conducted RCT that consisted of callisthenics. Livingstone (2002) observed that this phenomenon provided British a multi-media culture with integrated telecommunications. studies noted an increase in the prevalence of obesity even when the proportion of energy derived by children from fatty foods had fallen. Causes and Effects Much of the blame for obesity used to be heaped on genetics and medical problems. In the US.

000 cases of hypertension that were traced to obesity.000 cases of type-2 adult diabetes in 1998 were attributed to obesity. especially colon cancer. Majority of these sufferers were obese women. the National Audit Office (NAO) reported that 250. The Royal College of Physicians blames obesity on three major factors: decrease in physical activity. BUPA (2004) suggested that as exercise ceases to be part of people’s daily routine and the national diet goes high in calorie content. no figures were available but it was propounded that because of the excess weight. 2) a food industry that targets children with advertisements on high-energy food. NAO also cited 28. An enquiry of the House of Commons health committee in 2003 established strong links of obesity with diabetes. On diabetes.com Dissertation Writing Service Children are the first and foremost users of new media in the family. and increase in high-calorie food. Among the specifics are: 1) transport policies that encourage driving instead of walking or cycling to school. with obese persons the frequent objects of discrimination and prejudice. obesity has been inextricably linked to low self-image and depression. arthritis develops quickly on the leg joints of an obese person. increase in sedentary behaviour. cancer. On osteoarthritis.ThesisBlog. coronary heart disease. osteoarthritis and social and psychological distress among British adults.000 instances of heart attack and 750.com 28 . As for social and psychological consequences. it is so easy to become overweight. 3) health promotion policies that fail to focus on the need for dietary changes or to address issues of health inequality. The NAO report was less clear on the risk of obese persons to cancer but it suggested that obesity increases the risk of cancer three times among both men and women. which used to be considered a childhood disease. 4) loss of school © 2009 ThesisBlog.

These include the surveys of the US Surgeon General. the WHO/FAO expert group has turned up with “convincing” evidence that high intake of energy-dense food accounts for much of the obesity problem in UK. Other studies place the excessive use of media higher on the list of causes. computer games. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. the heaviest emphasis was placed on the contribution of excess fat. POST © 2009 ThesisBlog. Influencing Factors In the WHO Global Strategy on Diet.com 29 . and 6) increased time spend on TV. Tagging obesity as the new crisis in public health. 1 out of every 4 adults will be obese. WHO blamed the advent of an “obesogenic” environment. The NAO projection is that by 2010. a condition that encourages the consumption of more energy food than necessary (WHO. 5) less walking because of greater use of cars. Internet surfing and telephones.ThesisBlog. Framingham Children’s Study and Youth Risk Behaviour Survey.com Dissertation Writing Service playing fields. 6. escalators and lifts. This translates to a cost of some 3. Diet According to POST (2003).6-billion pound sterling for the National Health Service and the economy as a whole through direct and indirect costs. This came about because of the extensive marketing of fast foods and high intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks and large-portion meals. 2003).a. 6. sugar and salt on the world’s dietary health problems. Physical Activity and Health.

both children and adults are stuffing themselves with high-fat foods like chocolate. and eating out as part of a weekly routine. For example. and ice cream and donuts. © 2009 ThesisBlog.com Dissertation Writing Service (2003) agreed that the average diet in UK is characterized by increased eating frequency. freshly squeezed juices. alcoholic drinks and TV dinner and the growing habits of drinking and eating out. The “what” has been identified as high-fat foods like chocolate. periodic eating binge and less intake of fibre. fizzy drinks. A healthy balanced diet. What and when people eat appears to be the deciding factors in child obesity. indicating that dietary factors have nothing to do with the growing number of obese Britons. fizzy drinks high in sugar. deep-fried food. bagels and dried or tinned fruits in natural juice. This finding was contested by a National Food Survey (NFS). cakes and crisps. starchy foods rich in complex carbohydrates like potatoes. eating out of habit even when not hungry. eating while watching TV or doing homework. ice cream. which argued that the average energy intake in UK has actually gone down since the 1970s. suggesting that it failed to consider such new consumption patterns as stocking the home larder with confectionery. frozen yoghurt. biscuits.com 30 . rice and chapatti are no longer part of the regular diet. Instead. will go a long way in combating obesity but the problem is that most British children are gorging on unhealthy and fattening foods. biscuits. Other health and consumer groups expressed disappointment at the survey. BUPA (2004) suggests. So are fresh fruits. The “when” includes eating in-between meals. fried food. cakes and crisps. which comes mostly from fruits and vegetables. and donuts. grilled or baked food. crusty bread and crackers.ThesisBlog.

