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Analysis and critical interpretation of the Hebrew text of the book of Genesis, preceded by a Hebrew grammar, and dissertations on the genuineness of the Pentateuch and on the structure of the Hebrew language (1852)

Analysis and critical interpretation of the Hebrew text of the book of Genesis, preceded by a Hebrew grammar, and dissertations on the genuineness of the Pentateuch and on the structure of the Hebrew language (1852)

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Analysis and critical interpretation of the Hebrew text of the book of Genesis, preceded by a Hebrew grammar, and dissertations on the genuineness of the Pentateuch and on the structure of the Hebrew language (1852)


Author: Paul, William, 1804-1884
Publisher: Edinburgh, Blackwood
Language: English
Call number: ACW-9061
Digitizing sponsor: University of Toronto
Book contributor: Robarts - University of Toronto
Collection: toronto
Analysis and critical interpretation of the Hebrew text of the book of Genesis, preceded by a Hebrew grammar, and dissertations on the genuineness of the Pentateuch and on the structure of the Hebrew language (1852)


Author: Paul, William, 1804-1884
Publisher: Edinburgh, Blackwood
Language: English
Call number: ACW-9061
Digitizing sponsor: University of Toronto
Book contributor: Robarts - University of Toronto
Collection: toronto

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ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL INTERPRETATION

HEBREW TEXT

THE BOOK OF GENESIS^
PBECEDED BY

A HEBREW GRAMMAR,

DISSERTATIONS ON THE GENUINENESS OF THE PElStTATEUCH

AND ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE HEBREM' LANGUAGE.

REY. WILLIAM PAUL,
SUNISTER OF BAXCHOKY DEVENICK,

A.M.,
X. B.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND
>

SONS,

^

EDINBUEGH :iND LONDON.
M.DCCC.LII.

LONDON;

miNTED BY

J.

WERTHEIMEU AKD

CO.

CIRCUa PLACE, FINSBUHY circvs.

ff

//

V

\m 1
lO
< t)

1S56

Ji

u

PREFACE,

While engaged many years ago,

in
it

the stncly of the

Hebrew language

occurred to

me

that a very useful

work might be composed, in order to facilitate its acquisition^ having the Hebrew text of Genesis for its basis. The excellent Hebrew Grammars and Lexicons published of late years, and such works on Hebrew philology, as the
Philologia Sacra of Glassius,

and

Storrii Obseiwationes, etc.,
text,

and such helps to the interpretation of the Hebrew
as

the Scholia of

the

younger Rosenmiiller, would,

I

thought, enable .any one moderately qualified, to render

such a work highly instrumental to the advancement of
the student's progress in the
profitable study of the

Hebrew language, and to the Hebrew Scriptures. Under this

impression, I

commenced the Analytical part of this work, which, fortified by the favourable opinion expressed of it by competent judges, I now submit to the public. In this part of it, every word is analysed, numbered,
and indexed.
assigned

In the

first

chapter

all

the accents are

marked, their names and powers given, and the reasons

when

the words are accented contrary to the

general rule.

In the

first

three chapters,

all

the words

are written in the English as well as in the
characters,

Hebrew

and

syllabled, in order to lessen the diflficulty

of reading the

Hebrew

text.

Throughout the whole of

a3

PREFACE.
this

part

of

it,

the

principles

of the

structure

of

the language, laid

down
;

in the third part of the

Intro-

duction, are illustrated

and likewise the principles which
of

regulate
in a

the

changes

the

vowel
it.

points,

contained

Grammar which

precedes
to

I

have freely availed

myself of the assistance

be obtained in the admirable
Gesenius,

Lexicons of Simonis edited by Winer,
Dr. Lee, in settling

and

the original meanings of the words, in

deducing the logical connection between their secondary

and primary senses;

in pointing out cognate

words in the

same family of languages, and

in tracing analogies existing

between certain words, both in the Shemitic and Indo-

European languages; and
passages of the

also

in interpreting difficult

Hebrew
from the

text.

The great
that
all

difficulty that

the student meets with in the acquisition of the
lano^uao-e, arises
fact,

Hebrew the words are new
it

to him.

This difficulty can only be mastered by attention

and perseverance.
can be avoided.

There

is

no royal road by which

In the study of more modern languages,

particularly those which are cognate,

and which have
be obtained with

common

roots, a stock of vocables
little difficulty.

may

comparatively

In Hebrew, however, every

word may be
at the

said to be

new

to the learner ; its similarity

to words in other languages being seldom obvious to

him

commencement of

the study.

He

will likewise find

words, previously kno^vn to him^ connected with fragments
of pronouns, or other words, which modify or alter their

meanings, and which greatly disguise their forms, and often
prevent him from again recognizing them.
Derivatives are

few in Hebrew, compared with those in the Indo-European languages and compound words, that is, those which are
;

made up
known,

of two or

more

distinct words, are almost un-

so that

the knowledge of one

word

helps the

PREFACE.
learner but to a very few others.
It
is

the province of
difficulties;

good Grammars and Lexicons to lessen these
the

Grammars, by shewing the principles upon which the composition of words, and the alterations in their vowels and forms are regulated; the Lexicons, by tracing the
logical

connections between their primary and secondary

meanings, and by pointing out analogies between words in
different languages,

which are not

at first sight obvious to

the learner, so that, by both these offices of the Lexicographer, the meanings of the words themselves are impressed upon his
satisfactory

memory by an

intellectual process, alike

and The Analysis

instructive.
is

preceded by a short Grammar, which

is

specially designed for that part of the work,

and which

would be very incomplete without

it.

It contains little

more than the general

principles of the

Hebrew grammar,
I

which are illustrated in the Analysis.

have preferred

pointing out the exceptions there, to the loading of the

Grammar with them.

I thought, if the general principle

was well understood, that the learner would soon regard
every case that appeared contrary to
it

as

an exception,

and
are

treat

it

as such.

The Grammar
work

is

formed upon the

plan and principles of that of Dr. Lee, and the references

made
is

to that admirable
likely to feel the

in every case

where the
infor-

student
mation.

desirableness of

more

I

became

early a convert to

most of the important

principles contained in the

works on Hebrew Philology of
Oriental scholar;

that highly

distinguished

and

I

feel

under great obligations to him for the benefit I have
derived from his writings, and for the
suggestions with which he has

many excellent favoured me in the condown
as

ducting of this work.
In the Grammar, I have endeavoured to lay

VI

PREFACE.

briefly

and as clearly

as possible the general principles of

syllabication, accentuation, contraction, changes of vowels,

formation of words, and the

like.

In order to facilitate

the learning of the verb, I have given the regular para-

digm, both in the Hebrew and English characters; and

I

have numbered

all

the paradigms, and referred to them in

the Analysis, to enable the student to ascertain at a glance
the exact part of the verb he meets with, and to compare
it

with the paradigm to which

it

belongs.

I

do not recom-

mend the student to commit any part of the Grammar to memory, but the paradigms of the verbs. It would be
exceedingly desirable
if

he learned the whole of them,
;

which would not occupy a long time and sure I am that the more thoroughly he masters them, the more rapid will be
his progress in the language.

In the study of Hebrew, which

is

very different in

its

form and structure from the Indo-European languages,
the learner should avoid as

much

as possible the

gram-

matical phraseology of these languages.
cases in
subject,

There are no

Hebrew nouns,
no declensions.

and, according to

my

view of the

A

verb has

its
it.

object either in

immediate or mediate connection with

The former

is

analogous to the connection of an active verb in other

languages with a noun in the objective case; the latter to
that of a

verb which governs the dative,
its

or which

is

separated from

object

by a

preposition.

The

inter-

position of a preposition between the verb
is

and

its object,

the

mark

of what Dr. Lee very properly calls mediate

construction.

the

The Analysis and Grammar are the principal parts of work but it is preceded by an introduction consistins:
;

of three parts, which I venture to hope will enhance
value.

its

In the

first

part,

arguments have been advanced,

PREFACE.

Vll

shewing that the Mosaic account of the Creation
respect

is

in

no

invalidated

by modern

geological

discoveries;

and establishing
particular.

in various Av^ays, the genuineness of the

Pentateuch in general,

and of the Book of Genesis

in

In this part of the work I have considered

the probable sources whence
for the writing of the

Moses derived the materials
;

book of Genesis

and

in

doing

so, I
is

have considered what weight in evidence, on this point,
to be given to

what are

called the Jehovah

and Elohim

documents.

In this part of the work, I could not, within

my

limits,

adduce the whole of the arguments usually
contributions to the general

advanced in favour of the genuineness of the Pentateuch.

What

I

have adduced,

I

call

arguments; not that I pretend to have adduced none of
the more

common arguments,
I

or that those less

common

are all new.

have endeavoured, however, to place the
to arrest the

aro:uments which suijo-ested themselves to me, in as brief

and interesting a view as
student's attention,

possible, in order

and

to carry conviction to his mind.

Of a particular

class of

the

arguments which

I

have

adduced, I here subjoin an example, taken from the consideration of the forms observed in the sale of the cave of

Machpelah to Abraham, by Ephron the
in Gen. chap, xxiii.

Hittite,

recorded
is

The

j)ossession,

when purchased,

called

15P

i^il^j ^Jdiuz-znth ke-hhei\ a j'os^essz'o/z or seizin

of a hurial-place.
{seized)^

The word
1.

^IT^^^

is

derived from THNt

and

signifies:

Seizure.

2. Possession, seizure

or

appropriation,

being probably the original mode of
3.

obtaining property.

which corresponds in
laAv-terra seizin.

form of obtaining possession, derivation and meaning with our
H\\q
in question, the forms of

At the period

the transference of property were very simple.

The

price

was

fixed,

and the money weighed and paid

in presence of

PREFACE.
the elders that sat at the gate of the city ; and then the

property was taken possession of by the purchaser, which
is

called the

ri;in!!<,

which may with propriety be rendered

seizin.

All this

was done without the intervention of

writing,

and

is

a truly patriarchal

mode

of transference,
it

and completely

suitable to the period at

which

is

repre-

sented to have taken place.

Had
and

Moses, in the description

of this transaction, stated that there was an original written
deed, signed

by

witnesses,

sealed,

conformably to law,
in the

and a duplicate which was open,
purchase of the
field

as

was the case

by Jeremiah, a short time before the Babylonish captivity, and described in the 34th chapter of his prophecies, should we not have had a description of
manners and customs of a later date, quite unsuitable to the Abrahamic era, and serving as a foundation for aa
argument
strongl}^ aifecting the genuineness of the docu-

ment describing the
of the Pentateuch

transaction.

In the second part of the Introduction, the genuineness
is

proved by arguments founded on a

comparison of the styles of the earlier and later writers of
the Old Testament.

In this comparison have been pointed

out the disappearance of old, and the rise of
idioms,

new words,
Old
style

and phrases; the extension of the meanings of

existing words during the different periods of the

Testament history

;

and the corruption of the Hebrew
from an admixture with
I
it

in the later writers,

of Chaldee

words and idioms.

have thus, by an extensive induction

of facts, proved that the books of Moses could not have

been written at any other period than that usually assigned
to them.

From

the proofs I have advanced in detail,
is

a cumulative argument
impregnable.
gation
of

raised^

which
is

I conceive to

be

In the

third part,

contained an investi-

the principles and structure of the Hebrew

PREFACE.

IX

language (embracing a dissertation upon the sequences
of the tenses) which are developed and referred to in the

Analysis.
I

have endeavoured to render the work as complete
possible,
it

and perfect as
student.

and in the plan,
interesting,

style,

and subject

matter to make

clear,

and

useful to the

The Introduction has
at
it,

been re-written
to press.

and
This
in

greatly

enlarged since the work went

circumstance has placed nie
the execution of this part of questions of great difficulty

some

disadvantage

which embraces many

that have divided the opinions

of the greatest Oriental scholars,

and which was compri-

posed amidst the interruptions and distractions occasioned

by professional

duties,

and unavoidable public and
and the typographical errors

vate engagements.

No
;

pains have been spared in the
will,

correction of the press
I trust,

be found to be few and unimportant.

I

have to acknowledge,

mth much
aid,

thankfulness, the
I

kindness, encouragement,

and

which

have received

in the prosecution of the

work, both from friends and

strangers.

It

of

ministers

of

would be endless to particularize the names my own persuasion, and others preto me,

viously
it

known

who have
names

expressed an interest in
it;

and encouraged me to go on with

but

I

cannot

forbear mentioning the

of several distinguished

individuals, who, previously to

my

communications with

them on

this subject,

were entire strangers to me, and
correspondence with me,

who
or,

either readily entered into

and gave

me

their valuable advice

whenever

I desired

it,

on a personal interview, by their kind encouragement,

greatly stimulated

me

to exertion.
late

I

mention the names
of

of Dr.

Samuel Lee,

Professor

Hebrew

in

the

University of Cambridge;

Dr. A. M*^Caul, Professor of

PREFACE.
Rabbinical Literature, King's College, London;

Dr. E.
High-

Henderson,

late Professor of Biblical Literature, in

bury
lege;

College,

London; Dr. Samuel Davidson, Professor

of Biblical Literature in the Lancashire Independent Col-

Dr. John Brown and Dr. John Eadie, Theological Professors, in connexion with the United Secession Churcli
;

in Scotland

and Dr. James j\FCulloch, Minister of the
conclude, in the hoj^e that the
;

West Church, Greenock.
I shall

now
it

work may-

be kindly welcomed by the public
desire tliat

and

Avith

an anxious

may conduce
;

to the

advancement of the
tend to aid them in

study of the Hebrew language among students of theology
of all denominations
rightly

—that

it

may

dividing the
to the

word of truth;

— and

that
faith

it

may
the

contribute

establishment

of their

in

genuineness of the

Mosaic records, which

contain
Christ.

the

germ and the

basis of the revelation

by Jesus

Manse of Banchory,

Devenick, Nov. 1851.

INTRODUCTION.
PART
I.— CHAPTER
I.

Ox THE Mosaic Account of the Creation.

The Book
study of the
tance of
its its

of Genesis has been chosen as an introduction to the

Hebrew

Scriptures,

on account of the

intrinsic

importreats;

contents, the variety of the subjects of
;

which

it

great antiquity

and

its

claims as a genuine and faithful record

of divine truth.

It contains

the only consistent and rational account

that has ever been given of the creation of the world, of the origin

of the hvnnan race, and of that earliest dispensation to

Man upon

which the others are based.
nological,

It furnishes us

with the

earliest chro-

ethnographical, and historical accounts of our species;
rise

marks the

and development of
life,

civil institutions, the progress

of

various arts of civilized

and the

state

of manners and customs in

the primitive stages of society.
It

assumes as a principle of religious

belief, that there is one,

and and

only one God, to
it

whom

all

power and perfections which he stands

are ascribed

;

points out the relations in

to his rational offspring;

the consequent claims he has on them, and the duties and responsibilities

thence arising.

It

makes us acquainted with man^s original
his subsequent condition of

state of holiness

and happiness, and with
first

sin

and misery; and records the

announcements of the method
Spirit's

of his recovery

by

a Saviour,

and of the Holy

work

in his

conversion and sanctification.

The view of

the nature and perfections of
all

God assumed by

the

sacred historian, removes

the difhculties raised
b

by the ancient

;

11

INTRODUCTION.
Before

philosophers on the subject of the creation of the world.

such a being no

difficulties
all

can

exist.

"

He

spake, and

it

was done;

ho commanded, and
as to his nature

things stood

fast."

Holding such opinions

and

perfections,

we can
so

" understand that the worlds
that things

were framed by the word of God,
2 Mac. ovk i^ ovtwv

which

are seen

were not made of things which do appear;" or
vii.

as it is expressed in

28,

tliat

iTTolrjcre

avra.

The

principle

maintained by certain of the heathen philosophers,
fit,"

has nothing in

it

to stagger a believer in the

"ex nihilo nihil God of the Bible
given in the
first

nor with such an account of the creation
chapter of Genesis, does he find
it

as that

necessary to have recourse to the

absurd and

all

but exploded doctrines of chance, of the eternity of

matter, and the like.

Many

nations of antiquity have transmitted

accounts of the creation of the world, either historical or traditionary,
all

of which appear to be based upon that given by

INIoses,

and

which are consistent and probable, only according
mation to that of the sacred historian.

to their approxi-

The enemies
its

of revealed truth at one time entertained hopes, and
fears,

friends

were not without

that the Mosaic account of the
facts

creation

would be shaken by the But

brought to light by recent

geological discoveries.
fears of the latter, there

for the

hopes of the former, and the

appear to be no solid grounds.

The most

eminent geologists indeed assign a
than that of six thousand years.

much

greater age to this earth

An

excellent

summary of the

arguments usually adduced in proof of
"

this point, is subjoined, in

the words of Professor Hitchcock, of Amherst College, U. S.
1.

]\Iore

than two- thirds of existing continents are covered with
rocks,

fossiliferous

which

contain numerous

remains

of

marine

animals, so preserved as to prove incontestably that they died on the
spot where they are

now

found, and became gradually enveloped in

the sand, or other stony matter, which accumulated aroimd them,
their

most delicate spines and processes bemg preserved.

In

fine,

these rocks present every appearance of having been formed just as sand, clay,
gravel,

and lime-stone are now accumulating in the
a very slow process.

bottom of the ocean by
nary
this

Except in extraordi-

cases, indeed, it requires a

century to produce accumulations of

kind even

a

few inches in thickness.

INTRODUCTION.
2.

ill

" But geologists think they have ascertained that the Ibssiliferous

strata in

Europe arc not

less

than eight or ten miles in thickness.
requisite
for
tlie

How
3.

immense the period

production of such

masses.

"This mass

is

divided into hundreds of distinct strata; each
as

group containing peculiar organic remains, and arranged in

much

order, one above another, as the drawers of a well regulated cabinet.

Such changes, not only of mineral composition, but of organic remains, shew that there must have been more or less of change of
circumstances in the waters^ from which the successive strata and

groups were deposited.

And

such changes must have demanded

periods of time of long duration, for they appear to have been for

the most part extremely slow.

We

hence derive confirmatory evi-

dence of the views that have been presented concerning the vast
periods that have been employed in the production of the fossiliferous
strata.

4.

" Another circumstance

still

farther confirms these views.

In

very

many

instances

each successive group

of the

strata

above

referred to,

contains rounded pebbles derived from some of the

preceding groups.

Those

strata,

then,

from which such pebbles

were derived, must not only have been deposited, but consolidated

and eroded by water,

so as to

produce these pebbles before the rocks
It is impossible that

now

containing them could have been formed.

such changes, numerous as they must have been, could have taken
place in short periods of time.

There must certainly have been

long intervals between the formation of the successive groups. 5. " The history of the repeated elevations which the strata have

xmdergone, conducts us to the same conclusion.
fied rocks

Different unstrati-

have been intruded among the

stratified

ones of various

epochs, and the strata have been elevated at each epoch.
oldest
strata

But the
upon the

were partially elevated before the newer ones were

deposited; for the latter rest in an unconformable position

former.

Indeed,

we

often find

numerous groups of

strata resting
tilted up,
is

unconformably upon one another, the lowest being most
the next higher less so, and the third
less,

until the latest

fre-

quently horizontal, having never been disturbed by any internal

protruding agency.

It is

obvious, then, that after the
h 2

first

elevation

IV

INTRODUCTION.

of the lowest grouj), tliere must have been an interval of repose
sufficiently long to permit the deposition of the second group, before

the second elevation; then a second period of repose^ succeeded
a third elevation; and so on to the top of the series.
"we

by

Here, then
stratified

have the same evidence of the slow formation of the
is

rocks, as

taught us by their lithological characters, and by their

organic remains.
6.

" Finally, there appear to have been several almost entire
life

changes of organic
fossiliferous

upon the globe,

since the deposition of the

rocks began.

And

comparative anatomy teaches us,

that so different from one another were the successive groups wliich

we

find in the different strata, that they could not

have been con-

temporaries.

But each group appears

to

have been adapted to
it

the condition of the globe at the time; and

was continued appa-

rently until, by the extremely slow process of refrigeration, the tem-

perature was rendered unfit for their residence,
extinct,

when they became
lived long

and a new creation

arose.

But they

enough

for rocks thousands of feet in thickness to

be deposited, which

now

contain their remains.

Who

can doubt that vast periods of time

were

requisite for such changes of organic life;

and who can believe

that they have taken place since the creation of

man?
not the most con-

"We have
fessor)

dwelt long upon this point (continues the learned Proits

because of

importance.

For

if there is

clusive evidence in geology of the existence of the globe longer than

the

common

interpretation of the Mosaic history admits,

we need
cannot,
fairly

not surely spend time in reconciling the records.

We

however, but believe, that every impartial mind, which

examines

this subject, will

be forced to the conclusion that the facts

of geology do teach us as conclusively as any science not founded on

mathematics can teach, that the globe must have existed during a
period indefinitely long, anterior to the creation of man.

We

are
this,

not aware that any practical and thorough geologist doubts

whatever are his views in regard to religion.
geology, indeed,
are
little else

Some

writers of

who

have studied the subject only in books, and

than compilers, have taken different ground.

But of

how
set

little

weight must the opinion of such men be regarded, when

in opposition to the

unanimous

A^oice of

such

men

as Clivier,


INTRODUCTION.
V

Humboldt, Brogniart, Jameson, Bucklaiid, Sedgwick, Murchison,
Couybeare, Greenough, Bukcwcll, Lyell, Mantel],

many more; who
equally well

not only stand

philosophers of the present day,

De la Beclie, and among the most distinguished but many of them at least are
Unless the
so

known

as decided

friends of revelation.

evidence were very strong, there would be found
different education

among
and

many

of

and

professions, at least one dissenting voice;

but there

is

none."

Connection

between Geology

the

Mosaic

history of the Creation, p. 18, seq.

A

method has been

resorted to for reconciling the above-mentioned

geological facts with the narrative in the Mosaic records,

by regard-

ing the days of creation as periods of indefinite length, instead of
periods of twenty- four hours.

This meaning of the word "day" was

held by Josephus and

Philo

among
early

the

Jews; by Origen,

St.

Augustine, and Bede

among

the

Christians;

and has been

maintained by Whiston,

De

Luc, Faber, and others, in modern

tunes, "who hold that during these indefinite periods those great

changes were effected, and the phenomena produced in the crust of
the earth which have been just described.

For assigning such a
words day,
figu-

meaning
to be

to tlie

word

in the

first

chapter of Genesis, there appears
It is true that the

no warrant, and no

necessity.

and days have, in many passages of the Hebrew Scriptures, a
rative

meaning, indicative of an indefinite period.

This

is

the

case in our

own, and probably in

proof can be necessary.
sense
is

is

admissible here.

all other languages. Of this no The only question Is whether a figurative The principal use of figurative language

to enliven the style,
;

and

to

supersede the unnecessary multipliliteral

cation of words

but

it is

very obvious that the

meaning of

words cannot be abandoned, unless where the sense or context
requires a figurative interpretation.
It

will

thus clearly

aj)pear

whether the

literal

meaning

is

admissible or not, and this

may
of

be ascertained in the works of any good author with a precision

which excludes
words

all

doubt.

The
it

literal

and

fio-urative meanlno-s
if different

may
all

be thus as clearly distinguished, as

words

had been used.
destroy

Were

otherwise,

the use of figures would

perspicuity
perplexity,

and precision in language, and introduce

ambiguity,

and confusion.

Now

there

is

no rule of


vi

INTRODUCTION.
rhetoric,

grammar, or

that

can warrant a figurative application
first

of the word "day'' in the

chapter of Genesis.
is

There
plainer,

is^

perhaps, no chapter within the Sacred Record that
freer

and

from figurative language.
for the instruction of

It

contains a narrative of facts,
in all ages,

conveyed

mankind

and designed

to acquaint

them with the power, wisdom, and providence of God
and government of the world, and
all

in the creation
relations in

to point to the
responsibilities
It

which

creation stands to him,
lie

and the

under which his rational creatures

in regard to him.

was

consequently necessary that the revelation should be communicated
in

the plainest and most perspicuous language.
is

We

accordingly

find that there

nothing throughout the whole chapter that gives

the slightest warrant for the figurative interpretation of the

word

" day."

To

avoid

all

ambiguity, the sacred historian teaches us
first

that the evening

and the morning were the

day,

i.

e.,

that the

day consisted of the ordinary periods of
it

light

and darkness, which
is

was one of the

offices

of the sun to distinguish, as

stated in

verse fourteenth.
in the foiu'th

The length of all the seven days is the same, and commandment, in which allusion is made to the time
it is

occupied in the creation,

clearly implied that natural days

were

meant, and that each of the six days was of the same length as
the Sabbath, which was to be kept holy to God.

The

forcing of the
is

text, by the figurative interpretation of the word " day,"

happily

unnecessary in order to reconcile the Mosaic records with geological facts, since this reconciliation

can be effected without any
principles of

violence being done to the acknowledged

Hebrew

philology

;

and

as little is

it

necessary upon the ground, that the suc-

cession of geological beds, with respect to organic remains, exhibits
a correspondence

with the contents of the

Sacred narrative in
several

describing
referred to.

the

operations of divine
this siibject Dr.

power on the

Upon

Pye Smith remarks:
to

— "More
scheme
Relat'on

days

accurate investigations have proved that the

correspondence just

mentioned does not

exist.

Though

a superficial

view some

plausible appearances of this kind present themselves, the
fails

when

it

is

attempted to be carried into

detail."

between the Holy Scriptures and some parts of Geological Science,

2nd. Ed. p. 201.

It

is

extremely rash

and dangerous

to

have


INTRODUCTION.
vii

recourse to unnatiu'al and forced interpretations of Scripture, with a

view

to the resolution of

seeming

difficulties,

and

to the obviating

of seeming objections.

If the universally

acknowledged principles

of philological interpretation are to be forsaken either for supporting
theories of our

own, or

for

answering the objections of others, then
to say anything,

may
this

the Scriptures be

made

and

all

confidence in

their plainest declarations will

be destroyed.

I shall

now

dismiss

subject

in

the words

of the younger
is

Rosenmliller,

whose

authority as a
deration

Hebrew

philologist

entitled to the highest consi-

"Diem

intelligendum naturalem, neque vero plurium sive
disertius

dierum sive annorum spatium vix
formula."
It

declarari

potuit hac

Scholia in Gen. cap. i. v. 5.

has been supposed by some " that the fossiliferous rocks were

deposited

durmgthe 1600

years that intervened between the creation
non-fossiliferous rocks

and the deluge, and that the
in a

were produced

moment."
as it has

As

this supposition has rest

no support from Scripture,
upon, and as
it is

and

no other foundation to

besides
I
shall

compassed with innumerable and insuperable
pass
it

difficulties,

over

satisfying

myself with referring the reader to the

works of Professor Hitchcock, and Dr. Pye Smith, already quoted.

That the geological phenomena referred to are not ascribable to
the deluge in the days of

Xoah

is

equally clear.

There

is

no

inti-

mation given of such changes in the Mosaic history, where the
cause, progress

and

effects

of the dehige are minutely described.
it

The waters
ride

arose so graduall}'' that the ark, as
sails,

should seem, without
it,

rudder, oars,

or other

means of guiding or propellmg
were increasing, or

could

on the waters in
rocks,

safety,

and without being dashed against proafterwards

jecting

while the waters

foundered by the violent agitation occasioned by the convulsions to

which many of the phenomena conspicuous
must owe
their origin.
;

in the earth's surface

The

sea

and land did not on that occasion and the animals when

change places

it is

not said that any of the inhabitants of the deep
trees_,

were destroyed.

Leaves continued on the

dismissed from the ark must soon have found their appropriate food on the earth's surface.

When the sun had
its

dried and

warmed

the ground,

agricultural aiad pastoral pursuits

were resumed. The earth seems to

have soon regained

wonted appearance, and the destruction of the


Vlll

INTRODUCTION.

enemies of the Lord, and of those animals which were not preserved

by a

special providence,

was the only remarkable memorial of

this

signal

judgment of Jehovah.

On

these and other grovmds, scarcely

any one now

ascribes the geological

phenomena

at present existing,

to the effects of the deluge, to say nothing of the strong probability

of a conjecture jaow adopted by
their scientific attainments

many men

distinguished alike for
religion, that

and attachment to revealed

the waters of the deluge extended over only that part of the earth's
surface

which was the residence of the human
the

species.

Under

this

view,

animals taken into the ark were only such as were

necessary for man's immediate use after the deluge, and for the

propagation of their kind in that district of the earth which had

been the scene of that memorable catastrophe.

The mode which has been adopted
the apparent

in the analysis for reconciling

discrepancies between the account of the creation, and the phenomena of geology, is very simple, and may be stated
in very few words:

In verse

first,

the sacred historian

announces the general and
beginning God created the

independent

proposition,

— "In
it is

the

heavens and the earth."

In this proposition the word "beginning"

designates a period, antecedently to which, neither the universe,

nor the elements of which
period, however,
is

composed, were in existence.

That

quite

indefinite,
its

and the sacred writer has

furnished us with no clue to

discovery.

He

simply announces

the

fact, that

the universe had a beginning and a Creator, and in

the few words which have been quoted, he gives an authoritative
solution of the problem of the creation of the world, leaving us to
infer that the Creator
is

the only

Almighty and Eternal God, alone
the earth as existing in a
it

uncreated, independent, and

self- existent.
diflfe-

The second
rent

verse represents

form from that in which
its

originally proceeded

from the

hands of
desolate.
signifies

Creator,

and

as

having become dreary, dark,

and

The
and,

particle \ prefixed to T*'^.^{^ at the

commencement,
is

but,

moreover, etc.

The word rtn^H

sometimes,

rendered by the

LXX.

as ^v, fuit, was,

and sometimes by e^evero

factum

est, became. The words '\T\T\ and ^inin are nearly synonymous, and when used together, serve to add strength, or to give a

INTRODUCTIOJCT.
superlative sense to cither expression taken singly.

ix

The
ivaste

expression

may

signify that the earth became, or

had become, a

and

desert,

or completely ivaste.
that ''darkness

In the subsequent part of the verse,
face

it is

said

was upon the

of the deep."

This verse, and

the verses

which

follow, lead us to believe that the earth
it

was then
its

without light

— that

was overflowed with water

— that
it

surface

was not clothed with
of animal
life.

grass, plants, or trees

— and that
and

was destitute

What

period of time elapsed between the state of
first

the earth, as described in the
in the second,

verse,

its state

as described
states;

and how long was subject

it

continued in each of these

or whether
sions,

it

to intermediate revolutions

and convul-

how many, the sacred record furnishes no means whatever of deciding. As to the duration between these periods, our conjectures may range within any supposable period of time.
or
to

Intimation, however,
into
its

Is

given in the third verse, that

it

was brought

present state of existence
light."

when God

said, " Let there be

light:

and there was

According

to this view, the original
is

creation, in the highest sense of the word,
fii'st.

described in verse

In the second, intimation

is

given that, at some period unde-

and from some cause from us concealed, the earth became waste, dark, and desolate. In the third and following verses, the
fined,

account

is

given of the formation from this confused mass, of the

earth which

we

inhabit,

and

all

that

it

contains.
it

On

philological

groimds, therefore,

appears that the IMosaic

account of the creation has been established, and not invalidated,

by geological phenomena; and not only

so,

but from these pheno-

mena arguments have been adduced of
providence.

a very powerful kind, to

enhance the wonders of God's creation, and the wisdom of His

CHAPTEK

11.

On the Genuineness of the Pentateuch.
By
tlie

genumeness of the Pentateuch,

1

understand that the five

books of Closes which go under that name were actually written

:

X
by him, and

INTRODUCTION.
at the period, in

which he
I

is

said in these

books to

have flourished.
it

In the limits which
for

have prescribed to myself,

was impossible

me
is

to discuss this subject at length.

have brought forward

by way of contribution

to

the

What I common

stock of arguments, usually
question.

advanced in proof of the point in

There

is

something in the
fail

civil

and

ecclesiastical polity of the

Jews which cannot

to strike every reflecting

mind.

The

civil

and religious institutions and laws, contained in their sacred records,
are widely diflerent from those of

any other nation imder heaven

and

their manners, habits,

modes of thinkings and national character

formed under

these

institutions,

mark them out

as

a peculiar

and extraordinary people.

Priding themselves in the favour shewn

buoyed up, even in the midst of calamity them by Jehovah and degradation, by the expectation of promises to be fulfilled, which^ as they erroneously imagined, would raise their nation to the
highest pitch of earthly power and greatness, they were but too

much

inclined to despise

all

other nations.

While
faith,

their laws war-

ranted the reception of proselytes to their the slightest

own

they prevented

amalgamation of their religion with that of foreigners.
of their ceremonial, in a great measure, debarred

The

strictness

them from

social intercourse

with strangers, and rendei'ed

it

necessary

for them, whithersoever they went, to regulate their conduct, in

many important
the Jews were at
it

particulars,
all

by

their

own

laws.

From such

causes,

times exceedingly disliked by foreigners; and
their enemies,

was

said of

as well as
all

throughout their whole history, in the times of the Apostles, that " they were contrary to

them by

men."

Long

before the period of the Christian era, the canon of the Old

Testament scriptures had been completed.

At that

period they were

held in the highest veneration, as inspired records of divine truth.

They were read and explained
and of the national
civil

in the

synagogues every Sabbath-day,

and they were the foundations of the religious faith and practice,
institutions

and ordinances of the Jews, both
'ypa/jufiaTet';

and

religious.

Orders of men, called at that period
for the transcription

and

vo/xiKol,

were appointed

and interpretation
or scribe,

of the Scriptures.

The

office

of

ypafifj^arevt;,

was the

INTRODUCTION.
more necessary then, owing
tivation Loth to the

XI
intellectual cul-

advancement of
and

among Jews and

Gentiles,

to the necessity of copies

of

tlie

Scriptures for the synagogues,

and

for private

individuals in

rTudca,

and throughout the other countries in which Jews and Jewish

proselytes were settled.

The

office

of the

vo/ii/co9,

or interpreter of
to

the law,

became the more necessary when the Hebrew ceased
and was known only
to the better

be a

living language^

educated of the

community.

The

facts

which have been

stated, are in accordance
]\Ioses to

with earnest
the whole

and repeated injunctions in the laws of

make

of the people thoroughly acquainted with the revelation which had

been given them. The contrast between the conduct of the
law-giver, in this respect,
particularly striking.

Israelitish
is

and that of the heathen philosophers,
the Hebrews there was no

Among

distinction

between

secret

and public doctrine

— there

were no mysteries con-

cealed from the vulgar

— there was not

one part of the revelation

which could be made known only
the uninitiated.
the people

to the initiated,

and the other

to

Everything was done

in the sight

and hearing of

—the whole of the law was publicly read
to, or

at stated periods,
it,

and there could be nothing added

detracted from
detected.

which

would not be immediately discovered and

The
the

effects of the circulation, public

reading, and explanation of
to,

Scriptures,

which have been adverted

were remarkably
of
all classes

e\ddent in the course of Christ^s ministry.

The Jews
far as

of the community, seem to have been intimately acquainted with
the contents of their sacred records.

In as

we

can perceive

from the
ing,

Xew

Testament

scriptures, their opinions,
cast.

modes of think-

and conversation were of a religious

Every one with
was strong, of
but heard

whom

Christ conversed displayed an acquaintance with the con-

tents of the

sacred volume.

Of some the
eyes, but

faith

others weak, of

some the

religious

knowledge was completely missaw not;
ears,

directed or perverted

— many had

not; a heart, but understood not.

But however

destitute they

were

of the spirit and power of religion, the Scriptures seem to have been
generally read and studied.

All seem to have been acquainted with

the early history of their nation, with the promises
fathers,

made

to the

and with the laws of Moses,

political, religious,

and moral.

XU

INTRODUCTION.
find tliem accordingly, in compliance with
tliere
tlie

We

"Mosaic law,
tlie

observing the stated festivals
offering the

enjoined, keeping

Sabbath,

prescribed sacrifices, circumcising their children, ob-

serving the purifications necessary in the case of ceremonial defile-

ment,
tithes

strictly

attending to

the distinctions of meats, and paying

with scrupulous exactness.
is

Moses

ever spoken of with the highest reverence
all

—his law
— and
still

is is

appealed to for the final settlement of

controversies
civil
its

regarded as the basis of the Jewish polity both

and

religious.

There seemed to be no desire
restraints, restraints

to

be freed from

most irksome

which were rendered more burdensome

by

the traditions of the elders.

For these
still

traditions, it is

well known,

the Jews had the highest respect;

they are always specifically

mentioned

as

traditions,

and never confounded with those laws

which are contained
were

in the writings of Moses, the

man

of God.

These remarks are applicable likewise to Jews and proselytes who
at this period settled in the Gentile cities in

different parts

of the world.
cities,

The

history of the opposition to the gospel in these

recorded in the Acts of the Apostles, and the allusion made to

that opposition in the Epistles, particularly in those of the Apostle

Paul, often

show an intimate acquaintance with the contents of the
and
skill in religious

Hebrew

Scriptures, a familiarity with,

contro-

versy, an overweening attachment

and

zeal for the laws of Moses, to the

which occasioned that bigotry, and that enmity
Christ,

cause of

which

so

materially obstructed the progress of the gospel
rise to the bitterest persecutions

at its outset,
its

and wliich gave

of

adherents.
It is true that the

knowledge which the Jews
wickedness. But
religion,

at this period pos-

sessed of their religion

was mixed up with much hypocrisy, and
it is

with

much secret and open
knowledge of

one thing to have a

theoretical

another to be really religious.

And

the greatest religious bigotry and persecution have been often
It

found among the most profligate of the professors of religion.
cannot, however, be imagined that the state of things to which

we

have adverted could have been of rapid growth or of recent origin.
It cannot

be imagined that their Scriptures upon which the charac-

ters, habits,

and even

peculiarities of the nation

had been formed,


INTRODUCTION.
and by
wliicli

xin

they had been characterized both by their

own and
at a

by heathen
recent date.

historians, could

have been introduced among them

These Scriptures then, in the hands of the Jews, were

pi-ecisely the

same

as

those which

we now

possess.

Since the

Christian era, the jealousy subsisting between

Jews and Christians

has been

an effectual check against mutilation, interpolation, or

forgery on either side.
into

The

translation of the

Hebrew

Scriptures

Greek

for the benefit of the

numerous Jews

in Alexandi-ia

who

were incapable of understanding them in their original language,
nearly three hundred years before Christ, shows that not only the

books of

j\Ioses,

but also the whole of the Hebrew Scriptures were

in existence at that time,

and likewise that they had attained

cele-

brity as the religious records of the Jev/s;

had

it

been otherwise,

they would not have attracted the notice of an Egyptian king, nor

would that king have given them a place
Alexandria.

in his celebrated library at

By means

of this translation, the Jewish Scriptures
all

were rendered accessible, not only to

the

Jews and

proselytes to

Judaism scattered throughout the world who understood the Greek o language, but also to all acquainted with that language, whether
proselytes to the Jewish religion or not.

From

the period at which

that translation

was executed, every important alteration in the Jewish Scriptures must have been detected, so that from that time

the

Hebrew

Scriptures and the Septuagint translation

became checks

upon each

other.

That the Pentateuch was not composed and received by the
Jewish nation subsequently
for the following reasons
:

to the

Babylonish captivity

is

obvious

I premise

by remarking

that the captivity of the whole of the

Jewish people was predicted in the writings of Moses.
tion of a

The

destruc-

whole nation, or their perfect subjugation, or the occupa-

tion of their cities

and lands by

their invaders

and conquerors, or the
or elsewhere
is

slavery of a portion of them in their

own country

not

an unusual fate; but a complete ^eroUr)cn^, or transportation of a
nation into the land of their conquerors, although not unheard of in
ancient times,
It
is,

to say the least of

it,

an extraordinary prediction.

was

also predicted

by Moses

that during the captivity the land
it

should enjoy her Sabbaths— i.e., that

should neither be

tilled

nor


xiv

INTRODUCTION.
for its cultivation

sown, in order to compensate

and cropping during
express injunction,

a course of Sabbatical years, contrary to ]\Ioses'

which was consequently regarded

as a national sin.

Now,

it is

an

astonishing fact, that in accordance with this prediction, the king of

Babylon, during the seventy years of the captivity, neither occupied
the cities of Judea, nor cultivated, nor cropped the land, notwithstandino- the apparent political advantages

which would have accrued
the people

to

him from doing

so.
is

The

other remarkable feature in connection
all

with the prophecy,

the restoration of

who

desired

it,

upon

their repentance, to their native country,

by the

assistance

and

co-operation of those to

whom

they had been captives and

slaves.

These are surely

facts

of a very remarkable nature.

The

prediction

and
I

its

fulfilment are equally extraordinary.

now observe

that the Pentateuch could not have been
at

composed

or received by the Jews
captivity

any period subsequently
:

to the

Babylonish

upon the following grounds
first

In the

place, only a portion of the

Jewish people returned

from that

captivity.

We

have evidence that during the reign of

Ahasuerus, Jews were scattered over the whole of the Persian empire,

and were then living according

to their

own

laws.

It is stated

in the book of Esther, that in addition to those living in the capital,
there

were Jews dispersed over the hundred and twenty seven
Supposing then, that the books of

provinces of the Persian empire.

Moses had been by a fraud

foisted

upon the Jews of
altered,

Palestine,

and

provided that thereby the great fundamental principles of their religion

and

ecclesiastical polity

had been

how was

the con-

sent of the other

Jews throughout the world
polity,

to be obtained to such

an

innovation?
in the

This must have created a revolution in opinion, and

whole of the Jewish

which surely could not have been

carried out, without opposition in Judea, without remonstrances from

the other Jews scattered over the whole face of the earth, or without
allusion to
it

by any

liistorian,

whether Jew or Gentile.

Such a supevidence
o-reat

position

is

surely extremely improbable,
;

and

it is

utterly destitute of

foundation

indeed so

far is this
lies

from being the

case, that all

external and internal

the other

way

.

Eeligion was the

and almost only bond of union between the Jews of Palestine and those of other countries. It was their religion that kept them from


INTRODUCTION.
amalgamating with
otlier nations

XV
religion that

it

was

tlicir

brought

tlicm from time to time to Jerusalem

it

was that bond that bronoht

the dwellers in Libya, in Parthia, in

and who can doubt that had that

Kome, and in Arabia together bond been broken by a radical
Jews
in foreign

cliange in religion, worship and national habits, the

lands would have protested against it?

Such a supposition would likewise be completely
all

at variance

with

the facts recorded in ancient history connected with relifion.
faith, there is

Until the conversion of the world to the Christian
instance of

no

any radical change having taken place
its

in the religion of

any nation, from the remotest periods of
difficulties in the

history.

Indeed, the

way

of effecting such a change appear to have

been so great, that even the Eomans in the pleutitude of their power
never attempted a radical change in the religious faith of the weakest It

and most inconsiderable of the nations Avhich they had subdued.
was
a part of their policy

never to interfere with the religious

opinions of those

whom

they had conquered; but this policy was

founded upon an intimate acquaintance with the principles of himian

which such interference would have occasioned in the government of their conquered
nature, and
difficulty

upon the increased

provinces.
If the books of j\Ioses

had been forged

at this date,

(and the same

question

may

be asked in regard to every other period from the days

of Moses himself),

who was

to forge

them ?

Could the Jews go
one God only,

to

Egypt, Persia, Greece, or Eome, and borrow a religion based upon
the

fundamental principle,

that

there

is

infinite,

eternal,

and unchangeable

in

holiness, justice, goodness,

and tnith,

and

whom

none durst worship under the image or likeness of
is

any thing that
in the waters
like his

in

heaven above, or that

is

in the earth beneath, or
spiritual

under the earth, and whose laws are
nature?
It

and holy

own

appears that the Jews were possessed of

very

little

learning or philosophy, but what was connected with

their religion.

Their speculations apart from

it,

seem

to

have been

of the most frivolous kind.

The Jews

are great only

when they

hold the doctrines of their religion, and continue stedfast in obedience to
the

acknowledge to

commands of their God. The laws which they be of their own making, and which go under the

INTRODUCTION.

name

of the traditions of their elders, are puerile and contemptible

in the extreme.

Another argument against the books
written after the

of

Moses

having been
fact,

Babylonish captivity,

arises

from the

that

durino- that period the

Hebrew language became
to a great portion of the
style, after the

greatly corrupted,

and was unintelligible
corruptions in

community.

The
and

Hebrew

return from the captivity, will

be particularly set forth in the second part of this introduction,
the result
of the comparisons between the
style of

Moses and that of

Ezra, will, I trust, satisfy every competent and candid judge, that

the Pentateuch could have scarcely been written by Ezra without a
miracle,

and

it

cannot

fail

to excite surprise that the assertion should
late years that the

have been so frequently hazarded of
or any part of
as written
it

Pentateuch,

was written by him. was

That the Hebrew language

by

]\Ioses,

unintelligible to the great
is

body of the

people after the captivity,

manifest from the statement

made

in

Nehemiah, where
and caused them
It

it is

said that certain of the Levites " read to the

people in the book, in the law of
to

God distinctly, and gave
stated,

the sense,

understand the reading.-" (Neh.
as

viii. 8.)

was on

this account,

has been already

that the

Septuagint was
of the

translated,

and that the Targums or Chaldee versions

Hebrew

Scriptures were subsequently used.

We

therefore
after

conclude that the great corruption of the

Hebrew language

the Babylonish captivity, and the inability of a great portion of the

community
in the

to understand

it,

created almost insuperable difficulties

way

of the composition or the introduction of the writings of
after that period.

Moses among the Jews
imposture, which

The composition of the
skilfulness in

books of Moses at that period,

would have argued a

we

believe could not have been exhibited in

any

age of the world.

There are many strong objections against the supposition that the Pentateuch was composed or introduced into the Jewish nation at

any time between the

revolt of the ten tribes under

Rehoboam and

the period of the Babylonish captivity.

The books
government.

of Moses have a prospective reference to a change of

Moses supposes that the people would

desire to

have

a kingl ike other nations; but he never contemplates the division

INTRODUCTION.

Xvii

of the nation into separate kingdoms, or the reign of two kings
at the
is

same time.
of.

One

civil

and one

ecclesiastical polity is all that

thought

Two

separate

kingdoms could not

exist without
priest

a breach of the divine law.

There was only one high

and and
were

one temple to which the people could resort to celebrate the stated
festivals,

and

to join in

the stated

sacrifices

and other

rites

ceremonies of their religion.

The

services of the priesthood

restricted to the tabernacle or temple,

and

sacrifices

could only be

oifered by the authorised priesthood and upon the authorised altar.

By

their revolt, the ten

tribes

were prevented from enjoying the
from joining in the religious

services

of the legal priests, and

exercises at the temple.

This regular
political

mode

of worship was

for-

bidden by Jeroboam on

grounds,

lest

the people, by their

return to Jerusalem at the

stated festivals, should be
is

withdrawn
" sin
of

from

their allegiance

to

him; and what

called

the

Jeroboam the son of Nebat, wherewith he made
was the setting up of calves
violation
to at

Israel to

sin,"

Dan and

Bethel,

in

express

of the Mosaic injunctions,

and the causing the people

perform the religious duties in these places, which should have
at the

been performed

temple at Jerusalem.

If the ten tribes then
to their revolt,

had not received the books of Moses previously

what

could have induced them to do so afterwards?

Would

they have

then connived at a fraud devised by their enemies, by which they

were proved

to

be rebels against their awful king, and to be living in

open and daring violation of the statutes and ordinances of their God?

A

copy of the books of Moses, used by the Samaritans, written

in the

Old Hebrew character, which goes under the name of the had been
of for about 1000 years.

Samaritan Pentateuch, was discovered in the year 1625, by Petro
Delia Valle, after
it

lost sight

Theologians, and critics of the highest authority, are
that the Samaritan Pentateuch

now

of opinion,

must have been in the possession of

the ten tribes since their revolt under

Jeroboam

;

and there are indeed
it

insuperable objections against their reception of

at a later date.

The Samaritan copy

differs in

no material points from the Hebrew,

the discrepancies existing between

them

arising

from the introducfrom ignorance
intro-

tion into the text of marginal glosses or explanations,

and mistakes of

transcribers,

and from changes intentionally
c

XVIU

INTRODUCTION.

duced by the Samaritans, in support of certain opinions held by them
in their controversies with the Jews.
If,

however, the ten tribes
it

had received the Pentateuch before
that revolt,

their revolt,
it

does not follow
it

that they would have afterwards rejected

because

condemned
it.

and many of the national practices arising from

Jews and
which

Christians now, as well as of old, practise

many
for

things
these

their Scriptures

condemn, while their reverence
It
is

Scriptures continues unabated.
religious faith,

one thing to adhere to a

previously recognised as true, although, in
it

many
its

important particulars,

condemns our

practice;

and another, to

admit a
truth,
perity,

religion,
is

without the most unquestionable evidences of

which

adverse to our political interests and national pros-

which

lays a restraint

upon our ruling

passions,

and condemns

our whole conduct.

From
almost

the time of the revolt of the ten tribes under Jeroboam,
continual wars, national rivalries, and religious jealousies
to

combined
nations,
hostility

engender the most hostile feelings between the two
all

which apparently pervaded

classes

of society.

Such

between them seems to have subsisted in the time of our

Saviour's ministry; and hence the

woman,

at the well of Sychar,

expressed her surprise that Christ,

who was

a

Jew, should ask to
him because
ix. 53.
is

drink of her

who was

a

Samaritan;

and the inhabitants of a
receive
his

Samaritan

city,

on another occasion, did not
to Jerusalem."

face was as though he would go

— Luke

That the Samaritans received the books of Moses only,
be wondered
revolt, they
at;

not to

had they received the Scriptures written
That was the case
extremely

after their

would have received additional materials
this
is

for their

own

condemnation.

probable,

from the brief narrative which arose out of the meeting of Christ
with the woman at the well of woman and her countrymen had
Messiah's office and character.

Sychar.

It appears that
far,

both this

formed, in so

The woman
all

said

—"

correct notions of
I

know

that

when

Messias cometh, he shall teach us

things"

;

i. e.,

she seemed

to regard

him simply

as a prophet; and, it is probable, that this

limited view of his office, was founded
applied to Christ
to you,

by Stephen — " The

upon the Mosaic prediction
Lord your God
shall raise

up

from the midst of your brethren, a prophet like unto me,

INTRODUCTION.
hiiii

xix

shall

yo hear."

In accordance with this view, no sooner did

Christ fjivc evidence of his prophetic cliaracter, in connection with
his claims to the ]\Iessiahship, than the

exclaimed, " Behold, a
did,
is

man

that told

woman ran to the city, and me all things that ever I
of Sychar.
said unto

not this the Christ?"

Christ was afterwards heard, and his

claims were scrutinized by others of the inhabitants

And many more believed because the woman, Now we believe, not
*'

of his

own word; and
is

because of thy saying: for
this

we

have heard him ourselves, and know that
Saviour of the world."

indeed the Christ, the
other parts of the

The

rejection

of the

writings of the Old Testament
to their full

by the Samaritans, was a great bar understanding of the nature and offices of the Messiah.
era,

During the Mosaic
Messiah,

the mediatorial scheme had not been so

clearly developed, as after the Evangelical prophets

had declared
Father ,
the

that

the

the
us,

Mighty God,
was
to

the
off,

everlasting

Emanuel, God with

be cut

but not /or himself, that
to

he was to be

led as a

lamb

to the slaughter,
all.

and that the Lord was

lay on him the iniquity of us

The

inference that

may be

fairly

drawn from
all

this
in

interesting

narrative, is that the

Samaritans of

classes,

Christ's time,

were intimately acquainted with the writings of Moses, but with

them
to

only.

Now,

the question recurs, at what period subsequently

their

revolt under

Jeroboam, could the ten

tribes

have been

induced to receive the writings of Moses, supposing them to be of a
date posterior to that period ?
that

W^iat can be more improbable than

they would have received, retained, and reverenced, as the

records of their religion, books introduced

by

their enemies, without
their schism,

divine sanction,

which were a standing reproof of
It

image-worship, idolatry, and vices.

hence appears, by means of

the severance of the ten tribes from the rest of the people of Israel,
that a check was

furnished against interpolation,

mutilation,

or

forgery of any part of the Mosaic records, and an evidence afforded
that these

records were in existence, and acknowledged to be of

divine authority previously to their revolt.

But, supposing the books of Moses had been introduced at any
period subsequently to the introduction of the kingly government,
is it

not extremely probable that the form of Government prescribed
c

2

XX
ill

INTRODUCTION.
these books
i.

would have been regal?

— ^ee Graves on
own

the Pentatoler-

teuch, sect.

Is it likely that

the Kings of

Judah would have

ated that which did not confirm and strengthen their

authority,

Avhich did not du'ectly recognise the kingly government, and

which

only contemplated

its

introduction in times of religious declension

and national corruption?

Woidd

the kings have thus furnished

the people with a plea for radical changes in the constitution founded

upon the divine pattern
Farther,
it
is

?

most improbable that the Jews,

at

any period of

their history,

would, under pretext of divine authority, of which

they had no evidence, have received and submitted to laws which con-

demned, under the
national, and^

str'ongest sanctions, their vices,

both personal and

denounced their strong propensity to idolatry, and
it;

punished their lapses into
straints laid

institutions which,

by the many

re-

upon

their intercourse with foreigners, appeared to check

their national prosperity;
tractableness,

and which contained accounts of their un-

ingratitude, chastisements, defeats, and degradation,

which were
vanity.

in many respects anything but flattering to their national Would they have submitted to a burdensome ritual to the

painful sacrifices to wdiich the violation of Moses' laws often subjected

them
tered,

;

and submitted to the reproofs which their prophets adminis-

and listened with patience

to denimciations for the violation

of IMoses' laws, had there been the slightest question as to
divine authority
?

their

The gods of heathen
and
as rather to

nations have always been of
their religion generally has

like passions with their worshippers,

been so moulded

countenance and encourage, than to
it

check and condemn their ruling passions and vices; and so would

have been with the religion of the
heavenly origin.
I

Israelites,

had

it

not been of

now

proceed to show, that the Pentateuch could not have been

written at any period between the eras of Solomon and Moses.

The
is

only remark which I shall make in reference to Solomon's reign
this

— If the Pentateuch

was

foisted

upon the

Israelites

during the

reign of Solomon, Solomon must have been privy to the imposture.

On

this supposition, the Israelites

must have then heard
If such
is

for the first
it

time of the Mosaic tabernacle.

the case,

is

not ex-

tremely probable that Solomon would have erected a tabernacle and

INTHODUCTIOX.
not a temple; and that,
ior<ifed
oi'

XXI

if

he had wished to erect a temple in the

Avork ascribed to Moses, a description

would have been given
moveable

a temple, and not of a tabernacle.

Tlie erection of a

tabernacle

by

j\Ioscs,

on the supposition of the genuineness of the

l^entateuch,

and the subsequent erection of the temple by Solomon,
is

under the altered circumstances of the nation,
consistent,

at once natural,

and probable.

The

chief

argument which

I

mean

to adduce, to prove that the
is

books of Moses were written previously to the era of David,

drawn
That
(which

from the contents of many of the Psalms written by him.

the great proportion of the Psalms was written by David himself,

and by

his

contemporaries,

is

apparent from their

titles

should not be rashly set aside), from their style, and from their contents.

There are few of the Psalms that bear allusion

to historical
tie

events subsequent to the era of David, so distinct as can

them

down with any
indirect

precision to a later date.

refer to historical events previously to

Many of them distinctly his own times, and contain
which could have
well acquainted with the

and

delicate allusions

to

these events,

been

intelligible

only to those

who were

facts alluded to.

If

any considerable portion of the Psalms had been composed

after David's time, there

would have doubtless been references

in

them

to the history of the

Jews subsequently

to that period; but

comparatively few such references are made.

Xo

king of Israel

is

named
made

in the Psalras but David. to

In some, distinct allusions are

events in Solomon's history, in others to the Babylonish

captivity.

With

these exceptions, scarcely any fragments of Jewish

history can be gleaned from the Psalms; whereas the events described
in the Pentateuch are so frequently

and minutely mentioned, that

they might almost of themselves furnish materials for an historical
narrative from the earliest times.

We

may

then

fairly conclude,

that had any considerable portion of the Psalms been composed after the age of David, there would have been more frequent and

express allusions in
that specific mention
a.-

them

to

the events of Solomon's reign; and
signal events

would have been made of such

the revolt of the ten tribes
l>au

under Jeroboam, the image-worsliip
Ahal:),

L

and Bethel, and the idolatry established by

Alhaliah,

XXn
Ahaz, and others
;

INTRODUCTION.
the captivity of the people of Israel, the piety

of some of the kings, and the wickedness of others; and such as
seasons of victory

and

defeat, of oppression

and deliverance.

There

would, doubtless, in the course of a period ranging between the
eras of

David and Malachi, have been found songs of gratitude

for

victory and deliverance, penitential strains on a return to
national backslidings and corruptions,
tion in seasons of national calamity, in

God

after

and solemn dirges of lamentaall

which the

special causes of

triumph, thankfulness, repentance, suffering, and chastisement would

have been
case
is

distinctly

set

forth.

That
and

this

would have been the
made,
in

rendered more than probable, from the circumstance, that
facts

historical

are

referred

to,

allusions

those

Psalms which mark distinctly a later era than that of David.
In the 137th Psalm, a very affecting account
sufferings of God's people during the captivity,
is

given of the

and of other circum-

stances connected with that event.

In that psalm the Jewish people
rivers of

are described as sitting and

weeping by the

Babylon " when
Rase

they remembered Zion ;" as calling upon the Lord to " remember
the children of
rase
it,

Edom

in the

day of Jerusalem, who

said,

it,

even to the foundations thereof;" and as triumphing in

imagination over the fate of their cruel oppressors, in the solemn
strains:
shall

—"

daughter of Babylon,
as

who

art to

be destroyed; happy

he be that rewardeth thee

thou hast served us; happy shall
little

he be that taketh and dasheth thy

ones against the stones,"

Psalm 126 seems evidently

to be a

hymn of gratitude composed after

the people's return from Babylon, which thus commences:

— "When

the Lord turned again the captivity of Zion,

we were Uke them that Then was our 'mouth filled with laughter, and our tongue with singing; then said they among the heathen, The Lord hath
dreamed.

done great things
If

for them."

we

read the psalms attentively,

to circumstances

we shall find many allusions connected with David's own history, to his mercies,
and
There
are,

to his troubles, to his sins, to his chastisements, to his dangers,

to his deliverances.

however, special reasons for his not

there

naming the persons
father of his wife,

to

whom

he

refers.

His great persecutor

was the

and of

his dearest friend.

Many

of his

sorrows arose out of the misconduct of his

own

family,

and most of

INTRODUCTION.

XXIU

the actors in the scenes to which he refers, were alive at the time.

There were not, hoAvever, any reasons,
of anterior date.

for delicacy in regard to facts
is

Of

these accordingly frequent mention
is

made.

In psalm cxxxvi. there

reference to the

Lord making the heavens

to

His stretching out the earth over the waters


to

to

His making
to rule

great lights, the sun to rule the day, and the

moon
to

the

night

to Plis smiting the first-born of

Egypt


it

His dividing the His overthrow

Red

Sea, and to His

making Israel

pass through

of Pharaoh

to His leading the people through the wilderness

— to

His destruction of Sihon, king of the Amorites, and Og, king of
Bashan, and to the establishment of his people in the promised land.
In some of the Psalms the references are
special.
still

more minute and
cvi.,

See particularly Psalms

Ixxviii.,

cv.,

cxv.

These

Psalms refer principally to the events recorded in the

Books of
on the

Moses and Joshua.
are

The The

references to those in the

Book of Judges
for

much

less

frequent.

And
first is,

this

may be accounted

following groimds.
little else

that the records of that period are

than accounts of the backslidings, idolatry, and degradation

of the chosen people.

The second

is,

that there

is

no certainty that

the records preserved of these events as

they occurred, were, in

David's time, compiled and reduced into the form in which

we

now have them

;

or if they were so, that they were publicly read
as the

and taught to the people,

books of Moses were.

That the

people of Israel in David's time were familiar with the historical
events recorded in the books of Moses,

may be

regarded as certain,

from the frequent allusions made to them

in the historical Psalms

which have been referred

to

;

for

we cannot imagine
by the
which was
with

that a writer of

David's taste and judgment, guided too

Spirit of

God, would

have composed the national poetry,
of God, and which

to be used in the service

we must

believe was designed to be understood
it

by the whole nation, and stored

facts

which were generally
were unintelligible,

unknown, and with
devotional feeling.
V

allusions which,

as they

could neither be expected to impart instruction nor to inspire

By

the Mosaic institutions

it

had been pro-

idcd that the people should be

made thoroughly acquainted with the
Parents are enjoined

whole of the contents of the Mosaic records.
to teach their children

the statutes and ordinances of the Lord, and

xxiv
to

INTRODUCTION.
to

make known

them

all

the Lord's gracious dealings with his

chosen people (Deut.

xi. 18, 19).

The law was
in

publicly read every

seventh year; and, by means of the dispersion of the Levites in fortyeight
cities

assigned
7, 8),

to

them
to

different parts of the

country

(Numb. XXXV.
and by
their

by

their transcription of copies of the
it

law

teaching

the people, which

were evidently

duties enjoined

upon them, a knowledge of the contents of the
as
it

Mosaic records must have been kept up, such

may be

fairly

argued from the contents of the Psalms they possessed.
It

would have indeed been absurd
Psalms, facts of which
the

to introduce into the histofor

rical

generality of those

whose
absurd
as

behoof they were written were ignorant;

but

much more

would

it

have been to make allusions to these in such a way
utterly unintelligible without a

would have been
facts alluded to.

knowledge of the

to

Psalm civ. 6 9, allusion is made " Thou coveredst the deep as the deluge in the following terms.

For example,

in

with a garment, the waters stood above the mountains.

buke thy
the

fled.

They go up by the mountains,
bound that they may not
earth.'"

At thy rethey go down by

valleys,

unto the place which thou hast founded for them.
pass over, that they turn

Thou
to
in

hast set a

not again to cover the

The following passage
"

bears reference

Abraham's sojourn in Egypt.

When

they were but a few

men

number, yea very few, and strangers in

it

(the land of Canaan);

when they went from one

nation to another, from one country to

another people, he suffered no one to do them wrong, yea, he re-

proved kings for their sakes
17

"

— 20.

see

Psalm

cv. 12

14, Genesis xii.

The
"

following are allusions to the crossing of the

Red Sea

and of the river Jordan through the miraculous intervention of
Jehovah.

Thou

art the

declared thy strength

redeemed thy people,

God that hast done wonders, thou hast among thy people; thou hast with thine arm the sons of Jacob and Joseph. The waters
afraid; the depths
is

saw
also

thee,

God, the waters saw thee, they were

were troubled."

Ps. Ixxvii. 16.

That the following
and

an

allu-

sion to the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt,

after the disis

possession of the Canaanites, to their settlement in their land,

very

obvious.

"

Thou

hast brought a vine out of Egypt, thou hast cast
it.'^

out the heathen and planted

— Psalm Ixxx.

8.

If,

then,

we

are to

INTRODUCTION.

XXV

suppose that the sacred poetry of the Hebrews was designed to be
intelligible to those for

whose behoof it was written, we cannot but
Mosaic history, were, in David's

infer that the facts explained in the

time, familiar to the generality of the Jewish nation;

and certainly and

the

supposition

that

these

facts
is

were obtained from any other
most improbable
in itself,

source than the jMosaic writings
entirely destitute of

any kind of support.

Generally speaking, the Psalms
rences,

may be

said to

abound with

refe.
is

more

or less direct to the books of Moses.

"In no case

there any discrepancy as to the historical facts;

and the doctrines,

the morality, the ordinances, the forms of worship, the rites and

ceremonies, which are distinctly set forth, or which are merely allu-

ded

to in the Psalms, exactly coincide

with what

is

found in these

books.
earlier,

Indeed, the whole strain of the Psalms, whether later or

shews that their authors had before them the writings of

Moses, and that these writings were the foundation of the civil and
ecclesiastical institutions

of the Jews, and the basis of the faith,
peculiarities of that people.

morals, habits,

and even

Under the IMosaic dispensation, as framed originally, the government was different from any that ever before existed it was a Theocracy. " It will easily appear (says Lowman), that the general union of the tribes as one body, may be conceived after this man-

ner

— that the congregation of
in

Israel, or

the whole people enacted

by

themselves or their representatives; that the great council advised,
consulted, and proposed; that the judge presided in their councils

and had the chief hand

executing what was resolved in them;
to assent to
it

and that Jehovah by the oracle was

and approve what
in matters of the

was resolved, and authorize the execution of
greatest importance to the

whole

state.

So that the general union
It

of the whole nation

may

not improperly be thus expressed.
of the

was by the command of the people, and advice

senate;

the judge presiding and the oracle approving" {^Lowman on the Civil

Government of the Hebrews, chap.

vii.).

Moses, however, anticipates
;

the people's desire to have a king like other nations did

but

this

change

not take

place

without strong

remonstrances

on the part
an

of the prophet Samuel.

And when

a proposal Avas made, at

earlier period, for conferring the

crown upon Gideon, he repudiated

XXvi
the
offer,

INTRODUCTION.

holding that the establishment of the regal government was a rejection of Jehovah; " I shall not," said he, " reign over youj

nor shall
you."

my son My reason

reign over you

;

but Jehovah shall reign over

for referrmg at present to the

change from the
is

purely theocratical to the regal
this

form of government,

to

shew that
Moses
is

and every other change of the original
is

institutions of

expressly mentioned, and that mention

made, likewise, of the

authority and reasons upon which the change was effected.

The

change to the regal form of government was,

as

we have

said, antici-

pated by Moses, and after an ineffectual remonstrance by Samuel,
the Lord allowed
at the

him

to authorize the change,

and directed him,

same time, to sheAV the people the manner of the king that
is,

should reign over them (1 Samuel x. 25); that
basis of the

to lay

new
is

constitution.

Under

this constitution,

down the new officers

were appointed

for the king's

government and household, of

whom

no mention

made

in the writings of Moses.

Similar changes took

place in the ecclesiastical

arrangements, some of which the final

settlement of the ark on

Mount

Zion, and the building

of the

Temple, rendered necessary.
of IMoses, one of the
offices

Thus, according to the appointment
of the Levites was to carry the taber-

nacle and the vessels thereof

(Numbers

iv.

24, seq.) That service was

discontinued by David; but not without intimation of the change,

and of the reason of
hath given rest unto
for ever.

it.

For David

said,

" The Lord

God

of Israel

Ms

people, that they

may

dwell in Jerusalem

And,

also,

unto the Levites, that they shall no more
^^

carry the tabernacle^ nor any vessels
(1

of

it

for the service thereof

Chron.

xxiii. 25, 26).

After the building of the temple, the

Levites

were

chosen by
1 seq.)

Lot

as

porters for

the

several

gates

(1 Chron. xxvi.

These and

other

changes were made by

David under divine
those that were

authority.

Another change made by him was

the division of the Levites into courses (1 Chron. xxiii. 3, seq.) "

Of

nmnbered from the age of
set
officers

thirty years

and upwards

twenty and four thousand were to

forward the work of the Lord,

and six thousand were
ments which

and judges. Moreover, four thousand

were porters, and four thousand praised the Lord with the instruI

made", said David, " to praise therewith.

And he
institution

divided them into courses,

among

the sons of Levi."

An

INTRODUCTION.

XXVli

of David, which was Buperadded to the institutions of Moses, was
that of singers

and players upon instruments. These,

as appears

from

the above quotation, were chosen

from among the Levltes; and

music, both vocal and instrumental, was introduced into the service

of Jehovah.
religious

It appears that at this period

were composed psalms or
choir.

hymns, which were sung by the

The

singers

and

players on musical instruments were tbe sons of Asaph,

Heman, and

Jeduthiin,
(1

Chron. XXV.

who were divided by Lot into twenty- four orders 1, seq.) who were ^^for singers in the house of the Lord,
psalteries,

with cymbals,

and harps

for the service

of the house of

God, according to the King's order to Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman,
so the

number of their brethren
even
all

that were instructed in the songs of

the Lord,

those that were cunning, were

two hundred four-

score

and

eight."

The

Priests

were likewise divided into twenty-four

courses,

by David, and
1, seq.).

their various duties

were assigned them

(1 Chron. xxiv.

Wliat has been above mentioned will make

apparent what was already stated as to certain changes that were

made upon the Mosaic
rendered necessary.
pressed;

institutions,

which times and circumstances

and the

The times and reasons of these changes are expersons by whom, and the authority under which,
It
is

they were made, are distinctly mentioned.

to

be observed,

however, that there was no change effected in doctrine, duty, or in
the general principles of the Mosaic constitution.

The whole
to certain

of the

subsequent Scriptures mark
;

it

out as the great basis of religious faith

and polity and the Innovations which only related

outward

forms are expressly mentioned as not of Mosaic institution, but of a
later date, so that there Is

no confusion whatever between what was

established
others.

by

]\Ioses,

and what by Samuel, David, Solomon, or

Accordingly, Hezekiah, in the course of his restoration of

the true religion, agreeably to the law of Moses, in assigning duties
to the Levites,

which were not found

in the

books of Moses, gives

the authority

upon which

these offices were Instituted, thus

*'

And

he

set

the Levltes in the

House of the Lord, with cymbals, with
the

psalteries,

and with harps, according to

of Gad, the king's seer, and of Nathan the projihet

commandment of David and for so was the ;

commandment of the Lord by his prophets. And Hezekiah commanded to oiler the burnt- offering upon the altar. And when the

xxviii

INTRODUCTION.
tlie

bunit-ofFcring began^

song of

tlie

Lord began

also, witli

the

trumpets, and with the instruments ordained by David, king of Israel" (2 Chron. xxix. 25-27). I conceive, that from these fiicts and

arguments,

it

clearly appears that

the books of Moses must have

been in existence long before the reign of David.
expression in the Psalms, or in
history to prove the contrary.
there, as to

There

is

not an

the contemporary or subsequent
is

There

not the slightest hint given

any radical change effected or contemplated upon the
that elapsed between the death of Joshua, and the era

national religion.

The period

of Samuel seems to have been one of great corruption.

" After the

death of Joshua, and after the generation that were contemporary

with him were gathered to their
tion after

fathers, there arose another genera-

them which knew not the Lord, nor yet the works which
for Israel.

he had done

Aaid the children of Israel did evil in the

sight of the Lord,

and served Baalim.

And

they forsook the

God

of their fathers, which brought them out of the land of Egypt, and

followed other gods of the gods of the people that were roimd about

them, and bowed themselves unto them, and provoked the Lord to
anger; and they forsook the Lord and served Baal and Ashtaroth"

(Jud.

ii.

8, seq.)

At

a subsequent period of their history, after the
it is

death of J air, one of their judges,

said that the

children of

Israel " did evil in the sight of the Lord, and served Baalim and

Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Sidon, and the

gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Amnion, and the

gods of the Philistines, and forsook the Lord, and served not him
(Jud. X.
6).

"

It is likewise

stated, that, after the death

of Gideon,

the children of Israel went a whoring after Baalim, and
berith their

made

Baalat

God

(viii.

33).

At

this period, there

was a temple

Shechem dedicated to

Baal,

which had been enriched by the

offerings

of the people, and from which Ahimelech, the son of Gideon, received
three hundred pieces of silver, with which he hired " light and vain

persons to follow him" (Jud. ix. 4, 5).

The most

dreadful instance

of national corruption, however,

is

that described in Jud. xx. 2, seq.,

from which

it

appears that the inhabitants of Gibeah in Benjamin,

surpassed, if possible, in wickedness, those of

Sodom, described
in
it.

in

Gen. xix.

1, seq.,

and that their brethren abetted them

It

was

;

INTRODUCTION.
this

XXIX

appalling conditiou of immorality that induced the

Lord

to

annihilate almost the whole of that tribe.

Indeed, during the whole

of the period between the death of Joshua, and the era of David,
the history
servitude,
is

little else

than a record of wars, defeats, oppression,
Avith

and national degradation, interspersed only

occa-

sional seasons of repentancCj

imiformly followed by relapses into
of Eli and Samuel were insuf-

former besetting
ficient to restrain

sins.

The examples

the wickedness even of their

own

families,

and to

check the corruptions which extended
persons of their

to the priesthood,
it

even in the

own

sons.

How,

then,

may

be asked, could the
at

books of the Pentateuch have been introduced, and received
a period?

such

Who

within that period had influence or authority to

induce the people to receive a book purporting to contain the laws

and religious records of their nation, which would have been a
standing memorial of their

own

corruption and degradation, and
to be untrue ?

which every man

in the nation

must have known

In the history of the period that elapsed between the eras of
]\Ioses

and David, we not only find direct and

special references to

the laws of Moses, but likewise indirect allusions, which prove in no
unsatisfactory

manner the existence of

institutions, rites,

and

cere-

monies, which are clearly the same as those found in the Mosaic
records.

In the book of Joshua, there

is

an apportionment of the land

of Canaan by lot

among

the tribes, there being a double portion

assigned to Joseph in the persons of

Ephraim and
in Gen.

]\Ianasseh, agreexlviii.

ably to the provision

made by Jacob
as
it

5 and 22.
xviii. 1

There
Josh.
Israel

is

no portion assigned
14

to the tribe of

Levi (Deut.
the

xiii.

— 33),

because,

was

said,

Lord God of
to

was their inheritance; they have, however, assigned

them

forty-eight cities, with their suburbs, in different parts of the country.

Reference

is

made
to

to the

High

Priest

and other

priests, as well as to

the Levites

judges and prophets, and

to the oracle

which was

consulted on every occasion of importance.

Frequent mention

is

made

of the tabernacle

and ark of the
'are often

covenant erected by Moses; and incidental allusions
to the ceremonial law,

made

which carry more weight than even references

of a more direct kind.

Of

these
cxli.

may be

noticed the " morning and

evening sacrifice" (Psalm

2); with

which compare Exodus

XXX
xxix. 38, 39;

INTRODUCTION.
the sprinkling of the blood of the red heifer with

hyssop, in

the
li.

words, " Purge
7;

me

with hyssop, and

I shall

be

clean" (Psalm
burnt-offerings

and Numb. xix. 18); the frequent
peace-ofFerings
(1

allusions to
etc.
;

and

Sara. xiii. 8),

the

custom of going yearly to the house of God, and of sacrificing to
the Lord of Hosts in Shiloh, where the tabernacle stood (1 Samuel
i.

2,

compare Deut. xvi.

16).

The

first-born

brought to appear
i.

before the Lord with the appointed offering (1 Sam.

22,

compare
the ark

Exod.

xxii. 29,

and xxxiv.

19); the Levites taking

down

of the covenant (1 Sam.

vi. 15,

compare Numb.

i.

50, 51);

the

men

of Bethshemesh smitten because they had looked into the ark
(1

of the Lord

Sam.

vi.

19.,

compare Numb.

ii.

10);

the

con-

demnation
Saul,

of

sacrificing

burnt-offerings

and

peace-oflPerings

by
by a
the

which could only have, according
Sam.
xiii.

to the law, been offered

priest (1

8

— 11);

6,

the eating of oxen and
vii.

sheep with

the blood (1 Sam. xiv. 32, 33, seq.; Lev.

26; xix. 26);

shew-bread in the holy place, which could only be eaten by the
priests

(1

Sam. xxi. 4

compare Levit. xxiv. 5
(Ibid,

— 9);

the

Lord's
xxvii.

answering by
21);
the

ark of
vi.

Urim God

xxviii.

6

;

compare

Numb,

described as dwelling

between the

cherubim (2 Sam.
(1

2; Exod. xxv. 22); the horns upon the altar

Kings

i.

30, compare Exod. xxvii. 2); the law of the Nazarites

(Jud. xiv. 13; comp.

monial defilement in a

Numb. vi. 2, seq.); the consequences of cereman (1 Sam. xx. 26; compare Lev. xv. 18);

and the

purification of

women

(2 Sam. xi. 4; comp. Lev. xv. 19;

xviii. 19).

Under

this class of allusions

may be

noticed the contemp-

tuous epithet of uncircumcised to the Philistines, which certainly implies that the rite of circumcision

was within

this period universally

performed among the

Israelites,

according to the laws of Moses.

The

cases that follow prove the observance of the civil laws of
viz.,

the Mosaic code within the period referred to;

"the prohibition

of the gleaning of the corn-fields, which was a privilege vested in the poor" (Ruth
tion of land
ii.

7,

comp. Lev. xix.

9, 10.)

The

right of the redemp-

by the nearest male kinsman, and the deceased widow's

right of being married

by the person who had the right of redemphad been
childless,

tion, in case the deceased

and

to the

ceremony of
avail

loosing the shoe, in case the nearest of kin should

fail to

him-

INTRODUCTION.
pclfof his privileges (Ruth
iv. 7, scq.;

XXXI
9,

comp. Levit. xix.

10); the

taking of bribes by Samuel's sons for the perversion of judgment
(1

Sam.

viii.

3; Deut. xvi. 19); the order to banish those

who had
and

familiar spirits (1

Sam,

xxviii. 3; comjD. Lev. xix. 31; xx. 27;

Deut. xviii. 10, 11); the law regarding the distribution of the spoil

between those who went out
with the
stuff (1

to the battle,

and those who tarried

Sam. xxx. 24, comp. Numb. xxxi. 27); the quadxii.

ruple restoration of a lamb stolen (2 Sam.
I

6

;

comp Exod. xxii.

1).

cannot but think, that these and similar allusions to the laws of

]\Ioses,

found between the era in which the Pentateuch professes to

be written and the era of David, give undoubted evidences of a
basis

upon which the whole of these laws and ceremonies
distinctly exhibit the constitution of the
institutions, its civil

rest,

and

Jewish

state, its civil

and religious

and

ecclesiastical rulers,

with their
is

respective duties, as found in the -writings of Moses.

All this

in

accordance
writings,

with the

direct

testimony

of others of the

sacred

which show that
civil,

in David's time,

and subsequently, the
These

laws of Moses,
ence,

ceremonial, religious, and moral, were in existto

and were held

be obligatory, as the laws of God.

laws are classed under the various heads in which they are enumerated

by

]\Ioses himself,

when

the whole body of his writings are

referred to in general terms.

These we find referred to in David's
"•

dying charge to his son Solomon,
a

Be

thovi strong,

and shew thyself

man; and keep the charge of the Lord thy God, to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes and his commandments, and his
judgments, and his testimonies, as
(1
it is

written in the law of

Moses

"

Kings

ii.

3; Deut. xvii. 18, 19).

I reserve the

arguments arising from the difference of

style

be-

tween the Pentateuch and the other writings of the Old Testament,
for a separate dissertation.
I

trust the

arguments already adduced
readers, of the genuine-

will carry conviction to the

minds of most

ness of the Mosaic records.

The

external and internal evidence

are alike confirmatory of the genuineness of these records.

They

are ascribed to Moses

by the uniform voice of
and
their truth.

antiquity.

All the saimplication,

cred writings of subsequent date, either directly or
attest their existence

by

All the theology, religious

worship, forms and ceremonies of the Jews;

—the constitution of the

XXXii
priestly

INTUODUCTIOX.
and Levitical orders;
all

—the

statutes regarding

life,

liberty,

and property;

the police and fiscal regulations, excepting in

the cases where the ^Mosaic laws and institutions were changed to
suit
is

new

times and circumstances, and of which changes intimation

expressly

made

as has

been already observed

are those

which are

recorded in the

books of Moses, under the express

command and

authority of God.

The

great fundamental principles of the Mosaic dispensation, are

the belief in the one living and true God, the prevention of idolatry,

and the preservation of a belief in the Saviour,
of
Clirist in

until the appearance

the fulness of time.

In order to preserve the knowledge
Israelites,

and maintain the worship of the true God among the
various restraints

were used, otherwise unnecessary, against
in order to
effect the
latter

inter-

course with other nations; and
viz.,

object,
all

the keeping

up of a

faith in the

promised Redeemer,

the

types and shadows of the ceremonial law were instituted, which ap-

pear frivolous, unmeaning and burdensome, unless
in connection with Christ the substance.
0,(^0

when regarded Wlien we consider the
state of

at

which the Pentateuch was written, the low

morals
all

and intellectual culture, the universal tendencies to idolatry with
its

abominations, and the extreme difficulty of procuring obedience

to the ]Mosaic institutions, even

under a theocracy where every
its just

trans-

gression and disobedience received
are

recompence of reward,

how

we to
it

account for the existence of such a work, at such an age, and

in such a state of society, irrespectively of a divine revelation ?

How

could

otherwise have happened, that in the nation of Israel alone

there should exist wise institutions, a pure creed, and a pure code of
morals.
It

seems to be impossible, that such a work could have
into the world, or kept its
;

found

its

way

ground

in

it,

without a
it

series of miracles

and

this

can only be an objection to

on the

part of those

who deny
then,
it

miraculous agency in God's dealings with

mankind,
to

and.
If,

consequently the existence of any revelation from

God

man.

can be proved, that the Pentateuch contains a

divine revelation, no weight can be attached to the objection against
its

genuineness advanced by certain German writers, on the ground
its

that certain of

moral precepts, such

as those

contained in the

second and tenth commandments, and that which requires us '^to

INTRODUCTION.

XXXIU

love our neighbours as ourselves," must be referable to a later age

than that of Moses.

Vatke

says, that the

" second

commandment
this

must have been the offspring of an age
abstract
ideality

in

which the thought of

must have been a living one.

But

thought
is

pre-supposes a prodigious abstraction in a far higher degree than

commonly supposed, and cannot be compared with the imageless
worship of other nations.
for

We
Of

cannot give the Mosaic age credit
the tenth, he says, "that the pro-

such a stride"

(p. 233).

hibition of criminal desire after the property of others appears to us
to be improbable" (p. 239).

According to the same author, the combelonged probably
till

mand " Thou
after

shall love thy neighbour as thyself,'^
;

to the times of the captivity

but surely was not given

centuries

Moses;

for

the moral sentiments of

through

many

stages before that great

men must have passed commandment could be exto affirm that

pressed in this simple universality" (p. 245).

We

are willing to

go farther than Vatke, and

we

cannot give credit to any era that preceded that of the Christian
dispensation, for such giant strides in morals as these three

com-

mandments
from God

indicate.

Xo

such morality
;

is

to be

found

in the

works

of the greatest sages of antiquity
to

and had there been no revelation

man, these commandments probably would not have

belonged even to the age in which we

now

live.

If,

however, the

genuineness of the books of Moses can be satisfactorily proved on
other grounds, the purity of the religion and morality which they

contain cannot fairly be urged as an objection against them.
if

And
reason

they contain what the objectors

allow the

unassisted

of

man

could not at

the

time

have
is

discovered, the

truth

of

their claims, as a divine revelation,

the natural and necessary

consequence.

CHAPTER

III.

Of the Genuineness of the Book of -Genesis.
I

NOW

proceed

to the consideration of the
arises

Book of Genesis

itself.

A question here

which

is

inapplicable to any of the other

d

:

xxxiv
books of Moses.

INTRODUCTION.

From what

sources did he receive the materials

necessary for the composition of that book ?

He

neither was an eye

nor an ear witness of any

of the facts there recorded, nor could he
either from eye or ear-witnesses.

have received his information
is

What
him

contained in that book must have either been communicated to
inspiration, or

by immediate
docun>ents,

by

tradition, written or oral,

corrected

and confirmed by
were preserved

revelation, or

by public monuments more or

or written

by means of which the
till

facts necessary for his

purpose

his

own
I

times, in a

less perfect state,

and

arranged or recast and edited by him under the
of the Divine Spirit.

infallible

guidance

am

inclined to think, that Moses

drew

his

information partly from tradition, and partly from early documents,

which were preserved among the
that the

Israelites till his

own

times; and
to account
is,

means of information he

so obtained

were turned

under the direction of the
all

Spirit, so that

the

Book of Genesis
I

like

the other Scriptures, " given by the inspiration of God."
difl&culty in

should

have no

supposing that Moses received the whole of his

materials for composing the

Book of Genesis by immediate inspiration,
for the fact otherwise

were there no probable means of accounting
I

know

of no

instance

in

Scripture,

where

either miracles of

knowledge or power were performed without

necessity; or in

other

words, where the same results could be obtained by ordinary means.

No

claim of this kind

is

for the supposition in

Holy

made by Moses, and no authority is given writ. The longevity of the antedilu-

vians seems to be favourable to the facility of traditionary transmission

of the facts of antediluvian history, and the subsequent history being
principally confined to the concerns of a single family,

we

can con-

ceive that they might, from their remarkable nature, have been

more

carefully

and

easily preserved,

than historical events in other This
facts.

circumstances spreading over such a long period of time.
supposition
is,

however, only

applicable

to

the

leading

Tradition could hardly have preserved the minute details found in

the

Book of Genesis, comprising long
of,

genealogical tables with the

names, dates of the births and deaths^ and characters of the persons

spoken
sons

and in some

cases,

with historical references to the per-

named; nor the minute and complicated accounts found in
;

Chapters X. and XXV

the promise

made

to

Eve

in chap,

iii;

the

INTRODUCTIOISr.
several promises

XXXV

made

to

Abraham

;

the particulars respecting Isaac

and Ishmael, with

many

other delicate points of distinction;

and

likewise the minute domestic occurrences

and private conversations

recorded in that book.

These could have hardly been kept clear
whereas any kind of writing, hieroglyphic,
all.

and exact by
etc.,

tradition,

would have preserved

I can see

no

difficulty that

lies

in

the

way

of the supposition

that v/ritten documents, or other

mo-

numents of the history of the early ages of the world, were
ence previously to the times of
]\Ioses.

in exist-

The advances made by the
life

antediluvians in the arts of civilized

cannot be accounted

for,

but upon the supposition of a certain
arts directly

amount of knowledge of these

communicated by God.

Had man

after his

creation

been

left

in a savage state,

and without the immediate gift of speech,

and

left to

the exercise of his

own

reason and ingenuity alone, for
life, it is

the provision for the wants and comforts of

impossible to

say

how long he would have continued in that state, nor can we see how in such a state he could have answered the ends of his creation.
The
difficulty of

imparting religious truth, or a sense of moral obli-

gation to a savage, or of instructing
is

him

in the arts of civilised

life

well known.

To

obviate such difficrdties,
as

Man, we

are informed,

was created in knowledge,
holiness.
It is

well as in righteousness and true

not probable that he completely lost his original

knowledge along with his original righteousness, and that he was
left after

the

fall
is

in

no better than the savage

state.

That

this

was

not the case

attested in the clearest

manner, from the accounts of
Genesis.

antediluvian history found in the

Book of
life.

We

hear

much

of the great wickedness that prevailed in these times, but nothing of the manners and habits of savage

The

pursuits of husbandry
earliest ages

and pastoral

life

were not only followed from the

of

the world, but these occupations were then kept separate, and held

by

different individuals; for

Moses says that Cain was a

tiller

of the
built,

ground, and Abel a keeper of sheep.

The

city

which Cain

however rude, supposes some

scientific

knowledge and the use of

some mechanical implements; the invention of the harp and organ

by Jubal, and the working
an advancement in the
arts

in brass

and iron by Tubal Cain, shew

and

sciences,

which could not have been
left entirely to

expected at that early period had

man been

his

own

d 2

XXXVl
resources.

INTRODUCTION.

Wliere then

The building of XoaK's ark proves the same tiling. is the improbability of there having been monuments
intelligible, or

even in these times, which were generally
records,

even written

by which the

facts

of antediluvian history contained in the

books of Moses might have been transmitted to distant ages.
facts that occurred

The
call

between the period of the deluge and the

of

Abraham,

are very few,

and might have been preserved in the
his

same way; and the history of Abraham, and
been preserved by
latter,

immediate de-

scendants, and of the collateral branches of his family, might have
Isaac, Jacob,

and members of the family of the
These documents probably came
less perfect state

most probably by Joseph.

into Moses' hands in a

more or

of preservation,

and received from him the
stood
in

alterations or additions of

which they

need; those that

were

perfect being left as he found

them, and those that were not so having been rendered perfect by
him.
ation,

Some
and

of the materials consequently would require no alter-

some more and some

less,

according to the condition
lat-

they were in when they were put into his hands, and in the
ter case, tradition,

supplemented by immediate revelation, would supIn this way the whole of the Book of

ply

all

that

was wanting.

Genesis might have been compiled, arranged, altered, or re- written

by Moses under the immediate inspiration of God. It the authenticity of the Book of Genesis, that Moses, in
tion, availed himself of

is

no bar

to

its

composi-

documents previously in existence, or that

the book itself

is

interspersed with original documents, furnished to

him, which were the writings of eminent servants of

God who

pre-

ceded him.

It

does not affect the genuineness of the works of any

profane author, that there are embodied in them, certain public docu-

ments preserved from the periods

to

which they

refer,

or

frag-

ments from authors who were contemporary with the characters,

and had personal knowledge of the

facts

which they

describe.

It

does not affect the genuineness of the

Book of Ezra,

that instead

of describing the purport of the decrees of the king of Persia in
favour of the Jews, he inserts in
it

the originals, nor to that of the
its

Gospel of Luke, that he received the whole of

contents from eye

and

ear witnesses.

The next

question to be asked

is,

whether there

is

any evidence in


INTRODUCTION.
the

XXXVH
to ?

Book of Genesis

itself

of

tlie

documents referred

An

argu-

'^

nient has been raised in favour of the existence of such evidence,

upon what have been

called the Jehovah

and Elohim documents.

The

first

person Avho attempted to trace in this
derived his materials for writing the

whence

jNIoses

way the source Book of Genesis,

was Astruc, a Belgian physician, in a work entitled " Conjectures
sur les ^lemoires Originaux dont
il

paroit que jNIoyse s'est servi

pour composer

le livre

de

la

Genese,

etc.,

Brux., 1753."
it

This wri-

ter assumed, that the

Book
ten

of Genesis, as
original

at present exists,

had

been composed from

records,

which he designates

Jehovah and Elohim documents.
ions,

Eichhorn adopted Astruc's opin-

but with very considerable modifications and changes, assuming

only two different documents, characterised respectively under the

work " Urkunden des Jerusalem Tempel-Archivs, 1798," and Gramberg " Adumbratio libri Geneseos secundum fontes, etc., 1828," went still further, and
names of Jehovah and Elohim.
Ilgen in his

presupposed three different documents.

Yater went further than

Eichhorn, and attempted to combat the authenticity of the Penta-

teuch by the assumption of a " fragment hypothesis."

According

to

this opinion, Genesis, as well as the greater part of the Pentateuch,

contains a great

number of very small detached fragments
transcribed seriatim,

internally

unconnected with each other, but

although

originating in very different times, and from different authors.

See Kitto's Encyc. of Bib. Lit. under the word Genesis.

From
From

the

3rd verse

commencement of the first chapter to the end of the of the second, the word Jehovah is not once mentioned.
used with three exceptions.

the 4th verse of the second, to the end of the third chapter,

Jehovah Jehovah

Elohim
is

is

In chapter In chapter

iv.

found ten times, and Elohim only once.
found
five

v.

Eluhim
vi. 1

is

times,

and Jehovah only once.

In chapter

—8

inclusive,

Jehovah and Elohim appear

to be used indis-

criminately.

From

verse ninth- to the end, apparently an original
is

document Elohim only
sequent history Jehovah
passages both seem

used.

In some of the passages of the sub-

is

found, Elohim in others;

while in other

to

be used without any marked distinction.
is,

But what

I

have particularly to observe

that,
is

from the

thirty-

third chapter to the

end of the book, Jehovah

only found eleven

XXXVm
times

INTRODUCTION.
tAvice in cliapter xxxviii., eight

times in chapter xxxix., aud

once in chapter
It

xlix.

would lead me further into

this question

than

my

limits will

allow, to give any further history of this question,

and of the various

opinions which have been held regarding
entirely concur.
I shall satisfy

it

;

with none of which I

myself with stating

my own

views

as briefly as possible.

