CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

-1AULA 10 LOOKING BACK ON ESSENTIALS Text 1: The International Monetary Fund
Most of the world’s leading nations sent representatives to a conference at Bretton Woods, on Dec 27, 1945. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established then, and a system of “pegged” or fixed exchange rates was devised. The IMF was established mainly to promote international cooperation on monetary issues and to facilitate governments with financial resources to correct payments’ imbalances. The IMF is a specialized agency of the UN, with a board of governors drawn from every member country, 22 executive directors and a managing director. It had 170 members (1993). Its headquarters is in Washington D.C. The IMF extends short-term credit to nations unable to meet their balance-ofpayments debts by conventional means, usually increased exports and long-term loans. The IMF expects to be paid back and can enter into consultations with chronic debtor-nations in order to advise them on how best to repay their debts. The IMF will often ask these nations to take steps to decrease their imports or perhaps depreciate their currencies. The conference at Bretton Woods also provided for fixed exchange rates between nations, but this part of the agreement has since been abandoned. In 1971, with the American trade deficit continuing to grow, the US proposed that Germany and Japan, both with favorable balances of payment, appreciate their currencies. These nations were reluctant to act, and when they did, it was too little too late. The fixed value of the dollar was abandoned and allowed to “float;” that is, to fluctuate in comparison to other currencies - with supply and demand determining the value. In the US, prices and wages were frozen for a time, and a 10% surcharge was imposed on imports. The purpose was to persuade Europe and Japan to reduce trade barriers against American products. A world conference was called at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., to try and revive the old system. The dollar was officially devalued, and the Japanese yen and German mark were raised in value. When the U.S. trade position still did not improve enough in 1972, the fall of the dollar was made official, and the world reverted to flexible exchange rates. Some economists argue that more potent methods must be used to correct long-term and deep-seated trade imbalances. Two of the more popular ideas are the use of flexible exchange rates and special drawing rights. Flexible exchange rates would mark a compromise between the days of rigid (usually outdated) exchange rates and today’s free-floating situation where supply and demand can cause extreme fluctuations in a currency’s value. Flexible exchange rates would allow a currency to fluctuate up to a certain prescribed level, perhaps 1% or 2% a year. Special drawing rights are what is known as “paper gold.” Limited supplies of gold relative to the world money supply, along with the fall in value of the dollar, have led to the need to find an alternative. The IMF has responded by agreeing to create paper gold and distribute it to member nations in proportion to the amount of their subscription. (From “An Outline of American Economy’, ps.132/133, USIA) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

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Pre-testing Vocabulary Faça o skimming do texto e correlacione os fragmentos do texto em A com sua tradução em B, impregnados de “economês” já que estamos falando do International Monetary Fund (IMF), that is, FMI. Como sempre as transparent words, os true cognates, vão ajudá-lo nessa tarefa: A 1. “pegged” exchange rates 2. correct payments’ imbalances 3. repay their debts 4. decrease their imports 5. depreciate their currencies 6. prices and wages were frozen 7. deep-seated trade imbalances 8. special drawing rights B ) saldar suas dívidas ) taxas de câmbio fixas ) corrigir desequilíbrios nos pags. ) desvalorizar suas moedas ) diminuir suas importações ) direitos especiais de saque ) preços e salários foram congelados ) desequilíbrios comerciais sérios

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( g. ( h. (

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 1. Em virtude de se tratar de um relato histórico o verb tense predominante é o past simple. Escreva pelo menos cinco exemplos dele nas linhas abaixo: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. Escreva um exemplo retirado do text 1 nos verb tenses below: Present simple _________________________________________________ Present perfect _________________________________________________ Future Simple __________________________________________________ 3. Escreva cinco exemplos de construções na passive voice encontradas no text 1: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