2006. 4) let the children eat when hungry rather than out of habit. 6. and 9) instead of a fast-food outing to reward. 6) don’t make fast-food outings part of a weekly routine. 6) keep high-fat and high-sugar snacks out of the house. which consist of starchy foods like bread. pasta. which can reinforce the idea that food is a source of comfort. which is more filling and less prone to overeating. potatoes. fresh fruits. Reilly & Dorosty. RCP (2003) said the British are consuming less of the foodstuff that makes up a healthy and balanced diet. Nutrition Studies (RCP. let us say. 8) don’t use food to comfort a child. fresh juices with water and sugar substitutes.ThesisBlog. © 2009 ThesisBlog. 5) teach the children to chew slowly and savour food. 1999. 2003. buy a gift or bring to child to the cinema.com 31 . frozen yoghurt and bagels. 7) involve the children in food preparation so they are aware of what they are eating. grilled or baked food. a good report card. 3) don’t let children eat while watching TV or doing homework. BUPA (2004) advises British parents to encourage their children into changing their dietary habits through the following activities: 1) set an example with their own eating habits.b. POST. Comptroller & Auditor General. rice and chapatti that are rich in complex carbohydrates. dried or tinned fruit in natural juice. crusty bread and crackers. 2) prepare meals and snacks on appointed times with no in-between eating.com Dissertation Writing Service To prevent childhood obesity. lowsugar cereal and milk. 2003) show that the prevalence of obesity is increasing in UK because of the prevalence of unhealthy and less nutritious food in the average Briton’s diet.

WHO (2003) pointed to studies suggesting that there are protective effects of early breastfeeding against obesity and the future risk of type-2 diabetes.ThesisBlog. the high glycaemic index (GI) in the diet of the average Briton is suspected as a prime cause of obesity in the country.com Dissertation Writing Service According to POST (2003). The food with high density but low satiety measure is the fatty and fried ones. heart disease and type-2 diabetes in adults. bread. Foods are either high or low in energy density. Initial findings show that the effectiveness of breastfeeding depends on other factors like social class. This has also been linked to flab.com 32 . Fatty and fried foods are energydense. this idea has been incorporated in the UK prevention and management programme for obesity on the “Healthy Start” campaign and the National School Fruit Scheme. The first encourages breastfeeding based on the theory that breast milk gives children a good start towards a healthy life. it causes a sharp increase in blood glucose levels to stimulate hunger and overeating in teenagers. When the body absorbs high amounts of GI. soft drinks. while the second activity provides one free piece of fruit a day to 4 and 6-year-old © 2009 ThesisBlog. while the low-density food with high satiety measure are foods like boiled potatoes and fruits. Foodstuff with high GI content includes potatoes. Satiety is the measure of the extent to which food satisfies hunger. maternal weight. but those with low energy but high satiety reduce overall energy intake. BUPA (2004) said foods with high-energy density but low satiety measure encourage snacking and increased energy intakes. smoking while pregnant. but the evidence remains inconclusive and requires further study. etc. with more than twice as much energy content as that derived from the same weight of high-protein or high-carbohydrate foods. Nonetheless. cakes and biscuits.