I argue that the passages in
all,

which the name

of Jehovah

is

not found at

are original documents,

which came
no such

into Moses' hands in such a state of perfection as to require

addition

—that those passages in which
by Moses of
compositions.

it is

incidentally found,

mark

the revision

original documents,

— and

that those in

which
his

it is as

often used as in the subsequent writings of Moses, are

own From

the passages in Exodus

iii.

11, seq.,

and

vi. 2, 3, 1
it

conclude

that the

name

of Jehovah was not

known

imtil

was

specially reis

vealed to Moses, and that in every passage where Jehovah
in Genesis, the

found

hand of Moses

is

traceable.

I

have carefully read and

attentively considered the able

and ingenious arguments of Heng-

stenberg and Hiivernick to prove the contriiry, but these have failed
to carry conviction to so clear, that,

my

mind.

The

passages above cited, are
state that

had

it

been Moses' intention to

the

name

of Jehovah was not

known
Horeb,

previously to the time of
I

God's ap-

pearance to him in

can scarcely imagine what words
for

more appropriate could have been chosen
those which are found in these passages.

the

purpose, than

I believe

no ordinary

reader understands these passages in any other way, and that a
different

view

is

only adopted for the purpose of getting rid of ap-

parent

difficulties,

supposed to arise out of the

literal

meaning.

I

should, indeed, pause before adopting a view of this subject

which

would

militate

against the genuineness of the

Book of Genesis
I

with any tolerably plausible solution before me; but
plain and ordinary sense of the

adopt the
readiness,

word with the
that book.

greater

because

it

appears to

me

to

be calculated to confirm and not to

weaken the divine authority of
have taken,

Through the view
earliest
first

I

I see ]\Ioses the editor,

and documents likewise

earlier

than Closes, which bear proof of their being the
in
existence.

records

The

simplicity of the

style

of the

chapter


INTRODUCTION.
carries

XXxlx
and the
style

with

it

internal evidences of great antiquity;

of chapter xxiii. describing the purchase of the cave of Machpelah,

and other descriptions of patriarchal
always appeared to
the fact that the

manners and usages, have
remote antiquity. seldom introduced
recorded

me

to savour of a very
is

And
into

name of Jehovah

so

the last seventeen chapters, where the events
nearest to the ^Mosaic era, and

approach

where the

art of writing or other

sure

mode

of transmission was more probably in use than at

an

earlier period,

and where the family documents of the
be preserved with peculiar care,
is

Israelites

were likely

to

to

my mind

a

strong evidence that the history of Jacob and his family has reached
us nearly in the same state as Avhen
it

was put into Moses' hands.

The whole

of the argimient I have been endeavouring to estab-

lish will fall to the

ground,

if it

can be proved according to Heng-

stenberg, Hiivernick and others, that the
are used

names oi Jehovah and Elohim

by Moses discriminately, and

in strict conformity with the
It

theological idea he wished to express in the immediate context.
is

said that " pursuing the Pentateuch nearly line by

line, it is asto-

nishing to see that Moses never uses any of the names at mere ran-

dom, or

arbitrarily,

but

is

throughout consistent in the application
^''Elohim (it
is

of the respective terms."

said)

is

the abstract ex-

pression of absolute deity, apart from the notions of unity, holiness,
substance, etc.
It is

more a philosophical than a devotional term,

and corresponds with our term deity in the same
government
is

way

as state or

abstractedly expressive of a king, or monarch.

Jehovah^

however,

is

considered to be the revealed Elohim, the manifold, only,

personal and holy Elohim.

Elohim

is

regarded as the Creator, Jehovah
Lit.,

the

Redeemer."

Kit to' s Encyc. of Bib.

under

the

word

God.

The word CH/^J is the plur. of n?^^; which is the form of the inf kal o^Tw^, obsolete in Hebrew, but still T T
Arabic, which
loorshipped.
signifies,
1.

construct
in use in

^

was

terrified,

astonished.

2.

Adored,

tense of the

The infinitive or abstract noun, upon which the present Hebrew verb is formed, has always originally an abstract
Accordingly H/S^ would signify
Worship, adoration;
1.

meaning.
dread.
2.

Astonishment, fear,
object of

hence by metonymy the

fear, dread, worship, adoration

— the Supreme God.

Agreeably

to thia

xl

INTRODUCTION.

view, in Gen. xxxi. 42, 53,

God

is

called the fear of Isaac,
is all

i.

e.,

the

Great Being wliom Isaacfeared. This

that can be

drawn from the
Supreme
that his
iirferred.

etymology of the word.
power, wisdom, holiness,

It is

from the

acts ascribed to the
D'^Pl

Being, and not from the etymology of the word
justice^

/X

goodness and truth are
is

The word 7X with
all

the vowel immutable,

founded upon an entirely
7^5*5,

different root, of the

form of

7^X,

7''i^

or

the inherent idea in

whicli

is

p

010 €7', strength, might,

and the word

7X

denotes strength,

or might in the abstract; and

by metonymy Him in

whom all strength
appella-

and might
tions

reside, the

Almighty.

Such were the principal

by which God

originally revealed himself to

man, and by
he made

which he manifested himself to
himself

his rational offspring, until

known

as

Jehovah
m.

in j\Iount Horeb.

Jehovah, Isaac, and Jacob, and
tions

many other proper names are
TV\T^^^

forma-

upon the 3

sing.

pres. kal of their respective verbs,

and these
is

three signify respectively existence, laughter, supplanting.

the

3rd

sins;.

m. pres. A"a/ of niH, the old form of riTl
still

ivas, existed,

of which

ancient form various traces are

found in the lano-uage.
the sacred

The
of

old

form was probably chosen
from
n.'^n^,

to distinguish

name

God

the 3rd sing. pres. kal of the foregoing verb, the comlano;-ua2e.

monest form of one of the commonest verbs in the Hebrew
It is well

known,

to

all

Hebrew
owing

scholars, that the

word niH^ has
it is

not the vowels peculiar to the tense of the verb from which
formed, but those of
"'^"IX,

to a superstitious feeling of the

Jews, which prevented them from uttering the august name of

Jehovah; inconsequence, when reading the
uttered the

scriptures,

they always This

word

''^*T^J

where Jehovah was found

in the text.

feeling seems to

have been shared by the translators of the

LXX.

version,
Its

who uniformly render TV\T\] by the Greek word Kvpio<;. own vowels from analogy would be Tl)}!'] as in n^.il^; but were
first

the

radical to take a
it

compound
n).ri^,

sh'va according to the rule applica-

ble to gutturals

would be

or according to
to

what

is

called the

rough enunciation, H^HV

According
;

analogy the vowel points
this is really a question of

might be of any of these three forms but
little

or no practical importance, and which has probably met with

more
nin^

attention than
is

it

merits.

The

literal

meaning of the word

he

is;

being the ordinary pronominal prefix of the 3rd

INTRODUCTION.
sing.

xli

m. present of verbs of

abstract noun, or

all forms, and the Hin, the inf. kal or ground form of the present tense of the verb

mn

or

T\''7^.

Nouns formed upon the

3 sing, present kal of verbs,

liave consequently primarily

an abstract sense; the meaning of the
;

word Jehovah therefore
he of

is

existence in the abstract

and by metonymy

whom
is

existence

may

be predicated
&)v, o
r)v,

as past, present,

and

future.

Jehovah

consequently the 6

koX 6 ep-)(o^evo<i

— The

Self
is

Existent, The Eternal.

This seems to be the only meaning which

warranted by the etymology.

At

the time that the

Lord appeared

to

i\Ioses

in

Horeb, the

Is-

raelites

were groaning under the cruel bondage

to

which they were
their bondage,

subjected in Egypt, and " they sighed

by reason of

and the Lord heard their

o-roaninGr,

and he remembered his covenant

with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob."
to Closes at

And
to

the appearance of the

Lord

Horeb was

to intimate

out the provisions of that covenant.

him his design of carrying With this view Moses is choto Pharaoh,

sen as the instrument of the Israelites' deliverance from Egypt, and

on his asking credentials
that

for his mission
is

he

is

assured

God

will be

with him, and
;

desired to tell the people that
vi.

Jehovah had sent him
that he

and he

is

again reminded in Exodus
"^

2

was known

to their fathers as """^^

7^«^,

The God Alndghty^"

but that by his name Jehovah was he not
specially revealed to

them

as the

known to them. He had been God Almighty, but not as the God

Eternal.

At

the time the Israelites were in Egypt, the whole world
idolatry,

was overspread with
general

and the beings served went under the

name of

D'^HT'S^;

so that that

name was not only
to assign a

applicable

to the true

God, but was the
It

common

appellation given to the gods

of the heathen.
to the true

was therefore necessary

name

peculiar
to

God, involving an
deities,

essential attribute,

not

common

him

with heathen

which admitted of no degrees, and which

could neither be shared with, nor delegated to another.

Whether

the Israelites were addicted to idolatry during the period of their

sojourn in Egypt, or to

what extent,

it is

impossible to say; idolatry

however,
sin ;

is

not at that period charged against them as a national
sin,

but even although not charged with that

there can be

little

doubt, considering what

we know

of their character and tendencies

immediately afterwards (Exod. chap, xxxii.), that their notions of

xlii

INTRODUCTION.
tlicir

the power and spirituality of God, and

feelings of piety

must

have been greatly weakened,
such

if

not in a great measure destroyed,
;

during their cruel bondage, by the example around them
feelings, their confidence that

and with

God would

fulfil

his promises to

them,

after so

long a period of apparent neglect, must have been
God's revelation to them under the

greatly shaken.

name

of Jeho-

vah, would naturally and

necessarily confirm their faith

and elevate

their hopes of deliverance.

The

revelation of himself under the

name of the

Self-existent God, in connection

with assurances of the

fulfilment of his covenant engagements,

and with the subsequent

exhibitions of miraculous agency in their deliverance, must have

suggested other attributes and perfections as possessed by the Eternal,

and other
inspired

relations in

which they stood

to

him, which must have

new

sentiments of adoration, gratitude and love, and

new

motives and inducements to obedience, and which, during the subsistence of their

dispensation,

must have led them in a peculiar
title

manner

to

recognise him under the

of their God.

Such seem

to

be the circumstances under which the name Jehovah was given to
the Israelites, and such probably the reasons for
given.
its

having been

That

this should

be a cherished name among the sacred

writers imder the Jewish dispensation, and very

commonly found
It is

in

the Jewish records,

is

what might be reasonably expected.
itself,

a

name

of solemn import in

and was doubtless received
ideas,

as a

complex term, embracing other and very important
those to which
its

besides

etymology naturally
it

points.

But although these
were so univer-

ideas were attached to

at its

first

annunciation, and frequently

were

so afterwards, I cannot believe that these ideas

sally associated
it

with

it

in the
its

minds of the sacred

writers,

and that

retained so

much
it is

of

appellative signification, that generally

speaking, where
priate.

used, the other

I

have never been able to
first

name of God would be inapprosee why the word Elohim in Gen.

chap,

i.,

and in the

three verses of chap,

inapplicable in chap,

iii.,

ii., would have been and in the remaining verses of chap, ii.,

nor

why Elohim
visible

in chapter

first

was used

Havernick assigns the following reason:
in
its

— " As the
God

in preference to Jehovah.

creation taken

appearance

is

a revelation of

in general, a reflection
fall.

of his majesty and glory, this relation became altered after the


INTRODUCTION.
and the curse pronounced by God upon the
of
earth.
xliii

The
is

revelation
to his

God

is

now one

that

is

to train

man, viewed in reference

sinful condition.

This special guidance and training

connected

with a particular race (^^l) and confined to it. With the fall is given the commencement of the development of the Theocracy,
since

God

here shews himself to be one

who

will not

abandon

fallen

man

God reveals himself specially as Jehovah. By the help of Jehovah Eve bears a son, iv. 1. Jehovah speaks with Cain and drives him out of his presence; the name of Jehovah is invoked by the pious Sethites." Clai'k's For.
to his helplessness

and misery.

Therefore

Theol. Librarij, pp. 64, Q5.

I

have already said that in the face of the
iii.

declarations contained in

Exod.

13, seq.

and

vi. 2, I

cannot bring

myself to believe that God was known, previously to the period at

which these declarations were made, under the name of Jehovah.

The language

is

so explicit, that to

an ordinary reader, there can

be no doubt of

its

purport, and I confess I have always doubted the

soundness of an interpretation of a passage of scripture describing a
fact in plain

and simple language, in a way which gives

it

a view

directly the reverse of what to an ordinary reader the words appear
to convey.

In the second place, I cannot discover the development

of the theocratic principle in the second chapter any

more than

in

the

first.

In the second chapter, additional particulars are given of
its

the creation, in order to enhance

wonders and the goodness of

the Creator, together with the test of man's obedience,

and the

penalty of disobedience.

There

is

here a development of God^s
his

works of creation and providence, and of
but
I

moral government;

can see no speciality in the revelation as applied to any parI

ticular race or seed.

next object to this view, because
fact,

it

does not
in the

appear to be founded on
use of the

there being

no such uniformity
for.

name

of

God

as

is

contended

In Psalm

civ.

where

the works of creation are celebrated, the sacred writer uses the

word

Jehovah, and not Elohim,
to

as in the first chapter of Genesis.

Referring

the quotation just

made from

Hlivernick, and to the reasons
I

assisrned for the use of the

term Jehovah,

would

direct the reader's
selected, in

attention to a few cases, out of midtitudes that

might be

which Elohim
principle

is

found where Jehovah according to Havernick's

might be expected, and in which these names are used

xliv
indiscriminately.

INTRODUCTION.
Gen. chap.
"
vi. 8,

" Xoali found grace in

tlie

eyes

Xoah ^valkcd with Ehhim:' vii. 1, "And Jehovah said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the Ark." vii. 5," And Noah did according to all that Jehovah commanded
oi Jehovah.''
vi. 9,

him."

vii. 9,

" There went in two and two,
vii.

etc., as

Eluhim had comin

manded Xoah."
and female of
shut
viii.

16, "

all flesh as
viii.

And they that went in, went Ehhim had commanded him, and

male

Jehovah
etc."

him
15,
etc."

in."

1,

"And

Elolnm remembered Noah,

"And

Elohim spake unto Xoah, saying. Go forth of the
20, 21, "

Ark,
etc.,

viii.

And Xoah
latter

builded an altar unto JeJiovah,
savour, and

and Jehovah smelled a sweet
;

Jehovah said in

his heart, etc."

in

which

quotation indeed Jehovah might be
it

expected according to Havernick's principles; but as well might

be expected in the following quotations where Elohim
ix. 1,

is

used,

"

And

Elohim blessed Xoah and
to his

his

sons."

ix. 8,

"

Elohim spake unto Xoah and
I,

sons with

him

saying.
ix. 12,

behold

I establish

my

covenant with you,

etc."

"

And And And

Elohim

said.

This

is

the token of the covenant which I
ix. 17,

make between
is

me and

you, etc."

"And
in

Elohim said unto Xoah, This is
If the

the token of the covenant, etc."
ble in reference to

word Jehovah
it

applica-

Abraham

what

follows, should

not be as
xii. 1,

much
"
etc."

so in the passages cited

below in reference to Jacob,

Xow

Jehovah had said unto Abraham, Get thee out of thy country,
xii. 7,

"

And

Jehovah appeared unto Abraham, and

said,

Unto thy

seed will I give this land, etc."

If I understand Haver-

nick's principle,

Jehovah should have been used in the quotations
well as in those preceding and following from chap,

from chap.
xii. 1, xii.

ix. as

17, "

And
etc."

Jehovah plagued Pharaoh and his house with
xiii.

great plagues,

18,

"

And (Abraham)
xxxv.
1,

built

there (in
said

Mamre) an

altar

unto Jehovah."

"And
And
let

Elohim

unto Jacob, Arise, go up to Bethel and dwell there, and make
there an altar unto Elohim, etc."

xxxv.

3,

"

us arise and go

up

to Bethel,
9,

and

I

(Jacob) will make

tliere

an

altar

unto Elohim.

xxxv.

10, "

And

Elohim appeared unto Jacob again when he
blessed

came out of Padan-aram and
unto him, thy name
is

him.

And Elohim
shall

said

Jacob;

thy name

not
xlvi.

be called
1,

any more Jacob, but

Israel shall

be thy name."

"

And

INTRODUCTION.
Israel

xlv

took his journey with

all

that he had, etc., ond offered sacrifices

to the

Elohim of his father

Isaac.

And Elohim
!

spake unto Israel in

and he said, Here am I. And he said, I am Elohim, the Elohim of thy father," etc. xlviii., 15, " And he [Jacob] blessed Josepli, and said, Elohim, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the Eluhim which fed me all my life long unto this day, the angel which redeemed me from all evil,
the visions of the night, and said, Jacob
bless the lads."

i

For the reasons

I

have given, and from a comparison of

the passages above quoted, such a distinction does not appear to be

observed between the names of

God

in the

book of Genesis,

as to

prevent the substitution of the one for the other without impropriety,
or to

show from the
the

necessity of the case that

God must have been

known by
I

name

of Jehovah under the patriarchal dispensation.

shall

take an illustration of

what

I

have been endeavouring to

prove from the name originally given to Jacob, which signifies " supplanter" or " he snpplanteth." Now, can it be imagined, that

on every occasion on which that name was used, the circumstances

which

justified

that appellation

were present to the mind of the

speaker or writer, although this would naturally happen

when he
itself to

was guilty of any act which showed a connection between his character

and name.
after

This connection accordingly suggested
craftily deprived of his blessing,

Esau

he had been

and he said

" Is he not rightly

named Jacob

[supplanter] for he hath supplanted

me

these

two times; he took away

my

birthright,

and behold now

he hath taken away

my

blessing" (Gen. xxvii. 36.)

But

after

Jacob received his new name which bore reference to the covenant
relation subsisting

between God and himself,
latter

it

might have been

supposed that the

would have been the only appropriate
and
privileges.

appellation, in connection with his faith, piety,

We
Isaac,

might have expected that the name
ployed,

Israel

would have been em-

when God

signified his covenant-relation to
at the

Abraham,

and Jacob, on his appearance to Moses
he would have
said,

bush in Horeb, and that

" I

am

the

God

of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel,"

and not of Jacob.
inherent in the

I cannot

doubt then that the offensive idea
of,

name

of Jacob was lost sight

and that in

its

ordinary use

it

conveyed only ideas associated with the

faith, virtues,

and privileges of the patriarch.

I believe that the terms Jehovah

xlvi

INTRODUCTION.
in

and Elohim are generally used
without reference to
stances under
it is

Scripture as jDroper names, and

tlieir

etymology; but, considering the circumto the Israelites,

which the name Jehovah was revealed

very natural to suppose that that name would be highly reveit

renced, and generally cherished, and that
frequently employed

would be much more

by

the writers of the Old Testament than that

of Elohim.
as is

If the
for
is

two names were used with such discrimination

contended

by Havernick and

others,

and

if

the notion

which he affirms

uniformly connected with the name of Jehovah,

I cannot account for the fact that the

name

of Jehovah

is

so

seldom

found in the last seventeen chapters of Genesis, where the Theocratic
principle

was acquiring greater and greater development; why some

of the writers of the Old Testament use the one
freqv;ently than others,

name much more
style of writing,

and

that, too, in the

same

(compare Proverbs and Ecclesiastes)

— why

it is

so seldom used in the

New

Testament, and only

by

its

Greek representative

Kvpto<;,

and

principally in quotations from the writings of the Old, after the

covenant relation between

God and

his sinful

children had been

established in Christ as Prophet, Priest,

and King.

And

further, if

the
I

name Jehovah was known under
perceive

the patriarchal dispensation,

cannot

why

it

should

not be connected with the

names of men and
the case in the

places as Elohim was,

and

as

is

so frequently

subsequent books of the

Old Testament.
is

best of the Lexicographers

deny that Moriah
same

a

The compound of yah ;
is

and that Jehovah in Jehovah Jireh was introduced by Moses,
easily

supposable

upon
time.

the

principle,

that

the

original

names of many
to

places

were changed by him
It
is,

for the

names assigned
general con-

them

in his

own

however, to be observed, that no

such changes were made upon the names of men.
clusion
is,

My

that the absence of the

name

of Jehovah in certain portions

of the

book of Genesis, marks an antiquity greater than the era of

Moses, and proves that book to be the most ancient historical record
in the world. in the

And, on the other hand, that the name of Jehovah
its

book of Genesis brings down

compilation, arrangement, and

editorship, to the era of Moses,

and beyond the period when the

Lord appeared

to

him

in Horeb.

Another proof of the antiquity of the materials from whence the

INTRODUCTION.
book of Genesis
arises
is

xlvii
I

derived,

and

wliicli

shall briefly advert to,
it.

from the ancient names of places and nations found in
arisen

Hence have
places

many

geographical

difficulties

in regard to the

and nations named. and Gihon,

Of

these

may

be mentioned Eden, and
See also the

the rivers Pison

in the second chapter.

names of many nations and places mentioned
referred to in the analysis of that chapter.

in chapter tenth,

and

Mesopotamia goes under

the

name

of Padan-aram in Genesis, but in no other part of scrip-

ture.

See also Zuzims, and
1

Ham their

residence, chap. xiv. 5,

Bered
doubt-

in chap. xvi.

4,

and Ellasar in chap.
that this
is is

xiv. 1^ unless

we adopt the

ful conjecture,

the same with Thelasar or Telassar, of

which mention

made

in Isaiah xxxvii. 12,

and 2 Kings

xix. 12.

There are other cases in which both the old and new names are given,
with the reasons generally, but not always assigned for the change.

Of

these,

may

be noticed Luz the

earlier,

and Bethel, chap,

xxviii.

19, the later name; and Kirjath

Arba and Hebron,

chap, xxiii. 2,
xiv. 7.

Bela and Zoar, chap. xiv.

2,

En-Mishpat and Kadesh, chap.

Had Moses
probability
is,

availed himself of pre-existing materials, the great
that he

would have preserved the names there found;

but had the history been written independently of these materials,
it is

not probable that he would have assigned names to places and

nations under which, for centuries before he wrote, they had ceased
to

be known.

One remark which
in Genesis,
is,

I

would make

in regard to the

changes of names

that these changes, and the reasons of them, furnish in

themselves, strong presumptive evidence of the truth of the important facts out of

which the changes

arose.

Thus, the change of

Bela into Zoar,
plain,

is

a memorial of the destruction of the cities of the
;

and of Lot's escape from Sodom

and the change of Luz into

Bethel, of the fact of

JacoVs vision

there.

And

the same

may be

said of the transaction at

Jabbok, which was perpetuated by the
Israel.
if

change of Jacob's name into
It has

been argued, that

Moses had drawn the materials
to the "
is

for

writino- the

book of Genesis from ancient documents, he would have
he does in Numbers xxi. 14, and that
his

made
to the

reference to these, as

Book
fatal

of the

Wars

of the Lord,"

not having done so

document hypothesis.

It is alleged that

"if he had copied


xlviii.

;

INTRODUCTION.

from any previously existing memoirs into the book of Genesis, is it likely that such a historian, every page of whose writings is stamped
with every possible mark of authenticity, would have omitted the
sources
ii.

whence he derived
Ed.
9.

his history."

Homes
]\Ioses

Introduction, chap,

sect. 1. p. 52.

This, however, w^ould prove too much.

claims the authorstates that

ship of the other books which go under

his
;

name, and

they

were written by the command of God
of their
contents were

and mentions what portions
revelation.
it

communicated by immediate

In the book of Genesis no such information exists.

IMight

not

hence be argued with equal
the former case, that
Genesis,

plausibility,

upon the same grounds

as in

]\Ioses

was not the author of the book of
at
all.

and had no connection with that book

As he

lived

at a period far remote from the most recent of the facts recorded in

Genesis, he could not have been personally cognisant of
facts.

any of these
was written,

Wliy then,

it

may be

asked, does he not state that the book was
the authority

written

by him, and mention

by which

it

and the sources, whether from immediate revelation or otherwise,

whence he derived the information communicated in it.
tion above-stated

If the objecI

by Mr.

Home

is fatal

to the

document hypothesis,

cannot see

why

the absence of the other information just referred to,
fatal to

would not be equally
all.

Moses' being the author of Genesis at
is

I conceive,

however, that there

no weight in any of the

objections.

That

j\Ioses

is

the author of the book of Genesis, in the sense I
for,

have contended
authorship of
it is

there

cannot be the

slightest

doubt.

The

ascribed to

him by

the uniform voice of antiquity,
in proof of the contrary.
as a basis for the

and no tenable argument can be adduced

Such
and
I

a

work

as Genesis

was indispensable

Mosaic

dispensation, and without the former the latter would be unintelligible
this will, I trust, clearly

appear from what follows.

now

proceed to shew the connection between the book of

Genesis and the other four books of Moses,

and the connection

generally between the patriarchal and Mosaic dispensations.

The
histo-

former

is

evidently the basis of the latter, as regards what

is

rical, theological,

moral, and ceremonial.

The

history of a godly

INTRODUCTION.
and a godless race
is

xlix
tlie fall.

From the former, Abraham and his seed sprang, who were chosen by God as the depositaries of his promises, through whose means his name
preserved from the time of

and worship were
faith in the

to

be preserved; through whose instriimcntality a

promised Saviour was to be kept up, and through
flesh, Christ

whom,

as

concerning the

was

to

come.

The

history of Abra-

ham, and of

his family,
is

and of the divine revelations and promises

made
leave

to

him,

given in the book of Genesis with great minuteness.

In connection with the fulfilment of these promises, the Israelites

Egypt

;

and

all

the civil and ecclesiastical polity which was

established through Moses in the wilderness,

was

for the

same

object.

In the history of Abraham and his seed,
purely patriarchal, a nomadic

we

discover institutions

mode

of

life,

a pilgrimage in a land

not

theirs.

In the other books of Moses, and during the journey of

the Israelites to the land of promise,
for the

we mark

a course of training

new

circumstances in which they, were to be placed in
ecclesiastical

Canaan, and great advancement in

and

civil polity.

By
of

Moses are established two

distinct religious orders,

embracing

priests

and Levites; supreme and subordinate judges

— representations
and

the people in the assemblies through the heads of the tribes, and of the fathers
culty, to

—and

a final appeal, in all cases of importance

diffi-

Jehovah,

who was

consulted through the supreme judge or

high

priest.

Before Moses' death, the promise

made

to

Abraham

of

the land of Canaan had been partially
district

fulfilled.

The whole of
and

the

on the

east side of

Jordan was in the possession of the
;

tribes

of Gad, Keuben, and half the tribe of Manasseh

after that

period the other tribes took possession of the part on the west side

under Joshua.

The

great fundamental law of their religious polity

contained in their
infinite,

first

commandment

" that there
to

is

but one God,"
perfection
is

eternal,
is

and unchangeable, and

whom

all

ascribed,

likewise the fundamental principle of the patriarchal

dispensation; and the

mode

in

which that God was
in

to

be worshipped,

the conduct of

which he approves, the way
revelation,

which he can be

approached by sinful beings fully developed in the former, are based

upon

a

pre-existing

and upon antecedent laws, and
latter.

consuetudinary usages, to be found in the
ii.

The

sabbath, chap,

3; sacrifices, chap.

iv.

4;

circumcision,
e

chap. xvii. 10

— 12;

the

1

INTRODUCTION.
oflEice,

priestly

chap. xiv. 19; the division of beasts

into

clean and

unclean,

vii. 2,

were patriarchal

institutions^ ordained

consequently observed under the divine sanction.

by God, and Other rites and

ceremonies of a

less

prominent kind, which were observed under the

patriarclial dispensation,

were established with greater formality by

the laws of IMoses.

Of

these

may be

mentioned, (xxxv. 2) the wash-

ing of the body; and (xxxv. 2) change of garments in the removal of
ceremonial uncleanness by contact with idols and otherwise
xxviii. 22, the
;

xiv. 20,

payment of

tithes for

the maintenance of religion;

xxviii.

20

— 22,

xiv. 22, xxi. 53,

the

making of vows and

oaths;

XV.

9, seq.,

the ceremonies on the ratification of covenants; xv. 10,
i.

comp. Leviticus

17, the prohibition of the cutting in twain of the

bodies of birds, as was done on particular occasions in the case of
beasts
sacrificed;

and the forms adopted

for the consecration of

places

destined for religious purposes (chap, xxviii. 18).

To
is

these

may

be added the Levirate marriage, of which an instance

given
death

m the case of
of her
first

Tamar, Judah's daughter-in-law, who,

after the

husband, without children, claimed Onan, the immediate
after his

younger brother; and
youngest (xxxviii.
8).

death without children, Shelah the
separation of
in

Of the

women

in a state

of
to

ceremonial defilement

we

see traces

Eachael's

stratagem^

conceal her father's gods (see Gen. chap. xxxi. 35).

The younger
dis-

Michaelis thinks that traces of the Goel or Blood-avenger are
coverable in chap, xxvii. 45, where

Rebekah

is

described as sending

away Jacob
said she,

in consequence of Esau's threat to kill him.
I

"

Why,"

"should

be deprived of you both

also in

one day"? which

words Michaelis thinks allude to Esau's death by the Blood-avenger,
should he carry his threat into execution.
office,

It is

evident that the

the rights, and the privileges of the Blood-avenger were not

established
to restrict to abuse.

by Moses, and
to

that his laws on this subject

were intended
liable

and not

extend previous rights and privileges so

This restriction was effected by means of the

cities

of

Refuge, and of certain judicial procedure to be observed, before the

murderer was delivered over to the Blood-avenger
1 , seq.)

(see

Nvimb. xxxv.
evei^xj

After slaying his brother, Cain dreaded that "
kill

one that

found him would
blood was confined

him ;" but

afterwards the rio'ht of avengino:

to the nearest

male relation (not the father) who


INTRODUCTION.
was held
to be dishonoured so long as his kinsman's blood

;

H
remained
its

imavenged.
tive state,

Of

this

custom, applicable only to society in

primi-

and

"svhere there

was no public magistrate

for the punish-

ment of crimes, Moses,
mitigate the evil
to
;

at the time his laws

were given, could only
it

the point of honour involved in

was too strong

be rashly interfered with. In most cases consuetudinary usages were confirmed
;

in others,

however, they were abolished by the laws of
patriarchal dispensation, there
sacrifices

j\Ioses.

Under the
and

was no

distinct order of priests,
it

might be offered

at

any

place, and, as

should seem, with-

out any special authority.
altars,

The

patriarchs planted groves^ erected

and offered

sacrifices to

the Lord as they were

moved by

de-

votional feeling (xii. 7, xxi. 33).
sacrifices

By

the laws of Moses no private

were allowed, and, without the special authority of Jehovah,

they could only be offered at the place Avhere the tabernacle or

temple stood, and only by a duly consecrated
tions

priest.

These injunc-

were necessary

for the prevention of idolatry, to

which private

sacrifices

by an unauthorized priesthood presented great temptations
it

to a people so prone to

as the Israelites

were

after their deliver-

ance from their Egyptian bondage.

Similar prohibitions seem to
Alci-

have existed among other nations, but on different grounds.

biades was accused by the Athenians of celebrating the mysteries
(of Ceres) in private, and the charge
his doing so
is

aggravated in respect that
for the furtherance of

was not on religious grounds, but

treasonable practices.

" Aspergebatur etiam infamia, quod in domo

sua facere mysteria dicebatur, quod nefas erat more Atheniensium

idque non ad religionem, sed ad conjurationem pertinere existimabatur."

Corn. Nep. in vita Alcib. (cap.

iii.)

The

ofiering of sacrifices in groves allowed in

Abraham^s time

(Gen. xxi. 33), was prohibited

by Moses

(Deut. xvi. 21), owing to

the idolatrous abuses which had arisen out of that practice.
It will

be observed from what has been

said, that

although the

patriarchal

and Mosaic dispensations are quite

distinct, there is
carefiil

an

intimate connection between them.
to the simplicity of the earlier
rites

When
later

the

reader attends
it,

to the incidental notices in

of

and ceremonies, which in the

were formed into a con-

nected system of which they were

prominent features

to

the

e2

Hi

INTRODUCTION.

absence in the earlier of any allusion to previous dispensations and
revelations
cases, the

— while

in the later the doctrines, the facts,
is

and

in

most

usages are assumed, very strong evidence

furnished of

the antiquity of the book of Genesis, of its having preceded the other

books of

i\loses,

and of

its

being the

earliest record

of the divine

dispensations to man.

Another strong evidence of the great antiquity of the book
of Genesis,
tions
is,

that

upon the

historical facts contained in

it

the tradi-

and mythology of the heathens are

to a great extent founded.

In these, indeed,

we

find the true incorporated with the false, the

rational with the irrational, the probable with the extravagant, yet
all

indicating a

common

basis

— a true foundation.
innocence during what
is

!Most heathen nations

had

their Avritten or traditionary accounts of

the creation

— of man's

estate of
fall

called

the Golden Age, and of his

from that condition.

In the pre-

valence of sacrifices throughout the whole world, the general principle laid

down by
is

the Apostle Paul " that without the shedding
ix.

of blood there

no remission^' (Heb.

22)

is

virtually recognized,

amidst

all

the errors and corruptions of heathen worship.

Of the
facts
first

early traditions

and mythology of the heathens founded iipon

recorded in Genesis,

may be enumerated

the formation of the

man by Prometheus,

the Golden Age, and the opening of Pandora's

box; the ascribing of the invention of working in brass and iron to
Vulcan, the Tubal-Cain of Scripture

— the

intermarriages between

heathen gods and mortals, whence sprang a progeny of demigods,

and

giants,

founded upon the intermarriages between the family of

Seth and Cain referred to in the 6th chapter

—the deluge

in Thessaly

from which Deucalion and Pyrrha were preserved, of which the
deluge in Genesis
is

the proto-type.

founded upon the
xviii. 1 seq.,

visit

and other

The visits from Gods to men, of the angels to Abraham, recorded in chap. similar divine communications. The stones
by Jacob
at
18_,

called Baitulia evidently referred to the pillar erected

Bethel (see chap, xxviii.

19).

Other instances have been pointed

out in the Analysis,

all

conspiring to prove the extreme antiquity of

the book of Genesis, as these traditions extended far beyond the
periods in which any written records of
.

them were preserved.

I

now

direct the reader's

attention to the genealogical tables

J

INTRODUCTION.

liii

found in the book of Genesis, whicli commence with the name of

Adam, extend throughout
Iklosaic

the antediluvian period, and the whole of

the patriarchal dispensation, whicli form an important feature in the

economy, and continue in an unbroken chain

till

the final

destruction of the Jewish State.
portant, in the
first

These genealogical tables are im-

place, in a chronological

and

historical point of
this

view, at least during the earlier dispensations.

Through

means,

the dates of the creation^ of the deluge, of the call of

Abraham, and

of other important events are precisely determined.

And

the ages

of the antediluvians, and of the most eminent of the patriarchs, with
incidental historical references interspersed, as to their characters
fortunes,

and

and the countries they inhabited, are inserted in these

documents, and furnish materials for tracing their subsequent history.

These genealogical tables place the ^losaic records on a different
footing from that of the early records or traditions of other nations,

which always merge
are facts,

into the fabulous.

In the case of Moses, there

names and ages of

individuals, lines of different families,
life,

places of habitation,
this
air
it,

modes of

habits, occupations,

etc.

AH

is

given with such precision and simplicity, and with such an
it

of truth, that

can scarcely

fail

to carry conviction along with
facts

and there cannot be a doubt, that had not the

been

true, the

imposture

would long

since

have

been

detected

and exposed.
fact occurs so

Throughout the whole range of profane
creation throughout a period of

history,

no

extraordinary as that of the Bible genealogies extending from the

upwards of four thousand
were accomplished.
I shall

years,

and
of

only discontinued
their ends
to,

when

their ends

Some

have been already pointed out, others

now

advert

which, though perhaps not immediately bearing upon the subject

in hand, I trust

my

readers will not find fault with

me

for intro-

ducing in
of the
1

this place.

After the

fall,

a promise

is

given that the seed

woman
is

should bruise the head of the serpent, which promise

believe

universally understood

by Jews,

as well as Christians, to
tables, a

refer to the

Redeemer.
is

In the genealogical

godly and a

godless line

preserved

—the

former through Seth, Noah, Shem.

Abraham,
mise
is

Isaac,

and Jacob.

To Abraham^s

seed the original pro
to

confined, and afterwards confirmed

Isaac

and Jacob,
the

thereafter

limited

to

the tribe of Judah, and thereafter to

; ;

liv

INTRODUCTION.

family of David.

The

genealogical tables were kept, under the

Mosaic dispensation, with particular care, and the duty of keeping them was assigned
to

the

Levites,

who, being

dispersed
cir-

throughout the whole land, were
cumstances for doinof
so.

in

peculiarly

favourable

These

registers,

or e;enealoo-ical tables
all

answered various purposes.
kept completely
successions in
distinct,
office

Through them
priest,

the tribes were
for

and they were used
of high

marking the
for

the

and

subsequently

preserving distinct the different courses of the inferior priests^ and of

the Levites.

After the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan^ they
its

served to prove the right of every family to

ancestral inheritance

to settle all disputed points in regard to property;

and
line,

after the

introduction of the kingly government, to

mark the

and right
the right

of succession to the throne.

These records,

as establishing

of succession to property, were particularly important after the return

of the Jews from Babylon.

Many

disputes

must have arisen about

the succession to property, after an absence of seventy years, the people in general
;

among
tribe

and

as to the rights

and privileges of the

of Levi in particular.

For the settlement of

these disputes, every
tables,
ii.

one was called upon to prove his case from the genealogical

and

if

he could not from these " shew his father's house (Ezra
entitled to the property claimed
;

59),

he was found not

and if a

priest,
ii.

he
62,

was removed,
Neh.
vii.

as

" polluted from the priesthood" (Ezra
these tables were, so to speak, the
title

64).

As

deeds

by

which every
and
as

Israelite

held his right to his patrimonial inheritance

every one had a personal interest in their acciu'acy, there

were the strongest reasons for their being preserved with the greatest
care.

A

Jew's patrimonial inheritance was inalienable;
it

it

might be

attached for debt^

could not be sold
;

;

it

always returned free to him
it

at the year of the Jubilee
fifty years, it

and although

was out of his family
to

for

was claimed by and restored
all

him

at the expiry of

that term

;

and

doubts as to his rights were removed by an appeal

to the public records.

By means
from the

of these tables, the lineage of any

Jew
;

could be proved

earliest period.

Josephus

states that

he could trace his

own

descent from the tribe of Levi by public registers
states, that

and he further

however dispersed or depressed the Jewish people were,


INTRODUCTION.
tliey

Iv

never failed to have exact genealogical tables preserved from
authentic documents which were kept at Jerusalem.

the

Bib. Encyc.

Kitto's

v.

Genealogy.

It will

hence appear obvious,

the fuiniment of the promise of a Saviour

made

to

how clearly Abraham could be
;

proved, and in a

the validity of his

way which no Jew could gainsay, without denying own title to his patrimonial inheritance accordand
St.

ingly, St. jNIatthew

Luke, in different ways, trace his lineage
affecting

from these

tables.

By

a political arrangement, therefore,

the people's most important temporal interests, and thus securing the

accuracy of these tables, which

among

that people,

who were

so

prone to idolatry, could not have been easily effected had only a

reli-

gious purpose been ostensibly set forth, evidence has been furnished

of the fulfilment of the promise of a Saviour,

made

after the

fldl,

and renewed through Abraham,

Isaac, Jacob,

Judah and

his tribe,

David and
to produce,

his line,

which

it is

impossible for the unbelieving

Jews

now

that the distinction of tribes has been lost,

and that

the national registers have been necessarily discontinued, were they
to assert the claims of a false Christ.

Let
in the

me now

advert to the progress of civil institutions observable

book of Genesis.

These are just such

as

might be looked

for

during the period in question.

JMan liaving been created in know-

ledge, no indications of a savage or barbarous condition were to be

expected; at the same time great simplicity of manners might be

looked

for.

The
is

facts

of the antediluvian history are very few^ and
to the state of society at

any information we may glean in regard
that period
rather from

rather to be obtained inferentially than positively,
not, than
are,

what we do

what we do

find, iipon this point

in the Scriptures.

We

indeed, told that Cain builded a city,
'^

probably from the fear that

every one that found him would

kill

him," which the Divine assurance of protection had not dissipated;

and there

is

reference to the

working

in brass

and
is

iron^

and

to the

invention of certain musical instruments. There
to the

likewise reference

nomadic mode of
and of such

life

having been reduced into a systematic
" the father of those

form in the days of Jabal,
in tents,
as

who was
cattle."

who

dwell

have

There

are, hoAvever,

no traces

of civil institutions in a complicated form, before the deluge.
allusion
is

No

made

to rulers or magistrates of

any kind, in the modern

VI

INTRODUCTION.
and hence
it is

sense of these terms;
tions

probable, that the civil institusole

then

existing

were purely patriarchal,

and absolute

authority as ruler, judge and lawgiver having been vested in the

head of the family or

tribe.

Patriarchal institutions were probably
;

universally prevalent for some time after the deluge
increase of a tribe in numbers, or on
its

but, on the

union with others, we

may

suppose,

what

actually took place, that a ruler or chief magistrate
qualified to guide

would be chosen who was
battle

and govern the commu-

nity, to protect his subjects

when

attacked, and to lead

them out

to

and

to conquest, irrespectively of those rights

which belonged
of

to heads of families or of tribes,
patriarchal.
king,

where the government was purely
was invested with the
title

The

ruler thus elected
all

and was likewise, in

probability in those early times, the

priest of the

community,

as

was the case with Melchizedek.
such a union of
offices in

In

later times, Virgil alludes to

the case of

one Annius,

who was

at the

same time a king and
in

priest of Apollo.

During the residence of Abraham
country reigned over only single
ing
territories,

Canaan,

the kings of that

cities,

and the immediately adjoinwith
for

which were employed
districts

for agricultural purposes,

certain uncultivated

at a

distance

which were used

pasturage.

Canaan was

at that

time overspread with such governanother, or upon the kings of the

ments, which
adjoining

made war upon one
to

countries,

whom

they sometimes became tributary.

Upon
cities

the small territory

of Sodom, Gomorrah,

tive kings.

now covered by the Dead Sea, stood the Admah. andZeboim, with their respecThe same system existed in the days of Joshua, who

concjuered thirty-one kings on the west side of the Jordan.

When
are to

the Lord engaged to

make

the Israelites a great nation,
a relative sense,

we
to

understand the word great in

and not according to

more modern notions of extent of

territory.

They were

possess

and rule over the land of Canaan and certain adjoining

districts,

which had been inhabited by various
multitude of kings.
times,

nations,

and governed by a
in those early
to the

The power and pomp of kings
original

were very
office.

different

from what were afterwards attached

kingly

The
is

meaning of the word "^12

melech,

which

we

render king

akin to the Latin word consul.

In Chaldee, 'HpD

mlach

signifies counsel;

hence one that gives

counsel, in Latin consul.

INTRODUCTION.

Ivil

At

first

kings liad no

state,

and no court composed of and

officers "witli

gradations of rank.

They had, however,
assisted

a council of old men,

who
in

sat at the gate of the city,

them with

their advice in

times of difficulty and danger, and
the administration
office

of justice.

We

who also took may hence

part with

them

perceive that the

of consul at

Rome, with the

patres or senators, bears traces of

institutions of very

remote antiquity.
preferred the

After the expulsion of their
of consuls
to

kings, the

Romans
title

title

their

chief

magistrates; the

of the latter being less offensive and more
notions
less

conformable
office

to

their

of liberty;

their limited period

of

rendering them

the objects of jealousy and fear.

If
to

we

turn our attention from Canaan and the adjacent countries
is

Egypt, the contrast
its

very striking.

Various causes conspired in
civilization.

order to

early advancement in

power and
of

The

small

portion of the country that was adapted for pasturage, and the bar to

the pursuit of the nomadic

mode

life,
;

arising

from the annual
soil

overflowings of the Xile and other causes
the
facilities

the fertility of the

and

thence afforded for agricultural pursuits; the commer-

cial relations

which

their surplusage of corn created with neighbouris

ing nations; a very early trade, as
Arabia, across the
the
facilities

supposed, with India through

Red Sea

to

Meroe, and thence down the Nile;

of obtaining stone and brick for their cities and public
political

buildings,

and a natural ingenuity, energy of character, and

sagacity in the inhabitants themselves^

may have
all

been conspiring to

account for their taking the lead of
civilization, in

the surrounding nations in

wisdom,

in literature, in the arts
life.

and

sciences^

and in

the procuring of the comforts of social

The country of Egypt was of
of the surrounding nations.
classes

great comparative extent, and the

government was conducted under a more systematic form than that
Intimation
is

given in Genesis of various

of officers in the government and king's household

Joseph was in Egypt.
or distinct class of the or vizier,

when Of these may be mentioned priests as a caste, community (chap, xlvii. 22); a prime minister
xli.

who

rode in the second chariot, and was entrusted with the

king's

ring

as a

symbol of delegated authority (chap.
of
the

41,

43)

—a
also

chief

guards

in

Hebrew

D'^nStSH 12^

who

was

governor of the state prison with a deputy under him

Iviii

INTRODUCTION.
1,

(chap, xxxix.

22, xl. 3), writers of

tlie

liierogljphic characters in

Hebrew D^^blH (chap. xli. 8), chief butler and chief baker (chap, xh 2). It appears likewise that horses and chariots were used in Egypt
in the state processions (chap.
xli.

43), and for warlike and other
xiv. 9), at a time

purposes (chap, xlvii. 17,

1.

9;

comp. Exod.

when

the horse formed no part of the possessions of the patriarchs, or, as
far as appears, of

any of the inhabitants of Canaan. JModern
that the Egyptians

reseai'ches

have

also

shown the great progress

had made

in

Joseph's time in architecture, painting, mechanics, and other arts
indicative of a high state of civilization as comj^ared with that of the

surrounding nations.

We

cannot but be surprised at the exactness

of the representation in the book of Genesis, of Egyptian institutions,
arts, sciences,

manners, customs, and general habits.

The whole of
as

the accounts of that country found there, evidently prove the author's
intimate knowledge of
it

a

knowledge

so

minute

can only be

accounted for by opportunities from long residence, and
position in the country such as both Joseph

by

a high

and iMoses possessed.

The

fact

is,

notwithstanding the multifarious subjects treated of in

the book of Genesis, irrespective of those which bear upon doctrine

and duty

—notwithstanding

allusions

made

to forms of

government,
differ-

and

to

manners and customs in

different nations,
is

and widely

ing from one another, the sacred historian

never in error.

The

most exact researches of ancient and modern times confirm the
correctness, not only of the leading facts, but also of the minutest

and apparently most
is

trifling details.

The more
its

carefully this

book

examined, the more strongly are

we convinced
claims as a

of

its

truth

and

genuineness, and of the validity of
inspiration.

work of divine

For our more complete conviction
and customs.
tian,

in this respect, let us direct

attention to the sacred historian's accuracy in his allusions to

manners

For example, he describes Hagar, who was an Egypburden upon
his head.
says,

carrying her bottle of water upon her shoulder, and Pharaoh's

butler, carrying his

In referring to Egyptian
ol /xev avepe<i eirl

manners and customs, Herodotus

ra a'^Oea

Tcov K€(f)a\€o)V (popeovcri al Be <yvvalKe<; iirl

tmv

co/jlcov.

— Herod,

lib. ii.

35.

" The men bear their burdens upon their heads the
^

women upon

their shoulders^

In compliance with Egyptian customs, Josej^h,

i

INTRODIDCTIOX.

Kx

when
so in

a subject of Pharaoh, shaved himself before his admission into

his presence (chap. xli. 14).

Had Joseph been

represented as doing

Canaan, the sacred historian would have betrayed ignorance of

the

manners of that country, where the male inhabitants were
to

ashamed

appear in public with their beards shaved; hence a

neifi^hbourina:
X. 4, seq.)

king shaved the beards of David's ambassadors (2 Sam.
sorely felt insult.

which was a studied and

The translation of the Hebrew word nptJ^^ by butler^ by which we commonly understand one wlio has the charge of wine, might lead to the presumption of the sacred historian's ignorance of Egyptian customs, since
it

can be proved that wine, that
at that

is,

the fermented

juice of the grape,

was

period prohibited in Egypt.

By
of

attending, however, to the literal

meaning of the word
and
It

T\p\^f^ viz.

" one who gives

to

drink,''

a " cup-bearer"
is

to

the

mode
it

executing that

office,

the difficulty

solved.

appears that

was

not wine that that officer gave to Pharaoh, but the fresh and unfer-

mented juice of the grape squeezed into the king's cup (chap.
and
this exactly agrees

xl.

11);
is

with the manner in wdiich the grape

said to have been used as a beverage at that period

by the Egyptians.
same kind,

The
and

attentive reader will observe
all

more

instances of the

tending towards the same conclusion.

In the book of Genesis, allusions are made to a great variety of

manners and customs which are known

to

have existed among- the

Jews
to

in later periods of their history,

and many of which are found
other

prevail

among Abraham's descendants by Ishmael and

inhabitants of the East, even in the present day.

Among
state,

these

may

be mentioned the meeting of the Elders at the gates of their respective
cities,

for

consulting

upon the

affiiirs

of

and

for the

administration of justice (Gen. xxiii.); the presentation of raiment
superiors to inferiors (xlv. 22); the point of

by

honour of laying aside

enmity against one from
ft

whom

a present has been received (xxxiii. 54, 65); the

— 11) or with whom one has eaten a social meal (xxxi.
by parents of
note, of one or

purchase of wives by money, other property, or labour (xxix. 18);
the bestowal

more female attendants

over

whom

the husband had no control (unless

when

voluntarily

given up to him) as companions to their daughters, who,

when

their

husbands had more wives than one, were greatly dependent upon

Ix

INTRODUCTION.
and
Zilpah
are

such society (of these Hagar, Deborah, Bilhah,
instances)

— the

residence of the wives in separate tents with these

companions (chap. xxxi. 33); the various ornaments used by women,
such
as

heavy

bracelets, nose-jewels, etc. (chap. xxiv. 22); the use of

jewels as amulets and for idolatrous purposes (chap. xxxv. 4, and

Analysis No. 2657); the wearing of veils by

women

married (xx. 16)

and betrothed (xxiv. 65), and by harlots (xxxviii. 14, and Analysis No. 1706), but not by widows or virgins; the perfuming of garments
(xx\-ii.

27)

;

the rending of clothes, and the wearing of sackcloth in

seasons of affliction (chap, xxxvii. 34); festivities at the weaning of

children

(chap. xxi. 8), and

birth-days

(chap. xl. 20),
like.

making of

covenants (chap. xxvi. 28
will be noticed

— 30), and the

These and other cases
will obtain a greater

by the

attentive reader,

who

amount and

variety of important information from the careful study
its

of this book, than he had calculated ujDon previously to

perusal.

The
words.

reader of the book of Genesis will be likewise interested and

benefited

by tracing manners and customs from the meanings of
existence of these words proves the existence of such
to

The

manners and customs previously
appears.

the date at which the

word

From

the coin that afterwards went under the

literally weight, it is inferred that current

name 7pt^' shekel, money was originally bulat

lion weighed,

and that

it

was only coined was

an

after period

;

and

that the coin denominated the shekel

so called

from

its

being of

the same weight as that originally used for weighing bullion.

That

coined
it

money was

also

weighed

is

well

known, but the weighing of

then was for the purpose of ascertaining whether the coin was of

the just value.
1. one who Pavels The Hebrew word ^HD sokher, signifies Hence it may be inferred that when that about 2. A merchant. name was given, merchants perambulated the country in the disposal of their wares, and did not sell them in booths. At least their perambulation of tlie country is implied in the word. The same infer-

ence

may be drawn from
2.

the Greek

word

ewiropo^

1.

One

that

passes through —

A

merchant.
nishbak, ordinarily rendered

The word ^5^^

swore,

is

in the

passive voice, and hence the form of swearing

may be

inferred.

The


INTRODUCTION.
oath was administered in the words "
therefore, that the

^

Ixi

I adjure

fheeT It should seem,
in

word

literally

means was adjured;
sivore.

conformity
volun-

with our phraseology,
teers

it is

rendered

When Abraham
/

an oath, he

says, in reference to this matter,

have lifted up

my

hand, a form used in swearing, in the present day.

The word Tl^'lp
1.

k'deshah,

fem.

from
2.

A

holy,

or consecrated female

\i}'lp

was holy

signifies
;

A

harlot,

or prostitute

the

Hebrew term having
idol.

reference to the Canaanitish practice of female

prostitution, regarded as a religious duty, in the temple of

an impure

The same connection

is

form ^^\)
ir!!3

1.

Sanctus

mokhar

signifies

— —

observable between the masculine

2.
1.

Cinaedus.
Sale, price

2.

Price o^o,

woman, dowry

not given by the father

ivith

the daughter, but to the father for the

daughter (Gen. xxxiv. 12).
in

The

equivalent was sometimes given

money, sometimes

in other property,

and sometimes

in labour

exacted by the bride's father from his future son-in-law, as appears

from the compact between Jacob and Laban, for Leah and Rachel.
niJpO ^nikneh
signifies

1.

Acquisition

2.

Property

3. Cattle.

A

very natural connection in the minds of a pastoral people, whose
property consisted principally of flocks and herds.

There

is

a similar

connection between the Latin words pecu,

cattle,

and

pecu7iia, money.

ninX
2.

akhuzzah

signifies

\.

Seizure from *n{< akhaz,

seized

Possession, bearing reference to the

mode

of acquisition

3.

The

manner or form of taking possession, which is equivalent to our law term seizin. In the 34th chapter of Genesis, Hamor, in order to
induce the sons of Jacob to give him their
mises
a
sister in

marriage, pro-

them

— L The privilege of intermarriage with the Shechemites,
peculiar

mark of

favour and distinction.

2.

The

privilege of

travelling over the land, either for the purposes of pasturage or trade.
3.

The right of holding property
linxn is used, which

in

it

— on which occasion the expresand holding

sion

implies the right of purchasing

landed property, according to the established legal forms of the
country.

The same

expression was used
Israelites.

when

the land of Goshen

was given over to the

The

original form of the trans-

ference of property, seems to have been very simple.

In Abraham's
Hittite, it

purchase of the cave

of Machpelah

from Ephron the

appears that the price was settled, the

money weighed, and

paid, in

bcii

INTRODUCTION.

presence of the Elders at the gate of the city

— and that the
This
is

title

was

completed by

seizin

in other words,

by immediate possession, which

was probably attended with some

formalities.

what

is

called

*^^D riTHi^ a seizure, or seizin of a burial place.

In these times

property was conveyed without the instrumentality of writing, and
the form of conveyance, as appears in the purchase of the cave of

Machpelah, was extremely simple, and exactly suited to the
society at the period

state

of

when

the transaction took place.

Had

the

sacred historian, in the description of that transaction, stated that

there was an original deed sealed according to law and custom,

and

subscribed in presence of witnesses, and that there was likewise a
duplicate

which was open,

as

was the case in the purchase of the
seq.,

field described in

the 32nd chapter of Jeremiah, verse 7,
irresistible

should

we not have had
date,
It is to

evidence of usages and forms of a later

and adapted

to a different state of society?

be hoped, that the remarks that have been made in the

preceding pages of this chapter,

may

be useful in stimulating the

student in the prosecution of the study of the

Hebrew

Scriptures,

and

in convincing

him of the importance of attending
;

to the

most

minute particulars recorded in the word of God
such minutice in evidence of
its

of the bearing of

truth and genuineness; and of the

additional interest and instruction thereby to be obtained from the
critical

study of

it.

PAET

II.

On the Difference between the Style of the Pentateuch AND that of the LaTER BoOKS OF THE OlD
Testament.
If the man, wliose business
can read
tliein
it is

to interpret tLe sacred Scriptures,

only through the

medium

of a translation, he cannot
is

form a confident judgment upon any interpretation which

founded

upon

a peculiar rendering of the original

;

and he
;

is,

in consequence^
his views

in a great measure, at the
are correct,
to instruct
lancrua2[e

mercy of others

and even when

he cannot submit them
with that
satisfaction

to those

whom

it is

his business

which one

skilled in the original

can do.
in the original

Another advantage of the perusal of the Scriptures
arises

from the close attention requisite for that purpose.

For

a long

time the attention of the

Hebrew

student must be directed to every

word, phrase, and sentence; and he thus becomes more thoroughly
acquainted with the contents of the sacred volume than
acquired by reading a translation.
is

ordinarily

carelessly, or entirely over portions of the

The English reader often passes word of God which appear
student
Scriptures, can pass over
is

to

him

less interesting

or profitable than others, but the

who would
nothing.

master the whole of the

Hebrew

He must

read the whole over and over again, and he

thus likely to possess a thorough knowledge of their contents, and to
direct attention to,

and

to derive instruction from,
fail

what the reader

of a tran.slation would either overlook or
If the student views the principles

to appreciate.

and structure of the Hebrew

language with a philosophical eye, he will be able to analyse the
various operations of
pressions of thought
its

mind among the Hebrews by its various exto investigate the manner in which it forms
it

conceptions from the means which

employs

to

convey them,

Ixiv

INTRODUCTION.
to trace

and thus

back the stream of language to the fountain from

which
•will

it

flows.

Attention to the principles of the Hebrew language,

likewise contribute greatly to the student's advancement in the
its

study of universal grammar, and by a comparison of

structure

with that of other languages, the study
the judgment, and not as
exercise of
it

-will
is,

become an exercise of
little

frequently

else

than a mere

memory.
form a judgment upon the peculiarities of
style of the

By

the perusal of the Scriptures in the original, the student will
to

be enabled

different writers.

The
at

Scriptures

ai-e

professedly written

by

different

individuals,

and

widely distant periods of time, and hence there

are differences of style

which

are not discernible in a translation.

There

are, indeed, differences

of style which arise out of differences

of subject, wdiich are quite perceptible to an English reader.
are others, however, of

There

which an English reader has no conception.
style of the Scriptures, the student

By

attention to the

Hebrew

can

institute a comparison between the books of Moses and those of suc-

ceeding periods, and partlcuhirly those of the era of the Babylonish
captivity.

In this exercise, he will find in the Pentateuch, and parti-

cularly in Genesis, examples of early forms

which go under the name
the later writers

of Archaisms, which are

unknowm among
fell

— words
He

there used which afterwards

into desuetude, and great variations

of meaning in the same words in the earlier and later writers.
will discover in Genesis

many words

of Egyptian origin, descriptive

of objects peculiar to Egypt, and illustrative of Egyptian manners

and customs, which show the writer's intimate and thorough knowledge of that country.

The

difference

between the
is,

style of

Moses

and the

later writers of the

Old Testament,

indeed, not so great as

that between authors in a

even a much shorter
less plastic

modern language, during the same, or The language itself is much period of time.
so highly contri-

than those of Greece and Kome, or of those of modern

times,

which the Greek and Latin languages have
refine
;

buted to extend and

from

this cause,

and from the tenacity

of Eastern nations to old forms and usages, and from the bar that
their religious polity presented to free

and unrestrained intercourse

between the Jews and other nations, the language remained more
stationary than
it

would have done

in other circumstances.

Not-

INTRODUCTION.
•withstanding
all this,

Ixv

the attentive student will perceive in the later
of words, idioms, and phrases

Hebrew
times
tion,
of"

style, the rise

unknown

in the

Closes, the necessary result of the

advancement in

civiliza-

political

changes,

commercial

enterprise,

intercourse

with

foreigners,

and other
is

causes.

A

difference of style

expected, and

accordingly found, in the

may hence be writings of those who
Baby-

lived posterior to ]\Ioses, even long before the period of the
lonish captivity.
style generally

But during that period and

afterwards, the

Hebrew

becomes so corrupt, that neither the book of Genesis,

nor indeed any part of the Pentateuch can, with any show of reason,
or probability, be ascribed to Ezra or any of his contemj^oraries (as

has been maintained

in

several recent

German

publications),

or

indeed, any of the books professedly written previously to the Babylonish captivity.
I think,

A
to

critical

examination of the style of Isaiah,

will,

prove

it

have been written a considerable time posterior

to the Pentateuch,

and previously

to the captivity; and,

upon these

grounds, a very powerful argument
Isaiah's predictions

may

be raised to prove that
to their

were uttered and recorded long anterior
as
is

fulfilment,

and that he spake

" he

was moved by the

Spirit of

God."

The same argument

applicable to the other prophecies in

the same circumstances, and the same conclusion necessarily follows.

In conducting such investigations, great attention should be paid to
the chronology of words, in which I include not only the eras at

which new words

arose,

and old ones

fell

into desuetude, but also

the dates or periods, in which old words acquired modifications and

changes in their original meanings.
the

By means

of the careful study of

Hebrew

style,

which indeed cannot be

fully mastered

without an

acquaintance with some of the cognate languages (a very easy task
after the acquisition of the

Hebrew), arguments

may be

raised of a

very satisfactory kind in favour of the genuineness of the different

books of Scripture, and by which the composition of
books

many

of the

may be

confined to particular periods, out of which they can-

not be removed.

The
and
its

style of Genesis is

extremely simple.

Considering the proit,

bable sources from which Moses received the materials for writing

extreme antiquity, we

may

expect indications of that anti-

quity in old forms of words and sj-ntax indicative of language in a

/

;

Ixvi
state of infancy.

INTRODUCTION.
These peculiarities go under the name of Archa-

isms.

If there were family records kept
if

by the

patriarchs,

which

is

probably the case, and
writing
the

from these Moses drew
varieties

his materials for

book of Genesis, certain

of style

may be
we

expected from the circumstances in which the writers were placed,

and the subjects of which they were

treating.

On the

one hand

have particular allusions to manners and customs in Mesopotamia,
and to the habits and usages of nomadic
other, references are
life

in that country

;

on the

made

to the constitution of the

government, to

the policy, and to the manners and customs of Egypt.

Hence might

be expected, in both these

cases, the introduction

of words applicable

only to such descriptions as are not likely to be found elsewhere, and
of words entirely foreign.

From

these causes, the style of Genesis

has acquired a peculiar character which

may

be called patriarchal.

Of

the archaisms that are to be noticed, are ITin be thou, for TTT\;

^)

a child, for

^^l

;

l^^nn they

are,

fern,

for H^jriri;
K**?!.

]m'r\ they
t'

draw near, fem.

for

n^^^^)

;

J^IH she, for

These are archa-

isms as respects forms of words.

In the third part of

this Introduction, I

have shewn traces of the

Hebrew language without
case

distinction of gender,

which could
writings.
all

in that

be only ascertained by the context.
earliest

These traces

may

be

expected and are found in the
of this

Hebrew

Vestiges

may

be seen in the Hebrew, and indeed in

languages in

nouns of the

common
is,

gender, such as

7J52il

a male or female camel

^iSJ^ a bull or coiu, etc.

tinction of gender,

however,

The inconvenience from the want of disfelt more strongly in the Hebrew

than in languages which abound in adjectives, whose terminations

mark the gender of the substantives. Owing to the poverty of the Hebrew in adjectives, perspicuity required such distinctions, which
were marked
in

two ways.

The

first,

and probably the

earliest,

by
ass,

separate words for the masculine

and feminine, thus ^i^H a male
etc.

pDX

a female ass

;

^X

a father, D{< a mother,

the distinction of sex would necessarily increase the
bles, it

As this mode of number of vocaspeak

probably on that account

fell

into disuse,

and the distinction by

termination was substituted in

its

stead. It is scarcely proper to

of such words as
do,

/pil a female camel,

and jiriK as archaisms; they
support of the theory in

however,

exhibit

grounds

for the

;

INTRODUCTION.
regard to gender,
-wliicli
is

Ixvii

given in

tlie

third

dissertation.

The

violations of concord

between nouns and verbs of different genders,
in Genesis, are generally accounted

of which
for

many instances are found

by gi-ammarians per archaismum.
it

Thus

|5

a garden, masc. has
ii.

the pronominal affix referring to
like

in the fern, in Gen.

15.

In

manner, the fem. personal pronoun J^^H

she^ is often to

be read
(b.).

for the masc.

NIH

he.

— See

Schroed. Instit

,

sect. viii.

reg.

123

Many

such anomalies have been pointed out in the Analysis.
a difference

Another peculiarity, exhibiting
the later

between the

earlier

and

Hebrew

style, is

the frequency in the former, and particuaffix called

larly in the

book of Genesis, of the usage of the
Dothan, n^^Hi*^ towards,

H

locale.

That
e.

affix

has the meaning of ward=toivards,
to
to,

to, into,

and the
;

like
to,

g.

nyn^

into Egijpt

H^'IISI

into,

towards the land.

For

this primitive usage,

found in the book of

Genesis about one hundred and thirty times, are occasionally substituted

the prepositions
a preposition or

7{»?

and

"IJ^

;

and sometimes the word
latter

is

without cither

n

locale.

The

usages are found in Genesis but
of the

very seldom

when compared with that

H
;

locale.

I

have here to

observe that the preposition 7 which was afterwards substituted for
the

n

locale, is

not once found in Genesis
locale is

and

further, that the

usage of the

H

much more

frequent in Genesis than in any

other book of the Old Testament.
indeed,
it

With some
places in that
i.

of the later writers,
It is

seems to have fallen into desuetude.

not found once
it

in Ezra, although there are

many

book where
I,
iii.

might
31,

have
viii.

been
32,

expected

(see

chapters

11,

iii.

8,

viii.

etc.).

In the Enrrlish lanoniao-e three different forms are used
substantives

when two

come

together, signifying different things.

We

either
;

place the former

noun

in the possessive case, as Cicero s orations

or

we
or

transpose the words and use a preposition, as the orations of Cicero,

we

place the

two nouns in juxta-position without any change
In Hebrew, the

whatever upon their forms, and hence make a sort of compound
wordsj as iron-side, sheep-shank, butter-milk, etc.

nouns are either placed in juxta-position sometimes with, and sometimes without any change in the
is

word

that precedes, or a preposition

used, as in English.

The former
is

is

what

is

called the construct
so as to present

state,

and the tendency

to

run both words into one,

/2

;

bcviii

INTRODUCTION.
wliicli is

one definite idea,

nearly equivalent to a
tlie

compound word

in

the Indo-European languages, as in

case of Agricola in Latin,

and

(Sottc6^furc!^t,/<?flr

of God, in German.

In Hebrew, the vowels

of the word said to be restricted or in regimen, are shortened or lost,
as far as perspicuity will allow (see

Gram.

arts.

55, 92, 93).

Thus,

run'' ^y^,

{d'hUar yhovah),
{dibh-re

nin^

'•'11'^

word of God, from 11'^ {dd-bhdr), and yhovah), words of God, from D'*'111[. In these
is

cases, the latter

noun

added

for the
it

purpose of defining, or otherart.

wise qualifying that preceding

{Professor Lee's Gram.

143);

and their combination

affords the idea of proprietorship, materiality,

peculiarity, or the like, that exists

between them

{id. art.

217,8).

It is

here to be observed that the changes of the vowels and final letters in

the former or specified noun, are simply the result of the close connection between the two words, and are by no means essential to the
relations

which they bear

to each other, since this

is

accomplished by
specified

position alone,

and without any change whatever in the
art.

noun.

— See Nordheimer's Grammar,

794.

This construct

state I consider the earliest
etc.

and simplest mode of
;

pointing out the relations of property,

between the nouns

but

the same objects are attained likewise in Hebrew, and in some cases

with greater precision by the preposition 7
respects, etc.
;

to,
*'J2

for, in

reference to, as
ivaters
is

thus, the expression 7^3^)1

signifies

of the

deluge,
for

which covered the earth;
ix.

while
15);

7^3^/ D^^H
and there
is

the waters

producing a deluge (Gen.

likewise moi-e
hand,
or to

precision in the expression
the north

ppITT?

7^'!2^'0 to the

left

of Damascus than

in pt^^'l 7ik^^f2; the prep.
is

7 marking
done when

the relative position of the places more distinctly than

the words are in the construct
situated to the north as regards

state,

and pointing out that Hobah was
xiv. 15).

Damascus (Gen.
day
to (of) the

In such ex-

pressions as day of the month, year, etc., the prep.
struct state
is

7 and not the con-

used as \i}'irh

DV

month.

The

relation
is

of property,

etc.,

usually expressed

by words

in the construct state,
is

not in this case so obvious, and hence the other form
cases, however, there is

used.

In

many

no perceptible difference between the two forms

of expression.

Thus

7XS

[113

(Gen. xiv. 18), and 7^<

p3

express

exactly the same idea, namely, a priest of God.

So

'IJI

P.*57 tlTT]
the house

(Gen. XX.

1 8), is

exactly equivalent to n''5 CDHl

wombs of

INTRODUCTION.
and

Ixix

ich

15JJ'

(Gen.xli. 12), to 'Ul
is

^^

1'2^jervant of the captain. In

those cases where there
tlie

no difference of meaning between the forms,
from a very extensive

preference of the one to the other would doubtless be frequently
still,

regulated by the taste of the writer;

in-

duction of
7, instead

facts, I

am

led to the conclusion, that the use of the prep.
is

of the construct state,

found to be

much more

frequent

Avhen the ideas intended to be conveyed are precisely the same, in
the later than in the earlier books of the
this
is

Old Testament^ and that
of which cases I
state.

a

mark of the

later style.

The

following are usajres with the
in all

preposition, taken from the

book of Ezra,

apprehend Closes would have used the construct

Thus

N''b^J

nn^n^?
see in

a prince to

(of)

Judah (Ezra

i.

8),

for T^y\r\\ X'b'J

and

2ri|'?D'^5 the

vessels to lof)

gold (Ezra l 11), for
lit.

inn

"S^, which
i.

Ex.

xi. 2.

D'''n35^

ilX^

a hundred as regards talents,

e.

a hundred talents (Ezra

viii.

26, 27), for ^^"132 r\^J2 or HXJb, see

Analysis Xo. 562.
(Ezraviii.34)for
fathers
is

7JD*7

73^05

h

t^^ weight

to (of)

every (one),

SbH ^32^33, and

nUxS

D^SJ'Nn heads to (of) the

used very frequently in the later writers for

ni3Xn

''^Nl.

The examples already quoted from Genesis prove,
are there
rests
its

that both forms

used without any difference in meaning.

My
7,

argument
and upon
and even

upon the extension of the usage of the preposition
in

frequency

the

later

writers,

where in

Genesis

throughout the whole of the Pentateuch the construct

state is found,
its

and

I

have no desire to press any argument beyond

leo-itimate

extent.

As

a further proof of the genuineness of the
its style, I shall

book of Genesis,
it,

drawn from
sive of

point out words contained in

expres-

common

ideas,

Testament scriptures.
sed

by

p^n

(in

are not elsewhere found in the Old Thus 711^ window of the Ark(vi. 16) expreschapter viii. 6) which is the ordinary word, see
"^''iH trained,

which

Analysis, Xo. 675.
is

a military term, in xiv. 14 the root
;

not

uncommon, but not
is

in this sense. 7X\^ a young pigeon (xv. 9).
i.

This word

used in Deut. xxxii. 11 to express the hrood,

e..

the

unfledged brood of eagles, but
for

no where
19);

else.

HiJll a

leathern bottle

holding wine,

etc. (xxi. 15,

^lllb^ draicers of

(a

bow)

(xxi. 16); ?|^y^ a

woman's

veil,

(xxiv. 65); ''^pyiTl cause, or give
sort

me

to

eat

(xxv. 30);

C'lJJ^ a

of dry measure, (xxvi. 12),


" ;;

Ixx

INTRODUCTION.

no doubt then well known; ^p^J^Hn contended (xxvi. 20), pb'y^ contention (id) a sword, Greek fjud-^ULpa, see Analysis, ri"ll)p
;

No. 3265.

V vPD

refreshed,

by some rendered red

(xlix. 12)

^\^0^ borders,

boundaries (xlix.
so

These words express ideas
in the other parts of the

14).— See Anal. 3318 and 3319. common, and so frequently occurring
I

Old Testament, that

cannot help thinking

that they must have fallen into desuetude even as early as the days

of Moses, and that they are peculiar to what has been called the
patriarchal style.

The
to be

following words which are jDeculiar to Genesis are expressive
less

of objects

common; and

the words are consequently less likely

found elsewhere

— thus,

p^^

with |5 fi^^s possessionis, he
2.

who was

about to possess or inherit Abraham's property, xv.

See Anal. Nos. 1267 and 1268.

D^D »•.

a ladder (xxviii. 12);
;

DD*
.

hot springs, according to Professor Lee, water (xxxvi. 24)
stoi-ax (xxxvii.

HN^II

25);

b?

ladanum (xxxvii. 25)^ and

(xliii.

11); D"*^tp3

nuts

(xliii. 11).

The words which

follow are peculiar only in form or meaning,

cognate forms and the same words with different meanings being

found in other books of the Old Testament.

One

or

two of

these,

however, are found in the other books of Moses,
(vii.

e. g. D'lp''
'~\T)

substance
(viii.

4); also in (Deut. xi. 6), root

D^p

to

stand;

cold

22)

cognate and

common word, TTO;

p^*^ and dreiv out (xxiv. 14), only
is

used as a military term in Genesis, as

remarked by Havernick;
;

^^r word D^T
delight,

purposed, determined, of the form
;

D]"* (xi. 6)

cognate and

common

T\'T\^ pleasure, Gr. rjBovTj, (Gen.xvili. 12), root

Vl^ Eden,

j^^.? a furnace (xix. 28, also Exod.xix. 8, 10, and xix. 18),
it

root l^^2 subdued, because
quiver,

melts or subdues metals.
3),

"^

vri thy

according to some a sword (xxvii.

ni/^T

signifies, 1. so7ig

root H/Jl suspended.

2.

What

is

celebrated in song, Gr. aoiStfia
it is

3. choicest
xliii.

productions of a country, in which last sense

found in

11, but

no where

else; root ^,'^T sang.

r\)D covering (xlix. 11),
radical beinof

usual form niD5. root 1103 covered, the

first

removed

by aphaeresis.

The above

I

regard as forms and meanings of words

peculiar to the patriarchal style.

The following

are words found only in Genesis,
life

and are descriptive

of incidents in Jacob's

duriog his connection with Laban, and of

;

INTRODUCTION.

Ixxi

manners and customs in Padan Aram. These are D v^)^SJ wrestlings,
from the Hebrew root yT)^ twisted (Gen. xxx. 8)
;

11^ endowed, and
;

751

^ dowry (xxx. 20)

;

75T cohabited with (xxx. 20)
xxxi. 8,
10^

Ipy

striped,

streaked

(xxx.

35,

39,

12);

compare

*lpy hound

(xxii. 9); It^'X

happiness (xxx. 13),
;

other forms of this

word

are

quite

common D^H dark colowed in the Auth. Vers, brown, (xxx. 32) ]h the almond tree (xxx. 37) 7^^ jieeled, and niS^3
;
;

peelings (xxx. 37);

tDH'n a watering trough (xxx. 38, [41), also in
ivellknit,

(Exod.ii.lG)

;

jin^'pp bound,

compact, firm, strong [xxyiAl).
is

The root
liere in

*1^*P bound, is not

uncommon, but the word
D^^^

only used

the sense of strong

divisions, parts, times (xxxi. 7).

The

root

HiD

numbered,

is

not uncommon.

^^

the

handaj, sella

camelina (xxxi. 34); and

np'i the

ischiatic nerve (xxxii. 33).

^y>

NnnilL?^ acervus

testimonii, are

Chaldee words used by Laban where

Jacob uses "^Vh^ Galeed (xxxi. 47). The following are words used only in Genesis in the description
of incidents in Egypt, which are either of Egyptian origin, or

Hebrew

roots,

and forms which subsequently
;

fell

into desuetude,

thus ^IHD prison or round-house (xxxix. 20)
riiSiniJ^

DIlSJ^ squeezed [xl. 11);

blighted

(xli. 6,

23),

there

exist,
kal.,
;

however,

compounds
the

of

Pj'TtJ'j

of which this

is

the pass. part,
(xli.
;

in other parts of Scripiiicline
(xlli.

ture.
(xli.

ni23^V ^'7'

blighted

23)

TT'llJ^

head
biPl
2, 3)

43)— see
a
river,

Prof.

Lees Lex.

HnripX
with
its

a sack

27)

;

embalmed, and D''pin embalmed, past participle of the former
"IX*

(1.

in
its

the

singular,

one

exception,

applied

to

the Xile, and
grass
(xli. 2),

plur.

always to

tributaries,

and X^ilX Nile

are doubtless Egyptian words, but are not confined to

Genesis.

The words and other

peculiarities of style

which have been point-

ed out, form, I conceive, the basis of an argument which has yet to

be more fully developed, in proof of the genuineness of the book of
Genesis. Letthe intelligent reader judge whether, from the peculiarity

of the expressions used in describing the incidents in Mesopotamia

and EgjqDt, recorded in Genesis, a good argument might not be
raised corroborative of the truth of the facts related, namely, that

the individuals referred to did reside
there recorded,

in

Egypt and Mesopotamia,
true.

as

and that the incidents mentioned are

Ixxli

INTRODUCTION.
observations are designed to sliew, that between the
style of the Hebrew language underwent The manners and customs of the Israelites must

The following
era of

Moses and David the

a manifest change.

have been, to
civilization.

a certain extent,

altered, as the nation

advanced in

The Hebrew language must have
by the
situation

likewise been, to a

certain

extent, affected

and circumstances of the

Canaanitish nations, by

whom

the Israelites were surrounded; with
;

whom

they were almost continually engaged in war

by

whom

they

were frequently kept under military subjection; by whose
they were so often corrupted
;

idolatries

and with

whom

they so often kept up
nations

a forbidden and demoralising intercourse.

The Canaanitish
allusions are

seem

to

have made considerable improvements in their

political

and
to

social condition,

between the periods in

which

made

them

in Genesis,

and those

in

which they

are spoken of in the other

books of the Old Testament^ up to the era of David.
to the great

Their proximity

and flourishing

cities

of Tyre and Sidon, their commercial

relations with these cities,

and with Babylon and the East, and probably
in fenced ci-

too with Egypt, must have greatly tended to their improvement^ both
political
ties,

and

social.

We find them accordingly dwelling

using horses and chariots of iron as instruments of war, and with

evidently well equipped and well disciplined armies.
cidental circumstances mentioned in the history,
that they

There are init

which make

appear

had made considerable advancement in architecture and and that they possessed many of the luxuries of
is

the fine

arts,

life,

which there

no probability that they did

at the time they are
also reference

referred to in the

book of Genesis.

There

is

made

to

their wealth in gold, silver, raiment,

and jewels, and

to their advance-

ment in husbandry,
14) and the
nations,
like.

in vine-raising, in fencing their fields

(Numb, xxii-

The connection between
to,

the Israelites and these

which has been adverted

rendered frequent allusions to

them

in the sacred writings indispensable, in the period to

which

I at

present refer;

and the new circumstances in which the

Israelites
rise

were placed

after their settlement in the land of

Canaan, gave
I

in consequence to
constitute a

new

ideas

and

to

new expressions, which
style of the

contend

difference

between the

Pentateuch and that

of the books of Judges and Samuel.

The

following expressions are given in illustration of what has

INTRODUCTION.
been

Ixxlil

now advanced.

Tliey relate in the

first

place to ornaments for

the person.

Thus, ^)^}^ n'l'lX a Babylonish garment {J o^\\.\\\. 21); n^S ^^'^ purple garments worn by the kings of Midian J/^^"lXn (Jud. viii. 26); ^^^ a dyed garment, cog. J^5^ dipped (Jud. v. 30);
iv.

nD\!ptrn the coverlet which Jael spread over Sisera (Jud.
this
is

18);

a

new word nowhere

else used;

but whether

it is

expressive

of the same article as that expressed in the Pentateuch the

by nS/^^'H
is

Hyke

or plaid, or an article of superior quality,

it

perhaps

ijnpossible to say.

D''^inD' crescent-shaped ornaments, small moons
iii.

(Jud.

viii.

21, 26, also Isaiah

18).

HlS'^tp^ ear drops,

or

round

ornaments^ drops attached to the ear, or fastened together like strings
of pearls,

from PjD^ dropped

as

dew
as

(Jud.

viii.

26,

Isa.

iii.

19).

Pip^y some sort of chains, described way of ornament (Jud. viii. 26).

worn about camel's necks by

The following
only);

are architectural allusions; thus,

chamber of cooling, refreshing

—a

summer

par-lour (Jud.

H^D^ri Tvh^^ a iii. 20, 24

jIT^D^ri the porch of the palace of Eglon, king of
iii.

Moab
it,

(Jud.

23), so called from the rows of columns supporting

see

0^*1*10 rows, ranks,

and cog.

HITlb'

id.

1^V^^_ a latticed window

(Jud.

V.

28;

;

the words used in Genesis for apertures for the admis-

sion of light are ^^^^f

and

|1

PH

;

ri3C^7 a supper chamber (1 Sam.ixcell in

22) afterwards commonly used to express a chamber or
temple,
(

the

n***!^

a tower,

some part of the

7'^-5^ the generic

word

Jud.

ix.

46— 49).
are

The following

words expressive of

articles

of food and of

household furniture, not used by Moses.

TT^
vi.

broth (Jud. vi. 19,20)
vii.

and only there; 7^7^ or

7vV

some kind of cake (Jud.

13);

7Sp some kind
also

of bowl or dish (Jud. v. 26,
"Hfi

38); ^T\'2l2 a mortar,

a

hollow place (xv. 19);

a flask for oil (1

Sam.

x. 1

;

^liSCi'X

some

sort o^ cup (2

Sam.

vi. 19).

The following
are

are

common

ideas expressed in the books written
for

between the eras of Moses and David,
used in the Pentateuch,
thus,
14),

which

different expressions

^i^nil

?^j2

T\y)i'r\\

and she
/^T\\

alighted
/XSiin

from

the ass (Jud.

i.

with which compare /^^

and she alighted from the camel (Gen. xxiv. 64);
ii.

D''p2i^ spoilers
iii.

from DpK^ spoiled (Jud.

14), earlier

word TT3 (Deut.

7,

Gen.
etc.,

xxxiv. 29), and also in the later books;

*l5^i a skin for wine, milk,

Lxxiv
(JosK.
ites;
ix., 13),

INTRODUCTION.
probably a word learned by Josliua from
tlie

Canaan-

HDn

id.

(Gen. xxi. 15, 19) and there only;
vii.

^^p
tlie

a breaking of

a dream, an interpretation (Jud.

15),

p^lHD

is

word used by
together,

Moses from in|)

interpreted (Gen. xl. 5); pJ^V^
vii.

was gathered

the niph. form of pj^^ of the niphal arises very cried, called out, and the above meaning

was summoned (Jud.

23, 24).

This

is

naturally out of the primary idea in the word.
siinply because IMoses never uses it

I

mention

it

here

when he

speaks of

summoning

the congregation of the children of Israel, but always the Avord

7np^
its

the niph. of 7np assembled, while he frequently uses pj^^ and
in their primary acceptation.

compounds

ITw
iii.

signifies

a flame,

fem. form

H^hS (Numb.

xxi. 28).

In Jud.

22,

^O?
its

signifies a

species of short pointed knife or weapon, so called

from

similarity

of appearance to a point of flame.
xi. 40),

^-Hn^

celebrate (Jud. v. 11

and

and no where

else in the

Old

Test.,
id.,

D*)n the sun (Jud.
Moses.

viii.

13),

S^^^

^IV id. (Gen. xlix. 8); the word always used by
7^5^ and 7I3^?D are the

nnS

food, meat (2 Sam.

xiii.

5);

words used
|ri^,

in the Pentateuch; M^l^^ri a present (1
id-

Sam.

ix.

4) only,

niri^ and rtp*l5

(Gen. xxxiv. 12,

Numb,

xviii. 6, 7,

and

Gen. xxxiii. 11); ^^^ an error (2 Sam.

vi. 7),

PlJ^D' id. (Lev. iv. 2,
xliii.

Numb. XXV.

27),

etc.,
i.

and

Hll^/ip id.

once (Gen.

12);
1.

H^'^p

lamentation (2 Sam.

17),
iii.

/IJ^

id.

(Gen. xxvii.41, and
id.

10),

and

Pp^
id.

lamented (2 Sam.
ix.

33),
pi.

ISD

(Gen. xxiii. 2); HpiK^ a bough
(Lev. xxiii. AQ), and
f)5j;

(Jud.

48, 49),

ni23

of i]3

id.

(Lev. xxiii. 40).
I only notice one other usage

which

is

unknown

in the patriarchal
is

style,

and which

is

only found once in the Pentateuch, but which

of
I

frequent occurrence in the other books of the Old Testament.
allude to the usage of the numeral
*irit«J oyie,

as

an indefinite

article.

Thus— nn.Nf
XV. 4);

%

a heap (Josh.

iii.

13);

^T}^

T^?
etc.

« torch (Jud.

*inj>{

2J^yi|) a flea (1

Sam. xxiv. 14)

This idiom has
e.g.

been frequently introduced into the
fxlav,

New
%>^/3a,

Testament,
fjila

avKrjv

a fig tree for,
Tt<i

TLva (Matt. xxi. 19);
/jllu

TraLSlcrKr],

a

maid

servant for

(Matt. xxvi. 69);

a widoiv for rt?

(Mark

xxii. 42), etc.

I could without difficulty multiply such instances,

but what has
rise

been advanced appears to

me

to

be sufficient to prove the

of new

INTRODUCTION.

Ixxv

words and alterations in the meanings of old ones during the period
intervening between the eras of ^Moses and David;
that a considerable

and, likewise,

advancement in

civilization

must have taken
the eras of the

place

in

the

Land of Canaan subsequently
;

to

Patriarchs

and of Moses

and that between the

style of the
is

books of

Moses and the
difference.
I shall

styles of

Judges and Samuel, there

a

marked

now illustrate
styles
is

Hebrew

the difference between the earlier and the later by a comparison of the books of Moses and Ezra. If

the result

successful, the assertion

made by some

of the recent

objectors against the genuineness of the Pentateuch

—namely, that
will be

the whole or the greater part of
to

it

was written by Ezra,

shown
part of

be groundless.

The book
it is

of Ezra consists of only ten chapters,

and about the half of
it

written in Chaldee.
little

The Hebrew

treats of subjects
still

which furnish

scope for such an investiga-

tion;

sufficient materials will

be furnished to show the extreme

improbability of Ezra being the author of the books referred to

Moses.

Ezra himself disclaims their authorship several times,

referriii.

ing to the " law written
vi. 18);

by Moses, the man of God"

(chap.
it,

4,

and appeals

to that

law and makes quotations from
priests, the princes of Israel,

as his

warrant for compelling the
to

and

others,

put away their strange wives, and the children begotten by

them.
I

am

to observe, in the

comparison between the usages of Ezra

and those of

jMoses, that the

names of

certain weights, coins, vessels

of the tabernacle,
rulers

or utensils for ceremonial observances, and of
different;

and magistrates are

and

also that the

grammatical

forms, and certain idioms,
are likewise different; and

and the meanings of words and phrases
that this

book contains many words of
Baby-

Chaldee origin,
lonish captivity.

unknown

in the language previously to the

In Ezra
id.
(viii.

we have

D''^tt3*}'^

drachms, Gr.
Gr.
fMvd,

Spd-^fj.r) (ii.

69)

D''2ljD'T^^{

27);

W^^
So

pounds,

Lat. mina

(ii.

69).

These

words, the names of weights or coins, are
in Moses' time.
{«{nii''nrin

unknown

in the Scriptures
office

the Tirshathn

— the name of an

held by Nehemiah(ii.63, Neh. vii.65,70); T\^'T\^(jovernors{\i\i.^Q),
D\iJlp (ix. 2) rulers are

names of

offices

applied only during the era

Ixxvi

INTRODUCTION.

of the Babylonisli captivity, and

being evidently words
expressive of the

of foi'eign origin.
vessels or

unknown in The

the times of Moses,

following are words

names of

implements connected with the
both of Moses and Solomon.
the blood of the
(i.

temple service, unknown in the

daj^s

Vp'lJX
where

chargers^

probably vessels for receiving
(i.

slaughtered victims
else.

9),

D''37nO slaughtering knives

9),

and no'''liS3

The
is

earlier

word

is

HplDXD (Gen.xxii.

10),

vessels of

some kind, probably with

covers,

from "135 covered {yvi 21 ).
its

The word 1135

used by Moses to signify hoar frost, from

covering the surface of the ground.
I have already adverted to certain grammatical forms

common
is

in

the writings of Moses, that either are not found in the book of
Ezra, or shew a tendency towards desuetude.
locale,

Of

these

the

T\

which

is

found about one hundred and thirty times in the
in the
this

book of Genesis, and not once
are about fifteen cases in
for.

book of Ezra, although there
form might have been looked

which

In

all

these cases the simple form of the word, or the preposi;

tions

7 or 7NI are used instead of the old form T\ nJbvp'I'l** to, unto, or towards Jerusalem, are found
(^di. 9),

thus, instead of
D/EJ^I^T* (iii. 8),

D^^n^.-^iSI
Genesis.

or

ihrnh

(i.

3, 11),

but never ij; as in

Indeed, from the book of Genesis downward, there seems

to be a tendency towards the disuse of the

M

locale.

The tendency
is

of the style of Ezra towards the

less

frequent usage of what

called
in.

the construct state of nouns, and the substitution of the prep. 7
its stead,

have already been pointed out,
(i.

as in the

caseof ^H-P

Dv2

the vessels to (of) gold

11), instead of ^ntri

''T'Jp.

The

following are forms of words, grammatical forms, and idioms,

different

from those in use in the time of Moses,
old form n*l!iy.

ri*!^^^ service,
(viii.

slavery (ix. 8);

1TV^12 of a gold colour

27),

only used here, from ^H^, cogn. ITW gold, the old form; n*'5ri T\\ this house (iii. 12), old grammatical form T[)T\ n''5D D'*'^3TlI DTli^lb
'

(viii. 4), lit.

two hundred the males, two hundred males,

for

DTiND

Dn:3T.

The form
talents,

D^^^S

nX,^

(viii.

26) for

HX^

or

0^55

^h

a hundred

has been already pointed out.

&^^5<h

TuXlu? I^i

(our iniquities) have increased over {our) head (ix. 6); this use of

Ty?'^u7 as a prep,
Scripture.

is,

I believe,

unknown

in the earlier books of

;

INTRODUCTION.
The following
to give

Ixxvil
")y\

expressions are idiomatical.
i.

in** )yi

TlTO

us a nail ox pin in his holy place,
(ix. 8)
;

e.

a sure interest, or a firm
to

and
i.

settled habitation

nS'7N> T\^f2fro7n mouth

mouth,

e.

from extremity to extremity, from one end to the

other (ix. 13).

Moses uses the term.

H^fpD
i.

^^1^11?^ T\]2>'&)

Dllbn thou
hands,
i.

hast with-

held beneath our iniquities,
(ix.

e.

hast punished us less than
to

we

deserve

13); T*)*! n)"73^
(iii.

lit.

according

the

e.

ordinance of

David

10).

The following
pressions.

are alterations in the
]\Ioses

meanings of words and exto raise,

With
4),

Xb'J

signifies to bear,

take away,
it signifies

and

as applied to sin, to forgive.
(i.

In Ezra in

\t?>

pih. form,

to help

and

to further (viii. 36).

Ezra and the

later

writers
in every

use

X^3

to express the taking of a wife (ix. 2

12).

Moses

case uses

np7-

"1^1 Ji^l.nri

^5*^ and

when

the seventh

month was come,

arrived

(iii.

1), earlier

meaning, touched, touched so

as to hurt, struck

injured, etc.

The following
in Moses.

are

words and expressions in Ezra not found
(viii. 1

at all
al-

C'll^jn the being registered, registration
later,

— 3);
is

most always used in the

but never in the earlier writers.
;

Tin fearing,
earlier

expressive of a religious emotion (ix. 4)
to express this emotion.
this

X*!^

the

word

fT'jyr) self-humiliation (ix. 4),

the root

common, but

form

is

only used here.

n7il signifies
2.

1.

Laid

bare, as the ear to receive instruction, or information.

Laid
3.

bare, open, a city, or country,

and

so

conquered

it,

went into captivity, in hiph. carried captive.