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Prof. Carlos Augusto

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4. Atenção para o significado das palavras terminadas em ...ing. Indique como estão sendo usadas as formas em negrito e traduza os fragmentos do texto. a) the world’s leading nations (L-1)
__________________________________________________________________________

b) and a managing director (L-9)
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c) the American trade deficit continuing to grow (L-19)
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d) supply and demand determining the value (L-23)
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e) and special drawing rights (L-34)
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f) today’s free-floating situation (L-36)
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g) The IMF has responded by agreeing (L-42)
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5. Atenção para o significado das palavras terminadas em ...ed. Indique como estão sendo usadas as formas em negrito e traduza os fragmentos do texto a) a system of fixed exchange rates (L-3)
__________________________________________________________________________

b) The IMF is a specialized agency (L-8)
__________________________________________________________________________

c) usually increased exports (L-12)
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d) at Bretton Woods also provided for (L-17)
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e) this part of the agreement has since been abandoned (L-18)
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f) Japanese yen and German mark were raised in value (L-29)
__________________________________________________________________________

g) fluctuate up to a certain prescribed level (L-38)
__________________________________________________________________________

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Prof. Carlos Augusto

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6. Escreva nas linhas abaixo o que os seguintes modal verbs estão indicando nos fragmentos do text 1
can (L-13) ______________________________________________________ must (L-32) _____________________________________________________ would (L-35) ____________________________________________________ can (L-36) ______________________________________________________

7. Escreva nas linhas abaixo A que se referem os pronomes no text 1
it (L- 9) _________________________________________________________ its (L- 10) _______________________________________________________ their (L- 20) _____________________________________________________ their (L- 42) _____________________________________________________

WORD FORMS Basta olhar com atenção e lá estão os exemplos de palavras formadas com prefixes e suffixes que vimos estudando. Escolho alguns exemplos com o sufixo –OR para revisão: Governor (= aquele/a que governa, governador / a) Todos os estados americanos têm governors, com exceção é claro da Califórnia que, no momento, tem um ‘governator’. No seguinte fragmento do texto em board of governors é melhor entendermos como junta diretora, grupo de diretores, diretoria. “with a board of governors drawn from every member country (L-7) (= com um quadro de diretores retirado de cada país membro) Director(s) (=aquele que dirige, diretor) “22 executive directors and a managing director…” (L-8) (= 22 diretores e um diretor gerente) Debtor (= aquele/a que deve, devedor/a) “enter into consultations with chronic debtor-nations..” (L-12/13) (= entabular
consultas com países devedores inveterados)

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

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Prof. Carlos Augusto

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Poderíamos, com certeza, pinçar vários outros exemplos do texto de formação prefixal e sufixal igualmente elucidativos, mas, por enquanto, vamos ficar com o quadro seguinte. Veja se consegue fazer este exercício sem o auxílio de um dictionary; se de todo não for possível, recorra a um. Escreva nas quadriculas as palavras que estão faltando pertencentes às respectivas word families: Verb advise finance correct _____________ increase impose compare persuade know _____________ Noun ____________ finance ______________ officialization increase _____________ comparison t persuasion _____________ specialization Adjective advisable financial corrected officialized increasing imposed ______________ ______________ unknown special adverb advisably ________________ correctly officially ________________ imposingly comparably persuasively knowingly specially

COLLOCATIONS / COMBINATIONS Sugeri que você estudasse blocos de palavras e não só palavras soltas. É o estudo das collocations e combinations não valendo a pena, aqui, ficar preso à distinção entre elas. Escolhi exemplos do texto do tipo: verb + noun / adj. + noun. Coloque os verbos diante das expressões correspondentes, depois confira no texto como o autor as combinou. extends - promote - take - depreciate - determine - reduce - freeze - correct 1. ____________ international cooperation 2. ____________ steps 3. ____________ short-term credit 4. ____________ their currencies 5. ____________ trade barriers 6. ____________ trade imbalances 7. ____________ determining the value 8. ____________ freeze wages and prices
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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