com 33 . the UK Department of Health reported in 2004 that 17 percent of boys and 22 percent of girls do less than 30 minutes of physical activity per day. This was supported by the Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey held in the same year.c.com Dissertation Writing Service school children.. The 2000 National Diet and Nutrition Survey noted that children’s consumption of fruits and vegetables has drastically fallen in the last 20 years. as the video generation in the 1980s. All these kept children away from sports and other outdoor activities that involve physical exertion. the Nintendo generation in the 1990s. Issue Briefs (2004) said there is an explosion in the modern world of children-targeted media that includes TV shows and videos. Studies consistently show that infants breastfed even for a brief period are less susceptible to obesity when they grow up. 6. On the other hand. which reported that 1 out of 10 children from poor families never include fresh fruit or vegetable in their daily diet. Consequently. 2004). such that half of the subjects covered in the survey had not eaten any fruit or vegetable in a given week. et al. specialised cable networks. © 2009 ThesisBlog. (2005). and lately as the Internet Age. computer activities and Internet websites. Physical Activity According to Caraher. an eating pattern at home that always includes fruits and vegetables is likely to be a habit that children will later stick to. there is a growing trend of the sedentary lifestyle among a generation that was known as the TV generation in the 1960s. Both programmes are emphasised in a new nutrition standard made compulsory for school lunches in the whole of UK (BUPA.ThesisBlog. video games.

5 hours of television daily. These include: 1) loss of school playgrounds to other real estate purposes. 3) lessening amount of PE. the UK policy of obesity prevention and management calls for the promotion of school sports and PE and the healthy-travel-to-school programme. © 2009 ThesisBlog. PE was also made a compulsory subject in the national curriculum for students up to 16 years old. local authorities were assigned the task of encouraging school children to organise cycling clubs and walking groups. POST (2003) reported that the number of people playing sports at school declined from 44 percent in 1994 to 33 percent in 1999. For example. and log on the Internet 10 times a month. In the travel-to-school programme. To address this problem on obesity-causing lifestyle. and 4) greater use of cars. only 2 percent of high school students in UK cycled their way to school. This indicates an increasing sedentary habit among UK children.com 34 .ThesisBlog. for its part. An Independent Television Commission survey also estimated that young Britons between age 4 and 15 watch an average of 2. 2) reduction of road space for walking or cycling to and from school. play computer for the same span of time. That same year. school and home sports. revealed that 40 percent of school-age boys and 60 percent of girls fail to meet the physical activity recommendation of at least 1 hour of moderate intensity per day. escalators and lifts. down from 5 percent in 1989.000 sports coordinators have been deployed in schools to promote an active lifestyle among students. RCP (2003) was more specific on the reasons for the diminishing physical activity of British children. some 1.com Dissertation Writing Service Separate government surveys show a lifestyle veering away from muscle-stretching activities that are essential to healthy living. The 2000 National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Since 2004.

281) to be of the unanimous view that TV adverts are a strong influence over their children’s choice of food. argued in a position paper that advertising. Other recommended steps: involve the whole family in bike riding. The Advertising Association (AA). was directed to implement a ban on TV commercials that promote junk foods especially on childrenoriented channels and programmes. Advertising According to BUPA (2004). the advertising and marketing sector opposed this measure as based on a wrong assumption.” However. encourage trips to the park for a game of cricket. swimming and outdoor activities. reduce the children’s TV watching or computer games to no more than 2 hours daily or an average of 14 hours per week. umbrella organization of trade bodies representing the advertising and marketing industries. the Office of Communications (Ofcom). BUPA (2004) encourages parents to motivate their children in walking their way to school and stores instead of jumping in a car. etc. Children must also be taught how to ride a bicycle and swim.com 35 . Among the foodstuff listed as junk were chocolates.e. The move gained the support of British parents who were found in a survey (Luce.. Because of this influence. burgers and crisps. 6.com Dissertation Writing Service In the effort to increase children’s physical activity. pizza. television advertising has a direct influence on the eating preferences and habits of British children. which serves as media regulator. far © 2009 ThesisBlog. Frisbee. children “tend to overeat and to eat quickly without paying attention to what they are consuming (McLaren. p. 2006). For this reason.ThesisBlog. 2005.