— Prof.

per.

metonom.

Lee's Lex.

The

3rd meaning, extremely
times.

common

afterwards, was
riiD'
;

unknown in Moses'
J/^*!^
(^i-

The word used by him

is

^^^3'^

^4), four

myriads, forty thousand.

^*\'2r\ is

not found in the writings of

Moses,
the

who

expresses /or/y thousand by
^jrfes/

^Vs

D^'yil'^X; D^N*)!!

'\T\2'nt

head (the high)

(vii.

5), called

by Moses

7n|n
is

|ri-3Il

*T'S^ a he-goat (viii. 35), earlier word^^ljl; r[y^_f2 jurisdiction, province,

from the earlier word V*^
i.

to

judge,

is

a form that

not found

in the earlier writers (Esth.

1,

22).

The following
harassing (iv.4);
*'Tjr\

are

words and forms which were borrowed from
]Vli;^ grant
(iii.

Chaldea.— ^dSo or

r\'):hf^ rule{Yin.l);
(vii.

7);

D^H^^D
11);

j^^'13 copy
(viii.

11); jiri^^

letter, epistle {y\\.

commissions, laws

36); D^^^T^ appointed

(x.

14) from |^T

Ixxviii
time,

INTRODUCTION.
Chaldee word; D|*inp interpreted
D^i3")'^2^'^^{ chief satraps
officers.
(viii.

season, a
(i.

(iv.

7);

^STi}
latter

treasurer

8)

;

36).

The two

are

names of Persian
loses

I mio-lit

have pursued
]\

this subject further,

and have shewn that

the styles of

and Ezra,

as exhibited in the order

and arrangeare so

ment of words, and
different, as to

in the general

manner of the language,

prove that the Pentateuch and the book of Ezra
I consider this

could not have been the works of the same author.
unnecessary,
fully
it

being

my

conviction that the case has been already

made

out.

What

has been advanced in this and the preceding

part of the Introduction, in

my judgment,

forms a cumulative arguis

ment
nable,

in favour of the genuineness of the Pentateuch which

impreg-

and which
as if the case

affi)rds as

strong conviction, at least, to

my own

mind,

had been proved by mathematical demonstration.

How

thankful should I be, should

my

humble

efforts

prove equally

instrumental in strengthening the convictions of others on this vital
question.

PART

III.

On the Structure of the Hebrew Language.
To
a philologist the study of the
It is

Hebrew language
its

is

a subject of

great interest.
structure.
It

very simple in

parts,

and

inartificial in its

exhibits

many

traces of language in its infancy,

and

shews the basis upon which improvements in language generally

have been constructed; and

may hence

be rendered instrumental to

the confirmation, or confutation of the theories of those

who have
;

philosophized
It is

upon the

origin and progress of language.

extremely probable that language was originally God-given
is

and

if so, it

conformable

to the

analogy of God's other proceedit

ings with his rational creatures that

was bestowed only

to such

an extent as was necessary for

man

in the circumstances in

which he

was placed

;

and that the language given was formed upon principles

of reason, and similar to those
selves to

which would have commended themhis

human

reason,

and which would have been adopted by man,
own.
to

had language been entirely an invention of

The
things,

principles

upon which the Hebrew language appears
that
all

be

foimded

justify the conjecture
is

words were

at first

names of
springs.

and that the noun

the root from

whence the verb

"We may readily believe that the parts of speech were

at first few,

and that the methods of expressing the qualities of substances and
actions

would be

as simple as possible

;

that such words only
;

would would
with

be adopted, at

first,

as

were indispensably necessary

that these

be constructed upon analogies^ which in some
their reasons, it

cases, together

may now

be impossible to trace; and that these

words, at the outset^ would be
possible.

made

to serve as

many

purposes as

According to
objects
safety
;

this supposition,

names would be given

to those

which were necessary
to those with

to

man's subsistence, comfort, and
familiar,

which he was most

such as the members


Ixxx and
orp-ans of the

INTRODUCTION.

human body;
;

to the irrational animals

which most
sur-

engao-ed his attention

to the trees and plants with which he was

rounded, and the

like.

In some cases, the reasons for assigning names

to certain objects are not

now

discoverable; in others,

names were

as-

signed from assimilation of the sound of the
ple,

word

to the cry, for

exam-

of the inferior animals, or to other sounds which the words were

intended to express.

Of

the former kind

may

be mentioned such

words

as

N'lp

{kore), partridge;

^13^

{tsippor), sparrow, or

young

bird,
first
;

called in the Scottish dialect a cheeper.
letter

I'lJ^ (horeb/i), raven,

the

of which

is

pronounced with a very strong guttural sound
be mentioned the English words
shriek, clash, etc.

of

the

latter

kind

may

rush, crash,

clatter,

groan, growl,

Other words derived

new

meanings either without any, or with

slight alterations,

from words

already in existence from analogies, either as regards quality or

appearance.
ance,
is

Thus

TJ^ th^ ^ye,

from

its

moist and pellucid appear;

likewise used to designate a fountain
2.

and

flSEJ^ the lip

(the

edge or extremity of the mouth);
a garment); 3. the
lip,

the

lip,

extremity or border (of

the extremity or shore of the sea.
in

The names of qualities,
change
substance; and the

many

cases, are

formed only by a slight

either in the accent, or

form of the word, expressive of the
is

name

of the substance

often used to express

the

name

of its quality,

by metonymy

or other grammatical figure. into the

The

necessity of the introduction of
all

new words
is

Hebrew,

and most probably into

other languages,

frequently avoided

by

means of the figures metaphora, synecdoche, and metonymia (see Storrii
Observationes, etc., p. 3, et seq.) It

may, however, be here remarked,

that these figures of speech are not grammatical or rhetorical artifices,

but promptings and necessities of nature.

After names were given to substances and their qualities, means

must have been adopted

for restricting or

modifying the names
first

common
placCj

to a variety of objects.

This

is

accomplished, in the

by new words,
etc.,

as in the case of proper

countries, rivers, etc.; in the second place,

names of men, towns, by the classification of
and
in the third place,

animals, plants,

into genera

and

species

;

by placing words
prophet Moses

signifying the same thing in juxta-position, in

order to the limitation of a general term, as the city Jerusalem, the
;

and by placing words

in juxta-position

which signify

INTRODUCTION.
different tilings, wliicli position
state.
is

Ixxxi

called in the

Hebrew, the construct

This construct state

is

sometimes found without any variation
it

whatever in the form of the words so placed, sometimes
a change of the

exhibits
last

vowel points, and sometimes an alteration in the

consonant, apparently for the purpose of euphony; thus, D'^'l^^ ^l^i
{ei'ets

Mitsraijim), land of
T\\r\\

Egypt

;

D^'i7^s

\'''^__

{hm-^lohim), eye of

Tn\r\ (torath yliorah), law of Jehovah. form of each of these words is, ]'**^.^^, V^_, and Tn\T\.

God;

The

absolute

A

similar

method

is

used almost in

all cases

in

Hebrew

for de-

scribing such accidents, qualities,

and properties of nouns

as are

described in languages of later origin and of higher refinement,

by

means of
perties,

adjectives.

In describing, for example, accidents, prosuch as country, colour, speed,
etc., is

or qualities of a horse,

strength, etc., the
after the

name

of the country,

placed immediately

word

horse; thus, horse Egypt, horse blackness, horse swift;

ness, horse strength

according to our idiom, Egyptian horse, Mack

horse, etc.

Adjectives, as expressive of the qualities of substances,

are refinements

upon language, and

are^

comparatively speaking,
are called

unknown
adjectives,

in
is

Hebrew.

The feminine gender of what
else

probably nothing

than another form of the abstract

noun, adopted either for the sake of variety, or in order to suit the
termination of the feminine forms of nouns,
distinguishable
is

when gender became

by termination.

When
it

the feminine termination

H—
sigis

added

to ^b^ {Sar), a prince,

becomes

TH^

(Sarah), a jmnccss.

The word

^itD (tobh),

is,

strictly speaking,

an abstract noun,

nifying goodness; to

which, when

the feminine termination Pi—

added, as n^ltO,

it still

signifies goodness,

and

is

Scripture construed as an abstract

noun

;

thus,

many places of '•H^ID my goodness,
in
i.e.

Ps.xvi. 2; and 11^1*1^ Hl^itO

lit.

goodness of countenance,

of a fair
lite-

countenance (Gen.

x:K.iy.

16).

Wliile, therefore,

lib

ip

means

xaWyprince goodness, good
princess.

i.e. good prince, ri!lit3
is

The feminine form

T]1^ is princess goodiiess, i.e. generally, though by no means
close resemblance

always, connected with the feminine noun, so that in those cases

where abstract nouns have two forms, they bear a
to adjectives of the their foundation.

more cultivated languages, and
abstract

are probably

In the

Hebrew language many nouns, both

and concrete,

Ixxxii

INTRODUCTION.
viz. a

have two forms,
witliout

masculine and feminine, in

many

cases

any perceptible difference in meaning, and were probably
tlie

introduced for

sake of variety.
;

Of

these

we may
;

notice, 1''^

and nn^b' hoanj
Pr\'!2'^l2

hairs, old age

njjb'

and T\'yp hair

"^'tpm and

that ichich guards,

a watch, guard;
circuit
;

ppD and ^O/'H a
vitie;

portion

;

y2p

and nn''5p a
*^i^.

plt^ and i^Vj^^ a choice
D"T|i

^IS and n*^^" a shij)]

and Hp")! a side;

and

T]'!2'l^

front

part, the eas^,' Anal. No. 257 ; I^NI and rTpJ^ a word. Anal. No. 538.
INIany other double forms are mentioned in the Analysis.

My

impression

is,

that anomalies in the formation of the plurals of

nouns, arise out of circumstances connected with these double forms
of Avords with the same shades of meaning.

In some

cases, the
;

masculine, and in others, the feminine,
in

fell into

desuetude

and,

some

cases, the

masculine singidar of the one, and the feminme

plural of the other, and vice versd.

Upon

this

ground I would
its

account for the masc. noun "^NS a
fem., the masc. plur.
lost
;

ivell,

having for

plur.

HIIN^

D''*l^«»!ll,

and the fem.

sing. iTlXS,
;

having been

so also

H^H

wheat, fem., D'^tSH plur. masc.
fem.
;

so

D^

a name,

masc, and
masc.
;

JllDSJ^ plur.

HJ^^ the

hoivels, fem.,

D''^^ plur.

11J^ shin,
is lost,

masc,

Jllliy plur. fem.

In some cases the fem.
;

sing, only

while both forms of the plur. remain
j)lur.

as, D!^^^

a

hone,

masc, D^^^S?

masc, and HID^y
tAvo

plur. fem.

Upon

the

principle that
as adjectives

many words with
accounted
for.

forms ordinarily designated

are in reality nouns,

concord

may be

See

many apparent anomalies in HH^D rest, fem., and ^ItO
xlix. 15.

good, masc, in Analysis,

No. 3321; Gen.

The view just given in regard to the mode generally adopted in Hebrew of qualifying nouns without adjectives, acquires additional
probability from the circumstance that several languages have been

discovered in modern times which are said to have no adjectives.

Of

the same peculiarity traces are discoverable in our own, where

the same words are used sometimes as adjectives, and sometimes
as substantives
;

in

which

cases the probability

is,

from the analogy

of the

Hebrew,

that the

noun, and not the adjective, was the
:

original.

Of

this

usage the following are instances
;

gold ring,

coaljire, sea water, ship stores, etc.

to

which may be added such

INTRODUCTION.
words
as Christian, cold, cunning, clicine, liquid, etc.

Ixxxiii

See Mac-

culloch's English Granunar, p. 26, edit. ix.

Tlic probability of the correctness of the foregoing theory

is

increased

by the

fact, that

many English nouns
Thus
:

of very

common

use have no corresponding adjectives of Saxon origin, the adjectives

being derived from the Latin.

dog, ca?iine ; breast, jjecIbid. p. 119,

toral; cow, vaccine; end, final; etc. etc.

The
for the
in

folloM-ing are a

few of the examjiles, pointed out in the
substantives,
as qualifjang words, viz.

Analysis, of the

method of compensation, by means of
:

want of adjectives
i.

fl^X

"^^l.l^

a tcay of truth,

e.

in

a true icay, Anal. No. 1969, chap. xxiv. 48,
i.

^'^*^ Jl'l.'lXS like a

garment of hair,

e.

a hairy garment. No. 2039,

chap. XXV. 25.

Jli^^lD HS*!

^XD

t\h\

beauty of figure, beauty of

countenance, i. e. of a beautiful figure, of a beautiful countenance. No. 2289, chap. xxix. 17. ^^{^^ JlHtO goodness of countenance,
i.

e.

of a good, or fair countenance. No. 1905, chap. xxiv.

16.

*in*
i.

n^

^'D.'!')

'^^^

excellency

of dignity, and excellency of strength,
3.

e.

excelling, etc.,

No. 3252, chap.xlix.
aBtKia^, the

The
ment
:

following are similar idioms, taken from the Greek Testao KpiTT]<;
Tr]'i

judge of injustice, of

i.

e.

the unjust

judge,
Coloss.

Luke
i.

x^^ii.
;

6

;

vt'o? tj}<? (xyciTrrj'^,

son of his love, beloved son,
riches, uncertain
all

13

ahrfKorrfq ttXovtov, uncertainty
vi. IT.
:

riches, 1

Tim.

The following
oi viol
t7}<?

expressions are

founded

upon Hebrew idioms

aTret^ei'a?, the

sons of disobedience

= 01 airetdovvre^,

the disobedient,

Eph.

ii.

2, v.

6

;

oi viol

<f>(0T6<i

=

at irecjioiTtafMevoc, those ejilightefied,

Luke xvi. 8.
for

So

(tk6to<;,

dark-

ness, for eaKOTLafiivoc,

and cpm, light,

7r€cf)coTiafj,€vo<i,

Ej^h. v. 8;
ii.

and ^
8,9.

TrepLTOfiTj, the

circumcision, for ol irepiTerfirjixhoL, Gal.

7,

Number.

Hebrew nouns have three numbers, the singular, plural. The dual niunber does not extend to verbs, as
There are two genders, the masculine and the feminine.

dual,

and

in Greek.

A great
which

number

of cases have been pointed out in the Analysis, in
is

the singular

used instead of the plural, and in which the dis-

tmctions of gender are not observed.

Hence

arises the probability

g 2

Lxxxiv
that there
either
A\'as

INTRODUCTION.
originally

no distmction by termination between
is

gender or number, and the same

said to

be the case with

several languages of uncidtivated nations.

" There are only (says

Lord jNIonboddo) three barbarous languages, so far as I know, of which we have any account published that can be depended upon, the Huron, the G alibi, and the Carihhee, of which we have dictionaries and grammars, so far as it is possible to make a grammar
of them.

With

respect to Syntax, the

Hurons appear

to

have

none

at all, for

they have not prejDOsitions or conjunctions.
for their nouns,

They
In

have no genders, or cases
verbs."

nor moods for their
i.,

Origin and Progress of Language, vol.

book

iii.

many

cases, a plural

form

is

not at

all

necessary for perspicuity.
twenty man,
is

Thus the Hebrew expression,
telligible
as

*^'^^ D''1^J^.

as in-

D'*^iK

D'''12J^J^.

ttventy

men.

In

all

such cases, the
the plurality

plurality of the

noun

is
;

necessarily indicated

by

inherent in the numeral

and where there
any

is

no numeral, the

pliu*ahty of nouns, without

alteration of their form,

may be

generally ascertained with sufficient clearness from the context.

The same
in

thing

is

seen in the vulgar English expression, twenty

horse, for twenty horses.

As

their language

improved, the Hebrews,

some
;

cases in connection with numerals,

gave the plural termina-

tion

in others, retained the singular.
inclusive, take the

Thus the numerals between
e.g.

two and ten
pliu'al
;

nouns connected with them in the
fj/^

and those above eleven, take them in the singular;

D''^JX
(men).

y5^ seven

men, but

K^'^X

I regard the latter as the early, the former as the

W^^"^^ forty thousand man more

recent usage.

Gender.
There
is
;

no

distinct

form

for the

gender of the

fii'st

personal

pronoun

in other words,

it is

of the

common

gender.

The second
so
is

person has a separate form for mascidine and feminine, and so has
the third.
second, thou
she,
it,

In English, the
;

first

pers.

/

is

common;

the

but the third has

tlxree

forms in the singular, he,

but only one for the plural, they.

We,

however, find no

difficulty

from the want of separate forms

for the distinction of

the gender of thou, you, and they, theirs, them.

The common

INTRODUCTION.
gender iu
all

Ixxxv

languages, I regard to be a vestige of language

without gender.
is

In the expression, H^lb

|^
lil,

a good garden, there
for
it is

nothing

illogical

any more than
;

in ^ItO
is

as logical to

call 1^

feminine as masculine

nor

there any thing ambiguous in
it is

the expression

H^ID

p, every one knows that
if

means, a good
regarded
as

garden.
adjective.

It

is,

however, ungrammatical
little

HiitO

an

There can be
a refinement

doubt, however, that grammatical

concord

is

upon

original language.
is

In like manner,

midti res, though ungrammatical,

as logiccd

and

intclligihle as

multae

res.

In English, there

is

no distinction of gender in

adjectives or verbs,
tinction of

and no formal
is

distinction in nouns.

The

dis-

gender

only

known

in English

by means

of the

possessive

and personal pronouns.

Case.

There are no cases in the Hebrew language.

Comparison.
Comparison
is

generally effected in

Hebrew by
H*?!

the preposition
cutting,

with the meaning of |/!p from, which was originally a noun,
separation, distinction
distinction
;

thus,

ITl^n

73^

^^*^Ji^

lit.

cunning

of evcrg heast of the Jield, i.e. cunning as distinguished from every heast of the field, or cunning from every heast of the field, i.e. more cunning than any, the most cunning of all. Gen.iii.l.
yt^'^\

Qi^?^ Di^/I and a

jyeople shall he strong

from

(as distin-

guished from) a people,

i.e.

and one of
it

the two peoples shall

be

stronger them the other. Gen. xxv. 23.
is

Sometimes a comparison
but what
lit.

made without any
small.

intimation of
^l**^^

may be

gathered

from the context; thus,
sei've the

I^V.*!. ^"^"l

and

the great shall

Great and small are here used

m

the sense of

magnus and parvus in Latin, with natu, i, e. old and young. The expression therefore means, and the old (in reference to the other)
shall scree the

young (in reference So

to the other), i.e.

and

the elder

shall scree the younger, there

being only two brothers mentioned.

Gen. xxv.

2.3.

pli^'H

133 his son the old, as distinguished from

the other, his elder son.

Lxxxvi

INTRODUCTION.

INIODE OF

EXPRESSING THE SUPERLATIVE DeGREE.

The

following are the incthocls, adopted in

Hebrew,
this is

for tlie

formation of the superlative degree.

Sometimes

done, as in

the case of the comparative last mentioned, without any change of

form, the superlative degree being only inferential from the context.
It can only

be knoAva from the context whether

7*1^11

1^3 signify

his

elder son, the

comparison being made between him and a
it may mean his eldest 7l|n VilX his old, i.e. Thus,

younger, he having only two ; or Avhether
son,

he ha-sdng more than two.

oldest brother, referring to the oldest of Jesse's sons. 1

Sam. xvii. 28.
sunilar idiom

In such cases no ambiguity can

arise, as the
is

context will always

shew which degree
is

of comparison

intended.
;

A

occasionally found in the

New

Test.
as

e. g. iroia

ivroXr) fieryakT],
all

tchich (is) the great
i.

commandment,

compared with

the others,

e.

jxe^iarri, the greatest.

There

is

another form in the

New

Testament which, however, does not resemble the Hebrew idiom,
in

which the comparative

is

used for the superlative
fMejiaTO'?.

;

thus, 6 he
xiii.

fi€i^(ov vfxwv,

Matt.xxiii.il, for
is

See also Matt.

32,

where the mustard plant
herbs,
is
i.

said to

become

jxel^ov, greater than all

e.

the greatest.

It should
it

seem that here the comparative
other plants on

used, because there are, as

were, but two things compared,
all

viz.,

the mustard plant on the one hand, and

the other.

A

superlative

sense

is

expressed in
as,

Hebrew sometimes by

synonymous words in juxtaposition;
obscuritatis ,
i.

HpS^ "^^^

tenehrae

e.

very thick darkness, Exod. x. 22 ;

sometimes by

putting the noun to be compared in the plural number, as T\M2
sing, death, il'^T\V2 pliu\ very terrible death, Isa.
holiness,
liii.

9

;

S^lp

sing.

D''^'lD pliu\ holinesses, most holy;

sometunes by the

repetition of the word, as ^ItO ^ItO good good, i.e. very good; T\^_
•^^J^

"^^

corruption, corruption, corruption, i.e. most corrupt, Ezek.

xxi. 32; ni^in"! niin*! (by reason of) the attacks, attacks, i.e. the

very violent attacks, Jud. v. 22
inost abject slave.

;

D'**7iy.

^5^. « slave of slaves, a
6 /SacriXeu?

Gen.

ix.

25

;

with which compare
Kvpievovrcov,

Twv ^acriXevovrwv, Kal Kvpta rwv

Supreme King and

; ;

INTRODUCTION,
Lord,
1

Ixxxvii

Tim.

vi. 15.

Sometimes by

tlic

addition of a "word signifyHllO

ing excess, or very , exceedingly , as

HXp

honum

calde, very good,
as

Gon.

i.

31

;

sometimes by means of the word ^iD5 firstborn,
in the

Dy'l *11D5 firstborn of the poor,
TTpcoTOTOKOi;

most abject ]ioverty

;

comj).

cK Tcov vsKpcov, firstbom
all

of the dead,
it

i.

e.

the most

eminent of

-who shall rise from the dead, as

is

explained

immediately afterwards, that he
see Col.
i.

may

be in all thifigs irpcoTevcov

18

;

sec also ver. IG,

and Ajioci. 5; and Glass.

Phil.

Sac. p. 43.

rich or lat,
i.e.

Sometimes by means of words expressive of what is as D'^tSH HI V-? ^?n the fat of the kidneys of wheat,
Isa. v. 1.

the richest ox finest

of oil, very fertile,
the

of the wheat, Deut. xxxiii. 14 jDC?^"|5 a son Sometimes by the addition of one of
;

names of God,

as vX"'''n'in ^mountains
;

of God,

i.e.

very high

mountains, Psalm xxxvi. T

DN1 7^

^''b'J

a prince of God, a very

eminent prince. Gen. xxiii. 6;
strong xoind, Isa. xl. 7, lix. 19

niTT^ V\T\ a toind
;

see aardo';

tS

0eo5,

of Jehovah , a very fair to God,

and hvvara tm ©ea>, powerful to God, exceedingly powerful, 2 Cor. x. 4 and Anal. No. 16. Sometimes by
exceedingly fair. Acts
vii.

20

;

;

the addition of the termination

n~,

as

ri^"'ISI

tensor, Hn^'^JSI very

great terror;

sometimes by means of

^^

prosthetic, as ^T-3 cruel,

10X

7nost cruel;

sometimes by the use of the abstract for the coni.e.

crete, as

niXri desire,

most desirable, Anal. No. 332 ; sometimes

by the prep.

3, as D'*&^'35 "^^^D ^he beautiful
i.

among women,
av
i.

i.e.

most

beautiful. Cant.

8

;

with which comji.
i.e.

6v\oyr)/xevr]

iv yvvai^iv,

blessed (art) thou

among women,
in the
i.

most blessed, Luke

28.

Some-

times

by words

construct state, as ^T'yn vllil the great
;

(ones) of the city,
hla dedfov, divine

e.

the greatest
i.

with w^hich idiom compare
most
divitie,

of the goddesses,
i.

e.

Horn. Iliad, and

" Sequimur

te sancte deoriun,"

e.

sanctissime. Vii'g. Eneid.

In

the later style, the superlative was sometnnes formed
the words |^
thus, "-iGij

^HV, which
np;.

is

equivalent to the

by means of Greek /j,S.Wov ij
lohom does the
6
;

nnv

nib'yS

^fpn ybni
to

'bh

to

hng

delight to do honour

more than
ia-rt

me, Esth.

vi.
rj

with which
it

idiom compare fiaKapiov
Acts XX. 35.

SiSovat fxaXXov
i.e. it is

Xafi^dveiv,

is

blessed to give rather than

to receive,

7nore blessed, etc.

; ;

Ixxxvlii

INTRODUCTION.

Pronouns.
Pronouns are regarded by some grammarians
of speech
theii;

as

primary parts

I

am

inclined to think that this
all

is

not the case, but
are

history

and derivation, in

languages,

extremely

obscure.

Many

passages of Scripture, hoAvever, appear to give

evidence of language without pronouns, which

may be regarded
:

as traces of the clumsy expressions which the use of pronouns has

superseded.

Of
i.

these the following are examples

" They went

forth to go into the land of Canaan,

they came,"

e.

into

it,

Gen.

xii.

5

and into the land of Canaan " And Abram was foui-;

score and six years old
to

when Hagar bare Ishmael

to

Abram,"

i.e.

him, Gen. xvi. 16;

"Then Solomon

assembled the elders of

Israel, .... unto king Solomon," i. e. to himself, 1 Kings viii. 1 " So the king died and was brought to Samaria, and they buried the king in Samaria," i.e. him there, 1 Kings xxii. 37 ; " And Abra-

ham was

old,
i.

and well stricken
e.

in years,
1
;

and the liOrd had blessed
wives of Lamech,"
i.

Abraham,"

him. Gen. xxiv.
iv. 23.

"

Ye

e.

my

wives. Gen.

The

possessive pronouns in

Hebrew

are fi-agments of the perall

sonal pronouns affixed to words,

and are

insejjarable.

The

article and the demonstrative and other pronouns are noticed in

the

Grammar,

Arts. 98, 99, 100, 101, 127.

Of the Verb.
According
to our theory, the

noun

is

the root and not the verb
its

in other words, the

noun

is

prior, in

origin, to
it

the verb.

Though

this position
is

I think there

may be disputed, I take much in the Hebrew language
that

for granted,

and
In

to

support

it.

the choosing of terms for expressing action or state of being,

we

may

readily conceive

new words would

not be employed

unless

when
is

absolutely necessary.
to, for

We

find, accordingly, a

very
verb,

simple method resorted

the formation of the

Hebrew

which

nothing else but a noun in juxtaposition with another
as

noun

or pronoun, or connected with an inseparable personal proto

noun, so

express actmi, suffering, or state of being.

This

INTRODUCTION.

Ixxxix
as,

may be
stone

illustrated

by

Englisli examples

;

ma7i stone, the former

Morcl expressing the actor, the latter the action.

And
;

in

man

man, we have the
man.

subject,

man

;

the action, stone

and the

object,

stone, they

And with jjcrsonal pronouns, / stone, we stone, ye stone, I stone John. In the last example, I represents
and John the
object acted

the agent, stone the action,
sufferer.
It is

upon, or the

probable that the suffering of an action was ex-

pressed in this

way

in the infancy of language,
is

and not by any
In the English,
is

form smiilar to what

called the passive voice.

German, French, and many other languages, there
form for the passive voice, which
is

no

distinct

formed by the aid of the

substantive verb and the past particijile, and sometimes

by other
one

circumlocutions

;

as in

French, on a
i.e. cries

ou'i clans

Rama

clcs cris,

hath heard cries in

Rama,

xoere heard.

The same was
which

probably the case originally in

all

languages, the passive sense
to the active form,

coming from a fragment of a word, added
is

not

now

traceable, or at least not very manifest.
is

In Hebrew,

the passive voice

often expressed without the aid of the passive

form ; thus,
the well

"^Jl^^/ ^^'^1^ I-?"^!^ tvherefore

(one) called the well,

i.

c.

was

called.

Gen. xvi. 14; compare, kuI

KaXecrovcri to ovo/xa
i.

avTov

'Efi/j,avov}]\,

and (they)

shall call his
i.

name Emmanuel,
is

e

and

his

name

shall he called. Matt.
states of

23.

In expressmg
in the

bemg,

the same

method

employed

as

expression of action, namely,

by placing the

subject in

juxtaposition with the quality; as,
a state of cold.

We find,

I cold, implying that I am in accordingly, that the Hebrew verbs are
Between the
originallj'

simply nouns

m
in

juxtajDOsition with other nouns, or incorporated

with fragments of pronouns, used as their subjects.

Hebrew verb
either with

its

simplest form and the noun,

when unconnected
was
no
accent, sufficiently

pronominal

affixes or prefi:xes, there

difference but

what arose from emphasis or

obvious in spoken language, and, in j^rocess of time, from distinctions required

by

perspicuity, which

were redu.ced

into a regular

system by means of the vowel points.

In English,

many nouns
eye,

and verbs are of precisely the same form, and are pronounced
exactly in the same

way; thus, noun hand, verb I hand; noun
verb

verb

I eye; noim

look,

I look; noun

loce,

verb

I love;

etc.

XC

INTEODUCTION.

Of the Tenses of Verbs.
The Hebrew verb has two tenses, the present and the past. The past tense, accordmg to Prof. Lee, is the concrete noun, connected with another noun as its subject, or with pronouns affixed. There may be said to be no inflection in the Hebrew tenses,
because the ground form or root undergoes no change. There is, however, an appearance of inflection, because the fragments of the
personal pronouns, which are full and separate in

many

other

languages, are here so closely united that the verb and pronoun

appear to make but one word.

Of the Preterite Tense.
Singidar.

The The
tion

third person singular masculine of the preterite tense of the
is

kal or ground form,
3 fem.
,

the root, as

H^y

servant

;

as a verb, served.

is

the ground form, with the ordinary fem. termina-

n—

as rrilJJ {ka-bh'da/i).
is

The 2 masc.
^n^!l thou,

the ground form with a fragment of the pronoun
as ri"l5J^ (Jia-hhad-ta).
Jyl^^

masc,
is

The 2 The
1

fem.

the same with a fragment of the pronoun

tJiou,

fem., as nilj^ {Jia-hhadt).

com.

is

the same, with a fragment of the pronoun
first

''^^^,

or

of some obsolete form of the
(ha-bhad-ti).

personal pronoun, as ""rn^S^

Plural.

The

third pers. plur.
^,

common

is

the ground form as above, with

a fragment, p,

or ^H, an almost obsolete form of a plural termi-

nation of the noun, as IH^J^ (Jia-hh\lii).
art.

See Prof. Lee's Gram,

188;

Storrii Obs. p.

139

;

and Nordheimer's Hebrew Gram,

art.

160, p. 111.
is

The 2 masc.
of the

the same, viz. the ground form, and a fragment

pronoun

^T)'i^ ye,

masc,

as DiH'l^y. (Ji^hliad-teni).

The 2

fem. the same, with a fragment of the pronoun \T\^ ye,

fem., as \Tp!2t {hP-hliad-ten).

INTRODUCTION.

XCl
^l^HJ

The

1

com.

tlio

same, -with a fragment of the pronoun

we,

com., as 1J"l5y. {h"Miad-nu),

The form
form
is

of the preterite

is

accordingly as under.

The ground

given without points, to

shew more

clearly the jjrinciple

we have been endeavovu'mg
affixes as

to establish.
;

Concrete noun, 1^}} a servant

and with nouns or pronominal
form in the

nommatives, used

as a verb, in its simplest

past tense.

Singular.

\m

'^^v

3 m.
3f.

servant

Canaan

i.e. i.e.

Canaan

served.

servant

Hagar

Hagar

served,

2 m.

servant thou servant thou
servant

i.e. i.e.

thou servedst.

n-nnj?
^n-nni;

2i\
1

thou servedst.

com.

I

i.e.

I served.

Plural.

cnv^n

C

the

Egyptians
servants

^-lij;

3 com.
1

!'•
i.e.
i.e. i.e.

the

Egyptians

served.

2 m.
2f.
1

servant ye

ye served, ye served,

servant ye servant

com.

we

we

served.

From

the foregoing examples

it is

evident that the ground form

of the verb undergoes

no change Avhatever

—that

it is

the same in

the plural, vnih. the exception of the 3 person, as in the singular

pronoun marking the plurality of the verb) that the noun and verb contain the same radical letters, and that it is only in consequence of the vowel points that any perceptible difference
(the plui-al

appears between them.

In the unpointed system there
is

is

none.

The
is

student, however,

reminded that the 3

pers. plur.

common

the plur. form of the noun,
itself, as

and has no nominative contained
first

within

in the case of the

and second persons, both

singular

and

pliu'al.

Of the Present, commonly called the Future

tense.

the abstract

The ground form of the present tense is, according to Prof. Lee, noun connected with fragments of the personal

.

XCU
pronouns
as

IXTKODUCTIOX.
nominatives.
to the

In the case of the preterite tense, the

pronouns arc affixed

ground form, while they are prefixed

to the present, -with this exception, that

when
is

the prefixing of the

whole
with

is

inconvenient, part of the fragment
It is also to

prefixed and part

is

affixed.

be observed, that the pronouns are connected

all the

persons and numbers of the present tense.
of the present
is

The ground form
by
the vowel points.

made
noun

u]3

of the same radical

letters as that of the preterite, the difference of

form being
used

she^oai

The

abstract

is

also

as the in-

finitive of the verb.

According

to the

vowel points, the form of
is *l!iy

the preterite

is *1?5^,

that of the jiresent

The 3
regards

sing. masc. of the present is

compounded
it

of the ground

form and a pronominal fragment,
it

so disguised that Professor
to

Lee

as

imknown.
1

Storr,
is

however, holds

be a fragment

of Kin, of which the

only

prefixed,
((7),

and wliich
*;
is

as a preformative,
first

according to Gr.

arts.

44, 131

becomes

thus,

l^jyi?

and
^*^

then "l^y^

(jja-f'^hhod).
ii.

The
;

original letter
]7\ is lilve-\vise

retained in jSVl

hides, Prov.

1, for

jS^"*.

considered the old form

of

\?'!_

a hoy.
sing. fem. is the

The 3

ground form, with a pronominal
as

prefix,

which Prof. Lee likewise regards

unknown.

It has

been held
first letter

by
in

others to be a fragment of the
is

pronoun

X**!! she,

the

of which

hardened
;

into

P\,

according to a very
*liyJ!!l (ta-]iflhhod).

common

principle

Hebrew grammar The 2 sing. masc. is
riJSI

thus,

the ground form, with a fragment of the

pronoun

thou, masc. prefixed, as *l^yri {ta-lf-hhod^.
is

The

2 sing. fem.

the same, with a fragment of the pronoun

^riX thou, fem., part being prefixed
{ta-hdbh-di^.

and part

affixed,

as ^"l^yri

The
^^X
/,

first

sing.

com.

is

the same, with a fragment of the pronoun

com., as "liyj^ {a-lfhhod).

Plural.

The

third plur. masc.
,

sing. masc. "Ip^^

is supposed to be made up of the third and the ahnost obsolete ^\\\x. termination 1 or p,

as 1"Ip3^. {i)iph-k\lii).

The 3

sing, fem, is

supposed

to

be made up of the 3

sing, fenu

INTRODUCTION.
13v.ri

XCIU
thcij,

and a fragment of the pronoun n^H
supposed
to the to

affixed; as

niHiyri

{ta-habhod-7iah).

The 2
nation
1

sing, niasc. is

be made
fern.

iij?

of the ph;r. termi-

or

p appended

2 sing.

"liyH, thus lliyri.

The 2

phu-. fern, consists of the

ground form of the tense and
and
affixed, as

fi-agments of the pron. affix

H^HX

yc, fem., prefixed

njlhyn
The
IIS
It
""^j

{ta-li(^h7io(l-nali).

1 \A\\r. is

the ground form, and a fragment of the
(?ia-hab/w(I).

pronoun

as

niyj

must be
is

oA^aied that the foregoing analysis of the present

tense

in

some

cases conjecturaL

Although, hoAvevcr, there

is

considerable difficulty in tracing the affixes and prefixes, of

which

ecrtam of the persons of this tense are made up, there can be no

doubt whatever that the tense consists of the ground form
given, and fragments of pronominal affixes, and plural

we have forms. The

whole

is

exhibited in the following table.

Present Tense,

Of wliich

the abstract

noun *iny
Singular.

is

the

ground form.

nny-^<

1

com.

Ia

serving

i.e.
i.e. i.e.
i. i.

I serve.
thou servest.
thou servest.

nny-n ^-nn^-n
nny-''

2 m.
2f.

thou a serving

thou a serving
lie

3 m.
3f.

a serving

e. e.

he serveth.
she serveth.

nny-n

she a serving

Plural.

-iny-:i

1

com,

.

we a

serving

i.e. v'e serve.
i.

1-nny-n
n:3--Q>^-n

2 m.
2f.
3ni.
3f.

ye a serving
ye a serving
they a serving

e.

ye serve. ye serve.
they serve.

i.

e.

)-iy;-'

i.e.
i.

ni-nny-n
It will

they a serving

e.

they serve.

be observed, that setting aside the vowel points, the
of the same form

concrete noun, the past tense of the simple form of the verb, the
abstract noun,

and the present tense, are

all

;

for

xciv

INTRODUCTION.

the sake of perspicuity, however, they are pointed H!!!^ concrete

noun,

*?5J^ jiast tense,

I^V. abstract noun, and ground form of the
the English and

present tense.

The Hebrew corresponds with
its

with

many

other languages, in

having only two simple tenses,

a past

and a present.

These tenses were supplemented in the case

of these languages in the process of cidtivation,

by means of

other

verbs commonly called auxiliaries, by means of which, time has been
ex]3ressed with

much

greater ]3recision than
in the

The same method has been adopted
verbs.

by the original tenses. modal formations of

From

the circumstance that there are only two simple

tenses in the English language, and no simple forms of moods,

there can be

little

doubt

that,

when that language was

in

its

infancy,

the offices discharged in the expression of time,
auxiliary verbs, were performed

by means of

the

alone

;

and even

as it

is,

there

by means of these two would be more propriety in

tenses
calling

had

loved.,

shall love,

and may

love, parts

of distinct and separate

verbs than compound tenses of the same verb.

That what we
all

have called the present tense in Hebrew, serves

the purposes
at all

which

that tense does in other languages,

is

what no person
It is

familiar with the

Hebrew language can

question.

used

for

the purpose of expressing universal truths, present action, suffering, or state of being,

and likewise jjurpose inferring
is

futiu'ity.

We
by
or

accordingly regard present tune as that which

originally

connected with the action, suffering, or state of being expressed
this tense.

The
in

future meaning given to

it is

purely infercontext,
to

ential,

and

is

ascertained
it

by the general scope of the
Thus,

by expressions

indicating futiuity.

I go

town,

may

either express a present act or a future purpose, to be deter-

mined by the

context.

If,

however, I say,

I go
I

to

town to-morrow,
future time
told that,

the present form with the
as clearly as if

word to-morrow expresses

an express form were used.
indicating future time,
is

may be
elliptical

/

go

to toion,

when
go

an

expression

for, I shall

to toA\ai.

I shall or will go,
;

however, expresses no
is

more than present

intention

the futurity

not exjDressed,

it is

merely matter of inference.

This subject will be further noticed
sequences of the tenses.

when we come

to treat of the


INTRODUCTION.
XCV

The Imperative Mood.
The 2
sing. masc. of

what

is

called the imperative

mood,

is

the

abstract noun, or the

ground form of the present tense without
as l^y. (Ji^hhod).

any nominative expressed,

The 2
pronoun

sing. fem.

is

composed of the above with a fragment of a
as

affixed, as ^"15J?-

AMicn the masculine form, which,
nounced with emphasis,
is

has been said,

is

the abstract
is

noun, and the same with the ground form of the present,
it

pro-

has an imperative meaning.

The same
is

the case in English; d&, love, grasp, jiglxt.
its

In both languages
pre-

the imperative precedes

nominative, while the present

ceded by

its

nominative.
tn'o

There are

forms of the 2 plur. of the imperative, a masc.
*l^i7

and fem., compounded of the ground form
fragments, or the old forms of the plural

and pronominal
affixed.

number

The Imperative

is

as follows

:

Singular.

2 masc.

^T^y
''

a seriing-=ser}:e a serving
Plural.

(\}[\.ou).

2 fem,

—l^y

thou = serve thou.

2 masc.
2 fem.
It will

—1!l>^ n^ — n^y
^

a serving ye

a serving ye

= serve = sei've
is

ye.
ye.

hence be perceived that the verb

the abstract, or con-

crete

noun, with pronouns affixed or prefixed, or with plural

terminations,

which

affixes or prefixes occasion all its variations in

inflection, there

being no change whatever upon the ground form.
all

This
it is

is

probably the case in

other languages, but in

many

cases

impossible to trace the words of which the affiles and prefixes

are fragments.

In some languages, the words

afiixed represent

the time of the action, as in

French and Latin ;
as in

in others, they only

mark the persons of the verb,

Hebrew.

IxFiNiTm;.

The
tense,

infinitive is the abstract

noun, or ground form of the present

and of the imperative mood.
the same

The Hebrew
Thus,

infinitives are

used both in the construct and absolute forms, and with prepositions, in

way

as nouns.

n^n^^liri

*liy5 in the

;

XCvi
tilling

INTRODUCTIOX.
of the ground, or in the cultivation of the ground, ox in tilling Hebrew the abstract noun It hence appears, that

the ground.
is

m

not only the ground form of the present tense, and of the im-

perative, but also fulfils the office of the infinitive,

and gerund

in

other languages.

Of the
The
servile

Participles.
of the abstract noun, "with the
fii'st

present participle
letter
^

is

made up
i.

inserted between the
e.

and second

radicals

thus, 15'^y (Jio-hed^, server,

a

man a

scrcing.

The
as

past participle
1

is

the concrete form of the noun, with the
;

servile letter
1^'2'jil

introduced between the second and third radicals

served.
letter

In the former of these cases, the additional
influence in modifying the

has the same
as the
visitor,

meaning of the simple word
English words server,
ed in served.

termmations
risiting
;

er, or,

and

ing, in the

and in the

latter, as

"

No

such thing (says Dr. Lee) exists in the Shemitic dialects
Certain forms of words have indeed been techni-

as participles.

cally

termed

participles,
so.

and

it

has been fashionable to argue as

if

they were really

The

truth,

however,

is,

these forms exhibit
;

either agents or patients in verbs termed active

and nouns im-

plpng
them."

habit or the like in those said to be neuter;

and

as

such

the grammarians of the East very jji'operly and universally treat
Prof. Lee's

Examination of the Principles of Prof.

Von

Ewald on
It has

the subject of the

Hebrew

Tenses.

been generally held by grammarians, who regard futurity

as the

primary idea in what we have designated the present tense,

that present time in
ticiple
;

Hebrew
^*^ ^^^^^

is

expressed by means of the par-

thus, l^'^Vv'

serceth,

H^lin he

tcho fecdeth.

Upon
is

the same ground

we might

argue, that the present tense

ex-

pressed in Greek by the participle, as 6 cnreipwv, he that serveth,
6 TTotcov, he that doeth, etc.
It

might

as well

be

said, in the case
is

of the Greek as in that of the Hebrew, that as present time

ex-

pressed by the participles there can be no necessity for any other

form

for the expression of that time ;

and therefore, since the Greek

tense usually called the present, often, as the same does

m Hebrew,

expresses both past and futrure time,

it is

erroneously designated a

INTRODUCTION.
present tense, and should obtain some other name.

xcvii

In the examples

above quoted, the expressions according to the

Hebrew idiom

should be rendered, the server, or the serving man, the feeder, the
sower, the doer.
It is to

be borne in mind, that the Greek quotaIt is

tions here are not Hellenistic, but classical Greek usages.

ordinarily held to be a iiniversal principle in

grammar, that no
; and by means of

independent i)roposition can be expressed without a verb
that,

consequently, where propositions are enunciated
the office of the

a participle,

Hebrew

participle in such cases

is

to

express the assertion in the present time.
to

I believe the principle
it is it

be generally but not universally true, and that

not rightly

applied to the case of the

Hebrew

participle ; for if

be affirmed,

that in the proposition Hin^ Hin^*!

pri the

particijile

p^

must

be rendered

iceighcth, thus,

God

weigheth spirits, what becomes of

the copula, or of any direct assertion whatever, in the following
proposition, Vi''>*5
"^T

C'K

''D")'^"7|) all the

tcays of a

man purify
it

(pure) in his
*nT

own

eyes, Prov. xvi. 2.

Can

it

be said that the word
?

comprehends both the copula and predicate
is

But
?

will

be

said that the copula

understood.

But why?
is it

If the presence of

the copula
its

is

indispensable, "w^hy

not expressed

Does not

absence

shcAv that, according

to

the idiom of the

Hebrew
Jehovah

language

it is

not necessary

?

And

every one can see that the exin his

pression, all the tcays of a

man pure

own

eyes, hut

a weigher of spirits, expresses the sentiments intended to be con-

veyed by the sacred writer with

sufficient perspicuity,

though

perhaps not, according to our views of language, with the same
precision.

Such propositions, without

a verb or even a participle,

are to be

found everywhere in the scriptures, particularly in the

book of Proverbs.
chapter cited above;
^'''2"^'yi'^

A great many instances
thus,

will be

found in the

'h^ T\mj^

Hp^S

D3t?*t5 ^jTXb^

th^
of

a Just weight

and halance

the Lord'' s; all the

v: eights

the

hag his iDorh {YxoY.^xi.ll); ^^^^
''^

1^1^

D^^H
life;

1]^-?-\:3£)-ni.S3

^*^P75

the light

of the king's countenance

and

his

favour

as a cloud of the latter rain (Prov. xvi. 15).

The way as

other species of the verb are formed exactly in the
the
first

same

or kal.

For example, the past tense of the second
h

;

XCVIU
or niphal species has a
is

INTRODUCTION.
|

prefixed to the concrete noun,

thus

word not now easily "T^y'J, which prefix To this traceabk% which gives this species a passive signification. tense the pronouns are affixed in the same manner as in the prea fragment of some
terite active.

The

present tense of this species

is

likewise a derivative word,
it,

with pronominal fragments connected with

as in the active form.

And

it

of the

may be stated generally, that the Hebrew verb, is formed from
which
so

first

species or conjugation

the primitive nouns, and

that the others are

formed from nouns augmented by fragments
alter the

of words

modify or

meaning of

their primitives

as to give the sense

expressed by these conjugations respectively.

To

these Avords, so augmented, pronominal fragments are prefixed,

or affixed, as has been already exemplified in the simple forms.

Pluperfect Tense.
There
is

no pluperfect tense in Hebrew expressed either by a

separate form of the verb, as

amateram

in Latin,
as

and

iTerixpeLV in

Greek, or by means of a circumlocution,

I had

loved, in English,

or Tavois fini, or Je m^etois resolu, in French.
pluj)erfect time
is

"W^iat

is

called

ascertained infcrentially, and

may be known

from the context.

There may indeed be said
they are called

to
;

be only two tenses in the English an imperative and
infinitive

verb, the present and the past
as
;

mood,

and a present and past
with nominatives after

present, love, and the past, loved,

Thus the with nominatives before them
participle.
it.

the imperative,
is

love,

The

infinitive, love,

the ground form of the whole xerh, from which the past tense,
participles are formed,
obsolete.

and present and past

words or fragments of words now

by a coalition with The forms, have loved,
cannot projierly

had

loved, shall love, ivill love,

may

love, anight love,

be considered parts of the verb,
connected with
verbs.
verbs.

to love,

any more than the verbs

7^^ teas able, or coidd, and ri^^ loas toilUng, would,

when

similarly

Hebrew

verbs, can be said to be parts of these
etc.,

May,

might, shall, should, will, would,

are principal

INTRODUCTION.

xcix

The

pluperfect tense marks an event jjerfected antecedently to
;

an event also perfected

thus, "

and

it

came

to pass before

he had

done speaking, Rebekah came out" (Gen. xxiv. 15, Auth. Vers.)

According

to

the

Hebrew
the

idiom, the rendering Avould be, " and
etc.,

it

came

to pass

before he finished"
^'

the verb

np3

being in the

past tense.
•\di*gin,

And

woman

(Avas) of a beautifid

countenance, a

xxiv.

and no man nj^"T^ knew her," i. e. had known her (Gen. " To know whether the Lord H vVH j}ros2yercd his 16).
i.e.

way,"
lit.

to

had prospei^ed (Gen. xxiv. 21). l?Xni inp^H^ Spril finished giving him to drink and said"; according our idiom, "when she had finished giving him to drink she

"and

s\.\e

said" (Gen. xxiv. 19).

In these expressions there

is

no ambiguity,

but there

is

less precision

than in English and other languages

which have

distinct forms for the expression of pluperfect time.

A
It

great

many more examples

will

be j)ointed out in the Analysis.
is

may

here be observed, that the Greek aorist

very frequently

used instead of the pluperfect tense.
of the pluperfect
is

The use

of the past instead

also

common

m other languages.
Subjunctive
INIoods.

Ox THE Potential and
In

is no pecidiar form for the potential or sub" The verb to he," says Dr. M'Cidloch in his junctive moods. adimrable English grammar, " is the only one in the Enghsh lan-

Hebrew

there

guage which has a conditional form.
the form,

In the case of
elliptical.
so.

all

other verbs

when
an

it

occurs,

is

purely

Thus, if he say so

it is icell, is

ellipsis for,

if he shall say
ellij)sis for,

Though he slay me

yet will

I trust

in him,

is

an
to

though he shoidd slay
is

me"

p. 65, edit. ix.

The verb
and

he,

however,

no exception

to the

universal rule, as he

icere are old

forms of the present and

past tenses of the indicative of the substantive verb, of

which they
xoill,

are remaining traces.
xcotdd, shall, shoidd,

The words, may,

might, can, could,

must, as has been akeady observed, arc prin-

cipal verbs.

In Hebrew,
pressed

liherty,

power,
as

xoill,

inclination, are

sometimes ex;

by such words
expressed by

7^^ xoas ahle,

H^^
is

xvas xvilling, etc.

but

what

is

oiu- potential

mood

generally accomplished

h2

INTRODUCTIOjST.
iu

Hebrew by

tlie

past

and present tenses of

tlie

indicative, without

any change of the form whatsoever. Of the latter method the "IJll N^'iS^Il do ice, or shall tee, find such following arc examples
:

a one (Gen.
•K^Si that
^7»'6'

xli.

38)

;

can

ive

find (Auth. Vers.)
;

''I?'!.^^

^^^^.5

my

sotd bless thee (Gen. xxvii. 4)
'•!l5jt

(Auth. Vers.)

\3C'^^.''

''j^^

my sold may bless peradceiiftire my father feel
that

me(Gen.xxvii.l2); shoiddfeel(Auth.ycvs.) ^^5

^^W ^T'^^'^
'»1); tluit

come near,

I pray

thee,

and I handle
"^jnN*
;

thee

(Gen. xxvii.

I

may handle thee (Auth.Vers.) God bless thee (Gen. xxviii. 3)
(Auth.Vers.)
T]'P'T_

Tj^n^

n_^

7X1.

and Almighty
bless thee
;

and may Almighty God
it is

N7 pi /or so

not done (Gen. xxxiv.7)

/or

so it should not be

done (Auth.Vers.)

^jniHiNt-n^ n^y;_ njT^ri
i.e.

does he treat our sister as a harlot? (Gen.xxxiv.31);
treat, etc. (xiuth.Vers.)

shoidd he

T^^7 ^!7?) |5
i.

lit.

lest ^ce be

for contemjd

(Genesis xxxviii. 23)
tj'l^n") ri^X''^in bring

;

we shoidd become contemjitible. her forth and let her be Jwrwef/ (Gen. xxxviii.
e.

lest

24)

;

or, bring her forth that she
1

may

be burned.

The rendering

of

the copulative conjunction

by

that,

and the giving

to the follo^^ing

verb a potential meaning,

as is generally

done in such cases by the

translators of the English version,

though in accordance with our
expressions,

idiom, often destroys the energy and beauty of the expression in
the origmal.

Thus the following

which have been

already quoted, are more nervous in the

Hebrew idiom than when
treat our sister as a
is

they are accommodated to ours
harlot ?"
viz. the

:

" Does he
i.e.

" For

so

it is

not done,"

such a thing

unheard

of,

seduction of a

wgin

in the circumstances in
let

which Dinah
In these

was placed.
preserved.

" Bring her forth and

her be burned."

cases the simplicity

and idiom of the Hebrew language arc both

The

nicety of the distinction between the indicative and the

subjunctive and potential moods, and the difficulty of ascertaining

with precision, in those languages where there are different forms
for these

moods, when the one and when the other should be used,

may
be

con\-ince us that the subjunctive

and potential moods could
language, sentences must

easily dispensed

with in the infancy of language.

In the

earliest stages of the progress of
inartificial,

have been very simple and

and the clauses short and

INTRODUCTION.
coimcctccl

ci

by copulative conjunctions.
of,

In these

cii'cunistanccs,

from the nature of the subjects treated

and from

their

mode

of

treatment, from the writers having to do Avith facts rather than

with arguments, and trains of reasoning deduced from these
tlie

facts,

more modern refinements suggested by a regard
were unnecessary.

to elegance,

perspicuity, or other causes,

On the
It

Sequences of the

Hebrew

Tenses.

has been already observed, that in the

Hebrew language
languages

there are oidy two tenses, the present and the past, and that by

means of these the same purposes are served
of higher refinement and of later origin,

as in those

by means

of a full com-

plement of tenses and moods.
of the tenses of the

Notwithstanding the completeness

Greek verb, and the precision with which
it is

every variation of time can be expressed by them,
to find, for

wonderful

how many purposes some
and the
aorist.

of

them

are employed,

and

how

capriciously they arc often used.

Tliis is

particularly the

case with the present in the
first

In what

folloAvs, I piu'pose,

place, to point out

some of the principles which
to

regulate the tenses of the
in

Greek and other languages, and

shew

what cases the best writers are governed by these principles,
in

and

what

cases they are left to their

own

discretion in the use

of the tenses.

These

Avill

serve as analogies, to prepare us for the

profitable consideration, in the

second place, of the doctrine of the

Hebrew tenses. The Greek, Latin,

English,

etc.,

have a present tense, which
;

expresses a point of time

actually present, as the liouse falls

present time, with the idea of duration, as the

man

fights

;

a

general principle, true in past, present, and future time, as all
are mortal; a purpose

men

implpug present intention, but futurity in execution, as / go to town, which implication of futurity can be ascertained either by the general scope of the context or by The present qualif\-ing words, such as to-morroio, hereafter, etc.
tense
is

likewise used in narrating past events, and in describing

past circumstances,

when an

author,

by

a vivid rex^resentation,

wishes the past to appear to his readers as actually present.

When

Cil

INTRODUCTION.
is

thus used, this tense

called the historic present, which, though
is

present in form, and thus used for the reason just given,
a past tense,

virtually

inasmuch

as

it

is

employed

in

the description of

events that are past.
of historic jyresetits,
it

In the description of past events by means
is

not extraordinary that these should be

interchanged
in

-v^'ith

real past tenses,

inasmuch

as

both the tenses do
^^Hien the

these

circumstances

express time actually past.
it is

reader clearly understands that

the historic present with which

the writer sets out, the interchange of that tense with the past,

while
style,

it

may

often conduce to

euphony and give variety
difficulty.

to the

can create no ambiguity or

This use of the present,

and
is

its

interchange with the past in the narrative of past events,
to the

common
liistoric

Greek, Latin, English, and probably
-wTriters,

to all other

languages.

Good

accordingly, can express past events

by

presents alone, or

by

historic presents interchanged

with actual past tenses, or by past tenses alone.

The

following

are instances of the interchanges of the liistoric presents with past
tenses,

which have
:

just been referred to, in a narrative of past

events

Aapetov koX napvadrtSa ylr/vovTai TratSe? Bvo, Darius and
;

Parijsatis have (had) two sons, etc.
eVel he Aap€lo<; rjaOevec, hut ichen
fj,€T€7refM7rero,

then follow past tenses,
ill,

Darius was
;

etc.

;

Kvpov

Be

and he

sent for Cyrus, etc.
uj)

dva^atvei ovv 6 Kvpo<?,
cha^^.i. 1).

Cyrus in consequence goes (went)

(Xen. Anab. B.i.
in the

Such examples
following
is

are without

number

Greek

classics.
is

The

an instance of the same usage, which

extremely

common
€vdea><i
.

in the

Greek Testament

:

^'Etl

avrov \aXovvTo<i epyovrai,,
etc.
;

while he teas yet sj^eaking there come (came),
.

6

he 'Irjaov'i

and he permitted not; Kol cpx^rat, and he cometh (came); koI Xeyei, and he saith (said) kuI KareyiXoyv avrov, and they derided him ; Kal elo-TTopeverat, and he entereth (entered); Kal Xiyei avrf}, and saith
.

Xeyec, saith (said)

;

koL ovk

d(f)f]Kev,

.

.

.

;

(said) to her;

Kal

€v6e(o<;

dvearr} to Kopdaiov Kal TrepieTrdrei,
;

and
they
elire,

immediately the damsel arose and walhed
;

Kal e^earrjaav,
;

and
Kal

were astonished Kal hiecTeiXaro, and he charged (them) and commanded, etc. (Mark v. S6 43). The numerous

class

of

illustrations of this princij)le

found in the
it

many,

called pure

Hebraisms ;

New Testament, are by may, however, be j)roved from

; ;

.

INTRODUCTION.
an extensive induction of facts fi-om the
especially
classical

C1H
authors, and

from the Greek, that

this

is

not the case.

But even

admitting tlicm to be pure Hebraisms, will any one pretend to
say that there
is

any ambiguity whatever in
Is
it

their*

usage in the
find the

Greek Testament ?

reasonable, then,

when we

same

usage in Hebrew, that

we

should be met with vapid declamation

about the poverty and uncertainty of the

Hebrew language ?
;

The following
classics
:

are examjiles of the

same usage from the Latin

" Postero die castra ex eo loco 7novent
equitatumque

idem facit
et

Caesar

;

omnem
Qui
. .

.

.

.

praemittit, qui mdeant, quas in

partes hostes iter faciant.

.

.

.

praelium committunt-,

pauci

de nostris cadunt.
hahebat, etc.
, . .

.

Caesar sues a praelio coidincbat et satis

Ita dies circiter
i.

quindecim

iter feccrunt,^'' etc.

(Caesar

De Bell.

Gall., lib.

cap. 16.)

"Postquam

id

animum ad-

vertit [perceives], copias suas

Caesar in proximum coUem, subducit.
inisW'' (Id. cap. 24),

equitatumque, qui sustlncret hostium imjietum
" Interea

Tuiuum
et

in Silvis saevissimus implet
:

Nuntius,
Sic

juvcni ingentemye/-^ Acca tumultum
rapidi ioioc\\xe feruntur

ambo ad muros
simul

Agmine, nee

longis inter se passibus absunt.

Ac

^neas fumantes pulvere campos

Prospexit longe, Laurentiaque agmina vidit

Et saevum yEuean agnovit Turnus in armis. Adventumque pedum flatusque audivit equorum. Continue pugnas ineant, et praelia ientent Ni roseus fessos jam gurgite Phoebus Ibero Tingat equos, noctemque die labente reduced.
Considunt castris ante lu-bem, et moenia
Vinj.
valiant.''''

En. Hb.

xi. vv.

896—915

There

is

another very frequent usage of the present tense, com-

mon

in Latin

and Greek,

viz.

the

commencement of

a narrative of

past events with a past tense,
presents,

and the connecting of that tense with
actually, but only

which do not designate present time
writer carries back the reader's

in relation to that of tlie event or action indicated

by the leading

verb.

The

mind

to a past event,

which he introduces by a
narrative

jDast tense, and then continues the by means oi present tenses, which mark time present not absolutely but relatively. As these presents express time really

CIV
past,

INTRODUCTION.
it is

not surprising that they can be interchanged with past

tenses at the writer's pleasure,
biguity.

and that Avithout creating any am-

This idiom

may be

illustrated

by the following

cxamj^le,

an idiom which though not very common in our language, is at " I met John yesterday, who tolls me least perfectly legitimate.
of the ship's arrival, and bids

me
iii.

proceed no farther, and

I

went

home

accordingly."

The

folloAving is
at

an example of the same

idiom, taken from Par. Lost,

the close.

" Thus said, he turned; and Satan bowing low

Took leave, and toward the coast of earth beneath, Throws his steep flight in many an aery wheel.

Nor

stay'd

till

on Niphates' top he

lights."

With these compare
Kvpo<; Si

the under-cited instances of this usage

common
:

in Classical and Hellenistic Greek,

and

also in Classical Latin

oop/LLdro airo

SdpSewv,

issued forth

from Sardis
<ye<^vpa
he.

;

koX

i^ekavvei
there

and marches

(to the river
it

Meander),

eTrrjv

and

was a hridge over

(which having crossed), e^eXavvei he
to Colosse);

marches (through Phiygia
remained
Thcssalian
(five

evravOa, ejxeivev there he

days), koX ^kcl Blevcov 6 &eTra\d<i
;

cometh

ivrevOev i^eXavvei thence
tjv

he

and Menon mar die th
a
little

the
(to

Celaenae), evravda Kvpcp ^aalXeta

there Cyrus

had a palace
further

(and a park, in which)

edt]pevev he
:

hunted.

And

on, in the same connection
there
is

earc 8e koI /juejaXov /3aacXi(o<i jSaatXeta

likewise a palace heJonging to the great hing, etc.
i.

Xen.

Anab.,

lib.

cap.

ii.

5, 6, T, 8.
etc.
;

Kal SiairepdaavTo^ rev
avvt'^-^dr} 6)(\.o<i

'Irjaov

and

Jesus having crossed ocer,
titude

ttoXu? a great mul-

was assembled, kuI epx^Tat and there cometh (one of the rulers of the synagogue), kuI iriirrei, and falleth, kuI TrapeKoXei and entreated (him) ; kuI aTrrjkOev and he (Jesus) departed. Mark
V. 21, seq.

" Caesar Eemos cohortatus

.

.

.

obsides ad se adduci

jussit.

Quae omnia ab his diligenter ad diem facta sunt. Ipse iEduum magno opere cohortatus, docet, quanto opera reipublicae communisque salutis intersit, His mandatis, eum
Divitiacum
.

.

.

ab se

dimittit.

vidit ...

et

Postquam omnes Belgarum cojjias ab Remis cognovit, flumen Axonam
castva. posuit.
. . .

.

.

.

ad
.

se venire

.

.

exercitura

transducere maturavit atque ibi
erat.

In eo flumine pons

Ibi praesidium ponit, et

Quintum Titurium Sabinum

;

INTRODUCTION.
logatum

CV

cum

sex coliortibus rdiquit

:

castra in altituclincm

pedum
juhct.''''

duodccim
Cacs.
It will

vallo,

fossaque duodeviginti pedum, munire
ii.

Do Bell.

Gall., lib.

cap. v.

hence appear, that in animated narration an author maya narrative of past events with a 2)rese/it tense,
;

commence
tion,

and

continue the narration with presents

or he

may, in

svich a narra-

intermix present and

jiast

tenses together according to his

taste or pleasure.

a jHfst tense,

Or an author may commence his and continue it by presents used in a
and present tenses together
as

narrative with
relative sense,

or join past

he proceeds.

This

variation or intermixture of the tenses

which follow the leading
is

verbs, appears to

depend upon no

principle, but

regulated

by

the taste or will of the Avriter.

What

has been said has an im-

portant

bearmg

ujjon the sequences of the
It w^ould seem,

Hebrew

tenses, as will

afterwards appear.
that although the

from the examples adduced,

ment of

Greek and Latin languages have a full compleby which time may be expressed absolutely, with much more precision than in Hebrew, still the tenses are not used for the fulfilment of their distinct offices, with the uniformity and
tenses,

regularity
is

which might a priori be expected.
w^ell as in

The historic present
;

used in English, as

Latin and Greek

but, generally

speaking, the English tenses are less employed in the expression
of time relatively than in either of these languages.

In English, " In

we

say,

"

He

says that I write."

«

He

says that I wrote,"

He
all

says that I have written."

"

He

said that I

had written."

these cases, time

is

expressed absolutely.

The leading and

the

following verbs express of themselves the time intended to be

marked.
scripsisse,

So in

dicit

me

scribere,

he says that

/ write

;

dicit

me

he says that Iiorotc or have written; both verbs express

time absolutely.

But

in dixit

me

scrihere,

he said that /
written

wi'ote

and

dixit

me

scripsisse,

he said that

/ had
;

— the

scrihere
as in

and scnpsisse express time relatively

they express time not

the former cases, in their ovai right, if such an expression
used, but under the influence of their leading verbs,

may be
are in

which
In the

the past tense.

Scribere has here a past instead of a present

meaning, and

sci'ipsisse a

pluperfect instead of a jMst.

latter

cases, therefore, scribere

and

scripsisse express time not absolutely

cvi

INTRODUCTION.
This relative expression of time
is

but relatively.

analogous

to

the second rule laid

Greek and Latin
laid

tenses.

down The

iu regard to the relative use of the

following

is

analogous to the cases
principles of the

down under

the

first ride.

The general
if

sequences of the Latin tenses require, that,
a present, the verb folloAving
it

the leading verb be

with
is

ut, qui, etc.,

should likewise

be a present, unless the following

expressive of a different time

from that of the leading verb

;

thus, sunt qui eant, there are people

who go

;

sunt qui iverint, there are people

who have

gone.

This

rule seems to be violated in such cases as, liersuadet Castico ut
conaretur, he persuades Casticus that he shoidd endeavour, instead

of conetur, the regular attendant of the present.
is

This irregularity-

only found in the case of the historic presents, which expressing
past, are

under a present form time actually
grammatically
if

sometimes regarded
as

as past tenses,

and influence the following verb
is

they were

so.

This form, however,

rare even in regard to

historic presents, for

such presents have generally the ordinary
lit

sequences

;

thus, persuadet

conetur.

I have aheady, in another place,

shewn the

affinity

between the
the methods

present and future tenses of a verb, and
of expressing future time

pomted out

by

the present tense, in languages which

have no
or

jieculiar

form
to
it

for the future,

by means

of circumlocutions,
is

words attached

imjilying futurity.

This

frequently done

both in Greek and Latin, where there are distinct forms of the
future
;

and

this is peculiarly

the case,

when

it

is

the author's

intention to

mark

the certainty of the future event.

U23on

this

principle, as well as in conformity with the

Hebrew

idiom, this use

of the present might be expected, and
Hellenistic Greek,
tion

is

accordingly found in the
the declaraare

where the future event
ySacrtXeO

and authority of God.
classics
:

rests upon The following examples

adduced

from the Greek
rSSe

&>

ovTe aXkore irapelSe^ avSpl
kuI e? rov fiereTreiTa ypovov

ci'^apt ovBev, (j)vka<Ta6/u,e6a Be e? ere

/jurjSev

e^afjiaprelv,

O

king, thou hast never yet discovered

any want

of gratitude in
care]
7ieve7^ to

this

man
;

[in

me], and

we take

care [I shall take
(f>vXaaa6fie6a
is

offend you in time

to come-,

where

used

for ^vka^ofieOa
is

the futurity of the action beginning from

the present time

she^vai

by the use oi fiereireLra (Herod,

i.

108).

INTRODUCTION.
Also,
i]V
.
. . .

CVU
eaTi roi ra av ^ovXeat,

aTToSep^^co aTpaTr]'yo<;,

etc.,
.

vhctJur

.

.

I
i.

he appointed general

.

.

yon have

xiliat

you

icish

(everything
eo-Ttti

tcill

turn out as you wish); Avhere
i.

ea-rL is
i.

used for
;

(Ibid.

124; see also Thucydides,
It
is
is

121, and

143

and

Soph. Phil. 113).

worthy

of remark, that this

enallage or

change of tenses

more common

in the early than in the later

classical authors, particularly in

Homer and Herodotus,
dialects,
tliose

-who em-

ployed the most pliant of the
besides, bear

Greek

and whose writings
of the Oriental

by

far the greatest

resemblance to

writers, the former

from the manners he pourtrayed in the simple
life,

scenes of primitive and patriarchal
cast of thought,

and the

latter

from his

no doubt imbibed

in his

wanderings among the

nations of the East (see Pococke's Life of

Herod, in the Encyclop.

Metropolitana).

The following
eh

are examples from the
tico

New Testaand
the

ment
other

:

rore hvo eaovrat then shall
a(f>i6Tac the

he [in the field], 6 et? irapais
;

XajJL^dveTaL Kol 6
is

one

[shall be] taken,

[shall be] left (Matt, xxiv.

40)
is

6 Kaipo^ fxov i^^v<;

iarr

irpo^ ere irolo), for 7roi>;cr&), 77iy

time

at hand, I keep [mIII

keep
20

the passover] (Matt, xxvi.18); Let us see whether Elias (epx^rai)

comcth [will come]
;

(Matt, xxvii. 49;
;
;

see

also Matt, xxviii.
;

;

:Mark i. 2 Matt, xxvii. 63 Luke iii. 9 Gal. iii. 8 John Examples of this idiom are very common in the English

xxi. 23).
;

the fol:

lowing are a few examples of

it

from the Latin
yM^eio" (Liv.

classics

" Sin

metu cesserimus eadem
"

ilia

advorsa ^e//?^" (Sallust Cat. chap. 58).
ii-e

Quod

nisi

/am

in vincida te

vi. 15).

"Hie

(sc.

Scipio) erat juvenis penes

quem perfecti hujusce
ii.

belli laus es^,"

for erit (Liv. xxi. 46).
for

" Piso ahire

se et cedere ui'be testabatur,"

abiturum,

etc,

(Tac. Annal.

34).

TVTiile dui-ation is, for the

most part, included in the present and
that idea
is

imperfect tenses of the

Greek verb,

generally excluded

in the aorist, the principal office of

which

is

to express

an act in an
rrjv

undefined period of past time, as in the example, eKreivov
p^etpa aov, Kal e^eretve, Kal uTroKaTearddr]
"\\'e
?;

y^elp

avTov (Markiii.

5).

however, sometimes used in the narration of events, where duration is implied ; but this is generally done in those cases in which it is not the author's intention to give promifind the aorist,

nence to that idea.

Such

is

the reason generally assigned for the

CVUl
use of
tlie aorist instecad

INTRODUCTION.
of
tlie

imperfect.

In these cases, however,
;

the imperfect might be used without impropriety
fore,

it

may,
is

there-

be stated in general terms, that the aorist in Greek
the imperfect.

often are

used instead of

Of

this usage, the following

examples:
call

TrlcrTet irapcoK'qaev
prtieffnaiis.

eh

rrjv yfjv.

This

is

what grammarians

a constructio
it
;

By

faith he ivent into the land, and

sojourned in
Also,

where

7rapa>Kr]crev is

used for irapcpKei (Heb.
it

xi. 9).

7)'yy](TaT0

for 7)yetro, she counted,
;

was her
ver.

faith

(ver. 11).

Also, eKpv^r] (ver. 23)
ter.

and eKapreprjae in

27 of the same chap-

See

also, e/xetve in

connection with SceSi-^ero in Acts xxviii. 30.

The Greek

aorist is likewise

used as a present, in the enunciation

of general principles, which are true in respect to past, present, and
future time, as
KciWo'i yap
rj

may
j(p6vo<i

be seen from the examples which follow
avrjXwaev
rj

:

voaoi;
it

efidpave, for either time
(Isocr. ad.

destroys

beauty,

or

disease

makes

fiide
is

Dem.

p. 2).

Unless any one abide in me, i^Xrjdrj e^co, he

cast forth as a branch,
xxiii. 2)
.

and

e^rjpdvdri

is

withered (John xv.
6, just

6.

See Matt,

The
have
aorist

example from John xv.

quoted, and others similar to

it,

been adduced by some grammarians, to shew that the Greek
has occasionally a future signification.
It
is,

however, more correct

to consider such examples in the light of general truths,
aorist
is

which the
is

frequently used to express.

The Latin

preterite tense

likewise sometimes used for the same purpose.

Fugit ante omnes exterritus Arruns,
Laetitia,

mixtoque metu
telis
ille,

:

nee

jam

ampliiis liastae

Credere, nee

occurrere

virgiiiis audet.

Ac

velut

prius

quam

tela inimica sequantur,
altos

Continuo in montes sese avius ahdidit
Conscius audacis
Suhjecit
facti,

Occiso pastore, lupus, magnove juvenco,

caudamque remulcens
&\\\SiS(\p.e jKtivit;

pavitautem utero,

Vlrg.

^n.

xi.

806.

The

preterites in italics

do not refer to any particular case, but to

the general habits of the wolf.

The Greek

aorist is likew^ise

very

frequently used in classical and Hellenistic Greek, instead of the
perfect

and pluperfect
(Matt. v. 15)
;

tenses,

thus:

Think not that yXOov I have
See

come

i(j)u\a^dfi7jv I

have kept (Matt. xix. 20).

also, as instances

of the aorist used in the sense of the pluperfect.


INTRODUCTION.
ert/te liad

ClX
iriXecrev,

brought forth (Mutt.
xi. 1).

i.

25)

;

and ore
is

when

{Jesus)

had finished (Matt.

The same

the case with the participles

of the aorist; as 6 fiaOcov, he icho learned or has learned, 6 6avoiv,\\Q

who

died or has died:
ii.

ava^coprjadvTcov Be avroiv, after they

had

departed (Matt.

13).

Upon

the use of the aorist for the perfect

and pluperfect, Buttinann observes:
there
is

" In every discourse in which

much mention made
mind connects
it

of the past, and always in such a

way

that the

with the present, the Greeks most generally

use the aorist instead of the perfect,

which

is

generally used alone in
the speaker lays a par-

our modern languages; and
ticular stress

it is

only

when

on the time of an occurrence, that the Greek employs
All
this is,

the perfect, and in a narrative the plu-perfect.
greatly influenced by euphony.

however,

The
its

uncertainty, or indefinite notion,
is

from which the aorist derives
time
past."

name,

properly limited to the

Intermediate

Grammar,

§ 137. 3.

In Latin there

is

only one form for the aorist and the perfect tense; and the distinction
diait

between them can only be ascertained by the context.

When

means

said, or, in other

words,
it

is

used as an
said,

aorist, it is called
it is

the perfect indefinite;
perfect definite.

when

means hath
is

called the

The

distinction

often obvious
is

by the tense of
as a present,

the following verb, since the perfect definite

regarded

according to the laws which regulate the sequences of the Latin
tenses.

Thus, in the examples, ''factum
is

est

ut sim miser," and

" factum ut essem miser," factum est form, but different in meaning;
it

in both cases the

same in

being, in the former case, the

perfect definite, and, in the latter, the perfect indefinite.

The meaning

of the former expression

is,

" It hath happened that I

am

miserable;"

of the latter, " It happened that I was miserable."

Wlaat has been

advanced

is

with a view to

set forth

some of the principles that regu-

late the use

of the Greek and Latin tenses, in order to a comparison

between these, and those which regulate the tenses of the HebrcAV
language.
verbs,

The completeness

of the tenses of the Greek and Latin

might have enabled the authors to employ these tenses in
meanings, and without making them answer so

their absolute

many

different purposes,

in the
well,

and without same context, Avhere the same end could have been equally
as

connecting different tenses together

and,

some might think

better,

answered by the same

ex
tenses.

INTRODUCTION.
These usages

may have

arisen out of antiquated forms of

expression employed antecedently to the period in which the verb

obtained

its full

complement of

tenses

;

or, for

the purpose of giving

to the style greater variety, energy,

and vivacity.

This

is

eiFected,

however, without creating uncertainty or ambiguity.
understands the language complains that
uncertain, ambiguous, or unintelligible.
I
it

No

one who

is

thereby rendered

might have mentioned many anomalies

in the use of the
to create

Greek

tenses

and moods, which, however, are found

no

practical

difficulty.

For example, every one knows
it is

as well, that in the con-

text in

which

found

'x^aipeiv

/jueTa

^(aipovrwv^

means
')(^alpeTe,

rejoice

with them that
xii. 15).

rejoice,

as if the

Apostle had used

(Rom.

Compare II^T an
(the Sabbath day),
is

infinitive,

used as the imperative I^T
8.

remember

Exod. xx.

It will

hence be seen that

great latitude

allow^ed in the use of the
to

Greek tenses; and that in
have been guided by a
style.

employing them the best authors seem

regard to euphony, variety, energy, and vivacity of

" Differ-

ent tenses (says Vigerus de Idiotismis Graecis) are often promiscuously used by the best Greek Avriters; this
is

so

remarkably the case

with regard

to the tragedians, that

Porson (ad Hecub. 21) says that

they seem to have studied variety in using them indiscriminately,"
chap. V.
§ iii.

rule ix. (x.), Seagers Translation.

As

the Greeks,

by means of

their present tense

and

aorist, can,

and do, express every variety of time, the Hebrew writers do the
same with their past and present
principles
tenses.

I believe the

general

which regulate the use of the
and the manner in which

tenses, in

both languages,

are the same; lanaruage
itself,

although, considering the
it

genius of the

Hebrew
affected

must have been
that used
it,

by the
excite

peculiar cast of

mind of the nation

and the
it

peculiarity of the eastern

modes of thinking and
is

feeling,

need

no surprise that greater latitude

allowed in that language,

in the use of the tenses even than in Greek.
said, it will

From what
Hebrew
is

has been

not be expected that I shall attempt to account for the

particular cases in
to another.

which one tense
of the

is

used in

in preference

The primary

office

Hebrew
Greek

past tense,

to express past

events in the same

way

as the

aorist, e.g. t<*l2l D^"^7^{

God

INTRODUCTION.
created. It
is

cxl

also used as the

Greek

perfect,

and serves to connect
lifted

the past with the present, as

H*

'•Jltt"]!!

/ have
as,

up my hand

(Gen.xiv. 22); also as the Greek pluperfect,
!|t^*D"^

And

all tlieir substance
xii.

*lp'N which they

had acquired

in

Haran, Gen.

5

;

also past
as,

time with the notion of duration, like the Greek imperfect,
wafers
^"l3il

And the
ivho

prevailed exceedingly (Gen.

vii. 19).
;

Also, as a present,
is

used in the expression of general truths
"n?!!

as,

Blessed

the

man
ivho

walkcth not .... and who

^^^

sitteth not ....

and

1^^

standeth not."
truths,

The

use of the past tense in the expression of general
to past

which apply not only

and present, but

also to future
like,

time^

and

also in the expression of habit, custom,

and the

may

naturally extend, through the aid of certain expressions, or the general
strain of the context, to a habit,

custom, or

state,

supposed to com-

mence and

to continue in time future,

and even to a future event,
it.

without any idea of duration involved in
circumstances,
is

The past

tense, in such

thought to express future time with greater certainty
It
is,

than the present, used in the expression of futurity.
ingly, often

accord-

employed in the expression of Jehovah's predictions,

purposes, and determinations, and of the confidence of his servants
in the

accomplishment of his promises.

in the expression of the divine

Of the past tense, applied predictions, we give the following as
"^^^P
i.e.

an example

:

nXTH

]'15;!tn"nX ^flH^

to thy seed

have

I

given

(will I give) this land

(Gen. xv. 18),
it,

I

have detemiined to put
it

them in possession of Lord for

and
;

it is

as certainly theirs, as if

were

already in their possession

''J^5t^'1

and

I

have dwelt
6).

in the house

of the

ever, i.e. I shall

dwell (Psal. xxiii.

The

Psalmist,

being as certain
as if the

that

the

Lord's
fulfilled,

promises would be performed,

whole had been

and

as if everything
arise

had been

past instead of future.

No

ambiguity can

from such uses of
posterity at
is

the past tense; for, in the former case, the time the promise was
clearly implied

Abraham had no
lit.

made

;

and, in the latter, the futurity

by

the words " for ever,"

" to length of days."

The present
as in

tense of the

Hebrew
all

verb,

is

used in the same

way

Greek, and, probably, in

other languages.
or habit
;

It expresses a

present act, a general principle,

state,

a purpose to be

executed in future time; and

2i

future either clearly indicated by the
or

general scope of the context,

by expressions which place the

CXU
matter beyond doubt.
Greek, Latin,
etc,

INTRODUCTION.
It is likewise

used as

tlie historic

present in

and

also as a pluperfect.

Keeping

in

view what has already been advanced^ the reader

will

attend to three important principles, which regulate the sequences

of the

Hebrew

tenses,

It has

been already suid that the Hebrew
fre-

past and present tenses, like the Greek aorist and present, are

quently used in the enunciation of general propositions,
expression of habit, state and condition.

and

in the

I observe, then, that

when

a writer uses either the one or other tense in the enimciation of a

general proposition, to be followed by others, he according to his
pleasure varies the tense, using the past or present as a mere matter

of

taste.

An

excellent illustration of this

is

furnished in the

first

Psalm, where
etli,

we have
;

first

the past tenses "H/n walketh, ^JbJ? standmeditateth a present, and
;

H^^
as

sitteth,

then

H^ri.'*.

HTl

is,

a

past

before;

then
;

VP\\

yieldeth

73'',
it ;

ivithereth
^^p**

;

H^y.^ doeth;

Ty7m

pTOsperetli

^^S^^H

scnttereth

stand, presents,
;

and

Vyt

^^^

approver, approveth,

the

active participle kal

and

"ID^s^)

perisheth, a present.

All these words are expressive of fixed and
as presents

immutable

truths,

and should be rendered

according to

our idiom, and none of them by futures, which do not express with
sufficient precision the

established characters of the truths, as be:

longing to time past, time present, and time to come
happiness of the

thus

—"

the

man

that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly,
sinners,

and standeth not in the way of
he meditateth day and night.
of water, that yieldeth

and

sitteth

not in the seat of

scorners, but his delight (is) in the

law of Jehovah, and on his law
is

He
in

like a tree planted

by streams

its fruit

its

season,

whose

leaf fadeth not;

and

all

that he doeth, prospereth.

Not

so the ungodly, but (they

are)like the chaff which the wind driveth away.

Therefore the wicked

do not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the

righteous: for Jehovah

(is)

an approver of the way of the righteous,
perisheth.''
It

but the way of the ungodly

appears that the past

tenses, in the foregoing Psalm, express precisely the

same ideas

as

the presents; they both enunciate the great general truths contained
in
it,

and the transitions from the one tense
can
see,

to the other, cannot, in

as far as I

be reduced to any fixed principles, and are only
It cannot,

resolvable into the writer's will and pleasure.

however,

INTRODUCTION.

cxiii

be said that the commencing enunciations by means of the preterites,
or the transition into presents; or the transition again into a preterite;

or the return to the presents, occasions cither difficulty or

ambiguity.

There

is,

evidently,

no

risk of

misunderstanding the

meaning of the
them.

preterites here;

no one, probably, ever mistranslated
such
cases,

There

is

no more

difficulty in

than in the render:

ing of the Greek aorists in the following passage
»7\to9 crvv

avereCKe yap 6

TM

Kavcrcovt, Kol i^)]pave
rj

rov 'xpprov, koX to avdo-i avTOv

i^eTreae. koI

einrpeireLa rov TrpoacoTTov

avrov aircoXero.

For

the

sun riscth up, with his scorching heat and withereth the grass, and the
flower thereof
^iidicih.^

and its comeliness
i.

is

destroyed (James

i.

11).

The quotations from Psalm
place, in regard to the

illustrate

what was

said in another

original

and

essential

meaning of what has
languages, and the

been denominated the present tense.

The
is

instances given coincide
all

with the usages of the present tense, in
rendering of
T\'7\

in

Psalm

i.

which

a past tense, and of several of

the presents as futures, expresses the Psalmist's sentiments, with less
truth
plicity

and vigour, while
of the Oriental

it

accords less with the genius and simI can very easily understand
its

style.

how

a

future can have a present tense, as

foundation

;

but I cannot see

from the nature of the thing
language with which I

itself,

or from the analogy of

any

am

acquainted,

how

a present can be founded

upon a tense in which futurity inheres
idea.

as a

primary and

essential

In those languages, for example, the Greek and Latin, which

are possessed of

two

distinct forms for the expression of the present

and future, we find

many

instances, as has been already shewn, of a

present for a future; but
classical antiquity to

we might

safely challenge the

whole of

produce an instance of a future form representit

ing a present.

Indeed,

seems to be extremely absurd to suppose
antecedently to a present, forasConscious-

a future to exist in the

human mind
is

much
ness

as

our whole

life

but an ever-shifting present.

embracing our feelings from within, and our sensations from
is

without,

now

admitted, by
is

all

sound philosophy, to furnish the

only knowledge which

in itself necessary

and

absolute.

It is the
it

indestructible principle of the

human mind, without which
its

would

have no existence; and the region of
not the past, of which the exponent
is

exercise

is

the present,

memory;

certainly not the

cxiv
future, of wliicli

INTEODUCTIOJf.
hope and imagination, in one of
its

forms, are
if

tlie

representatives in the

human mind.
would be

Our

earliest notions,

they

"were expressed in words,
ero.

cogito, ergo suni,

not cogitaho, ergo
laid

The man would have been regarded

as

mad who

down
I

the latter as a fundamental principle of mental philosophy.

am

confident that erroneous views, as to the present tense, have often

warped the minds of the
given
rise to

translators

of the scriptures, and have

renderings which have injured the sense, and greatly
spirit,

destroyed the beauty,

and vigour of the
I

original.

The second
precisely the

principle

which
tenses,

would lay down

in regard to the

sequences of the

Hebrew

is,

as well as the third that follows,,

same

as those that

have been pointed out and
etc., viz.
:

illus-

trated as applicable to Greek, Latin,

when

a present, used
in the case

in the description of past events, called

by grammarians,
is

of other languages, the
sentence,
it

histoi-ic

present

the leading verb in a

may

be connected with past tenses which actually denote

the same time as the leading verb, which, though in form a present,
actually denotes time past.

Examples of

this principle are to be

fotmd in every page of the Hebrew scriptures.
following:

I only select the

CJ^^/S) ^SDX*^
(belongeth)

Now
to

the Philistines gather {gathered)
^"^^

together their

armies to battle, ^3pX*5 ^^^

{were) gathered

at

Shochoh which
heticeen

Judah,

^in*1

and

pitch

{pitched)
the

Shochoh and Azekah, and Ephes-dammim.
Israel

And
^irt*1

Saul and

men of
{pitched)

^SDJ^^

were gathered together,
of Elah,
)yyj^_^)

and pitch

in the valley

and

set the battle in array

against the Philistines'^ (1
^SpJSI^

Sam.
all

xvii. 1, 2).

With

the exception of
I

which

is

a past tense,
is

the rest are presents.

know

of no

reason

why

the tense

here changed.
presents.

The time
In such

is

precisely the

same

as that expressed

by the

cases, indeed,

where

the copulative conjunction

1 is

severed from the verb

by

intervening
is

words, so as apparently to interrupt the sequence, the preterite

used instead of the historic present.
this separation,

But why does the writer make
^\S1

unless on the ground of euphony, variety, or the
as well said, ':'i<"lb^^^£J'^N 1fiDwS**1 as

like?

Might he not have

^SpXi 7X*1^\

I confess I can see

no reason

for the change, but

the will and pleasure of the writer.

The

third principle to

which

I direct attention

is,

that, after

;

INTRODUCTION.
commencing the narration of an event
with
in past time,

CXV

by the past

tense, a writer uses presents for describing the events in connection
it;

these are not to be regarded as presents absolutely, that

is,

in reference to the periods in

which they actually took

place, but in
relative
is

reference to the time of the leading verb.
presents actually denote past time,

But

as these

no impropriety or ambiguity

occasioned by the writer's recurrence, at his pleasure, to the absolute

time with which he set out.
ilhistration
tu
:

Of

this principle the following is

an

After these things the word of the Lord riTl was {came)
etc.;

Abraham,

Dl^^ ^^^"1
(the"

^^^^

Abraham

saith

(said),

etc.;

inX
(it

XVV11 and he

Lord) bringeth (brought) him forth

pXH^
it,

mrT'B and he believed

in Jehovah,
1

Ptll^n^ and
6).

(one) accountetli

was accounted), etc. (Gen. xv.
is

In this scirtence the leading
^s^i*1 are relative presents,

verb

in the past tense,
is

and

'n/'!3X*5

and

and

uwSiriT

a past; the writer returning to the time at
is

which he

set out;

and n^ti^n*^

a relative present.

I confess

myself under
of the ideas

great obligations to the

works of Dr. Lee,

for

many

which

I

have brought forward here; and

I heartily

concur in his
setting out

general principle,

"...

in

which (he

says) the writer,

from the period in which he commences his
different circumstances of
it,

— narrative —

follows the

as if himself

and his reader were present

and hence dates the tenses of his verbs from the different periods in

which he places himself;

still,

however, reserving the right of

returning to his original position whenever he chooses."
art.

— Grammar,
I

240. p.3G4.
is

Another common sequence in Hebrew syntax
after

that of presents

an imperative, where the presents are used imperatively.
is

have already mentioned that the English imperative
tense,

the present

or
;

ground form of the English verb, with a nominative
as,

after it

love ye, instead

of ye

love.

In Latin, there are two

forms of the imperative, namely, the imperative mood, properly
so called,

and the present subjunctive
este or
sitis.

;

and in rendering

be ye,

they say either
are necessary in

The double forms of the imperative
in other languages,

Hebrew, and likewise
in that

from the

want of some of the persons

mood.

The

translators of the

Authorised Version, regarding what

we have

called the present

tense as a future, generally render the imperative expressed

by a

;

CXVl
present,

INTRODUCTION.
by the
is

Eugllsli

word

shall.

This

may be

seen

by a reference
where no

to the language used in the prohibitions in the decalogue,

advantage
duty, in

to

be gained by a future form, even although implying
enunciation of

the

commands of

eternal obligation.

I

conceive that the following rendering of the prohibitions in the

decalogue

is

preferable to that in the Authorised Version:
.

'•^

Make
.
.

not to thyself a graven image
serve
for

.

.

;

boiv not thyself to

them

.

nor

them

.

.

.

Take not the

name

of the Lord thy

Jehovah

holdeth not holdeth

him

guiltless that taketh his

God in vain, name in vain."
original,

The words,

and

taketh,

are presents in the

and

express general truths, as has been already shewn.

The former

verbs,

expressive of prohibitions, are likewise in the present form.

From

what has been
of the

said, it will

not excite any surprise that in the sequences

Hebrew

tenses, a present

used imperatively
is

may

naturally

follow an imperative.
that no examples of
it

This usage

of such frequent occurrence

are necessary.

There

is,

however, another

usage in the sequences of the Hebrew tenses, from which indeed no
difficulty
arises

in the

understanding of the original, but which

seems to be peculiar

to the

Hebrew language,

as distinguished

from

the languages of the West, and to bear scarcely any analogy to that of

any of

these.

I refer to a

past tense with an imperative meaning,
MSJ^S?

coupled with an imperative or present^ used imperatively. Thus,
(an imperative),

nb^yri (a

make /or thyself an ark present) make in it n^Si) (a
\\

of gopher wood apartments
past tense coupled to the

preceding with
vi. 14).

and pitch

it

within and without with pitch (Gen.

If literally rendered, the last verb
I can see

would

signify,

and thou

hast pitched.

no difference here

as to the nature of the

commands

given, nor can I see very well

why
is

the past tense

is

chosen here and in similar

cases, unless for the sake of variety.

As
in

has been shewn, the relative use of the tenses

very

common

Hebrew, and the leading verb seems
subjecting those that follow
additional examples
'Pr\J2'i^')
:

to be almost

omnipotent in
following are

it

to its

own

time.

The

T\'^T\

(a present) take
lit.

a heifer of the herd
(i

(a past tense)
. . •

and

say,

and thou hast said

Sam.xvi.

1).

TliS-D^ ri:Dl5^

'inp

n:rip;;i
.

both your flocks and your herds
xii.

.

D5 D^IS^^C D5 take (imperative) and bless (pret.) me also (Exod.
.

32.

See also Deut. x.

1

;

Ezek.

iv. 1, 3,

4; Psa. xxii. 22).

INTRODUCTION.