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From text 1: “Some economists argue that more potent methods must be used to correct long-term and deep-seated trade imbalances. Two of the more popular ideas are the use of flexible exchange rates and special drawing rights. (L-35) COMPARATIVES Anteriormente revisamos superlatives. Desta vez vamos relembrar as comparative forms. As formas do comparativo e do superlativo dos adjetivos são importantes pois os examinadores podem perfeitamente jogar com as idéias de mais isso, menos aquilo, o mais alguma coisa, o menos alguma coisa - de maneira explicita ou não tão explícita nas diversas opções apresentadas numa questão de múltipla-escolha. Veja se tem o domínio das principais formações: a. O sufixo ‘er’ é usado para formar o comparativo de superioridade de adjetivos ‘curtos’. easy clean hot old easier (than) cleaner (than) hotter (than) older (than) mais fácil (que) mais limpo/a (que) mais quente (que) mais velho/a (que)

b. Com adjetivos longos’ usa-se more+adj.+than para formar o comparativo de supeiroridade e less+adj.+than para formar o compartaivo de inferioridade. more (less) difficult than more (less) complicated than more (less) economical than c. Algumas formas irregulares: good bad little much(many) better (than) worse (than) less( than ) more (than) melhor (que) pior (que) menos (que) mais (que) mais (menos) difícil (que) mais (menos) complicado/a que) mais (menos) econômico/a (que)

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

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Prof. Carlos Augusto

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A FINAL LOOK AT FALSE FRIENDS From text 1: “would mark a compromise” (L-35) No exemplo extraído do text 1, ‘compromise’ não significa compormisso, e sim, acordo. O que faz dele um falso amigo para Brazilian students. Complete the sentences with one of the FALSE COGNATES from the box then translate the sentences. extenuating luxury affluent fabric balance attend record parties repealed costume union cargo

1. I’m sure that law has been _________ already. It’s no longer valid.
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2. There are some ______________ circumstances in his case that must be taken into account by the judge.
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3. In many places, an automobile is not a __________, it’s a necessity.
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4. Since you did not pay the invoice in full, how do you intend to pay the ___________ outstanding.
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5. He began to keep a more accurate _________ of his expenses.
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6. Nobody had told me it was _________ party. So I wore a suit.
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7. The area was nicknamed Silicon Valley for the ________ of computer chips.
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8. _________ leaders, together with dissatisfied workers, went on strike.
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9. Mr. Penn introduced us to his __________ associate from Norway.
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10. If the ________ were not illegal, there would not be so many men carrying shotguns on board that ship.
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11. Now that the two ____________ involved are in agreement the contract may be finalized.
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12. Unfortunately not many people enrolled to _________ Prof. Haskin’s talk on Economic Development.
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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

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Como ainda estamos treinando pro mock test final, vale um exercício de: VOCABULARY PRE TEST A 1. attract customers 2. carry money safely 3. foreign currencies 4. accept foreign checks 5. dealing with foreigners 6. insured against loss 7. do much business 8. run out of checks 9. service charge will vary 10. pay for lodging Text 2: Handling your money Most banks in the U.S. open at 9 and close between 3 and 5 but stay open late on Fridays. Some banks have longer hours in order to attract customers. What’s the best way to carry money safely while you’re traveling? There are three possibilities - personal checks from your country, travelers’ checks and credit cards. Some American banks accept foreign checks such as Eurocheques. The problem is that only those banks that are used to dealing with foreigners will know what Eurocheques are. It may be more convenient to carry travelers’ checks, which are insured against loss. They should be in dollars, because only a few banks do much business in foreign currencies. If your checks aren’t in dollars, it may take you a long time to find a bank that will exchange them. You can use travelers checks almost anywhere - in restaurants, stores or ticket offices - without having to go to a bank. If you run out of them, you can buy more at most banks. Their service charge will vary, though, so ask what it is before you buy your checks. Americans would say the best way to carry money is to have a major credit card like Visa, Master Card or American Express. Credit Cards can be canceled if they are lost or stolen. And because they are widely accepted in the U.S., it is easy to use them to pay for lodging, transportation, meals and things you want to buy from larger stores. Of course you can’t get along without cash, but you don’t need to carry much with you (From "How to Survive in the USA" by Nancy Church and Anne
Moss, Unit 6, p 52)