The advertising industry. as a good start. the Food Standards Agency (FSA) has commissioned a more expansive research to determine exactly how media advertising influences children’s eating preferences and patterns. Instead the industry is proposing a new code of practice that would penalise advertisers that discourage good dietary habits and encourage excessive consumption. a tax system called “fat tax” has been proposed on fatty foods. the consumer and health groups in UK agitate for regulatory measures. In effect. a bill has passed first reading at the House of Commons prohibiting food and drink advertisements during the TV watching period of pre-school children. however. sugar and salt. The objective is to develop a framework for the most effective means of engaging children and their families in the anti-obesity campaign and what sort of programmes. advertising is just one of many influencing factors. To force the food industry into reducing the fat content of its products. such as schools. in fact encourages them to choose one brand over another and that with or without a ban on junk food advertisements. In this connection. on the advertising and marketing of fatty. websites and children television. Consequently. sugary and salty foods in places frequented by children. and a group called Food Aware is calling for a ban.ThesisBlog. advice and © 2009 ThesisBlog.com 36 . children will want them anyway. POST (2003) acknowledged that the large amount of TV advertisements put out by the food service industry targets children and promotes processed food that are mostly high in fat. It is believed that information and educational campaigns promoting a healthy diet and increasing levels of physical activity would be more effective in addressing the problem of childhood obesity. Moreover.com Dissertation Writing Service from influencing children to eat unhealthy food. warns that further regulation would harm this particular sector of the economy.

p. The limited model applies to children aged 6-8 when they have as yet no capability to judge the intentions of advertisers.com 37 . 7. there is no clear consensus on the relationship between advertising and children obesity. There are three stages involved in the development of advertising literacy among children based on a theory set by Roedder (1981): limited model. 4) the “pester power” influence of food adverts on family food choices.. The strategic model stage comes after age 12 when children begin to demonstrate an advertising literacy and use it accordingly. cued model and strategic model. 2) the impact of advertising on the attitudes. Findings and Analysis Epstein et. For this reason. and 5) striking a balance between the rights of the advertising industry to promote products and ideas and the role of the state in protecting the health of its citizens and vulnerable groups (Caraher. children enter the cued model stage when they acquire the knowledge to argue with advertising claims but still unable to use this knowledge for their own good. Up to now. et al. behaviour and health of children. the writer of this paper © 2009 ThesisBlog.com Dissertation Writing Service support are necessary. The five areas of debate are: 1) the rights of children and the place of advertising in a child’s life. 2005. 3) the nutritional quality of advertised foods targeting children.ThesisBlog. 596-597). This happens because children who get used to stuffing themselves to overfilling begin to feel distressed when they eat less. From age 8 to 12. al (2000) postulates that once children get overweight. psychological and physiological problems develop such that reversing the process becomes difficult.

who participated in the experiment under the guidance of their parents.1 percent in the other group. The result was that weight reduction was higher at 14. The trials conducted so far to test the effectiveness of intervention measures are either family-based. the children aged 6-11 were split into an experimental group. Such a study involved a clinical dietician with parents serving as agents of change and their obese children as change agents (Golan. activity routines and other socio-demographic factors. 1998).com Dissertation Writing Service agrees with the content of most of the readings that obese children need professional and medical assistance to help them overcome the problem. school-based or multi-faceted. However. The dietician recorded the family’s eating patterns. et al. which also recorded a 9 percent dropout rate. Test programmes in which parents acted as change agents. for example. This gives obesity the appearance of a psychological problem that the affected children cannot handle on their own and need the support and guidance of parents.com 38 . were found to have helped primary school children lose weight. In the 1-year study.6 percent in the experimental group and only 8. The common findings are that anti-obesity programmes yield better results if they involve not only health professionals but also the parents of obese children and the schools they are attending. clinical experts are advised to see the parents and children separately on the theory that children are better at long-term maintenance of ideal weight than parents (Steinbeck). All of these were proven to have yielded positive results. and a control group in which the children were on their own. One school-based randomised controlled trial that employed video games and instructional © 2009 ThesisBlog.. The twin objectives of health professionals are to encourage obese persons to eat less processed food and engage in more physical activity. then conducted 14 sessions for children in the experimental group and 30 sessions for those in the control group.ThesisBlog.