CXVU
where

A

soniewliat analogous usage
is

is

occasionally found in Latin,

the perfect

found in place of the present subjunctive, used im-

peratively, with the particle ne.

Thus, "

Ne

longius abierim" (Tac.

Ann. vi. 22); " Secreto hoc audi, tecum habeto, ne Appellae quidem " Tu vero ista ne asciveris liberto tuo dixeris^ (Cic. ad Fam. vii. 25)
;

neye/ueris commenticiis rebus assensus" (Cic. Acad.

ii.

40).

Such appear

to

be the leading principles which regulate the
;

Hebrew
this,

tenses.

my

limits

They might be much more fully developed but and the plan of my work prevent me from underhas been advanced in the preceding pages in retenses,
is

taking.

What

gard to the
this
difficult

Hebrew

the only rational explanation

of

question which I have to offer, but
talents,

upon a subject
oj^inions of the

which has exercised the
ablest scholars,

and divided the

I venture not to express

myself with unbecoming
attribute a conversive

confidence.

It will appear, that I

no more
1

power

to the

Hebrew
than

copulative conjunction
I

in connecting different

tenses together,

do to the Greek and Latin copulatives, koi

and

ef,

in the performance of the

same

office.

If the principles

which have been brought forward, and the usages thence arising are
generally correct, the student will have no difficulty in prosecuting the subject for himself
to those

He

will find the leading principles analogous
;

which

exist in other languages
is

and he will

find the ob-

jection, that all
itself,

uncertainty in the

Hebrew

language, futile in

inconsistent with the

wisdom and goodness of the Being by
up
either but a superficial

whom

the revelation was given, and an evil report, brought

against the language

by those who have

knowledge of it, or who are enemies of the truth.

Of Adverbs.
In most languages, adjectives are used to
adverbs to qualify verbs, etc.
adjectives in
substantives,
Strictly

qualify nouns,

and

speaking, there

are

no

Hebrew, and verbs
those

as well as

nouns are qualified by

which go under the name of adverbs being

actually substantive nouns.

For example,

l^^T] silence according to
;

our

idiom

silently

;

11^5 confidence

confidently

*lpn

kindness,

kindly;

^D^^

truth, truly,

HXp

vehemence, excess, vehemently, very;

Th'Z perfection^ perfectly, thoroughly.

These so-called adverbs are

CXVm
often placed in
tlie

INTRODUCTIOX.
objective case after
their
tlie

verbs which they qualify;
sense

and sometimes they obtain
prepositions

adverbial

by means

of

by which they are governed.
examples:
(it)

Of

the former construc-

tion, the following are

11

/^ ^^]^ they have made consumor
7-eally

mation,
n/5^^']
i.e.

i.e.

they have dune
'•'iSy ri''b''yi

entirely,

(Gen.

xviii. 21).

"IDH

and thou

shalt do with

me

kindness and truth,

thou shalt deal with

me

kindly and truly (Gen. xlvii. 29).
'^pt^'/

Of

the

latter

HD^/

it-'ith

respect to confidence, securely,

in reference

to falsehood, falsely;

tOX/

in reference to gentleness, gently,

plV^

in justice, justly.

" Adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions/' says Dr. ]\I'CulIoch, " do not seem to form, as
far as

import

is

concerned, distinct species

of words, but to be merely abbreviations of nouns, adjectives, or
verbs.'''

Erig.

Gram.

p. 34.

"

Some words, from

the different Avays

they are used, belong sometimes to one part of speech, and sometimes to another.
in import

The same word must
speech.

originally have been both

and use only one part of

Present usage, however,

gives laws to grammar, not original import.
hut, either, neither,

Such words are

05,

much, more, most,

that.^'

lb. p. 34.

There are other words in Hebrew
verbs,

for

supplying the place of addesire not to increase

which furnish additional evidence of a

either the

number of words
are

or of parts of speech.

These forms of
the style.

expression likewise give

vivacity and vigour to
^^''Xl 'IKl
in seeing

The
i.e.

following

examples:
seen

ice

have seen;

we have
shalt die,

indeed
i.

(Gen. xxvi. 28).
surely
die

H^^ri T\M2 in dying thou
ii.

e.

thou

shalt
i.

(Genesis

17). liDrTl IjTTl

going and decreasing ,

e.

gradually decreasing, like the waves of the
5).

returning tide (Gen.
let

viii.

^I'lini
let
</o2i;w

"^D^^l

^'*^ ^^^ hastened

and

down,

i.e.

and she quickly
to

(Gen. xxiv. 18). riH^ /

PlDhl^

and she added
This idiom
the
is

bring forth,

i.e.

she brought forth again (Gen. iv. 2).

sometiiiies transferred to the

Greek by the writers of
Septuagint translators:
to

New

Testament, as
ireyi^lrai,

well

as

by the

Kal TrpoaeOeTO
servant,
i.e.

erepov Sovkov, and he added

send another

he sent again

(Luke xx.

11),

with which compare koX
xil.

ttoXlv aireaTeCkev
6vXoy7]<j(o,
K. T. \.

aXkov hovKov (Mark
(Heb.
vi.

4)

;

see

also evXoycov
;

14)

;

ISoov

elSov (Acts vii. 34)

see the
;

same expression

in

Lucian's

Dialogues, Men. and Protes.

aKoy

INTRODUCTION.
uKovcreTe (Matt.
xiii.

Cxix

14); eTriOvfiia eTreOufMijaa (Liikexxii. 15), and

davaTip TeXevTciTO (Matt. xv. 14).

Prepositions.

A preposition
object

is

a

word which shews the
has received the

relation

which one
relation

bears to another; and as the
it

word marking that

generally precedes,
relation in

name

of pj-eposition.

That

Hebrew

is

pointed out by nouns; but from their being

chiefly confined to the office of pointing out that relation, they are,
in conformity

with the classification of the parts of speech in the
called prepositions.

grammars of Latin, Greek, and other languages,
above or below

In pointing out the relation of the waters to the earth in a state of
chaos,
as
it^

nouns signifying superiority and

in-

feriority,

precede the word earth, and are placed in juxta-position
Y'li^T]7'j^_ superiorifij the earth, i.e.

with

it,

as

above the earth; and

V'lXn nnri

inferiority the earth,

i.

e.

under the earth.

The former
superiority
;

word was originally a noun written
and likewise the
latter

in fidl

Tw^ ascension,
and they are
This
is

T\'nP\ inferiority,

still

found in

the construct form of the plural nimiber.

the case with

many
^^^5

others,

which have

all

the characteristic marks of nouns, e.g.

|)3 distinction; construct sing.

p5, fem.pl.

Hli'^Sj construct pi. raasc.

This noun

is

translated into our language

by the preposition
is

hetiveen.

So

Vt2

a

noun signifying

separation, cutting,

translated

by the English preposition yrom; and D^ a noun, signifying company, communion,
passage, beyond;

by the English preposition with
and IHl^
form and original meaning
:

;

and

^!1V. crossing,

subsecutio, end, after, behind-, construct pi.

masc. ^'inX;

its

as a

noun appear from
obvious, the
as,

the following example

fT'Iinn '•'inXS

^^"^^^

t^^ ^flcr parts (end)
is

of the spear (2 Sam.

ii.

23).

When

the relation

used to point

it

out
i.

is

often omitted in

Hebrew,

word God made man

dust of the earth,

e.

of or from the dust of the earth.

Conjunctions.
Conjunctions, as they are called, are likewise nouns,
also;
as,

Q^ addition

l^^y passage,

cause,

with the preposition "l^^y^ ^y-cause

because.

See the subject of the particles fully treated in Professor

Lee's

Grammar. Art. 171.

.

HEBREW GRAMMAR
CHAPTER
ALPHABET.
Letters

I.

and

their Representatives.

Names of the
. .

Letters.

is

H
or or or

unaspirated

.

Alef

3
J

3
il

Bh,
Gh.,

B

Beth

1

1

G Dh, D

Gimel
Daleth

n
1
?

H
V
Z
Kh,
a strong guttural

He Vaw
Zayin

n
to
^

Kheth
Teth

T

Y
or

Yodh
(guttural),

2
»

3

ja^tl
[

^ or
final
.

]l
i

Ch

K

.

.

Kaph

when

/

L
.
.

Lamedli

^ and D final
J and
j

M
N
S

Mem
Nun
Samech
.

final

.

.

.

D
J/

Ha strong guttural
final
. . .

Hayin
Pe
Tsadhe
Kopli

S or S, and ^ K and 1^ final

Ph,

P

.

Ts

p
1

K
R
Sh
S

Resh
Shin
Sin

^
tr
ri or

n

.

.

.

.

Th,

T
B

Taw

; ;

2
2.

HEBREW GRAMMAE.
These
letters,
-vvliicli

are all consonants, are divided as follows,

according to the different organs of speech by which they are pro-

nounced.
Gutturals
Palatals
.
.

N*
^

n
J

n
n

....
.... ....
1, are liquids.

V P h
)i

Linguals
Dentals
Labials

n
T 1

n
D n

D
tr

s

t2

The The
(«)

letter

1

partakes of the character of a guttural and dental.
t2, i,

letters 7,

The student should pay
as
it

particular attention to the fore-

going division,

exerts

an important influence

upon the
general

Hebrew, and upon every other language.

From

the

principle of the substitution of letters of the same organs for one

another, have arisen what arc called cognate or kindred words
as

i|

((/ahh), )^

(ff^^n'),

and

f|5

{gcqjh), the hack.

It

woidd be
it

a

matter of considerable importance and interest, could
tained, at

be ascer-

what periods such
to

varieties originated;

whether they

were peculiar

certain districts

of Palestine, or whether the

period or district in which an author lived could be discovered

from the preference given by him
Avords.

to certain

forms of cognate

In the days of Jephthah, the Ephraunites could not proletter

nounce the
xii.

U

in the

word Tw'^'P

(Shibboleth), see Judges
letter the

6

;

and by

their inability to

pronounce that

members

of their tribe were recogiiised.
(i)

The

principles of substitution of letters of the same organ

for one another,

have had an important influence in the formation
example,
the Syriac, Chaldee, Hebrew,
etc.

of cognate languages, both of the Shemitic and Indo-European
families

— such,
;

for

as

Ai-abic, etc.

the Anglo-Saxon,

and the
(c)

Italian,

German, Dutch, English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese.

The same

principles are conspicuous in the case of words
;

transferred from one language to another

as, for

example,

in
is

forming the English word

7'eccue,
j)

from the Latin
v.

recijno, there
is

an interchange of the labials
in the

and

The ji however

preserved

noun

receipt,

and

reception.

HEBREAV GRAMMAR.
The same thing takes place in the variations same language by conjugation, declension, gender,
(d)
etc.

3

of words in the
;

as, bereft,

from hcreaie ;

cleft,

from cleave

;

rectum (to rule), from rego,

instead of rec/fion; knfe, -^hxx. knkes; dulce, duchess; illiberal, for
inliberal ; this last generally takes place in the case of the liquids,

and

is

called assimilation.

(e)

Upon
It

the same principles seem to have proceeded

many

of

the valuations of dialect in the
(/")

Greek language.

appears that in different countries in which cognate

languages were sj)oken, a preference was given to certain voAvels

and consonants over others
from
a pecidiarity of the

;

which preference may have

arisen

organs of speech, in consequence of the

temperature of the climate, or other cause.

Some
etc.,

nations cannot

pronounce the strong guttural
to the

letters

;

others cannot give utterance

sound of

th in

such words as that, think,

and substitute

the letter
to

d

in

its

place.

The broad sound

of the vowel a seems
c, i,

have been preferred by the Northern ; while the vowels,
0,

and

were preferred by the Southern nations of Europe and

Asia.
{g) It often

happens that consonants of different organs are
is

interchanged, in wlxich case the interchange
of the adjacent organs
It is
;

made from
this

letters

thus, linguals

from dentals,

as T\ for

^.

to

be observed, however, in regard to
s

example, that

some grammarians rank

and

t

as letters of the

same organ.

See

the Classification of Consonants in Thiersch's
(A)

Greek Grammar.
letters

When

infants

cannot pronounce those

of

more
as,

difficult

utterance, they use others of the

same

class or

organ ;
;

for

example,

Loman

for

Roman, the
is

L

and

li being liquids

and

wath for
speaking.
3.

icash.

The same

the case with adults

who

lisp in

(a)

Four of the
These are \

letters,

owing

to the

feebleness of their

sound, lose their consonantal powers and are said to be quiescent
or silent.
1,

H,

{<,

technically called ^IHJ^ ehevi letters.

A

similar quiescence takes place in the case of

some of the weaker
h in the interjecfeeble a sound
so

consonants in our
tion.
hf(]t !

own language,
of

as in the letter

Some

them have occasionally

4
tliat

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
they apjDroacli very nearly to the nature of vowels,
as iv in

the

word

toio,

y

in the

words

they, stray,

and the

like.

In some
syllable

cases they are actually used as vowels, as

y in the words

and fully.
(J)

These

letters,

however, do not become quiescent with
those with which they are said to be
after

all

the

vowels, but only

v^•ith

homo-

geneous in sound.
as

X

and H may become quiescent
;

any vowel,

N3

(ha^,
III

n5

(belt)

1

will be quiescent after Tiholem or shurek
;

only, as

(bo),

^

(biC)

and

^

after

khirik, tsere, segol,
1

and

occasionally after kamets, as "^vj^ (Jia-le-cha), and

y5^ (ha-lav).

See Prof. Lee's Gr., Arts. 37
illustrated in Arts.

et seq.

This subject will be further
treat of the contractions

34

et seq.,

which

of

vowels.
(c)

Those
their

letters

which occasionally have a point inscribed,
aspii'ates in

to

remove
k''phath.

aspiration, are ri33 "1^5^ technically called

¥gad
shall

In writing the
Jl

English characters,
\

we

give the

and

*1

always the hard sound of g and d

but those

who
as

prefer giving

them the

aspii-ated

sound,

may pronounce them
final are

gh and dh, when they have not the pomt inscribed.
(«•/).

Those
in the

letters

which vary

in

form when

compre-

hended
4.

word 1*23^3

{kam-m'' nap-pets), like the disperser.
as
triliteral.

The

roots in

Hebrew we regard

When

they

ajDpear to

be

biliteral, it is in

consequence of a contraction upon

principles to be afterwards laid down.

These roots are often

increased

by other

letters.

Those
;

letters

which are only found
serviles.

in the roots are
inflection,

called radicals

those which are employed in

derivation,

and otherwise, are called
in the following
t'cha-lebh^, Moses,

The
:

servile letters are

comprehended

words

T\^J2

^/^)

lO**^

(Mosheh e-than

Ethan, and Caleb.

All the others are radicals.

The

serviles are often

used

as radicals,

but the radicals are never used

as serviles.

CHAPTER

11.

ON THE VOWELS.
5.

The Hebrew vowels

are represented

by

characters ijLiced

sometmies above', sometimes below, and sometimes in the middle
of the consonants.

VOWELS NATURALLY LONG.
Figure.

Name.

Power.

Kamets
Tsere
Khii-ik
.

.

d as in Latin and French
e ibid.

Gadol
. .

I

ibid.
lonof.

Kholem
Shurek

u as in Italian, Scotch & German.

VOWELS NATURALLY SHORT
Pathakh
Segol
. .

.

....
. . .

Khirik Katon

Sounded

as the short

Kamets Khateph
Kibbuts
.

Italian vowels.

SH'vA and its SUBSTITUTES.
:

Sheva

e
.

^
I

Used

to

assist

in the

-:

Khateph Pathakh Khateph Segol
.

a
e

enunciation of consonants wliich have

.

(
)

t;

Khateph Kamets

.

6

no vowels. and u
u. e is

6.

The

principal vowels are a,
i,

i,

;

intermediate be-

tween a and

and

o

between a and

Thus, ai
e in

=

e,

as in the
o,

English Avord/«27, pronounced as the long
as in the

French; and au =

word maul.

;

6
7.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
A pure
syllabic in

Hebrew
syllabic

is

composed of
;

a consonant
''^,

and a
^, 3,

long vowel, botli of which are fully enounced
(bd, be, hi, bo,
bfi').

as ^3, IS,

The
and

is

likewise regarded as

pure when

one

of the letters,
1^3 (bd, be)
;

'')T\ii

No.

S,

when

quiescent
is

is

added

;

as

N5j

also

when

the vowel
sli'va,

preceded by two

consonants, the former of which has

whether simple or
;

compound rmder

it,

these not

being ranked as vowels

e. g.

Sa

{bHci),

and ^<S5

{hie), 7?< (eh).

In Hebrew, a syllable must always be begun by a consonant.
8.

A consonant
is

and a short vowel do not form a
is

syllable.

For

this

purpose an additional consonant

necessary, and the syllable
"^5? *^5j

thus formed

sometmies called a mixed syllable ; as IS?

12,
9.

"73 (bad, bed, bid, bod, bud).

In the formation of syllables, after a short vowel, the voice
else to rest
is

must have something
additional consonant
rests so firmly

upon

;

and

for this

purpose an

necessary.

The
it

voice,

on the contrary,

on the long vowel that

cannot without assistance

lay hold of the following consonant.
10.

These

difficulties are

avoided by means of an accent.

For

example, a short vowel
if

sustained

by an accent
If

may dispense with the following consonant And the voice may j^ass as 5 (ba).
is

from a long vowel
as "12 (bad).

to a following consonant

however the accent
first

by the same means removed to another syllable,
as

then the vowel in the

case

must be lengthened,

2

;

and in
be

the second shortened, as
11.

12

(bad).

These principles of
in

syllabification

sometimes appear

to

violated wliile they are not really so.

Short vowels are sometimes
apjmreiitly short
Avill

long by position

;

which case the vowel

form a pure

syllable,

without the aid of an accent.

As

in the
is

word nSni^,

see Art. 19,

and Analysis, No.

18,

which

thus

syllabled, n^'fl'ltp (iii'ra-klie-plietli),

where the pathakh

in the

ante-penult, syllable

is

long by position.

The

penult, syllable,
is

though containing only a consonant and short vowel,
pure by means of the accent, Nos. 9 and 10;
is

rendered

and the ultunate

a

mixed

syllable.

No.

8.

12. It is to

be observed that although in the foregoing table of

voAvels Ixliolcm

and shurek are connected with the consonant

1,

HEBREW GRAMMAPu
thus
1, i,

7
**

and khirik yadul

Avith

*,

thus ^ the

1

and

form no parts

of these vowels.

They

are actually either radical letters or con-

nected with the words in wliich they are found by grammatical
accidence, and coalesce with the vowels in question in a
n-ill

way

that

afterwards be pointed out.

Sec Arts. 56

et seq.

Strictly

speaking, then, the points or dots are the vowels, and not the
points

and fidcra

taken together.

This \iew,

to

which the

stiulent's consideration shoidd be carefully dii-ectcd, will receive

more particidar attention
(a) "N^lien Txliolem
is

in the sequel.
*!

found without
,

as a

fulcrum, and

is

thus
left

connected with

^

or

^

which have a point on the right or

hand
for

side respectively, that

mark

will stand for

its

omti point and
thus,

the Ixholem likewise, in the
2^

foUowmg

circumstances:

when

has no other voavcI mark, e.g. n^2J^ (so-nehy, and
tJ^,

when
as

a

consonant precedes
{bosh).

which has no vowel of
Ai-t.

its

own,

t;'3

See Prof. Lee's Gr.

52.

sh'va and its substitutes.
13. Sh^ta at the
assist in

commencement
its
is

of a syllable

is

employed
very short

to

the enunciation of the former of two cmsonants which

has not a vowel of

own, and has the sound
indispensable to

of a

e,

much

the same as

the enunciation

of the
is at

English consonant h

when
is

uttered

by

itself.

\^Tien shh-a
is

the

end of a

syllable,

it

not pronounced, and

only used in that
It is seldom,

situation to

shew

that no vowel has

been omitted.
is

however, placed under a letter which
14. It

in the last syllable of a word.
at

hence follows that sh'va can only stand
syllable.
it

the beginning

or

end of a
;

In the former case
is silent.

it

is

pronounced, or

vocal

in the latter

Attention to the rules of syllaenable the learner to ascertain

bification ah'cady laid do^\Ti will

M'hen
it

it is

vocal

and when

it is

not.
it

The general
is

rule

is

that

when
;

is

preceded by a short vowel
it is

silent, as

T'uJ'Q (indl-mld)
(po-k\hni).

and when by a long one

vocal, as

Dnpi3

See

Prof Lee's Gr. Art. 40,
Xotc.

et seq.

— As

neither

sJi'va

nor

its

substitutes

are regarded as

vowels, they have no influence in the formation of syllables.

8
15.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The
in

gutturals and
its

"1

do not generally admit of

sh''va,

but

take one of
that
*1

substitutes in its stead.
is

From

the ciixumstance
letter

Hebrew

ranked

as a guttural,
it is

and that the

p in

Greek was pronounced by the Jews and Greeks with a guttural sound,
always has a sjnritus asper,
letter

probable that this

similar to the
16.

Northumbrian

hurr.

The

substitutes of sh'ca alivays

commence a

syllahle,

and

like sh'ca assist in

the enunciation of the consonant with wliich
its

they are connected, and which has not a vowel of
Lee's Gr. Art. 46.

own.

Prof.

PATHAKH FURTIVE.
17.

Pathakh furtive
and
is

is

a

mark

of the same form as the vowel
T\

pathaJx-h,

occasionally placed under the gutturals H, y,

when
and
it is
is

final,

and preceded by any of the long vowels but kamets,
to facilitate the enunciation of the

is

used

consonant with which

connected, as IH''^^ (ma-sJn^^kh'), anointed.
its

Pathakh furtive

however pronounced before
lost

consonant, contrary to the rule

applicable to vowels,
furtive, however,
is

among which it is not ranked. when a syllable is postfixed to
D**!! /i«{

Pathakh
a

word

in

which

it is

found, as H/?!? sing.,

plur.

Analysis, No. 3.

DAGESH FORTE.
18.

gutturals,
lene,

Dagesh forte is a point inscribed in any letter but the and doubles that letter. It is distinguished from dagesh
is

which

of the same form, in that
is

it

is

always immediately

preceded and followed by a vowel, or
has sh'va
;

preceded by a vowel and

as ^52J' (shib-ber), he broke in pieces;

T)^^

(shib-b'ru),

they broke in pieces, shivered.
in a consonant

which

is

Dagesh forte can never be found the first or last of any word. Prof. Lee's

Gr. 47.
19.

The

gutturals

and ^ do not admit of dagesh forte.
from analogy these
letters

In those

cases therefore, where

should be doubled,
is

the naturally short vowel immediately preceding
as

either regarded

long by position, or

is

actually lengthened; e.g. in

HSp*!^

the

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
pathakh
is

9

kuoAvii to be long

by

position, according to the rules of
It is
T\,

syllabijEication laid

down

in Arts. 8, 9, 10, 11.

lengthened to
that letter

compensate for the absence of dagesh forte in

which
j)i7iel

being a guttiu"al does not receive, but which the
requires.
like

conjugation

See Analysis, No. 18, and the Paradigms of Verbs.
is

In

manner the compensation
a long one
;

made by changing
yvith.
11

the short

voA\"cl into

as D'^^?I^ (Jid-^d-clani), the

man, instead of
jmfhakh and
compensates for

0*1X11 (I(a^-i^a-dam), the article being pointed
dagesh, thus
-11.

In

tliis

case the kaniets

under
^{.

the absence of dagesh forte in the guttural
1*73^!?

In like manner

{me-he-den),

from Eden,

for

J^^D

{mih-he-den), for pJi^^^,

compounded of '^ from, and

|*fy_

Eden.

DAGESH LENE.
20.

Dagesh

lene is a point inscribed only in the letters

*T,

il,

!l,

n, S, 3, Art.

3, to

remove

then- aspiration.

This generally takes

place M'hcn they
(a)

commence a syllable. "When preceded by any of the *inX
lene,

letters, these aspirates

do not admit of dagesh
(Analysis,

although they do commence a syllable

No.

10), unless the ''lilX letters are followed

by

a dis-

junctive accent.

See Prof. Lee's Gr.,

Ai-ts.

109

et seq.

MAPPIK.
21.

Mappik
it is

is

a point inscribed only in the letter he, thus
it still

il,

to

shew that
consonant.

not quiescent, but that

retains

its

power

as a

KAMETS AND KAMETS KHATEPH.
22.

Kamets and kamets khateph have the same form


as

.

The
mixed
fl^^O

general rule for distinguishing

them
or

is,

that when ~

is

in a

unaccented syllable

it

is
lil'l

short,

kamets khateph,
otherwise
it

(khoch-jnah), icisdom,

{ron-nic);

is

kamets, as

1&7 {la-mad),

Y'l^'*} (hd-d-rets).
;

See the exceptions in Prof. Lee's

Gr., Arts. 54, 55

Ges. Gr., sec. 9, 12.

:

10
23.

HEBREW
The
followiug
is

GRAM^ilAR.

given as a brief exemplification of the rules
will

akeady

laid

down, wliich

be further exempliiicd in the

Analysis.
7
viT T

6
r-

5 -

4
;••

3
A*

2
•;

1

I

•'--T

JTT

V-

••
;

hd-u-rets

v^eth

hash-slia-ma-yini

'ith

^lo-liim

ha-rd

B^re-shltli

1.

^"1.5 a

pure syllable, Art.

7,

with

sTi'va

jironounced,

Ai't. 14,

and

clogesh lene in 3, Art. 20.
its

fT'K^ a

mixed

syllable with a long
9, 10.

vowel, in consequence of
2.
5^*1
|1

having an accent. Art.

a pure

syllabic,

Art. 7,

with dagesh lene in 3, Art. 19;

a

pure

syllable, ^^

being quiescent.

3.
sTi'va,

75^ a piu'e syllable. Art. 7,

with one of the substitutes of
effect

kliateph segol,

which has no
D**/!

in

the

formation of

syllables, Ai't. 15, 16.

a

mixed

syllable with a long vowel,

owing
4.

to the accent, Art. 9, 10.

^^{ a mixed syllable with a long vowel, on account of the

accent. Art. 9, 10.
5.

^Jl a mixed syllable. Art. 8

;

^

a pure
it.

syllable, 7,
;

with

dagesh forte in the ^, thereby doubling
syllable with a short vowel, rendered

Art. 18

^

a pure

D^ a

mixed

syllable. Art. 8.

pure by the accent, Axt. 10; The vowel here is not lo7ig khirik,
yim, not Im.

but short khirik with yod, and
6.

is

T\^\ an impiu'e syllable with a long vowel and accent, Art. 10,

the sh\a not being reckoned. Art. 14, Note.
7.
(1

a

pure syllable. Art. 7;
syllable. Art. 8..

a, or

^d,

a

pure syllable, Art. 7;

j"! a

mixed

CHAPTER
ACCENTS.
24. Accents are divided into

III.

two great

classes, in as far as

they

are serviceable to punctuation, viz. those

which are

disjunctive

and those

AA'hich arc

ronjunctivc.

The former

disjoin sentences

.

;

HEBREW GEAMMAR.
and members of sentences, the
latter

11
or clauses

shew what words
In

of a sentence should be conjoined.

this resj^ect the accents

may be

said to be the Masoretic

commentary ujjon the Scriptures,

in as far as the

punctuation of a book can shew the meaning of
accents likewise
to

an author.

The

mark

the tone-syllables of words
for regulating the

and are also supposed

have been serviceable

cantillation of the Scriptures.

The following Table exhibits the forms^ names, and classiThe conjunctive accents have all the same power. The accents peculiar to prose have f prefixed those
i35.

fication of the accents.

;

peculiar to jJoetry, *

I.

DISJUNCTIVES.
first class.

1.

Pause Accents, or Disjunctives of the
1.

-p

Silluk.

2.

~

Athnakh.

*Q —I o.

Merka mahpach.
class.

2.

Occasional Pause Accents, or Disjunctives of the second
t4.

r~ Tiphhlia
junctive,

(^posterius).

In poetry

it is

merely a con-

No.

30.

*5.

"T
'__

Tlpliklia (anterius), prepositive.

t6.

Zakeph katon.
Zakeph gadol.

fT. |1_

fS. ;:_ Segolta, postpositive.

3.

Lesser Disjunctives, or Disjunctives of the third
*9. 10.

class.


i,^
:!_

Tbhir.

:_ R'hhiah.

*11.

Khld^h

geresh.

GeresA prepositive.

tl2.
13.

Pashta, postpositive.

:^ Zarka, postpositive.

tl4.

~

ythibh, prepositive.

12

HEBREW GRAMMAK.
*15 1_ Geresh.

tl6
tlT

"

Garshayim.
Telisha gedbla, prepositive.

_Ji

tl8
19

^
v__
I

Karne phara.
Pazer.
Pcsik.

20

II.

CONJUNCTIVES.

21. 722.
23.
'__

Munakh.

In poetry both superiiis and inferius.

Kadma.
Merka.

— —
~

t24. TT
25.

Merka

kephula.

Mahpach.
itiferius.

In

-poetv j,supern(S ov

inferms

;

in prose,

26.

1_ Shahhdeth.

t27.

Darga.

t28. 2_ Telisha ketanna, postpositive.
29.

Yerakh.
Tiphlxlia, posterius
;

*30. :~

in poetry, a conjunctive.

*31.

_!:i

Zarka,'\rv poetry a conjunctive,

when

;20^ postj)ositive.

26.

Those accents which are called postpositive are always
last syllable

placed on the

of the word, whether the tone-accent

be on that syllable or not.
always placed on the
fii'st

Those which are
syllable of the

co^Xedi prepositive are

word, without reference
cases can only

to the situation of the tone accent,

which in both

be ascertained from analogy.
27.

Many words

have two accents.
syllable

If both accents are of the
is

same form, that on the penult,
(to-hu), Analysis,

the tone-accent, as

^T\T\

No. 10

;

if

of different forms, that on the last

syllable

is

the tone-accent, as

No.

99.

See Prof. Stewart's

Dnyip/I (u-Vmo-h^di'ni), Grammar, Art. 93, seq.

Analysis,

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
TONE SYLLABLE.
28.

13

The tone must
heloio

cither be

on the ultimate or penultimate
is

syllable.

In the former case, the word
;

said to be yi?£3 (mil-rah),

from
29.

in the latter, 7^.7^ (mil-hel),from above.

The general

rule

is

that the tone

is

on the

last syllable.

EXCEPTIONS.
ITie exceptions to the above general rule arise out of the follow-

ing reasons.
(a)

From

the general principles of syllabification which have
doT\Ti.

been already laid

In such words

as

D^*l^.

Qfda-yhn), two

hands, the accent must be on the penult, syllable, otherwise the
syllabification instead of D^

—T must be
7, 8, 9, 10.

D7''*1^

iii

which

latter case

the ultimate syllable

woidd begin with

a vowel, contrary to the

general rule.
(i)

See Articles

the position of the letters, which jjrevcnt the utterword without lajdng a stress vipon the penidt. syllable, as n*|^7 (Ia -mad-to). This is principally applicable to verbs, with the exception of those parts which take what are called the verbal grave affixes DH, and Vr\, which always have the accent. It may

From

ance of the

be, perhaps, for the

same reason, that

all

the persons of the hipJiil

conjugation which have yod characteristic in the penult, syllable,
take the accent on that syllable, as
(^hil-ml-dah).

out accenting

^T'^/n (Jiil-mi-du), m^^/ri The voice here cannot well pass over the yod withit. The same is the case with yod introduced into
whose
last radical is he, as

certain persons of verbs

^Hv^

[ga-li-thi^,

n^v^ri

(tig-le-nah>),

from Tw^ parad. 13; and
;

also in

such cases as
as (1)2^

13D (sdb-bu), and HI^D (sab-bo-tha)
{yam-mah),
re-cha)
;

also in

such words
'^''1^^.

T\1^T]

(Jiem-mah), and
j

H^^

(shdm-mah),
as

(d'bha-

so with

ej)etithetic

in such

words

n^IlD (ka-hhen-?}ah).

In none of these cases can the voice pass over the accented syllable

without a
(

rest.

c)

To mark
as ^ItoD

the absence of one of the radical letters of the

word,

(kd-mah), from D^p, the accent making a sort of
1
;

compensation for the absence of the
stand; but lis they built, from
last syllable,

so ^J3,

from

j''5

to

under-

HiS

he built, has the accent on the

according to the general rule.

U
(f/)
e. g.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
To mark
f.

a distinction between

words of the same form,
is

n*n^ (ma-raK), with the accent on the penult.,
of the pret. kal of the verb

the 3 pers.

sing.

T1^

(jna-rar), to he hitter,

whereas, ITl^ (inah-raJi), with the accent on the ukimate syllable,
is

the 3 pers. smg. masc. of the pret. kal of ITn^ (ina-rali),

to rehel.

The n, which marks
paragogic, or
(c)
T\

the termination of the feminine gender, takes

the accent, as H^''^ (i-shaJi), a looman, while words
locale, take the accent

havmg

T\

on the penult.
a syllable from

To mark

the stress laid

upon

any sudden
with
7^!t

emotion of the speaker,
not, as

as in the case of prohibitions

(«/)

n^in

/h5 (al-tochahh),

do not reprote.
is

In such

cases, the

accent, natui-ally

on the ultimate,

removed

to the penult., pro-

bably because the
speaker,
(/")
is

stress of the voice,

from the eagerness of the

laid

on that

syllable.

To mark

classes of

words having furtive or adopted vowels,

i.e.

vowels not naturally belonging to them, but introduced eu-

plionice causa, as ^TXPt (tohu) emptiness, the
is

ground form of which
'lilj^
;

inri, euph. causa V\T\,

and contracted

so also, *l3p (se-

pJicr)

a hook, from the ground form "^SD.

The

accent on the

penult, syllable of these

words shews them

to

belong to a nume-

rous class, to be afterwards noticed, called segolates.

The

penult,

vowel of these, however, being generally short, they must be accented on the penult, syllable, for the reasons stated in (r/) of
this article, as ^^^^^ (de-hher) pestilence, 1|7i5 (me-lek) a king,
{yi-gel) he reveals.

7^,

See

tliis

subject fully treated in Prof. Lee's

Gram., Art. 117

et seq.

SHIFTING OF THE TONE-SYLLABLE.
30.

The accent

is

sometimes removed from

its

natural syllable

to another for various reasons.

(«) Vaw prefixed to the preterite of verbs makes a word Milrah which, according to the principles just laid down, would be

Milhel, thus
(h)

''PTW

{sha-hhar-ti)

^T^^X
as

See 29

(h).

And

vice versa.

Vaw

prefixed to the present, generally

makes a word

3filhel

which was Milrah,

1^5<\ ^12^%

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
(c)

15

A Avord
tliis

regularly milraji,
milJiel,

if

immediately followed by a toneregularly

syllable,

becomes

as

^'2,

"'Din,

accented

"'DIPl,

From

rule there are

many

exceptions.

See Prof. Lee's Gr.,

Art. 120.
{d) Pause accents frequently cause the tone to be shifted, as

np^trn (Jmhsha-mcr), for

Ip^h.

PAUSE ACCENTS.
ol. Pause-accents

haye the

effect

of lengthening the yowels

with which they are connected, as D^^, in pause D^^. See Analysis,

No. 50.
ened are

The

principles

as folloAv:

1.

upon which vowels in pause are lengthThe short vowels are changed into their
viz. patluilih
tsere.
falls,

corresponding long ones,

becomes Kamets,

as in the

above examples, and segol,

2.

A^^ien the syllable of a word,

upon which a pause-accent
inflection, the lost

has lost a vowel in the coiirse of
it is

vowel

is

restored, and, if short,
^1*1^7,

lengthened,

thus

^^2?

in pause

becomes

with the accent shifted from the

ultimate to the penultimate syllable.

See 28

(^/).

11^7
so

is

the

3 pers. plur. pret. kal of *1^7; in inflection the jxithakh
in

is lost,

but

pause

it is

resumed and lensfthened, hence ^^^7:
words called
segolates,

^1^7 from

*TQ/ 3 pers.
3.

pi. ])Yet.pih.

of the same verb becomes in pause 1*1^7.

The

class of

which have

scgol substituted

for the

vowel of their ground form,

euplionicB causa,

do not

when
Jcing,

in

pause lengthen the segol into

its

corresponding long vowel,

tsere,

but lengthen the vowe!| of the ground form, as *n?^ a

ground form "^7^, in pause "^/p, and not "^/^. See Arts. 105, seq. Note. Segolates, generally having the penult, vow^el short, take
kamets in pause, whatever
forms.

may be

the voAvels of their ground

The accents are very fully treated of in Gesenius's, and Stewart's Grammars,
referred.

Prof. Lee's, Nordheimer's,
to

which the student

is

METHEG.
"82.

Metheg

(

) is

a

mark preceding
it,

the tone syllable, and at a

greater or less distance from
the

according to rules laid doAvn in

Grammars

of Prof. I/ce, 125 et seq., Nordheimer, 62, 63, and

16
Stewart, 85 et seq.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
It is a sort of

secondary or half accent, similar

to that in the first syllable of the

English word ^m'dertake.

MAKKArH.
33.

Mahkaph

is

similar in
as

form

to

our hyphen, and connects two
all the

or

more words together,

r'lXn"7|) (kol-haarets)

earth.

word preceding Mahkaph has never a tone accent, it has been inferred by some that it is an accent Makkaph and Metheg itself. Prof. Lee's Grammar, 64 et seq. 132. have been called euphonic accents. The use of Makkaph depends

From

the ciixumstance that the

chiefly

on the

princij^le that two conjunctive accents

cannot be

written in succession.

If the sense requii'es that several words
is

should be connected,

it

done by Makkaph.

Ges. Gr., Ait. 15;

Rem.

II. 5.

CHAPTER

IV.

ON THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES CONNECTED WITH EUPHONY WHICH AFFECT THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE HEBREW LANGUAGE.
Attention to the following rules for the contraction of vowels

and consonants, will greatly

assist

the student

m tracing the arcana

of the forms of words, in discovering their etymologies, and in ac-

counting for the differences between the regular and irregular

Paradigms of the Hebrew verbs. Indeed, without attention to these
rules, the student will

believe Prof.

meet with difficulties on every hand. I Lee was the first who treated this subject in a distinct

and satisfactory manner ; and from
the following rules

Grammar almost the whole of have been abridged. The student will see many
his
th:.

of these rules exemplified in Article 131, and likewise in
Analysis, passim.
34.

See Prof. Lee's Gr., Arts. 72

et seq.

The

^"inX letters (Art. 3) occasionally lose their consonantal

power, and become quiescent in the sound of the preceding vowel,
so that the pronunciation of the

word

will

continue the same.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
whether these
letters

17

be written or not, and they are consequently
for "1P13
ci

often omitted, as
po-Jicd,
siyns.

1D2

visitor, in
lu^tli

both cases pronounced

and HriX

lor

nimX

in

cases

pronounced

6-fhofh

35.
initial,

Hence, when
and
to

sh^ca, or

one of

its

substitutes,
letters,
"'"inj^

happens

to

be

precede one of the ^IMi^
sJi'va

a contraction takes
letter are rejected,

place,

by which both the

and the

and the vowel of the rejected
the rejected shh-a, as
(Vha-oi'),
lysis 52.

letter is substituted in the place of

TP

(sefh) for

nxb^

(s'efh),

^)ih

for

niNH?
Ana-

and

S^HD

(mahh-dil) for S^nriiJ (m'hahh-dil).

36.

AMicn any of the

''int^

letters

terminating a word has no
it

vowel either

immediately preceding or follomng,

is

often

rejected; as, '^'2^ (sha-hhi), for H''^^ « captive.
it is

When not rejected,

said to be otiose, as N"'^ (^e), a valley.

37.

Hence
its

it is,

that

T\

standing as the third letter of a root and
7jI*.

losing

vowel,

is

rejected; as,

for

n7.'?^.5

originally

ripJl),

and

NT

euph. causa N"l^ for r\Hy_, ori'ginaUy'HNT,

and

)T. for H^.^V

Anal. Xo.264,

This

is

termed apocope, and takes place in the
of the accent having been

presents of verbs, in

consequence

drawn backward,
38.

as in Art.
*,

30
"1,

(b).

See also Analysis, No. 26.
followed by
Dri"'ri'lp£)

Any

of the letters

H,

when preceded and
;

a vowel, will occasionally be dropped

as, D''ri'7p? for

/ visited them
39. Either

;

CD

for

D]D he

stood.

Lee's Gr., 75.

of the letters yod or nu?i,

when

initial,

and

timi

generally

when

terminating a syllable not the
as,

last,

and ha^'ing a
;

sh\-a, will

be dropped;

HI/
;

for

TH^^

bearing a child

U^

for

C^J approach, 2

pers. sing, imperat. kal of ^^^,

and ^^1

for l^^)\

3 sing. pres. kal of the same

and ""nni

for ^riJfli, Anal.
is

No. 171.

In this latter case the absence of the ?iun
fo)tc.

compensated by dagesh

The same thing happens when
rtpv'',

/ in

similar situation; as Hlp^ for

he takes; and

np7 he took,'\^ in a Hp for Hp/ take.
be
easily

40. In the

cases of

^

and

J initial

with sk'va, referred to in

Article 39, the

sound

is

so feeble that these letters can
is

dispensed with, and the utterance besides

somewhat

difficult;
tlie

and the

!3

and

? are

omitted in the latter case, on account of

harshness of sound which they produce in such situations.
c


18

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
41. AVlien the last

two

letters of

any

root,

and occasionally of
is

derivatives,

happen
lie

to

be the same, one of them

dropped
;

;

as

ip

for

22^

surrounded;

for l2^J^ a

j)eojjIe.

^5^? Analysis, No. 624 DJ^ The dropped radical, hoAvevcr, will be virtually

X?

f^^i"

restored by dcujcsh forte, on the addition of a pronominal or other
affix;

as

ISD

tJiey

surrounded, I^J^ his people.

So in English,

instil, instilled.

42. Letters of the

same organ are occasionally exchanged
2, 7^ote.
.

for

one another ; see Art.
1.

As
tveak.

Gutturals
Palatals

.

.

PinS or n5^3 he was T T T T

2.
3. 4.
5.

....
.
. .

'l^D or I^DD he shut up.

Linguals
Dentals
Labials

^DH

or ?|rin he rolled.
l*'?^,

.... ....

h%
15,

or dSjJ he exulted.

^5, or P^ the lack.

43. In a few instances, letters of diiFerent organs, but in some

respects similar in sound, are exchanged for one another.

This

generally takes place in the case of letters of adjacent organs.
1.

Gutturals for Palatals; as 7^n or
"l^-S h'i

/^il

to

whirl round
y*lT

;

^50'

^5^5 or

comhined

;

^'^11

or

^^p
or

he cut;

or p*^? he

scattered.
2.

Dentals for Linguals

;

as,

HI]

HID, Chald. H^tp he
;

slew,

or sacrificed;

"^\ or

"IbJ

he loatched

D^H,

£^^"1^.

Hlil he

scratched, or engraved ;

Chald.

^^3, Heb. ^H^ he

interpreted.

The organs
th.

of speech of some persons are so formed, that they
s,

cannot utter the letter

and

in attempting to do so they enunciate

This

marks the approximation between the Unguals and
oppressed.

dentals or sililants.
3.

Liquids for one another, as 1*07 or

T'llJ lie

44.

The

^in^^
Avill

letters,

considered

either

as

consonants

or

quiescents,
ticularly
affected
;

be occasionally changed for one another, parthe pronunciation of the

when
as,

word

is

not materially

D^Xi^S or D^nSs rags; X^S or H^^ he created;
^

^V
or

or J^VI he xcent out. TT

In like manner
other of the

is
;

occasionallv foitnd in
as,

place of one

'•IH^^ letters

^V^

or l^** he set up.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
45.
for

19
;

The letters of a word /Dp he was foolish.

arc sometimes transposed

as,

7p2

Note.

— These changes

in the letters

do not otherwise

affect the

grammar of
what
same
46.

the language than that they point out to the student

roots, etc., are said to

be cognate

;

i.

e.

are related to one

another in their radical letters, and have the same, or nearly the
signification.

AMien the

T\

of the Mthpahcl species, or conjugation, pre-

cedes any of the dental letters, a transposition and occasionally a

change of that
for /5Dr>r' he

letter Avill take place

;

as in the first case,

75^0?!

loaded himself; in the second, p^^D^H for p"l.!^nn

he Justified himself.
47.

But
he

Avlien a letter of the

same organ with

T\

follows

it,

both

will coalesce

with dagesh

;

as, "l5"^ri for ^l^ir^r'j

^ sing. pret. hith.

of

^y^

sjjohe.
is

This coalescence
to other letters;
this

called assimilation,

which sometimes extends
In

as,

^D^H for ^STHIl, from ni)| he teas pure.

case

it

is

to

be observed, that the

D

and

T

are letters of

adjacent organs.
48. Letters are sometimes prefixed to facilitate the pronunciation
;

as,

7^^^^5 for 7^^]^ yesterday.
;

Sometimes
cruel,

for

modifying
cruel.

the significations of words

as *1T^^5

most

from ^T3

49. Letters are occasionally dropped, as in the case of

D

ter-

minating the plurals of nouns,
construct, state; as,

when they happen

to

be in the

and

also

DHV^ "P^D for DHV'^ D''p1D horses of Egypt; when accompanied by pronominal affixes, thus, ^^^y. my
Analysis, No. 298.

ho)7os,

from U'Jyit-

ON THE CONTRACTIONS WHICH TAKE PLACE IN THE VOWELS.
50.

"Whenever any vowel not homogeneous in sound with either

of the letters

\

1

(see Art. 3 (h),

happens

to

precede such

letter, a contraction will

and Prof. Lee's Gr., Art. 37), be formed from

the combination partaking of the

sound of both.
for I'^STV for
sat, parad. 8;

L Patlwkh preceding \ ^viU become 1; as, 1'PV T^in^ Art. 35, 3 sing. pres. /»>/«. of 1^^ or 1^) he
and
T\yt2,

contracted T^J2 death.

c 2

20
2.

HEBREAV GRAMMAR.

Vav preceded by kamets kJiatef, klbhuts, scyol, or tsere, will become ^; as, "iSv for^lSv or iSv, from "tSiH* or nS"in\ Art. 35,
Ae
fs

begotten
;

;

Dip

for

pip standing

;

T^^J^I^ for
/«V/i.

Hp r*^ reigning,
hn^
or

kingdom
icas loir
o.

innD'^. for

IHW'. 3

sing, in'et.

of

W

he

;

IHS

for

IHS

emptiness.

Analysis, Xos. 10 and 11.
^Ja^7««/i7i

In like manner, yod preceded by
in tsere; as, rT'S
foi"

or shhri will
^ti''*

become quiescent
5/^,

^^^5 house; so

//c s/^r///

for 1^''_

4.

lAHien

s^f/o/

or tsere precedes

^,

tbe contraction will take place

in \; as, H^^'X'! for
5.

H^^XH

beginning,

and ^'H

for ^.^H

/^r///.

In like manner, when
take place, in which
1.

sli'va initial

precedes any long or

sliort

vowel, or a substitute for slCca follows a short one, a contraction

may
as

sli'va

or

its

substitute will disaj)pear
for


6.

;

nN*b^ for

T^P

elevation;

HNnpS

nXlp'? meeting;
"ibxS
for

n^Crxn

for n't^'^n beginning, Analysis,

No.l;

and— 2.

lb?:?? saying, Analysis,

No. 133.
kamets preceding a guttural
letter that

Either
is

ixitlialih or

has

kamets,

frequently changed into segol, for the sake of euphony ;

as, D'''nnri for

Cirin

the

mountains
is

7.

On
the

the other hand, segol

D'^'IJ^H the cities, for Dnj^C* sometimes changed into kamets,
;

for

sake of euphony,

when

another kamets precedes;

as,

]n>Niri for jnj^rt,

Analysis, No. 7.

CHAPTER
51.

V.

ON THE CHANGES OF VOWELS.
Two
circumstances are to be observed in regard to the

changes of vowels.

The The

first is

the place of the accent.

second, the etymology of the word.

52. Prefixes, with one exception (Art. 30), have no influence

upon the
changes.
affixes, or

j^lace

of the accent, or consequently

upon the vowel

These changes only take place in words augmented by

by

a

change

in the situation of the accent.


HEBREW GRAMMAR.
53.

21
ultimate
at the

Changes of vowels take place only
Avorcls,

in the

and same

peniihimatc syllables of
time.
54.
i.e.

but sometimes in both

The

voAvels in

Hebrew

are either mutable or immutable',
lost

some of them may be changed or

which they stand are augmented by
the contrary, are never so, the words.
55.

when the words in Some of them, on whatever additions may be made to
affixes.

The general
is

principle

by which the changes of vowels

are

regulated,
«'

thus excellently stated by Prof. Lee, Gr., Art. 52.

^Wn-e Avords augmented in addition to their primitive vowels,
;

they would become inconveniently long
as those vowels

and, on the other hand,
constitute the

which have been tenned immutable

distinctive character of the

word

in wliich they are found, per-

spicuity forbids that any change should take place in
"vvise

them
is

;

other-

the peculiar forms of such words Avoidd be lost, and with

them the sense intended by the writers." What follows
to illustrate this general principle.

intended

56.

The vowels

called kJwlem, s/iurek,

and

lo?ig

Ikirik,

are,

properly speaking, dots or points, above, below, or in the
of the letters with which they are connected
;

bosom

and they are con-

joined with caw and yod by a sort of coalescence or contraction.

See Arts. 12, 50.
In such cases the caio and yod are actually consonants, either
constituting radical letters of the word, as
is

DID a

horse, of

which

1

the second radical (all radical

words when uncontracted being
of altering or

trihteralj;

or are serviles, used for the j)^rpose

modifying the sense of the primitive M'ord, as in 1^1? and "T*^/^.
57. It
is

upon
the

this principle that the

vowels kJiolem, shurck, and
vaio

long khirik, are
thus,
"I,

immutable when they have
1

and yod

ci'^

fulcra-,

'I,

*

:

and

^

in these cases being consonants

and comin that

ponent parts of the word.

These

fidcra,

however, sometimes disappear. Art. 34

;

case they are represented
so.

by the

original vowels,

which never do

Tlius, T'i fallow,

contracted 1^, with khirik long and

m-

mutable ; and
tmmulable.
vowels.

l^i/ learner, contracted "1^7, with kholem long and The points in the contracted forms are the real

22

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
When
t\\i:

fulcrum oi shurek disappears, Art. 34,
as it is called,

tlic

point in

its

bosom

is

never introduced into that of the preceding consonant,

but kihhuts vicarious,
stituted in
its

which

is

immutable,

is

sub1

place

;

thus,

T\U^ on

the disappearance of the

becomes 1^7, not *l-^7. 58. It hence follows as

a general rule, that
triliteral roots
;

1, ^,

and

.'',

are always

immutahle when found in
horse,

as in T\M2 death,
''DID

D^D a

and

'T'p

a

tcall; thus,

ID^D his horse,

my

horse,

D^D^D

your horse.
59.

The same

is

the case

when

1

and

*•

arc serviles. Art. 56.
in the primitive
its

alteration or modification, in this case,

made
by

The word
Thus,

in
is

Hebrew by means
visit

of servile letters introduced into

bosom,

generally accomplished in English

a termination.

from

we have

visitor, visiting,

and

visited.

In Hebrew, by
first
',

the insertion of the servile letter between the
radical of *lp|), ^ve

and second
its

have IpIS)
third,

visitor or visiting

by

insertion

between the second and
appear, that the
1

we have 1^p3

visited.

It will

hence

^nd

^

can no more be dispensed

mth

in these

words without destropng

their peculiar meanings, than the tervisit

minations, or, ing, or ed, can be dropped from the Avord
Avithout destroying the characters of the Avords

formed by these

terminations.
60.

Another

illustration of Prof. Lee's principle
£^'''^p^,

may be

taken

from the Avord
^(•as

the participle of the hiphil form of ^"ID

holy

;

in hiph.
into

ti^'^'^pri

made

holy

;

in the part. S^'^prj^, contr.
holy, one sanctifying, a
this

by

Art. 35

t^*npb one that mahes

sanctijier.

It is to
*.

be observed, that tbe characteristics of

word

are

and H, which

are, Avhcn taken together, equiA-alent to

our terminations ^e?" ?a\^fying.
absence of
11 is

When
a'oavcI

contracted into

ti*"''^pD,
ZD,

the

marked by the

pathakh under

and no

further contraction can take place Avithout destroying the character

of the

AA'ord.

For these reasons, both the

voAvels in this Avord arc
afiix Avhat it

immutable, and consequently remain unaltered be the

may
your

;

thus, D^^^'^p^ sanctifer, ID'^'^p/p his sanctijier,

D^tJ'npD

sanctijier.

These principles are applicable
exceptions
Avill

to all similar cases

;

the apparent

be pointed out and explained in the Analysis.

,

HEBllEW GRAMMAR.
61. It

23

may
all

likcAvisc

be laid clown
syllables

as

a general rule, that the

vowels

in

contracted

are

immutable.
is

Thus, the
;

pathakh
so
is

in T'^/NI, contr. for

^^p/^X,

Art. 35,

immutable

and

Khirik in ^^3^, contr. for ""^^l^, Art. 39.
foi'uis

An

acquaintance

with the

and analogies of words
all

is

necessary, to enable the

student to understand
taJce place.

the

cases in

which these contractions

Ujjon

this subject see Art. 34, ct seq.

62. All short vowels followed

by sWca

or dagesh

in

mixed

penult, syllables are wimutahle, as in the penult, syllables of ^'u7\

^rzm,
tion

if-h.

(a) In
;

most of these

cases, there is

probably a sort of contracis

thus, the 3 sing. pres. kal of Itj? he learned,
is

^^/^

The

ground form of the present
prefix,

^u7, which, with the pronominal
to a general principle of

becomes *1^/?, Avhich, according

contraction,
syllable,

when two
is

slt'vas

stand together at the beginning of a
khirik,

becomes *T^/\

The

which

is

a substitute for

sJCva,

which

not reckoned as a vowel, cannot disappear.

See

Ai't. 14, note.

63. It

may be
tsere,

laid

down

as a general rule, that the

long vowels,
*)

kamets,

and kholem (which by analogy has not
Thus,
'"1^'^

for its

fidcrunx), are immutahle.

a tcord, construct form 151?
^^^

*Tpi2 a tisitor, pi.

DHpl^ visitors

;

1'u7\

learnetli, or shall learn,

^*1^7* they learn, or shall learn.

The student must here
64.

observe, that
is

when

sh^ta takes the jilace

of any vowel in a word, that vowel

said to be lost.
;

To

these rules there are apparent exceptions

thus, tsere in

1*5 hetween, is immutable,

being a contraction for
is

|^5-

Ihc kamets

in the penult, syllable of 25^*^3 a horseman,

immutable, being a

compensation for the absence of dagesh in
Avord being
I^"^!)
;

"1,

the real form of the the kJiolem in
Ij'Hll

see Arts. 19

and 61.

And

was

blessed, is

immutable, being in like manner a compensation for
;

the absence of dagesh, Gr. 19
'n'^S

the natural form of the

word being

(bor-rachy
certain acquaintance Avith the language
is

A

necessary in order

to the recognition of these exceptions.

65. "S^Tien a

word

is

augmented by an

affix,

one or more of

its

24:

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
may be
lost
;

vowels

when

that

is

the case, shh-a

is

substituted in

the place of the lost vowel, as IpiiS, plur.
66. Affixes to
affix is that

Dnpi3.

Art. 63.

words are cither
itself

syllabic or asyllabic.

A

syllabic

which of

forms an additional syllable to a word
assist in its

without the aid of any letter in the word to

enunciation.

An
to

asyllabic affix

is

only forms a syllable

one commencing with a vowel, and which by the help of the last consonant of the word

which

it

is

affixed.

Of

the former kind

is

the pron. affix Di^

your; of the latter, the plur. termination D**".
67. If then the asyllabic affix D**—
is

joined to such words as U^H

a people, or

""iS

]iure, the last letters of these

words respectively
to

must be taken

to enou.nce
;

it.

Thus,

if it is

added

13? ground
ones.
is

form niS, Arts. 36, 37
D^/py (Jia-mi^n), but

it

becomes

DHS
D^?,

(ba-rim),

pure

In
not

the case of UV., contr. for D^J^ or

Art. 41, the plur.

C^J^

(Jiam-jnini), peoples-,

the point dagesh

marking the original character of the word.
68. If, however, the syllabic
Avords, the case will

augment D^ be added
In the former
10.
is

to these

be

different.

case,

we

shall

have not ^T\1l, but DDn3. See Art.

69. A^Hien the affix is joined to DJ^, the case
first

different

;

in the

place, because the syllable
;

is

impure, with or without the

accent

in the second place, because the third radical,

dropped in

the simple form (Art. 41), reap])ears through dagesh forte in the

compound word, which becomes D5^J^
It

{liam-m''chem'),

your people.

hence appears, that the changes of vowels in these cases
connected.

depend upon the origmal forms of the words, with which the
affixes are

See Prof. Lee's Gr., Arts. 93, 94, 95.
is

70.

On a change
changed

of vowels, the general rule

that short vowels

will be

for their

corresponding long ones, and vice versa;

thus,

^y
|5.

a cloud, with the accent removed to the pron. affix D553^

your cloud

from
71.

and ^3 pure, masc, ITl^ fem., and |5 « This is termed direct correspondence.
;

son, constr.

When
which

this is
is

not the case, the correspondence

is

termed

oblique,
is

comparatively rare.

The oblique correspondence
;

that of kamets or patliakh, with tsere or segol

tsere or segol,

with long or short khirik; and kholem, with

kibbuts,

HEBllEW GRA^IMAR.
72.

25
to

Oblique correspondence, however, seems

be rather ap-

parent than reaL
affix
1,

For example,

T^

a Jleece,

a\

ith the

pronominal

becomes

TTil,

where

1TJ

might have been expected.
be oblique
;

The

corresj^ondence, in

tliis

case, appears to

the ground
T^,

form of

tliis

word

is,

however,

TTil,

contracted into

Art. 41

;

which enphonicB causa, or by-way of compensation
of the third radical, becomes
T5.

for the absence

On

the annexation of the pro-

nominal hence
than

affix,

there

is

merely a resumption of the original vowel

with (lagesh, which
TTil.

marks the original character of the word,
is

So that the oblique correspondence

rather apparent

real.

73.

A

great

many words

in

Hebrew

lose theii* original vowels
;

and substitute others in
but

their place, for the sake

when

these words are

of euphony augmented by pronominal or other

affixes,

the

new

vowels,

then unnecessarv

on the ground of
is

euphony, disajDpear, and the original vowel
vid. inf. Ai-t. 105; to which, if the pron.
is

resumed.

Thus,

the original form V1^i> earth, land, becomes, euplionice causa, Y^]^,
aff. 1 is

added, the addition

made not

to the

new but

to the old form,

and hence 1V*1N Ms
eupli.

latid; so the original

form iy2, a garment, becomes,
aff.

causa,

*I^5j

and with pron.

11^15 his

garment; and so "l/H age, be-

comes in like manner I/O' ^^^^ with prou. aff. 1*1711 Jiis age. Hence it appears that an acquaintance with the analogy of the
word, which can only be gained by a certain amount of knowledge
of the language,
that the vowels
is

indispensable in order to ascertain the changes

undergo in such circumstances.
affix,

74. T\Tien

any

taking the accent,
is lost,

is

joined to a word, the
substituted, to assist

penult, vowel, if mutable,

and shh'a

is

in the enunciation of the consonant
xcord,

which

lost its

vowel, as '

1^1 a T T

nin"! her word. TT
;

To
"l^*!

the foregoing general rule there are certain exceptions,
to

which seem

be called for on the ground of perspicuitv.

Thus,

he spohe, on the annexation of the fem. termination, which

takes the accent, becomes
lost instead of

m^l she spohe, Avhere the ult. vowel
by
Art. 71.

is

the penult., as requii'ed

According

to

that

article, it

would be ni^"!.

In that case, however, there


26


HEBREW GRAMMAR.
tlie

M'ould be no distinction in sound between
she spoke and her word.
75.

words indicating

But

if

the pcnidtimate voavcI

is

immutahlo, the ultimate,

if

mutable,

is lost

on the postfixing of an augment, which takes the
visitor, yoaa'cIs

accent; thus,
76.

IpIS
both

Art. 59;

f.

rTljpiiD, j^h D'''lp13 visitors.

But
is

if

of the

word

are immutable, or if the

word

a monosijllable with an immutable vowel, then no change

takes place, be the affix
sanctijiers. Art.

what

it

may

;

thus, tJ^'''lp^, plur. D*'^''*np^

60; and D^D a horse, plur. D''p^D horses, Art. 58.

CHAPTER
77.

VI.

GENDERS OF NOUNS.
Nouns have two genders
gender.
are kno^wai either
in

Hebrew,

the masculine and the
said to be of the

feminine.

Those words which are of both arc

common
78.

Words masculine Names and offices Words signifj-ing

by

their termination or

meaning, and are
1.

of men.
people, as ^^1^, Dl^? Edomite, Moabite,

2.

rivers,
3.

mountains, and months.

AU

nouns not endina;

in

T\

— or T\ servile.
of regions, as

79. AA'ords feminine are
1.

Names and

offices
;

of

women; names

ni^n*

Judea, and of

cities

and nouns signifying the double members

of the body, whatever be the termination.
2.

Nouns

terminatiniT in O

T\


T

or T\ servile.

80.

A
as

considerable

number

of nouns are of the

common

cfender,

such

names of

birds, beasts, metals, etc.

Formation of the Feminine from the Masculine Gender.
81.

The feminine

is

formed from the masculine gender by the

terminations T\— or T\—, in which latter case the cjutturals have T\—.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
82.
chiefly

27
the other
is

The termination
found

Pt

is

the more

common;

hi participles of the hijihil conjugation,

and

is

the
this

alternate

form of participles of the other conjugations.

See

subject minutely treated in Prof. Lee's Gr., Art. 136.
83.

The

termination

H—

takes the accent in the one case, and

the penult, scgol in the other.
8-i.

It will

hence follow, that when the vowels of a word are

mutable, on the annexation of the feminine termination a change
will take place,

upon the

principles already laid down.

Thus, the
is

penidt. Towel of /1"1| a great
ri7l"lil

man, being mutahle, the feminine

a great woman, the

ult.

voAvel being lost according to Art.74.

But

the penult, vowel of *1D13 being immutahle. Arts. 56, 59, and
is

the idtimate mutahle, the fern,

rTlpIS, Art.75. Lee's Gr. 136, 137.

The

other form

is

HIplS.
•|i"

Formation of Duals,
85.
tion to
tico

The dual number
it

is

formed from the singular by the addi-

of the termination D\~, as

DV a

day, Q^DV (yo-ma-yim),
sylla-

days.

The

accent, as required

by the general laws of

bification, is

always on the penult, syllable. See Art. 10.

When
86.

the vowels are mutable, the changes will be regulated

accorduig to the principles already laid down.
All feminine nouns endinar in

fore recei\dng the dual

H — change the T\ into T\ betermination as, H^/^ a queen, D^ri|l7^
,

;

two queens. See Lee's Gr., Art. 138.

The

principles of the formation of the feminines of segolate

nouns will be shewn in Art. 110.

Formation of the Plural Number of Nouns.
86*.

Nouns

of the masculine gender form the plural niunbcr

by

the adcbtion of D**— to the singular, as D^D a Jwrse, D'^D^D horses.

As

the affix takes the accent, the changes of voAvels take place
clo^^^i
;

according to the principles already laid

as, "l^'^

a loord,
Art.75.

D^l IT icords. Art. 74

;

and

1p3

a

visitor,

DHpl^

visitors,

Prof. Lee's Gr., Art. 139.

; ,

!28

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
FORMATIOX OF THE PluRAL NuMBER OF NoUlSS FeMININE.
87.

The

termination
;

used

to

designate the
jilur. Hi*)!'^
is T\

plural

of nouns

feminine
88.

is T\)

as,

^)1 a generation,

generations.
,

When
sing..

the termination of the sin"ular

or T\

,

or T\

these terminations are rejected before the plural affix as iTlpliD or

rripi^
89.

nnpiiD

piur.
TT'-r or TP\~,
is

Feminine nouns ending in

have HI in the plur.
n''*l5Ji^
',

but in the former case the yod
looman, has, in the plural,
is

doubled, as

a Hebrew
*

nVn^^ Hehrew
is

loomen

in the latter,

prefixed,

and the yowel kihhuts

substituted for shtirek, as

n^D?^
90.

a kingdom,

nVD/O

kingdoms.

The

plural of a considerable

number of nouns masculine

is

found

Ayith the

femmme
tree,

termination HI
T\^'2,^

,

and

vice versa.
;

Ex.

of the former case, '2^ father,
ri/JSt

lAuv. fathers

of the latter,

fem. ajir

Dv^

plur.^r

trees.

See Prof. Lee's Gram.,

Ai-t.

140; and Introduction, Part

III.,

on the subject of Gender.

Cases.
91.

There are no cases of nouns

in

Hebrew

as in

Latm and

Greek.

The
is

variation of

meaning expressed by

cases in these

languages,

expressed in

Hebrew by words,

or fragments of

words prefixed.

Or THE Definite State
92.

of Construction.
is

By

the definite state of construction

meant the juxta
;

position of

two nouns not signifpng the same thing
Hln^
*1*

the latter

is

added

for the pui-pose of defining, or otherwise qualifying that
it,

immediately preceding

as

hand of Jehovah.

93. As such words are intended to represent one definite idea,

thev seem to have been regarded in the light of one

compound

word
posed

only,
to

and hence the governing tone accent has been supthe vowels rest upon the last of the words so construed
;

of the preceding

word have,

in consequence,

been contracted or

rejected as far as possible.
(a) It
is

Lee's Gr., Art. 143.

upon

a similar principle that

compound words have
n^*]*^

been form(^d

in other

languages

;

as,

Hin^

fear of God, in

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
German,
®OttC§?furcl)t-,
;

29

Min^
sheej)

niD^

tamjht of God, in Greek,
in

QeohihaKTOL
<Sd)afe
5

riPl^tp

|NX

of slaughter,

German,

<£d;Iad^t-

H/^nXn

tJ'^X

wa?^ of

the field, in

German,

2(cfermann, in

Latin, agricola.
94.

Storrii Analogia, p. 105-6.

Nouns having mutable vowels

in their ultimate

and penult,
if

syllables, will generally
its

change that in the ultimate,

long, into

correspondmg short vowel, and

reject that in the penult.; as,

T\'^'iV

"1^1 tcord of Jehovah, from ^^1.

Sometimes both vowels
is

are lost, as

DH /i^

''1.5'^.

tcords

of God. The plur. of ^"21
is

Dni*!,

where only one of the vowels
lost,
it

lost.

Art. 74
to

;

with both vowels
D"'*]^'^,

becomes

C*)!?'!,

and accordmg

Art. QS,

and

according to Art. 49, nH"^..
95. All feminine
state,

nouns ending in T\— will, when in the construct

change the T\— into

n~

;

as
is

CH/X

TTliD law of God, fr-om

rrnin, the joenult. vowel of

which

immutahle. Art. 56.

96. All masculine singulars in
state, as

T\~ have T\— in the construct
not subject to
T*'n&^

Dn^^^

'^5pO cattle of Abraham, from Hip^.
is

97. That class of nouns denominated segolates,

any change when in the construct
Canaan.

state,

as

|y^5

land of

Those nouns which are classed \ander the

segolates, but

which are not properly
in the construct state

so (see infra, Ai't.llS seq.j, are contracted

when

susceptible of contraction, as niHI'
T\*'%

T\''^

house of God, contracted for

or H^S. Art. 50, (3).

CHAPTER

VII.

OF THE PRONOUNS SEPARABLE AND INSEPARABLE.
98.

The

separable pronouns are the follo-\ving.

Sing. Com. Gender.
1

Person

'

~

j

'

^

Plural.
^i^i^i sometimes ^^HJ
. , .

We.

^0

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
Sing. Masc.
iir\^ sometimes DJ^ for T T T -

WX
:

-

.

Thou.

Plural.
2 Person

nm

for

D^i^?
Sing. Fem.

You.

:^^ sometimes

''P\^ for JJllNI

.

Thou.

Plural.
|riNt

sometimes

TllP\i< for

[Jjllli^t

Fot^

Sing. Masc.
i^in

Plural.
3 Person
DIl occasionally
T^fpT}

Thei/.

Sing. Fem.
^''Tl

anciently S^IH

.

She.

Plural.
in occasionally Hiin
Note.

They.

The many

cases wliicli occur in wliicli personal
tliosc

pronouns have

of

tlie

one gender are used instead of
rise to the supposition

of
all

tlie

other,

given

that anciently

pronouns Averc

considered of the

common

a:endcr.

Inseparable Pronouns.
99.

These are abbreviations of the foregoing pronouns, and are
to

always attached

some preceding word.
are as

They may be

attached

to nouns, particles, or verbs.
ticles, their

forms

When attached to nouns or parfollow. When connected with verbs
as will afterwards appear.

they are somewhat diiferent,

1.

Table of Inseparable Pronouns
Com. Gen.
-:

Sinj,^

For Noiins Sing.
''-

For Nouns Plur.
'^~

For
1

the

|

^J.S*
1-

or ^D^X* -IT

we have

my, mine.

Person

',

piu,._

^:3n:).\*

or lin^

^>

'li

.

^y

otir,

ours.

HEBEEW GRAMMAE.
^

31
For Nouns Plur.

Sing. Masc.

For Nouns Sing.
avc

nnSI or
Plur.

rit;s

have "^ or "Tj-, np- or "H-

T- My or thine.
your or yours.

For the
,...

_

}}

.
,...

uy

2 Person

Sing. Fern.

i^lN
riur.

or

^J^wSI

"^

or "Tj—

1|)— or P^T

fhi/

or M/we.

P**" your or yours.
Sing. Masc. j^^in
Plur.

wc have

i,^^n,i,

n

or

^n-

v-, v, Poet.in^-A«^,
[«V5.

Dn
3 Persox
<

on,

D- Poetic'

Dn^.

Poet, ix:'\their, theirs.

Sing. Fcni.

iS^HorKin
y

n-, T
'

n— nT
IT '
r'
I

.

r\''- hers, her. ' |V
T

Plur.

inorHjn T|•

Il

p, p,?— niT
\\:-

.

l|"

[T '

|T

p^~ their, theirs.
||V
••

'

2.

In affixing these inseparable pronouns

to

smgular nouns not
is

ending with a vowel, the form must be taken which

preceded

by one, here
3.

called the

vowel of Union, and

vice versa.

pj ai'c termed grave, because they always take the tonic accent. The others are termed light. 4. The general rides already laid down will regidate the change
affixes,

The

03? p, SHj

of vowels in the cases of
attached.
5.

all

words

to wliich

pronominal

affixes are

A

be said
is,

that

word connected with any of these pronominal affixes, may be in a state of construction with it. The only difference instead of the latter word (here the pronoun) being Avritteu
to

at length, it

has been abbreviated.

See Prof. Lee's Gr., Art. 144.

On the Demonstrative Pronouns.
100. or

The demonstrative pronoims
sing, com.,

are,
7^«t

HT masc, HIT fem.,
com.

Tyll

IT this,

H^NI sometimes

these, plur.

On the Relative Pronoun.
101.

There

is

but one relative pronoun in the

Hebrew

Ian-

32
guage,
viz., *^£^'^?

HEBREW
icho,

GRAMTMArv.
vrhicli
is

which, that,

common

to

every

gender and number.
(a) This

pronoun
;

is

frequently prefixed to other words in an

abbreviated form

as,

'^, •^,
tis.

^ or

t,

as

mX^
is

kW

for N*S

^^K

^i^ni icho hath not gicen

Note. This contracted form of the relative

hardly ever used
so frequently

except by the later
that
it

Hebrew

writers, but

by them

forms a peculiarity of the later

style.

CHAPTER
102.

VIII.

OF THE FORM OF THE NOUN.
Nouns
are simple,
derivative,
letters,

or

compounded.

Smiple

nouns consist of three radical

which, however,

may be
Deriva-

contracted according to rules already laid do^ai. Art. 41.
tive

nouns are those which have additional These

letters in the beginning,

end, or middle of the word, in order to modify the meaning of the

simple or primitive noun.
that

letters are one, or

more

of those

go under the technical name of Vri^^NIH.
of words, however,

Compounded
in the

nouns are those which are made up of one or more separate words.
This
last class
is

very

uncommon

Hebrew

language.
103.

The simple forms may be
nouns only.

di\'ided into

two

classes, the
;

former of which, from their peculiarities, are termed segolates
latter primitive

the

104. Segolate nouns are those which, in their

ground form, have

but one primitive vowel followed by two consonants, forming a
harsh sound, in consequence of which they adopt another vowel,
for the sake of euphony.

The new vowel

thus introduced being

generally segol, the
class of

name

of segolates has hence been given to this

words.

105.
class,

These segolates are said

to

be of the

((?), (e^, (/),

or (o)

according as one or other of these letters

is

found in the

ground form of the word.

As an example

of each of these classes.

.

; ;

HEBREW GRAMMAR
wc have
-i.

33
3.

1. 'T7J2

a hinci

-,

2.

"t/n an age;

"l^S a garment',

&iO
106.
for

holiness.

For

tlic

sake of euphony, the

first

of these becomes "^/O

and

further euphony, the

original

vowel conforms

to

the

assumed one, and becomes "H/^.
guttural, as in
*)J^J,

If the second radical be a
it

the assumed, or fiutive voAvel, as
latter

is

some-

times called,

is

pathakh, as iy^ ; sometimes the

vowel only

takes pathalxh, as ^IT. Analysis,

No.
is

85.

This j)eculiarity arises

from the circumstance that the (a)
107. In regard to the {e\ class,

a guttural sound.

\>T\ becomes \)T\. There is which becomes p/H a portion another form of this class, viz. yT^, the accent being still upon the penult., though not required by

the rules of syllabication.
108.

The word 1^5,
*T-?5-

of the third or

(?')

class,

becomes

first "7^5?

and then
109.

The word ^"jp,

of the fourth or (o) class, becomes tJHp,

no other change taking place.
109*.

The ground form of
said to
radical,

the plural of
as

all

these four classes
all

may be
the
first

be the same, inasmuch

they have

pathakh

under the second
first.

and

sh''va

simple or

compound under
its
its

The

fourth class has always khafeph kamets under

radical, as representing its kholem,
pliu'al
;

and indicating

class.

The

ground forms are these:
;

1.

"H^^P; 2. "T/H, other form,

p/H

3.

"7^3

^-

ground forms

are —

^Ip1.

-^^^^

^^
2.

plurals founded
;

upon these
3.

D^^^?^;

D"'nSn and D^pSn

DH^!!

110. It will be observed that the
classes are the

new forms
classes to

of three of these
3. *T^5-

same,

viz.

1.

"^/Oj 2-"'/^; and,

Their

original forms,

and consequently the
only

which they respecto their

tively belong, are

known when they

are connected with

pronominal or other

suffixes,

which are attached not

new
1

but to their ground forms.
his, is

For example, the pronominal

suffix

not attached to
*7rl?j

"^7X?,

I/H, and
^^^^

"lJi5,
;

the new, but to '^/D,

"l/H, and
his king,

the old or ground forms
his age,

and hence we have 127^

ll/D

and i^^5

garment.

The same
D

rule

is

adopted in regard to ^1p, only the kholem must be shortened on

; ; ;

34

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
;

the removal of the accent, which the suffix takes
iJi'lD (kod-sho),
/u's

hence

we have

holiness.
is,

The

reason of this

that on the addition of a syUable to the
radicals are separated,

ground form, the second and third
harsh sound a queen.
111.
is

and the

thus avoided;

as, "^j/^

a

Jiing,

n|lr^ (inal-chah),

The

segolates

undergo no change in the construct

state

thus, Dn.VXD Tl^p Jdng of Egypt.

112.

Such words

as the

following have likewise been classed
:

among
is

the segolates, ex. gr.

]ll^ death, of

which the ground form
1
;

ni^, in the construct
is

state

Hl^, Art. 50,

and
;

/IJ^,

of which

the fem.

H?))^, contracted (171^, Art. 50, 1

the ground form

being

/IJ^;

and likewise
"^ID
;

"^^ri

middle, ^T\ ground form, in the
"l^^^!>,

construct

state

and so
grass.

contracted ^HNI, Art. 50, 2

ground form ^^^{ Nile
113.

Under

the same order

may be reckoned such words
segol, e. g.
:

as the

following, having yod for their second radical, and taking khirik
as their furtive

vowel instead of

ground form,

1.^.^

hunting;
;

new form, "l^Vj construct form, 'l*'^^; so ground form, ri^5 new form, MI'S house construct state, fT'S11-1. The following examples maybe ranked under the third or
o,
;

(^) class;

in these, the harsh

sound
a
city,

is

removed by a
T'J[.

sort

of

coalescence, as

ground form
is

*l^y

new form

The ground

form of the plural

the same as that of the segolates generally

DH^V, Art. 109, 3; and contracted In words of this class, the harsh sound is someD^'nj^, Art. 50, 5. times obviated by a transposition of the vowel thus, ground form
e.g. ^^y, the plur. of
is
;

which

^^^

fruit',

new form

^"13,

A\'ith

pronominal

affix

V*13 his fruit,

according to the principle laid do^\^l in Art. 110.
D^^il kids, the pi. of

So

''*7^,

plur.

which

is

formed upon the principle applicable
In verbs whose futures are

to the segolates generally. Art. 109.

apocopated, that

is,

which

lose the last radical

and the vowel pre-

ceding

it,

the same sort of transposition takes place; thus, H^n*.

3 pers. sing. pres. kal of n^Il he loas, becomes
^n^,

when apocopated
to the fourth class
111^),

and by
(a).

transj)osition

\'l]'.

See Analysis, No. 23.
to

114

The following words seem
;

belong

of segolates

as,

ground form llin

desolation,

new form

and


HEBKEW GRAMMAR.
contracted by Art. 50, 2,
of kindred meaning
;

35
is

^7^^\.

Precisely similar
^1121,

the

word

1113,

ground form

new form

11121,

and con-

tracted ins. See Analysis,
to

No. 10 and

11.

These words are known
syllable.

be segolates from

tlieir

having the accent on the penult,

Ai-t.2d(f).

114

occurs

the
the

In many nouns one of the radicals disappears. This when the third radical is one of the *'1^^{ letters, where sound is so weak that its absence is scarcely percej)tible when word is pronounced 2. when the second and third radicals
(i).

1.

;

are the

same

;

3.

by the disappearance of the second
be

radical

when
1.

it

happens
vatii'ti/,

to

mm

;

thus

^51^

2.

3.

^^
is

becomes 1^, HS^ or HJ^, becomes n^. See Art. 36 p^ a garden, becomes ^ and tjS^ a hody, W. Art. 41. anger, becomes ^^{. Art. 39.
In monosyllabic nouns, where the vowel of the ground
short,

115.

form

and particularly when

it is kJiirik,

the short vowel,
to Art. 114,
115

on the disa])pcarance of one of the radicals according
is

either lengthened or regarded as long
(h) 2, T^,

by

position ; as,
so,

ajleece,

by Art. 114
comes,
first

and euph. causa,
;

U

;

DDJ a tanner, be-

D^ and then DJ
'•>

so Jin,

ground form

Hnn

;

and ^V,

ground form IIV and D^, ground form pp2p, plur. D**!?^. Anal. No. 3325. So in verbs, the khirik is generally changed into tsere;
thus, (13^^. 3 sing. pres. kal of

HDS

becomes —
patliakli, as
2.

l.Tj^'';

and, 2.

"l^.V

when apocopated, Sometimes the new vowel is
he xoept
;

HXT, which, when apocopated, becomes — 1.
n^^n,
is

X*]"^;

and,

XII, Analysis, No. 27; and

apoc. ^"iri,

and further TSTS.
|5''_

Anal. 3077.

Sometimes the khirik

retained, as in
built.

3 sing, of

the apocopated future kal of
n.^11,

M^S

he

The

original
\'2.\,

form

is

when apocopated

|5*., is

with a furtive segol

with the
Art. 29, y.

accent on the penult., as

the case with

all segolates.

Analysis, No. 279 and 143.
116. In all the cases mentioned
or original vowels

where any of the
affix

radical letters
to

have been dropped, on an
;

bemg added

the word, the original vowel will reappear

the lost radical will

do so virtually by a compensating dagesh forte, thus, ground form
|Til,

new form

T5,

and with an

affix

ITil

his fleece.

Many words
D
2

in

English appear in like manner to lose one of the radical letters of

; ;

36
their final syllable,
syllabic
;

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
which
ruhhing
is
;

restored on the addition of another
naj),

as, ruh,

napp'm(j

;

commit, cotnmittcd
p. 19, 4.

expel, expelled.

See Macculloch's English Grammar,
last radical is
affix is
;

117.

AVhen the

one of the

'•IHi^ letters, it

does

not reappear

when an

attached to the

word

;

as,
;

|5 ^ ^^^i

from the ground form n^5 with an affix, "^^5 i^^V ^on without any compensation by dagesh, or the reappearance of the lost
radical H.

118.

The

latter class of

words has probably no connection with

the segolates, but they have been introduced here as the most

convenient place for noticing the methods of avoiding the harshness of sound arising from the concurrence of two consonants

preceded by one vowel.

II.

Class of Primitive Words.
of these are six,

119.
3. Hi"^!

The forms
;

namely

1.

HDiS;
;

2.
2.

*7p3

;

4.

np3

f

5.

npl
;

;

6.

1p$).

As,— 1.
To

^'^\ value

IT]

a

tvord

;

3. *T1|

a fence

4.

77^ Jwwling.

these Prof.

Lee adds
2.

the five following forms as primitives, viz.
3. n^p|)
;

1.

T'piS

;

T*PS

4.

n^p5

;

5.

^pIS.

My

reason for regarding these as augmented, and not as prithe views I have already
1,
'I,

mitive words, naturally arises from

expressed in regard to what are ordinarily called the vowels,

and

*.

In the above examples, the

1

and

^

arc actually consonants

introduced into the words to modify the meaning of the simple
forms, in the same

manner

as the
;

word

love is

modified or altered
Art. 59.

by

the terminations ed or ing

as, loved, loving.

Augmented Words.
120.

Augmented words
or
*

are of five kinds

;

1.

Those which
Those

have

*1

introduced into the body of the word comprehending
article. 2.

the five forms referred to in the preceding

which have any

letter or syllable

doubled.
letters
5.

3.

Those which are
4.

augmented by one or more of the compounded of two or more words.

^J^Ji5^^^^.

Nouns

Foreign words.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The plan
of this Graimiiar prevents

37
enhirging u2)on

me from

this part of the subject,

which

is

treated in a philosophical

and
vii.

very satisfactory manner by Prof. Lee in his Grammar, Lect.
Art. 154, to

which excellent work the reader

is

referred.

The

learned Doctor distributes the words augmented as above described
into classes,

and shews the influence which the augments have in

altering or modifjdng the

meaning of the words

in question.

He

shews how, by fragments of words prefixed

to the

simple forms,
of the

and by
king,

letters

incorporated with them, the

compound forms

conjugations of verbs arise.

For example, from the noun "^7^ a

we have the simple form of the verb "^ ?^ he kinged, i. e. reigned. To which simple forms, when certain of the VP^^Xri letters are added, we have "^/^^ was reigned, "H V^n caused to
reign, 'ViDT^'Pi caused himself to reign, etc.

From what
primitive

has been said in the Introduction, Part III.,

it

appears that the simple, or kal form of the verb, arises out of the

noun with pronominal

affixes or prefixes

;

and that the

other conjugations are

formed from the simple noun doubled or
Art. 129.

augmented, which doubled or augmented nouns, united with pronouns, form the basis of the other conjugations.

CHAPTER

IX.

ON THE SEPARABLE AND INSEPARBLE PARTICLES.
121. All that
ticles will
is

necessary to be said upon the separable par-

be found in the Introduction, Part III.

The

student

will find the subject fully treated in Prof. Lee's Gr., Art. 171.

On the Inseparable
122. These have been so

Particles.
of

named because many
to

them

are

no

longer extant in their original and complete forms, but present one
letter only,

and are always prefixed
in the terms

some other word.

They

arc

comprehended

^/^l HSi'D {Moshch

v'chalebh)^

38
123.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The
fii'st

of these, D,
is

is

prefixed with the short khirih and
|i3,

dagcsh forte, and
!lJ/p,

a fragment of

the ground form of which

is
;

Avhich signifies portion, something separated from the whole
it

hence separation, from which

has passed into the inseparable

preposition signifying /rom, as '^)2if2 from a king.
(a) Before shh^a the dagesh
is

often omitted

;

in

which

case,

however,

it

is

implied, us TVTi'Z^t^ (mi-g^bhii-rah^,f7'om greatness,

not mig-hJm-rah.
(h)

Before
is

letters

not admitting of dagesh, the absence of the

dagesh

either

compensated by the change of the short khirik
is

into tsere, or the short khirik

lengthened by
letter.

jDOsition,

the dagesh

being implied in the following

an example in

C^'*t^D,

not

ti''*

^5^,

Of the former case we have from a man of the latter, in
;

tD^n^ {ml-khnf), from a thread.
124.

The
;

second,

^

,

generally pointed with segol and dagesh,
;

thus '^

sometimes with pathakh and dagesh, thus -^
is

and twice

with sh'va, thus ^,
125.

a fragment of the pronoun
1,

'^^^?.

See Art. 101.

The

inseparable particle

is

probably a fragment of the
add, join.

verb niN> Joined, connected, and

signifies

Hence

it

is

used

as a conjunction,

with the meanings of

aiid, hut, then,

more-

over, etc., as the context

may

require.

(a) This particle

is

regularly prefixed to words with sh\a, as

^/^l

n^D
it

Moses and Caleb.
1,
1,

To

this

general rule there are the

following excei^tions.

Before words beginning with another
as

sh\m
labial

takes the form

^^71 and go ye.

The same change
follows any of the
3.

takes place, with a few exceptions,

when

it

consonants
to
it,

H^^lil,
is

as *7j15^ (ind

a garment.

When
to

the

word
under
it is

which

1

prefixed

commences with yod having
;

sh''va

a contraction will take place
'•H^l.

thus, if
is

*)

is

added

contracted into

4.

When
sh''va

1

prefixed to any
its first
''J^{

*n% word
I;

having one of the substitutes of
1 Avill

under

consonant, the
I, ""iX^ ajid

take the corresponding short vowel ; thus,
truth,

n^^

n^NI^.

and

truth.

5.

Monosyllables and dissyllables
this particle
6.
1

having the accent on the penult., generally prefix
with kamets,
as D^D*I

and a
),

horse

;

7''^?*l

and a ram.
7.

before

T\

with sh'va becomes

as Dn'*^ni.

Anal. 327.

Van

is

prefixed
l^ii'^

to the present tense of verbs

with pathakh and dagesh, thus

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
he says, ^^X*^ and he says.

39

If the preformativc letter has sh^-a

under

it,

then the dagesh

is
is

implied but not expressed, as /tSD^I

ayid he slew (slays).

This

commoanlly called van

conversive, he-

cause

it is

supposed

to convert present into past tenses.

But

this

chf^ge probably does not depend upon the vau, but upon a
general principle, which regulates the sequence of the tenses in

Hebrew and
solutely,

other languages.

Tenses mark time sometimes ab-

and sometimes

relatively.

Thus, in the English phrase,

lie said that

I wrote

;

the saying and writing, which are both past

events, are expressed

by

past tenses

;

but in the Latin phrase.
is is

Dixit
i.

me

scrihere, the saying is jiast,
do'\ATi to

and the writing

present, present,

e.

the saying being tied

past time, the writing

in reference not to the present time but to that in

which the
infinitive

assertion

was made.

We

do not, however, say that the word
as to

dixit has a conmrsive

power, so

change the present

scrihere into a past tense.

In allusion

to the creation of

man, in

Genesis

iv. 2, it is

said of

God,

that

and
the

blesses

them

;

agreeably to

^^1.5 ^'^' created our idiom, Messed. According to

DHX ^^y\

Hebrew idiom, the blessing is present in reference to the creation. The same idiom is sometimes used by the Scottish
peasantry in animated discourse
;

thus,

"/

loent to

his

house

and he informs
tendency in the

me

of the whole matter,"

There

is

a general

Hebrew language

to connect the time of the pre;

ceding and following words together

thus, Jjin^yi

T\Ml,\

nX ^HX,

which,

if

translated according to the ordinary

meaning of the

and thou hast served (him). It should, however, be rendered, love and serve Jehovah. See a very able, and ingenious discussion upon the Hebrew tenses in Lee's
tenses, wovild be, love Jehovah

Gram., Lecture
126.

xvii.

The

particles 7, 5, 5? signifying in, according to, to, or the

like respectively, are

probably fragments of words, the forms of
in his

which are traced by Prof. Lee
(a) in a loay
(b)

Grammar,

Art. 174.
sh\'a, as 'H'll.?

These fragments are regularly prefixed with
;

T*y.3 like

a

tree

;

V'lX/

to earth.
is

But

if

the

word

to

which any of them
book.

prefixed has sh'va,

the particle will take short khirih, according to a rule already laid

down

(Art. 62), as n7il^5

^'^

<^

40
(c)

HEBREAV GRAMMAR.
"When they precede any of the
substitutes of sh'ca, they

then take the corresponding short vowel, as Dl/Pt^ tn a clremn.
(c?)

When
to

t^

happens to be the
as ^i"?X/ for
(5).

first

letter,
to

a

contraction

generally takes place,
for

^^1X7

my

lord;

WTw^y?

\2'TO^

God. Art. 50

(e)

When
into

prefixed to monosyllables, they generally take Icamets,

as

^^^3

a pit

;

and

this also often

happens in the case of

dis-

syllables

having the accent on the penult., as HVi/definite
its

if)
article,

When these particles are prefixed to a noun with the
the article
is
|**l.JSin5

generally rejected and the particle takes

vowel, as \^]^'^ for

w

the earth.

(^) This contraction sometimes takes place with infinitives which commence with a servile H, thus T'EJ'llS for /D'^llil in being caused
to

stumUe; ^'*^^7

for

^^J^iPTw for the causing

to

hear.

See

Art. 35.
(A)

To

these particles the pronominal affixes are often attached,
"^3 in thee
;

as ^3 in

me;

^w

to tJiee.

See the whole of
to

this subject
is

in Art. 174 of Prof. Lee's

Grammar,

which work the reader

likewise referred for

an account of the Paragogic Affixes. Art. 175.

Or THE Definite Article
127.

H.

The

definite article

T\

seems to be a fragment of a word
differ in opinion.

now obsolete,
it

about which the grammarians greatly
of
it is

The most probable account
as a

that given
he.

by those who regard
2.

fragment of the pron. t^^H

Lee, 180,
etc.,

See likcAvise

the view given by Storr., Analogia,

chap, xxvii. page 118.

According

to

him,

it is

a fragment of 7/1,
/Nl, traces

an old form of the

demonstrative pronoun
nt^ri and Tpn
this.

of which remain in the forms
as a demonstrative

It

is

hence used sometimes
;

pronoun,
It also

as

D1*n

this

day

Dj^^fiH this time.

has a meaning akin to that of the relative pronoun, as
1

^npr''!) which he had consecrated,
It is also
article is

Chron. xxvi. 28.

used

as a definite article,
is

much

in the

same way

as the

used in Greek, and

similar to 75< the Arabic definite

article, as Vli^^l the earth.
(rt)

This particle

is

regularly prefixed m ith pathahh and dagcsh,

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
as t^n^rt the serpent
;

41

"wlicre the

dagesh appears to compensate for

the lost consonant.
(h)

Before a

guttiu'al, it generally takes

kamets to make up for
Before
Pi

the absence of the dagesh, as T*1^i^ the earth.
it

and H,

takes pathakh without dagesh, the pathakh in that case being of

the same length with kamets.
(c)

Sometimes before another kamets
the cities, for D^j;!!.
),

it

takes segol euph. causa,

as

Dn;^n
(f/)

Before

/, 12, V> the
its

dagesh

is

omitted, owing probably to

the diificulty of

enunciation in these situations.