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( g. ( h. ( i. ( j. (

B ) tem seguro contra perda ) realizar muitos negócios ) esgotar o estoque de. cheques ) portar dinheiro c/ segurança ) receber cheques do exterior ) moedas estrangeiras ) atrair clientes ) negociar com estrangeiros ) pagar pela hospedagem ) tarifas de serviços variarão

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

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READING COMPREHENSION PRATICE FOR THE MOCK TEXT 1. Banks most likely to know about Eurocheques are the banks ... a) whose service charges are lower. b) having longer hours to attract customers. c) which do much business in all foreign currencies. d) that ordinarily deal with foreigners. e) that can exchange them if you run out of them. 2. The phrase ‘such as’ (L-5) as a discourse marker is indicating … a) addition b) opposition. c) emphasis. d) concession. e) exemplification. 3. The authors defend the convenience of carrying travelers’ checks because a) they are insured against loss. b) they should always be in dollars. c) very few banks accept them. d) you can eventually cancel them. e) banks invariably charge low service charges. 4. In ‘you can’t get along without cash’ the underlined expression in bold means that a) you cannot live without notes and coins. b) people will never be able to substitute for cash. c) you have to carry a little pocket money with you. d) people should not carry cash with them. e) you cannot use magnetic cards everywhere. 5. In the fragment “so ask what it is before you buy your checks” (L- 14) the pronoun ‘it’ refers to a) a bank. b) the service charge. c) a traveler check d) the matter e) a place

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

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VOCABULARY BUILD UP: PHRASAL VERBS From text 2: “Of course you can’t get along without cash” (L-20) O verbo ‘get’ é o verbo dos 1001 significados. Se um aluno me perguntasse Qual é o significado de ‘get’? Mais uma vez a minha resposta teria que ser Em que contexto? Veja algumas possibilidades: What time did you get home last night?
A que horas você chegou em casa ontem à noite?

Harriet did not get what I meant with that phrase.
A Harriet não entendeu o que eu quis dizer com aquela frase.

The phone rings and somebody says: I’ll get it!
O telefone toca e alguém diz: Eu atendo!

Isso sem mencionar as inúmeras possibilidades da locução get + adjective: It’s getting cold, it’s getting late. Time to get dressed.
Está ficando frio, está ficando tarde. Hora de se vestir.

Além disso, como muitos outros verbos ingleses o verbo ‘get’ se une a partículas como no exemplo texto para formar phrasal verbs. O próprio get along acima pode ser get along without ou get along with. Por exemplo: Ross and Ben cannot work together. They don’t get along with each other.
O Ross e o Ben não podem trabalhar juntos. Eles não se dão bem.

My mother-in-law just can’t get along without TV.
Minha sogra não consegue passar sem a TV.

Depois que eu vi a seguinte questão no concurso de Fiscal da Receita, conforme menciono no meu livro Inglês para Concursos, a partir daí passei a aconselhar meus alunos a estudarem os phrasal verbs com mais carinho. Observe: ESAF AFRF 2002.2 The expression to ‘stem the loss’ means to … a) stop it. b) bring it about. c) sum it up. d) take it over. e) make it out. Answer: ‘a’, the other options are examples of phrasal verbs.
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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

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Prof. Carlos Augusto

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PHRASAL VERBS PRACTICE Use the phrasal verbs from the box to complete the text below (using each verb once only. Equivalents are given in brackets. You may need to use other verb tenses.
Use estes phrasal verbs para completar o texto abaixo. Use cada um deles somente uma vez. Equivalentes são fornecidos entre parênteses. Você pode precisar alterar os tempos verbais.