with society doing nothing at all. at longer duration and with © 2009 ThesisBlog. tuck shops and playground activities were used in a trial involving obese in-school children aged 711.com Dissertation Writing Service tapes to effect changes in diet and physical activity found encouraging reduction in the BMI. PE. this paper proposes that future research be conducted that intends to generate better procedural quality. However. After 1 year. modified meals. 8. Although the outcomes of these steps are generally uncertain. In the case of a multi-faceted intervention. what the prevention and intervention trials achieved was mostly point the obese children to the right direction. Conclusion and Recommendations There is some evidence that child obesity can be reduced by government initiatives that give schools bigger roles in health improvement and multi-pronged school-based programmes that promote physical activity and modification of diet and sedentary behaviours. no change in eating behaviour was observed among the subjects but there was a noticeable increase in their vegetable consumption. waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio among obese children after 7 months of the experiment. Therefore. the NHS admits that for the most part. These studies must involve a larger number of participants and held in appropriate settings.com 39 . which confirms that there is no magic cure for obesity. with high dropout rates. In effect. skin-fold thickness. poor reporting and in settings different to UK conditions. intervention measures are still unreliable as to effectiveness since they have been conducted with small-size samples. one such strategy consisting of instruction.ThesisBlog. they are worth taking rather than leaving the obese children alone. This was seen as a good start in the children’s way to healthier living.

serum lipids. The routine claim is that there has been a rapid acceleration of childhood obesity since the 1990s. It was observed that the prevalence of obesity is greater among people in the poorer sectors of society and the developing. some sectors of the health community are calling for a closer look at obesity. Such future research can work around the initial findings that obesity management has to concentrate on ways to reduce people’s energy intake through dietary changes. serum leptins. The Health Survey for England 2003 disagrees with the basic findings of the House of Commons committee on health and the International Obesity Task Force. In UK itself. decrease sedentary behaviours. It may also be worthwhile for future studies to test the effectiveness of weight-loss drugs such as metformin.com 40 . longer duration of trials and more intensity.ThesisBlog. but data on official surveys don’t bear this out.com Dissertation Writing Service greater intensity. This emphasises the need for a better quality research using such tools as mentioned above – larger number of test participants. increase physical activity. Other areas worth looking into are the two curious phenomena pinpointed by the WHO and other research groups as possible risk factors of obesity. and involve families in the change process. They also need to address concerns on the cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment programmes. which is contrary to the popular wisdom that obesity is a sign of abundance and © 2009 ThesisBlog. orlistat and sibutramine. namely ethnicity and poverty. Initial studies by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) revealed that the BMI scores of 29 obese young people aged 12 to 19 improved after use of metformin and serum leptin for six months.