The pathakh,
T\12, T\'f2,

however,

is

actually long.

The
or

interrogative particles are ^^

who

? for persons

;

no

which, ivhat:^ H, H,
;

H

ivhat, tohether?

and

''J^

where, how"?

for things

all

which

are invariable

and of the common gender.

See Prof. Lee's Gr. Art. 178.

CHAPTER
128.

X.

ON THE NUMERALS.
Numerals are of two kinds
in

Hebrew, the

cardinal and

the ordinal, and both are substantive nouns.

The former

are

placed either in apposition or in the construct state, with other

words designating the persons or things to be numbered; and they have this pecidiarity, that those which designate the numbers
from 3
nouns.
(«)
to

10 inclusive, generally take the feminine form with

masculine nouns, and vice versa the masculme form with feminine

The

cardinal

numbers from 3

to

10 inclusive, require the
to

word designating all the number
;

the thing
others

numbered

be put in the plural

require the singular, thus, D**^^

^51^

four years
(5)

;

H^^

Q**}^?^ seventy year (years).

The number twenty is formed by affixing the plur. terminathe number tion to the number ten thus, *1^. ten, D'*1S;J^J^ twenty thirty by adding the same termination to tr?^ three, thus, D''2J'7^
;
;

thirty

;

and

so

on

till

ninety inclusive.

42
(c)

HEBREW GRA:MMAR.
When
1

tlie

decimal number takes the precedence, the conas, njJlHD'l

junction

is

used,

^V?^

seventy

and

seven.

(d) \\Tien the numerals are to be used distributively they are

repeated like other nouns, as W^Ti^

D^jiP^ two, two,

i.

e. Lt/

twos.

See Prof. Lee's Gr., Art. 181, where tables of both cardinal and
ordinal

nmnbers

will

be found.

CHAPTER XL
OF THE VERB.
129.

The reader

is

referred to what

is

said u]3on the verb in
is

Introduction, Part III.

In addition

to

what

there stated,

it is

to be observed, that verbs have seven forms or species, as they are

sometimes

called.

The

L
simple form, as /IPD he
kal, ordinarily

called

called the 7p kal, i. e. the light or '7 The second is the passive form of 7^3^ niplud, as 7^W lie teas slain. The
first is
.

sleio.

third

is

called

7^3

pihel,

and gives an intensive meaning
7LSp he
sleio

to the

simple or kal form, as

eagerly.

From examples

pointed out in the Analysis, there appears reason to believe that
the
p>^h(il is

a reduj^lication of the kal form, and gives a sort of

superlative

meaning

to that form, in the

same way
as
is

as a su^^crlative

meaning

is

given to a noun by

its rej)ctition,

DID good,

^IID

^1D

very good.

The

4th, or

7^2 puhal form,

the passive of the

preceding, as

7^p

he was eagerly slain.

The

5th, or /""^Sn hiphil,

gives a causative
slay.

meaning

to the kal form, as 7''tppn he
is

caused

to

A

causative

meaning
to rise.

sometimes given to an English

word, by the insertion of a
thus, raise

letter in the

bosom of the simple form,
is

= cause

The

6th, or /J^^H hophcd,
to slay.

the passive

of the 5th form, as

/^pH

he icas caused
as

The

7th,

/ySHri

hithpahel, has a reflexive meaning,

/tSpHH he

sleio himself.

There are other forms which some of the verbs have, which are
considered irregular, and which will be found in the Lexicons

and larger Grammars.
130.
light,

The

first
it

conjugation takes

its

because

consists of the simple

name from the Mord /p_ word Avithout the addition

;

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
of any other words or letters
;

43
/J^B,

this

form

is

sometimes called

because the verb
as the

/J^S)

Avas

adopted by the old HebrcAv grammarians,
verb
;

example
form of

for declining the
all

and hence the passive of
tliii-d

the

leal

verbs

is

called /J^S^, the

form 7^3, the

foui'th 7j?3,

and

so on.

131.
verbs.

We
The

have given thirteen paradigms, or conjugations of
difference

between the regular form and the others
^peculiarities of the guttural

arises principally
letters

from the

and

''^'^^J

(which include two of the gutturals) and the concurrence

of two of the same consonants.

By
all

attending to what has been
the intelligent student will

observed in regard to these

letters,

discover the reasons of almost

the variations between the

regular paradigm and the otber conjugations.
(a)

For example,

if

we

take the second paradigm, I^J? stood,

we

find that the irregularity arises in those parts which, in consJi'ca

formity with the general paradigm, would have
first radical,

under the

which

is

a guttural.

In

all

such cases, according to

the general rule, Art. 15, the guttural must have a

shha

;

thus, 2 pi. m. pret. kal, instead of Dri"7^V

compound we have Dn"T^y.
m. pres.

inf. constr. kal,

instead of 1^>^

we have

"1^3^.

;

in 3 sing.

kal, instead of

'^^y^
sh'ca.

"J'^^!?

the khin'k under ijod conforming to
this rule is violated,

the

compound

When

which

it

is

in

the case of certain parts of verbs Avhich have a guttural for the
third radical,
it

is

called the rough ejiunciation

;

as, 1 sing. pret.

kal of

yO^

heard,

guttural stands at
accent.
(5)

"n^D^. This is principally the case when the the end of an impure syllable, and has the tonic

Again, upon the principle that the gutturals and rcsh do

not admit of dagesh forte,
3 sing. pret.
(c)
^j/A.

we have

"Hl^ instead of

"^^.^j ^I't.

19,

of "^13 blessed.

The 3

sing.

m.

fut.

of pJ^T

is 'p''^V_

instead of

'p'^V'.,

OAving to

the

gutturals

preferring the a sound.

Some forms

of verbs

without gutturals likewise take pathakh or other vowel instead
of kholem in the
last syllable

of the present kal, "wdthout any

apparent reason.
(d)

Verbs beginning

M'ith 3 or

7 in

T\Tj7 he took, lose the 1

and

7 when concluding

a syllabic not the last

and having shh'a

;

thus.

U
for
::^^)\

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
and HJ^S^ wc have

m\

and

Mj?^.

3 sing. pros, kal of

m^

drew near, and

np7

^oo/c,

Art. 39.
K^JlJ,

By
and

the same Article

we have

r\m
A-a?
(<?)

for niTJlJ inf. constr. hal of
Zie^of.

Trh

for

HlS^
of

inf. constr.

of *I7^

So

rounded,

we have ^D for ^5? 3 sing. pret. /^rtZ and ^D for ^120 inf. constr. of the same.
is

^ID

/<e

swr-

In the former

case the latter vowel

retained. Art. 41, parad. (6).
to rise, is
is

(f) So Dip,

inf.

absolute kal,

contracted for Dip
;

;

and

Dp

3 sing. pret. kal of the same
D*'1pri,

contracted for Dip

so D^'P^^

3 sing. pret. hiph. for
{g)

Art. 38, parad. 10.

So n^^V

for

ym;i

3 sing. pres. hiph. of "l^l or

^m
is
;

he

dwelt. Art. 50 (1), parad. (8).

These verbs always adopt the form
as

'^^\ Avhcn there

is

no prefix, but the form ^^1 when there

i^li^ 2 sing. m.

fut. niph.

The

yod,

when

not

initial, is,

hoAvever,

sometimes absorbed by contraction,
kal, Ai-t.

as "2^), for

^^^^ 3

sing. pres.

50

(3).
is

Qi)

In those verbs whose third radical
affix, is
aff.

H, that letter, on the

annexation of an
as n*1in
T

changed into H, upon the same principle
nHlli^, not TT-'
Jiri^lIM

with the

M — becomes IT

TT>'

;

thus 3

sinsr.

)0

fem. 1 pret. kal of H/il he TT

revealed, '

becomes nH/il, not Hri/^, t:t^ t;t'

parad. 13.

These are only a

fcAV of the

general principles of the variation

of verbs from the regular paradigm.
others for himself.

The

student can trace the

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

45

PARADIGM
Or Regular Form
Past.
Sing. 8 m.
3f.

I.,

of the

Hebrew Verb 7^D

Jic

slew.

KAL.
ka-tal
.

StDD Plur.m.

kit-he

.

la-flah
ka-tal-ta
ka-talt
ka-tal-ti

kHol-nah

.

2 in.
2f.

Present.
Sing. 3 m.
3f.
yik-tol
tik-tol tik-tol
. .

Icom.

.

Plur.Scom. ka-flu

2m.

.

.

Sbpri

2 in.
2
f.

Utal-tem
k'tal-ten

2f
Icom.
Plur.3ra.
3f.

tik-fU
ek-tol

.

.

.

Icom. ka-tal-nu

yik-flu
tik-tol-nah

Inf. abs. Inf. constr.

ka-tol

2m.
2f.
1

tik-flu
tik-tol-7iaJi
'^'^r:^:^

kHol

com. nik-tol

.

.

IMPERATI^^E
Sing. m.
f.

Participles.
Act.
Pass.
ko-tel
.

k'tol
kit-li

.

.

.

.

ka-tul

.

Past.
Sing. 3 m.
nik-tal
.

NIPHAL.
StOpi Sing. 2 f.
nik-tal-tm
.

3

f.

nik-flah
nik-tal-ta
nik-talt

H/tppi

Icom. nik-tal-nu

2 m. 2
1
f.

ri/tOp^ Infinitive,

hik-ka-tel

.

.

com. nik-tal-ti
.

Plur.3com. nik-fla
2 m.
nik-tal-tem

^7£2p3

Imperati-\t3.
hik-ka-fel
. .

Drn^Dp) Sing. m.

46
f.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
hik-ha-fli

vtDDn

1

com. ck-ka-tel

.

Plur. m.
f.

hik-ka-flu
hik-ka-tel-nah

TOpn
T
:

riiu-.o.m.

yik-ka-t-lu
tik-ka-tel-nah

3f.
1"

It

Present.
Sinsr.Sm.
3f.
yik-ka-tel
tik-ka-tel tik-ka-tel
.
.

2 m.
^'^^\
2f.
1

tik-ka-flu
tik-ka-tcl-nah
.

.

.

com. nik-ka-tel

2 m.
2f.

.

Participle.
.

tik-ka-fli

.

nik-tal

.

.

Past.
Sing. 3 m.
3f.
kit-tel
.

PIHEL.
':5t2p

Plur.m.
f.

kat-flu
kat-tel-nah

kit-flah
kit-tal-ta
kit-talt
kit-tal-ti
.

n

niStsp

2 m.
of
1

Present.

.n%p
^riStsp
. .

Sing. 3 m.
3f.

-ifkat-tel

.

com.

f kat-tel

.

Vlm.o com.
2 m. 2
1
f.

kit-flu.
kit-tal-tcm
kit-tal-ten

!lSt3p

2 m. 2
1
f.

f kat-tel
f kat-fli
akat-tel
if kat-flu

.

DriS^p
I^'P^P
.

.

com

.

com. kit-tal-nu

.^iStSp Plur. 3 m.
3f.

.

f kat-tel-nah
fkat-fla
.

Infinitive,

kat-tel

.

.

^tsp

2 m.
f.

f kat-tel-nah

Imperative.
Sing. m.
f.

1

com

.

7i'kat-tcl

.

kat-tel

.

.

.

Participle
m^kat-tel
.
.

kat-fli

.

.

Past.
Sing. 3 m.
kut-tal.

PUHAL.
7^p
Icom.
kut-tal-ti
.

3

f.

kut-flah
kut-tal-ta
kiit-talt

nSrSp Plur.3com. kut-flu
Irh^'D

.

2 m. 2
f.

2 m.
2
f.

kut-tal-tem
knt-tal-ten

mSlSP

. .

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
^

47

I

com. kuf-tal-fiu

.

.

.

'li

7^j^

2 m. ^m.
2f. 2 f.

Vhut-tal
fkut-tli

Infinitive,

kut-tal

S^D

1

com. akut-tal
y'kut-flu

Imperative.
Sincr.m.

Plur. 3 m.

3

f.

f -kut-tal-nah
fkut-flu
.

I
Plur.
ni.
f.

none

2 m. 2
1
f.

f kut-tal-nah
.

com. rCkut-tal

Present.
Sing. 3 m.
3f.
if kut-tal
.

Participle
m^kut-tal
.

fJcut-tal

.

Past.
Sing. 3 m.
hik-til
.

HIPHIL.
.

S^bpn Plur.m.
rh'\:^'^r\
f.

hak-ti-lu

.

2f.

hik-ti-lah
hik-tal-ta

.

hak-tel-nah

2 m.
2f.
1

.

Present
riSbpn
Sing. 3 m.
yak-til
tak-til tak-til
.

hik-talt
.

com. hik-tal-ti

''Pbv:>\>r\

3

f.

Plur.3com. hik-ti-lu
2
2.
ni.
f.

.

.

'topn

o
Of
1

.

hik-tal-tem
hik-tal-ten

.

DnStopn

tak-ti-li
.

.

com. ak-til

1

com. Idk-tal-nu

^:i^DDn

Plur. 3

m.

yak-ti-lu

.

3f.
Infinitive,

tak-tel-nah
tak-ti-lu
.

hak-til

.

.

.

S^ropn

2 m.
2f.

rl: -

tak-tel-nah

nrtopn

iMPERATn-E.
Sing.ni.
f.

1

com. nak-til
yak-tel

7^tppJ

hak-tel
hak-ti-li

.

.

.

7tpjpri

Pres.apoc.
Participle.

.

^^^tPpn

mak-til

Past.
Sing. 3 m.
3f.

HOPHAL.
hok-tal
.

.

m.

hok-tal-ta
hok-talt
.

riSppn
nSt^pn

hok-flah

.

.

nSbpn

2f.

48
com. hoh-tal-tl

HEBREW GRAMMAll.
1
.

Present.
hi:ipn Sing. 3

Plur.Scom. hok-flii
2m..

.

m
f.

yok-tal
tok-tal

hok-tal-tcm
Jiok-tal-ten

D]:)7Dpn
]th'D^r\

3

2 f.

2 m. 2
1
f.

tok -tal

.

Icom. hok-tal-nu

Jii^Dpn T
:

tok-fli.
.

.

i-l:

com. ok-tal

^PP^"?

Iniinitive.

hok-tal

.

Sppn

Plur. 3 m.

yok-flu

.

3 f.

tok-tal-ndh

Impekatiye

2 m.

tok-flu

JiStDpn

2
1

f.

tok-tal-nah

com. nok-tal

Pres. apoc
Participle,

mok-tal

.

it|:

t

HITHPAHEL.
Sing.
3.

i
hith-kat-Vlu
.

m.
f.

hith-kat-tel

.

.

StSj'^nn

Plur.m.
f.

3

Jiith-kat-flah
hith-kat-tal-ta

.

nSrspnn
p7];2pnri

hith-kat-tel nali

njSppnn

2 m.
2
1
f.

.

Present.
Sing. 3 m.
3f. yith-kat-tel
tith-kat-tel
.

hith-kat-talt

.

•^?Pprn
^ri^i^pnn
.

com. hith-kat-tal-ti
.

.

'^tspnn

Plur. 3 com. hith-kat-flu

tepnn
I^^pnn

2 m.
2f.
1

tith-kat-tel

.

'^'i^pnn

2 m.

hith-kat-tal-tem
hith-kat-tal-ten

DnSi^pnn

tith-kat-fli

.

.

^Srspnn
'^tspnx
^^Dpn*.

2 f.
1

com. eth-kat-tel
ijith-kat t'lu
.

com. hith-kat-tal-nu

.^ll'ppprjin

Plur. 3 m.
3f.

.

tith-ka t- tel-nah
tith-kat-flti
.

njSpprin
.

Infinitive,

hith-kat-tel

.

Srspnn

2 m.
2f.

iSrsprin

tith-kat-tel-nah n^Srspnri t:,-|-:
.
.

Imperative.
Sing. m.
f.

1

com. nith-kat-tel

^'tspn;

hith-kat-tel

.

Participle.

hith-kat-fU

.

^^t5pnn

mith-kat-tel

.

.

'^tsp-a

PARADIGMS OF VEEBS.

L--VERBS
II.J3

IN KAL.
))

NIPHAL.
PIHEL.

III.-

})

}}

IV.V.-

JJ

)}

PUHAL.
HIPHIL.

>}

3J

VI.-

))

})

HOPHAL.

VII.-

))

)}

HITHPAHEL

.. . ,

I.1
Prefer.

-PARADIGMS
5
':

OF

2
1

s
2

4
3 Guft.

6
"in

Eegidar.
.

G?<«.

G««.
pv.i

init.

Sing. 3 m.

^^\l

^m

vw
^VP^
T ^
|-

m;
n^^;
T
;

^D
r\^p
T
1

3

f.

.

.

^^^\>
T
:

^M
?ii'p)^

2in.
2f.
1
.

.

1-

It

m^ mi
W^-l

T

1-

T

~

.

^7^|"5

i^i^s;

riy^^
;

-T

ni!iD

com com
.

'^I^SJ

'^i

'^J?^?^
!1V2??'
;

^ni^D
T

Plur. 3

wi
Dfl?^p
^^"^pv.
.

2 m.
2f.
1
.

vn ^m\
W-l
^^)?,yj

^•ip

^^V^^
1^5^^^

Djn^;i;

DJniSD
tO'i^P
1

t?^^p
liStop

]^i^^

]W^)

com

^^im
"fi^?
-iby.

^^y
v^^^

W}}
m^;
r\m

Inf. abs. Inf. const.

.

.

Slbj'^

pm
pV]

ni:iD

.

Sb,p

VPP V^^
'V.W

no 3b
'^i?

Imperative
Sing. m.
f
. . .

.

.

Sbjp

nby
n)?5?

pV.]

.

.

h^\?

Plur. m.
f
. .

.

.

^spp
rti^tpp

n^y
n^nby

.

.

nm
pv.v.

WW-

m
)m
n^^,5

m

^VW
n^J^O^

J)3b

Present.
Sing. 3 m.
.

3f.

.

.

,^?7bpn
Sbpn
« • 1 •

^btl

v^^\

m
mri

T

ibvn

pj;fn pS^in

y^^n

ibn
nbri

2 m.
2f.
1
.

.

nbyn
nj^s?;?

VWi^

mr\

.

'pm
pv^^
^pv.v.
t|
1•
:

ypm
VW^
^V^^'
T\y}^wr\

mr\

^3bn T

1

com.
.

7b|piS
^^P|P'

1

•^b^Ji!?

Plur. 3 m.

^-^mi

mn m\
mr\
nj^^n

:3b« T
IT

3 f

.

.

.

n:jSbpn njlbyn T,:
1:

?^^'|I?^

:

2 m.
2f.
1
.

.

^Djpn

n^j;j!i

^py]^
^.^p5^!^

.

niSbpn n^lbyn T
:.
1

^V^m n^^^n
V^^^
];p)^

^sipn

ny|D;^
T

1

:

com
.
.

^w:^

"Tby^^

pyp
pJ^iT

m:
m)^
T

Part Pass

act.

^^"^V

iniD n^nD

S^bp

l)f2)!

p^yj

V^^^

VERBS
7
'N in it.

IN

KAL.
8
"
/«('(•
'*

9
init.

10
'1 /nerf.

11
med.

12
'N Jinal.

13
'n final.

- T

^^l

-T

nap

m
^^(^

^^

I?

T T

nS?
nn'^^

^
5
i^Pl'^

nxv?
T T
|T

T

1

"

T

n^S|
^ri'-Sii

W
crq
(-1

W

'^^^\?-

T

1XV9

1S5

g^

£.

^

J^i!!^!*^

tJ??|^

O TCI

Dns*p
lO^V?
It

00'^
to4|
^yh'}

^^^P

t

T

:2^d;

Dip
D^lp

pa

i<i!^9

ri^i
niS:?

jiN

nb;

1

*•

^T
'^^
1

D!|p
^;^!)p

n'^ii

'7^^
ilS^N*

'^1!

!zi

'^3
!|j'a
I*

^NV^
^svib

^^^

1^1'
;

o
!)^1p
T

ni'pbx

nji^

^
T
iv
:

!^J?^ri'

:

h

njKV)^

^5^^'

^^.'!

^T'.
crn^j:^

ib^^
:3to^n

Dip: ~
1

r?:

N*pl
^<^^i^
K^i^pri

n^^^
nS:3n

^^J!i
1

Dipn
D^ipri

r^9

^i?^ri
1

t^Tri
>i^yr\

nb^ri
^inb^j:^

p?
^rpri

n^i^
'''?^J!^

'5!?^ri
J*

1

1

T

\sv^n
^^^^i^

^^^
^^^>
ij^;Dxn
nj^t^ri

^S^K
^tj^i;*:

:2b\s*
:inb^>

apt} to»;

r^^
Jiya^

^S:l^^

i^¥^'

fe
n;i;S;iri

n^j^^^n^n

n^^^'^ri

nrnpr^

__1 njj^Y^sri
'"

S^NJ
1^^^^
^'^^^'^

ntyj

'

ty'i^f

:ib^;i

Dip;

p5
t?
'

'
'

'n'p^i

^^'
niK^:

:ibr
:2ib^

Dp
Dip

^t^
^<!l^f;b

nSi5
>!i':)ii

. .

:

II.— PARADIGMS OF
1
Preter.

2
1

3
2

4
3 Gm«.

5
"3
intt.

6

fiegular.

G««.

G««.

Sing.

3m...
3
f.
. .

py_n

y^^i
T
;

T |-T

2 m.
f

.

.

T

:i-

••:!•••

^ipP-i;)

^Vp^^

T

:

!-•

T

I

-

"
I

:

1

com.


I

-

:

Plur. 3 com.

-T

2m...
2f.
1
. .

com.
.

^^l^t}.

I

-

:

Infinitive.

Imperative.
Sing. m.
f
Pliu'.
. . .

i

pyn

y^^^n

•'T

*

nan

m.
f

.

.

.

n:jS:Di'!)n

t;

|"t

T

IV

-

Present.
Sing.

3m...
3f.
. .

••T

^t?pn

2 m. 2f.
1

.

.

pgri
'py.lJ^

j;;^^'ri

.

.

'V.W^

man
*

'T

'

com.
.

T V T

Plur. 3 m.

;

3f.

.

.

nj^ppri

nyriDn T
[V

2 m.
2f.
1

.

.

6tppn
HiStDpn

.

.

nipyin njy.p^n

T

:

i-T

T

I

V -

com.

^Pp;

Participle.

.

pyj^

};w}

m)

3D3

'

'

VERBS
7
K init.

IN

NIPHAL.
8

9
'1

10

u
ix final.

12
n final.

init.

med.

med.

2m
nntri:!
I—"

mpj
naip3
T
1

1133

T

nS^i
;

nxvp;)
nx^to:i < 1"
:

nnS:ij T
; ;

^5,i;^'iJ

1

;

T

1"

* ;

^?trij
t—
CD

niDip;
^ni^iDi
^
1
1

»—

nx;?p;
'nNjr^pj

^b^^
'Ty'h:^)

^rin,^ii

Jin^ij
crq

!ixv^;

^^
Dn^Si;

Dnn^iJ
in:?trii

DniDip:?
j]ii^^p^
^ilD^lpJ

DO^^*V^;

to^^^^^
!liN*J?^J

mD'ii

1

••

T

Dipn
••

]i2n

^^^?n

n':'5,n

b^{^
etc.

^^^n
'5^^n
^^i?^jn
T
T

Dipn
'^ipn
^Dipri

lisn

^<VPJ1

^
CD

\svari

7?n
h^ri
T
|V

iNV^n
nix^f^n T T
IV

~3
;

1-

T

:)

1

T

^^y.

Dlp^.

113!

^w
^'^m
^^V9^
\s^^»n

V

T

2mp\

Dipn
1

nSjn
n|p|n

^mn
':i^3^

wr\
1
i

4|n
V

g

^?^3^

Dip^^
1

^^^
ig
T
1

T V

^;bip^.

^
^^ipn
;

V

T T

T

'

'

nj;i|^5i?

n:i^:pn

njxvjsn

^y^^^
V T

y^]^

Dip;

^^?;

T

V.-IV

T

Dipj

I«3

^•$f2:

1

III.--PARADIGMS OF
1
Preter.

2
1

3
2

4
3 Guit.

5
'3 iiiit.

6
'1

Begular.
.

Gutt.

G««.

Sing. 3 m.

3f.

.

^^P ^^\>
T
:

^^V

r-3 nana T
.

V^^
nj??'^

t*^:

nniD
T
;

..

Sm..
2f.
1
.

[- 1'

n^-lS

r>?i2p

i?^15
o
'ri^;i5

^vW ^vw
pi

^^^iD

miiD

1

com com

'^'?,^P

Plur. 3

h^p
.

1^15
t:ri?15
t^;^;>'^5

'^V.W ^ys^
Dny»Si>

p

i:i5iD

2 m..
2f.
1
.

dj'^iSdp

DJ^nniD
jrinniD

\^^\?

]^Vf^^

com

^^%?
^^p.
-i»y_

^^??-5

^y;0

i^niiD

Infinitive,

.

v^

VW
V^^
'V^^
!l^^^

^^^.

iniD

Imperative.
Sing. m.
f.
.

.

.

^^p.
^J?t?p

"T^S^

V^
:

^^).
etc.

::niD

.

.

T

^nniD
!inniD

Pirn-,

m.
f..

.

.

ht^p_
CfQ

^D-i?
T
i"T

.

.

T^}hl2p

n^yj?^

^^^iiiD

;

Present.
Sing. 3 m.
3f..
.

^^p^
^l^p^
.

1^2^',

vr..

y^^'.
yDE^^n

^?iT.
etc.

^5iD^.

.

v^
vi^
'?"t3n

nniDn
22)DP}
*5?iDri

2m.
2f.
1

.

^^p^
''?t?pj'^

y^^n
'V.W^

.

.

com.

'^^pii^

o
CXq

Ti.?i?

VWi^
^v^^\

^5iD«
^nniD^
T
;

Plur.

3m...
3f.
. .

}^^p\
r*

r\:bi2pr\

npp^ri
i^nnri

^T^.W^
r;tp^r\

1"

;

2m...
2f.
1
. .

T?t2pJ^

^riniDn

n::Dpnn

^y}^W^

n^n^iori
^?iD;i

com.

^w^
^^p^
1»5^P

^^^?
11^'^

VW^

Participle.

.

.

V^m

^?i^^

nniD^

. .

.

VERBS
7
'N init.

IN

PIHEL.
8
'
or
'1

9
int.
'1

10
med.
'>

11
met/.

12
'H final.

13
in final.

^|X

^^\

^^'

1513

T

I"

T

••
I

o p
i-S

o p
!itt/!:ip

o
,..

p'

Dri^/^ip

nn^^b
[O^'^^O
,..

on^.'?^

IJn^^ip
ij/tpgip

lO'^^
,..

hs^ Six
etc.

^¥l

::i^:

D^ip

m
pi3
etc.

^^^
^^^i5

rib

^^:
etc.

^t?:
etc.

D^ip

nb
4i'

)t2iy\p

njj^Dip

T

I"

-

T

|V

-

^^i^\
etc.

^^1\
etc.

^'^':.

Oibip^.

P'l^'.

^55?^!

n^^^.

etc.

DJbipri

etc.

DZpipn
^O^ipri
L3J??ip^{

n^op^pri

^Mpn
T
:

1-

1

:

T

|v

-

:

ci^ip^

?5i<^

^^'J?

^ts:^

D^ipD

!.;i:i?)

i^'^W

^^^^

IV.— PARADIGMS
1

of

2
1

3
2 Gutt.

4
3 Gutt.
'3

5
init.

6
'n
i?iit.

Preter.

Begithr.
.

Gm«.

Sing-.

3 m.
3f.

.

b'^[^.

^m._

Vj^
npii3
T

vw
T\yim

nniD

..
.
.

^h^\>.

nnniD
iJi??iD

2

ni.

^)w.
^^[^.
^riS^j-p
crq

1"

^V}p^

2f.
1

.

.

ri^nin

^VM
'^VJ^^
!l^»^
o P

nnniD
^ririniD

com.

'^:>p3

Plur. 3 coin.

a
'^^l^.
.

^

oiin
Di^i^'is

^niiD
Dri^^iD

2m..
2f.
1
.

^^^\^.

t^'mm
\^V.^^

.

t^?13
:

t5?5^D
^^ii,5iD

com.

r

^^VpP

Infinitive

.

.

Sbp

^w..

^13

V^^

m^

i51D

Imp. sing. m.
f

)
.
.

.

.

.

Plur.

m
f.
.

>

none.

.. ;

Present.
Sing. 3 m..
3f.
. .

b^\>'.

'^fPT
etc.

r>
T-^^ T-^^
O'liJ;!

VW.
-j^i^m

^^y
etc.

nniD^;
:25iDri :i5iDri
^:2:?iDri

.

^^[^^

2 m.
Of
1

.

.

)m
h^^Pi
b^p^.

Vr^m
'V:^^^

com.

"^l^vS

y^^x
^V^^\

^?in)«
?inniD^

Plur.

3m...
3f.
.

^W:
r\h^pp\
r)^\>^

^Dnh^
Cfq

.

T

;

|-

r\y^mn
:

nj^ijiDn
^i:?iDn
T
;

2 m.
2f.
1

.

.

^Dnhn
!^5?7>^

^y»^ri

.

.

niS^pn

Tiy^jpm
V^^^_

|-

:

com.

^%>
.

^V^>
^J^J^^?
'^I'lh^

nnio:?

Participle

.

h^pp

^^fpm

m:if2

:i^w

'

VERBS
7
K
init.

IN

PUHAL
8

9
or
'1

10
1

11
" mer/.

12
H final.

13
n
final.

init.

med.

itr;

nb.^

mp
r\mp
r\f2p)p

IJia

^^Jp

rh\
nn'pii
T
••

njjv^

1

r\mp
o
CTQ

o
Cfq

p'

)i2!y\p

t—
tzi

o p

DJ?,^t5ip

D^l^^?^^

^T^k

Sat?

n^;^

nD.^

Di^lp

Pn

}<5f^

rh^

^^^\
etc.

i^M_
etc.

^^''
etc.

L]^ip^.

pi^'.
etc.

n^j;
X5^;bn T
\
;

Dibip]^

D^ipn
%iy\pTr\

D^ipx
I2:^ip^

n^;^pipri
^2:;bipri
r\\J2'fy\pp^

^

r--

••.

:

nix5^ttn

Dibipj

SsN^

nSJ^\!2

DXSipi)

N^DD

Th>y}2

v.1
Preter.

-PARADIGM
5
'3

OF

2
1

3
2

4
3 Gutt.

6
'T T

Regular.
. .

Gi/«.

Guf^

Init.

Sing. 3

ni.

'^''Ppn

n^pvn

r^!^

]^'j2m

mn
X
1•

3 f

.

.

.

.

nS^topn
r
r
1

^PD nsDH
T I"
••

:

2m.
2f..
1

.

.

n7Dpn
ri7^pn
•.
:

WpJ?^n
i^l^V.D
^ri-rayn

T

:r

T

1

-.

.

.

^ o
CJq

r\V.^m
^nj^a^n
!iy^p^n

rimT]

nispn
^nispn

com.

r

• 1
:

'nmn
ui^mn
l^^^T^

P

Plur. 3 com.

'i^^cpipn

^spn
DJiispn
jnin^pri

2m... Di!iSppn
2f..
1
. .

Dnn^yn
i^'^^V.?

D;!ij;;^t?'n

Ii!>^t?pn

]BVp'^K\

com.

^i^ppn

^^"ipVD

liyp^ri

)mr}
K^*5n

^iispq

Infinitive.

.

.

'^'tppri

"I'^yp

p^^n

jrto*fn

Imperative
Sing. m.
f
.

.

.

.

Stopq

"f.^vn
'i'p'^.n

pj^rn
etc.

r^^n

mr\

X X

'T^pn
. . .
.

T^^n
^V'^y^
njj?;?^n

'mn
1-

I-

Plur. m.
f
.

I'

1:

~

n^pyn
J^^l'^'^-D

-

niStopn

i^.^^^n

nj'spn

Present.

Sing. 3 m.

.

^WS^Dpn
S^tppn

^%x.
"T^'tsyn

P'^letc.

y;0^!
rot^i? y'^^J?

^>^>_

"r

3 f

.

.

.

.

mr\
^^^ri

^P?l
••

2 m.
2f..
1

.

.

"J'^i?,^

X X
T

.

.

h^\>^
^'Pp^
^^'9p-

nwn
'^'^W
n^py;.
njn^lfri

'vy^^
Vl^P^
^v^^l
D'^-aNi

!•

com.

••

Plur.

3m...

|-X

3f

.

.

niStopn r:i1:

^}V^^^

nj'spri

2 m...
2f.. ..
1

6^Dpn
!^^^f?p^
'^'Pp^

n^pyn
nj"i,^?y.ri

^T^m )mn
njyp^b
X
:

i3Dn T
I"

I-

-

T

,v

:

com.

I'^y.;

V'W^

mi
jj'^^^

2d: T
••

Participle.

.

.

^'^[^^

•1'^*^.^

p'm

)f:^m

:ip^

' <

VERBS
7
'K Init.

IN

HIPHIL.
8
/.

9
or
'

10
|^

11
" Med.

12
« Final.

13
n Final.

1

Init.

Med.

b''2^r)

ym^
T
'•

y\^'r\

D'lTD

rsri

^<^VP^^

nS^n
nnS:in T
: :

nx'v^n
ri^P'H
ri?D\"i

nntrin

0^^,V^^

X

I"

:

^
CD

n^^in
TOi^in

niD^pn
'ni^'pL]
'i^'pn

1—

nx^^n
^nx^pn
^wS'^pn
DJiiX^f^ri

n^jri
'H'S^n

'^^ip'n
^^'P'lI
Dl^^^tD^n
li'!!?^'^

Q
1—

•a
1*

hyn
DO'^AH
in^^jin
^i^'^^n

1ll

Dnl£^^^n
];nn^irt
|-

nrn^^pn
lO'i^'pL)
":i

trix):^ri
••

^^?;?'li
.1

:

1

1

:

y^r\
^5^*?
etc.

••

T

I

T

-

nSjn
n'p^n

2p)n

^^'D
'^I'^'D

'ym
T
:

^V^
'P'pn

150
etc.

N^^^n
'^^'??Jp?^

4^n
JiS^n
T
-

^^'P'n
1-

T

:

1"

••

^^'pn niippn

r

~
:

T

IV

:

-

|V

:

'^'5^^!
etc.

n^B^v

y^''.

°^p:

r?:
etc.

'H'^b'_

n^^!
n^';iri

n^^in

yt^'n

D^pn

K^VP^i
^^'VPi?

2'mr\
'

y^'r\
>n^b^ri

D^pn
'

nS^n
4^i!i

r

'^'pk
D^p5$
^^'l?'

1*

:

T^ix ^ypv
mnsrin
^n^si'in
1

ni^x
^y^''.
1

^'V^5<
ilX^j:^^

nSiJ<

h
ni^S^J?
^S:?ri

nj^pn
!i;b^pn

^^5^^^^

1^'^^^
Hix^^ri

n:jnt3^n

n^J^pn
D^'pj

nj^S;in
n'?^^

ym
^'?5<!?

«^V^i

n^^ia

y^'^

yp'^

r?^

«'V^^

n"?^^

.

YI —PARADIGMS
1
Preter.

OF

2
1

3
2 Gutt.

4

5
'3 init.

6
'T T

Regular.
.

Gutt.

Sing. 3 m.

.

3 f

npyn
.
.

.

2 m.
2f.
1

.

.

T -r

I:

T

T

.1-

t:t

npV-IC
^pi^lO

.

.

com.

^npyrn T
• I
:

r

• :

:

r

"
••.
1

Plur. 3 com.

2m... DrjSbpri DJ^ii^yn
2f.
1
.
.

n T
in

com.

^ip^jn

^:V.Wr}

^i^5n

^Diinp^n

Infinitive

.

.

'?Dpri

n^vO

PW

^^^0

^^^!

^^^^

Imp. sing. m.
f.
.
. .

None.
Plur. m.
f
.
.

.

.

.

Present. 3
Sing.

m
.

pVX

VWr

npv

3
'2

f.

Sbpn
^Dpn
''pJppp

now
- t;it - t:it

m.
.

2f.
1

:

r

|T

com.
.

- t:it

Plur. 3 m.
3f.

^Wp:
n^Sppri
^Stppri
T
:i-t:it

13pV
T
|V

-

.

2 m.
2f.
1

.

r
T
:i-t:it

.

njSgpn
'7Dpi

com

- t:it

p5;n

y^ti';

Participle..

StOp^

I^VP

P5??9

V?^?^?

mf2

ip^»

VERBS
7
'K in it.

IN

HOPHAL
8
'-

9
01'
'1 (niV. '1

10
med.

11

12
'K Jinal.

13
'n Jinal.

pin
nitron T
;

T

nnSjin
; ;

\

o

J U
:

t3-

u 3

I

T

o

t3-

DJ^x>'Dn

|-

I"

-^
:

Sdxh

iD^n

Dwn

jiin

rhin

S,

ox^

nbv

D,^v

I5V

etc.

:n^!ir)

etc.

etc.

etc.

T

:

nS:ix

;

T

n:ix^^^n

Sdx)!: T t; |T

i^!i2: T

ibiia T

Dpix: (t

pia It

N5fDtt t .
;

n^j23 t

.*

.

VII.— PARADIGMS
1
Preter.

OF

2
1
'

3
2

4
3

5
'3

6
'T
"I

Regular.
.

Gutt.

Gu«.

Gu«.

in it.

Sing. 3 m.
3f.
.

^^I'^nn
nSt^i'^nn

i»y.nri

^i;?nn

n^^nn

m^m
^

':'Si:irin

.

n^linn

nn^jnn

nSSi:inn
riT'.'pi^nn

2 m.
2f.
1
.

.

r>^,^pnn
^'^i2|":Dnn

^ o

nppnnn
ri^innn

pnknn
rin'p.jinri

.

rhhw^
'^h^"^^^^

com. '^^j2pnn

^npinnn T
.
1

^rin'p^nn
^n'p^nrr

Plur. 3

com
.

?iSt3|^nn

Hpmn
nThh)^r\n
i:nSSi^r>n
'li'p^^urin

2 m.
2f.
1
.

DriS^pnn
inSDi-^nn

Di^i^nnnrr

D;!in^^nn
!l?inS^nn
:

.

[j^iDninn
i-T

:

com. ^"h^pyyn^
,

:

1

'

Infinitive.

.

.

'^'^pnn

i^yrin

V^"^
liann
'51?nn

n'p^rin

m^nri

SSi^nn

Imperative.
Sing. m.
f
. . .
..

^i^i'^nn
^St^i'^nn

ni^S^nn
etc.

n^^nn m^r\r[
>nV^nn ^n^^nn
nin^:inn T
:

S'?i:irin
'hh'\^T)r^

.

.

Plur. m.
f
.

.

.

'^^\T\r\
n;^^;3pr\n

u-onn

etc.

hhmn
n^'pSi^r^n

.

.

.

i--

:

Present.
Sing. 3 m.
^'^^y)\
.

"i^j^r^'

^1?i?^.
"^i5ni!i

rh}n\

m}r\\

hb^^r^'

3f.

.

^^\^T}r\

n^^nn
nipjnn
etc.

SSiJinn
hh)^r^r\
'hh)^r)r\

2 m.
2f.
1
Pirn-.
.

.

^^pJ}i^

etc.

"^15^^
'?1?nri
"Tlinni^

.

'Wpr>n

^n^^nn
n'p^ni^
!in^_:in^.

com

.

%\^^^
t>\2\:i_r^\

bh'^^^^

3 m.

.

^^1?^-

hhm\
^i?^'^^^
^S^i^nri

3f.

.

.

njStspnn
^^i?i^nn

nj?n::nn

njni'^r^n
in^_:inri

2 m.
2f.
1
.

.

^^pJ)^
.

nippinn nin^^nn
"•^"15^^

njS^i^nn

com ni^tspnn

n^'^ni

^Suni

Participle.

.

StSpHX?

im^^

V^^^

^^^"^^

^^^^^

^^i^r^O

VERBS
7
'tiinit.

IX

HITHPAHEL.
8
''

9
or
't init.

10
h med.

11
??ierf.

12
In final

13
'n final.

init.

'^sxnn

niTinri

ntsinri

D^ipnn

nWnn

?d

o

t^:)

o

CD

^
^
p'

rippipnn

aq c^ p^

05 e^ p'

Oq

^mpipnn
Dj'^i/p/^ipnrT

jJTip^ipnn

S^xon
'p^xnn
etc.

n;r;:nri

nisTin

D^ipnn

piann

N^^nn

rfe^mn

n^r^nn
etc.

ntsTin
etc.

D/t?ipnn
^^pipflll
i;5:t5ipnn
etc.

'xv^nn

S^xn^

n?r:n:

n^in^

D^ipn^.

etc.

ect.

etc.

Dttlpfl^l

etc.

*to^ipnri

Dpipnx
i?:^ipn*

n;2:pipnn
iD^ipnri
r
:

I-

I

:

DDiprii

Sixn^

ne^'^nto

nis^nD

D2:iDnx3

pisri^

N5?^np

n'p^rijb

'

;

; ;

64

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

TABLE OF FRAGMENTS OF PRONOUNS AFFIXED TO VERBS.
Siyigular.

Form
1 pers.

for the Pret. Tense.

Forms

for the Pres.

com.

^1— 11—
"tJ

2 pers. masc. 2 pers.
fern.

,

in pause

^~ or "^~
1
. .

\T\-

or

nn1-

3 pers. masc.

"7,

or

3 pers. fem.
Plural.
1 pers.

nT
|V

I"

com.

^i-^id:)I"

....
Poet. 1J5IT

2 pers. masc.

2

pers. fem.

3 pers. masc.
3 pers. fem.

\?r D-, D-, IT
>

'

D— or D—

,

Poet. )ty

t7'lT

Fragments of Pronouns affixed to the Present Tense

WHEN preceded
Singular.

BY AN EpENTHETIC

NUN.
for

Plural.
for
,

lpers.com.
2 pers. masc. r 3 pers. masc.
3 pers. fem.

.

.

-^i-ZitI

*ii).:

'•:ii,

^3-

1^^-

.

.

'I

,

113
T

|v '


IV

for "^3 |v

'

HDJ T
:

|V

.

.

^3—

for inil— , 13

.

.

T\'^~ for

Hi—

Examples of the Third Person Singular of the Verb,

WITH
'•i'lD3
.

its

various AFFIXED PrONOUNS.
;

he visited
.

me
;

^3*11^3 ... us
. .

;

"yilDS
.

thee,
. .

masc.

thee, fem.

DI)*Tp3

.

yoii,
.
.

masc.
;

you, fem.
;

^rripiS, or contr.

^D^

or 1*1^3,
;

.

hint

nnDB
f.

.

.

her

D'lDS,

poet. i^]lj^3

.

.

.

them, m.

["IDS

.

.

.

them,

;;

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
Third pei'son singular Feminine.
^JH'lDi? she visited me, com.
;

65

linHpS
^,5r>"l)i?
.

.

.

.

us,

com.
;

;

|^ri*]D3

M«% m.V
you,
f.
;

"^Pll"^?

.

t^i<'<',

f-

;

.

.

you, m.

^rinnp3 or ^ri"lp5
. .

him
.

;

nJl'lpS or

pOlp?) nrinDB her
.
.

.

.

.

.

DHlpB

.

them, m.

;

|rilp3

.

.

thei7i, f.

Secotid person Masculine.
^jri'lpS)

thou visitedst me, com.

;

l^ri'lpi?

.

.

.

us,

com.

;

IHri^TpG
;

or iri'lpii ... hi?n;
. . .

nri"Tp3 ... her;

DJilpS them, m.

[riipB

them,

f.

Secotid person Feminine.
^f^r^lp? thou (fem.) visitedst me, com.
;

1JfTlp3
her;

.

.

.

us,
.

com.
.

;

5inWp3'or
m.
;

Vmp3
.

.

.

.

him-,

HWpa

.

.

.

DWp?)

.

them,

I^p1P3

.

.

them,

f.

First person Singidar, com.

Yp1|^3 /
you, masc.
;

visited thee,

m.

;

ytT\^^
;

.

.

.

thee,

f.

;

D^^^lHj^^)
.

.

.

.

p^f1*lp3
.

.

.

.

you, fem,
. .

^rT'^l^pS or VJTl'lpS

.

.

him

;

nmp?

.

.

her;

bmp3

them, m.;

'pmp3.

Third person Plural, com.
01*lp3 they visited me, com.
thee,
;

^i^"lpS)
.

.

.

.

us,
;

com.

;

"^'1'7|^5
. . .

m.

;

*^^1p3
. .

thee,
;

f.

;

D^^lpB
. . .

.

.

you, m.

jp^Tp^

you,

f.

^n^np2
iX:np3

.

him

T\X\0^
.

her

;

D^"1P$

them, masc, or poet.

;

|np3

.

^

tiJm, fem.

Second person Plural, com.
*^irTlp2 ye (com.) visited
.

.

.

him

;

r\)t^ljp$

.

.

.

her

;

me IJ^JJl'lpi in^ri1p3 us, com. D^HlpS pn*Tp3 them, masc.
;
. .

.

;

,

.

.

;

.

.

.

them, fem.

First person Plural, com.

^linpS
.
. .

tee
;

(com.) visited thee, m.
I5^:i1p3
. . .

;

"^^i^TPS thee,
.
".

f.

;

D^^i'lpS
".

you, m.
i

rjou,

f.

;

^H^inpS)'
f.

.

him

;

^)p^$'.

her

D^}lp$ themi m. ; P J"Ip$ them,

66

HEBREAV GRAMMAR.
Examples of the Present Tense with the affixed
Pronouns.
Third person Singular 31asculine.
'^yipSi]

he

visits
'

me, com.
'

;

^^'Ip^''
' '

.

.

.

tfs,

com.
'

;

''^*1P^^

• •

.

.

.

thee,
fern.
;

m.

;

X?p^''-

*^^^^' ^.
.

'

'

^5"^|t^-

y^^^'

^-

P*^P^. .

^^^^^

IHipS^ or ^lp^\
.

.

him; 'r\ip^\
;

or ^l\:i^\

I

her

;

Ulpii'

or poet. iDnpS'^

.

.

them, masc.
|
:

j'jlP^''.

them, fem.

A^^ith the
. ,

Epenthetic or Paragogic
^"IpS*
i.
.
. .

li'lpS''.
'visit
f.
;

he
;

visits him-,

Hi'lpS*

.

her;

thee

;

^^pS^

they

^^^X^^^. they find 'me,
"l^li^/**.

Pro v.
etc.

28

;

'n^^n'l^l they serve thee,

they take

him

;

From

the principles previously laid down, the learner will be

able to discover

how

the inseparable pronouns

may be

affixed to

the other paradigms.

I

ANALYSIS.

The
to

letter L., so frequently

found in the

first

chapter, refers to

Professor Lee's

Hebrew Grammar, 3rd
is

Edition.

The work

of Storr,

which reference
et

made,

is

entitled,

Storrii Observationes

ad

Analogiam

Syntaxin Hebraicam pertinentes.

Tubingae, 1779.

The

quotations from the Philologia Sacra of Glassius, are from the Edition

of Dathe, Lipsiae, 1776.

The

quotations from Rosenmuller's Scholia
in 1778,

upon the Old Testament, are from the Edition published and from the Abridgement published in 1828.

;

ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL INTERPRETATION.

1.

— Chap.
J^llU

i.

1.

n'*£?'X'n5 {Vre-shith^, at Jirst, in the

hcginning

comjjounded of (a) 3 a prep, m ith most of the meanings of the
Lat. prep. in.

Prof.

Lee understands
its

it

to

be a fragment of the
into.
S.

verb

to enter,

and makes

leading idea that of entering

L. Art. 174. Gr. 126.
(b)
a.

Gr. 126.

It is ordinarily

pointed with sWca, L. 174.

n^D'XI

contr. for

H^D^Nn L.

87. 5.

Gr. 50. 5

;

subs. fern,

frst

time, or state, beginning;
(Prof. Lee's Lex.)
"writer
;

opp. to nnHiSt last tm\e, or state, end,
the head.

from

^X1

The design

of the sacred

here appears to be to mark a period, antecedently to which

neither the heavens nor earth, nor the elements of

which they are

composed were
and though
it is

in existence.

The
it

expression

is

quite indefinite,

designed to shew that both the heavens and earth
a Creator,
affords

had a beginning and
tive,
2.

no information

as

to the

period at which the creation took place.

Accent, tiplikha disjunc-

upon the
^5|^^

last syllable,

according to the general rule, Gr. 29.

(ba-ra'), 3. sing.
;

m.

pret. kal, parad. 12.

1.

Created,

brought into existence

2.

formed, made,

constituted.

The most
idea

eminent HebreAV scholars are
creation out

now

of opinion that the

of

X*13.
fair

of nothing, cannot be shewn to be inherent in the word This idea, however, is deduced from it in this passage by
as

and legitimate inference,

may be shewn from

a great variety
viii.

of passages of Scrij)ture.

In particular see Ps. xc. 2; Prov.

26; Heb.xi.

3.

And

there cannot be a doubt that the Sacred

writer here intends to teach us, that

God

at first or in the

beginning

brought the heavens and the earth into existence by his creative and " One thing more " (to quote Prof. M. Stewart's sovereign power.
words)

"may

be

said, Avhich

is,

that if the

word ^"^ does not mean
\

2

ANALYSIS OF
this idea."

[Chap.

i.

to create, in tlie highest sense, then the

Hebrews had no word by
In
its

which they coukl designate
5<'l3 is equivalent to

secondary meaning,

H^J^ compare verses 26, 27.

See Prof.

M.

Stewart's Philological

View

of the

Modern Doctrines

of Geology

pp. 15 et seq. and Prof. Hitchcock's connection bctAveen Geology

and the Mosaic history of the Creation, pp. 24. munakh conjunctive on the ult. syllable.
3.

et seq.

Accent,

D^nS.SI (elo-Ium), written in

full D'HiSiS*

Gr. 34;

pi.

of HPiV}
root,

subs.

m. with kholem immtitable, Gram. 56.
is

The supposed
in Arabic,
is

which
1.

obsolete in

Hebrew but preserved
;

n?^.
sig-

worshipped, adored

2.

was astonished, confounded,
2. religious

'^w^

nifies

1.

toorship,

adoratmi;

fear, or dread-, and

by

met. the object of worship or adoration, or of religious fear or dread,
the

supreme being, God.

After the introduction of idolatry, this

word was used
true

to designate also false gods.
is

In designatmg the

God, the plural of this word

generally used, and construed
is

with a singular noun or verb;

this

what grammarians
According

call

the

pluralis excellentice, or pluralis majestaticus.

to

Heng-

stenberg, the plural form " calls attention to the infinite riches and

inexhaustible fulness contained in the one divine being." Dissert, on

the Genuineness of the Pentateuch, vol.
lation.

i,

p.

273

;

Pyland's Trans-

The pause

accent athnakh

is

on the

idt. syllable,

but without

any disjunctive

effect.

4. nt<J {eth), a particle

generally placed before a

noun which

is

the object of some verb in the sentence, and used aj)parently for the

purpose of pointing out that connection.
forms

It

appears in three different
Schroederus thinks

when connected with the pronouns, which

has arisen from the root's originally presenting the three cognate

forms

"^0*^!*'

^^*^3

^^^

^5^

^^ come-,

and coming, touching, as

it

respects, or the like, will give the exact sense of this particle.

L. 171.

11,12; and Lex. pp. 63, 64; see Accent, merka conjunctive.
5.

also Storrii Analogia, p. 263.

D^p^n

(Jiash-sha-ma-yim), comp. of the def.
this
77,

art. -H,

which
is

is

probably an abbreviation of the pron. N^H he,
in

man, and

used

much

the same

way
is

as the

Greek

article o,

ro.

Its derivation

from the pronoun

probable, from the analogy of the derivation
definite articles of

from pronouns of the

many

other languages, as

Vcr.l— 2.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
Italian, etc.

.

3

Greek, English, French,
ai-t. //,

The
le,

Italian

forms

its

def.

from the former, and the French
ille
;

from the

latter syllable

of the Latin pronoun

thus

il

re, le roi, the king.

See L. 180 (2),

Gr. 127.

See also another view adopted by Storr, " Analogia,"
et seq.

pp.118, 121,
latter

It is prefixed

with pathakh and dagesh, the
its

compensating for the absence of some of

original letters.
;

D^pti' a plur. form, the sing, of

which

is

obsolete
is

the heights,

heavens, the sky.
syllable.

The
a.

accent, tiphkha disjunctive,

on the penult,

Gr. 29.

6. nX'l (jc'eth),

comp. of the cop.

conj.

\

and

Hi;?

Xo.4.

The

\

is

probably a fragment of the imperative of n)^ connected, joined,
added,
heavens
etc.
^*!1^J0''•

^%W^
the earth,

^^^7 therefore signify literally, the
i.

add (or Join)

e.

the heavens a?id the earth. L.173.

It is generally

pointed with sh'va.

Gr. 125.

a.

Accent, merka

conjunctive.
'''•

]*1.^r|I

(ha-a-rcts), comi^. of H, see

No. 5; pointed with Ar/mefe

to

compensate

for the absence of the dagesh,
of.

which the guttural
Gr. 19, and 127.
;

letter ^5

does not admit

L. 109, and 180. 4.
T*'1{St

b.

And
form

T*'1.NI

euph. causa pro

a segolate of the (a) class

ground

p&.

L. 148. 4.

Gr. 104. 105. 106.

Subs.

fern.

Sansc. dhara;
Scot.
silluk

Pehlev. arta, from whence per metath. terra;
yird; Goth, airtha;

Germ, erde;
Pause accent,

Eng.

earth.

Ges. Lex.

on the penult.

Gr. 29. f.

8.— Ver.
7,

2.

pXH*!
7.

(vlia-a-rets),

comp. of ^

Nq

g^

n

Nos. 5 and

and

]*'nX

No.

Accent, r^hhiah disjunctive on the penult..

No. 7.
9.

nn^n

(ha-yHhah), 3 sing.

fern. pret.

kcd of fl^n ^vas, became,

parad. 13.

In the^rs^ verse the sacred writer gives an account of the original
creation of the heavens

and the

earth.

In the second he shews

that at some subsequent period, left quite indefinite, the earth be-

came waste and
describes
its

desolate.

In the third and following verses he
its

transformation into

present

state.

There

is

no

pluperfect tense in

Hebrew; but

the past, aided

by the

context,

marks the time, expressed by the pluperfect in other languages, with If the view just sufficient perspicuity though with less precision.
given
is

correct, the

Mosaic account of the creation

is

confirmed.

4
and not
inyaliclatocl,

ANALYSIS OF
by modern
geological discoveries.
ult. syllable.

[Cliap.

i.

Accent,

mcrka conjunctive upon the
10.

inn

(tho-hit'),

subs.
is

m. emptiness, a

icaste,

desolation.
desolate.

To

suit

our idiom this word
yr\T\.

rendered waste, empty,
2.

Contr.

for

L. 87.

2.

Gr. 50.

112.

No

dagesh lene in

T\,

Ground form ^HH. L. 152. 9. Gr. because preceded by T\, the last letter
Gr. 20.

of the foregoing word.
segolate

L. 109, et seq.

KnoTm
The

to

be a

by the

position of the accent.

Gr. 29. f.

accents are

pashtas disjunctive, that on the penult, being the tonic accent. Gr. 27.
11. ^n!2l
(^ca-hho-Jiu),
it

compounded

of the cop. conj.

1

pointed

with kamets, because
L. 173.
9.

immediately precedes a tonic syllable.

Gr. 125.

5.

in^
for

subs.

m. a

seg. of the (o) class, as the

preceding word, No. 10.

This word
it

is

almost spionpnous with

'^T\T\,

and
is,

is

comiected with

the sake of emphasis;

the meaning

completely icaste,

or desolate.

This

is

one of the methods adopted in the

Hebrew

language for expressing intensity of meaning, and for supplpng the

want of a particular form
is

for the superlative d.egree

;

and likewise

an example of what was stated in the Introduction, Part III., of

the poverty of the

Hebrew language
is

in adjectives.
syllable.
6,

The

accent,

sahepli Katon disjunctive,
12.

on the penult,
]

See No. 10.

^m)
is

(t'kho-shech), comp. of
class.

No.

and

^m

subs.

m.

darkness, a seg. (o)
disjunctive,
13.

L. 152.

Gr. 109.

The

accent, tiphklia

on the penult.

See No. 10.

"7^

(Ji<^tl),

originally a noiui, the
wV..

ground form of which

is

kQV- constr. plur.

ascent,

si/pen'ority;

verb H/J^ ascended.
S/qyeriority (in

Generally used

as a prep, above, upon, against, etc.
i.

reference to anything below),
III.,

e.

above

it.

See Introduction, Part

on the

svibjcct of the Prepositions.

No

accent hnt ?nakA-aph.

Gr. 33.
14. "03 Qj'we)

constr. of ^'^^^, Gr. 49, a plur.

form

;

face, counis

tenance, surface.

The

expression, tfpon the face of=tipon, over,
"v^Titers

a

Hebraism sometimes used by the
jiojndis

of the N.T., as in

Luke ii.

31, Kara irpoawirov ttuvtcov tmv Xacov; in
;

Acts

iii.

13,

Kara

-jrpoawiTov

Heb. ^^^7, coram omnibus TliXaToV, Heb. ''^S?, coram
See also Glass. Phil. Sacra

Pilato; and Acts xxv. 16, and xiii.24.


Ycr.
2.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.

5

Ed.Datlie. Can. 38, p. 107; and Leusden de Dialectis X.T., p. 162. Accent, munaJih conjunctive.
15. Diriil {th'hom), subs.

com. icater (in motion), the deep, the

mass of waters cii-cumfused around the globe, and which were not then distributed into oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and subterraneous receptacles. Bush, ui loc. Verb DIH to move. So
ocean.
vast

The

Eng. noun,

xcave; verb, to xoave.

No

dagesh lene in

T\,

see

No. 10.

Accent, athnakh disjunctive.
IG. D^nT'i:}
rit
n^'l'l

{c'ruakh ^lo-him), usually rendered,
it,

of God

\

but I prefer rendering
^

and the spiand a very great, or a mighty
subs. com.
1.

tcind.

n^l] comp. of
^-iii.

No. 5 and UT)

air in motion,

wind, see chap.

D^lp D^l east v:ind, Ps. xlviii. 7. T^T) TUl^ a great wind. Job i. 19. 2. Air inhaledinto the Imigs Ireath. 3. The spirit, soul, mind of man. 4. The Spirit of God. That the
1. is

rendei-ing here preferred

warrantable

is

beyond dispute.
is

TVi?id

is

the primary notion involved in the Avord H^l, which
brcAv

the only
is

He-

word by which
It

it is

expressed.
to

The

literal

meaning

icind

of God.
that the

must be known

every one acquainted Avith
to

Hebrew

words Hin^, 7^, D"?"!?^ are often added

nouns in the

construct state for the purpose of gi-ving

them

a superlative sense,

there being no superlative degree in HebrcAv formed in the same

way

as in

more modern languages;

thus, D''ri7{< N''b'^ a prince

of

God, a very great, or a mighty prince, Gen.xxiii. 6;
struggJings of God,
/^?""*1.1D
i.

D"*ri^{< ""^^J^^J
;

e.

very vehement, or violent. Chap. xxx. 8

and
very
tall

mountains of God, very high, Ps.xxx"vi. 7;
Ixxx. 11; and
T\^T\\ ""'iy trees

/J:^"'*]'."!^^

tall cedars, Ps. trees, Ps.civ.

of Jehovah, very

16; Hin^ H^l a icind of Jehovah, a very strong

wind
;

Isa. xl. 7.

lix. 19.

The same idiom
city great unto

obtains with the prejD.

7

thus,

^Tl^J^?
in the

T\T\'^

T'y a

God,

i.e.

as it is well

expressed

Auth. Vers., an exceedingly great

city,

Jon.

iii.

3; with Avhich
xil.

compare

acrreio? to5 0eo3, exceedingly beautiful. Acts
4:.

20;

and

The rendering here given of the words in question is not new. They are thus, AAith those immediately following, rendered in the Targum of Onkelos, N*,^ ^3X Sy Xntr;^ \\ Dng ^r\T\\ and a idnd from before

Sm/ara tw ©ew, exceedingly jnighty 2Cox.^.

p

(fromj Jehovah blew upon the face of the waters.

AinsAvorth, in his

Commentary

in loc. says,

"Later Jews (Avhom some Christians follow)


6

ANALYSIS OF
this a tcinde

[Chap.i.

expound

of God, or a mightie icinde-^'' to which rendering he objects, upon the ground that " icinde (which is the moving
of the aier) was not created
till

the second day, that the firmament
will not

was spred, and the

aier

made;" an objection which

have

much weight
The

in the present day.
is

following

the view taken of this passage

by the younger
H^l anthropo-

Rosenmiiller in the edition of his ScJiolia published in 1T88:
Q^^L'~n^'^')
I'entns

sjnravit super

aquam,

D''ri7X

pathica locutione,
occurrit

i.e.

venti(S,Q^\^ significatione

hoc vocabulum etiam
vertunt irvev^a Qeov,
p. 13, ed.
ti]v

Num. xi.

31, Exod. xv. 10.

LXX.

ad quae vocabula bene Thcodoretus (Quaest.viii.
Ttcrl 8oKel TO Travdyiov TTvevfia

Halens).

^cooyovovv

twv vharoov

^vaiv

akrjOearepov

fjbev

rot eKelvov olfiat rov \6yov, OTt to Trvevfxa evravda

rov aepa KaXel, i.e.

Quihusdam videtur fuisse

vivificahat et foecundahat

aquarum

naturam —
Sensus

sph'itus sanctus, qui

verius

autem puta-

verim, quod hie aerem vocet spiritum.

igitxu;

versuum hie est. terrarum orbem

Deus
attinet,

est creator universi

horum duorum quod autcm hunc

quem nos homines incolimus, fuit ejus Fuit enim conditio aliquando cliversa ab ea quam nunc habet. aquis obtecta, et nullo modo habitationi hominum et animaliiun Haec verborum Mosis interpretatio rei naturae optime conapta.
venit.

In interioribus enim terrae multa vestigia vetustioris

et

diuturnioris

cujusdam
Si terra

inundationis

deprehenduntur,

quam

ilia

Noachica

fuit.

enim

effoditur, varia reperiuntur strata, se

mutuo excipientia, quoriun alia ab aliis longe sunt diversa, et eo quidem ordine, ut saepius levioribus graviora sint imposita quae
;

satis

arguunt terram in interioribus suis

magnam

olim mutationem

subiisse."
critic

At

the

commencement of verse
himself — " Nunc
:

3, the

same learned

thus expresses

porro refert Moses quo-

modo Deus eundem terrarum orbem
verit,

transformaverit vel renovaut

oimiibusque rebus
et

ita instruxerit,

commodum

domicilium

hominibus
is

animalibus esse possit."

The justness
at

of these views

remarkable, considering the period
viz. the spirit

Avhich the author wrote.

The ordinary rendering,
most part given under

of God, has been for the

different views of the
;

meaning of the

first

and second verses of

this chapter

but that rendering certainly ap-

pears to be less consistent with the whole scope of the second verse

Ver. 2—3.]
than that wliich

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
is

7
the

here adopted.

The wind sweeping over
and
" and
its

abyss heightens the idea of the dreariness and desolation of the
earth, then indeed " a waste-hoM'ling wilderness ;"
effects

may

have been preparatory to the separation between land and

water, described in verse 9.
a icind
fess I

Compare chap. viii.
is

1,

God made

H^l

to pass

over the earth, and the waters assuaged." I con-

cannot understand what

meant by the

spu'it

of

God moving

upon

the face of the waters, amidst darkness, drearmess, and de-

solation.
17. 18.

Accent, mitnaJih conjunctive.
see

Cii/X
3.

No.

3.

Disjunctive accent, sakeph katon.

nSn^D

{rn'ra-khe-pheth), fern. sing. part. piJu of tjn'l parad.
19.

2 and

See Gr. 11,

Only used here,

in Deut. xxxii. 11,
et

and

Jer. xxiii. 9.
et flandi,

Motendi, palpandi, mtremiscendi, indeque

volandi

notiones quas verbo dare solent, egregie fateor aptas,
;

tribus

locis

praeiveruntque ex veteribus.

Gen.

i.

1.

LXX.,

Aquila, Symmachus, Tlheo&.Yvl^QX^i, ferehatur ;
ritanus, uterque Ai-abs, Jlahat."

Chaldaeus, Sama-

Michaelis, Supp. ad Lex. Heb.

sub voc.

The

first

two verses, according
:

thus translated
the earth.

— " In the beginning, God created the heavens and
desolate,

to the foregoing views,

may be

But the earth became waste and

and darkness

(was) upon the face of the deep, and a mighty wind
the face of the waters."

moved upon
tiph-

This word being of the segolate form, the accent, whieh
klia disjunctive, is

is

upon the
and
14.

penult, syllable.

Gr. 29.

a.

and f.

19.

^J3"7j^ see 13

Accent, merka

conjunctive.

D^Dn (Jiam-ma-yim), comp. of -T] No. 5. D^D m pause for D^p Gr. 31.; xcater, waters, a noun masc. plur. not used in the sin20.

gular.
21,

Pause accent,
3.

silluk

on the penult,

Gr. 29.

a.

— Yer.
(T.),

*1^X*T (vay-xjo-mer),

and

said,

comp. of ) cop.

conj.

Pointed before presents of verbs with pathakli and dagesh forte.
Gr, 125.
for

and

^lO^**

ii^

consequence of the removal of the accent
30.
h.

l^X^ Gr.

9. 10.

and

3 pers. smg. m, pres. kal of n^^5

said, parad. 7.
lutely,

This verb here expresses present time, not absothe

but relatively to

time of nn^Pl

preceding.

See

this subject discussed in a philosophical and very able

manner by

'8

ANALYSIS OF
See also a
entitled

[Chap.i.
treatise ujioii tlic

Prof, Lee, Gr. Art. 231, et seq.

He-

brew

tenses

by the same author,

"An

Examiiaation of the

Grammatical Principles of Prof.
accent
is

Yon

EA\ald of Tubingen."
Gr. 30.
jilur. in
h.

The

merka conjunctive on the penult.
No. 3.
This word, though
the verbs

22. D"*n7X see

form, docs not

generally alter the

number of

and nouns connected
reference
is

with

it,

see chap. xx. 13, excepting

when

not

made

to the true

God.
{if hi), let there he, 3 sing.

23.

^T\\

m. pres.
''TV,

Jcal

apoc. of
2.

H^n was,

parad.l3.
\*l?

The

full

form

is

m\,

apoc.

L.T4.

Gr. 37.; and

Gram. 114.

These apocopated forms, savs Prof. Lee, are often

used for the purpose of expressing command, prohihition, exhortation, ^fishing ,

forbearance, and the
T\

lilce.

See
|

liis

Gram,

Ai't.

233

;

and

liis

doctrine of the

paragogic, and

epenthetic, in Aits.

234, 235.
24.

Accent, munaJch conjunctive,
{or'),

IIX

subs, m., once

f.

light.

Accent, athnalh disjunctive,
"•PTJ

25. '^'iy^{va-y''hi),and was ,covci-^. of l,see21,and

No. 23. The

pathaJch here

is

long by position, a dagesh being implied in the yod.
is

The dagesh
Euphonic

forte

probably omitted here, owing

to the difficulty
it.

of the enunciation oiyod doubled with sh^va under
accent, metheg, L. 127, 2.;

Gr. 125.

7.

and mahkaph, Gr. 33,

26. ^1?^ see 24.
27.

Accent,

silliik

disjunctive.
•\

—Ver.

4.

NT^
HJ^'H'!,

(vay-yar),

and saw, comp. of
eiiphoniae

No. 21, and
form of 3
Gr. 115.

3 sing.

in. ajioc. pres.

kal of nX"! saic, parad. 13;
apoc. Nl*!,

full

sing. pres.

kal

causa

5^*1^

Accent, darga conjunctive.
28.

niXn-HiS

(eth-ha-or), tMi for

HX

No.

4,

on account of the

removal of the accent.

Gram.
^^,

9. 10.

The

article
;

H

pointed with

kamets before the guttural
Accent, tiphkha disjunctive.
29. "^3 (ki), quod, that,
is

Nos. 5 and 7

and ^1N No. 24.

probably a contracted form of *15

Gr. 35, see

Isa.

iii.

24

;

the imperative of the obsolete ri13 or 11^3

burned, branded, marked, and signifies mark, with the view of
exciting attention to something following.

See Prof. Lee's Lex,

Dr. Gesenius traces

a similarity

between

this

word and the

Sanscrit

x^\7A\\e , jas , ja , jat , for qas, etc.

Interrogative, kas, ka, ki)n; Lat,

.

Vcr.3— 5.]
qui, quae, quod.
maJiJiajjh.

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
See Lex.

9

Accent

^vitlldl•aA\^^

on account of the

Gr. 33.

30. iitO (tohJi), originally an abstract
as

noun, goodness,

now used
Gr. 58.

an adjective, good;

fern. il^lD.

Kholem iminoveablc.

Accent, athnaJih disjunctive.
31.
tion,

7^5*5 {cay-yahh-dcl), and made or caused
-5

division, or separa-

comp. of

No. 21, and

^"11!, contr. for

S'^nDV L. 73. Gr.
;

35.

7^1^, 3 sing. m. pres. Hipli. of 7*1^ obsolete parad. 1. Accent, munakh conjunctive. Note. The tenses which express time relatively, are translated here according to the Engl, and not according to the Heb. idiom.
apoc. from

32.

r3

{hen^,

heticeen,

const,

form of

j^!3,

Gr. 113;

interval,

separation, translated into our

idiom by the prep,

heticeen.

It is

found, with other words, in the singular and plur. constr. forms,

and

also in the fcm. plur.

:

as,

"'^''S

separation (as regards) me,

heticeen

me;
;

^^''^''S

heticeen us;

DHi^''!? heticeen

them;

Xl^T^^l

hetween us

vid. inf.

No. 2119.

See Introduction, Part. III., on the
L. 171.
9.

subject of the prepositions.

The vowel

is

immutable.

Gr. 64.

Accent, merka conjunctive.

33. p^5^ (u-hhen),

the labial

^2.

and heticeen, comp. of cop. conj 1, pointed ^ before Accent, merka conjunctive, L. 173.4. Gr. 125.(2.)
.

34. "^^'nn (Jia-kho-shech),
it

comp. of

def. art. H, the jKithakh

under

being long by position before H, which does not admit of dagesh

forte, Gr. 19;
35.

and "^^H ^o.

12.

Accent, silluk on the penult.
(i>^(^

—Ver.
pr.

5.

{^"Ip*! {i^(iy-y^J^-'>'^i),

called,

comp. of
1.

'\

No. 21,

and

J^'^pi

3 sing. m. pres. kal of J^"lp parad. 12.

cried, Kpd^ecv,
(v. N'^D),

verbum
cf.

onomatopocticum, de
(Kpar/),

bestiis
;

etiam usurpatum
in Unguis

Gr.

KpcO^o)

Krjpvaaw {Krjpvy)

Germ, charen

clamare,

cliaro

clamor, fletus, ssepius de clamore bestiarum, ut

krd/ien, krachzen;

GaU.
;

crier;

Angl.

to

erg; prsmisso sibilo skreian;

Suec. skria, schreien
Scot, skreigh.

see Ges. Lex.
3.

So

also

Engl, screech, and
is

2. called.

named.

The

accent

not affected by

the

'\,

the penult, syllable being impure.
lit.

Accent,

kadma

conj

36. "lii^/ (la-or),

to the light,
:

day;" « acclamavit Deus luci
called ncunes to all,

chap.

ii.

"and God called to the light "S^? T\'\'!2'P J^^lp*!) and he dies." 20 kol ixaXeaev 6 0eo9 rS (jicoTC
;

10
Vtiepav,

ANALYSIS OF
Theod.

[Chap.i.

^^'^
1;26, a.

contr. for ll^^n?, L. 73. Gr. 35.

Comp. of
No.
24.

7, a particle, to, for, L. 171. 7.

Ordinarily pointed with sli'm,

L. 174.

3.

Gr.

T\

def. art.

No. 5 and 7;

and

"liX

Accent, pashta disjunctive.
37.

DV

{yoni), day, subs.

m.

Accent, sahepli haton disjunctive.
lit.

38. '^vi'nS (v'la-kho-shech),

and

to

the darkness

;

contr. for

"Tpnrhx conip. of 1, before another sh'va 1, L. 173. 3. Gr. 125, a. 1. The article T\ is absorbed, and its vowel attached to the 7. See
No. 36
;

see likeAvise

No.

34.

Accent,

tijyhlcJia

disjunctive,

upon
See

the penult.

See No. 10.
3 sing.
ni.

39. ^5'^p^ (ka-ra), called-,

pret. kal, parad. 12.

No.

35.

Accent, munakh conjunctive on the penult., because the

penult, syllable of the
accent.

word immediately

folloAving bears the tonic

L. 120.

40.

ri7V

(la-y'lah), ntylit,

comp. of 7 v, ground form
;

7V

Avith
this

n—

,

parag.

H/ V,

in pause

H/ V

in regard to the

form of

word, see Gr. 113.

As
a.

to the

change of the vowel in consequence
Accent, athnakh disjunctive.

of the pause accent, see Gr. 31.

See

No. 20, and Gr. 29,
41. \T1., see

Nos.21, 23, and 25.

42. I'ly (Jie-rehh), ei-ening, subs. m. a segolate of the (a) class.

From
this

the notion of mixture involved in most of the derivatives of
it is

word,

probable that

it

contains the same idea, and em-

braces that period of the night

when

the light and darkness

become,

as

it

were, intermixed.
Gr. 29, y*.

Accent, merka conjimctive upon

the penult.

43. *n^l, see 41, etc.
44.

^pl

(hho-ker), morning,
;

lit.

opening (of day)

;

see
at

yM and 1^^ opened, cleft
sun
biu'sts

morning being the period
Gr. 20.

^p^, cog. which the
class.

out from below the horizon.

Subs. mas. seg. (o)

Gr. 105, et seq.

No

dagesh lene in

'2,

Accent, tiphkha

disjunctive on the penult.

See No.

7.
is

45. "inj^ (e-had^, one; the cardinal

here used instead of the

ordinal,

as

unus for primus in Latin.

Mas.

constr. "iHi!?,

fem

f^in^5

contr. nnj^-

In

all

these cases, the vowels under the
ult. syllable.

N

are

long by position.

Accent, silluk on the

Ver. 5—7.]
"

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
intclligendum naturalcm, neque vero

11

Diem

plurium sive

clierum, sive aunoruni spatiuni, vix disertius

declarari potuit hac

formula."

Ros.
"I^t^*^,

46

.Yer. 6.

see
h.

No.

21.

Accent, munahh conjunctive

on the penult.
47. 48.
("svith
\'l^,

Gr. 80,
23.

No.

Accent, merka conjunctive.

J?^'^'^

(ra-ki<^h), expanse, sub.

m.

f.

yp"! beat, struck, stamped

the feet), expanded (by beating);

hence ^^^T) something

beaten out, expanse.

This word is rendered by the

LXX.
is

ajepewixa,

from

its

supposed firmness and strength, which idea

involved in

the roots, in the cognate languages;
Jirynament.

hence the English word

The Heb.

gives intimation of form, the

Greek of
tiplilcha

strength and solidity.
disjunctive on the ult.
49.
"^inill

The

patliahh

is

furtive.

Accent,

(bHlioch), in the

midst
^Jjin.

of,

comj). of
9.

% No.
87.

1,
1.

and TjlH
Gr. 112.

const, of Tj^n,

ground form

L. 148.

and

and

50.

1.

The middle,

the midst.

Accent, munahh conjunctive.

50. 51.

D^^n, see No, 20.
'•n"'')

Pause accent, athnakh on the penult.
comp. of
"1

(vi-hi),

and

let there be,

and

V"!^,

see Nos. 23

and 24;
52.

contr.

'*rT'V

Gr. 125.

3.

Accent, mcrka conjunctive.
contr. for

7"''1I1^ (^mabh-dil),

id quod dicisionem faciat,
part.

/Hliri^, Gr. 35.

Hiph.

m. of 713, No. 31.

Accent, sakeph

katon disjunctive.
53.

D^p/

(Ict-'ina-yim),

lit. 171

reference to the tcaters;

comp. of

7, particle

to,

in reference

to,

see

No. 36, pointed

Avith

kamets bee.

fore the tonic accent immediately preceding. L. 174.6. Gr. 126.

Pause accent,
54.

silluk
£J^y*5

on the penult. See 20.
{vay-ya-has),

—Ver

7.

and made, comp. of
kcd of

\,

No. 21;

and

SiJ^y^^.

3 sing. m. apoc. present;
full,

H^ made, parad. 13;
Accent, mw/mA-A con7.

and second, in

nti'pV

L. 74.

2.

Gr. 37.

junctive on the penult., this being a segolate form, No.
55. y/p'^riTli^ {eth ha-ra-kio-h),'T\^,

No. 4, the vowel shortened
Gr. 9, and 10.

in consequence of the withdi'awal of the accent.

n

def. art.

pointed with kamets before

*1,

which

is

regarded

as a

guttural, see

No. 7. Vp'^ No. 48.

Accent, segolta disjunctive on

the

ult.

;

; ,

12
56.
57. 58.

ANALYSIS OF
7^5*^ See No. 31.
rill

[Chap.i.

Accent, r'67«« A disjunctive.
Accent, malipacli conjunctive.
disjunctive, that

{hen^.

No.
20.

32.

D^^n No.

Accents, pasJitas

on the

penult, being the tonic accent.
59.
'Ik^'^t (°57ier),

Gr. 27.
he, vJio, that which,

relative

pronoun

what,

common to every gender and number.
7'^bhi°h disjunctive.

L. 177.

Gr. 101.

Accent,

Kote.

— The student will observe, that
'^^i^

to

complete the construction

according to our idiom, the substantive verb must be understood

between

and the following
-4.

Avord.

See the same

ellipsis in

verses 2, and
60.

nnriD

(^mit-ta-khath),

lit.

fro))i
1^'

under (in reference
|^, the

to the

expanse or fii'mament), comp. of

a

fragment of

ground
and
Gr. 123.

form of which
part, portion
,

is

j)robably ^^^, signifjdng cutting
as a prep,

off, ditision,

commonly used

from.

L. 172,

2.

nn,'? originally a subs, of the seg. form, {a) class, infei'ior part

likewise used as a prep, trader, beneath

;

ground form

riHrl,

with

an

affix

IPHri,

lit.

inferior place (in regard to) him, below hitn.

Gr. 105,106.

Accent, munakh conjunctive on the penult.

No. 7.

61. y^p"^*? {la-ra-kiah), contr. for

Tp'^H^.

Gr.35, comp. of 7,
V-'^'Q"]

and the No. 48.
62.

def. art.

"il

with kamets before 1 see No. 36, and

Accent, sakeph haton disjunctive.

7^?^ {me-hcd),

from

abate, comp. of -^

guttural letter b.

L.172.4.

Gr. 123

^..

No. 60, before the and ^j; No.l3. Accent,

munalch conjunctive.
63.
JI3

(chen>),

lit.

reality, certainty ;

hence the concrete being
Plur.
'Dt^'l'^

used
chap.
as

for the abstract, substantial, true, right.
xlii. 11.

2>rohi

p''*r'^5 (^^(i it ^^'^^^ right,
it

rightly (done), done exactly

God commanded, and

was

so.

No

dagesh lene in the D, the
Gr. 20.

preceding consonant being one of the
accent, silluk.
64.

'•IIIK letters.

Pause

—Ver.

8.

5<^p*l See

No.

35.

Accent, darga conjunctive.

65. J^"'p'^7 -^°- ^^-

Accent, tiphkha disjunctive.
D',^^, See Nos. 5, and 20.

66. D.'^^^ in pause for

Accent,

athnakh disjunctive on the penidt.

No.

5.

Vcr.T— 10.]
GT. ITi? see

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
Xo. 42.
Xo. 44.
Pause accent,
silliih.
^

13

68. njpn see

69. ''^^ (she-ni^, second.
70.
^IW**,
"Ip,

— Ver.
L. 76.

9.

^11^*.

(i/i/c-ka-vu), let be

gathered together, contr. for
of T^^D, ^larad. 13, root
out,
Ij^

Gr. 39.

3

pi. pres. 7iiph.

or

ground form Hip,
line,

subs.

m. a thing stretched
line, 3.

a

line,

a cord,

1.

a measuring

2.
1.

a boundary

a

limit',

from hence the

verb nip derives

the

meaning oi looking for, hoping, implying
2.

a stretching of the eyes or mind to distant objects,

that of bringing

within limits, collecting, gathering together or the like: the

word

is

here used imperatively.
71. "7i;? {el^,

Accent,

hadma

conjunctive.

which on the removal of the mahhaph, and on the
becomes
Gr.
7^{ Gr. 9, 10; originally a

restoration of the accent,

noun
to

of the ground form
constr. forms

H /K

art.

37

;

and

is

still

found in the
be

both sing, and plur.

Its

primary idea seems
It is

that of
as

motion towards any person,
signifying
to,

j)lace, or thing.

now used

a

prej:).

towards, into;

and when the motion
infra,

towards
72.

is

with a hostile purpose, against, see
(ma-honi), subst. m. place,
lit.

Xo. 470.
Root

Slp^

where one stands, place
17.

(of standing).

Lat. statio a stando, existendo. L. 157.

D^p

to

stand, see Prof. Lee's. Lex.

Accent munahh conjunctive.

73.

^X\^ see 45. accent saheph-haton, disjunctive.
(li^'in*!

74.

{pHhe-ra-eh^,

and

let

appear, comp. of cop. conj.

\

and

ri^^t'nn

3. sing.

fem. pres. niph. of HJj?^

saw

pret. niph. HX'!^

teas seen appeared,

paradigms.

2, 3. 13.

Accent, tiphklia disjunc.
-il

75.

n^2l*n (hay-yab-ba-shaJi), comp. of

clef. art.

and n^'S^

the dry (land), a fem. form. Lat.
xxiii. 15. opp.
77

aridum ; Gr.

97

^r^pd,

to ^rjpov ]Matt.

doKaaaa; forma
teas

intensiva, See. Prof. Lee's

and

Dr.Ges.Lex. verb ^1^ see ver. 10 and Xo. 36.
76.

dry; and

n^5*S

contr. for

Mg'J^nS
the fol-

Accent, athnakh disjunctive.

\T'TS% Xos.

23. 24.

and

63.

In the

LXX. there
iiScop
?}

is

lowing addition after
ovpavov eh
77.
to.^

|5~\'°T'l

Ka\ Gvvr]y6rj to
OJCpOrj

to vTroKUTw tov

avvaycoya^ avTOJV Kal

^rjpd.
"1

—Ver.
3.

10. HIpXp?^ (u-rmik-reh),

comp. of

before shhrt

)

L. 173.

Gr. 125.

Land

9,

and Hlp^

constr.

form of D^.pO Gr. 96.

subs.m., collection, from HJp, Xo. 70.

Accent, merka conjunctive.

14

ANALYSIS OF
78. D**^^ {Ttjam-mim), seas, plur. abs. of DJ constr. Ul

[Chap.

i.

ground form

PO! verb D^), cogn. Hpil raged, roared.
junctive.
79. X"!*!

Accent, athnakh dis-

No.

27.

Accent, merha conjunctive.
silluk disjunctive.

80. iiD"^3 Nos. 29, 30. Accent,
81.

—Ver.

11. t^^"iri (tad-she'), 3 sing. fern. apoc. present hiph.

of ^^"^

teas,

hecame, grassy, in

hijih.

sent forth

young grass
let

;

full

form X''^nri used here in an imperative sense,
j)arad. 12.

bring forth,

Accent, mahpach conjunctive.

82. KtJ^^. (de-she), grass, subs.

m. segolate.
7.

Accent, sakeph haton

disjunctive, on the penult.

No.

In hoc commate quicquid emittit terra in
ditur.

tres veluti classes divi-

1.

Tenera herba sine semine saltem conspicuo.
est,

semen profert majorque
tinentur.
83.

2.

Quae

3.

Arbores sub quibus arbusta con-

Eos.

^i^y (he-sehh), subs. m. seg. herha adultior, the larger de-

scription of herbs, including vegetables, suitable for

human

food.

See verse 29, and No. 82.
nult.

Accent, yHluhh disjunctive on the pe-

No.

7.

84. 5?^"^!^ (inaz-rM}'), producing, seeding,

yielding

seed;

part.
to

Hiph. of
soiv
;

y"!?

parad. 3 and 4, soloed;

pret.

Hiph. ^11(1 caused

jiart. J?''1in^, contr. J^HT^. L. 73. Gr. 35.
viii.

See similar forms
;

of expression in chap.

21

;

chap, xxvii. 3

and chap,

xxviii.

20

;

where such expressions
(ze-raJi), subs.

are used as smelling a smell, hunting a

hunting, vowing a vow.
85.
J^^ll

Accent, munahh conjunctive.

m.

seg. (a) class

with pathakh under the
is

second radical.
the

Gr. 106, seed.

The

jjhrase here

rendered by

LXX.
7.

(TTretpov airepfia.

Accent, sakeph katon on the penult.

No.

86.

ry

(hets), subs.

m. a
;

tree.

The cognate Arabic word
Accent,
;

sig-

nifies haculus, OS (ossis)

Gr. o^o^, a bough, and 6(tt€ov
wi?02a/i7i

(Sanscr.

asthi); 87.

I^a.t.

hasta.

Ges. Lex.

conjunctive.

n$

(jt>'r?'),

subs.
;

m. from rTl3

Sanscr,

Mn;

Gv.
;

(f^epo)

;

Lat.

fero ; Engl,

to

bear

Goth, bair-an

;

Germ.

ant. b'aren

Ges. Lex.

From hence
carried in the
fruit,

the Scottish

word
the

bairn, a child, because borne or
(fruit);

womb.
^'IB

To bear

hence

'''13

anything borne,

and |D5

what

womb

bears, fruit

of the womb

;

Vcr.lO— U.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
^5
No,
23.

15

n3

]*J^

a tree of fruit, fruit tree; ground form

Ac-

cent, frashoj/im disjunctive.

nt^ (Jio-seh^, mali)ig, hearing, the phrase is rendered See also Matt. iii. 8. Part. act. kal. the LXX. TTOLOvv KapiTov. nj^ made, parad. 13. Accent, xftliihh disjunctive.
88.

in

of

89.

'•'13

No.

87.

Accent, pashta disjunctive.
its

90. 13'*2P7 {rmi-no), aecording to

kind, or species

;

Dathe reno/jLoioTrjTa.

ders the expression varii generis, the

LXX.
1**^

add Kad'

Comp.

7 and the pron.
of

to,

according
affix

to.

No. 36, and
1.

sub. m. kind, species,

3 sing. m.
is

Gr. 99.

Ahhough
affix,

the accent,

sa/ceph katon disjunctive,

transferred to the

there

is

no

change in the vowel. Gr. 58.
91.
1^"1J^*;iT "it'i^^

("sher zar-ho hho),
in itself.

lit.

tchich its seed in

it (it-

self), ichose

seed

is

This

is

a characteristic distinction

between
relative

fruit

and vegetables.

Prof.

Lee

is

of oj)inion that the
sort of subordinate

pronoun, in such cases
absolute.''^

as this, is

"a

nominative

According

to this vicAV, the
to lohicli,

be, according to the
itself.

Hebrew
J^'lT,
1.

idiom, as

rendering would
its

seed

(is)

in

L.216. 13.

Accent, merJ:a conjunctive.
a seg. of the (a) class.
(5)

(«) 1^*]!

comp. of

Vr^X,

ground form of
pronominal
affix
1.

No. 85, Gr. 106.
1,

And
pron.

affix

Gr. 99.

1^ comp. of

5 prep. No.

and

Gr. 99, and 20.
12.

Accent, tipTikha disjunctive.

92.—Ver.
to

NVI^l

{vat-to-tse),

comp. of

^l

No. 21, and X^fW 3
out, in hij^h.

sing. fern. apoc. pros, hijjh. of 5^^^ or J*{^5

went

caused

go out produced, parad. 8 and 12.
,

Accent,

kadma

conjunctive.

93. ^rii\tD7 iVmi-ne-hu) after

its

hind, comp. of
affix
1,

7 and ^^ No. 90,
Accent, sakeph
{!)).

and

^n..

,

another form of the pron.

Gr. 99.
Gr. 29

katon disjunctive on the penult., L. 117. 2.
94. ""K^^S^ {smi-shi),

m. third ri^^hp and r\'ph^

fern,

from

l^/i^ three.
95.

Accent, siUuk disjunctive.
14.

—Ver.

m^5Q

'•H^ let

there he lights,
it,

i.

e.

luminaries.

The

verb here, and noun connected with
if it

are of different numbers, as
i.

were said in Latin,

sit

luminaria,

e.

existat res,

nempe lumiait

naria. Ros.

Somewhat
and
it

similar are the

French phrases, QuiHy

des lumieres,

y a des hommes.

With

the exception of the

10

ANALYSIS OF
all

[Chap.

i.

3 pers. sing, prct., verbs in
pres.

the persons and

numbers of the

and pret. tenses have nominatives in the prefixed or postfixed pronouns, and the apparent nominative maybe said to be a nominative
absolute, or in apposition ^vith the nominative involved in the verb.

See Prof. Lee's Gr.
L. 72. Gr.
3-1.

art.

216.— (r/)

rr\ikf2 written in full flhiis*^.

Plui-.

of l)i^f2, which has likeAvisc

DniXD
Accent,

m.

fluit

tchich gives light, a luminary; root *11K

No.

24.

Penult, vowel of

^IXD mutable
conjunctive.
96.
J?''p.'°}3

ult.

immutable.

Gr. 57. 63. 74.

kadma

(hir-ki'^h), in the

expanse of; comp. of
3.

5

prep, before
V_''p1,

the following

sh'm
No.
48.

3.

L. 174.

Gr. 126
for the

(i).

and

constr.

form of

Ji^'*p'^

The reason

change of the vowel,

the same as in the case of the preceding word, the penult, being

mutable, the
97.

ult.

immutable.

Accent, munakh conjunctive.

7n5n7
inf.

(I'hahh-dil), to malce a separation,

comp. of 7 prep,

and Snnri

hiph. of ^'^^ parad.

1.

See Nos. 31 and 52.

Ac-

cent, saJxeph gadol disjunctive.

98. Vni, (vlia-yii),

lit.

comp. of

\

cop. conj.

and let them he, i. e. that they he, or serve, and 3 plur. pret. kal of 11^11 was, parad. 13.
is

Dr. Lee thinks the pret.

in such cases used instead of the im-

perative for greater emphasis. See his doctrine

upon the sequences

of the tenses, in his
particularly the

Gram.

art.

231, 7, 8, et seq., and 233, 3, and
of page 349, quoted from
III.,

example

at the top

Exod. xxix.

1-3.

See also Litroduction, part

on the subject

of the tenses.

Accent, mahpach conjunctive.

99. ^l^l^57 {Vo-thoth^,

for

signs,

conij).

of 7 pi'ep., and flHS*}

contr. for ninii^ Gr. 34, plur. of niJ^ a sign, table, Gr. 58.
stars,"

marh, vowel immu-

"And

there shall be signs in the sun, moon, and

Lukexxi.25.

Accent, 2Jashta clisjimctive.
e.

100. D'*"iy.1p7^ (^u-rmo-hf^dini),for 2)e7'iods, i.

for

marking stated
fasts,

periods of time, or seasons, such as the seasons of the year,
feasts, or other religious solemnities.

Pos. states that this passage
:

has been rendered by some interpreters as follows
statis

sint in signa

tam

temporibus,
^

quam

diebus et annis.
sh''va.

Comp.
1,

of

"l

conjunct,

jiointed

before the following

Gr. 125.

and 7 prep., and

D'*"iyii} plur.

of ny.1^ an appoi?ited time, or period of time, from

Vor.

14— in.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
iilt.

17

I'jll

or l^l) pointed out, defined,

vowel moveable, penult, imkafo)?,

moveable.

Gr. 57. 75.

Accents, munalih and sakeph Gr. 27.
of

the

latter is the tonic accent.

101. D'^p^T'^

(H-rya-mim), and for days, comp.
plur. of

^,

7 see

No.

100,

and D^p^,

DV, contr. for

DW

L. 73, and Gr. 35,

Accent, fiphlJia disjunctive.
102.
Dl^lti^"! (i'''s/ia-ni/n),

and

years, comp. of
pi.

1.,

and plur. of

HJ^
sc.

fem. a year, another form of the

Hl^ti'-

Proprie iteratio,

cursus

solis,

vel

commutationum temporis, ut

veris, messis, hiemis.
eVtai^ro?.

Confer Lat. annus quod proprie orbem notat. Gr. Lex.
103.

Ges.

Accent, siUaJc disjunctive.

—Ver.

15.

VHI

(c'ha-yii),

and

he,

or serce,

see

No.

98.

Accent, malipaeli conjunctive.
104. ri1*lk^7 {lim-o-roth^, for lights, luminaries, comp. of
7,

pointed 7 before

sJi'ca.

Gr. 126.

h.

See No. 95, and 96.

Accent,

2)ashta disjunctive. 105.
J2'*l'r?15

(bir-ki^^Ji),

see 96.

Accent, munalxli conjunctive.

106. ^''Xri7 (l^ha-ir), to give light.

This

is

another use of the

luminaries referred to in verse 14,

viz., to

give light to the earth.
to

Comp. of 7
hiph.
to

prep.,

and

inf.

hiph. of ^^^{ in kal.

become

light, in

give light, parad. 10,

and

2.

Accent, tiphhha disjunctive.
''^P

107.— Yer.

16. ^^iSJ^'n^ (eth-sh'ne), tico, as to "Hi^ see 28.

construct form of D^^^-

In Heb. the n^imerals are substantives,

in Latin they are likewise occasionally so, as trias, decas; in
triad, decad.

Eng.

Gr. 49, and 128. L. 181.

Accent,

w^«V);rt

conjunctive.

108. n>S*^ri

comp. of

art.

-H

and HhN*^ No.

95.

Accent,

tiphhlia disjunctive.

109.

D vliiri

(Juig-g''do-lini),
i.

lit.

the great,

i.

e.

as

respects the
to this

other luminaries,

e.

two greater

lights.

In regard

mode
plur.

of forming the comparative degree, see Introduction, Part III.

Comp. of n
D''

art.,

and masc.
73.

plur. of 7115, mas. Hvilil,

f.

/Hil, contr.

D vlil. Gr. 34.
and
it is

In regard
is

to the

change of vowels,

see Gr. art. 57,

This word

mas., although the form of
is

niX^n
110.

agreeing with

fem., the sing, of which, however,

masc. Xo. 95.

Pause accent, athnahh.
1iX)^^l"^^5 (eth ham-ma-or hag-ga-dol),
lit.

7151

the light,

2

18

ANALYSIS OF
i.e.

[Chap.

i.

the great, as respects the other,
tion, Part III.

the greater light.

See Introduc-

Accents, mahpahli conjunc, and 2)ashta disjuuc.
i/i

111. r\7*iyf2tjp (I'mrm-she-leth), Lat. of; so sol

domi/ii'um,for the riding

omnium

rector, Plin.

;

and

sol

omnium moderator atque
and ^1/^^^ subs.
fcni.

dux, Cic. Tusc. Qua^st.
seg. (a) class,

Comp. of
ruled.

/ prep,

from /^J^

Accent, mitnahh conjunctive on

the penult. Gr. 29,/".
112.

m'^n

(Jiak-/,rt-to?i),

the small, as respects the other,

the
full

smaller, or lesser.

No. 109, 110.

Comp. of

-11

art.

and jDp, in

jiDD Gr. 34 ; in
of which
113.
is

fern.

ri2Dp, from the obs. form |Dp, the ground form

2>i*obably ]y(QD Gr. 115, 116.
(Jial-la-tflah),

Accent, jxfsh fa disjunc.
-Pi

nVxH

the flight; comj). of

and

Tww
See

No.

40.

Accent, sakejih kafon disjunctive on the
29, a.

penidt.

Gr 113 and

114. D'*5^i3n (liak-ko-cha-bhim^, the stars, governed

by

SJ'y*^

in the beginning of the verse
star.

;

comp. of -n and plur. of ^1)15 a

The
is

root

is

obsolete in

root

traceable in an Ai-abic

the stars appear to us to
table.

Hebrew. Prof. Lee thinks that the word signifying a round cup, to which have some resemblance. The 1 is immusilluk.

Gr. 57.

Pause accent,

115.

—Vcr.
d.

17.

yrf\{vay-yit-ten'),
iri**.

and

gave, Yiexe placed; comp.
5.

of

\

No. 21, and

3 sing. m. pres. hal of jH^ gave, parad.

Gr. 131,

Accent, merka conjunctive.

116. Dni<% (o-tham), them, comp. of T\^
ri'l^s

No. 4, quasi ab niNI or

and

D_^,

a fragment of

DH, plur. of

pers.

pronoun

'lil ;

thus

we

have Dnn^J and
117.

DHnX

contr.

DHK-

Accent, fbhir conjunctive.

—Ver.
)

18.

^^^/I.

(v'lim-shol),

and

to rule,

or to preside,
b.

comp. of

cop. conj.,

and 7 before the following sh^va 7 Gr. 126.

and

inf.

constr.

kal of

7^^

parad.

1,

ruled.

No. 111.

Accent,

pashta disjunctive.
118. Ci*5 (hay-yom), over the day, contr. for 01*115 see Gr. 35.

comp. of prep. 5 art. "H and DV No. 37.
118
(«).

Accent, munakh conjunctive.

riTpn^

(ti-hhal-la-ylah),
)

and

over the night, contr. for
-ri,

nS^pn^l, comp. of
and ri7 V No. 40.
see

before

:2,

\ Gr.125.2. Art.

see

No. 118,
pe7iult.,

Accent, sakcph katon disjunctive on the

No. 40.

Vcr. 16—21.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
ami to maJie a
is ^,

19

119.

/'•'illiri/^ (u-17iahli-(lil),
1

dirisio)i or separation,

comp. of

cop. conj.

which before 7

Gr. 125 (1), and /'"'^^n/

Nos. 52, 97.

Accent, sahcpli katon disjunctiyc.

120. Ver. 19. *j;;i1 {r'hhi-hi), fourth, fern, form H'j;;!"),
"^'2'^

from

four.

Pause accent,

silluk.

121.—Ver.

20. I^IP^^ (yish-r'tsit), 3 phir.
\.

m. pres. kal, used
^.

here imperatively, of Vnt^

became numerous,
it is

produced in great
3.

numbers, in which latter sense

used here, parad.

Accent,

munakh
122.

conjunctive.
T*"]^^ (she-rets),

subs. masc. seg. (a) class, abundance, mid-

titudc, sicarm.

A generic

name

for small animals,

whether

insects,

reptiles, or fishes.

Prof. Lee's Lex.

Accent, tiphkha conjunctive.

123. CJ'SJ (ne-jihesh), subs. com. oftener fem., a seg. (a) class,
breath,

any thing that breathes, a

liting

creature,

an animal.

Accent,
124.

munakh
n*n

conjunctive.
life,

(lihay-yah), subs. fem.

that which hath life; Lat.

animans, a beast, generally, a wild beast, see No. 149.
translates this clause,

Ros. thus

" scateat aqua multitudine bestiarum anima-

tarum."

Accent, athnakh disjunctive.
1

125. Cjiyi (yhoph), comj). of
birds.

conj.,and

tjl^

masc. a bird, collect.

Accent, pashta disjunctive.
P|£!iy^

126.

{ylio-pheph^, 3 sing. m. pres. pihel of tjl^ to

fy,
to,

parad. 10.

Accent,

munakh
x. 21.

conjunctive.

127. ^li^ht, see Nos. 13
totcards, see

and

14.

h^. is

here used for 7^^

Exod.

The whole passage may be thus

ren-

dered, " and let the birds fly over the earth towards the fii-mamcnt
of heaven."
128.

Accent, tiphhlia disjunctive.
J<|T.!1*5

—Vcr. 21.

(vay-yibh-ra), comp. of
2.

'\

conj.

and 3

sing.

m. pres. kal of X"lS created, parad. 12, see No.
conjunctive.
129. D]5''3rin (Jiat-tan-7ii-7iim), comp. of
Lat. aliquid extensum,
nified
"II

Accent,

munakh

art.,

and

plur. of p^j?

from

Hn

obs. Avhich appears to
;

have

sig-

tendo, extendo, tendo,
T^jjl

compare Sanscr. tan
from whence
tenuis

Gr.

reivo),

ravvco,

Tiraivco; Lat.

(Sanscr.

tame);

Goth.

thanjan; hence

a large fish, sea serpent, or other sea monster;
tree.

Gr. ratvia (a reivw), a long fish; in old Germ, tanna, a fir

20
from
its

ANALYSIS OF
Icnp^th.

[Chap.
U^^'^t^

i.

See Ges. Lex.

The words

and

y^p
ani-

appear
mals.
130.

to include the larger

and smaller descriptions of sea

Accent, tijyhkha disjunctive.

"73 (AW),

^•ithout the asph-ation chol, shortened
9.

hy the
o\o<i]

removal of the accent from 73 Gr.
universality ;

10 and 63.

Subs. m. totality,

verb 773 perfected, completed, compare Gr.
all,

Lat.

ulliis;

Germ,

alle, heil;

Eng.

all

and whole.

See Ges.

Lex.

rfPiri tr3!5~73

lit.

the totality

of the breath of life, according

to our idiom, every living thing.

See Introduction, Part III., on the

subject of adjectives.

Accent

"withdi-a-s^Ti,

on account of mahkaph.

Gr. 33.
131. rit^^"iri {lia-ro-me-setli), that movcth, or crecpeth, comp. of

fl

which before ^ becomes

11

Gr. 19.

And

the fem. form of
is

^t^
like

part. act. hal of b^^'l parad. 2.
tiu'es

n^/^hH

T\^T\T\

applied to crea-

whose

legs are near the earth, and to those
to

which move

serjDcnts,

and likewise

those that

swim

in the sea.

Accent,

pazer conjunctive.
132.

D^lbn ii^y^ I^^J

i^'sher

sha-r'tsu

ham-ma-yijn),

quihus

scatent aqum, Ges. Lex. xcith which the loaters ahound, ^^"IK^ 3 plur.
pret. kal oi

]^^^ see No. 121.

Accent on

"ISJ^NI,

telisha

ketanna

conjunctive.
133.
Drii!l'*^7

{Vmi-7ie-hem^, according to their kind, comp. of

7

prep,

r^ kind,

species, see

No. 90, and

DH— grave pron. affix, Gr.99.

The

tsere is the

vowel of union;

Avith the pron. affix fem. ri^'*^7

ver. 24.

Accent,
5jij7

r''hhiah disjunctive.
lit. hird of wing, or winged bird, on the modes adopted in Hebrew for

134. &]^3

{Jwph ka-naph'),

see Introduction, Part III.,

qualifying nouns without the aid of adjectives.

W3 subs. m. icing.

Accent on ^"2 jJdshta disjunctive.
135. i^TfX see

Note. there
is

—"We are induced
between the
is

No. 27.

Accent, merka conjunctiA'e.
at first sight to ask

what connexion
air,

fishes of the sea

and the fowls of the

that

they should occur together in the same verse.

In point of external
alike oviparous, their

form there

no resemblance, but they are and making
21.

and
a

are alike equipped for rising in,
fluid."

way through

Pictorial Bible, Gen.

i.

Vcr. 21—24.]
lo6.

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
"^I^^T (va-t/bha-rech),

21

A'or. 22.

Eos., Bush,

and

others,

"ct indidit

(iUis)

and blessed; according to vmi prolificam." Comp.
pointed
'^"!l5^

of

1

conj. -without dagesh,

Xo. 25, and

"H"^.^!,

OA^ing

to the
ni.

removal of the accent

to the penult, syllable,

Xo.

21. 3 sing.

pves.pi/iel of "Hl^ ]3arad 3, be?it the knee, Jell on the hnee,

from

'n'l^

the knee; vapihel, caused
;

to

fall on the knee (with a view to

blessing)

hence

blessed.

Accent, darga conjunctive.

137. 'T'pi^? (le-mor), dicendo, his verbis, saying, contr. for

"^2^7

L. 87 (5).
126.
c. d.,

Gr. 50

(5).

;

and

*1^^J inf.

comp. of / prep, before khatef segol 7 Gr. Accent, constr. kal of "^"O^ said, parad. 7.

athnakh disjunctive.
138. ^^3 (p'rii), be fruitful, 2 plur. m. imp. kal of rTlS parad. 3

and

13.

See Xo. 87.
(ii-r''bhii),
;

Accent, munakh conjunctive.

139. li^l
1,

and
plur.
2.

midtiply, comp. of

^.

conj. before

sKva

Gr. 125 (1).

and 2

m. imp. kal of nn"!
Accent,

teas,

became many,

multiplied, parad. 13

and

r'^bhiah disjunctive.
\

140.

1^?

7^^ {u-mil-ii), and Jill, comp. of
J^H^'d,

for

\,

2 plur. m. imp. kcd of ^57^
conjunctive.

parad. 12.

Xo. 139, and Accent, mahpach
see

141. D"'^*5 (bay-yam-mi)n), in the seas, contr. for
art.

C^^H!! Gr.
ground
idiom,

35,

comp. of 3 prep.
the sea.

-11

def. art.,

and

D\*22 plur. of D^,

form

D/!p^,

Large pieces of water, such

as the lakes of

Genesareth, and Asphaltites, are, according to the
called seas.

Hebrew

Accent, sakeph katon disjunctive.
{tlia-hoph^, comp. of
511^
\

142.

^i^^iHl.

conj.

-il

def. art.

pointed with

kamets before ^ Gr. 19, and
disjunctive,

a bird, Xo. 125.

Accent, tiphkha

143.

iT
;

(yi-rebh), let multiply, 3 sing.

m. apoc.

pres. kal of n^"!

Xo. 139 used here as an imperative. Eegular form 11^*1'! L. 74 (2). and 233 (2), (3). Gr. 37 and 115. Accent, merka conjunctive

upon the penult,
144.
T"l.5;?|l

syllable.

Gr. 29

a.

(ha-a-rets), on

the earth,

contr. for

j'^lXriSj

see

Xos.

7. 36.

and 141.

Accent, silluk disjunctive on the penult.
(kha-mi-shi),fijth; root t^'£?n five.

Xo. 7. Ac-

145.—Ver.23.

^tTW
X^IH

cent, silluk disjunctive.

46.

— Ver. 24.

(to-tse), see

Xo.92.

Accent,

kadma

conj.

— —
23
147.

ANALYSIS OF
npn5
this

'

[Chap.i.

(hlic-mah),
to

cattle,

subs. fern,
all
tlie

used

collectively.

" Under

term seem

be included

ruminant animals,
their herbivorous

and perhajis certain others that resemble them in
nature." Pict. Bible.
148. t^'^pl (ra-re-mes), comjx of
tonic accent
sense, see
),

Accent, mcrka conjunctive.
\

before a syllable bearing the
reptiles,

125

(5),

and

^t^il

m.

used in a collective

"This designation was applied to all the vertebrated animals that live i;pon the land, whether they run upon
No. 131.
four feet, like the lizard and the iguana, or sim^^ly glide along the

ground by means of abdominal
and the snake.
149. ~iri^ni

scutella or scales, like the viper
Pict. Bible.

They

all

agree in being oviparous."

Accent, fhhir disjunctive.
(^c''Jiha-y''tho),

and

beast,

comp. of
1

1

cop. conj.

and

n*n

constr.

form of

H*!!, see
;

No. 124, and

paragogic.

The

penult,

vowel is immutable, Gr. 62 the ult. being mutable is lost, Gr.T5. " By this j)hrase we understand not only those animals Avhich are
pro23erly carnivorous, as the lion

and the wolf, but the rodentia or and the pachydermata or thick-

gnaAving, the rabbit, mouse,

etc.,

skinned, the hog, the elephant, etc." Pict. Bible.
malilxaph.

No

accent but

150. V'll^ (e-rets), earth.

No. 7.
so

Accent,
then

tipliTilia

disjunctive.

151.—Ver.
Accent on

25.

b^h^, 'm^_

God made.

See No. 54.

ti^y^l

munakJi conj.; on

D\'l7il?

flishaJc'tanna conj.

152. ri*n (kha-yatJi), heast of, construct form of T\*U Gr. 95.

See Nos. 124 and 149.

Accent,

kadma

conjunctive.
-II

153. np^li;?!! (J)a-(^da-mah^, the grozind, comp. of
gutt.
ri

before the

Gr.

19.,

and H^HJ;?
thus,
ivas

subs. fem. ground, soil, land, probably
all

from

its

reddish appearance,
:

the cognate words having the siga riihy, or cornelian
''JIDHi^ red-haired,
;

nification of redness

D'7.^5

D"T^{ red, or

reddish hroivn;

UyA

red;

etc.

Accent,

tiphkha conjunctive.

154

—Ver. 26.

n^]?^ (jia-Mseh),

let

us make, 1 plur. pres. kal

of n^J^, parads. 2 and 13, see No. 54; used here as an im^jerative.

Accent, merka conjunctive.
"

— Sauctius

his animal,
ct

mentisque capacius

alta3

Deerat adhuc,

quod domiuari

in cnstera posset."

Ov. Met.

i.

76.

"Scias non esse hominem incogitatum opus."

Seneca.


Ver.

24—26.

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
Avliicli

23

155. D"l^^ (a-clam^,
called

Adam,

in the

Adam, man. Josgj)1ius says, " This man was Hebrew tongue signifies one that is
c. 1.

red, because

he was formed out of red earth." Ant.b.i.
comp. of
prep.,
9..

See

No. 153.
156.

Accent, fhhir disjunctive.
(b^tsal-me-7U(),
.

^3p7^5

P7V ground form
an image. Gr. 73.

of

UTi

a seg. of the (a) class, \.a shadoiv;

And
tive

pron. affix 'iJ^Gr.OO, which has the accent ttphkha disjunc-

upon the vowel of union,

tscrc.
,

Gr.29(5). L. 117

(2).

157. shh-a

^in^^"l5 {Jiid-mu-thc-mi)
like, as,

conij).

of 5 before the following

5 Gr. 126 (i),

according

to,

probably a fragment of
T\'2

some primitive noun from which we have
riJD'l likeness, root
'Tlt^'l

thus, L.

174 (2), and

teas like,

and pron.

affix

^^~, see No. 156.
valde similem no-

^jn'lD'lS IJp/V^l
bis, in

may be rendered ad imaginem

oar exjjress image, the tAvo words being nearly synonymous,
in order to strengthen the similitude.
is

and being combined
of

" Put

on the new man, which

renewed in knowledge
iii.

after the

image

him

that created

him"

(Col.

10).

Accent, athnakh disjunc-

tive

on the penult.

Gr. 29

(b).

"Quam

(sc.

tellurem) satus lapeto,

Finxit in ejjigiem

mixtam fluvialibus undis, moderantum cuncta deorum." Ov. Met. 82.
i.

158. ^1"^^^ {c^gir-du^,
conj.

and

let

them have dominion, comp. of 1 cop.

and 3

pku*.
sc.

m.

pres. kal of H*!'! parad. 2
j^ress,

and

13.

l.trod

(with the feet),

a wine

tramjiled (on any one); 2. subjjres.
is

dued, exercised dominion.

The

here used imjieratively,
D'^^5 is

and the
tively,

plur.

is

employed because the word
to

u.sed collec-

having reference

himself and his posterity.

The number

of words used in the singular, where, according to our idiom, they

should be plural, which have been noticed in the preceding pages
corroborates the \T.ew given in the Introduction, Part III., of the

language being

at

one time without distinction of number by means
Accent, flisha Utanna conjunctive.

of verbal terminations.

159. n^"T5 {bid-gath^, over thejish of (fishes).

No. 158.

Conij?.

of

5

prej).

before sh'va

3

Gr. 126

(b),

and

constr.
to

form of T\yi

subs. fcra.Jish generally, large or small.

As

change of towels,

see Gr. 94, 95.

Accent, kadma

conjunctive.

160.

n^n55^

(ii-bliab-blic-mah^,

and

over the cattle, comp. of

)

24
before
the
labial

ANALYSIS OF
conson.
1

[Chap.

i.

Gr. 125.
-ri

2.

and H^riS^

contr.

for

ri^n!!in!l

comp. of 3

prej). art.

see

No. 36, and

n^H^
the

No. 147.
that

Accent, pasJita disjunctive.
161. £^'p1^^ t^/t?^n
creepcth,

(Jm-^^emes

ha-romes),

lit.

creeper

see

Nos. 131 and 148.

pointed with kaniets before resh.

Each Avord has the article "H Gr. 19. The accent on the former
latter,

word

is

tiphJiha disjunctive;

on the

merka conjunctive.

162.—Ver. 27. lb?V?
haton disjunctive.

(b'tsal-mo),
affix
1

comp. of 3 prep. D?^ ground
his.

form of Uyyi 156, and pron.

Gr. 99.

Accent, sahcph

163. iri5< (o-tho), him, comp. of T\^ as if from Hlt^ see

No. 4,

and pron.

affix

1

a fi-agment of

X^H

he.

Gr. 99.

Accent, athnakh

disjunctive.

164. *DT (^za-char^, male, a male, subs. masc. verb IDT
bered.
is

remem-

Tlie connection Prof.

between

tlie

meaninsrs of these two words

Lee says that the male is called I^T " either because the man keeps up tbe memory of a family, or because his mental retentive j)owers are very great." See Lex. The noun is probably the primitive. Accent, merha conjunctive. 165. rr^pi'l (^u-n^Jce-bhah^, and female, and a female, comp. oi\
very obscure.
before shh-a
^,

Gr. 125(2). and

H^p^

^-

female, used both of the

human
166.

species

and the lower animals, from Dpi pierced, marked,
Accent, tiphklia disjunctive.

distinguished.

—Ver.
(e),

28.

DHy

(la-heni), to #/iem,prep.

/ before tonic accent
Accent, gercsh

7 Gr. 126

and DH 3

pers.

pron.

pi.

Gr. 99.

disjunctive.

167. "^"^D-^ ^^^ -^^- ^^^-

Accent, munakh conjunctive.

Gr. 30.

168. riS^DDI

(v^ cJtihh-shii-ha),

and subdue

it,

scil. ]"^.^i^

comp.

of

1

conj.,

and

fc^DD

with kibbuts vicarious for ^SJ^DD 2 plur. m.
1,

imp. kal of D'DD parad.

trod

down (with the

foot),

compare

^DD

a

footstool,
(6).

2.

subdued.

Pause accent, athnakh

on the penult.

Gr. 29

169. ^T^1 {u-r\lu),

and hate dominion, comp. of

")

conj. before

shha

^

Gr.'l25 (2), and VTS, 2 plur. m. imp. kal of flT} No. 158

Accent, gWashayim disjunctive.
170.

—Ver.

29.

H^n

(hin-neh),

lo,

behold, with

H

paragogic, for


Vcr. 26—31.]
tn ground form

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
pH
Gr.
7;v

25
Eat. en,

= jn

and

7)i/t=i^5r';

Gr. 115.

Accent, fUslia k''tauua conjunctive.
171. ""rini (na-tJiat-ti),

I give,

lit.

I have

given, 1 sing.

jDret. /lul

of |n^ gave, par. 5, for ^ri^JlJ Gr. 39.

Accent, licidma conjunctive

Gr. 29

b.

172. ^C^'^
173.
J^"1T

(Ite-sehh'),

see

Xo. 83.

Accent, munalh conjunctive.

(zo-re^h), soicing, seeding, yielding, part. act. ni. kal of

y*}! parad. 4.

Xo.

84. patlialxh furtive.

Gr. 17.

Accent, munakh

conjunctive.
174.
feni.

n7pX7

(I'och-Iah),

food, anasc.

form

/'2'i^

for food, conip. of 7 prep. TD'2'^ subs. 7'2'^ seg. (o) class^ ground form
/^ijlt.

Gr. 110, and

-svitliout

the accent

Pause accent,

silluk.

175.—A'er.

30.

T^Xri H^H-^D^^ supply 'J^Hi No. 171.
tckick in it (tlie breath of life), i.e. in

176. i^"'^l?^^{
(is)

lit.

which

the breath of

life.

See Prof. Lee's Gr.216. 13,

and No. 91.

Accent, pashta disjunctive.

"At

vetus

ilia

aetas cui fecimus aurea

uomen,
Ov. Met. xv. 96, et seq.

Foetibus arboicns, et quas luimus educat berbis

Fortunata

fuit:

uec polluit ora cruore."

177. p^^. (ye-rek^ subs. masc. smg. greenness; 'p'y'y^'V^ the
totalitg

his Lex., says, " the

of greenness (of herb), i.e. every green herh. Prof. Lee, in primary notion of this word seems to have
it is

consisted in throwing, shooting out, hence
herbs (shooting out of the earth)
;

applied,

1. to

green

2.

to spitting (as shot out of the

mouth).
178.

Accent, merka conjunctive.
31.

Gr.29y.
see

—Yer.
nX^

Pl^JJ

(lia-sali),

had made,

Introduction,

Part III., on the pkipcrf. tense.

3 sing. mas. prset. kal of Ht^J^

made, parad. 2 and
179.

13.

Accent, saheph katon disjunctive.

{ni'od), originally a subs.

m. strength, vehemence; thus
5,

"7|nj^0 7b!l icith all thy strength,

Deut Yi.

and "fX^

'V. "s^P<^

^'^^

vehenientiani,

Gen. xxvii. 33.

It is

generally used adverbially with

the meaning of r aide, in Eat.

Accent, athnakh disjunctive.
•!!

180. ^tJ^t^n (hash-shish-shi), the sixth, comp. of art.
sixth,

and

^l^*^

from ^ly six;
six.

Sscascv. schasch;

Slav, schest;

Gr. e|;

Eat.

sex;

Eng.

Ges. Lex.
1.

Pause accent, sdluk.

181.— Chap. ii.

"hy). (va-y'chid-lu),

and

icere finished,

comp.

.

26
of
1

ANALYSIS OF
conj. witliout dacjesli

[Chap.
plur.

ii.

No. 25, and 3

m. pros, puhal, of
the accent

n72

paracl. 13. accompVished , finished
^^'i^^i

182, Dt^^V (ts'hlia-ani), comp. of i^^V
to the pron. affix

removed

N^V
est

Gr.74.

1.

an

arm])-, 2.

any multitude, often
all

applied to the heavenly bodies, and here to

created things,

"Similitudo sumta
183.

de militibus, uni duci subditis." Ros.

—Yer.

2.

75^1 (va-i/chal), for (God) had finished.
all his

God

having finished
day.

work (on

the sixth), rested on the seventh
ed.

See Glass. Phil. Sac. 298.

Dathe, and

Introduction,
of
5

Part III., on the subject of the Plup, Tense.

Comp.

No. 181

and 25, and 7^^ apoc. rh^ see No. 18i.
"l84.

for

TT^y Gr.

37.

3 sing. m. pres, pihel of

185.
rr] €KT7),

D?5 {hay-yom), for D1*ri!l see No. oQ. ^J?Wn (hash-sh'bhi-hi),' the seventh.
and likewise the Sam.,
Syr.,

The

LXX.
;

read

and others of

later date

but

this

change was probably made
felt,

to avoid the difficulty

which would

have been
pluperfect.

had not the preceding verb been translated as a Comp. of -lI art. and ''^'5^ ordinal, masc. from ^^t^
Sansc. sapta ; Zend, hapf a
;

seven, card.;

Gr.eTrrd;
Ges. Lex.

Ij^t.

septcm

;

Goth, sibun

;

Angl.

seceii ;

Germ,

siehen.

186. in5J<70 {ni'lach-to), his work, comp. of pron. afiix

1

and

J^DXt*^ ijround form of
in the constr. state
causae, the effect or
;

TDN/^,

another form of HI^X/^, and used

subs. fem. ministry, mission ; sed per meton.
a mission
;

end of

loorJc,

or husiness of any kind.

Storr. Analog, p. 75.

Root 1JX7

sent, obs.

187. nb^^ (ha-sah),

188. ri!l^*l

had made. (ray-yish-both'), and

rested, comi^. of

•)

and 3

sing.

m.

pres. kal of

Hi^^

rested, ceased, parad. 1.

189.—Yer.
190.
\,

3.

fin^

see

No. 136.

SJ^'^P^T
;

(ca-y^kad-desh),

and

satictified,

comp. of

•\

j^ointed

see

No. 25

and 3

sing,

m,

pres. ^j/Ae/ of SJ^ID parad. 1, loas holy;
to

in pihel,

made

or 2^>'onounccd holy, set apart

a sacred purpose,

sanctified.

191.

msr

(sha-hhath), 3 sing. pret.

Jcal

of

H^^

No. 188.
literally

192. nib^yS (la-Jfsoth).

The words
to

in the

Hebrew

translated into our language are, "
to

which God created in reference

making

;"

but according

our idiom, " which

God had

created

;

Ycr.l— 4.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
It
is

27
tliis

aud made." Lat. creando perfecerat.
is

believed that

idiom

used

to

mark
2.

the perfect and thorough completion of the work.
ii.

See similar idioms in Eccles.
Psa. cxxvi.

11

;

Jude

xiii.

19

:

2 Kings xxi. 6
to,

Comp.
to,

of 7 before the comj). sliva / Gr. 126, c,
inf. constr. Jcal

for, in reference
193.

and

of H^J^ parad. 2 and 13.

—Vcr.
H

4.

Tw^

(el-Ieh), these,
is

comp.

7X

pi.

of

T\\

demons,

pron. and

parag. wliich

generally affixed to

tliis

word, but

which docs not take the

accent.

194. nn7"'J^ {to-VdotJi), subs. pi. fem. from

17^ which
;

signifies

both hegot and brought forth.

1. births,

generations

2.

accounts

oi creation, generation, or jyrocluction;
families), genealogies, tiarrativcs

3. histories, or

accounts (of

of events.

The

sacred writer seems

in this chaj^ter to give additional accounts of the creation of the

world, and to describe certain occurrences or incidents connected

with

it,

not mentioned in the jJi'evious chapter.
(bliih-ha-r\mi),
lit.

(a)

DX^^nS

in their being created,

i.

e.

at

their creation,
inf.

when they

icere created ;

niph. of

X75

parad. 12 and 3,

comp. of 3 prep, and N73n and pron. affix D^ which takes

the accent, the penidt. vowel hamets compensating for the absence

of dagesh in 7, and which being a characteristic of the conj.

is

immutable, and the tsere which
195. ^it^'y
i,

is

mutahle
llt.

is lost.

Gr. 75.
of,

DVS iyyom

Msoth^,
see

in the
;

day of the making

e.

when (God) made, T^^"^

construct, state with V*7t^ see

No. 192 this word is in the L. 224. 9. These forms of construcinfinitives are really nouns.
it is to

tion corroborate the

view that Heb.

196. D^'^'^^{ nirr; {fho-vah ^h-kim).
that this
is

be here observed,
is

the
this

first

introduction of the

word Jehovah which

kept up in

and the following chapter.
its

From

this,

and

fi'om

other internal evidences of

antiquity,

it

has been conjectured
first

that the account of the creation,

from the beginning of the

chapter to the end of the third verse of the second, was written
anterior to the time of Moses,
condition.
A\Tiat
is

and was

left

by him
title,

in

its

original
is it

said in reference to this
iii.

which God
vi. 3,

described as assiiming to himself in Ex.
evident that the

14,

and

makes

into those parts of the

word Jehovah could only have been introduced book of Genesis which were written or

amended by Moses.

28

ANALYSIS OF
sing. pres. kal of H^ri

[Chap.
is

ii.

nin* a term containmo- the abstract notion of existence,

a

noun founded upon the 3
past, present, and
as
is

or

H")!!

teas.

Eab. Bcchai, an ancient Jewish writer, says " these
to

tln-ee times,

come, are comprehended in this proper

name

knoAA^i to all."

See also Rev.

i.

8.

This word

is

pointed

with the vowels of
stead of
T'^'^, as

^i^"T^?

Lord, which the Jews always read init is

they never,

said,

ventured

to

pronounce that

sacred name.
19T.
1.

—Ver.

5. n''£J^ {sio-Txli), subs.

m. something shot forth; hence,
this place;
2.

a shrub (issuing from the ground) as in

a word,

speech, message (issuing

from the mouth).

Verb

T\^i^ protulit,

produxlt.
198.
off;
D"1.tp

(te-reni), originally a subs, signifying resectio, cutting

|*^'5

D^D^l

in resectione aestatis,
i.

i.

e.

cum

aestas
;

adhuc resecta
hence
it

esset

(a jaraesenti tempore),

e.

nondum

adesset
yet.

has

passed into an adverb with the meaning of not
199.
subs.
ni.t;^'ri

(Jias-sa-deh), the ground,

comp. of

-II art.

and 111^

m. ground, a

field, a piece of ground, generally under cul-

tivation.

200. n^V*! (yits-maJch), in pause for T\jyi\ Gr. 31

;

liad sprouted,

had sprung up; 3

sing.

m. pres. hcd of

H^^

jiarad. 4.

201. ^''tP/pn (Jtim-tir),

had caused

to rain,

3 sing. m. pret. hiph.

of "nlp^ not used in kal, parad. 4;

in hijih. rained, sent rain,

caused
202.

to rain.
|*^^

(a-yin^, in

constr.
;

piSI

Gr. 113;
^'^^^^^

properly a subs. m.
/^'' "^nan, deficiency
;

nihilum, defectus, vacuitas
icanf, there teas tcant

V'^

^1^1

^'^

of man, man

not, there (Avas) no

man.

Tliis

word

is

203.

now used adverbially mth the meaning of not. nhyS Qa-habhod), for the tilling of, to till, comp.
Gram. 126,
^^o- 153.
c,

of

7

be-

fore comp. sh^ra 7,

and

*l^y. inf.

kal constr. of "155^

parad. 204. 205.

2.

1.

tvorked, laboured; 2. tilled (the ground).
'^f^f'

nrnxn

—Ver.
subs.

6. nX*) (v''ed),

and a vapour,

or mist, comj). of

1

conj.

and

"^^5

m.

206. n^l?^ {ya-lfileh^,

had ascended, 3

sing.

m.

j)res.

kal of Ty)"^

ascended, parad. 2 and 13.
207. npp*ni (vliish-kah),

and had watered, comp. of)

conj.

and

;

Vcr.
3

4— T.]
111.
;

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
Hp^
obsolete in
lial,

29
the same as

sing-.

prct. hijih. of
///}>//.

nH^

(Ira?ik

in

^rax' ^o

drink, watered.
is to

The

object of the sacred

writer in tbe fifth and sixth verses
creation

enhance the wonders of

by shewing

that plants

and herbs were produced by a
in-

simple act of omnipotence, without their going through the present
established process of germination from seed, or being at
all

debted
adopts

to the influence of rain, or of
tliis

human
\

tillage.

Bush, who

view, thus renders verse 6, " neither had there gone up
;

a mist," etc.

and adds, " the Heb. copulative
negative
see

and,

is,

in rejieated

instances in the scriptures, to be rendered
clause or sentence
is
;

when the preceding Exod. xx. 4, Thou shalt not
7ior,
'

make unto thee any graven image, nor [Heb. and'\ any likeness;'
see also Ps. xliv. 19,

and

Isa. xlii. 8."

Bush on Genesis

in loc.
-1

208.

—Yer.
ISy

T.

^^'**1
liol

(jay-yi-tser^,

and formed, comp. of

and

3 sing. masc. pres.
L. 200. 4. 209.

of ^^^ formed, fashioned, made, parad. 8.

(Jia-jyhar), subs.

m. earth, motdd; hence "

dust.

The
of the

expression in the text
earth."

is literally,

God

created
is

man mould

Glassius says that the prep. |p

before ^^'^^^^I instead
ii.

of

ISy by

the grammatical figure synchysis. Phil. Sacr. Tract

Obs.V4,

p. 662.

210. n2*1 (tay-yip-pahh^,

and

breathed, comp. of

^

and 3

sing.

m.

pres. hal of MS!! breathed, blew, parad.

4 and

5.

211. V5^{!I1

(^b^iji-jjav), into his nostrils,

comp. of S
b.

jirep.

and the

dual of

^k

contr. for ^3N*.
affix
1

L. 76.

Gr. 39 and 114

(3),

and 116

and the pron.

his.
life, constr.

212. D''*n n^^Il {jtish-math hliay-yim'), breath of

form of nDti'J subs. fem. breath.
D''*ri

See Gr. 94. 95: and,
""n,

(hhay-yim),

life,

plur. of
jolur.

ground foim

''''n

Gr. 114^.

hence the dagesh in the

Gr. 116.
life,

213. n*ri D'Si/ [Vne-phesh khay-yali), Yii.into a being of
litiny being
;

a

Lat. vita pracditns.
;

The same expression
it

is

applied,

chap.

i.

19, to the lower animals

here signifies an animated

being, a creature possessed of
in

life

and sensation.

The

prep. 7

is

Hebrew iised after verbs of The same idiom is sometimes

existence, in the sense of becoming.

transferred into the
;

Greek of the
^wcrav,

LXX.

and of the

New Test.

iyeveTO et?

v/^L'%r/v

LXX.

30
Gen.
ii.

ANALYSIS OF
7
;

[Chap.

ii.

and, eaovrat ol hvo

et?

adpxa

fiiav, for

aap^

jila, ]Matt.

xix. 5.

214.

—Ycr.
|5

8.

yt3*1 (ray-yit-tah),
leal

and

liJanted,
5.

comp. of

•\

and

3 sing. m. pres.
215. the

of

^^^

planted, parad. 4 and

(gan^, subs. m. a garden;
trapdhetao'^,

more

j^roperly translated
bvit

by
is,

LXX.

which

is

a

word not of Greek

of Persian

origin.
to

" The king of Persia takes particidar care wherever he
full

have gardens or enclosures, which are called TrapdSeiaoi,
quoted by Bush in

of

everything beautiful and good which the earth can produce."

Xenoph. Q^conom.

iv. 3.,

loc.

216. n3^5 (Vhe-den^, comp. of prej).

3 and HJ^

subs.

m.

seg. of
j^i'oper

the (e) class, delight, pleasure ; Greek

rjSovr],

here used as a

name, Eden.
217. Qllp.?? {inih-ke-deni),
Y\t.

from, or at
Comj). of

the east.

Eden

is suji-

posed

to

have been a large tract of country, to the eastward of
situated.
;

which the garden was
ra.

•1^

for V2

and D"lp subs.

jJars anterior, frons

hence

it

has passed into the adverb ante, a

froute,
east;
ivest
;

and

is

ojiposed to 11 HX-

Y^ien the Hebrews describe the

situations of places, they suppose their faces turned towards the

hence

DID

the front, viz. the east;

llHX

the hack, viz. the

rZp^ the right

hand,

viz. the south

;

and

7^^^tJ^ the left

hand,

viz. the north.

218.

D£?^*1

(ray-ya-senx),

and placed, comp. of
to

5

and D^^ 3
fidl

sing.

m. apoc.
D''b^^

pres. hiph. of

^^

place, settle, parad. 10:

form

apoc. Db^^ and with the accent

removed D^^

see

Xo.21.
Lat. turn;

219.

D^

(6f/?aw), ^/tere,

adv. Chald. DJ^; Gr. t^^ho?;

Ges. Lex.
220. 1^^ {ya-tsar), he had formed, Xo. 208. 221. ^^'^er. 9. P!^^^ (yay-yats-mahh^, caused

to groio,

produced,
or greio
ri"'OV!

comp. of
tip;

\

and 3

sing.

m. apoc.

pres.

A?};/?,

of H/^^

1. shot,

flourished. 9,.

See Lee's Lex.

Full form of pres.

/»};/?.

parad. 4.

222. nin^ see No. 196.
223. 1/pn]3 (jiekh-7nad), desirable, pleasant;

according to the
2.

general rule, this woidd be I^D^. part. niph. of I^J^ parad.
is

This

Avhat

is

called the rough enunciation.
to

224. n{!?'n.^7 (I'mar-eh), in regard

aspect,

comp. of 7 and

Vcr.

7—10.

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
lit.

31

nX"!/^ subs, m.,
2. vine, sic/Iif,

irJiat

one sees:

hence,

1.

appearance, vision;

from nX*!
(J''

saiv.

22o.
subs.

73X^7

ma-<^chal), for food, conij?. of
eats, food,
)

7

j)rcp.

and 72lX-^

m. ichat one
l*j;)

from

7pX

ate.

22Q.

comp. of

and

^V..

^o. 86.
has the

22~. D'*'rin comp. of -n before H, H. Gr. 19, and D'*n No. 212.
It will
article,

be perceived, that according to the Heb. idiom
according to ours
T'J^

D***!!

would have

it.

228. "^inil (J/thocJi), in the midst of, comp. of
constr.

3

prop, and "^IH
"^"in

form of

"liri

of which the ground form

is

Gr. 112.

L. 148 (9). middle.
229. nj^'^n
(Jiad-da-hath^, the hnoidedge of,

comp. of

-TS

art.

and

inf. constr.

hal of y*]^ kneic,

inf. abs.

^11^, constr.

rij^l"'.,

conto

tracted nj2"[

Gr. 39.

This

inf. is

actually a noun,

and subject

the same rules of sjTitax as nouns.

230.

"^'"^

(va-rah^,
)

and

evil,

comp. of

)

before a monosyllable

with the tonic accent
Ji^'l;

Gr. 125 (5).

and yi subs, m., ground form

the primary notion conveyed
1.

by

breach;
teas evil.
larity of

breach (oil^i^Yy, 2.
If

evil.

word is Compare ^J^l
this

j^i'obably tliat of

broke,

crashed,

^^

is

pronounced rang,

as

it

often

is, it

bears a simi-

sound

to the Scottish

word

(ivyrang, evil,

from the verb

wring; Germ, ring-en, to
Scot, icrang, woTold

icrestle,

ticist.

In

oiu-

word

v:rong, or

hence be involved the notion of twisting or

turning out of the right course.

The passage
tree, of

is

thus given

by

the

Chaldee paraphrast Onkelos, " The
eat shall

whose

fruit those

who

know

the difference between good and evil."

231.
subs.

—Yer.
sing.

10.

^n^l

{j:^na-har),

and a

river,

comp. of

"1

and liH^

m.
goer out, going out, written in fidl X)»V
part.
Jcal

'232. X^** {yo-tse), ht

Gr. 34.

masc.

act.

of

XV^ parad.

8,

icent

out.
j)ar-

" Participles (says Prof. Lee) include witliin themselves no
ticular tense,

and are

ver^'^

much hke
art.

the present, to be construed

either in the past, present, or future tense, as the context

may

requu-e."

See his Gram.

231

(8), note.

In

this case, the con-

text requires the past, (was) going out, tvent out.

The
Tl*".!

subs, verb

though seldom,
builder,

is

sometimes expressed; e.g. ri^3

f(nd he icas a

and he

built,

Gen.iv.lT; see also Job

i.

14, p''S^ niH-

Onk.

32

ANALYSIS OF
233. jiy.O (mc-Iie-den), from Eden, comp. of -^ for
tlic

[Chap.
j,tp

ii.

from,

before

guttural

^

Gr. 123

h.

and

["l.^.

21(5.

234. mpti^riS (Vhash-koth),

to scoter,

comp. of 7 and

inf.

hljih.

of nj^g'No.'20T, par. 13.
235.
for

pn

(Jiag-ga)i), the

garden, comp. of

'T\

art.,

and

j5

in ^Jaiisc

I^nJ. 215, andGr.31.

236.

D^^^
1,
*l*l.iD^

(ii-mish-sham^,

tbe labial

12 for

^

and from tlience, comp. of from, and Dg' No. 219.

\

before

237.

(jjijj-jM-red), xi-as

parted, 3 sing. m. pres. niph. of TllS

parad. 3, separated, parted.

238.

^^'^'l {r''lia-ijali^,

andivas, became, comp. of

"1

and n^H 3
>

sing.

m.

prct. Ird of

HTI jVt

«•««, parad. 13. ' 1
to

239. nyil'nX/ (rar-ba-Jiah),

or

/;?fo,

fot/r,

conqj. of 7

and

nyS'lNI fem.,

^51^

1^^-

These numerals are substantives, and are

either j)l^ced in apposition, as in this case, or in the definite state

of construction, with the -word signifying the thing numbered.
L. 181 (2).

Gr. 128.

V^")i^ for

^Tl with
No. 213.

^^

prosthetic,

which

is

omitted in ^^^1*1
240.

No. 120;

"see also

D''tJ^X'l (ra-shi?n),

heads, id. qu. D^ll^^ rircrs, Eos.: contr.

for D'£J^N:n

i^lof^iil
influit" (sc.

the head.

L.73. Gr.35. " Multis capitibus
lib.iv. c. 10.

in

Oceanum
241.

Rhenus). Caesar. De. Bell. Gall,
plur.

—Ver.
p2J'''3

11.

U^ (shejn^, name, subs. m.
n
art.

T\^J2i\^-

Gr.

aij/xa,

sig num.

242. nnj^^n comp. of

before

^^,

and

*^'^^, see

No. 45.

243.

(Pi-shon^, aqua diffusa, redundans, used as the

name

of a river.

Eos. understands this to be the Phasis, and Havilah,

the land of Colchis.
244. .^^^D
^^^1^ (hii

has-so-hhebh),

lit. it

the

encompasser ; H)n
part. act. niasc.

3 pers. pron. niasc.
hal of
'2'2.JD

^5^1 comp,
jiar. 6.

of

-11

article,

and

encompassed,

245. n7'''!nri

(Jia-kh^ci-lah),
to

Havilah, joined with

art.

H, see

No. 22T.
246. 247.

There seems

be great uncertainty about the situation

of this country.

L^

^If/^i^

("shcr sham), tchich there

= where.
art.

injn

(Jtaz-za-hahh), gold,

comp. of

-H and 1TX\

;

in

French, Vor.

248.— Ver.

12. yr\V\ {u-z^habh),

comp. of

)

before sh'va

1,

and

Vor.lO— 14.]
constr. of iHT.
is

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
The compound
sh^va

33

under a

letter not a guttural
it

anomalous; according
Gr. 94.

to the general rule,

"O'ould

have been

riHT,

249.

Xinn

(Jia-hiv),

lit.

the that, that,

comp. of

T\

with />«^/mZA

long by position before H, Gr. 19, and NIH pronoun, ancient form
250. n/liin (Jiah-b' do-lakh^, comp. of

-(1

and

Hp^^

subs.

m.

By

the best authorities considered to be the pearl.

251.
stone.

p^l

(v^e-hhen^,

comp. of

"1

and

|5^? subs.

m.

seg. (a) class,

252. DHES^ri (Jias-so-ham), the onyx, SapSovv^ Aquila, 6vv^ Spn.

Theod.
253.

Comj). of
13.

-11

and DHE^ subs. m.
(gi-hhon),

—Yer.

piT'il

Gihon, the

name

of a river;
to

supposed by some, among

whom
by

are Michaelis

and Bos.

be the

Oxus; by

others, the Ai'axes;

others, the Nile.

254. K^^3 (hush), supposed to be the northern district of the

region between the Caspian sea and the Persian gulf, and to have

taken

its

name from Gush,

the eldest son of

Ham, and

father of

Nimrod, who founded Babylon.
above boundaries are called the
nensis,

The districts included within the Gush country by Moses Choroit

who

"wrote

a history of

in the fifth century.

See a

learned note upon this subject in Prof. Stewart's Heb. Chrestomathy,
si/b voce.

255.

—Yer.

14.

/p'I'n (A-A?V7-f7e-Z-e7j, imiversally belie ved to

be the

Tigris, wliich in

Aramaean

is

called Diylah,

and Diylath, whence

Tiylith, Tigrith, Tigris.

256. "H/nn (ha-ho-lech), Mt. the goer, that goeth, or Jlo ice fh, comp.
of

n

Gr. 19, and part.

act.

m. hal of "^/H

u-ent,

parad.

2.

257. r\^'lp (hid-math), on the east of, construct form of r\f2'^p
obsolete, id. qu. D*lD

No. 217.

258.

^l^EJ'i;}

(ash-shur^, proper

name

;

supposed

to refer, not to

AssjTia as understood in later ages, but to that region on the west
side of the Tigris, over

which Asshur reigned, and of which Nineveh

was the
East

capital.

259. rri^ (p^rath), so called
;

by the present inhabitants of the
others,
is

the Evphrates,

which being better known than the
3

not here described.

34
260.

ANALYSIS OF

[Chap.
took,

ii.

—Ver.

15.

Hip*!! (rcaj-yik-l-akli),

and

comp. of
it

5

and 3
tlie

sing. m. pros, kal of
peculiarities.

np7

took, parad. o, of wliich

possesses

261.

^nn3^

(rcn/-yan-)u-J>:he-Jn(), a)id jjlaced

him, conip. of

5

and

pron. affix

^H—

Gr. 99, wliicli takes the accent on the vowel of
n**!)^,

union, Gr. 29i., and

the pat/i. furtive being
Iu'jjIi.

addition of the affix; 3 sing. m. pres.

removed on the of H^J parad. 10 and 4.
and
to,

This verb has two forms of the
of which
latter,
is

hij)h.,

tl'^^'n

H^'^n, the

former
the

signifies,

gave rest

to,

gave comfort

caused

to rest;

placed, left (in a given state) ; between which meanings there

an obvious connection.
262. nnnj^S (rhohh-dah),
to till it,

comp. of 7 and.

fern. aff.

H—

Gr. 99, and

"75$^,

and with an accent "liy, ground form of

'~\'2,% inf.

const. Jcal of 15J^ parad. 2, tilled, cultivated. to |5

The

fem.

aff.

T\~ refers
call

which

is

masc.

Tlrisis

accountedforby what grammarians
comp. of 7 and
const, kal of

archaismus.
263.

See Introduction, Part III., on the subject of Gender.
to

nnp*^^ {Vshom-rah),
"l^pb^'
;

keep

it,

^J2l^,

with

accent

ground form of 'ID^ mf.
See 262.
{va-rftsav^,
16.

1D^

parad. 4.

and

|)ron. affix fem. H.

and commanded, comp. of \ 3 sing. m. without dagesh before yod and sJi'va, and IV**. for apoc. pres. ^j///fV of Hl^ parad. 13, commanded, Gr. 37.
264.
I^^l
ri^_!^''_

—Ver.

265.
est) eat,

/IlJ^in
i.

7^^5 {a-chol to-chel),

lit.

in eating thou shall

(may-

e.
is

thou mayest indeed (or certainly) eat.

This form of

expression

used in consequence of the poverty of the language
See Introduction, Part III., on the subject
iii.

in qualifying words.

of Adverbs; see also Glass. Phil. Sac. Tract
similar expressions. Gen.
ii.

Can. 31,

p.

276. See
this

17

;

xxxvii. oZ

;

and see likemse
Test.
:

idiom transferred
Acts xxviii. 26

to
;

the

Greek of the
Acts
ere,

Xew
34
:

'iva

uKovvre^

aKovuxTi, ]Mark iv. 12
;

'IBcov elSov,

vii.

/3Xe7rovTe<? ^Xi^lrere,

evXaycov evXojrjao}

Heb. vi.
m.

14.

/^N! inf. abs. kal,

and 7^1X^1 2

sing.

pres. kal of

/^Nl ate,

parad.

7.

266.—Ver.

17.

7^^r\ i<7

(lo-tho-chal), thou shall 7iot eat; N;7 a

particle oi negation,

and occasionally of prohibition.
the

Engl, no, not;

used with every part of speech excepting the imperatives of verbs,

7X

is

generally

used, with

present

apoc, of verbs, in a

Ver.lo.— 19.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
Lee's Lex.

35

prohibitory sense.
tsere, see

7-55^n with patliahh, instead of

No. 265.
According
to

267. \'^\^{inhn-men-nu), of it.
is

our idiom this word
|^ subs.
7?a;Y,
it.

redundant.

Ges. regards
;

it

as conip. of jO prep.

portion, and t^^H

thus,

X^H'^^'^D,

contr. '\'^'^pof a

partofit=of
afiix

268. accent

."^

/^i;? (^chol-cha), lit.

thy eating of; comp. of 7^Nt with

7^5??. infin.
"H,

const, hal of ^^i^

Xo. 265, and pron.

masc.

2 person.
269.

Gr. 99.
ni/t^

H'lJSri

{moth ta-muth), in dying thou shalt

die,

thou

shah surely

die.

" Species pro genere connnemoratiu-."

Mors
m. pres.

pro malis, peccato conjunctis universe, per. spiecd.
QvrjToq ear), S}Tninachus.
Tt\'t2

Storr, p. 9.
sing.

infin. kal,

and niDH 2

hal of
270.

niD

to die,

parad. 10.

See No. 265.
11^11

nVn

(h^yoth), infin. constr. hal of

icas,

parad. 13

;

or-

dinarily pointed with simple shh'a.

271.—Yer.
separation ;

18.

HI?
we

{Vhhad-do), comp. of

7

prep.,
;

*12 subs.
affix
1

and with

"7,

^5 /
of

a part.

Fr. a

j^ttf't

with

in

separatione sua;
alone.

say, in tlie Scottish dialect, hy las lane, i.e.

The ground form

15
icill

is

115

;

hence the dagesh.
1 sing. pres.

272. nby.i^ {e-lfseh),
parad. 2 and 13.

I

make,

hal of Hb^JJ,

273. Iiy.

(he-zer'), help, lielper, subs,

m,

seg. (e) class.
i.

273*

11^53

(h.'neg-do),

lit.

Z/Ae

/»'5

front,
;

e. Z/Ae 7i/?w,

or A/s

counterpart.

LXX., in
j!;cfr.s

ver. 18,

Kar avTov

in ver. 20, ofioio^ avrw.
"1^^.
7/^s.

Comp. of 5
Gram.
274.
fidly

particle, according to,

seg. (e) class,

antica, or anterior, front;

and 1^3, ground form of and pron. affix 1

99.

— Ver.
sing.

19.

I^'l

(vay-yi-tser),

for (Jehovah j Jtad formed;
come, brought, comp. of

witten, l^'l Xo. 208.
to
5

275. ^?5*l {cay-ya-hhe), and caused

and 3

m. apoc.

pres. hijdi. of J^IS to come, parad. 10

and 12;
and
inf.

unapoc, X''5^
276.

ni5<l7

(lir-oth), to see,

comp. of 7 before sh'va
3.

7,

constr. hal

ofn^l

parad. 13, 2, and

277.

P'X'Ip^Tl^

(;««// ijih-ra lo),

ichat he uill fwouldj call
;

it

(every onej,
xcho.

T\J2 inter,

pron. uhat, here used indef.

'^12

for persons,

N^iT Xo.

35.

36
278. n*n"t^'3!3.

ANALYSIS OF
Tlie wliole passage

[Chap.

ii.

may be

thus literally transviz. living

Adam called it lated, "and creature, e. " whatsoever Adam called
Avliatsoever
i.

(everyone),"

every living creature."

n*ri C^3!l

is,

in substance, a repetition

of the antecedent to

W.

Glass, p. 175.

279. Ifiw'

(sJi'ino^,

its

name, comp. of DC^ subs. masc. name, and

pron.

aif. 1.

Sclu'oederus says that monosyllables, with ^sere
jjarad.

formed

from verbs of
but that
DSi'

13 (H

/),

usually have the tsere immoveable;

and |5 « son with affixes, on account of their frequent see occurrence, lose tsere, which is retained in the plur. absolute
;

ni^S^ in the following verse.
280. D*l^i7^
{ii-V a-dani),

Schrocd. Inst. Sect.vii. Reg. 114 a.

hut for

Adam

(was not found a help

meet
were

for him).

3ut

stands here adversative to an idea implied,

but not expressed,

viz. that all
;

the males of the irrational animals

sujiplied with mates

hut for
(lo

Adam,
Storr,

etc.

Bush.

281.

—Ver.

20.

K^^

^^7

ma-tsa), (owe) did not find, on ne

trouvoit pas, there

was not found,
of i^^^
is

however, says, that the

original m-eaning

ire,

pervenire,

and that such
" ad

is

its

meaning here

;

and thus renders

this passage,

Adamum non

pervenit auxilium." See ver. 19 ; and Isa. x, 10 ; Storr, p. 272, note.

N^^
of
5

3 sing. m. pret. kal, j^arad. 12.

282.

—Ver.

21.

/ip?5

{^'^^y-y('2^-l^cl),

and caused

to fall,

comp.

and 3

sing.

m. apoc.

pres. hijih. of

7^^ fell, parad.

5,

unapoc.

283. n^'^'lTl (tar-de-mah'), a deep sleep, ckcttogiv, subs. fem.

from Dl^ in hal
closing up,

inusit.;

the primary notion of which consists in
7iiph.

making fast', in
Lee's Lex.
(ray-yi-shan'),

became

stupifi^ed, insensihle, as

in

deep

sleep.
jl^''*^

284.

and he

slept,

comp. of
slejjt,

5

and
9.

W'^\ in

pause for

j^'*''.,

3 sing. m. pres. kal of |^^

parad.

285. nj^^T see 260. 286.

nnX

(a-khatk),

otie,

fem. of "IH^, in constr. "IH^, fem.
45.

r\'ni^

contr. for ri"Tr!{^.

See No.

287.

Vny^ik^

{mits-tsal-ho-thar'),

of

his ribs,

comp. of -^

for

\f2

of, from, T^Yi constr. plur. of ^7^ (id. qu. ^ /V)? seg. (a) class, ground form J^7^, hence in plur, constr. ni^7^ and n^/V, Gr. 34, a side, a rib, and V— pron. afF. Gr. 99.

Vcr. 19—23.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
and shut up, comp. of
\

SI

288. ^-5p*1 (vaij-T/is-gor),
111.

and 3

slug.

pros. Iml of *1^p "^hut, paracl. 1.

289. Ip'll (ba-s(n-)y subs. xa.Jlesh.

290. nBrnnri (takh-ten-nah), comp. of TTlP^, ground form of riHri
subs, the lower part ox parts, that lohich is under, the place ivhere

one stands, place ;

commonly used

as a preposition, tinder, heiieath ;
;

and

n|~

fc"i-

pron. affix of the form usually attached to verbs

(ti.

the place thereof, in the place

from wliich he had taken the
lit.

rib.

291. of
|1

—Ver.

22.

j!3*5

{vay-yi-hhen),

and he hudt, formed, comp.
13
;

and 3

sing,

m. apoc. pres. of H^iS

built, par.

unapoc. H^!?^,
|5!>

•\vliich first

becomes J!l^ and with a furtive vowel, euph. causa

with the accent on the penidt. vowel. Gr. 37 and 29 (rt), and 115.
292. yS'in (hats-tse lah), the rib, comp. of -H
qu. j;Sv.
art.,

and ^7^

id.

293.

Vo. 287. nph (la-kalh), had
Comp.
of

taken,

No. 260.

294. rit^'N? (fish-shah), into a

woman,

lit.

built the

rib into
fern,

a
of

icoman.
^^'i^

7

^^'^^

'^^^, another form of

H^''^^^,
is

a ?nan. Prof. Lee's Lex.
riP'i^

The

constr. of T^^i^

Tl^is,

ground
K"*!?^

form

with pron.

aif.

inty'K his wife.

295. nX!l'*l (ca-y'bhi-e-ha),

and brought
aff.

her,

comp. of

\

and

with the accent removed to the pron.
Gr. 34 and 74. 3 sing. m. pres.
come, in hiph., caused
to

and by contraction
T\~

&^^^,

hijyh.

of

^^1!}

parad. 10 and 12, ta
aff.

come, brought, and fern. pron.

296.—Yer.
step
vice,
;

23. D5?3ri Qiap-pa-ham),
1.

comp. of -H and DJ^S subs.
foot),

fcm. seg. («) class;
likewise

a stroke;

2.

a stroke (of the

a pace, a

appHed

to time, as in this place, DJ^^H hoc ictu, hae

on

this occasion

only ; afterwards the ordinary

mode

of her

production will be different.
297.

D^y

(he-tsem), bone, subs.

m.

seg. (a) class.

298. ''^^'y^ (jne-Mtsa-mai), of
gutt. 'Q Gr.

my

bones,

comp. of -^ before the
aif.

i23

{b),

and D^S?

contr. for D^^^^- ^^^^^'^ the pron.
is

'^—my, Gr. 49, another form of the plural

nifi^y.

299. *lb^!lD (niih-b'sa-ri), of my flesh, comp. of -b and

No. 289, and with the accent removed
300. T\^V} (Vzoth),
i.

to the pron.

aff.

^^^flesh. 1^3 Gr. 74.

to this,

shall

be called (the name) woman;
of 7 prep, and ^^?T demons,

e.

she shall be called

woman; comp.

pron. fern.; masc.

T\\ this.

;

38
301. i^1j^\ parad. 12 and
302.

ANALYSIS OF
(yik-ka-re),
3.
(lu-JiOJiJiah),

[Chap.
of

ii.

23

3 sing.

m.

pros, w?};7^

^^'^JP

called,

nnD?

teas

talien,

tlie

ordinary punctuation
/oci/t.

woiild be rinip7 3 sing. pret. j^ulial of PlD? parad. 4,
nection similar to that between
tJ'''X

A conman and
amr]

and 1W\^
the

is

discoverable in

Latin between vir and vira obsolete, and in Eng. between

xcoman; that connection
K\r]6r)(TeTaL yvvy]

is

lost in

LXX.

translation,

on

Ik tov avhpo<i

avTr}<; e\i](^6ri.

303.—Yer.

24. \yh)l (Iial-kefi), wherefore.
ISTJ^

304. "Ijy^ {ya-Mzohh) shall leave, 3 sing. pres. kal of

left

with the accent It^^ Gr. 9 and 10.
305.

V5^

(a-hhic),

his father,

comp. of

!l^!t

subs.

m. father,
''!I1^{

plur. irrcgi ^1i^?:

tliis

word

takes yod in the constr. state
affixes in the sing.,

No. 849, and before the pron.
Gr.ll4(i).
306.
1/i>J;5

thus Vj5^ instead
'*2i^.

of I^X; the original form of this

word

Avas

probably pNI or

(im-?7io), his tnother,

comp. of

D^5,

ground form

pi5^s,

subs. fem. tnother,

and pron.

aff. 1.

This word, and the foregoing,

are probably primitives, formed from the sounds uttered in
its

by a child
Gr. airira,
/xd/x/jia;

first

attempts to speak; hence
j'x//;a, />f/jW/J^/s;

^^

Lat. av-us;
so D5^
;

ird'K'jra'i',

Lat.

Eng.

/xT/^a;

Gr.

Kopt.

Germ. llama, Amme: Eng. mamma; Scot, mammy. and pl"^ 307. p5"J^ (v'da-bhak), ami shcdl cleave, comp. of
7Jiau;
"I

3 sing. pret. ked, par.
308.
nn.s*

1.

W^^
No
25.

(b'ishto),

to

his wife,

No. 294,

VPll.

No.98, and
and 3

n^n'p

213.

309.
plur.

—Yer.

VH*! (vay-yih-yu), and were, comp. of

\

m.

pres. kal of (1^11 was, parad, 13; this verb

and

T\'T\ lived,

generally take

simple instead of comp. shhas contrary to the

general rule, Gr. 19.
310. DH^;?^ {sh'ne-he7n), loth of them, const, of

D^#

tiro,

with

the termination dropped before the grave pron. affix

Drj**,

Gr. 49,

and Gr.

99.

311. D^SIiy. {harum-mim), 7iaked, plur. m. of Dl^i?, fem. T\1T\%
as if

from p^T^, plur. D^^^iy.

= D^^^y,
see

verb Dnj; was naked',

another form of this word

is D'T'S^,

No. 343.

312. 'W'^'2T\\ (yith-bo-sha-shu), were ashamed, 3 pi. m. pres.

Chap.

iii.

1—2.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
to

30

hith. of

C^5 ashamed, 2)ut

shame, or confusion, Hushed, in pause

for ^C^p'Sn'*.

^"erbs of this form sometimes take pafhahh instead

of fsere as their ultimate vowel, Gr. 31. 313,

— Chap.
\

iii.

A'er. 1.

ti^n^ri"]

(r''han-na-/chash^,now the serpefif,

comp. of

and, now, but,

-71 art.,

and
this

tJT!^ snbs.

m. a serpent,

probably an onomatop. the sound of
to the hissing of the serpent
:

the Latin

word bearing a resemblance word serpens points to its
sj)irit

manner of motion.
6(f)io/jLavTeLa

It is

probable that the art called in Greek
resided in the

arose from the tradition that a

serpent.

314.

Dl^lJ^

(ha-rum),

lit.

nahed, and also cunning, crafty, subtle.

The connection between these meanings arises from the idea of sfripping, making bare by wearing or rubbing, implying long use,
hence experience, wisdom, and in a bad sense
See Heb.
v, 14,

subtlety, craftiness.

"Having

their senses, r^e^vfivaaixeva,

made naked,

exercised," free from impediments, unembarrassed, agile, flexible,
etc.

315.

/JDp

D'l^lJJ

(ha-rutn mik-hol),

lit.

subtle

from

all,

sejyarated
all.

from

all

by subtlety, more subtle than any, the most subtJe of

(ppovcfMcorarci

LXX.
^{?5

See Introduction, Part III., in reference to

the Degrees of Comparison.

Comp. of

'p for

^ and
est

72 No. 130.
dixisse,

316. 1^5^"''5
or itane est!

(aph ki-a-mar), itane verum
dixit?

deum

num Deus

Hath God

really said?

1. tl^t lit.
;

embracing, concluding , compare ^S^5 enclosed, Psal. xviii. 5

hence

used

as a conjunction, also (including

something

else), inoreoter,

2. ^3 see

No.

29.
/'2'^

317. ^75^?ri {tho-clChi), ye shall eat, 2 plur. m. pres. kal of
parad. 7.

318.

—Yer.

2.

I^J^ni (vat-to-mer), and said, comp. of

5

and

3

sing. fem. pres. kcd of

I^X

parad. 7; the tsere in

^^Xn

shortened

into segol, in consequence of the
ult. to

removal of the accent from the

the penult, syllable.
lit.

Gr.

9, 10,

and 30

(b).

319. 72l^5J (no-chel),
pres. kal of

loe eat, i.e. ice shall

(may)

eat, 1 plur.

/D^

parad.

7.

Let the student notice the use of

W

in

a collective sense in this verse,
this chapter, as

same kind in
subject of

and several instances of the corroborating what was said on the
III.

number, in the Introduction, Part

40

ANALYSIS OF
320.— Vcr.
3.

[Chap.iii.
it,

IS ^>^n (thig-g'hu

ho), shall touch

2

pliir.

m.

pros, kal of ^y^ touched, parad. 5, folloAvcd

by the prep. 3. pnDri"|3 {pen fmu-thuii), lest]) e die. The original meaning 321.
||3

of

-o-ithout accent

|S)

is

seeing, looTxing toivards,
is

and guarding
certain, seeing

agamst a consequence ; whether that consequence
ye
ne.
shall, or

only probable, as seeing ye may, hence
11^3 looJicd, see
comjD. of
|

lest;

Lat. videte

Compai-e
Gr.

Prof. Lee's Lex.

pH/tpril

written in full

pn^^n
to die,

3-4,

parag.,

and 2

plur.

m.

pres. kal of n^23

parad. 10.

L. 235.
]T\^T\

322.— yer.4.
surely die, see

HID

^

(lo

moth fmu-thun),

ije

shall not

No. 321, and No. 265.
5. J^"!^ (yo-de^^h), knoicer, hnoicing, knoiccth, part.

323
act.

Ver.

m.

kal of J^T parad. 4 and 8, knew, see No. 232.

324. Dp?^^? (achol-cheni), your eating, see Nos. 266 and 268.
325. ^npfijl (t^niph-k^khu), then shall he opened.
p. 603, ed.

See Glass,

Dathe.

Comp. of

1,

and 3

plur. praet. 7iiph. of nn|)

opened, parad. 4.

326.
^Ae
e?/e,

D^'*^'';^

(he-ne-chem), your eyes, comp. of
TJ^.

D^'^'^J^

dual of Tj^

constr.

Gr. 113, the dual termination
D^''.

is

removed

to

make way
327.
sh''ca \

for the grave affix

Gr. 49 and 99.
shall he,

Dn''\'l')

(vih-yi-them),

and ye
m.

comp. of
'*^n id.

1

before

Gr. 125 (3), and 2
,

pliu-.

pret. kal of

qu.

H^n was,

parad. 13.

328. C'ri^N*3 (ke-lo-him), as Gods, contr. for

D'nSxS

Gr. 126(d),

comp. of 3 before khateph segol ^, Gr. 126 (c), and CH /X No. 3. |"'^^!1*13 sicut magnates, Onkelos Targ. Bush thinks that there
is

an intended

ambiguity in the tempter's language;
to

that

he

Avishes the

Avoman

understand that he speaks of God, while he

actually

means

that they shoidd really

become had
lost,

as apostate angels,

who knew

the value of the good they
It
is

and the fimount of
D^'^ 7^? is

the evil they had inciu'red.

to

be noticed that
is

here

construed with a pliu'al verb, which
is

very rare where reference

made
is

to the ti'ue

God.

In the jDreceding clause, where the true
JTl.* is

God

evidently intended,
lit.

in the singular.

329. ''}tV O/o-d'he),

knoicers of, knowing, part. act. pi. constr.

of yi^ see No. 323
330.

;

penult, vowel immoveable. Gr. 59.
\

—Yer.

6.

N^ril (vat-te-re), and saw, comp. of

and 3

sing.

VcY. S—6.]
fern. -pros,

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
37
^v^lH
'

41
^^J|'^J1,

kal apoc. of nX'1 saw, parad. 13 and 3; unapoc.
to Gr.
( h-.

accordmg
causa.

and with a furtive

segol M"!!^,

and cuph.

Nnn,

105. lOG.

331.

/^XDS

(Vma-achal), for food, comp. of 7 and 75^^^ xchat

one cats, food, from

/DX

ate.
lit.

332. NirrniNin (tha-O'cah hi),
desirable object;"
abstract
is

desire

it, i. e.

" it (was) a most

HlXri subs.

f.

desire,

verb HIK desired.

The

here used instead of the concrete.

AVhat was said in

Introduction, Part III., as to the poverty of the
in adjectives,
is

Hebrew language
is

here corroborated;

desiderium

here used for

desideratissiinum.

333.
lightful,
2)o\.

"l/tSn^l

(v' ne/ch -772 a d^, a7id
\

desirahle

;

hence pleasant, de-

comp. of

and nDH^, No. 223.
is

V^'2\^Tw (Vhas-kil), this word, along with the preceding,

rendered by

delcctahilis aspectu

Chald. Par.

(sc. arbor); by Ges. and Winer, by the LXX. wpalov tov Karavorjcrab by the Onkelos, ad p7'udentia 77% consequendam per earn. I can

Eos. aspectu jucu7ida
;

;

see no reason for forsaking the rendering given in the English version.

/D^

in

Heb. (parad.
Hence,
cause

1),

and /^P in Chald. signify

1. to

look

atte7iticchj at

anything; hence arises the idea of consideirition, p7'H2. to he icise;

dence, wisdo77i.
1. to

in hiph. 7"'^£^'^, inf. 7''5^l'

cause

to

consider, or he considered, i.e. to provide for, care for
to

the poor;

2. to

he j^rudent, wise, as in this passage.
is

In

the preceding clause, the tree
sire for the eyes,"
i.

said to be
to

"an

object of great de;

e.

most desirable

look upon

the succeeding

clause, according to the rendering of Eos., Ges.,

Winer, and the
to eat

LXX.,

is

but a

rej)etition of the

same idea; whereas the sacred

historian Avishes to point to the inducements

which led Eve

of the tree, which were,

1. its

beauty;

2. its cajiability

of render-

ing her wise.

This view

is

the more probable from the
serjaent's assiu-ance that
evil,
it.
|l

name
would
fact

given to the tree, and from the

it

make mankind
that their eyes

as gods,

knowing good and
after eating of

and from the
and 3

were opened

335. T^^Pi) (rat-tik-kaM), then she took, comp. of fem. pres. kal of riD7 parad. 5 and 4. 336.

sing,

V^$p

(7nip-pir-yo),
'''13,

ground form of

of the f-uit of it, comp. of -^ and HS), Gr. 114, and pron. affix 1, see No. 87.

.

42

ANALYSIS OF
337. 7Di>?ni (cat-to-chal), and did eat, comp. of
\
;
''^^

Chap.

iii.

and 3
masc.

sing.
/D^?**,

f.

pres. kal of 75NI
!!,

j)ai'^(^l-

another form of

/^Xn
5

and with

h^^'l
and
gave, com]), of

338. jrini {vat-tit-tcn),
Jcal

and 3

sing.

f.

pros.

of |n^ gacc, parad. 5.

339. D5 (gam^, gronnd form

pD5
is its

addition,

heap;

hence

it

conveys the idea of addition
is

to

something going before, such
ordinary meaning.

as

imphed

in the conj. also,

which

340. ilDJ? (Jiim-mah), with her, comp. of DJ^, ground form p^^,
conjimction,

communion; used

as a prep,

^t'/^/^

;

compare Lat. cum,
;

con, r^^w-ulus, a/;?c-tus (from cungo =^jungo^

;

Gr. ydfxo^

and with

a sibilant, Sanscr.

sam

;

Gr. afia,

o/xo'i,

ofiov, etc.

See Ges. Lex.

under the word D^J^. Tl— pron. affix fem. 3 pcrs. 34L Yer. 7. H^npSril (vat-tip-pa-Txahh-nali), and were opened,

comjD. of

\

and 3
;

pi.

f.

j^res.

niph. of HpS) opened, parad. 4,

agreemg

with

^^""j;

fem.

constr. of D^i^., see

No. 326.
\

342. ^y*!*! {i-ay-ye-d'hu),
ni. pres.

and

they knew, comp. of
4.

and 3 plur.
being

kal of

^T,

j^arad.

8 and

The

tsere is inunutable,

contr. for ViJn^^ Gr. 50. 3.

343.

W''!2rf^__

{he-rum-mim), naked, see No.
{i-ay-yith-p''riC),

31L
\

344. ^11371*1

and sewed, comp. of

and 3

plur.

m. pres. kal of
of

ISH

seioed, parad. 4.
;

345. nj^in rhixhfdehth'e-nah), \\Ueaf offig-tree
ri7ji^

llSy. constr.

masc. a leaf, Gr. 94. 96 ; here used in a collectiye sense.

^^^^^l subs. fem. a fig (tree).

346.

nhin

^b^y*5 {tay-ya-lfisu kha-go-roth),
2,

\.

comp. of

\

and
of

3 plur. masc. pres. kal of H^J^ parad. 13 and
rrnjin, contr. for rril^ri subs. fem. 1.

made;

2. plur.

a girdle;

2.

a covering for the

loins

;

verb ^^H

^///f
'ly^SJ^*])

347.
^

—Yer.

8.

(vay-yish-m''htf),

and

they heard, comp. of

and 3
348.

plur. masc. j^res, kal of

y^w^ heard;

1 sing. pret.

kal

''P\'^'t2V}

ver.lO.
/ip'riNI (eth-kol), the voice
;

Jl^>

before

makkaph

t^^, see

No. 4; /]p

subs. masc. a voice; plur. rii7lp;

when

applied to inkal, to

animate things, noise, crash, thimder;
sound; Gr. KoXeco, KiXofiai, KeXevco; Lat.
calendae.

compare Sanscr.
calo, calare, obs.;

whence

;

Vcr.G— 11.]
349.
part.
"n

THE BOOK OF GEXESIS.
(mifh-hal-Icch), walJiing about, icalJang to
iccnt.

43

pnnJp

and fro,
comp.

m.

liith.

of "HyH

350.

|2|l

(Ixtg-gan^, in the garden, contr. for
art.

pn5, Gr. 35

;

of

3

prep, -n dcf.

and

[^

No. 215.

351. n^"1/

(/Ve^"^-//),

comp. of 7 prop, and H^^ subs. m. wind.
tJie

No. 16

;

here applied to the cool air (of the day),
;

evening, see
Ai'ab. vers.

chap. xxxi. 40

to

heiXLvov,

LXX.

;

in

motu

diei,

retrocedente die, S}t.

oo2. N^nri*^ (vag-yith-Jxhah-hc),

and hid
to the

hiinself (themselves),

comp. of

5

and 3 smg. m.

pres. hith. of

J^^H hid, parad. 2 and 12;

in the sing,

though referring both
'^^f2

man and

v"oman.

353.

WXl Xo.294;

comp. of -^ and ^^3 Xo.l4; TjiH^
where

No. 228.
354.

—Ver.

9.
^1^{,
?

^I3*^{ (ag-gck-hah),

(art) thou,

comp. of *^,

ground form

in constr. ""X where'?
?

primary meaning residence,
habitation
;

place, residence
affix

= where

compare

*5^

and

n2~

jiron.

with epenth. nun, Trhich takes the accent. Lee's Lex.

355. "^/p (ko-Vcha^, thy voice, comp. of 7p, in full 7ip, Gr.34;

and pron.
35T.

affix "^^

the kJiolem in zip

is

immutable. Gr. 58,

356.—Ver.
and

10.

TiJ^^^ (sha-mah-ti),

I heard,

see X"o.34T.
5

^^"^"^^3 (^f'f-^-^'^O' ^^'^^^

^

^^'^^'^

afraid, comp, of

before K,

^,

1 sing. pres.

kal of N^T* shook, trembled, feared, parad. 9.

358. i<50^) (I'a-e-kha-bhe),

and I hid
caused

myself, comp. of

1,

see

No. 35T, and
359.

1 sing, j^res. niph.

of ^55'^ parad. 2 and 12,
to

—Ver.

11. T'^IH (hig-gid),
"1^^

know, iyformed,

told,

3 sing. m. pret. hiph. of

in kal

non

occ. teas before, see "f^}

fore part of the body, _/row^;

as a jirej^. before;

in

/«}j7^.

brought

before, p)ointed out, declared, parad, 5,

360. jtSn (Jiamin), ichether of, comp. of
ther,

H

interrog. part, whe-

and |p of, from.

361. TrT'lV (fsiv-vi'-thi-cha),
1 sing. pret. pih. of

I

strictly enjoined thee,

comp. of
Li
this

H^V commanded,

enjoined, parad. 13.

"word there

is

a slight variation from the parad.,

which

is ''n''7-jl'

Observe here the intensive meaning
362.
^^I is

oi\}i\c pih. conj.

/57

{Vbhil-ti),

comp. of 7 and T\yi, the ground form of
;

which

Tw%

seg. {i) class

and

\

parag., or perhaps an unusual
, off exclusion, abstinence; ^J^l/S

form of the

constr. state;

c?^^^?';?^

'44

ANALYSIS OF
lit.

[Chap.iii.
-.

T]'^D Isa. xiv. 6, '

TT

exclusion of intermission, icithout intermissioyi "^
1.

hence the meanings,

without;

2.

except; 3. not.

This passage

niav be thus literally rendered, " in respect to the abstaining from
eating: of it,"
i.

e.

not to eat of

it.

363. ^3^p"7ji< sec No. 362.

^bi<, with the accent removed,

7DX

(^cltol),

Gram.

9.

10;

iniin. constr.

kal of 735^ parad. 7

;

^3^^

No.'267.
SQ4:.

fl73K
peniilt.

(a-clial-ta),

2 sing. masc. prct. Aal of /^Nl.

Accent

on the
365.

Gr. 29

(J).

—Ver.
^"ItDy
\,

12.

ni^HJ (na-that-tah,), thou gavest, 2
liul

sing.

m. (with

n

parag.), of pret.,

of jHi parad.

5.

366.

(Jiim-7na-di), comp., according to Prof.

Lee, of the
standing (as

pron. affix
respects)

and a form of the verb

1/^5^ stood

;

'''1^^

me = with
5.

me. Lee's Lex., sub voce D^.

367. ''p'nini (na-th^nal-li), gave me, 3 sing. fem. pret. hal of
\T\1

parad.

The dagesh
(ra-o-clxel),

in

V

to

^^>
eat,

is

called dagesh euphonic.
\,

368.

/^^

and I did

comp. of

before

5*?,

^,

and

1 sing. pres. hal of

/5^

parad. 7.
(Ja-ish-shah), to
the

369.

—Yer.
nXT

13.

H^X/
36.

icoman, contr. for

n*L^\S*nS, see

No.

370.

(zoth), this, this thing, fem. of

PIT.

There bemg no

neuter gender in Heb.,
to

when

attributives or

pronouns do not refer

any particular noun or nouns, expressed or understood, they are generally in the fem. where in Lat. or Gr. they wovdd be in
See also Psa.
cx\dii. 23, T\i^t2

the neut. gender, as in this case.

nXT
is

nniTl r\\n\ " this (thing)

is

from the Lord."

Tliis pecidiarity

preserved in the quotation from this j)assage by Matt. xxi. 42,

irapa Kvplov iyevero avrij.

The gender

of the pronoun here can

only be accounted for by a reference to the
371. JT'b'y (ha-sith), thou hast done,

Hebrew

idiom.

2 sing. fem. pret. kal of

nbj; did, parad. 13 and 2; 2 smg. m. n^b^J.
372. ^0^r\) see No. 318.
373.
''!lJ^*'^n (Jiisli-shi-a-ni),

deceived,

comp. of pron.

aff. "'^_

and

3 smg. m. pret.

hi^yh.

of

N^^

cogn. HEi^J, probably, erred through

forgetfulness, in hijih., caused to err, led astray, deceived.

Accent

on the penidt., Gr. 29

(a).


Ver.ll— 15.]
374.

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
and 3
;

45

Ycv. 14. *Tn^ {a-ntr), cursed, part. pass, kal m. of ^15<

cursed, paiad. 7

Greek apa,

apdofiai.

375. "^ihil (g'kho-n''cIia), thy belly, comp. of |in| contr. |n5 and
•witli

the accent

removed

to tlie pron. affix

"^j,

jHil,

Or. 74.

376. "H/n (thc-lech), thou shalt go, 2 sing. m. pres. kal of "^T
parad. 8, cogn. *j|/n.
377.
\!3^

{l/'me),

days

of, constr. of D\!3^, contr. for

G^^V, plur.

of

DV

«

f7«y,
"^''*n

Gr. 35. L. 73.
(Jihay-yey-cha), thy
'•n,

378.

life,

comp. of pron.

aiF.

T—
and

and

D *n, pku". of
the
affix.

ground form

^^.H

Avith the termination lost before

Gr. 49.
H!''!^')

379.
subs.

—Vcr.l5.
enmity.

(v'e-bhah),

and enmity , comp. of

\

T\'2'^^

f.

380. n*«?^NI (a-shith),
pai'ad. 11,

I will
to

put,

set,

1

sing. pros, kcd of

H^^,

compare Sanscr. sad; Gr.
Goth, satjan,
place;

etpfiai, fut. eSovfiat (root eS);

Lat.
etc.

5ef7e?-e;

AngloSsLX. sattan; Eug.

se/^,

See Ges. Lex. under
"^i?*!!

tlris

vord.

381.

(zar-h°cha), thy seed, comp. of J^^X
aff. '^
;

ground form of
afF.

yiT, and pron.

and HJ^^l the same, with the pron.
5rw/se

fem.

3 pers.
382.
7<eaf/,

n-. Xo. 99.
t^'^sh '^S^ti'^

(ifsJiu-jih'cha rosh),

lit.

s/^ff//

^7?ee,

f7?e

3 sing. m. pres. Za/ of
affix "H

^Vy

to bruise, trample on, parad. 10,

without the
to the

LXX.

which takes the accent ^^^l Gr. 74. According avro'i aou rrjpijcreL Ke(paXi]V, Kal av r7]p/]aei.<i avrbv
T-qp-qaeL

TTTepvav.

Schleusncr renders

in this passage,

insidiose

observabit, insidias struct; he mentions, however, that others read

for Tqprjcrei

and

rrjpqa-eLi;, retpijaet

and

Teiprjaei^,

which verb

sig-

nifies to bite, pierce.

This word

is

only found in other two passages

of the Heb. scriptures, in Jobix. 17, and in Ps. cxxxix. 11.

In the

former of these,
KaTa-KarqaeL
the
:

it is

rendered in the

LXX.

e/cTpi'-v/rp,

in the latter

there cannot be a question about the correctness of

common
5^111
is

rendering.
illcf,

render

by

Some of the editions of the Vulgate and those who approve of this rendering, for
to the virgin

which there

no authority, apply the prophecy
in

Mary.

Both the pronoun and verb

Heb.
lit.

are masc.

383. ^BS^Si'n (fshu-phoi-nu),

shalt bruise

him (the

heel),

i.

e.

'46
his heel, coiiip. of pron.

ANALYSIS OF
afF. 1

[Chap.

iii.

and

|

epenthetic,

and 2

sing.

m. prcs.

kal of

^^,

see 382, with the accent

^m.
in multiphjing

384. HpJJ {ha-lchh), heel, snhs. m.

385.
tcill

—Ver.

16.

n^l^

HS'iri (har-bah ar-heh),

I

multiphj,

I icill

assuredly multiphj, ri2*iri

inf. hiplt.,

and ^51^{

1 sing. pres. hiph. of ili'l teas

many, in

////>//.

w^af/e

many, midtidistress

plied.

386. *^5hnT ^lyyi'^. (Jiits-ts'hho-nech ehe-ro-necli),

lit. ///?/
;

and

thy jiregnancy,

i.

e.

thy distress during pregnancy
f.

the former

word, comp. of
jli^y subs, m.,

"^"7 pron. aff.
1,

with accent, and

jl^^'^, constr. of

heavy exhausting lahour;

2, hodily distress, dis-

tress generally, root y$^.
aff.

No. 387.
stibs.

'H^'^ril

conip. of

"I

and pron.
;

"^7"

and pH, in

full

piH

m.

concej)tion, j^regnancy

the

tso'e

immoveable, the word being a formation from the jnhel of

mn conceived, became pregnant.
387. i^5^3 (b'he-fsebh), in great pain, comp. of

5 and ^^^

subs.

m.

seg. (a) class, labour, violent pain.

388.

''l/ri (te-Vdi), thou shalt bring forth,

2 sing.

fern. prcs.

hal the

of *17^, which signifies both to bring forth , and
tsere

to beget, par. 8,

immoveable, contr.
U*')'2

for ''*77^ri Gr.

50

(3).

389.

(bha-nim), sons, children, plur. irregularly formed
buili.

from

j5,

verb n^|l

The Hebrews
children.

sjjoke of a

house being

built uj)

when

a

man had

390.

Ijnj'^^t^ri 'rj£^\S*"S5^1

ifel i-shech fshu-ha-thech),

still

toicards

thy husband (shall be) thy strong desire; et tanien mariti tui con-

suetudinem appetes, Dathe.

It is

here implied that the female sex

could not avoid the divine judgment here pronounced, by shunning
the married state;
for,

that a provision

was made

for the con-

tinuance of the species, by the strong
in the female, and

desii'e

of marriage imj)lanted
wife's passion for her

by the strength of the
it

husband,

though

should occasion her

the

sufferings

here

denounced, and bring her under the subjection spoken of in the
next clause.
"^T",
"nHD^ti^JTl

comp. of Hp^ti^ri before the pron.

aff.

fcm.

np^Si^ri Gr, 95, subs. fem. the strong affection

which stdsists
root p'JS^ the
to

between husband and wife, ^^(ssion;
leg, thigh, the

Lat. appetitus;
p^ti' to

instrument of running, hence
to desire eagerly.

run,

run after,

fopiirsue,

hence

Ver.15— 19.]
391.

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
(i/im-sJiol bach), shall rule over thee,
*n|l

47
3 sing. prcs.

"IS/^P^
afF.

hal of /u'D ruled, parad. 1, with accent /JJ'^^;

conip. of

^ and

fcm. pron.

3 pers.

39!^.— ^'cr. 17. 7lp7 riyO'r^ {sha-mah-ta Vkol), thou hast heard
the voice, given heed to the voice, obeyed,
]^f2l^

2 sing. m.

prtct.

hal of

heard, parad. 4; in T,a.tin,fuisti audiens dicto.

393.

nnnS*

{aru-rah),

cursed,

fcm. of

H^X

Xo. 374.

As

to

change of the

voAvels, see Gr. 84.
bi/

394. '^"l.^^yS (ba-h(^hhu-)'e-cha),

causcof thee

= because of thee,
(c),

on

thij

account, conip. of
aff.

S

heforc comp. sliha 5, Gr. 126

and
quae

the pron.

2 pers.

;

and

'H'l— y. j)r.

subst. transitio, transitus,

notio transfertur ad causam (pr. transituni causae ad effectiunj,

Ges. Lex. qu.

"\'id.

395. jn^>;3 see Xo. 386.

396. n37J^j^^ {to-ch(^len-nah~), thou

shall

eat

of

it,

comp. of

2 sing.

ni. pret.

hal of

7^^

parad. 7; fern, affix T\— with J epenth.

Avhich takes the accent. Gr. 29 (by

397,

—Ver.

18.

ppl. (v'kots), comp. of

1.,

and, also, but;

|'1p

subst. masc. a thorn, here

used coUectiyely, thorns ; compare T^p,

cogn. ]*i'p
398.

ctit.

'^"^'^"1*!

(v^lar-dar),

and

thistle,

and

thistles,

comp. of
^^l*^.

)

and

I'^l'^ subs, m., probably

formed from an
it

obs.
to

word

399. n"'OV^ (tats-mi^Ich), shall

cause

spring up, shall

it pro-

duce, 3 sing. pres. hiph. of T\1yi parad. 4, budded, sprang up.

400.

—Ver.

19. HJ^TS {Vze-hatli), in

the siceat of,

comp. of 5
the effect
to

and

nj^T constr.

form of
J^^T

H^^T,

Gr. 95; subs.

fern, sweat,

of agitation, from

to

move-,

the tsere immoveable
1.

com-

pensate for the absence of the radical

401. ^""fiX (ap-pe-cha), thy face, comp. of pron. affix and constr.
of D*25St, Gr. 49
see
;

dual of ^^, ground form

P|Ili»s

the nose, the face,

Xo. 211.
compare

402. '^13^^

form
1.

ri*lj^,

ly {had shu-bKcha), lit. until thy returning; ground TT^ passed, advanced, properly passage;
;

progress fin space), unto

2.

progress (in time), until, also before,
aiF,

Xo. 3217.
parad. 10.

"^^^^ comp. of pron.

and

inf.

hal of

l^£i^ to return,

48
403. ^lili^/

ANALYSIS OF
(fuJi-Jcahli-ta),

[Cliap.iii.

tvcrt taken,

2 sing. m.

prtet. jniJi.

of

HDb

par. 5

and

4.

404. inl^n (ta-shnhh), thou shalt return, 2 sing. m. prcs. kal of n^t^ parad. 10.
40-5.

—Ver.

20.

'Pr\J^

(JiJiav-vah),

fern., id.

qu. D*!!

life.

of life, Ece, subs, This word has a causative meaning, like
lit.

the cause

many
of

verbs of the pihel form, which

it

resembles.

40G.

— Ver. 21.
{l}or),

Hl^nS

{iMth-notJi), tunics,
;

garments, constr. plur.
'^iribVy

n^n3

fem., see Prof. Lee's Lex.

compare Gr.
E..

and Engl.

cotton.