“Role of Media in Childhood Obesity. & Ernest.html. “Saturday Morning Children’s Television Advertising: A Longitudinal Content Analysis. J.. “Tackling Child Obesity – First Steps. T. 5. Vol. “Child and Parent Psychology Problems Influence Child Weight Control. (2002).” Henry J. 596-605.” Global Prevention Alliance.” Available online accessed 10-207 at: http://hcd2. Comptroller & Auditor General (2006). McGill Integration Health Challenge.” Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal.com 41 . R. M. R. B. (2005). “Problem Solving in the Treatment of Obesity. Wisniewski.gov. bupa. pp. Graves. “Television Advertising and Children: Lessons from Policy Development. no.” Prepared jointly by the Audit Commission. “Avoiding Childhood Obesity.4. Rigby.uk/fact_sheets/html/child_obesity. M. S. Curwin (1996). T. Gordy. & Dalmeny. Caraher. © 2009 ThesisBlog. no. Issue Briefs (2004).. 3. & Clark. HC 801. M. (1988). 26-27... Kaiser Family Foundation. 9.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. “Quantitative Methods for Business Decisions. Landon. (1994).. Palluch. L. BUPA (2004).. & Swinburn. no. Department of Health.. Meyers. A.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.. K. It will also be interesting to know why children of ethnic families in UK are more prone to obesity than whites.” Available online at: www. (2006). 30. available online at: www. Epstein. “A Social Marketing Approach to Childhood Obesity. L.” Public Health Nutrition. 382-403. Reference List Bredbenner. L.. Lobstein. W. Healthcare Commission & National Audit Office. C.ThesisBlog.. session 28-2-06. (2000). “Treatment for Childhood and Adolescent Obesity..org James. Oct. Kumanyika.co.comms. 68.” Obesity Research 2. “An Evaluation of Problem-Solving Training in the Behavioural Treatment of Childhood Obesity. “Global Strategies to Prevent Childhood Obesity. R. et al. L.uk/engage Epstein. Vol. pp. N. 1996. vol.kff. 2006.B. Golan. Saelens.” London: International Thomson Business Press.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56. B.. & Weng. (1998). C. Leach.com Dissertation Writing Service affluence.

205. Oxford. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2001). D. (2006).2-2458242.” Journal of Consumer Research. Reilly. S.” University of Sydney. Australia.” Quality and Safety Health Care. E. Lyness. vol.L. D.html McLaren. & Dorosty. 31. Luce.D.” No. 8. P. C. A. WHO (2002). no. “Treatment for Childhood and Adolescent Obesity. no. “The Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity.html National Health Service (2002).. (1999).” Lancet 1999.timesonline.couk/article/0. D. “Obesity and the Facts. & Kelly. “Epidemic of Obesity in UK Children.” Geneva. “Young People and the New Media.com/cqi/content/full/12/1/65 © 2009 ThesisBlog. “Junk Food Adverts Ban during Children’s Programmes. pp. ISSN 0965-0288. O’Meara. S. K. J.” Technology Appraisal Guidance No.” Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. 7. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. available online accessed 14-1-07 at: Ошибка! Недопустимый объект гиперссылки. WHO (2003). UK. (2005). Royal College of Physicians (2003).com Dissertation Writing Service Livingstone.00. (1981). “Childhood Obesity.” Joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. Edinburgh. Steinbeck. S. 6. “Age Difference in Children’s Responses to Television Advertising: An Information Processing Approach.org/teen/your mind/mental health/depression. 279-288. Vol. “Childhood Obesity: The New Crisis in Public Health. no.com 42 . Social Issues Research Centre (2005). “Fast Food and Children and Adolescents: Implications for Practitioners. 5.. “Management of Obesity in Children and Young People. (2003). 2. “Diet. 144-153. “Who Can Help?” Available online accessed 5-11-06 at: http://wwwkidshealth. Vol.” London: Sage Publications. Wilson. 44.bmj. Roedder. UK.” NHS Centre for Review & Dissemination. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003).ThesisBlog.. (2005). pp. “The Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity. (2002). Summerbell.” February 2005. available online accessed 28-12-06 at: http://qshc.’” Available online accessed 28-11-06 at: http://www.” Clinical Paediatrics. “Guidance on the Use of Sibutramine for the Treatment of Obesity in Adults.

com Dissertation Writing Service © 2009 ThesisBlog.com 43 .ThesisBlog.

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