See Schrced. Gram. Sect. vii.
skin, skins, subs.

106

(«).
;

407. *liy

m. skin (of a man)

2. skin,

hide (of an animal), used here collectively.

408. DSJ'^?^ (caij-yal-hi-sheni), and clothed them, comj?. of
pron.
affix

1

and
m.

D^

and ^"^1, fuHy written
22.

^'^ihl, Gr. 34; 3 shig.
1.

pres. kal of

Uyijmt
]T\

on (clothing), parad.
(hen), lo
;

409.— Ver.
410. nj^ip
hnoto,
i^S^lj

Gr. ^v

;

Lat. en.
the knoioledge of, to

(^(i-f^if-l'^'fh),

lit.

in respect to

comp. of 7? before the accented syllable 7, Gr. 126 (e), and contr. for HJ^T, Gr. 39 ; inf. constr. kal of ^"1^ knew, parad.
4.
1

8 and

411. T\P\^\ (v^hat-tah), and now, or noio therefore, comp. of
T\T\'^_,

and

com J),

of

nj^_

subs. masc. tiyne,

and

n~ parag.

;

lit. 1.

tempore;

2.

hoc tempjore, now.

412. np^**. (ijish-lakh), stretch forth, 3 sing. m. pres, kal of
sent, sent forth, stretched out, or forth, parad. 4.

TO^

413.

IT
""ni

(ya-do), his hand, comp. of
1.

T
1

See |$ in No. 321. subs. fem. the hand, and

jDron. affix

414.

(va-khai),

and

lice,

comp. of

and

''11,

contr. for

""^n id.

qu. riTl liced, 3 sing. m. pret. kal, parad. 13.

415.

u7^/

(Vho-lam), comp. of 7 and
its

D7y

siibs. lit.

time (hidden),
;

on account of

distance,

whether

it

regards time past or future
hid.

hence time everlasting,

eternity.

Eoot D7j^

416.— Ver.
out, or

23.

^HnW^I
1

{xa-fshal-Vkhe-hu), therefore sent him

regarding the

pleonastic, sent

him

out.

The

j^assage

may

be thus rendered, " Now, therefore,

lest

he should stretch forth his

hand and take
the

likcAvise of the tree of life,

and
of
\,

eat

and live

for ever,

Lord God

sent

him

out," etc.

Comp.

pron.

affix ^1^77,

and

Vcr.

19— 24.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
4.

49
its iilt.

o sing. m. pres. jw/A. of n?*^, parad.

Hpi^'^ loses

vowel

to

make

-way for the union vowel of the pron.

417.

n^y?
U^*'!2

(la-h'^hJiod), in

order

to the

cidtimtion of,

to cidticate,

comp. of 7 and
418.

infin. constr.
'^^*^.

kal of

^T^J^,

parad. 2.
lit.

Hj^?

(^sher luk-kaJch mish-sham),

as

to

which,

he was taken

from

thence,

from

lohence he %oas taken, see

No. 91.

np7

3 sing. m. prct. puh. of Hj^S; Dg'p No. 236.

419.

— Yer. 24.

t^H.^I'l

(va-ifga-resh),
CJ^'lil

and

thrust out, comp. of

\

and 3

sing. masc. pres. pih. of

expelled, thrust out, parad. 3.

Accent on the penult., Gr. 30,

h

;

in consequence of

which ^1^*
sing.

becomes t^l^, Gr.

9. 10.
^

420. |5?^^ {vay-yash-ken'), and placed, comp. of
pres. ajDoc. hiph. of

and 3

m.

p^

dwelt;

in hij^h. caused to dwell, fixed,

placed, parad.

1.

421. tn^J2, No. 217. 422. D^^I^l' Qiak-h^ru-hhim), comp. of
-il

def.

ai't.

and plur. of

^^13

cherub,
i.

pku\ cherubim
:

;

certain sjanbolical figures, described
foiu* faces, that

in Ezek.
lion, of

6, seq.

each figure had

of a man, of a

an ox, and of an eagle

—symbolising, perhaps, the wisdom,
Lee's Lex. qu. vid. sub.

fearfulness,

power, and ubiquity of God.

voc.

Derivation uncertam.

423. tD!l? (la-hat), subs. m. fcmie. 424.

linn

t^rh (la-hat ha-khe-rebh),
;

lit.

the

a

faming

sicord
Ill.ri

cf)\o<yivr]v po/j,(f)aiav,

LXX.

fame ^IDD

of a sword, comp. of H,

Gr. 19, and

subs. com. geud. a sivord.
itself,

42o. nil^riritDn (ha?n-mith-hap-pe-chcth), which turned
part. hith. fem. of '^SH turned, masc. 1j3nnri parad.
2.

426. *^i2^7 (lish-mor), for the guarding of, comp. of 7 before
sJih-a

7 and mfin. constr. kal of l^C^ guarded, parad.

4.

427. 'nil (de-recli), icay of, subs. com. seg. (a) class, a journey,

a tcay.
428.
D'.

nn, see No. 212.

Chap,

iv


" Protinus irrumpit venae pejoris in aevum

Omne

nefas fug6re pudor, verumque fidesque In quorum subiere locum, fraudesque, dolique, Insidiaeque, et vis, et amor sceleratus habendi."
:

:

4

;

50

ANALYSIS OF
" Victa jacet pietas
:

[Chap.iv.
madentes
i.

et virgo caede

Ultima caelestum terras Astraea

reliquit."

Ovid, Met.

128 et 149.

429.—^'er.

1.

^IJ hmv, 3

sing. pret. Jcal of
^

^T

parad. 4 and 8.
.sing. fern.

430. ^Hj?! a^id she conceived, comp. of
pres. of rrnn parad. 13, 2, 3
;

and 3

apoc.

in full iTirin, apoc. *inri, Gr. 37.

The

new

vowels arise

as in tlie case of segolate

nouns. Gr. 105 and 106.
\

431. "17^35

(ffi(^

h7'ought forth,
8.

comp. of

and 3

sing. fern. pres.

kal of "iSi parad.
432.

See No. 388.

rp

lit.

acquisition, pr.

name, Cain, and

'*n'*^p

1 sing.

pret.

kal of ri3p jjossessecl, acquired, parad. 13.
433. nin^'nJjJ
Si''•^5

'^r^'^^O

I ham

gotten a

man

(even) Jehovah
;

" possedi verum Jehovam
gotten a

(i. e.

possideo)," Glassius

" I have
;

man

the angel of Jehovah," Targ. of Jonathan

which

was an established appellation of the INIessiah during the latter period of the Jewish church. These rendermgs do no violence to
the original, and the words

may be

considered as expressive of

the woman's eager and pious, though mistaken, expectation that

the promise in verse 15 of the preceding chapter was actually

accomplished.

I can see nothing very objectionable against this

view of the passage.

the nature and offices of the Messiah
clearer predictions,

many misconceptions as to among the Jews under much and even among his own apostles for a time,
If there were so
see

under his own instruction, I can woman, who appears to have had
deliverer,
as to the precise

no improbability that the
as to that deliverer,

strong faith in the promise of a

might have had misconcej^tions

and
It

means of deliverance wliich he should adopt.

must be admitted, hoAvever, that the nimibcr and weight of the authorities, both ancient and modern, favour the common view,
434.

—Ver.2.

T\T2/ ^DHI and she added

to

bring forth (his bro-

ther Abel), she again brought forth.

See this idiom in Introduct.

Part III., on the subject of Adverbs.

See Luke xx.

11.

^DDI
b.

comp. of 5 and 3

sing. fem. pres. kal, written in full 5|p^^n, Gr. 34;

and

Avith the accent

on the penult, ?]p^sn, Gram.
7.

9. 10.

and 30,

Of

S]pX added, parad.

435. T\\T7 comp. of

7

thus pointed before the tone syllable,
;

and

inf. constr.

of

\7\

parad. 8

contr. for ri*T 7^, Gr. 39.

Vcr. 1—4.]
436.

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
conip. of

51

VnX
/^n

MX

subs.

m. a

brother', constr. ^llX witli affix

VhX

instead of the usual form ST\^, see
lit.

Xo. 305.
name, Abel,

437.

rauity, a quicJihj vanishing vapour, pr.

in pause for 7'2T\.

438.
act.

ny^

a feeder, keeper of, constr. of
parad. 13,

nj?.1

one keeping

;

part,

kal of

nj^"!

fed
is

(a flock).

The view
coll.

that the par-

ticiple is actually a

noun

here corroborated.
;

439. |5<^ subs. com. a sheep or goat
440. "l^y tiUcr of, part.
act.

sheep or goats.
parad. 2
;

m. kal of

*15J^

part,

here

used substantively.
441.

—Ver.
made

3.

D**^^ ]*|p^

lit.

after the

end of days,

i.e. in

process

of

time.

Some

render this expression, at the end of the year, see
D''^^ signifies year,

Lev. XXV. 29, where
is

and suppose that reference

here

to a yearly sacrifice offered in the antediluvian times,

similar perhaps to that

on the day of atonement among the Jews
too fanciful,
is

;

but

tliis

supposition

is

and

is

supported by no auis

thority.

The

exjjression

quite indefinite, and there

nothing

in the context to justify this rendering of D**^^, as in Lev. xxv. 29.

VD!3 comp. of "^ and

Vp

subs, m.;

ground form VVP end; compare
to our idiom, that

VVp
i.

cut, ends of a string, the parts cut.

442.
e.

rp

5<1*1

and; according

Cam

brought,

offered.

See Xo. 275.
subs. fem. a gift, a gift (ofiered to

443.

nni^

God), an

offering.

L'ndcr the JcA^dsh economy, this word was generally confined to
bloodless ofierings, called meat offermgs, such as those of flour, etc.;
see Levit.
ii.

1.
is

This distinction, however,
apjjlied

is

not here observed,
ofierings.

since nH^/b

both

to Cain's

and Abel's

444.
{*{1i to

—Ver.
come.

4.

{^''^il

offered, see

No. 441; 3

sing, praet. hiph. of

445. tO^'pnO^ IIS*^
the fat thereof.
tlicy

nnb5^

of the firstborn ofhisfiock, and of

If sacrifices were of divine institu.tion, as doubtless

were

;

the reasons for their being ofiered, and the rites and

ceremonies to be observed in ofiering them, must likewise have

been made known.

It

should seem that the offering of the

first-

born, requii-ed under the Mosaic law, was founded on previous

commands, and pre-existing consuetudinary usages it is consequently probable, that in Abel's sacrifice, the whole burnt offering
:

52 was separate from the
Lord's" (Lev.iii. 16).

ANALYSIS OF
ofFeriiig
I.

[Chap.

iv.

of the

fat, as

was the case mider
the fat
is

the Jewish clispensatiou (Lev.

and

III.);

"AH

the

446. nhb3/t2 comp. of •^, and plur. of rTlbS, in full n"li:D5,
art.

34; the kJiolem inmioveable, Gr. 56, 57, subs.
cleft,

icwx. firsthorn,
xiii. 12.
-12

fi^m I^S
447.

hroke forth, cogn. *lp!3
of
\

cleft, see
^,

Ex.

jnS/n^^ comp.
^, Gr. 123
(h),

before the labial

and

before the

guttiu-al
class,

and

5/0
i.

gi'o^^d form of l^Pl, seg. of (e)
cogn.

m.

the exterior coating of the flesh, i.e. fat',
e.

i/n

the

exterior coating of the millc,

cream. Prof. Lee's Lex,
;

448. J^^*1 and accepted, koi ireptpOr), S\Tnmachus koI iveirvpiaev Theod. Comp. of and r\)^p\ apoc. V^\, Gr. 37 and 115, 3 sing,
^.

m. pres.

h-al

of HJ^^ looked, regarded, looked at (favourably), ac-

cepted, parad. 13

and

3.

449.— Ver.
see Gr. 95.

5.

IHripi:

comp. of pron.

afl".

1

and ^Vip Xo. 442.

450. nySJ', see No. 447. 451. ni<^ l^p? "^D*!! lit. awe? «Y hiirnedto Cain exceedmghj, namely the anger, i. e. Cain -was exceedingly wroth, comp. of \, and 3 sing,

m. apoc.

pres. of
1.

Hnn, parad. 13 and
2.

3, see

No. 447, burned.
with
this

word ^X

the nose-,

anger,

is

understood:

The word

supplied, the passage might be literally rendered

and

Cain''s nose

hurned exceedingly

.

This idiom seems to have arisen from the
titillation or

understanding that a

heat in the nose was an attendant
?|v^ is

on violent emotions of anger. The word
see

sometimes expressed

Numb. xi.
brow
or

33.

452. V^|) ^73*1

of the

and his countenance fell, referring to that lowering countenance, which proceeds from anger, disappointxi. 15,
T5|j{

ment, or distress, see the opposite expression in Job.
'T'^^

^WP\ "then indeed shouldest thou
and 3
6.

lift

up thy
^

face."

Comp.

of

\,

pi.

m. pres. kal of

T'321 joarad.

5 ; and

/3^ 3 plur. pret.

kal in v.

V^3 comp. of pron. affix and tD'*^3, with the termination removed to make way for the affix, Gr. 49, see No. 14 with pron.
453.
;

aff.

of 2 pers. sing.

'^\^|).

454.

—Ver.

6.

H^/

ichy, wherefore,

comp. of 7 with accent and

Vcr. 4—7.]
etq)h.

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
7,

53
11^7 or
T]Jj7 in

dagrsh

and

T\t2

intcrrog. particle ichat

;

reference to what ^^ i.e.

tchij ?

ichcfefore?

455. rrnn see 450. 456. h^£) see Xo. 451.
45T.
"TI^JS

see

Xo. 452.

458.
case)
;

—Ver.T.
X7
etc.

Nl/H

lit.

vhether not, ichether

(is

it)

72ot

(tlie

Lat. nonne-, comp. of
see

H

interrog. particle,

and

i^l/

commonly

written

Xo. 206.
lit. //"

459.

n*tp'n DiS

thou chest

icell,

DJ<

ground form pi^

certainty, truth,

hence adverbially certainly,

truly, really;
2c&

and in

oaths or vows which are laid
if;

down
(a)

h\-pothetically,

putting a case,

Sax. gif,

i.e.

grant:

stating the matter as a fact taken for
l3''tp''ri

granted, see Prof. Lee's Lex.

2 sing. m. pres.

hijih.

of

iD^

loas good, in /wj^A.

6??'(/

^ooc?,

parad. 9.
that for 'r\W},

460. nN*b^ contr. for
constr. of

HK^, and

Gr. 39,

inf.

N^^

jiarad. 5

and 12;

1. lifted %ip; 2. ^oo/v

aicay; 3. Ttdth

j1^ expressed or luiderstood, took

away
2.

(sin),

and hence pardoned.
1.

The

Avord in the text

is

used substantively, and conveys,
;

the

ideas oi elevation, raising

hence

a height, a

rising, as in the

spot that indicated leprosy; 3. excellence, dignity, majesty.

I canrefers

not find any passage in the Heb. scriptures where this
directly to the
sin

word

pardon of sm, although acceptance or pardon of

may

certainly be implied, as in this passage.

461.
class,

nn37
nXiSn

contr. for

nnSH/
1.

at the door; 11313 subs.

m.

seg.

(?')

an opening, a

door, an entrance.
sin; 2. a sin offering; 3. the punish-

462.

subs. fern.

ment of sin; the original notion conveyed by this word, is that of missing a mark, hence of erring, or loandering strajdng from the
,

right path, compare S^^H-

463. 1*51 m.

act. part,

hal of j*!*!

T^ny,

crouched,

as

animals

uj)on their In-easts, ^dth

their1

legs folded, see

Gen.

xlix. 9.
to,

464.

T

/X")

comp. of

cop. conj.,

and prep. 7X
and

towards, and

pron.

afiix,

2 pers. sing. m.

465.

inp^Ji^iTi
is

comp. of pron. Gen.

afi".

1,

Hp^tJ';^ see

Xo. 390.
of

This word
Cant.
vii.

oidy used three times in the Heb. scriptures, in
iii.

10, in

16,

and in

this passage.

In the

first

these passages

it is

thus translated and explained by Schleusner,

54

ANALYSIS OF
iTnarpocjjr],

[Chap.
i-psins prope?isio

iv.

Lex. Vet. Test., sub. voc.

"aninii

erga

me, seu prac amore
obvious
tliat this

et

iiiei

desicU-rio totus in

me

convertitur, ut
it

soleut amantes fixis oculis am^icas suas intueri."
is

In Gen.iii. 16,

word

signifies
it

a tcoman''s jMssion for her husbear the meaning of strong

hand.

In

this verse

I take

to

propensity, or lust; Gr. eindv^ia, as applied to the lusting after

what
M.'Ti

is

evil in

many
rj

parts

of the

New

Test.,

see

Eom.

vi.

12,

ovv (3acn\everco

aixaprla iv

t^

dvrjTU)

vfjbMV aco/xaTL,

et?

to
for

vrraKoveLV avrfj iv ral^ iTndvfMMi'i avjov.

I can find

no ground
any

apph-ing

this

word

to fraternal affection generally, or to

sort

of propension of a younger towards an elder brother, which was

not reciprocal.

466
y^f2

'T't^ttri

shalt, shouldest, 7nust ride,

2 sing, m, pres. kal of

ruled.

After a careful consideration, I

am

led to adopt the
l''tp''tp

following view of this very difiicult passage;
doest
icell,

D{< if thou

I conceive not to refer to Cain's general condvict, but to
to the nature

be restricted

of the offering spoken of in the pre-

ceding verse, to the
see

Heb. xi.

4.

mode of offering it, and to the offerer's faith, The rendering of this expression by the LXX.
7rpo(TeveyKr]<i,

exactlv coincides with this view, iav 6p0M<i
ohtulcris.

si recte

Hi^b' I regard as opposed to

Vi3

^7lp*5

in ver. 5,

and

as

signifying elevation, raising (of the countenance), and hence,

by

imphcation, acceptance, j^ardon.
door, I regard as idiomatical,

Vyi ^^^D^ Hn^/ siti
I regai'd
is

lieth at the

and expressive of the contraction of
the pron.
aff.
1

guilt involving penal consequences.

joined to (Ip^SJ'n as referring to
as

HX^n, which
T'^'l,

here construed
I consider that

masc,

as

appears from the gender of

and

13"7D^^ri nn^J refers to Cain's obtaining the mastery over sin,

and not

to his

dominion over his brother,

for

although primogeni-

ture, at least in after -times, involved certain rights

and privileges
it

in regard to precedence, and succession to propert}^,
ar)pears that the expressions here

no where
fraternal

used are applicable

to

relationship.

The whole passage may be

thus literally translated,

" If thou doest well, raising (of thy countenance), and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door, and thine the lust of it, still
thou mavest obtain dominion over it;" the scope of which is, "If thine offering be in faith, thy countenance shall rise, for thou shalt

Ver.7— 10.]
be forgiven; but
to
is

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
if tliiiie offering

55

be not in

faith,

thy sin rcmaineth,
it

which thou hast a strong propensity, which, notwithstanding,
thy duty to subdue."

467.—Ver.8. S^H'SnI

[^p

1^X1

a?id

Cain said unto Abel.

And

Cain talked

to

his brother, either quietly to lull

him

into

secm-ity, or

reproachfully as a prelude to
said to

the

sin

he was to
it

commit.

As what Cain
is

Abel

is

not mentioned,

has been

thought that there

an

ellipsis in
:

this passage, Avhich has

been

thus supplied in the Sam. Pent.

iTlLi^ri

n^/.?,

let
;

us go into the
in the Vulgate.

field ; in the Septuagint, hteXOoiixev et? to Trehiov

egrediamur foras ; in the SjTiac Vers, eamus in desertum.

In the

Targum
468.

of Onkelos this ellipsis

is

not supplied.
sJi'va II

DnVn^
i.

comp. of 3 before
of
ichen they ivere.

and the pron.
13.

aff.

plur
lit.

3 pers. and

inf. constr.
e.

H^H was, parad.

See No. 2T0 ;

in their being,

469.

nn^5
38.

in the field (fields), contr. for nntTH!!.

See Nos.

36 and

470. CjTl

and

rose up, com}), of

\

and 3

sing. masc. pres. kal of

D^p, parad. 10,
471.

to rise;

with the accent Q^p^, or D1(T-

/^, see No. 71. /^H"''^ against Abel. 472. IHil'iri*! and slew him, comp. of \, pron. affix

^H— and ^*iri^,
,

and with the accent removed
the
vdt.

to the

union vowel of the
^'Hll

affix

and

vowel

lost,

JIH^ 3 sing. pres. kal of
*

sleiv,

parad.

2 and

3.

473.

—Ver.
'^T\'^'V

9.

^i|{

constr.

form of

''X

see

No. 354.
4.

474.
475.

I know,

1 sing. pret.

kal of J^l) parad. 8,

^O^^D comp. of

interrog. part. H,

and

*1^£J^

keeper, act.

part, kal masc. of

476. 477.
13, 2.


'

1^^
T\l2

parad. 4, kept, guarded.

^'cr. 10.

interrog. particle what, generally pointed

H^-

n''SJ^J^
'

hast thou done ? 2 sing. m. pret. kal of HSJ^ parad.

478.

'*2p'^,

the bloods of,

i.

e.

blood of, constr. of

C'iJ'^,

plur. of

D"!, subs. ni. blood,

Gr. 94, and 49.
still

479. D\"5y^, crying, (keep) crying, (arc)
struct,

crying, plur. con-

m. of

act. part,

kal of p^^, cried, parad. 3;

penult vowel
''^'1

immoveable, Gr. 59 and 75.

This word agrees with

instead

of 7ip, as might be expected, see Prof. Lee's Gr.215, 12.

The

56
following
is
is

ANALYSIS OF
tlic

[Chap.

iv.

rule

there

given

;

" When the suhjecf of any
with any
agree in gender and

proposition

found in the dejimte
is

state of construction
to

word, the predicate
with the

mostly made

number
is

last of these,

provided the sense of the predicate will

apply to both (by the figure zeugma).
cited there as

The passage
ii.

in the text

an example, see also
11.
IJll

1

Sam.

4.

480.—Yer.
ground; in

nri^J"111>^, cursed (be) iliou

from

(or by) the
its

as far as the
;

ground

is

concerned,

it

will not yield

strength to thee

the very grotmd will curse thee.

Glassius and

Kos. thus understand the passage, "thou shalt be a cursed (exile)

from the ground,"
481. 482.

etc.

nn^S
ri''3

opened, 3 sing. pret. hal of

n^3

opened, parad. 13.

its

mouth, comp. of pron.
formation of the

aff.

H, and ^3 constr. of 113

the mouth, the

const,

form

is

irregular,

and

probably
different

is

founded u]3on some word of the same meaning, of a
/or the reception

form now obsolete; the regular form would be HS) Gr.96.
lit.

483.

nnpp,

of, to receive,

comp. of 7 before

the tone syllable 7 Gr. 126((?), and
parad. 5, contr. for HPlD /, Gr. 39.

Hnp

inf.

const. Jcal of

np7,

484. "^I^P

from
12.

thy hand, in pause for "^1*^, comp. of -^ and
aff. '^.

n^ subs. fcm. the hand, and pron.

485.—Yer.
smg.

TbyH
of

*3 icheti thou

tillest,

*3 see

No. 29, here

rendered when, see also Gen. xxxi. 37. Glass,
mi. pres. Jcal

p. 375.

liyH, 2
to

*T55^,

parad. 2.
llt.

486. "^S nri3"nri 5]p^*n"^s*7
strength
to

it

shall not

add

give its

thee;

see the

same idiom in No. 433.
parad.
7.

^P^^^ 3 smg.

fem. pres. hal of

*0^ added
T\^T\, r\T\

487. nri contr. for
T\yr\, contr. Pir\,
|n!l

and that

for ri^Jl?, Gr. 39,

ground form
kal of

hence

Gr. 39, and Gr. 115;

inf. const,

parad. 5, gave.

488.
It

nn2

comp. of pron.

aff.

fem. T\— and

H^ subs.

m. strength.

hence appears that the land into which Cain removed was more
than that which he had
left,

sterile

and that the

difficulty of pro-

viding food was in consequence greatly increased.
as

In

this case,

was

afterAvards threatened in that of the Jews, the land
its

was

made

barren, being cui'sed for the sin of

inhabitants.

489. lij y^ these are participles used substantively; the former,

A'cr.lO— 14.]
>*i

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
m. lal of ^1^
3. to

57
1. to

part. act. sing.

ijarad.

10 and
(in
I,

4.

shale;

2. to

he
"1^1

agitated, disturhed;

wander

distress

and

agitation).
act.

comp. of

*

before the tone accent
tOlJ.

Gr. 125 (5), and part.
I. to

m.

/.r//
;

of l^i, cogn.
3. to he

Lat. we/^-o

;

shake ;

2.

to

nod (the
It

licad)
Avill

moved

to

and fro

;

4. to

wander

as a fugitive.

hence appeal* that these two >vords are nearly synon^Tnous.
is

This idiom

frcqiicntly adopted in

Heb.

to express a sentiment

in the superlative degree, or to give intensity to

an expression,

and

is

employed

in consequence of the povert)^ of the

Hebrew
is,

language in adjectives.
ject of

See Introduction, Part III., on the subof the expression in the text

Comparison.

The meaning

a miserahJe vagahond. a very vagahond.
490.

—Ver.

13.

''^'1^

comp. of pron.

affix

of the

first
;

person, and
subs. masc.

p^, after the removal of the accent pV, Gram. 74
1.

punishment of sin. 491. J^ltJ^il^ comp. of -D, which with 7^15, forms a comparative;
sin; 2. the

great

from enduranee,
3. lifted

great hexjond endurance, greater than

I can
hore;

hear
2.

;

^s^^Il infin. constr.

hal of ^^^^, ordinary form
4.

Hi^ki^.

1.

endured;
(sin),

up;
it
;

took

away

;

parad. 5; with pj^ took
pj^,

away

pardoned

and likewise without
It

but with 7 of

the person or crime forgiven.

should seem, however, that

N^^

does not signify absolutely, and without pj^ or 7, to forgive sin. 1 consequently jorefer here the common rendering of this passage,

and likewise because
follo^-iug verse,

this -vdew is supported by what is said in the where the nature and insupportable circumstances

of the punishment are described.
passage, "great
to

Many

commentators render the

my

sin

above forgiveness," i. e.

"my sm
it,

is

too great

be forgiven;"

or,

according to Michaclis' conjecture, "is

my
r)

sin

too great to be forgiven ?"
fxov

The

LXX.

render

fiei^cov

alria

Tov a^eOrjvai

fie.

So Onkclos, Syr., Arab., and Vulgate.

492.

—Ver.
where

14. "U"l P^^l^. jH lo thou drivest

me

this

day out of

this land.

n^HXri

apj^ears to

be here restricted

to the region or

district

Adam

and

his posterity resided; the article

H

has

the force of

RS^n

this, '

H/tDlXn ^i£)=n^"fXn see No. 14; h^^^ -'t;-tt-:t tt-:t":

2 sing. m.

2:)r8et.

jnh. of ^'^^ parad. 3, expelled, extruded,

and

S^l^^l,

No. 418.
493. ^T^DVi

Y"^^''

^^^-

«^^^^/'*^"^ thy

face

(i.e.

from thee) shall

; ;

68

ANALYSIS OF
he hid, see

[Chap.iv.
of

I

No.

14.

^HDNt

1 sing. pros. nij)h.

^HD

parad. 4,

hid.

494,
tlie

''i^)il2Jindifig

me, comp. of the pron.

aif. 1

pcrs.,

-\vliicli

takes

accent,

and X^b, in
;

full ^^>(^^, part. act.

masc. kcd of

NV^

parad. 12, found

as to

change of vowel, see Gr. 75 and 59.
affix "'^~

495.

^^,^*iri!

comp. of pron.
;

and 3

sing.

m.

pres. kal of

Jin, see No. 471
496.
fore-,

and

yi'H part. act.
lit.
iii

m. kcd of the same.
i7i

—Ver.

15.

p/

respect to certainty,

truth, where-

comp. of

7, before the tonic accent 7, and

p,

see

No.

63.

The

LXX.,
p.
case
;

the Vulgate, Sp*., Sjan. and Theod., seem to have read ^s)

LXX. have ou%' ovrw, not so, i. e. this shall not be the which rendering is ajjproved by Dathe, Kos., and Schultens. 497. "1-31, J'n.n"73 " quod attinet ad omnem occidentem Cainum,
The
;

septies vindicabitm-," sc. Cainus

Storr. pp. 292, 293.

498.

D^n^5^

seven times, dual of

HJ^^^

f-

seven.
xii.

" Septuplum
;

supplicium pro multiplice ut saej^ius," Psal.
Matt,
xviii. 21, 22.

7

cxix.

164
occi-

"Dicit itaque Deus,

eum

qui

Cainum

derit gravissimas poenas luiturum." Ros.

499.

Dp.''

3 sing. m. praet. puh. of DD^ parad, 5, revenged, took

vengeance.

500. 501.
slew.

nm see No. 218
niSn
Infin, hip)h.

;

Hlw^

No. 99

;

'7^77 No.

362,

of H^J, parad. 5 and 13, struck, piei^ced,

502.

iXV^
first

see

No. 494; the

affix

here

is

of the

tliii'd,

there

it is

of the

person,
16.

503.—Ver.
504. ""^S^O

XV*1 comp. of
ive?it out.

5

and 3

sing.

m. pres. kal of X^J

parad. 8 and 12,

from
and
8

the

face

of,

from
and
1

before
*^iD,

=from,
14.

see

No. 14

comp. of '0 and
505. ^^*1

7, before sh'va 7,

No.

dwelt, comj). of
;

and 3

sing. pres. Aal of HK^J

sat, dwelt, parad.

without the accent '^^\
its

506. *nJ Nod, pr. name, probably so called from
place of Cain's wandering or banishment.

being the

See No, 489.

507. riDnp on the east of; see Nos. 257 and 217,
508.

—Ver.
8.

17.

^Tl and knew, comp.
guttui'al takes

of

1

and 3

sing. pres. kal of to tsere

yi^ parad.
or segol.

The

pathakh in preference

Ver. 14—20.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
i.

59

509. "ni^n pr. name, Enoch,

e.

dedication.
i.

510. ri^3

*^7y\

lit.

and he

teas building,

e.

and he

huilt,

see

No. 232
511.

;

n^3

part. act. hal,

m. of T\yi

built.

T^

a r?Vy, subs. fem.
so^?,

512. 1^5 /"s
lost

comp. of pron.

aiF. i

on the annexation of the pron.
nTy-HiS* "^i^nS

affix,

and |5 « so/? the vowel is which takes the accent.
;

See No. 279.

513.—Ver.
ed,
it

18.

^b'^).

were

this literaUy render-

woidd

be, there

was born

to

Enoch

(a son), note or
sing, imp., the

mark, Irad.
nominative

Excepting in the 3
of the Heb. verb
or suffixed.
is

sing. pret.

and the 2

incorporated with

it,

in the

pronoun prefixed

See Introduction, Part III., on the Verb.

The
is,

ap-

parent nominative

may

therefore, in these cases, be said to be in

appjsition to the pronoun; as, he (a son) teas born, that I have an imjaression that H^^, in such circumstances,
is

Irad.

the frag-

ment of an imperative of some verb cognate with
fi'om niJ^ a signed,

^i^?, derived

mark, and
it

is

designed to direct attention to the
This conjecture in regard to

word

"svith

which

is

connected.

T\^ I submit to the reader.
ordinary explanation given,
active,

I confess I
viz. that

am

not satisfied A\dth the

HK

marks the object of
4.

and the subject of passive verbs.
is

See No.
"1.73*5

The noun
\

|5 a son, with ^7^

often not expressed.

comp. of

and

3 sing. m. pres.
514.
cussus,

nijih.

of *1/^ parad.
pr.

8.

/{St^^n^ or

vX^^n^
struck,

name.

Ges. says, forte a deo pcr-

from

T\r\'t2

and /^ God.
i.e. vir

515.

/N^^n^ pr.name,
19.

Dei.

Ges.

516. "^07 i^ pause for "H^l? Lamech, x.^.jurenis talidus. Ges.

517 —Ver.

^'m
this

xcites, pliu".
D''?^'^.

of Hk^N*, contr. for
Prof.

H^^X,

plur.

D''^JX, per aphaeresin
different

See Ges. Lex.

Lee takes a

view of

word, see Lex.

518. n*lj^ pr. name, ^^f/A, i.e. ornament.

519.
520.

npV pr.name,

Zillah, i.e. shadovj.
pr.

—Ver.
iK^**
^Im^l

20.

/'2.\

name, Jabal,

i.

e. river.

521. ^5^? constr. of IK, see No. 305.
3.

1.

father;

2.

ancestor;

founder (of a nation, or family) ;
522.
dweller, here
dicelt.

4. inventor (of

an

art).

used

collect, dwellei^s, sing.

m.

part. act.

kal of

parad. 8,

;

'60

ANALYSIS OF
524. njp^l conij). of

[Chap.iv.

523. ^nj^ tent, collect, tents, subs. sing. m. seg. (o) class.
*!

before the labial

from n^p.
2, tcealt/i,

\.

created; 2. possessed ; 3.

purchased. —

1

and HIlp^,
1.

subs,

m,

possessw7i;

consisting princijially of cattle

and

sheej), Avliicli cona;t»)vo9,
.

stitute tbe

wealth of
Krrjixa,
;

nomad

tribes; 3. cattle.
;

Compare Gr.
*£^'^^5

pecus, and

possession

6'i<;,

oris,

and Lat.

ops, -plwv opes

and pecu,
34.

cattle

pecunia, money.

Ros. supposes

men
clause

of,

understood before Hip^, see the
riljp^
""^'^J^

fidl

expression in Gen. xlvi. 32,

nien of cattle, Iicrds?nen.

The whole
oIkovvtwv eV

is

thus rendered in the
KT€V0Tp6(f>a)V.

LXX.

ovt6<; tjv Trarijp

(rKr]vai<i,

525.

—Ycr.

21.

b^Sh

part. act. masc. kal of S^Sj^) parad. 1, took,

held, hatidled.

526. ^133 subs. m. Gr. Kivvpa, cithara, a stringed musical instru-

ment.
struigs,

According

to

Josephus, " a musical instrument with ten

played with a plectru.m."

527. n^^y subs. m.
cise nature of

Some kind
it

of musical instrument, the j)re;

which

is

impossible to determine
ptipe,

by some

it is

thought to be a Pandean
Ges. Lex.
528.

by

others a

lute.

See Lee's and

^Ver. 22. T\7%\
is

and as for Zillah
Cain, pr. name.
;

(she also), etc.; the con-

struction

here absolute.

529.

brews;
nations

t^p Telchini,
;

7i^n Tubal

Tubal Cain of the HeDwallin, of the northern
all

mentioned by Strabo
;

and Vulcan, of the Latins

are

described as the

first

who

taught the working of metals.
tJ^tp? part. act.
;

530.

m. kal of ^ly? parad.
an instructor.

1,

sharpened (a

tool, a
art.

wea,pon)

2.

applied to the instruction of any one in any
2.

^D?

1.

a sharpener;

Ar. Poet. 304.

Ges. renders

531. SJ^in part. act. hal masc. of

^p7 beat, ^IH

"Fungar vice cotis," Hor, hammered out. See LXX.
parad. 2 and 3, cut, fabri-

cated, icrought; here, an artificer.

Ges. renders this word, "tlie

instrument which

is

cut or formed,"

which

is

quite contrary to the

analogy of such words.

See Gr. 59.

532. np'n^ subs. com. seg. (o) class, brass, or rather copper. 533.
/.n.^ subs. masc. iron,

supposed
is

to

be of Chaldee origin.

The rendering

in our version

supported by the

Targum

of

Ver.20— 23.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
is

Gl

Onkclos, wliile that of Gcs.

supjoortcd
is

Sam.

vers.,

Arab., and Syv., and

as follo^ys

instrument of brass and copjier."

I see

by the LXX., Vulgate, " a maker of every no good reason for aban:

doning the view of the passage taken in our translation, which

is

approved by Prof. Lee, a most judicious
is

critic,

and Avhosc opinion
and ^i^^^, constr.

entitled to great weight.
Oo4:.

mnXT

conip. of H before the comp. sh'ca
sister,

•)

form

of mnX a
ri/^yj

from ^^5
i.

hrother.

534*.
535.

Naamah,
|>lpti'

e. siceetncss.

^'cr. 23.
full

hear, apocop. iinper. kal, 2 plur. fcm. of
first

yO^

heard;

form rij^^D^, which

becomes

\'^J2'^,

Gr. 37;
segol,

and then by the assumption of
jyrs^Gr.lO-t. 105.
536. "lO/
''??^^j

a furtive

pathakh instead of

ye

reives

wives, see Introduction Part III.,

of Lamech, according to our idiom, my on the subject of the Pronouns;
ed. Dathe.
M"ith pron.
'^^'^

and Glass. Phil. Sac. pp. 150, 151, and VC-'J his icives, pi. of the same
537. n|TXri, listen
|Ti^

constr. of

D^^^

aff.

see

Xo.51T.
|

to,

2

j^lur.

fcm. imp.

Jtijjh.

with

epeuth. of

obsolete, used once in pih.
yii^T^

and

AA-ith this

exception, only used
jTi^
\

in hiph.

gave ear
wi?/

to,

listened to, j^arad. 7, root
afF.

the ear.

538. \°'l0^j

word, rcords, comp. of pron.
'^^^? seg. {i) class, id.,
its

and

iTl/^i;^

subs. fern, xcord,

m.

ground form

^J2i^.

539. *3, this particle has here
serve,

original

meaning of mark,

oh-

and

is

designed

to

direct attention to

what follows; see

No. 29.
540.
5-41.
^JTIfll^lj

^ have
lit.

slain, 1

''yV^/,

for

my

xcound,

smg. pret. hal of j^^, sleic, parad. 2. the Avound that I have i. e.

received, ybr wounding me-, comp. of
subs.

7

prej).,

and yVI?

<^

wound,

ground form ^^3, and aiF. \ 542. \n*l3n7, comp. of 7 and rTlSH id. qu. rTn^Hil, a wound
m.
seg. (e) class,
is

in
is

which there

no separation, or

incision in the flesh such as
is

made by

a cutting instrument, but such as

inflicted
as

by

a stick or
to

scourge, a livid

mark in the an open wound; and pron.
hloic or bruise, for
is

flesh, root 'y2!P\ Joined,
afl". \

opposed

Tl'^^riT'

may be rendered for
In such

my

the bruise that I have received.

expressions there

an ambiguity, which can only be cleared up

fi-om the context; thus

ID^H

Ps. vii. 17, signifies his injury,

i.

e.

the

62

ANALYSIS OF
''p.^ri

[Chap.

iv.

23.

injury wliicli he inflicted;
I suiFer; so
to

Gcn.xvi.

5, mrj injury, i.e. AA-hich

amor Dei, may

either

mean

the love

which God bears
pre-

543.

me, or the love that I bear to God. "iV.*! even a yoiwg man, probably explanatory of
"1

t2'''K

ceding, comp. of

and "IT subs. masc. a youth.
Xo.'499, D^HJjnC^ No, 498.
.

544.— Ycr.
passage

24.

bj^.^

545. D'j;nty seventy, plur of j;5^, ground form pt^.

may be

thus rendered, " I have slain a
for bruising

man

for

The whole wounding
seven."

me, even a young man
sevenfold, then
shall

me,

if

Cain

shall

be avenged

Lamech be avenged seventy and

Lamech here

justifies

the crime wliich he had committed,

upon

the ground, that he had done so either under great provocation or
in self defence.

He

seems, likewise, desirous to allay the appre-

hensions of his wives as to the consequences of the homicide, and
to convince

them that

his case

was not parallel with Cain's.

11^ iterando, hinc continuando, pcrgendo, durOriginally a noun of Storr. pp. 310, 311 note. ando, h. e. ifcrum. ni$^"73 " the whole the form of the inf. of verbs of parad. 10
546.
;

—Yer. 25.

duration," Job xxvii.
54T.

3.

^y\\

see

No. 430.
called,

548. X'lpri^

and she

comp. of

\

and 3

sing. pres. Jial of

5^'lD, parad. 12 and 3.

It appears, that childi-en

were generally
See chaps, xxix.

named by
and
30.

the mother from the earliest times.

549.

Tp

prop, name, Seth, and

placed, substituted ;
suhstitution.

the meaning of

H^ 3 sing. m. pret. ImI of TW T^ is, consequently, position,
Ges.
1^"Til

550. '^^^{ another,

cum

dag. forte occulto.

551.

TD

1^'^l!

^'^,

since Cain slew him, rchom Cain slew;

comp. of pron.
jjron. affix

aif. 1

and ^IH, and with the accent removed
^TTlI-^
H'l^^S^ lit.

to the

T^.

Gr. 74.

552. Yer.

26.— "i:i1

and

to

Seth, cdso to

him

(Heb.Ae)

teas horn

a son;

we have

here K^H where

we shordd

have expected w.
553. 12\ ^ sing, masc, pret. puh. of Ij^ parad. 7, hcgot, brought
forth.

554.

Ji^i^Nt

Enos,

i.

e.

unan.

;

Chap.v.l.]
555. rX

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
a particle

63
see, behold.

of excitation, Engl,

^st,

To

establish this view, Prof. Lee in his Lex. p. 17 quotes a passage

from an Arabic author, which is thus translated, " I came to thee, behold Zaid stood," or " Zaid (was) standing," or " Zaid (then)
stands."

Hence
/H^n 3
;

it

has the meaning of then, at that time, and the
Prof. Lee's Lex.

usage of an adverb.
556.

sing. pret. hoph.

of

//H

parad.

G.

1.

incrced,

wounded, slew

from the idea of the separation of parts occasioned

by

boring or piereing arises that of loosing, hence 2. loosed; hence

the idea of freedom from restraint, and, consequently, that of /)ro-

faneness, dissoluteness, as in Engl, dissolute from dis-solvo
in nijjh. o. icas profane.

;

hence

The notion

oi perforating leads to that of

introdueing ox beginning, thus in hiph. 4. began; comp. Lat. /w?Y/«m

from

ineo.

From

the ord meaning, the following sense has been
est in

given to the passage in the text, tanc profanatum

rocando

nomine Jehovae, which

is

supposed

to refer to the introduction of

idolatry or of corruptions in the worship of

God.

From

the 4th

meaning the ordinary sense of the passage is deduced, which appears to be the correct one, then it was begun (men began) to call
upon the name of the Lord, which is sujjposed to refer to forms of pvdjlic worship instituted at this period, and observed by the
iiimily of Seth.

The passage

is

also thus

rendered by Dathe, tunc
This being the period

coeperunt homities de notnine Jovae voeari.
at

which the family of Seth began
vi. 2.

to

be called "the sons of God," done
to the original

see chap.

In

this translation, violence is

by rendering Kip? by
chap.
vi. 2,

voeari

;

it

is

also to

be observed, that in
nin^''^^.
77

the expression

is p''ri7Xn"'*!?4l5 i^ot

557.

— Chap.v.l.
LXX.;
;

Dli^ ni/iri

I^D
1.

HI,

avrnr^

^IjBXo^ yevia€(o<i
subs,

uvdpwTTwv
scg.

hie est catalogus posterorum

Adami; ^^D

m.

(?) class,

ground form ^30,

enumeration,
table,

2. register, re-

cord, 3. book

TrvT\T\

^Sp

a genealogical
It
is

see Matt.

i.

1,

^ilSXc? yeveaeco^ 'I-qaov Xpiarov.
is

to

be observed, that there

here a pause accent at the word tHi^, and that the above quotation is the title of the chapter, which some have supposed to be
a portion of antediluvian history
as in the first chapter, the

preserved

till

the times of jSIoses

word

np^

is

not found here.

558.

"1:11

mX

D'ri7X Xl^l DV!1

lit,

in the

dag of God's creating

64
man,
in the likeyicss of

ANALYSIS OF
liiui after

[Chap.
i.e.

v.

man, he made

God made his own

he him,
likeness.

wlien

God

created
is

The

Avord D\"l7J;{

here repeated "svhere/n'e shoukl use a pronoun. Part III. on the subject of pronouns. N*l5
inf. constr. kal.

See Introduction,

See also No. 536.

of X'lS, see No. 2, used here substantively

m the
559.

sense of creation, in die creationis

Adami

(sive) honiitiis.

—Ver.

2.

H^^IS
affix,

see
aff.

No. 157^

D^22^, their
\he, tsere

name, comp. of
D£J^ lost

l]^ No. 241, and pron.
addition of the

plur.

D~;

of

on the

wliich takes the accent.
lit.

No. 2T9.
created, " ipso

560.
illo

Diji'l^r' ^1''5

die creationis,"

day of their being Dathe; DJ^^lSH No. 194 («).
in the
1

561. ^n^5 andliced, comp. of
pres. kal. of

cop. conj.and 3 sing. masc. apoc.

n^H

lited,

apocope and change of vowels, the same as

in Nos. 23

and 25.
plur. of

562.

^'^Sp

^ht

three

;

fem.

H^W
to'

infra. 645.

The

folloT\T.ng rules are to

be observed in regard

the s}Titax of nu-

merals, which are abridged from Prof. Lee's
1.

Grammar, Art. 226.
substantives, are put

The numerals

in

Hebrew being

all

either in ajjjjosition or in the definite state of construction, with the

thing numbered, as in verse 7 of this chapter
eight

:

^^^

nli^p

T\'^'l2^

hundred year (years)

;

see Introduction, Part III.,

on the

subject of
year,
2.
i.

Number

;

and

m
;

tliis

verse, ri^^ HK/tp^ a hundredth of
i.

e.

a hundred years

in Lat. trias virorum,

e. tres viri.

The numerals from 3
as,

to 10 inclusively, are

mostly in the
for the sake

gender different from that of the thing numbered,
perhaps of variety;
lambs
3.
;

Q'bnp H^l^

or

UV^^

flJ^ntJ'

secen male

T))^^2 J^5^ seren female lambs. In like manner, when the numeral
ten, it

signifies

any number exetc.,

ceeding
to

may like"s\'ise
^'^\^ HJ^lSp^'l

disagree in gender with the thing,

be numbered, while the thing,
;

singular

e. g.

numbered D''^^^ seventy and
etc.,

will be put in the

seven

man

(men).

Prof. Lee's Gr.
4.

Art. 226."

The

plurals of the numerals from 3 to 9 inclusively,

make

30, 40, etc., respectively.

562*. JlK^^ comp. of

^

cop. conj.

and

constr. of

HNt^ a hundred,

Gr. 94, 95.
563. H/l*! and begat, comp. of
5,

and 3

sing. apoc. pres. hijih.

,

Vcr. 1—1'?.]

TlIK

BOOK
form

01'

GENESIS.
hence apoc. *T/V. and
Gr. 30
(J)');

65
-svitli

hiph. of "l7^ parad. 8, full

"T'7'^^

the accent

removed
(1),

to the penidt.
affix

I/V

inf. IvIlI, contr.

n^Sin, Gr. 50
564.
(lie,

with

H^Sin.'
(if 5,

T\'fy\,

and dlod, comp.
-witli

and 3

sing. pres. kal of T\\t2, to
ult. syllable
;

here in pause
it

the accent on the

when

not

in pause,

is

n^*1, the accent being on the penult., pronounced
(h), see ver. 5.
aff.

tay-ya-moth, Gr. 30

565. IttSv^l inian5, seeNos. 162, and 156 and 157; pron.
1

of the 3 pers. sing. 566.

— Ver.

4.

Vn*1,
13.

and

were, comp. of

-1

and 3

pi. ni. pres.

kal

of

n^n was, parad.

567. ^0', see Xo. 377. 568. ''inX, constr. of D'''inNt obsolete, plur. of "in^} hindei' part
n^jliri nnXlIl,
^<^'tJ'

t^^^ (-'>^ds

(end) of the spear, used as an adverb,
after.

and prep, of phice, backwards,
569.
570.

nvin.
T^}'!2i^,

Ins begetting, see

No. 563.
and Jlib^
constr.

eight, mas., T\'^Jy^ fern.,

571. T\)\y

nX^, a hundred year

(years), plur. of
(3).

MX^, Xo.562,
liied, parad. 13,

niC^ subs. fem. a year, sing, for plur. No. 562
572.

— Ver.
y^n,

5,

'•ll,

liv^d, contr. for ^^Pl, id. qu.

rfH

3

sing. pret. kal.

573.
constr.

constr. of

^^Fl

nine, m.,

and Hj;^]^ fem., and l^'^m

574.— ^>r. 6. U'}^m'n,fve
constr. fem. T\'^'OT], pkir.

years, constr.

mn,
and

fem. Hg^bn,

WWT{ffty.
constr. ^"2^,
T\'^'2^ fem.,

bib.

— Ver.

7.

^5^?
TTp'^,,

abs. seven,

ni?5t^ constr.

576.— Ver. 8.
vowels for
tim
;

^'^P,

twelve,

U'TP by

a contraction of the

D^FltJ^,

contracted for
*1^J^

D'H^t^ fem.
qu. "^^J^.

dual;

D^jp' masc.

rri^

fem. form of

/e/?, id.

These forms are

only used from 11 to 19 inclusively; in Lat. duodecim.

e577.— ^^er.9. D^^^n, ninety, plur. of ^tlP\, ground form
see

^^n,

Nos.573 and 562
10.

(4).

578.— Ver.

Trp^__ mn,fftcr,i, Nos. 574 and 576.
D'^nS^' srreidy, plur. of

579.— Ver. 12.

^5^, No. 562
5

(4),

ground

formp^.

GG

ANALYSIS OF
580. 7X7711^, MaJialah'cl ,
i.

[Chap.

v. 12.

e.

j)raise

of God, from 7/11 jjraised,

and

/i^,

581.— Yer.l3. Q^y^lX,
nj;31X
feni.,

forfij, plur. of

j;51« fow; No.5G2

(4),

rC^T]^

constr.

582.—A>r. 14.
constr. rr^.^y.

ibj;, also nbj; m. ^«?, fern. Pinb^JJ and

HW,
and

583.— Yer'15. n^£^ see No. 180.
584.

UW

sh-f>/,

pi.

of

W
lit.

mas.^

HW

fern.,

^T,

in

pause for

I"!.'',

pr.

name, Jared, see Gr. 31.
from ^H^

585

Yer. 18.

DW, see No. 576.
vir tcli,
vir,

586.—Yer.21. th^'^Tp, Methmelah,
and n^K^
58T.
teliini,

see Ges. Lex., in pause for

Hy^MnZp
sing.

see ver. 22.
hith. of

—Yer.

22. 'npnn*!, comj). of 0,

and 3

m. pres.
is

*n7ri parad. 2, went, walked', in hith.,

frequency or habit

implied.
life.

IValk,
(«.)

it is ^vell

known,
as
it

is

used

m scripture to
is

denote mode of
to

Dri7Xn"nX,

respects

God, having a regard
that

God, see

No. 4.

The meaning

of the passage

Enoch

(lived keeping

God continually before him) walked tcith
in timore

God; " ambulavit Chanocli
is

Dei," Onkelos.

The same expression
and V'^
aif.
;

applied to Noah,

chap."si. 9.

588.

^3i''X'1,

comp. of

\

constr. of
|

j'*X tcant,
lit.

defect,

used

as

an adverb, not; and pron.

Avith

epenth.,

and

xoant of him,

and he

not,

and he

(-svas)

not

see

a similar expression in Livy's

description of the death of Romulus,
terris fuit."

"Nee

deinde Romulus in
in regard to

Li v. Hist.

lib.

i.

c.

16:

and in Lysias,
Orat. 31, p. 494.
took

Hercules, "i^f dvOpoiTrov
589.

^j(f)avi(r07],
^^l

D^nSx

iriiS

npS

for

God

him.

(amplius) neque enim eum non amplius erat inter incolas terrae nam subtractus est, et ascendit in coelum per verbum quod est coram Deo," Targum of Jonathan.
occidit

Jehovali," Onkelos.

"Nee extitit "Et ecce!

nlarei

'JEvco^ jxereredr]

rov

fir]

IBelv

ddvarov,

Heb. xi.

5.

590.— Yer.
No. 570.
591.

25.

W'pp^ and eighty; comp.
HJ Noah,
pr.

of

\ and plur.

of T\p'^

—Yer.
ult.

29.

name,

rest.

592. *lb«S see No. 137.
593.
'^yi2'ny'_

shall comfort us;

comp. of pron.
lost

aff.

^J"

vs,

and

Dny

the

voM'el of

which

is

on the removal of the accent;

;

Chap.vi.2]
3 sing. m. prcs.

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
yj///.

67
1.

of

DHD

siyhcd, not used in kal: in nijih.
3.

be-

came sighing
Ave

;

2.

was

gj-ieved;

repented;

in pih. sig/ied (yrith),

sympathised with, comforted.

Instead of the foregoing expression
us rest, from PlIJ
see
it

might have expected

1^11''^ shall give
full

to rest;

with "which compare Hi in
rendering of the
translator

Hl^

rest,

No. 591.

From

the

LXX.

Siavmravcrei,

should seem that the

had

either

found ^l^H^y in the
is

text, or supjioscd that to

be the right reading, Avhich

more naturally connected with the
inf.

prep. |D following, than ^iD^H^^. vid.
jectiu-es

No. 2006.

Various con-

have been formed

as to hoAV

Lamech expected comfort
;

fi'om

Noah

in reference to the

ground which God had cursed

some suppose that he invented implements of husbandly, and thus
lightened
of Avine,

human

toil:

others, that

it

was owing

to the invention
:

by which mankind were refreshed and comforted others, that Lamech entertained the hope, that on account of Noah's piety, the curse, Avhich had been occasioned by the fall, Avould be removed from the earth. 594. ^^^VJ2f2 comp. of -^ and Hb'y^ subs. masc. ichat one does, work, from H^J^ parad. 2 and 13, did, and affix 1J— Gr. 99.
595.
]in^*>?/t?^

comp. of

^

and

-1^,

before the guttural

12,

Gr. 123, i;

and

constr. of [in^y.
'li'^'T

Sec No. 386.
affix
'^X.

596.

our hands, comp. of pron. Gr. 49.
f.

^^'^^

fhial of

T
3.

subs. fem. the hand.

597. rri'^NI 3 sing.

pret. pilfoJ of ^"15^ cursed, parad. 7

and
tj

598.—Ver.
i.

32.

HJ^
i.
i.

niN/^:

mTT^
heat.

Ion of Jive hundred

ears,

e.

fie hundred

years old.
e. e.

599. DK^ Shem,

name, renoicn.

600. 601.
602.

DH Ham,

warmth,

nS^ Japheth,

in pause for HS^, i.e. enlargement.
71111 began,

— Chap.
DlXn
il7
to

vi. 1.

3 sing. pret. hiph. of 7711.

See

No. 556.
603.
lit.

the

man, used

collectivelv for mankind.
infin.

604.

midtijjly,

comp. of ^ prep, and

kal of ^5'^>

parad. 6 and 2.
605. 'VO\ ivere born, 3 plur. m. pret. puh. of l7^ parad. 8.

606.

— Ter.

2.

1X1*1 and. (that) sate, comp. of
2,

-I

and 3 plur. m.

pres. kal of

^^{l sair; parad. 13,

and

3.

.

;

68

ANALYSIS OF
GOT. D'^n/NH"''^!! the sons of God.

[Chap
sons of

VI.

The

God

are pro-

bably the descendants of Seth, see chap.iv. 26, and No. 556; and
the daughters of men, the descendants of Cain.

The

evil conse-

quences of the marriages mentioned in

this verse,

prove the wisdom

of the prohibition of the jNIosaic laAv against intermarriages with

the heathen, and of the apostle Paul's injunction against being

"unequally yoked."

Upon
accounts

this

narrative

are probably founded the mythological

among
:

the heathens of intermarriages
as that

between gods

and men

such

between Uranus and Tithea, from which

sprang the Titans, from

riraivo), men of great stature; and as that between Anchises and Venus, Thetis and Peleus, etc. from which
;

intercourse were said to be produced great heroes, giants, etc.

607*.

mb

i.

e.

nj^'l^ TS^i^

llt.

good

(fair)
,

of countenance, fem^

plur. of i£3, written in full

608. ^np*l comp. of

-1

ilD good, goodly fair and 3 j^lur. m. pres. hal of np7 parad. 6
Z,-aZ

with dagesh implied in p, took. 609. ^in5 in pause for TT\^, Gr. 31; 3 plur. pret.
cogn. jD^j parad. 3 and 4.
4.
1.

of

^HS,

explored;

2.

examined;

3.

proved;

chose

;

5. liked, loted.

Their choice seems to have been regu-

lated fair.

by external aj^pearance:

n^H

HIltD

""JD

because they (were)

610.

—Ver.

3. V'JI ^TXVs

pT

^j 7

nonjudicahit,

sc. litigahit spiritus

mens cum homine in perpetuum, dum errare facit

cos caro,

i.

e.

" frustra tamdiu hominum
agree Ges. and Winer.

vitia

redargue,

dum

eos in varios libi-

dinis errores abduxit corruj)ta

eorum

indoles," Ros.; with

whom

"

My

spirit shall

not continually keep up

the process of judgment, rebuke, conviction, and condemnation,"
etc.

Bush.

The

translators of the Septuagint

seem
/jlj]

to

have read

1^1^ instead of |n^, and render the passage, ov
TTvevfjia /jLov ev to6<? av6p(o7roi,<i,

Karafjeivq to

"

My

spirit shall

not abide

among

men."

'•

Non

permanebit
;

ista

pessima generatio coram

me

in

aeternum," Chald. Par.

"habitabit," Arab, and Syr.

pT

3 sing.

pres. kal of p*l, ordinary
strove.

form p"! parad. 10 ; judged, contended,

611.

D|^3

according to Eos., Ges., and "Winer, comp. of % and
sin,

J^, ground form JJ^ error,

compare ^^^ erred

;

and pron.

aff.


Ver.

;

2—4

]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
of
their sin (sins).
"l^Nt.

69
to others
it

D—

their; because

According
pron.

is

comp. of 5 and
in that also.

^,

contracted for

rel. that,
is

and D5

also,

traction of

The only solid *1t?^X is unknown
is

objection to this view
in the

that this con-

Hebrew

scriptures at this date
style,

indeed

it

is

one of the peculiarities which marks the later
that
it

and the only probability
the Babylonish captivity. 612. "ib'l subs. m.

might have been introduced on

a re\-ision of the scriptures

by Ezra, or some other prophet, after The former vicAv ajipears preferable.
mankind, implying

1.

Jlesh, generally; 2.

the idea of weakness ;

3.

what

is

carnal or sinful, as opposed to

what

is

spiritual

ficsh, as

frequently used in Paul's epistles.

The

expression 'ib'l

NIH may

be here rendered he (being) carnal, i.e.
shall be, i.e. notwithstanding

on account of the cornaption of his nature.
613. Vtt^
Vri"l

still his (lays

man's

AA-ickedness his time of probation shall be extended to the period

of 120 years. 614.

See
4.

,1.

rendered

as

above in No. 490.
art. •(!

and D v^l3, only used in this passage and in Num. xiii. 32, in reference to the sons of Anak, and in both places translated by the LXX. ylyavTe^, which is no

—Ver.

D V^iHl comp. of

doubt the proper rendering.
about the etymology.
615.
1'JI p"'''^^^? D^l

There are great differences of opinion
Job xv. 25.
likewise

See Prof. Lee's note on

and

aftericards.

''When

the

sons of

God went

in unto the daughters of

men, then they brought
mighty men who
No. 568;
in

forth (children) to them, these

(are) the

ancient times (were)
616. p'^IDw^

men

of renown."

const, plur. of nn^{, see

p

particle,

already noticed.

Aben Ezra supposes

p"nr]J!{ to refer to what

took place after the deluge, and to the race of Anakims mentioned

by Closes

in

Numb. xiii. 33. The

context, however, seems to

shew

that p~''*in5;? refers to

what took place in consequence of the

intermarriages between the family of Seth and that of Cain, Avho,
it

shoidd seem, were remarkable for the greatness of their stature.
617. VS*i; 3 plur. pros, kal of
618.
5<1!l to enter,

parad. 10 and 12.
"llSil

C]3^ri comp. of
to a hunter,

art.

!!

and plur. of
9
;

a strong, mighty

man, applied
passage.

Gen.

x.

to a soldier or hero, as in this

Root

1'2^ prevailed.

619. D'i'n

'^lii'^^

men of name

;

Yy. renommes, from

nom name;

70
see Job. xxx. 8, DK^~

ANALYSIS OF
V^
^^5
lit.

[Chap,

vi,

cliildren (of those) tcWiout

name,

children of the infamous, ignoble, base horn.

620.

—Ver.

5.

T\3r\ great,

f.

of 3*1, ground form ^'^1, verb ^5"^fern.
;

621. nj^'n construct form of HJ^n luickedness, subs.
"^

if

the

admitted of dagesh, the form would be H]^*!
consequently immoveable.
J^yi.

;

the kamets in the

jDcnult. syllable is

The ground form of
was
"H^^,
evil,

the masc. form

would be
m.

Compare

^J?"!

and see

No. 230.
622.
is
*1V^.

subs.

seg. (i) classs,

ground form

anything that
;

fashioned or formed, as a vessel of clay by a potter
;

hence a

creation

(metaph.) of the mind, an imagination. See ^^* formed, etc.
constr. plur. of

623.

nb w'H'^

^^mf^,

other form riiimf2 subs.

iem..,what one
derised, etc.

tltinhs,

a thought,

desig//, jn-oject,

from ^D^H thought,

624. 12/ ///s heart, comp. of pron. aff. 1 and 3/, in full 5^11/, ground form of ^7 contr. for n!l7. Prof. Lee's Gr. Art. 77, Gr.
41, 115, the heart.

625.
out,

p'n,

ground form DPI

subs., thinness

;

compare pp'^ beat
restric-

made

thi?i;

now used
No. 230.
lit.

as

an adverb of extenuation, ov

tion, onlg.

626.

yn

see

627. Dl^n"/!!
continuallg.
l^''"/^"!,

totalitg

of the dag, throughout the whole dag,

Eos. thus renders the passage, commencing with
et

"

(nihil aliud praeter
t'jfiipai',

omne fi^mentum coo-itationum cordis tantum malum malum) per omne vitae tempus; " o\.7]v rrjv
viii.

Rom.

36.
it

628.

—Ver.
nb^^

6.

DH^^I and

repented, comp. of

and 3

sing.

m.

pres, nij)h. of DHII.

See No. 593.

629.

^3 that he
it

had made.
•)

630. Il^>^n*5 and

grieved him to his heart, comp. of

and 3

sing. in. -pvcs. hith. of 2^J^ laboured, teas in

pain;

as applied to the

mind,
631.

tvas grieved or distressed

;

in hith., loas grieved with one's self.

mS
;

see

No. 624.
1

632.— Ver. 7. n^^^?
wiped out
No.
2.

sing, jores. hal of

HH^,

parad. 13;

1.

cnmpletelg destroged.

633. ^nK'n^

/ Jtave

created,

1

sing. prct. hal of ^'y^, Jiarad 3

and

2."'

X2.

;

V('r.4— 9.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
man
unto beast,
i.e.

71
both

634. r\Jyi2 nj^ Q*l^^ lit.froin

man

and

beast.

635.

^n^n?

1

sing. prct. w?>A. of

DHJ, No. 628 and 593, I have
affix

repented,

I repent.
have made them, comp. of pron.

636.
1

'DT\'^\y^_,I

D—

before

pers. sing.
1

D

to distinguish it

from

DH'^K^S^.

thou hast

made them
found,

and

sing. pret. kal of
8.

H^ parad. 13 and
ni.,

2.

63T.—Yer.
parad. 12.

5<^5 fotind, 3 sing.

pret. hal

of

X^9

6SS. jn favour, grace, subs, 639.
''rj^.5
///

ground form pH.
II

the eyes

of (Jehovab); comp. of
|'>r

prep, and constr.

of D.-ry. Gr:"49; dual, of ]y_ constr.

^Ae eye, Gr.

50

(3).
first

At

the close of the 8th verse of this chapter ends the
i.

Parasha, or great section of the law,

e.

the portion appointed to

be read in the Jewish Synagogue, Acts xv. 21.

The

five

books of

Moses were divided
tercalated years, in
;

into fifty-four sections, because in their in-

which a month was added, there were fiftyfour sabbaths but, in other years, they reduced them to fifty-two, by joining two together; thus the reading of the whole law was
completed in the course of a year.
640.

Bush.
hisfonj (of

— Ver.
for so

9.

Noah),

ni/in Tw^ this is a record of the ni/in is rendered by Bos., Ges., and
4.

Lee, here

and

in

Gen.

ii.

See No. 194.

There

is

here no genealogical

account of Noah's pedigree, with the exception of the mention of
his
tlii'ee

sons, of

whom

previous notice was taken.

What
life.

follows

contains an account of the remarkable incidents of his
calls these

Dathe
is

words, " Inscriptio noti fragmenti."
of a

This verse

the

commencement
the
title
;

new

subject, of

and the sequel of the chapter has
not found in

which the above words are this peculiarity, com-

mon

to other
is

supposed portions of antediluvian history, that the
it.

Avord nin*'
641.

pnV

adj. m.j'ust, righteous; root

p1^ was

righteous.

642. D''pn adj. m. perfect, free from moral stain, upright, used

only in a relative sense;
xoas finished, teas perfect.

verb

WO^ finished, perfected,
aft'.

or intrans.

643. VrihlS comp. of 5? pron.

V"

,

and

plur. of ^V\, in full
life,

"^

subs. fem.

1.

retolution,

hence the period of a man's

age,

;

TO
a geiHTdtiun
\l.

ANALYSIS OF
;

[Chap.

vi.

race (of men); " Noali

was righteous, and
Eos.,

upriglit

in his generations," i.e.

throughout the periods in which he hved,
to

Prof. Lee's Lex.

ho7n{nes svi seculi

According

Ges.,

and others,

inter

inter aequales suos.

Dathe renders the passage

" omnixim ilhus aetatis maxime pius."
in the Arabic

The same meaning is given
ofJ2T) walked, see No. 587.

and Syriac versions.
hit/i.

644. ""^pnnri S sing. m. pret.
645.

—Ver.

10. D''^^

Tl^yiy

lit.

trias Jilii (liKorum), three sons.
•\

646.

—Ver. IL

nn^Hl

comp. of
;
.

and 3

sing. fern. pres. niph.
.

of nnSJ^ corruptee], destroyed in nijyh was corrupt, putrid, Jer

xiii.

7

was corrupt
conduct.

(in a

moral sense), parad.

3.

The

corruption here

sjjoken of respects the state of irreligion, violence,

and oppressive
pres.

647. S^T^^ni
niph. of
Jilled;

and was

Jilled)

comp. of

'\

and 3

sing", fern.

K7^
D^n

or i^T'D Jilhd,

used likewise

intrants., in nijih,

was

HJ^/D o

sing. fern. pret. lal, see ver. 13.
violence,

645.

subs. masc.

injury, icichedncss in general.

There

is

no preposition here,

as Avould

be required bv our idiom.

When

the relation between words was obvious from the context, in

the inflmcy of language, probably no prep, was employed to point

out that relation: e.g.
wes5,
i.

and

the earth loas jiUcd violence, or iciched-

e.

with violence;

see likewise

Gen.

ii.

7,

God formed man
is

dust of the earth.
obvious.

In both of which cases the relation

sufficiently

649.— Ver. 12. T\rT\m
pret. hiph. of the same.

3 sing. fem. pret. niph. of
;

Hng^ No. 646,

out of pause nnilli^^ Gr. 31

and

T\''T\pT\

had

corrupted, 3 sing. m.

650. ^^'Z subs. m.Jlesh, here used for mankind, see No. 612.

651. 13*1"^ his (their) tvay, seg. of the

(<•/)

class,

m. a path, a icay;
;

here used
pron.

iii

a

moral sense

:

ground form

'H'^'l

verb. '^C^ trod

and

aff. 1.

652.
to

—Ver.
own

13. T*p subs.

m. extremity, end, end (of life)

;

according

our

idiom, a man's end^

and

deatJt

are

synonymous terms,
and
D''^3

see

No. 440.
aff.

653. ''^37 comp. of 7 prep, and pron.

"•—
,

a plur.
for the

form, face; the termination being removed to
pron.
aff.

make way

Gr.40.

This clause

may be

thus literally rendered,

Ver.
"

9— U.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.

T3

The end (destruction j of all fiesh hath come to my face ;" but as we set before our faces what is aarreeable to us, ^JS/ has come to signify, or at least to imply, approval; see Ps. xix. 15, "Let the
meditation of

my
as

heart (be) to, or before thy face,"

i.

e.

approved

by

thee.

But

God

decrees what he approves, the passage
all flesh is

may

be more freely rendered, "the destruction of

decreed bv

me,"
and

th(>

allotted

term of 120 years hav-ing arrived; see verse 3 of

this chap.,

and No. 613.

X3

3 sing. m. pret. kal of

X13
''J3

parad. 10

12.

654.

Dn^^Sp

comj). of "^ pi"cp., grave

afl".

DIl
to

and

constr. of

C*^2 No. 14; \\\.from their faces; according
*J3
i.e.
is

our idiom the word
is

redundant, and the meaning of the expression

from

them,

hy reason of them;
air avrcov,

on account of wickedness committed by
;

them;

LXX.

propter
I;

eos,

Sam. vers.
)

655. ''^yn) and behold pn, and pron. uff. *

comp. of

conj., jH

lo,

ground form

656. On^'ntJ'^ (I) destroying them, purpose to destroy them ; comp.

of r\'r\l^6 iran. sing. m. hiph. of

nil^ No. 646, and

pron.
i.

aif.

D-

657. |*1.N»n~n5*J as respects the earth, see No. 587 (a),
eos e terra.

e.

anfcram

658.— Ver.
made.
659. r)5D

14.

r\pt 2

sing.

m. imp.

ZWof H^^,

parad. 2 and 13,

cf^

^ii'h

of, constr.

of TClT\ the penult, vowel being

inunoveable:

tlie full

form
Ex.

is

probablv H^Tl, in Chald. ^5n^i^'^:
reference to the vessel in which

only used here and

in

ii.

5, in

Moses was exposed.
660.
^!ify.

constr. plur. of

|*y.

a

tree,

wood, see No. 86.
'lSi2

661. *^^} subs., only used in this passage; cogn.
ISi^

pitch

;

here

may probably

signify, not

any particular

sjjecies

of tree, but
pi??e,

pitchy or resinous
cypress, etc.

wood

in general, such as the
it

fr, pitch
be the

Bockhart and Celsius regard
"HSil

to

exjpress,

from the resemblance of the words
the resinous quality of that wood.

and Kvirdpicraa, and from

662. D^3p plur. of jp, ground form pp masc. a nest, direUing; in the plur. cells, chambers, apartments, Gr. 115. 663. Hki^yrl 2 sing. m. pres. hal of

H^^

made, par. 2 and

13.

664. ri3r!ri"nt;{ as respects the arh; than shalt

mahe chambers

T4

ANALYSIS OF
i.e. in

[Chap.

vi.

(apartments) as respects the ark,

the ark; see No. 648, and

No. 587

(a).
«/?f/

665. n^SD')

shalt

smear (pitch); comp. of

\

conj.,

and 2

sing. ni. pret. hal of

133

parad. 4, root *l35 subs. m. pitch, hence
:

the original
perties

meanmg

of the verb pitched

from the uses and proexpiated, or

of pitch have arisen the notions of smeariuy, cotering,

comjiare

135 and
it.

cover; in

^^//?.

133

covered (sin),

i.

e.

atoned for
666.

'12 from, and ri15 constr. fT'S subs. m. « moveable residence, a ^ew^, Gen.xxvii. 15; residence, a house, a

n.**!!^

comp. of

residence (of a king), a palace; (of God), a temple; (of the dead), a
sepidchre; 2. those contained in a residence, a family
rior part of
;

3.

the inte-

any thing; hence

it is

used with the prep. |^ adverbially

in the sense of within, from loithin. 667.

r^n^ comp. of D for

-12

Gr. 19, and

^H subs. m.

The notion
;

involved in this word seems to be that of surrounding or enclosing

hence the side or wall of a building, but always that which

is

external; hence out-fields, lands, etc.; and with the prep. |^ used
adverbially, loithout ,

from

without, outwards, see Prof. Lee's Lex.

668.

1335

contr. for 133ri3,

comp. of 3 prep.

art. -11,

and 133

No. 665. Gr.35.

669.— Ver.
it, i. e.

this is

15. ^^^5— I^X nil lit. and how thou shalt make it.

this that thou

shultmake

670.

n^X

cuhit (cubits), see
is

No. 562

(3)

;

subs. fem. a cubit.

The

derivation

uncertain.

671. 11.5^ subs. m. seg. (o) class, ground form 115*5; and without
the accent
1|1^!t

(orch), length.

672.

n'^mn fifty,
its

see

No. 574.

673. 'I3ni

breadth, comp. of

H— pron. afF. and 3^1 (rohhbhy,
(o) class, length.

with the accent 3111, ground form of 3111 seg.
Gr. 110.
674. HJn^ip
its

height,

comp. of fcm. pron.

afF.

H—

and HDIp;
to rise, to

before the
stand.

aiF.

T\^)p stature (of a man), height, from D^p

675.

—Ver.

the admission

lib,

/ilV,

for compare 11^ shone, and 11T, of cognate words of the same meaning. Dual of this word,
light,

16. 1/1^ subs. masc. seg. (o) class, light, aperture

a windoxo;

;

Ver. 14—10.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
*iriV'! o//,

75
from
its

Dnn^

)won, the brightest part of the clay; see

pellucid appearance.
in this passage,

Although
can be

this

word

is

only used in the sing.

and nowhere in the
little
is

plural,

and only
for

in the dvial

signil\-ing )wo)i, there

doubt that the meaning above

given

is

correct,

and that there

no

solid

ground

rendering

it

tectum, with llos., ^Slichaelis, and Sehultcns.

Neither can there
it

be any doubt that Geseniiis

is

justified in giving

a collective

meanmg, and rendering it icindows. The reader is referred to many similar instances of singular nouns used collectively which
have ah-eady occurred, and been adverted to
the necessity of more
;

to say

nothing of

windows than one

for the admission of light

into a vessel of such size, of three stories,

and with many apartcomp. of pron.

ments.
076. n^^^P. thou
slialt finish ,

contract
|

it,

aft',

feni.

T\—

it,

referring to the ark, and

epcnth., and

H y^^T^

~ sing, masc.

ines. jrih. of 1173 parad. 13, icos complete, finished; in pih.,

com-

pleted, finish ed.

677. ri7y/p7|^ comp. of -^ prep, before sh^va
ascent,

12,

and

7,

and TxT^jZ
is

from TvT^ parad. 13, ascended.

This combination

used

adverbially,

and rendered
:

ttpicards.

thus translated
shalt finish
it

"

Thou

shalt

The whole passage may be make windoAvs in the ark, and thou
to a cubit,"
i.

[the ark]
till

upwards

e.

thou shalt slope

the roof upwards

the sides

come within the distance of a cubit

from each other.
wide.

The

roof consequently was not to be brought

exactly to a point, but nearly so
cubit

—the

ridge of the roof being a

"

Ad

cubitum consummabis,"

Sam. Vers.

" In

cubito consmnmabis eam," Onk. eTricrvvdjcov

7roirj(76i<; rrjv

ki^ojtov,

" colligens

(i. e.

contrahens suj)erne) facics arcam,"
is

LXX.

The

whole passage, however,
According
to the

very imperfectly rendered in the

LXX.

above view, directions are given in
;

this verse, in
is

regard to the Avindows, roof, and door
the dimensions of anv of these.

but nothing

said as to

678.
subs.

T}r\^')

and a

door, comp. of

\

before the labial

^

and

HH^
fem.

m.

seg. (^) class,

No. 460.
it,

679. rr^V? ^n the side of

comp. of 3

=^iid

1^— pron.
side.

aft",

T$, in

full "lIVj

ground form of 1^ subs, m,

tlie

Or. 72, and

115, 116.

76
•680.
D^b'JTI

ANALYSIS OF
2 sing, pres, hal of D^^^
id. qii.

[Chap.

vi.

16

XW

set,

placed,

parad. 11.
681. DTiHri, in
obs. loicer, loir est.
full

D^^rinn hn-est places

(floors), pkir. of ^rifiri

Ivoot rifiri under.

682. D*Jip^ contr. as in the former case, second places (floors),
phu-. of
*^t?^

second.

683.
684.

D^^'^Pbi^

third places (floors or stories), plur. of
lit.

^php

third.

— Vcr.
N13

IT. J^**?^

causing

to

come, (I) do bring, part. m.
to

Jiiph. of

?'o

come; in

7;^/>/^ ^o

cause

come, parad. 10 and 12.

685. 7^3^(1 the flood, conip. of T\

art.

and 7^3^ subs. masc.

Root hyfloved.
686.

nn^7

comp. of 7 prep, and

inf.

pih. of

HH^,

obs. in hal,

parad. 3, destroyed.

687. ^\y shall die, S sing. pres. kal of
688.

^1|l

parad. 4, expired.

—Yer.
to
''H'^'lS

18. ""ri^pni

and I

will establish,

comp. of
to

)

before

the comp. sh\-a ); and
in hiph.

1 sing. pret.

hiph. of

D^p

stand, parad. 10;

cause

to

stand,

to establish.

689.

?ng covenatit,

comp. of pron.

a.ff. \

Gr. 99, and

T)*'1^

subs. fem. a cutting;

and from the ceremonies used, a covenant,
obvious from Gen. xv. 10, and Jer. xxxiv. 18,

from rriS

cut.

It is

19, qu. vid.,

th;it sacrifices

were offered

at the

formation of solemn

covenants, and that the animals were divided, and that the cove-

nanting parties passed between the divisions

;

on which occasions

they probably imprecated certain curses against themselves in the
event of their failing to
that they
fulfil

the stipulated conditions

—perhaps

might be cut asunder,

like the carcases of the victims
fT'^l^l^ ^^^^ io

through -nhich they passed; hence the expressions,
enter into the covenant,

and

H'^'lSI'

"^5^ he passed into the covenant,

Deut. xxix. 11

:

and "in haec foedera veni," Yirg.^neid.iv. 339;
;

nils to cut a covenant, i. c. make., form hence the expressions among the Greeks and Romans, opKia rkyuvuv Te/xveiV (TTrovBaf;, and scindere, icerc,ferire, percutere foedus; which exri''15

and

pressions bear allusion to the striking of the victim, to

its

division,

and

to the oaths

taken on the occasion.

See Eustathius' note upon
ver.

opKia TTio-ra ra/xovre^,

Hom. Iliad, lib. v.

124; "Bta

rofxi]'? ^cocov

6vo/u,ero)v o" lirX (xe'yaKoi'i

opKoi iyivovro- l^er sectionem animalium

mactatorum juramenta de magnis rebus fiebant."

See a learned

("hap.vii.L>.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
Avorcl,

7T
a different

note by Prof. Lee in his Lex. under this

where

view

is

taken.
trith thee, in

690. "^nj^

pause for

'^T\'^,

comp. of pron.

aff.

^ and
1

^X;

in full

691.

nnX, ground form of HX' No. 4. nX^I and thou shall go, comp. of \ before
to enter,

the labial

and

2 sing, m.pret. kal of NIB
cause
to enter,

go

;

and

i^''^^ ver. 19, thou shall

2 sing. m. pres.
19.

/»};/(.

of the same.

See No. 684.

692.

—Yer.
inf.

rT'nn/

to

cause

to lice, to

keep alice, comp. of /

prep, and

hiph. of n^Pl lived, in hiph. caused to live, parad 2

and

l;J.

693.— A'er.
694, 75^.'!
sing.

21.

T\'0

take

^/?02<,

per

swcopen
5.

for

np7 Gr.39;
may

2

sing. masc. imper. kal of '^[Q,
is

parad

eaten, solet comedi. Glass, p. 203,
75^!>,

be eaten, 3

m. pres. niph. of

parad. 7; and ^IlXD subs, masc, ivhat

one eats, food.
695. riSpXI

and

collect,

gather, comp. of

")

and 2

sing.

m.

pret.

kal of

^PX

collected,

used here imperatively and coupled with
See Storr,
p. 163.

HD
13.

preceding.
696.
697.

No. 693.

—Ver.22, H^V commanded. 3 N3 X13 — Chap.
vii. 1.

sing. pret. j-j?/* of
enter,

Hl^ parad.

in full

2 sing. m. imp. kal of

5^13 to enter.

698. "^n^S

t^jy

house, household, comp. of pron. affix

"^j

and H^'S

constr. of h^^-

See No. 666.

699.

^nX
4.

thee,

comp. of pron.

aff. '^

and

HX

another form of

HX
and

See No.
700.

1115

contr. for

^Hn^

comp. of 3 and "H

def.

art.

111 generation,
701.
2.

See No. 643.
def. art.
'T\

andfem. of "IIMDyw/v, —Ver. rTliniSn comp. of word likewise in a moral sense the penult vowel of hnmoveable; hence fem. ITlintp Gr. 59, 60, moveable — the
clean,
;

this

is

ult.

and 74; verb

IHD

icas hright, resplendent, clean, pure.

This distinc-

tion of animals into clean
to sacrifice,
this period.

and not

to

and unclean must have had reference food, as animal food was not allowed at

See chap.

ix. 3.

702.
in

ri>^nti' njj^t?^

seven, seven,

by

sevens,

the

mode adopted

Hebrew

as a substitution for distributive

numbers.

78
703. ^n^^^^
ly^i^i
lit.

ANALYSIS OF
^nan

[Chap.
i.e.

vii.

and

his

icife,

a male

and a

female (of each), seven
704.
etc.,
i.
"1)1*1

paii's.

nttnSn

\p^ Ut.

and of

the heast ichich not

clean

it,

e.

of iniclean beasts.

705. D^^p' two twos, two of each kind.

706.

— Ver.

3.

nVH/
"1^1

to

preserve alive, comj). of / and

inf. j^ih.

of

n^n

lived, -witli a causative

meaning,
lit.

as in hipli.,

No. 692.
i.

707.

—Ver.

4.

D**^

V

as respects

days yet seven,
xiii.

e.

after seven days.

See 7 used in a similar sense, 2 Sam.
to rain,

23.

708. ^''tp^O causing
hiph. m. of

am

about

to

cause

to

rain, part.

1^^

j3arad. 4, rained.

709. '*n"'n^1
for
1

and I tvill

utterly destroy,

lit.

wipe

out, conip. of

1

and

1 sing. pret.

hal of T\TV2 wiped out, utterly destroyed,

parad. 3 and 13.
710. Dlp.'^n comp. of
stantia,
abstr.

n

for 'n before sJiva;
exists, lives
;

and

Dlpl* stantia, sub-

anything that stands,

avdcTTrj/jia,

LXX.
to

;

an

noun founded upon the 3

sing. pres. kal of

D^p

stand,

parad. 10.
711.

—Ver.
— Ver.

5.

iril!^

commanded him,

comj). of

^^I'on. aff.

IH and

3 sing, m.'pret.jjih. of

m^
aff.

parad. 13, with the radical dropped to

make way
712.
teas,

for the pron.
6.

And Noah

(was)

so7i

of 600 years, and the flood

waters upon the earth, Heb. idiom,

"And Noah
upon the
the

was 600
i.

years old

when

the flood of waters was

earth,"

e.

at

the time of the deluge.

According

to

Hebrew

idiom, two
*)

events are pointed out and coupled

by

the conjunction

wdiich

shews them

to

be contemporaneous.
1

In such circumstances, to
I shall direct attention to

suit our idiom, the

is

rendered when.

these idioms as they occur, that the student

may become

familiar

with them.

713.— Ver.
not
it

8.
e.

Hnhb

n|^\Nt

n^X

rand of beast
;

= beasts)
;

icMch

and of unclean beasts n3J"'X comp. of j"*X constr. iTinp No. 202, and | parag. and pron. aff. n~ fern, of ihD c/ea;^, Gr. 74. See No. 701. 714.— Ver. 10. Vii D^p^H nj^nii'S ^H^l lit. and it icas after the seventh of days, and the waters of the deluge were 7(pon the earth..
clean,
i.

form of

pj;}

not,

; ; ,

A'er.

2—16.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
tlie

79

i.

c.

" ou the expiry of

seven days (sec ver. 4) the waters of

the flood were upon the earth."
715.
life,

See No. 712.

—Ver,
t^inS

11.

Hi"''.*!!/

as resjjects the life of
''11,

Noah,

i.e.

of the
prep.,

coinp. of /

and

constr. phir. of
ti'iriri!!! in

ground form

^^H

life.

716.

contr. for
EJ'"!!!

the month, conip. of
;?2owifA,

3

n

def. art.,

and

seg. (o) class, ni.«

j)robably a primitive.

717. iyp5^ ivere opened, 3
cleaved, hurst, opened, parad. 4.

pliu-. pret.

niph. of

yp3

cog.

^p3

718. niyj^^ constr. phu-. of \y)2, plur. U'V^Jl, and likemse niJ^J?^, the uhimate vowel only is moveable, which is lost in the
constr. phir., Gr. 62, 75.

719.

Dinn

see

No.

15.

720. nB"! fem. of ^"1, ground form l^*! great. 721.

nUlXI comp. of

)

before comp.sA'rrt
to

1

and ^^'^^J subs. fem.
so wrought

anything canceHated or woven up,

guard the aperture

such were tcindoics, comj^are verb wind, past tcound, so called,
perhaps, from twigs thus tcotmd before the use of glass, fr'om ^5"^
'multiplied. Prof. Lee's

Lex.; according

to Ges.,

from IHi^ plexuit.

722. ^nri3i in pause for IHriSJ tvere opened; 3 plur. pret. fiiph.

of

nnS
723.

opened, parad. 4.
12.

—Ver.
1.

D^^H comp.
DVJ^.5
2.

of def.

art.

-n

and D^| subs. m.

seg.

(e) class,

heavy rain.

724.— Ver. 13.
class;
i.

a hone;

comp. of 3 and D^JJ subs. fem. seg. («) hody ; hence Dl*)! D^^.5 in the hody of the day
subs, com.;

e.

in ipso die.

725.

—Ver.
W3
a

14.

^13^
it

1.

a young hird, so called from

the chirj)ing noise
2.

makes

(Scottice cheeper)

verbum onomatop.
8,
i.

a sparrow;
726.

3.

a hird of any kind; verb l^*^ fisttdavit.
a hird, per synecd., Storr. p.
lit.

icing,

the clause

may be
hirds.

rendered, totality of hird, totality of wing,

e. all

hinds of

727.

—Ver.
comp.

16. D''{<5'^)
of") conj.

li^- ^'"^^
'T\

as for the goers in,

i.e.

those that
act. part.

entered,

and

def. art.

and

plur. of

X^

hal of ^{1S 728.

to enter,

nyi

parad. 10 and 12. nin^ nilpn and Jehovah closed (the door) after him.
-1

729. "l^P*! comp. of

and 3 sing m.
aff. 1

pres. hal of
"TJ^S

I^D

shut.

730. i"iy5 comp. of pron.

and

or IJ^S, originally a

;

80

ANALYSIS OF
its

[(JhajK vii.
refers to vicinity
hefiind.
l-al

subs, signil'ying cicinity, but

usage shews that

it

hehind, and hence

it is

used

as a prep, after,
•\

immediately

731.

— A'er.

IT. ^31*1

comp. of

and 3 pkir. masc. pres.

of

Jli'n parad. 13, nwltiplied, increased.

731*. ^Nb^*1 comp. of

-\

and 3 plur. m. pres. hal of
EJ'.

^^\ parad

5

and
D^l

12, with dagrsh implied in

732.

D1W

«/?f;?

?Y rose,

comp. of

-^

and 3
and 3

sing. fern. pres. kal of

fo ie ///^A, #0

raise ore^s self, to rise, ^vith accent

on

ult. D^IH-

732*.—Ver.

18.

^S^^l comp. of
<^

-1

plur.

m. pres. lad of ^55
with the

prevailed, parad 4. and ^1^^

plur. pret. At// of the same.
f.

733. 'H/JHl comp. of A and 3 sing.

of

"Tj?!!

w;e/?^

accent on the
734.

ult. "H/ri

see Gr. 30
lit.

(Z»).

—Ver.

19.

^XD "IX^

vehemence, vehemence, or excess,
in

excess ; one of the

modes adopted

Hebrew
pres.

for the

formation of

the sujDerlative degree, see Introduction Part III., and No. 179. 735. ^DD^I comp. of parad. 13.
-1,

and 3 plur.

m. puh. of nD|l covered,

735*.

Dnnn
(c),

the mountains;

comp. of T\
subs.

def. art. before Juimets

n

Gr. 127

and
is

plur. of

IH

m. a motmtain, ground form

nnn, and
736.

Cnn

used for

D^n

Gr. 19, constr. plur.
tJie

nH

No. 754.

D^ri^Iiiri

(the mountains)
-Il

high,

i.

e.

the high motintains

comp. of
736*.

def. art.

and

plur. of ni3| or PfS2^ with the ult. voAvel
furtive, pi. D**!!^;! Gr. 74.
lit. ?7?

immoveable, and pathahh

—Ver.

21. f]iy|l

hird (birds), all jlesh in birds, in
etc.,

beasts, etc., died; cuncta

animalia quae ad aves,
etc.; contr. for ^^'^T\'3.
lit.
i.

pertinehant,

Ges.,

all

kinds of birds,

Gr. 126 (/).

737.— Ver. 22.
of
the spirit

V^XS— "^^^:} ^3
life in
its

totality
e.

of

nostrils,

of ivhich the breath every creature in whose

nostrils (is) the breath of life.

737*.

V|N3seeNo.

211.

738. T\'Qm constr. form of
breathed, Gr. 93, 94, 95.

H^^J

subs. fem. breath, verb

D^J

739. n!l'in5?;^

^/'^'(/ry

(land);

La.t. in

arido; contr. for MJl'iririS-

comp. of 3 prep. H def. art. for H Gr. 127(c), andl26(/'); and M^'^n subs, fem., verb yiH iras drii. T TT -T
•"

•'

739*.

^n^

died, 3 plur. prct. kal of

H^^

to die, pra^t. TsJZ

instead

of ri^ parad. 10.

.

Chap.vm.4.]
740.

THE BOOK OF GEXESIS.
HS*}
lit.

81

— Ver. 23.
and 3
r\r\J2\,

and

tixis

wiped

off,

utterly destroy<'d',
2)arad. 3

comp. of
in full

sing. apoc. pres. niph. of
pi.

HH^
i.

and

13^

3 pers.

^n»\
to beast;
e.

741. ri^n3"TJ2 ^l^'f? \^^-fi'om 7nan
bea!<t.

both

man and

742. *nXur*1
"IvVp' parad'^

and

teas left;

comp. of A and 3

sing. pres. 7iiph. of

3 and 4.
'^^^!t

743. "nX ground form
ti'on,

originally a noun, excltision, restrict
o?di/s

hence used adverbially,
viii. 1.

744.^Chap.
parad.
745.

^2'^)

and remembered; comp. of

•)

and

3 sing. pres. kal of IDT remembered^ parad. 4, with the vowels of
1

"^^li!! ht.

and caused
^'2'^^^

to j)ass

over

;

comp. of
ove'*',

•)

and 3

sing.

m. apoc.
full

pres. hiph. of

passed, passed

crossed; written in

TDV^

parad. 2 and

4.

746.

ISCJ'^I

a7id abated,

comp. of

and 3

pi.

m. pres. kal of '^D^

parad. 6; 747.

1. stooped.^

loicercd itself; 2. abated.
^'^^ ^^^re shut up,

^'cr. 2.

I^l^l**]

comp. of
uj).

-1

and 3 plur.

m.

pres. niiih. of ^l^D parad. 1, cogn. "I^D 5/»/^

748. ^^73*5
w?/)^.

«/?f/

irf/s

resti'ained,

comp. of

and 3

sing.

m. pres.

of ^5^|) restrained, confined, icithheld, parad. 12.

749.

— Ver.

3.

^Dw**1 a/?// re/^/rwec?,

comp. of

and 3

plur. pres.
ID^EJ^'',

kal of 'DXy parad. 10, A^dth kibbuts vicarious, regular form
inf. abs. DISJ'

see

Xo. 750.
i>i-

750. DiK^I
decrease.

O^if^J (ind returning, indicating gradual ^y^^ lifThe idea is pz-obably conceived from the appearance of

the advancing and returning wave, see Introduction, Part IIL, the subject of adverbs
:

on

"^"^

/^

inf. abs.

kal of "^/H parad.

2.

751.

^Ipn^ comp.
;

of

'\

and 3

plur.

m.

pres. kal of "npH, 3 sing,
pi.

m. Ipn* irreg.

the ordinary form of the 3

m. kal
to

is

npH^

parad. 2, icanted, failed, were diminished, continued

abate; inf.

kal abs.
752.

IIDH

ver. 5.

n^p^

comp. of

^

with dagesh implied, and constr. of

HVp

Gr. 94, 96, extremity, end, subs. m.
753.

—Ver.

4.

HiriT comp. of
rest.

-^

and 3

sing. fem. pres. kal of HIJ

parad. 4 and 10, to

6

;

82
754.
**1.n

ANALYSIS OF
7j? iqjoii

[Chap.

viii.

the mountains,

i.

e.

(one) of the mountams.

See No. 732.
755. D'THX Ararat, a district of Armenia; Cardu, Onk. Arab. 756.

— ^'er.5.

1i^")^

appeared, were seen,

^\\Xh.

dagesh implied in

resh, 3 plur. pret. niph. of riX"! saw, parad. 2, 3,

and

13.

757. ^LTXn constr. plur. of tTi^^ the head, plur.
contr. D^SJ'N"!, constr. ^STJ^I, see

abs.

D^t^'Nn,

No. 712.
that opened, comp. of
-^

758.

—Ver.

6.

HFlS*!

and opened,
4.

and

3 sing. m. pres. kal of T\T\^ parad.
759. p ;^n subs. m. an

See No. 240.
(of
a building),

aperture

a xcindow,

from 77n pierced,

etc.,

see

No, 556.

This word merely conveys
that of the
art.

the idea of a hole or opening;
light, see

^H^

admission of
confirms what

No. 675.

The absence

of the def.

was

said as to the rendering of

IH^
-1,

collectively, as

windows.

760. 761.

ri^hadmade.

—Ver.

7.

Hp^^l comp. of

before

?/oc?

with sh\a

\,

but

with dagesh implied in yod, and 3 sing. pres. pih. of
sent, sent forth
;

Tw^

parad. 4,

3 sing. m. pres. kal Tw^^\ ver.

9.

762. i'lyrrnX the raten, the male raven, there being only one
pair in the ark; comp. of
i'lj^ subs.
-11

before the guttural

H

Gr. 19, and

m. a raten, probably an onomatop. formed from the
X1^^
he went out going out and returning,
from, time to time; NV*.5

raven's cry horhh; Lat. corf-us; French cor5-eau; Scot, cori-ie.

763.
i.e.
•\

ilSJ'l

^^r?.*.l

(i^nd

and he

toent out

and returned

comp. of
kal

and 3

sing. pres. kal of

N^^ parad. 8 and 12; and
up of;

5<*i^^ inf.

abs. of the

same, used as the Lat. gerund.
"IJ^
lit.

764. nSJ^D^

until the being dried
;

inf. constr.

kal

of

^^l was
765.

dry, parad. 8

the

inf.

here construed as a noun, Lat.

exsiccatio.

—Ver.

8.

ni1*ri'"nNI

the dove,

the presence of the article

cannot be accounted for here upon the same grounds as in No. 762

comp. of -H and n^V subs. fem. a dove, a pigeon, generally understood to be derived from HJ^ opptressed, and the bird
to
is

supposed

be so called from

its

cooing as a cry of oppression, see Prof.

Lee's Lex.

From

the resemblance of the cry of the dove to that
is

of one in distress, voice of doves

used in scripture

as

synonymous

with voice of mourning.

;

Ver. 4—12.]
766. nX"! /

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
to see,

83

ad

rn/c/iclum,

comp. of

prej). /

and

inf. constr.

kal of nX"! parad. 13.
76T. )vtyn an leciores factae essenf,
sc. aqt/ae;

comj>. of

H

inter,

particle, and 3 plur. pret. kal of ^zj^ parad. 6, was light, abated.

768.— Ver. 9. nXV?
parad. 12.

3

sin-, feni." pret.

kal

of

N^9
rest.
lat.

found,

769.

ni3D a place of rest,

rest

;

subs. m. from

TV\'^ to

770.

fOy comp. of

/ prep, and fO, ground form P.SDsole.

cav-um,

holloiv part, (of the

hand) i)alm, (of the foot)

771. n7^'n her foot, comp. of pron. affix

H — and

/^"l

ground

form of

7jI")

seg. (a) class, the foot, subs. fern.

772. ^^ril comp. of

and 3

sing, fem.pres. A-aZ of '2'^^ to return,
last syllable

parad. 10

;

with the accent on the

^^C^H or ^IK^^l see

Gr. 30
773. 774.

{h).

IT

his hand,

comp. of

*1^

subs.

f.

the haiul,
aff.

and pron.
Pi" and 3

aif. 1.

I^'^l^*!

(tnd took her,

comp. of -1 and pron.
4.

sing.
is

m.

pres. hal of

np7

parad 5 and

The pathakh

of the parad.

lengthened into kamets to make way for the annexation of
Gr. 66 and 67.
775.

ih.e affix,

—Ver.
4

10.

^n*1 and he
(h)
id.
;

icaited,

comp. of

•"!

and

/H''

short-

ened from /H^ Gr. 30

apoc. form of

/'•H^

3 m. pres. kal of

^in
202,

or
3,

7^n parad. 11,

qu.

7)1^

waited.

Prof. Lee's Gr. Art.

776.
see

Hp^
ult.

t|p*1

and he added
-I

to

send forth, he sent forth again,

No. 433, comp. of

and

P|D\.

in full ^DX'',

and ^Wth the accent

on the
added.
777.

^pX'* see No. 443, 3 sing. pres. kal of tjpNI parad. 7,

ri7^

infin. pxh.

of

H?^

parad. 4.

778.—Ver.

11.

rhtleafof

No. 345.
tree.

779. T^\ subs. m. constr. T^\ the olive

780. fj'nD m. Ih. thing taken forcibly; applied to a leaf, plucked

verb

S]*1^

/"or^?.

781. n''33
constr. of 113

w
Me

^er mouth, comp. of

3

prep.

;

pron.

aff.

H

;

and ^3

mouth.
/H**!
r/;/r/

782.

— Ver.

12.

icaited,

comp. of

-5

and 3
but

sing.

m. pres.

niph. of /H^ not used in kal; in joeA. /H^ icaited,

and with the same
this

meaning

in mjt?A., of the

form of parad. 8;

and other

84
tenses of
tills

ANALYSIS OF
3.

[Chap.

viii.

verb arc declined like the regular paradigm, with

the exception of the peculiarities of j^arad. 783. ri3p^
lit.

added, 3 sing,

fern. pret. Jiol

of 5|p^ parad. 8, id.

qu. tjpNI added.

784.—Ver.

13. ptJ^i^lS contr. for

p^'^^1^^ comp. of 3 prep.,
JIIJ'X'I

art.

n

pointed with lamets before resh, and
is

vci.Jirst;

^^T\
hiph.
'T'D^

month
apoc.

here understood

;

root

tJ^^{'^ tlxe

head.

785. np*^

and removed, comp. of -1 and 3 sing. masc. pres. The regular form of the pres. is of "TiD parad. 10.

apoc. Ip'',

when

the accent
*1,

^P^ OAving
786.
covering

to the

on the penult. ^P^ in preference to which generally takes pathakh rather than
is

segol; in kal,

went aside; in hiph. caused
constr. of

to

go aside, removed.

npp^
;

Hpp^

Gr. 96, subs. m. that which covers, a

root

HpS

covered.

787. in^in 3 plur. pret. kal of ^'in and i^lH was dry, parad.

2 and

3.

788.— Ver.
parad. 8.
789,

14.

ng^l^ 3 sing. fem. pret.

A-a/

of

^2\

ivas dry,

—Ver.l6. N^ go —Yer.
17.
^{V'lLI

out,

per sync, for

^i^*.

2 sing. masc. imp. Aa/

of ^^V; parad. 8 and 12.
790.

Gr. 39. ordinary form
;

X^IH 2
is

sing.

m. imp. hiph.

of

N^^

toent out, parad. 8

in hiph. caused to go out.

According

to

the ^"Ip a marginal reading, the form

^^V^D ^ sing. m. WiY^.hipli.

of ^^i See parad.

9.
\

79L
of
ri^"!^
let

'in'nl

nS^l ^Ty^\ comp. of

cop. conj.

and 3 plur.

pret. kal

•^'^t',

r "^^

respectively, used imperatively, or potentially,
etc.,

and

them heed abundantly,

or that they

may

breed ahun-

dantly, etc.

792.

—Yer.

19.

''^^T\T\^^'tT>

lit.

according

to

their families,

i.

e.

after their kinds,

Eng. Trans.

;

comp. of 7

j)rep.,

pron.
;

aff.

DH''—

and

nn3^D

constr. plur. of

nHSSJ^O subs, fem, a family

the root

uncertain,

793,
at

—Yer, 20,
is

D^JO

subs,

m. an

altar,

i.

e.

the place upon, or

which one
altare

sacrifices,

from HiT slew,

sacrificed.

The Latin

word

derived from altus high, either because built on
artificially raised.

high placp, or because
794.

See No. 794.

Tw^

7j^*l

and

offered hurnt offerings,

/J^ comp. of

•\

and

;

Ver. 1J>— 2l\]

the BOOK OF GENESIS.
Jijph.

85
in hijih. caused to

3 sing. m. apoc. pres.

of Tw*^^ ascended
\-i;

;

ascend; written in full H^y^ parad.
pres. kal.
fern,

in this verb the forms of the
pi.

and

hljih. ai-e

the same.

Tw^

of TvT^ in full Tw^'^ sub.

a

J^^/v?/ offering,

from its as " a sweet smelling savour "
795.
/iij)/i.

from HyJ^ preceding ; so called, probably, being raised upon the altar, and from its smoke ascending
to

God.
5

—A

cr. 21.

m*"l and smelled, comp. of
kal, in /tiph. H^"!!!

and 3

sing.

m. pres.
apoc.

ofJ^T^ not used in

and

pres.

H^'l''

rrr parad. 8 and

4, smelled.

796. n*") subs. masc. smell.
797. nn^iin comp. of 'H def.

See No. 795.
art.

and

H'T*'? subs.

m. acquiescence,

approhatiun, satisfaction, from H^i quicscere, with

which Latin

word compare acquiescence. 798. 137"7^ nin^ "1?N*1
determined with himself.

lit.

and Jehovah said

to his heart, i.e.

799. :]p^^ in full P|'pl5< 1 sing. pres. hijih. of

^l

r/r/r/erZ,

parad. 8

the

Jiijjhil

having here the same meaning with kal,
of / prep, and
inf.

id.

qu. ^D^?
//(//^f
;

800.

/pp7 comp.

pih of

^/P

«<?5

in

pih, spoke lightly, contemptuously of one, cursed, parad. 6.
801. V^^'^J^ from his youth, comp. of
-t^

from, and pron.

aff.

V~

and

D''1>^J pi. subs.

masc. youth, "with the termination removed to
aff.

make way
802. ^3

for the pron.
altho''
.

Gr. 49

;

root "lyj a hoy, a youth.

The meaning

of the passage

is

:

" Notwithparad. 5 and

standing I sec man's heart as -o-icked as before the flood." Glass. 529.
803. nisri/ comp. of 7 prep, and
inf. hiph.

of

D^^

13

;

not used in kal.; in hiph. struck violently, smote.
Tl'^tJ^y

804.
I,

"^^i^^

<^s

I have

done, comp. of

3 before comp. shha
lit.

andn^{<-^
805. Ver. 22. 1J^ in full

11^
:

subs, repetition, continuance
all

;

the clause
earth,"
80(3.
i.

may be rendered
\.

" continuance of

the days of the
still, etc.

e.

while the earth endures; as an adv. again,
seed
1.
;

ynT subs. m.

^.seed-time.

807. "TVp subs. masc.
root IVjl cogn. |*Vp
^'^it.

cutting; 2. time of cutting, or harvest;

808. Ipl comp. of
passage.

\

and

*lp subs. masc. cold, only

found in

this

809.

Dn^ and

heat,

\

conj. before tonic accent

1,

and

subs. masc.

86

ANALYSIS OF
I'onii

[

Chap.

viii. 5^2.

on, ground
derived the
hotels in

pDH, verb D^Pt was hot. From this root is Turkish word Huniymims Hot Baths, the names of

Co vent Garden.
1

810. T*^p1 and summer, comp. of
r'*p.)

and

subs.

m.

V\'?, in constr.

ground form
5]'in subs.

V!*!^

Cr. 50(3), probably a prim.
\

811. nin^ and autumn, comp. of

before the tone syllable, \;

and
m.

m. autumn.
'^T\'2V^\

812. inSp'*; shall cease, in pause for
pres. kal of T\'2^ rested, ceased.

Gr. 31, 3 pers. plur.

813.

— Chap.

ix. 2.

D^X^itt^ comp. of

1

and pron.
;

afF.

D5 and

N'litt subs.

masc. that which inspires fear, fear

root J^'V or i^'T

feared.

Penult, vowel immoveable, Gr. 56. 75.
l.

814. DDnrri comp. of

and pron.

aif.

DD and
Gr. 115.
/i-a/

riH,

ground form

nnn

of T^n subs. m. terror; verb

Hnn

815. j^D^iri creepeth, 2 sing. fem. pres.

of b'^'l

816.
817.

''T^_

constr. plur. of
into

^'1

a fish.
II

DDI."*.!!

your hand, comp. of
"1**,

prep, and grave

afF.

l3

and

T*, another

form of

constr. of

"T*

subs. fem. the hand.

818. ^JHi in pause for

^M

Gr. 31. 3 ]A\n\ pret. niph. of [Hi

par ad.
819.

5, gave.

—Ver.

3.

'•il'N^n

I^X

lit.

as ^o which,

it

life,

i.

e.

tohich

hath

life.
p'l^.'?-

820. DI)/

Ill this

verse permission
it is

is

granted

to

kind to eat animal food, which,
it,

as

evident as words can

manmake

was not previously allowed.

821.—Ver.
(which
is)

4.

^S^XH

lb^| "^X but flesh

icith the life thereof,

the hlood thereof, shall ye not eat.

This

is

the founda-

tion of the Mosaic laAv prohibitory of the eating of blood, Levit.
xvii. 14;

Deut.

xii.

23.

Itt"! is

here exegetical of

lEJ'S^,

see in the
hlood,
flesh).

passage from Deut. above cited, ^Siin
it (is)

X^H

D"^?! as
life

for the

the life (and thou
is

slialt

not eat the

with the

This prohibition

established

plicable to the condition of

upon the general principle apmankind since the fall, that without
It

the shedding of blood there can be no remission of sin.

was
as it

hence necessary
is

to attach a sacred character to blood,
11
,

which,

expressed in Levit. xvii.

was given

to the

people upon the

altar to

make atonement

for the soul.

This prohibition was like-

;

Chap.

ix. 10.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
Jew and

87

wise designed to give both

Gentile a sacred reverence for
all sin.

the precious blood of Christ

822.— Ver.o.
blood shed

£>h>S*

which cleanseth from
"JjNI
lit.
i.

D;)a'l-nX
your

and
I will
;

I

surely

tcill

avenge your blood as

resjjeets

lices,

e.

avenge your
avenge

to the occasioning of the loss of life

or, I will

the death of every one slain

823. 05'^*^ comp. of

DD grave
7

by a murderer's hand. pron. aif. and D"!, ordinary form
prep. pron.

Wl, constr. of lH^

blood.
aff.

824. D^'nb'siS comp. of

D^^— and

flb'S^, in

full niEJ'SJ const, plur. of SJ'S^,
life
;

groimd form ^^^

seg. (a) class,

plur. abs. nitTSJ Gr. 106, et seq.
1

825. ti'TlNI

sing. pres. kal of

l^yi parad. 3.
j

1 trod,
.

went over

in

search of something,
3.

cogn.
2i^"!l

^I'^

2-

enquired, searched after

exacted, acenyed. D''p1

the exactor, avenger of blood, the G'del.

826.
will

^3^11X n^n-Ss I exact it, i.e. from
aff.

T^

lit.

from (or

of) the

hand of every
1il^'l'7{|«>

beast

(or of) every beast, etc.

comp.

of pron.
827.

and

|

epenth, and S^1"li^ see No, 825.
at the

VnX ^^^ T^

according to

hand of every man''s brother, i.e. Rosen, "cuj usque sanguinem de eo qui ilium interVHl^ ^^^ valere,
'^^'^\
6.

fecerit rej)etam."

828.— Ver.
blood, by

unum

alterum,
that

salis

notum.

1^^^

as for

him

sheddeth man's
3 sing. masc.

man,

etc.

'^S^i' part. act.

kal m., and
out, shed.

"^5^''.

pres. niph. of

"HS^ parad.
9.
I^l
""^llin

\,

poured

829

— Ver.
to

''^Nl

and

as for me, behold

I establishing

(establish).

830. D''pD part,
to

hijjh.

masc. of Dip parad. 10,

to

stand; in hiph.

cause

stand,

to establish.

831. D5'*"]^^{ after you, comp. of pron. affix and constr.
iriNI

j^lur.

of

Xo.

568.'
aff.

832. D^y'^l your seed, posteritij, comp. of pron.

DI)

and

J^'^T,

ground form of yiT

seed.

833.— Ver.
masc. of the

10. ""^V , in full

act. part,

hal of

^X^V lit. goers out X^^ parad. 12 and 8.

of, constr. plur.

PenrJt. vowel

immoveable, Gr. Xo. 59.
834. H'lS^ 3 sing. pres. niph. of 7^13 cut off, destroyed, parad. 3.

835. ^tp^ comp. of -^ from, by, here

imphing

instrumentality,

by means of;

*'X5

constr. of

D^^ Xo.

20.

88
836.

ANALYSIS OF

[Chap.

ix.

—Ver.

12.

jHi a

fficer,

giving, give, muke, part. act. masc.

hal of |n3 parad. 5, gate.

837.

DlD\j''5'l

coiiip.

of

'J

cop.

coiij.

and pron. No.
32.

affix,

and constr. and T\UD,

plur. of rS, constr. sing.

838.

— Ycr. 13.
"^typ^^ 1

^5 ^T^p mg

beticeen, see
hoiv,

comp. of pron.

affix

\

ground form of
839.

T\^T), subs. seg. (a) class, f.

a how, a I'ainbow.
jt>«/^,

sing. pret. kal of tHJ parad. 5, ^a^e,

set.

^/«e cZowf/, | 840. P3J5 841. Yer. 14. |I|5^ ^^^P?

m

= H!!
^^'

Gr. 126 (/), 117

(c),

f^g clouding a

cloud, i.e.

and pjj m. on my
;

bringing over a cloud
of

;

eV rto avvvecpeZv jxe ve<f)6\a<;,

LXX.
and

comp.
of

5

prep, and

^^DJ^ for ''^T^_,

being the pron.

aff.

**.

inf. j)ih.

py

not used in kal.
nn^|"l2l"l f/te/i shall ajjpcar,

842.
nijjh.

comp. of

1

and 3

sing. fem. pret.

of nX"!

sate, parad. 2, 3, 13.

843.

—Yer.

15.

""ri"]?'!

fh£n

I

shall rejuemher, comp. of

\

and

1 sing, pret. 7ccd

of ^^^T parad. 4, remembered.
lit.

844.

/\^U~> D''^n
in 'ver. 11.

the

waters for a deluge, the

same as

S^S^n ^D
845

— Yer.

16. ^''^'*^5*^^

comp. of

^

cop. conj., pron.

aff.

H

if,

and

''ri^N'1,

and ^\ixh the accent removed
HX"! saw; and 3 plur. ^X"!

to the affix '•H'^X"), 1 sing

pret. kal of

ver. 23.
call to

846. *^3T7 for the remembrance of, before shh-a 7 Gr. 126 847. D'^nT'X
(b'),

to

mind

;

comp. of /

and

constr. inf. kal of "TDT remembered,
to oiu-

p5

beticeen

God, according

idiom between me.

See Introduction, Part III., on the subject of pronouns.
848.

— Yer. 17.
D^p

""rij^pri

/

have established,

I

establish,

1

smg.

pret. hiph. of

to

stand, parad. 10.

849.— Yer.
850.

18. ^^N* constr. of 2i< father, see
19. D^NV"!!!! Ht. the goers out,

No. 305.
icent out;

—Yer.
n^S3

who

comp. of

•H and mas. plur. part. act. kal of
850*.
3.

N^^ went

out, parad.
1.

8 and 12.

3 sing. fem. pret. kal of j*£^
:

broke; 2. dispersed;

was dispersed

cogn. T*13 which signifies to scatter as seed sown,
this

hence most of the ancient versions render
est.

word disseminata
to be

851.

— Yer. 20.

D13
Bos

HJ 7n*1

lit.

and Noah bcqan

a has-

handman, and planted a vinegard: Noachus
vineas plantavit,

quum

esset agricola

Vcr. 1J2.—24.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
sing.

89

862. 7n^l conip. of A and 3
parad. 5, see No. 556.

apoc. pres. hijjh. of 7711

853. y^*5 comp. of

-^

and 3

sing.

m. pres. Aa/ of V^^ parad. 5
class,

and

4, planted.

854. D"13 in pause for
vineyard.

DIS

Gr. 31 (3), subs. m. seg. (a)

a

855.

—Ver. 21.
j''^n

TW^\

comj). of

-^

and 3 and

sing.

m. apoc.

pres. hal

of

nn^ (/m«X;,
85G.

parad. 13, in full T\r^^\ Gr. 37 and 115.

the wine;
t•^V^^^;/^ ;

comp. of

-II

p.^

in constr.

r.**.

subs.

m.

Gr. otVo?; Lat.

Eng.

t67we

and

rw^e.
•)

867. l^ti'*^ in pause for

"^SK^'^I

comp. of

and 3

sing.

m.

pres.

kai of
cated.

15^

parad. 4, drank an intoxicating drink, became intoxi-

868. 7^n*l comp.

-1

and 3

sing. apoc. pres. hith.

of

Tw^ made
of

hare, uncovered, revealed, parad. 13.

869. n/HNI
1

(o-Tfiloli),

his tent; comj). of pron.

aff.

H — instead

and 7nt^ subs.
870.

seg. (0) class, a tent, Gr. 110.

^'er. 22. HI'lJ^

nakedness of; constr. of

ril'l^.

subs, fem.,

root rrij^ naked.

871.

"T^^T rt/ifZ told,

comp. of

-^

and 3

sing.

m. pres. apoc. A/pA.

of I^J see No. 359.
872.

— Ver. 23.
jjluid;

TwJ^^T} the garment, jjrobably the hyke, used by

the Orientals to protect

them from the inclemency of the weather
asleep,

by day, and
shepherd's

to cover

them "when

and resembling a Scottish

comp. of -n and Twl^^ subs. fem.
(/)

873. DDu' shoulder of, shoidders, subs. m. seg.

class,

ground

form

p^t^'

tJic

shoulder.
lit.

874. DH'^JSJ'

them two, comp. of pron.

aff.

m.

DH— and constr.

of D'^ET f?ro,"Gr.49.
875. rT'^inX backwards, from inNI after,

876. ^DD^l and covered, comp. of

-^

and 3 pL m.

pres. j)ih. of

T\p2 covered, parad. 13.
877.

—Ver. 24.

kal of "piT

and awoke, comp. of -1 and 3 sing. m. pres. awoke, parad. 8, form of ^"T which latter however takes
T*p.*'*l

pathakh
is

in the ult. syll.

mstead of

tsere,

which

in the case of

T'P^*.

changed

into segol
(b).

on account of the removal of the accent to the

penuk., Gr. 30

,

90
878. )y'^_j2fro?n his
see

ANALYSIS OF
ivine,

[Chap.
i^ron. afF.

ix. 24.

comp. of -^ and name.

\ and

|\^.

No. 856.
|J|?^3

879. |y^3 in pause for 880.

pr.

— ^'er. 25.

DH^y

"15^. sercant

of servants, a

slave

of slaves

a most abject

slave, see

Introduction, Part III., on the subject of

the comparison of nouns.

881. Iliy. subs. m. seg. of the (a) class, ground form of the sing.
"i:ij;

and of the plur.

"111?

Gr. 105, 106, 109.

882.

—Ver.26.
1^7
to

"^^"I^ blessed, pass. part.
to

m. kal of

"^"13-

883.

him, or collectively

them, poetic form of w-

884.

— Ver.27.
\.

H^v

Cn^Nl T\^\Deus amplumspatiumconcedat
verborum
lusus. Ges. Lex.; T\ti\

Japeto, in cjuibus verbis notandus

3 sing. m. pres. apoc. hiph.

of nHfi parad. 13, full form HriS*
2. loas open, 3.

Gr. 37,

opened, and intrans.,

and figuratively imsimple,
silly
:

plying openness, simplicity,

silliness,

was

as a

proof of the

fii'st

meaning, Ges. quotes
the
Sanscr.jtJf/f/,

as kincli'ed

words

HH^

and

yn3 and compares
and
'Lat.

pandere; Gr.Treraw, Trerdvvv^i',

pateo ; and

cites

Prov. xx. 19,

VHS^ nHB
says,

labia pandens,

de liomine garrulo, cujus labia semper patent, see Ges. Lex. under
T\T\^-

In a note on Job xxxi. 26, Prof. Lee
entirely misunderstood.

he thinks

this

word has been
to be.

"It has been usually
It

translated dilatet, etc., a sense quite foreign to this verb.

ought

Let God, or God doth, pronounce Japheth deluded, deceived, Then foUows pSJ'*'.'! and He, i. e. God, shall reside i. e. idolatrous. in the tents of Shem. The prediction therefore goes to affii-m, that Shem only shall retain the true religion." See on Job.
885. parad.
886.
see

\2m
1.,

comp. of

\

and 3

sing.

pres. led

of

p^

divelt,

v^^{5

in the tents of, comji. of

5 and

constr. plur. of /^^5

No. 859.
X. Tliis chapter is entitled

by Eosenmuller " The genealogy of the sons of Noah, and the division of the earth among his posterity." According to the same learned author, the names
Chap.
here mentioned are not
all

the

names of men, but of nations,
It is

cities,

and countries, which appears from many of them being in the
plural number, see particularly verses 13 and 14.
likewise,

he

obsei'ves, to

be noticed, that

all

the nations are not mentioned,

Chap.x.
Avliich

1— 3.] THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
and known
to

91

then inhabited the earth, but those only

who were immethem, to the

diately connected with the Israelites,

Egyptians, and Phcnicians, as the Joktan Arabs, the colonies of
the Egyptians and Phcnicians, and the maritime regions of

Europe

which had been explored by the Phcnicians
ditions.

in their naval expe-

The greater part of what is contained in chapter rests upon the authority of Ros. and Ges.
887.

the following

—Ver.

2.

*1^21

Gomer, from

whom

descended the Cimmer-

ians, Gr. KifM/xepioi,

who dwelt between
its

the mouths of the

and Tanais, and in the Tauric Chersonesus.

Danube From them the

Cimmerian Bosphorus took
888. y]yf2 Magog, from

name.
sprang the people comprehended
Ma'yoi'yr}'^
he.

whom

under the general name of Scythians.
M.a/y(iyya<i ovofiaa-OivTa^;

toik;

cnr
'

avrov

wKtae, ^Kvda<i
i.

vtt

avrwv {tmv EWTjvcoy)

'jrpoaa'yopevo/jiivov<;.

Joseph. Antiqq.
the Medes.

6.

889.

n^ from whence T

890. |V contr. |V Gv.^Icov,

pl."Ift)i/e9,

inhabitants of Ionia, one of

the general names for Greeks.
891.

/^n

the Tibare?ii,

/

and

"1

being frequently interchanged,

a people dwelling on the shores of the Euxine Sea, adjoining the

Moschi.
KaXovvrai.

Gco^rjXo'i

©(i)/3T]\ov<i

eKriae, o'lnve'^ iv

Tol<i

vvv, ^Ij3rjpe<i

Joseph.

892. *^'^ MoscJii, a barbarous

people inhabiting a territory
Mo(TO')(r]vo\ virb

between Iberia, Armenia, and Colchis.
KTL<T6evre<i,

Moao^ou
I. vi. 1.

KainraSoKot

p-ev cipri

KeKkrjVTai

Jos. Antiqq.
auT7]<i

'H

S'

ovv

M.o(T')(^bKr] Tpip.€prj<i

eari to fiev yap eyovaiv

KoX-^ot,

TO Be

Ij37]pe<i,

TO 8e Appevioi.

Strabo,

lib. xi.

893.

D'TH Gpa^.

©€cpa<i 8e @eLpa<; eKaXeaev, o)v rjp^ev 'EXkrjve';

Be @pdKa<i avTov<i p,eTwv6p,aaav.
89-1.

Joseph. Antiqq.
to

— Ver.

3.

TJ2t?^^(;

according

Bockhart,

lib. iii.

chap. 9,

Phrygia Minor and Bithynia; because in these regions were the

Ascanian Gulf, the Ascaniaji Lake, the
cania,
called

city

and country of Asis

and the islands of Ascania.

The Black Sea
is

sometimes
to

QaXaaaa

A^eivr),

which
to

latter Avord

supposed

be a

corruption of Ashkefiaz.
895. nS"''n

supposed

be the inhabitants

of the

Riphean

Moimtains.

92
896. riD^l^n a people

ANALYSIS OF
who
xxvii. 14, supposed to inhabit

[Chap.x.

traded with the Tyrians in horses

and mules, Ezech.
Strabo says
is

Armenia, which

'Iinro^aTO'i cr<f)68pa.

In the history and traditions

of the Armenians, they arc said to be descended from Togarmah.

Togarmah
Tubal

is

mentioned

m

connection with Gomer, Meshech, and
in

in this chapter,
4.

and

Ezek. xxxviii.

6,

and xxvii.

13, 14.

897.— Ver.

H^^N*

in the Samaritan
It is

copy l^hi^ "EXt^, the
isles

Peloponnesus of Greece.

mentioned among the

or
7.

maritime countries with which the Tyrians traded.
898. ^''P^P) supposed to be Tartessus in Spain.

Ezek.xxvii.

899. D''r)3 accordmg to Michaclis, Macedonia.

In Maccabees,

Alexander

is

said to

have come

e'/c

rrj^ yr]<i XeTTieifj,,

900. D''^'11 written also

D''^"].^

supposed

to

be inhabitants either

of Dodona, a city of Ejiirus, or of the island of Rhodes.

901.— Ver. 5.
12

Tv^^J^ from these, comp. of

-12

before the guttural

and

n?X

these.

902. 1113^

ivere

separated or descended, comp. Gen. xxv. 23,

"

Two

nations (^1"]2''j shall be sej)arated from thy
;

womb,"
parad.
1.

i.

e.

shall

be descended from thee

3

pi. pret. niph.

of

T13

3.

903. "*« constr. of D;*X plur. of ^X ground form ^^N

habitahle
to sea

land or country, whether a continent or island,
or river
;

as

opposed

2.

the shore, or countries on the sea shore.
-7}

904. D^liin article

and

plur. of
as

""l^

subs, m.,
to

a nation generally,
in the

especially a foreign nation,

opposed

Israel,

same

manner

as

^dp^apob

is

opj^osed to"EW7]ve<i.
aif.

905. DH^'l^^l comp. of 3, pron.
of ]*>S No., 7.

D—

and n^"lX
tongue,

constr. plm*.

906. 1^2^/7 ^*'^ Ht.

man

according
;

to his

i.

e.

according
aiF. 1

to their respective languages

comp. of 7 before

sh''va

7 pron.
to
first

and

)1tif^

contr. |t^7,

and with the accent removed

the pron.
edition

afhx |S^7

Gr. 74.
:

Tliis verse is

thus translated in the

of Rosen.

" Ab his originem habent regionum exterarum incolae,

lingua, genere, et natione diversi."

Ver.
907.

6.

From

ver. 6 to 20,

Ham's

posterity
(see

is

recorded.
it

K'^iil

Ethiopia.

From Gen. ii. 14
as Avell as a

No. 254)

appears

that there

was an eastern
xiii.

southern Cush.

It ajipears,

further, from Jerem.

23, that this

word

is

sometimes used in

yer.3— 8.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
to

93

an extended sense
skins.

denote the country of

all

who have

black

908. lD^IVO universally understood to be Egypt. 909.

D13 from Avhcnce the

Pliufaei,

supposed

to

be Libyans,
rrjv

Avho dM'elt near Carthage.

"EKTtae Se koL
Tov<i iy^^copiov'i.

^ovrri<i

Ac^vrjv.

^ovTOVi air avrov Ka\eaa<i

Joseph. Antiqq.

910. jy^3 from Avhom the Canaanites, in pause for jpi^. 911.

—Ver.

7.

K^D

Sahaei,

who appear

to

have inhabited Meroe,
rij^;

an island in the Nile.
varepov
Kafjb^v(r7]<i

^a/3a, 7r6Xt9 /SaalXeiof;
/Mertovo/xacrev.

AWiwirla^

r}V

Meporjv

Joseph. Antiqq.

911*. n"l from
its

whom

Declan, a city on the Persian Gulf, took

name, Avhich

is

so called in D'Anville's

Geography.

912. nTl.n- There seems to have been two nations of this name,
the one here spoken
ver. 29.
of,

and the other descended from Joktan,
is

The Havilah here mentioned

supposed

to

be that in

Arabia Felix, called Cliaulan.
913. njjlip from
cit\-

whom

Sahotha, or Sahatha, took

its

name, a

of Arabia Felix, spoken of

by Pliny as devoted to the worship

of the sun.
914. M^y*] RJiegma, a city of Arabia on the Persian Gulf.

915. i<Dri!lD a region of Ethiopia; Targ.
eastern territory of Ethiopia.

"'5^5iT

Zingitani, in the

Ges. Lex.
people, Sahei,
;

916.

NIK^ from

whom

the

and the country

Sabea, situated in Arabia Felix
matics, gold, and jewels.

abounding in frankincense, arofrom

Ges.
lit.

917.— \'er.
is

8.

T^'!2)

Nimrod,

rebel,

11$

rehelled.

This
is

evidently the

noticed

name of an individual and not of a people, and here by way of distinction. This circumstance renders

it

probable that the persons before named, are not persons in the
strict

sense of the word, but nations descended from Gush.

It

has been conjectured, with great probability, that
patriarchal

many

of the

names found in
or after

during

life

were surnames given either death, on account of something remarkable
scripture,
;

and from hence, many discrepancies have arisen, in consequence of the confusion between the name and surname. Nimrod is supposed to have received his surname
in their history or character

from his having been an instigator of the building of Babel, and

94
from
his ha^ving
says,

ANALYSIS OF
been one of the
Antiqq.
lib.
i.

[Chap.x.

earliest idolators after the flood.

Josephiis

cap. 4 §2, 'E^rjpev avToix; irpo^ rrjv

v^piv Tov Geou Kol KaracppovrjaLV Ne^poiSi]^ "
vip to insult

Nimrod

stirred

them

and despise God."

918- |*'^.^5

^^'^ ^^"^

^'^

hecjan

to

he mighty in the earth..
i.

According

to

Michaelis, " hie coepit esse tjrannus in terra,"

e.

hie primus per

vim tyrannide
This
is

potitus est,

tatem eripuit.
919. 920.
/!!in

the view taken of

humanoque generi liberthe passage by Josephus.
inf. constr. Jial

3 sing. pret. hal of 77(1 parad. 6, see No. 556.
com]?, of 7 prep, before

nVn7

shha 7 and

of iTn was, parad. 13.

The

T\

in the first rad. of this

monly takes simple
is

sK'va, contrary to the general rule.

word comThe same
to xcarriors,

the case with

rT*!! lived.

921. 135 or

llilil

m. mighty, hraxe, intrepid, applied
<yl'ya<i,

etc.; potens,'y\A^.;

LXX.
iir\T\

;

^'DT\

135 Onk.

;

gigas terribilis,

Arab.

;

gigas heUator, Syr.

922.

—Ver.

9.

mrf
i.

IlTl

is

fuit potens renationis ad conIt is

spectum domini,

e.

potens venator.

supposed that Nimi-od,

under pretence of hunting, collected bands of men

whom

he ren-

dered instrumental to his ambitious designs of conquest. The pagan
heroes of antiquity are described as commencing their career as
hunters, and as acquiring fame
beasts

by

the destruction of those savage

which were

a terror to

mankind.

Such heroes were Heretc.

cules, Theseus, Castor,
fjbaOrjTaX

Pollux, Diomed,

They
what
is

are called

Kvvrj'yeaiw, discipuli tenationum.
as to

Various conjectures have been formed

understood

by the expression Min^ ""^S/- Perizonius, shews by quotations from Gen. xiii. 9; Ps.
17, that this expression
is

as cited
Ivi.

by Rosenm.,

14; and Ps. Ixxii,

intended to give an intensive sense to

objects spoken of, particularly in regard to

what

is

done publicly,

fortunately, confidently, securely, or the like.

Wherefore, when
it is

Nimrod

is

said to be a

mighty hunter before the Lord,

im-

plied that none on earth coiild be

compared

to

him.

923. I^V ^vih^.vcv.venatio, hunting; and
i.e.

^'')i'^'2^ jjotens venatio?iis,
is

a mighty hunter, perhaps

icarrior.

It

probable that

Nimrod

made encroachments upon
of Shem.

the territories assigned to the posterity

;

Ver.8— 12.]
92-1.

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
yH
icherefore
it is

95

*l^Nt^ j3

said, a usual

form of announcing
is

proverbial sayings, see Gen. xxii. 14, where

^ICi^X

used instead
}nj)h.

of J5"^J^ parad. T. 925.

;

'^^^^.^

ordinary form

'^f2'^\

3 sing. pres.

of ^121^,

—Ver.

10.

'^^T\\

comjD. of
i.

•!

and 3

sing. fem. apoc. pres. hal

of n*n, fuU form TT '

n^Hn ••
;•

parad. 13.

See No. 23.

926. n^J;J^Xl beginning, see No.l.
927. inp7^D comp. of pron. aff. 1 and Pul'tp't^, ground form of n^/^D, used as the constr. form of H^/^^ subs, fem., what one
rules over, a kingdom,

from

*^7'^'>

root

928.

753

Bahel,

lit.
lit.

confusion, for
length,

T7^ ^ Jii7rg. 75^5 I'oot 7/2l
;

confounded.

929. '^IX Erech,

supposed by Bockhart

to

be Arecca,

or Areca, a city situated

on the confines of Babylonia and Susiana.

930. "13K Accad, "Ap^a8,

LXX.

It

hence appears that the

dagesh forte on this

word compensates

for the absence of 1.

931. T^j72 Cahieh, supposed to have given

name

to the district

of Chalonitis, whose capital was afterwards Ctesiphon, on the Tigris.
932.
*lj^llbi^

Shinar, universally acknowledged to be the country
limits

around Babylon, the extent and

of

which are unknown.

Josephus speaks of the plain of ^evaap, in the territory of Babylon

and in the same quarter Pliny, Eutropius, Ptolemy, Ammianus,

and others make mention of a
933.

city called Singara.
this w^ord

—Yer.
"l^j)

11.

^l^tJ'NI

Asshur, from

Assyria takes

its

name.
934. n.irj Nineveh.
935.

ninn

BcJiohoth Ir.

Glassius says that ^^J?

is

here

introduced to shew that n^rt"! which signifies platea, ampla spatia,
is is

not here an aj^pellative, but the

name

of a city.

The word
"^H^il
is

^T'J^

supposed by others

to distinguish this place

from

nirfl

Rehohoth fby) the
936.

river.

The

situation of this place

uncertain.
;

n?^

Chalah, in pause for

H 73,

i.

e.

perfection
is

a city of

Assyria, supposed to be the same as that which

elsewhere called

ri7n 2 Kings
937.

xvii. 6.

—Ver.
is
;

12.

jD"!

Resen, meaning

bit,

bridle.

The

situation

of this city 938.

uncertain.

J^in this, according to

Glassius and Storr, referring to
is

Nineveh

according to Rosenm. to Reseii, which

n7"l5n l^yH

96
urhs magna,
i.e.

ANALYSIS OF
rcliquarum maxima, Ros. in
Inc.

[Chap. x.

See Introduct.

Part III., on the subject of superlatives.
939. D**"!^? Egyptiorum coloniae sunt Ludaei, Ros.,
the

who

adds,

names which follow

in this

and the succeeding verse, being

exj)ressed in the plur.

number, are not names of individuals, but
the Egyptians.
to

of nations

descended from

Of most

of

these

nothing

is

known, principally owing

our ignorance of the history,

and geography of the nations of the
says irkpa roiv ovofxdrcov ovS^v tafiev.

interior of Africa.

Josephus

940. D^^Jy supposed
\-icinity

by Bockhart

to

be

a

nomad

tribe in the

of the temple of Jupiter Amnion.

941. D''5v'7 supposed to be a
Eg>-ptians, ^lich. Foster.

nome

of Libya, inhabited

by

942. D''nj^5i supposed to be a people inhabiting the desert

between Egypt and Asia.

943.— \'er.
and
of Egypt.

14.

D'pnnS,

DnHS
to

is

spoken of by Jer.xliv.

1, 15,

Isa.xi. 11,

and supposed

be one of the nomes of the Thebaid

Pliny, in his natural history says, " Dividitur Thebais

in praefecturas

oppidorum quae nomos vocant, Ombitim, Herminc. 9.

thitcn, Thiniten, Phatariten." Lib. v.

944. D^ri/pS according to Bockhart, the Colchians,

who

are

supposed

to

be of Egyptian origin.

According

to Foster, a

people

inhabiting the district between Gaza and Pelusium.

The people

of this country are supposed to have coalesced with the Caphtorims,

from

whom

sprang the Philistines.

945. Dn'",33
Philistines

^i<V^

"l^X

lit.

tvliich

went out from thence the

and Caphtorims,

i.

e.

from

whom

were descended,

etc.

In Deut. ii. 23, Jerem.

xL-ii. 4,

and Amos

ix. 7,

the Philistines are

said to be descended from the Caphtorims.

946. W^i^y7^ Philistines,
to

i.

e.

strangers, aX\.6(f>vXoi

:

supposed
at

be a colony of the Casluhims and Caphtorims, who settled

a

very early period in the south west of Palestine, from Avhom that
country takes
its

name.

947. D''inS3 supposed

by Rosen,

to

be the ancient inhabitants

of Cyprus.

948.— Ver. own name.

15.

p^V The

builder of Sidon, so called after his

'

;

^'cr.

13—18.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
afF. 1

UT
Jirsthorn,

949.

11^5 comp. of pron.

and

'^^'2 or

1153

from

")5|1 cog.

npn and yp5

cleft,

hrohe forth.
tlic

950.

nn

ground form riHn,
16.

progenitor of

tlic

Hittites.

Sec Gr. 115.
951.

—Ver.

"'D112"'.

the inhabitants of that district of Palestmc
caj)ital,

of which Jerusalem Avas the
pelled

from whence they were ex-

by David.
between the Arnon and the
in a mountainous district

952. ^1^5< the Amorite, Amoritcs, a people origmally inhabiting
a district to the east of the Jordan,

Jabbok

;

part of

them afterwards resided

Avithin the territories of Judali.

952*. ^p'llil Gcrgcscni, these are probably the pcoj^le

who

are

spoken of by Christ in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and liuke,
as then dwelling

on the eastern side of the lake of Gennesaret.
*^.il

953.

—Yer.
iii.

IT.

the

Unite

(Hivites), described byJosh. xi. 3,

as dwelling at the foot of mount Hermon, and afterwards, in

Judges

3, as residing in

the neighbourhood of

mount Lebanon,
tlieii*

which change of abode probably arose
95 i.

in consequence of

expulsion from their original residence by the Israelites.
''jP"!^^

Arhite (i^rkites), the name of a people from
is

whom
name

the city of Arce, in Phcnicia,

supposed

to to

have taken
be seen

its

Gr. "Apicq.

The

ruins of this city are

still

m the neigh'<

bourhood of Tripoli, which are called Tel-Arka.
955. ""yp Sinaei, a people of

Canaan near Lebanon,
fuit,

a

quo

(Libano) hand procul

alia

civitas

nomine

Sini."

Hieron.

These are not
956.

to

be confounded

mth

the Sinaei of Egypt,

men-

tioned in Isa. xlix. 12, Ezek. xxx. 15, 16.

—Ver.

18.

^15^*^^^

the

Arvadi, a people inhabiting the island

of Arades, on the coast of Phenicia, near the

mouth

of the river

Eleutherus.
the Jerusalem 957.

The inhabitants of the Targum AntaracUi.

adjoining coast are called in

n^^
by

a nation of Canaan, inhabiting the western side of

IMount Lebanon, the capital of which was probably the Simyra
described
Strabo, and the ruins of

which are mentioned

in

Shaw's

travels,

under the name of Siwira.

958. "*n^n Ilamathenses , the inhabitants of a city on the Orontes,
in Syria, called

by the Jews Hamath, and by the Greeks Epimea.
1

98

ANALYSIS OF
to

[Cliap. x.
district called

There appears, likewise,

have been a

Hamath,

which extended
959.
''^y^!3ri
i.

to the

northern boundaries of Palestine,
^^^!l'l

^^35

Postea vero dispcrsae sunt cognationes
per varias regiones diffudc-

Canannaci,
runt. Eos.

e.

eorum

faniiliae sese

960.

^!ikSi

o plur. prct.

n'lph.

of

pS parad. 8, disjjcrscd themselves,

loere scattered.

961.

—Ver.
"^

19.

7^^il snbs.

mas, Imiit, houndanj of either sea or

land, verb

7^5 hounded.
lit. (joinej

962. (13^3 of
rtl3

or

pron,

aff.,

of thee, thy going, and ^5!3, in full t^lS

i.

c.

^5 thou goest, comp.

inf.

Jud of ^s1^

to

come,

or go.

963. n^'l^ comp. of Avhat

is

called
to,

T\~
into,

loccde,

having generally
is

the meaning of versus, toivards,

which

distinguished

from the pron.

aff.

H — by

its

not admitting of the tonic accent,

which
penult,

in

words with which
Gr.29(f/),
i,

it is

compounded,

is

invariably on the

syll.,

964. T]X^ Gaza,

c,

strength, one of the five princijial

cities

of

the Philistines, said to be a place of great strength,
965.
of

n^lp

toxoards Sodom.

The

situation of this city,

and those

Gomorrha, Adniah, and Zeboim, immediately following, are

well

known; comp,

of

H—

loccde,

and D*lpto

966.

y^7

in pause for

^^7

supposed by Jerome

be the same

as Callirrhoc,

which was situated on the western

side of the

Dead

Sea.

967,—Ver. 21, Sh^n
adverted
to.

1?^

D^^

according to our idiom, the

{^^n in this verse should be 17, but this peculiarity has been already

The scope

of this verse

is

as follows:

"And Shem,

the progenitor of Hebcr, and the elder brother of Japheth, had
also (a

numerous) posterity."

Shem

is

here distinguished as the

progenitor of the Hebrews, the chosen people of God, and as the

brother of Japheth ; the sacred Avriter not choosing to couple his

name with that
7i*l|ri

of the accursed

Ham.

It

has been doubted whether

should be joined with
its

*'T}^

or with D^.V

The syntax
is

will

admit of

agreement

Avith either;
is

but according

to the usus

loquendi, that with the former

preferable,

which

confirmed by


Vcr. 18—26.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
first.

99

the cii-ciimstance, that in the enumeration of Noah's jiostcrity,

Shcni

is

ahvays mentioned
Ycv. 22.
D7''J^

968.

Elamitae, a people occuppng a territory

between Susiaua and
Khusistan.

iNIcdia, called

by the Arabian geographers

969. y\\^^ luiiversally acknowledged to be the progenitor of
the Assyrians.

970.

*f^

7 Lydians, a people of Asia Minor.

971. D'^^{ Syria,
district

when used
which
is

alone,

it

generally signifies that
to

of Asia

INIinor

lies

immediately

the

north of

Palestine,

and which

sometimes called

pSJ^^'l'l

D'lK Syria
interamnis,

Damasccna, or Western Syria;
or Mesopotamia.

DHn^

D'1^{ is Syria,

972.— Yer. 23.

]'^y Ausitis, Avalri<i,

Job

i.l,

LXX.
The

The name
jjeople are

of a country and nation on the northern part of Ai'abia Deserta,

between Palestine, Idumsea, and the Euphrates.
called

by Vto\e\nj Alalrai, which perhaps should be read Avalrai. 973. 7^ri suj^posed by Ros. to be Ccelo-Syria, from its afiinity
Aram.
fi^/'^D
<^

Avith the

valley.
is

974.
975.

"nri^ this
\i^l2

people or region
to

unkno-mi.

supposed

be the inhabitants of the Masian mountains,

which
976.
is

lie to

the north of Nesibis. Bockhart. lios.
24.

—Yer.

Tw^

of this person, or his descendants, nothing

kno"mi.
977. ^5J^ Heher, according to Eos. this

name was not given by
quod proyc'''^5^

his parents or contemporaries, but

by

his posterity, "

nitor

Transeupliratensium

csset.'^

^5J^

signifies i^assaye,

7TepdTT]<;,

LXX.
J/i3 Pelcy,
i.

978.

— Yer. 25.

e. ^J»«r^, division.
iii2)h.

979. ri^735 3 sing. fern. pret.
iiijjh.

of J7|l not used in kul, in

ivas divided, parad. 1.

980. |D|T the progenitor of the Jo/dan Ai-abs, part of Ai-abia called Yemen.

who

inhabit that

981. 982.

—Yer.
^/^

26.

*^'^1/!D7^^

supposed

to

be a people of Arabia Felix.

supposed to be the ancestor of the SalaiJcni, a j)eople

of the interior of Arabia, mentioned

by Ptolemy.
7 *

100

ANALYSIS OF

[Chap.

x. 20.

983. niD*l^*n supposed to be that region of Arabia which

is

at

present called Hadramout.
984. T\y out of pause TT\\
sedes habent in
i.e.

moon. "Hujus populi reliquiae

Hadramoutae

\icinia circa mouteni lunae." B,os.

985.— Yer.

2T.

tHpT] Bockhart

thinks that these were the Dri-

meti of Pliny,

who

dwelt on the shores of the Arabian Gidf.

986. 7T^5^ understood to be

Sanaa

in Arabia,

which Niebuhr

learned was anciently called Uzal.
987. ribpl. believed to be situated in Arabia; but
in
it is

not

known

what part of it.
988.

^^er. 28.

De

7^1^

nil certi constat, Eos.

;

and the same

may be
989.

said of ^K?'??^.

^"2^

see

No. 916.
tliis

Gesenius supposes that there were in

Ai'abia two districts of

name; the one

in the west possessed

by

the Joktan Arabs, the other in the north of the Arabian Desert

towards the mouth of the Euphi-ates.
990.

—Yer.

29.

"ISIJ^

supposed by some

to

be a region in India,

by

others in Arabia ;

the arguments in favour of both views are

concisely and clearly stated in Ges. Lex,

991. Hy'^in Chaulan, in Arabia.

992.

inV

the JohaUtae of Ptolemy.
30. Dlj^H

993.—Yer.
a Mcscha

Dng^l^

^n*;!

^^Eoriimque Jiahitatio erat

usque

ad Sepliaram

(et

ultra

usque

ad)

montana

Arabiae." Ges.
994. ^5^'^ the boundary of the Joktan Arabs, supjiosed to be

Movcra or Mou^a,

a splendid city with a harboiu'

on the western

shore of Ai'abia, described by Ptolemy, situated where Mauschid

now

stands.

995. rriSp comp. of

n~

locale,

and ^SD supposed

to

be the

capital of the country of Schehr, situated

between the provmces of

Hacb'amout and Oman.
996.

D^DD

suj)posed to

mountain (mountains) of the East. These are be those mountains of Arabia running from the neigh^11^

bo vu'hood of Mecca and Medina
997,

to the Persian Gulf.
lij),

— Chap.xi.

1.

H^^

subs, fem,

language;

we

should,
lip.

according to our idiom, say of one tongue, and not of one

;

Chap

xi. 3.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
HllJ^t contr. for ^'^^!^? fcni.

101
of

998. nriNJ in pause for
piur.

HH^

one,

DnnN*if tliere

999. D''^^^s

guage ;

Dn.^'ll lit. and of the scone worcls, of the same lanbe a shade of difference of meaning between this
it is

and the preceding expression,
ciation or dialect,
D''*ll3"l

that

T\p^

refers to the

pronunabs.

to the

language; the

latter is plur.

of in"^Gr. 86. T T

1000.
prep.

—Ver.
<'^nd

2.

DJ^p^S
aff.

?'«

tlieh'

march rng, journeying, comp. of
and with the accent
J^p^,

5

pron.

D~

and

J/p^,

ground

form of

J^D^ constr. inf.

/.-«/

of ^DIl parad. 5 and 4.
^T-cft',

1001. i°l^p5 subs. fcm. a valley, from yp^l
or sej)arafio/i (of mountains).

lit.

« cleaving,

1002.

^^p';''^

and
3.

they dicelt, comp. of )

and 3

plur. pres. kal of

^^l 1003.—Yer.
one another.
100-1.
^n^i^'l

sut, dicelt, parad. 8.

inj;T7kS*

^"^
aff.

lit.

man

to his

neighhour,

i.

e.

to

comp. of pron.

^n~ and

J^'H,

the pathalih being
nj^*!

furtive, subs.

m. a companion, a neighhour, friend, from
is

fed.

The connection
as a

here seen between companionship zxi^frieiidship,

and men's eating or feeding together.
1005.

The

tsere is

immoveable,

compensation for the dropped radical.

n^n
'2T\\

comp. of n
Gr. 39
1.

— parag.

and ^H,

Avith the

vowel length67
parad. 8.
in that of

ened in order
contr. for

to the annexation of the assyllabic affix, Gr. 66.
;

2 sing. m. imp. kal of ill^

^«i"C,

nnn

is

used
to,

in the sense of give, concede, allow;

2.

come, go

or the like.
lit.

1006. Q**!!?/ '^55/^
hrichs.

l(fferificetmis

lateres,

let

us

maJ:e

H^il/^ comp. of

teas ichite, parad. 1.

kal oi |57 The meaning here is taken from the following
1 plur. pres.

n~

parag. and

word.
lOOT. Q^^5
.

r'

plur. of ri^57
.

i^^d)s.

fcm. hrick
I

made

of white clay,

and of a white colour, from 1^7 or t^7 ichite. • T ITT r 1008. 'P'pW? i^^l?^-? lit. let us hum them to a hurning, let us thoroughly burn them an additional evidence of the poverty of

the

Hebrew

in qualifying terms, such as are used in

modern

lan-

guages.
1009.

Sec Introduction, Part III., on this subject.
n|5l2J'!l

comp. of T\— parag. which takes the accent, and

:

102
1 pliir. pros. l<al

ANALYSIS OF
of ^"^^ burned, parad, 3
tlic
;

[Cliap.xi.
tlie ult.

vowel

is lost,

in

consequence of

removal of the accent.

1010. T\h'iph comp. of
Inrniug.

h

before sh'va

S and ^[fp

subs. fern.

Herod,

lib.i.
:

chap. 179, says in regard to the builders of
'EXKvaavre^i Se ifkivOov^ tKava<; loirrrja-av
sufficient

the walls of Babylon
avTa<i iv KafMLVOiai,

" after having dug up a

number of

bricks, they

burned them in furnaces."
in

1011.
(«) class.

p^

pause for p^i> subs. com. a stone, a scg. of the
the bitumen, slime, that

1012.

^^nn

which was found upon the
aacf)a\TO<i,
is

spot; comp. of
hitimien,

H

without dagesh. Gram. 19, and "H^n 1^11 aestuavit, rubuit.
Diosc.
i.

compare

The best bitumen
99, "Aa-j)aXro<;

said
t)

to

be of a reddish colour.
ecrri

Siacf^epet

^lovSa'iKr) t?}? Xonrfj'i'

Se KaXr)

ij

7rop(f)vpoetSoj'i cTTlX/Sovcra.

Tevvarai
iv

kol

ZaKvvdcp

— The
That

iv

^oivUr] koi

iv ^lScovi,

koI

iv Ba/dvXcovL,

Kctl

bitumen of Judea
is

sur^^asses
is

what

is

found

elsewhere.

most esteemed wliich

of a bright purple

appearance.

It is

produced likewise in Phoenicia, in Sidon, in

Babylon, and in Zacynthus.
1013.

"n^n clay, mortar, so called from
;

its

reddish colour, see

No. 1012
1014.

seg. of the (o) class,
4.

m.
build, 1 sing. pres. JmI of HIlS built,
5.

—Ver.
/^^O

H^^^ ^d us

parad. 13, and ^^3 3 plur, pret. JmI, ver.
1015.
subs. m. a tower,
1E^^5'n*l lit.

from

its size,

from /\^ greatness.
afisfurative

1016.

D\^ti^3

and

its

head in the heavens, So

mode

of expressing great height.
rjv ovpavo/jiijK'tj';,

Hom.
fir

Odyss.

v. ver.

239
to

iXuTT] T

" there was a

tree

which reached

the heavens."

lOlT. nS^yi

let

us make, 1 plur. pres. kal of

M^^

made, parad.

13 and
1018.
sign.

2.

D^

subs.

m. name, fame, renoicn, compare Gr.
esset,

cri]/u,a,

a
:

The
eis

latter part of this verse is thus translated

by Dathe

" quae

signum

ne-per orbem dispergerentur."
kal of T'13
to

1019. T*^S^
scattered.

1 plur. pres.

scatter;

likewise, to be

1020.

—Ver.

5.

1*1*1

and descended, comp. of

-1

and 3

sing.

m.

Vcr..3— 10.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
(J)).

103

prcs. htl of *!T, parad. 8, descended; the ult. tsere shortened into
segol, in

consequence of the removal of the accent. Gr. 30

1021. nX"!/

ad videndum, comp. of 7 and
.

iniin. constr.

kal of

nxn,

parad. 2, 3 and 13.
6.

1022.—Ver.
1023.

Hlb'yS
i.

D^Hn

IIT^. lit. f?;?f/

this their hcyinnincj in

refei'ence to doing,

e.

and

this is Avhat
aff.

they begin to do.

D^nn
6
;

comp. of pron.

D—

and

7(111

iniin, hijiJi.

of

7^^

jjarad.

ground form

/>T\T\, see

No. 556.
nijjh.

102-i. 1V!1^. shall he restrained,

3 sing, masc. pres.

of

IV^

cut off, restrained.

1025, l^r 3 plm*. pret.

/ta/

of \^V. parad. 8, only used in this

passage
1026.

;

id.

qu. cogn.
T,

—Ver,

D^T meditated, purposed, determined. m")^ comp, of T\— parag. and 1 pkir. prcs.
8.
T\

Jcal

of 11^ descended, parad.

102T. TDI'^ Avith

n

parag. for Tw2'^, without of

parag. 71^
;

let

?w confound,

1 plur, pres. Ar/^
;

775

confounded, parad. 6

Lat.

halhus, halhutio, harharus

Engl, babble; and 7l3, ver. 9, for

7375

confusion. Babel.

1028.

Dn|b^ comp. of pron.
to the
aff.,

aff.

D—

and

T[h'^,
T\,

with the accent

removed
1029.

and with

H changed
997.
l^.N?
lit.

into

to coalesce

with

the assyllabic

affix

n|^, No.

^nyi

T^iip)

^

that they

may

not hear
i.

(understand)

they

may

of not understand one another's language

man

the lip (language)

his neighbour,
;

e.

that

'^''^^'p\

3 pkir.

pres. kal of

J^^^ heard, understood, parad. 4. 1030.—Yer. 8. ]'^^ and scattered, comp. of
apoc. for
"f*^^,

-l

and

]'3^,

with

tlie

accent on the ult. syllable

]^'*3^

3 sing. prcs.

/»};A.

of

p3 ^0 scatter;
pron.
aff.

in 7«^A. id.; and d!^''Sn scattered them, comp. of
T*"'3n,
Jiijjh.

D—

and

and with the accent removed
of the same.
-1

to the affix

Y'*^T\ 3 sing. pret.

1031, ^^iri*1

and

they ceased, comp. of
2,
/,

and 3

plur.

m. pres.
kal of

kal of 7iri ceased, parad.
1031*.

nJl7 comp.
l'3, built.

of 7 before sh'va

and

inf. constr.

njl, parad.
1032.

—Yer.

9. T\1^P ^5'^p

(one)

caZ/cft iVs

name,

its

name

xcas

called ; Fr. on appeloit.

1033.—Yer.

10,

n^551^? supposed

to

be the progenitor of a

.

104
people
^vlio

ANALYSIS OF
cbvelt in

[Chap.

xi. 22.

a region near Armenia, called

by Ptolemy

A7'ra2)cicJiitis.

1034.—Ver. 22. 1035.—Ver. 25. 1036.— Ver. 26.

^W Nalior,
VT]'^ Terah.

i.

c.

anhelans.

D'li^J

Ahram,
to exalt.

exalted father, comp.

of

;l^5

father, and D*! from hT)

103T. l^T} Hara.K

— 1039. —Ver.
1038.
n'lT'iD seg.
3.

^'er. 27. tOi/ Lot, covering or veil.

28.

03/^

i^ore, used here in reference to time,

see Nos.13,14.

1040. irn/lto comp. of jjron.
(c/)

aff. i

and J^l/I^ ground form of
lirth
;

class, fem.,
\y\

l.nativiti/,

2. 2^l«cc

of birth;

kindred; from ^7^ or
1041.

peperit, genuit.
i.e. j^rincess.
fern,

—Yer.29. H^ Sarai, 1042. —Ver. iTlpy barren,
30.

of

Ipy

barren.

1043.

*l7"l

Tw V^
31.

lit.

^io^ ^0

her child,

i.e.

sAe

/^acZ

no child,

\y\ subs.

m. offspring, see No. 1040. IH 75 comp. of pron.
aff. 1

1044.

—Ver.

and ri73

subs,,

a

bride, a davghfcr-in-law

1045. ^^^$D/row

TJr,

comp. of -^ before the guttural

^

Gr. 19,

and

'^'^^$

a district of Chaldea.
to

1046. ri5//

go, for

comp. of 7

j^rep.

before the tonic accent 7

and

Tu7
8.

contr.

Hp/^ Gr.

39, inf. const, hal of 1]/^ went,

parad.

104T. ri!^^^ towards the land,

comp. of

H

locale,

and V1»^
with the

ground form of
1048.

]^'^^^,

see

No. 7.
lit.

— Chap.xii.

1.

"^7""^7
1|7''.

go

to thee, get thee, *T),

accent 1|7 per. sync, for parad.
8.

Gr. 39, 2 sing. m. imj). kal of 'H/^ went,

1049. "^TS^I^from thy land, comp. of
pron.
aff. "^

^

before

i^ for -Jb

Gr. 19,

and

V1^ ground form of

T*'!.^^

see

No. 7.
aff. 1,,

1050. ^tT\y\l2)0 froni thy kindred, comp. of -^ and pron.

and IJIlSi^ see No. 1040, "^Jiyin^i;:!,!?^ ^V>S*^ arc perhaps equivalent, to "^ri*! 7^^ r*!?!^^ from the land of thy natitity, from thy native
land, see Ch.xi.28.

1051.
j)ron. aff.

7|^^'^^5
"rj

/ wHl

cause thee

to see,

I loill shew
T\

thee,

comp. of

and

7iun cpenth.

and H^*!!^, the

being absorbed in the


Chap.xii.4.]

TPIE

BOOK OF GENESIS.

105

following letter,
see,

1 sing. ])i-cs.

hi jjJi. o{ T]i^'ls(nv, in hij)h. caused to

shewed.
2.

1052.—Ver.
nation.

^I^? '^b'i^X*!

lit.

coid

I

icill

make

thee to (into) a

1053.

^M\ conip. of
hal of

\

and pron. aff., and T\V^M see No. 1051,
bless thee,

1 sing. pros,

H^^

made.

105-1.
aff.

"^IDI^IIX^

and I icill

comp. of

1

cop. conj., pron.
^j?'/?.

\ and ^"^.5^^ -with
^7'l)^^!»1

the accent "^1.^^? 1 sing. pres.

of "H^lS

hlesscd.

1055,

and I

idll

make
/"lil

great,

comp. of

"1

and n parag.,
to the

and /*n^X the

tsere

being

lost

on the removal of the accent
2cas great,

n

jjarag. 1 sing. pres. pih. of

m liiph. made great.
i.

1056, n^'lS n^rri

and

be thou a blessing,

e.

most blessed, one

of the modes of expressing the superlative degree, see Introduction

Part III., or more probably

a

source of blessing, as being the

progenitor, according to the flesh, of

him

in
1

whom

all

the families

of the earth were to be blessed; comp. of

fori and 2 sing. m. imp.
n.**.!!

led of

T\'^J^,

ordinary form of the 2 sing. m. of the imp.
"1

parad.

2 and 12, and hence
1057, 1058.
'^''~
riD^llIl

is

pointed vnih.

segol,

Gr. 125,4.

subs. fem.

from

'H'^Il

blessed.
bless thee,

Yew 3.
plur.

TIl'^pO those that

comp. of pron.
D''5'!l5''? "^^'ith

aff".

and

m.

part, jiihel of *T]'^, plur. abs.
afl".,

the

termination removed before the
1059. "^7^p^^
pron.
aff".

Gr. 49.
^

and him
^:>//i.

that curseth thee, comjD. of
sing, of

conj.,

and

"^

and

part.

m.

//D parad.

6,

the tsere in the
in hal

parad. shortened into segol on the removal of the accent;

was

light, in hijih.

made

light, cursed.
'^'^^{
iii.

1060. 7>{X
1061.

I will
and

curse. 1 sing. pres. hal of

parad. 6, cursed.

ID'l^i*!

shall be blessed, see Gal.

8,

comp. of

1

and
a

3 plur. pres.

nijih.

of ^7Il blessed, parad. 3.
1.

1062. nn3?/'0 families, constr. plur. of T\n^^'!2 subs, fem;
household; 2. a family or clan.

1063.
spohe.

—Ycr.

4.

I^Ti

had

spohen, 3 sing. m. pret. inh. of 75*^

1064. ir\KV3
prep., pron.
aff. 1

lit-

in his going out, v:hen he

vent

out, for

comp. of ^

and

HX^ contr. for HX^
8,

and that

^^T Gr. 39,

parads. 12 and inf constr. hal of X^** 1 T T

106
1065. "H/*!

ANALYSIS OF
and went,
conip. of
-I

[Chap.
pres. hal of

xii.

and 3 m.
and 30

'HT

parad. 8, with the uk. voavcI shortened into

secjol

in consequence

of the removal of the accent, Gr.

9, 10,

(J).
aff.

1066. DtJ^^D"! their propertij, conip. of the pron.
acquisitum, something acquired, a

and

^'^2"^

noun of the form of the
and
'l^p'^ in

pass.

part, hal of ti^^l acquired, parad. 2;

pause for ^L^^DT

Gr. 31 (2), had acquired; 3

pi. prct.

hal of the same.

1067.— Ver. 5.
verant, Ros.
;

it^j; "ISTN*

tJ^§3n-n.^^

cum

servis

quos acquise-

mancipia Charaneacquisita,Ge&.

In Ezek. xxvii. 13,

mention

made of certain nations trading "with the Tyrians D^i^n ti^^^S in human lives, human beings, slates ^?^^ subs. com.
is
;

1. hreatJi;

2. life;

3.

the soul;

4.

that ichich hath

life,

a living

creature, a
slave;

man;

here, and in the passage quoted from Ezech., a
etc.,

sometimes a dead body, Numb.T.2, ix. T,
is T\t2l

Avhere, hoAv-

ever, the full ex^iression

£i^S^

;

t^^5

is

here used collectively.
as Ave

1068.

^2J^^ lit.
i.

had made,
e.

in the

same sense

spealc of

mahing money,
parad. 2 and 13.

gained, acquired, 3 plur. pret. hal of Hp^;^

1069.—Ver. 6. DIpD
1069*.

constr. of Dlp/^ see

Xo. 72, the

ult.

voAvel

immoveable, the penidt. moveable, Gr. 59, and 56, 57.

Trip \h^

to the

pine grove of Moreh,

\h^

subs.

m.

the

terebinth or ^jwae, a pine grove, here

m

the construct, state, and

both

A'OAvels inimoA-eable
is

;

from hence

it is

probable that the full
A^'here

form of the Avord
abundant,

jl /''^^•

In a country

trees vrere not

they Avere naturally geographical

marks:

Moreh
sing.

is

probably the name of the
1070.

jjlanter or OAvner of these trees.

— Yer.

7.

t^TI and appeared, comp. of

and 3 and

m.
m.

apoc. pres. niph. of HwSn parads. 2, 3, 13, fidl form HSn.": Gr. 131 (b)

and

37;

and HX'l^n

ivho appeared,

comp. of

-7%

part. niph.

of the same.
1071.
*\^\^

I will give,

1

sing. pres. Z-a/ of jn^ ga^c, parad. 5,

Gr.l31((^)."

1072. p*! see No. 291. 1073.

—Yer.

8.

'^'P)!^^\

and he moved

QA?,

tent),

comp. of

-I

and

3 sing. m. apoc. pres. hiph, of pHJ^ was moved, transferred, iwhij^h. moved, caused to move, etc., parad. 2.
1074. rrnnn towards the mountain
(the moimtainous
district

5 ;

Vcr.4— 11.]
which
locale,
is to

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
-Il

107
rcsJi T\,

the East of Bethel), comp.
^IH subs.

before

and

T[

and

m. a mountain,
affix,

Avith the

vowel lengthened on
comp. of

account of the assyllabic

Gr. 66, 67.
i.

1075. b*1 and spread out (his tent),
to*

c.pitcl/ed,

•)

and
(c),

with the original vowel

tD*

Gr.115, contr.
/lul

for

b^

Gr.131

apoc. form of T\\^y 3 sing. m. pros,

of (IDJ sjjread out, parad.

and
a

13, also turned aside to lodge with
id.

any one, see

ch. xxxviii. 1.
afF.

1076. riyHiSI
tent,

qu.i/nJSJ his tmt, comp. of pron.

and 7riX
Medi-

Gr. 105, et scq.
071

1077. D*0

the icest,

comp. of -^ and D^

lit.

the sea, the

terranean, the sea lying to the west of Palestine.

1078.
ffoing

—Yer.

9.

nSIliJn

^D''_5

and Ahraliam removed
i.

(his tent),

and removing towards

the south,

e.

he removed his tent

from time

to time in a southerly direction, as the pasture failed.

1079. yD*^ comp. of A and 3 sing. m. pres. kal of ^pll l.jndled
tij)

or out (the stakes of a tent)

;

2.

removed (one's tent)
infin,

:

3.

removed;

travelled; parad.

4 and 5

;

and ^D^

absolute kal of the same
in quali-

another instance of the poverty of the
fying terms.
1080. n^lJ^n com]?, of
of "Hyi subs. m. the south.
-il

Hebrew language
loccde,

art.

and H

and

^JlJ

ground form

m. famine, dearth of iwotisions. 1082. Tl^T and went down, comp. of -^ and 3 sing. m. pres. kal
10. ^^'l subs.

1081.

—Yer.

of n*!) went down, parad. 8, see Gr. 30

(J).

1083. riDn.^^ towards Egxjpt, comp. of
see ver. 11.

H

locale

and

D^V^
*11il

1084.

'n'1^7

comp. of 7 before tonic accent 7 and
parad. 10.
T\'^'2'2

inf.

hcd of

to sojourn, reside, dwell,

1085. "153

HI.

heavy, great, grievous,

fcm., Gr. 74, constr.

1086.—Yer. 11.

"i:i*l

nnjpn

^|J^^{3

^ri^^'!//c^^/;/?(7?/e
i.

propinqiiasset , ut ingrederetur in

EgyjJtum,

e.

^^f, cum apwhen he had

approached the confines of Egypt.
1087. ^'*'lpn 3 sing. m.
in hiph. the same,
-^vei. liiph.

of ^*1D parad. 3, approached,

and caused

to

approach.
Jcal

1088.

i^H7 comp.

of 7 prep, and mf.

of NIlH

to enter,

parad.

10 and 12, see Storr,

p. 304.

;

108
1089.
"*J^y"I^

ANALYSIS OF
I have known, I Jaiow,
nS''.
lit.

[Chap.
of

xii.

1 sing. pret. Jcal

^T

/ivze?/?,

parad. 8 and

4.

1090. nX^/^

heauty of appearance, of a beautiful ap-

pearance.
1091. nS*! constr. of HSJ
96,
tlie consti".

fern,

heauty, masc. form T\^\ Gr.94,95,
it

form of H^^ shews

to

have been originally a subs,

see Introduction, Part III., on the subject of Adjectives.

1092. nX*l,^ lohat one sees, a vision, siyht, appearance, subs, m.,

from nX*! saw. T T

1093.—Vcr. 12.
'•'1^^

D^V^D

the Byyptians,

comp. of -H and plur. of

an Egyptian.
1

1094. ^1/t?X1 then shall they say, comp. of
of ^^^? said, parads. 7 and
4.

and 3

jilur. prct. Jcal

1095.

^-3*)ni

and

ivill

slay,

comp. of

"1

and 3 plur.

prct. hal of

y^jl slew, parads. 2

and

3.
-^xq?,.

1096.

^*n''. loill

save alive, 3 plur. m.

pih. of n^il lived, in

2nh. caused

to live,

preserved alive, parad. 13.
fem. imp. kal of "1^^* said.

1097.—Ver.l3. ^^2^ 2

1098. ^5i Gr.vat! an interjection; used to express supplication,
petition, or the contrary; not unlike the Y,ng.

pray, for

I pray,

or

prithee. Prof. Lee's Lex.

1099.

'*^1^^s

my

sister,

comp. of pron.
Titli^ contr. for

affix

''"7

and

^l1^^? contr.

Kn^5 and with the accent
Gr. 38, subs. fem. sister
^rti^
;

^1^^^ Prof. Lee's Gr, 75,

according to some grammarians, from

the Arab, and Chald. forms of "'H^ a brother. Ges. Lex.
to

1100. |y^^ for n^N* jy^'p Lat. eo consilio ut,

the

end

that,
^^

comp. of 7 a^ntl ty^ for T\y^h sul)s. the intent, used adverbially, from m2I^.
1101.
i^**"!

fem. intent, purpose, |J^^7

may

he well, 3 sing.

m.

pres. kal of ^t3^

was good,
I

was

well, parad. 9.
''i^^S^

1102.

^OICI

^'^^^ ^'^y

^^^'^

^'^^i/

live, i.e.

and

may be
lived,

preserved alive, comj). of
parad. 13.

\

and 3

sing. fem. pret. hal of

H^n

1103. ^^5^ comp. of pron.
already noticed.
it is,

afF.

According

to our

^t and ^^\ ground form of V)^) idiom this word is redundant

however, very significant and expressive.

1104. Ij^/rl? /or thy sake, comp. of

3

pre}?.,

and fem. pron.

aif.

Ycr.ll-n.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS,
ni. ^vith
tlic

109
tlic
aft'.

3 pcrs. and 775 subs.

accent removed to
hy- or he-cause.

77il

cause, occasion, Avith the prep.

3

1105.

—Yer.

14.

0*^5^ ^^1^^

as, or icheti

Abram

icent,

comp. of

3 and Xi3 infin. Ml Jf wSllH1106. nS^see No. 1091. T T
1107.
^'er. 15.
'''1^

princes, constr. plur. of

1^

tlic

vowel im-

moveable,

as if

from

*^)^-^

1108. ^77n^5 comp. of

and

oplui". -pics. pih. of 77)1 parad. 6,
;

with a comp. sh^va under 7 contrary to the general ride
shone, gave out
ligJit,

in kal

in pih.
i.

made

to shine, celebrated,

commended.

1109. riy*l3 Pharaoh,

e.

the king,

'O ^apaoov kut AlyvTrTLov^
pres. puh. of ilD/

^aaiXea
1110.

arjfiaivei.
rii^i^l

Joseph. Antiqq.
-1

lib.viii. c.2.

comp. of
IG. ^"'^"'11

and 3

sing.

f.

fooh,

parads. 4 and 5.

1111.

—Yer.

3 sing. pret. hiph. of ^ID^ teas good, in

hiph. did good, treated well, j)arad. 9.

^D3 lit. cutter, layer open, an ox yp^ and ^5^ cleaved, opened. The called 1p3 from his opening or ploughing
1112.
cogn.

or cow,

ox

is

supposed

compare ^p3 to be
In like

the ground.

manner Yarro derives armentum
from aro; see Ges. Lex.
1113. D'''lDni
full

contr. for

aramentum, a herd,

and

asses,

comp. of

1

conj.,

and

plur. of ^tth in

ll^n an

ass, ult.

vowel immoveable, Gr. 56.
servaiits, or

1114.
plui'.

Dn^yi and men

male

slaves,

comp. of

\

and
and

of "155^ subs, m., seg. (a) class, Gr. 109.
"1

1115. riinS^^ ayid female servants, or slaves, comp. of
plur. of

nnSy'
is

subs.fem., from the masculine form flSt^; the plur.
to the

of the fern,

formed upon the ordinary principle applicable

plurals of the feminine of segolate nouns, Gr. 109(^).

The

ety-

fnology

is

uncertain.

1116. ni\^5 in full niiinX Gr.34, plm-. of pnN* a she ass: the

etymology

is

uncertain;

the

ult.

vowel immoveable, the penult,
a camel, the formation of

moveable, Gr. 56 etseq., and 74.
1117.

Dv^^

Camels, plur. abs. of

/^il

the

j)lui-.

should be regularly Dv^il)!^T). «'^f^

1118.

—^'er.l7.

s?note

(with disease), comp. of

}

and

3 sing, pves.pih. of

J^^^ touched, struck, smote, parads. 4

and 5.

1

10
1119.
""J^^ii

ANALYSIS OF
pl^^i';

[

Chap.

xli. 1 7.

^^s. of ^^^ subs, m., 1.

a

strolic,

How;
1.

2.

cm

infidion (of evil)

a scg. of the

(/) class,

see Gr. 109.

1120. ll'I'Sj^ on account of, l^"^. constr. of ll'^Gr.94,
^. thing; 3.

Kord;

cause; \\Q\\coyiTy^_be-causcof; 'Lat.projjfer,
18.

1121.

—Ver. —Ycr.

PHXl

2 sing.

in. pret.

h'ph.

oH^^

in kal inusif.

in hiph. declared, see

No. 359.
comp. of
)

1122.
took,

19. ^j5^>l
4.

and

1 sing. pres. /icd

of Hi^?

parads. 5 and

1123. "^Sl

np

^aA-e

(her)

r//?f/ r/o,

Hp

per

s?/;?c.

for

Up?

Gr. 39,

2 sing. m. imp.

/iff/

of

np7 and

"^7 for

IjV Gr.39, 2 and 3

sing. ni.

imp.

kal of *nT parad. 8,
1124.

tccnt.

—Yer.20.
^n
y2i^*'.1

1^11

and charged, comp. of
13, fidl
1

•]

sing.

m. apoc.

pres.;;/^. of
1 125.

Hl^ parad.

form r\)Vincs. 2)ih. of

comp. of

and 3 plur. m.

H /^ parad. 4,

«e«/, sent a wag.

1126.

— Chap.xiii.
108t).
2.

ri5Il5ri toicards the

South, viz., of Canaan, see

Nos. 10T8, and
1127.

—Yer.

1j«s^ 15?^

lit.

loeight excess, rcrghearg, very 7'ich,

in Scotland wealthy

men

are sometimes called welghtg

men
is

;

and

the epithet iveight, applied to influence, or character,

quite

common
1128.
in these

in the English language.

nnn^

^1055

npm contr.
as

for

H^lp^n^

etc.,

the articles

words must

either

have reference

to the cattle, silver, Avhile in

and

gold, Avith
articles silver

which Abram was enriched
gold.
3.

Egypt, or the

may be used

in French, Vargent, Vor,

where we say
he pro-

and

1129.

—Yer.
yD^

VJ^B^7 having respect
soiith of

to his stations,

i.

e.

ceeded from the

Canaan

to Bethel, halting
;

where he had
aff.

halted onhis way from thence to
pliu'.

Egypt comp. of 7 pron.
lost,

V~ and

of

with the plur. term,

Gr. 49, subs, m.,
3.

1.

a pulling

tip (of

the stakes of a tent); 2. a march, journey;

the distance

between one encampment and another; Gr.

ora6[x6<;; root J/D^ see
is

No. 1079, the penult, vowel of ^&0
1130.

contr. for ^'0y!2

immoveable,

n^nPS

fit ih<i

beginning, contr. for

n^nj^nS Gr. 35, comp.
/mNT
hip)h.

of 5 pi'cp., -H and SSh see No. 556.

1171171 subs. fern, beginning; root

of

Chap.

xiii. 9.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
contr. for

Ill

1131
1132.

—ycY. 4. nb^ had made.

np^^^

n^b'^in^ Gr. 35, and
|1t^'^<'^

19,

comp. of 3

prep. -H and
head.

^2l£J'^s'^

fcm. and

m. beginning, root ^^'^ the

1133.

A'er.o.

DvC^

tents,

i.

c.

many

servants

who

lived in the

tents, plur.

oi^TJ^ Gr. 109, and 109i 1134.— Ver.G. ]*lS*n DP^C ^^} ^\etjionferehateos
"^i^l^

terra, i.e.

r*^.^!''^

pascuum

torrac, Ros.
T'^.5j!>n

;

^^£^J

might have been exj)ccted

this anomaly is not uncommon Hebrew syntax, particularly Avhcre the verb precedes its nominative. The gender of the verb in this case, however, may be

to

be fcm.

to agree

with

but

in

accounted for on the supposition that
understood.

T\'^y\j2,

wliich

is

masc,

is

1135. TOW^ for the dwelling, comp. of 7 before the tone syllable and nny^ 'contr. for H^^'. inf. constr. kal of 1^^ dwelt, parad. 8. 7 1136. I'^n^ or V^n^ together, comp. of pron. aff. plur. 3 pers. m.

and

"in^

ground form of ^H^ a
;

seg.

of the {a) class;

1.

union-,

2. conjunction

with the

pi. aff. coiyunction

of them, hence together,

compare

*in^ united.
lite stock, see

1137. D^^^*! their liToperty ,

Xo. 1066.
Gr. 41, n^*! fem

1138. ^"1
great.

m

pause for

Il'H

ground form

^ll"]

1139. ^7^^ 3 plur. praet. /va/of 7^^ xoas ahle; this form varies
slightly

from parad. 8, see Lee's Gr. 188(2).

1140.

— Ycr.7.
*3^h fidly

*y''^_?,\}hii.\\\.

strife, contention,

and

HlS'^'n^ subs.

fem., a derivative of the preceding, with the

same meaning,
1.

ver. 8.

1141.

written ^j;h constr. plur. of HJ^h
part. act. halm., of nj^"! fed,

a feeder,
as a subs.;

pastor, herdsman;

used
aff.

penult. voAvel immoveable,

Gr.60; plur. with pron.

1 pers. '''^1

mg
i.

herdsmen; with

aff.

2 pers. TJ^"1 thy herdsmen.
UT\'^ U'^^^-'^Yit. for men hrethren we,

1142.—Ver. 8.
e.

^m^

for

we

are nearly related.
9.
^?^ *TlSri

1143.

— Ver.

separate thyself,

I p)ray

thee,

2 sing. m.

imp. niph. of 'TIS hrohe asi(mhr,se2)arcited(hjhYCdi\.m^^),se2xircite(l,
parad. 3, the accent being on the pcnvdt. Gr. 29(e), and 30(6-), the
tscre in the parad.

IISH

is

shortened into segol, Gr. 9, 10.

1144. ^S^totJ^n

to theleft

hand, or northioards, see No. 217, comp.

112

ANALYSIS OF
context, the etymology

[Chap.

xili.

of -n and 7N/bb' subs. m. the left (liaud), (foot), (side),

etc., as re-

quired by

tlic

is

uncertain ; rtTO^J^SSI
T\

/

lo'dl

go

to

the left hand, or northwards, conip. of

parag. and 1 sing,

pres. hiph. of

7^J^^
to
iJ^<^

obsolete, a quadi-ilatcral root.
right hand, southioards, see

1145. j'*^*n
•H and
i.

No. 217, comp. of
of

V'ly,

the right (hand, side, etc.); Hll^''^ Iioilltahe the right,

e go southwards,

comp. of
9.

H

parag.,

and

1 sing. pres. hljih.

j^**

not used in hal, parad.

1146.— Ver. 10. X^*5 comp.
raised, hore, pai'ad. 5,

of

-1

and 3

sing.

m. pres. hal of

N*b^^

and 12, see No. 459.

of Jordan, 'l^S constr. of 153 subs. com., contr. for 13'n3 angthing round, a circle ; l.a tract of country
1147. \Tfj^

^^^

the plain

from

its

appearance to the eye as limited within a circle (the
;

new
from

divisions of France are called circles)
its

2.

a cake of bread,

circular shape; 3. a talent of silver or gold, probably
it

from

the circular shape of the weight -with which

was weighed, or of
for

the measure in which

it

was contained
from
its

:

compare 13 a measure
;

solids or liquids, so called

round shape

root

113

icent in

a

circle, so 7il7il ^ T
;

from 775. - T
of -n and j11^
lit.

1148.

ni*n comp,

the river, the principal

river in Palestine, the Jordan, from 11^ descended; ui like

manner

in Latin, ^^I'ms from fluo;

and Rhine, in Germ, lihyn, Rhein,

from

rinrien, to run.

1149.

H73

totality

ground form 7?5
noun,

see

of it, all of it, comp. of pron. No. 130.
vcv.

afF.

n~

and 73

1150. Tlp^^'O ^^xt.hiph.
1.

oiT\D^

draiih, parad. 13,
2. wltat

used

as a

one that gives

to

drink, a cup-hearcr ;
3,

has been

supplied with drink, a well watered country ;

drink

itself.
lit.

1151.

nn^ ivd. pih.
1J^5^ lit.

of riHD' parad. 3, used here as a noun,

before JehovaKs destruction of, etc.

1152.

smallness, Zoar, the

name

of a city lying to the

south of the

Dead

Sea, called Zoar subsequently to the jjeriod at
place, see cha^D.xix. 20, 22.

which the events here recorded took The original name of Zoar was Bcla.
1153.

—Ycr.

11.

in31 and
and

chose,
4.

comp. of

-1

and 3

sing. pres.

kal of

ins

chose, parads.S

Ver. 9—16.]

THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
sing. ni. pres. hal of
pi.

113

1154
see

]^^\

lit.

pulled up (the stakes of a tent), marched, journeijed,

Xo. 1129; 3

^p^ parad. 4 and
"Tl|)

5.

1155. n'n3^ 3

m. pros. niph. of

separated, parad. 3.

1156.

—Yer.

12. "'"1^3 in the cities,
;

sometimes in one and some-

times in another
pirn-.

comp. of
Gr.ll4.

!3
*

and

constr. of

Dn>^

coutr. for

DH^y

ofTyac%,
till

1157. Dnp'iy.
place)

/HX*! and he removed his tent (from place to
to

(he came)

Sodom, /HNI*! comp. of
parads. 2

•),,

and 3 smg.

pres.

hal of /Hi^ moved his

tent,

and 3.

1158.—Ver.
in this Avord
is

13. D^J?'! icicked, plur. of

p

or p^, see

No. 230.

1159. D''5<t3n sinners, plur. of ^{^^ « sinner; the
that of missing a

primary idea
at,

mark which we shoidd aim

hence that of sinning.

1160.— Ver.
or after

14.

HHi^

see

Xo. 568.
niph. of Tl|l.

1161. nnsri the being separated, after Lofs having been separated,

Lofs sepaj'ation, inf. constr.

This, and similar

expressions, hare been often literally translated, to shew, that
infinitives in the

Hebrew
t{p,

language, are in reality abstract nouns.
for

1161*. Nb'

lift

contr.

^t^^ imper. hal, 2 sing. m. of

Nb'i parads. 5 and 12.
1162. nXI.I
parad. 13.

and

see,

comp. of

)

and 2

sing.

m. imp. hal of H^'l

1163.

D^

nn^'^lty^^

lit.

as

to

which, thou there, i.e. Avhere

thou

art.

1164.

n^S^

northicards, comp. of
to

H

locale,

and

]p*i or

jlS^ subs,

m. the north; supposed

be derived from j3^ lad, the Jews considermg the north a hidden and impenetrable region. There

is

no change in the vowels, because there

is

no change in the
T[~

place of the accent,

which the
^3!5^1^«»

il

locale does not receive.

1165.

—Ver.
lost

15.

I

icill

give

it,

comp. of pron.

aff.

and nun epenth., and
vowel
is

jriJ^ 1

sing. pres. kal of jHi parad. 5, the ult.

on the removal of the accent.
of"),

1166.— Ver. 16. ^tt^^) comp.
to jilace, to

and

1 sing. pret.

hal of D^b^

make.

1167. 7l)V he able, 3 sing. pres. //op^. of ?y, parad. 8, ivas able. 1168. niJ^p
to

number, comp. of 7 before sA'ra 7, and

inf. constr.

kal of T\y^ numbered; and H^.^) 3 sing. m. pres. niph. of the same.

8

114
1168.* nay.
1169.
const!-,

ANALYSIS OF
of ISj; subs. m. dust, Gr.94.
rise,

[Chap.

xiii.

16.

—Vcr.

17.

D^p

2 sing. m. imp, kal of D^p parad. 10. 2 sing. imp./«'^A. oi'^/7^tvent,ivalkedf

1170.
parad. 2.

"^^nnn

loalk about,

1171. nS'lNI/ comp. of 7 and pron.
accent
'^'^^{,

aff.

T\— and

"^If^

with the

ground form of

'^li^, seg.

of the (o) class, sub. m.

length, Gr. 105, et seq.

1172.

nSn

j? comp. of 7, pron.

aif.

T\— and ^rTl and with the
m.
seg. (o) class, breadth,

accent ^D"' ground form of
width.

^Hl

subs.

1173.

Ges. renders

N1^^ ^^^^>5 according to Eos. in quercetis Mamres; p/X quercus, and Ijee jnne tree. Mamre, the owner
is

of this grove,
chapter.

probably the person mentioned in the following

*pNI

constr. plur. of
built, see
1.

p«,

in full fhi< see

No. 1069.

1174. inn 1175.
in

and

No. 291.
see

— Chap.xiv.

'^J^^^ Shinar,

chap. xi. 2, the district

which the tower of Babel was

built.

From

the circumstance

that the reign of
dition,

Amraphel

is

fixed

upon

as the date of this

expe-

we may

conclude that

he was a person of some note, and

that his
others,

kingdom was

of considerable extent as comj)ared with the

who were probably
u7'')!l_

petty kings in the north of Palestine,

or in the district of Syria adjoining.

1176.

Elam.

There

is

little

probability

that

this

is

Persia, as

is

supposed by some; the distance,

difficulties

of the

way, and petty nature of the expedition, scarcely justify such a
supposition.

1177.
subjects

D^iil

*n70 king of Goim,

i.

e.

of nations.

This king's

may have

consisted of people of different nations.
is

territory of that

king was probably in Galilee, which

called

The by

Isa. viii.23, D^iilH 7Vil,

and by Matt.iv.

15,

TakCkaia rwv

iOvcov,

and in