act on build up fall through look after rely/count on

adhere to cash in on fight off look forward to take over

branch out draw up get away with make up take up

When we tried to (1) __________ [acquire] Mackenzie PLC we were all (2) ___________ [await with pleasure] an easy victory. We thought that most of their shareholders would (3) __________ [profit from] the chance of a quick profit. But the directors were determined to (4) ___________ [defeat] our bid. They (5) ___________ [invent] a lot of untrue stories about our company and criticized our last Annual Report, claiming that we hadn’t (6) __________ [respect] Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, and that our accountants had (7) ____________ [succeeded in doing sth. wrong] a lot of window dressing. They were able to convince their shareholders that they could (8) ___________ [trust] them (the current management) to (9) _____________ [protect] their interests better than we could. Over the years, they had obviously (10) ____________ [accumulated] a lot of respect from their shareholders. who (11) ___________ [follow] the board of directors’ advice, and didn't (12) _____________ [accept] our offer. Thus the whole deal (13) ____________ [collapse] But we are now (14) ____________ [prepare] alternative plans to (15) ______________ [diversify] in a new direction. (Adapted from Financial
English by Ian Mackenzie, page 82, LTP)

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

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Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD UP

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Match the words in (A) with the words in (B) then the words in (C) with ones in (D to check how much of transitional words (discourse markers you have learned:
Associe as palavras da coluna A com as palavras na coluna B depois as em C com aquelas em D para verificar o quanto você aprendeu sobre transitions ( marcadores do discurso)

A 1. In spite of 2. However 3. As a result 4. Moreover 5. Eventually

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. (

B ) Furthermore ) Finally ). Nevertheless ) Despite ) Therefore

C 6. Besides 7. Hence 8. Notwithstanding 9. Because 10. Actually f. ( g. ( h. ( i. ( j. (

D ) As, since ) But ). So, thus ) In fact, really ) In addition, also

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Prof. Carlos Augusto LIGHTEN UP

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Take 1

Take 2

1. O que você observa de diferente nos dois takes?
________________________________________________________________________

2. Qual é o efeito desejado pelo criador do anúncio publicitário?
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3. Você consegue traduzir esse provérbio acima?
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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

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Prof. Carlos Augusto SAME OR DIFFERENT?

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Write (S) in parentheses if you think ‘a’ and ‘b’ mean the same; write (D) if you think they’re different. 1. a) b) 2. a) b) 3. a) b) 4. a) b) 5. a) b) 6. a) b) 7. a) b) ( ) Although Jennifer studied hard for the test, she did not pass. Jennifer failed to pass the test; she studied hard for it, though. ( ) Harold studied until midnight last night. Harold kept studying until midnight last night. ( ) The quiz Prof. Lindsay gave us was very hard; very few students succeeded. Even though Prof. Lindsay’s test was very hard; quite a few students succeeded. ( ) No doubt Louis has many qualities; nevertheless, I think she’s too inexperienced. There’s no doubt Louis has many qualities; still, I think she needs much more experience. ( ) My father let us choose shoes of our own liking. My father let us choose shoes by ourselves. ( ) I give up! I’ll never learn calculus. It’s just over my head. I give up! I’ll never keep those calculations in mind. ( ) Brenda was one of the worst dancers of the group. Actually, she may have been the worst. Brenda was a very poor dancer. Nowadays, she is the worst of the group.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto PARAPHRASING

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WARNING! Pensei muito antes de incluir este exercício na nossa última aula. Primeiro por que ele exige o domínio de umas skills abrangentes. Considerei o momento que os candidatos ao concurso da Receita estão vivendo - com tantas matérias incluídas no edital – e tudo o mais. However, não quero ninguém arrancando os cabelos (quem os tem é claro!) Complete each sentence so as to keep its meaning as close as possible to the original segment taken or adapted from text 1 about the IMF). Follow this example:
Complete cada uma das frases de modo a manter o significado tão próximo quanto possível dos fragmentos originais retirados ou adaptados do texto 1 – sobre o FMI. Siga o seguinte exemplo:

Most of the world's leading nations sent representatives to a conference at Bretton Woods in 1945. Representatives of the world's leading nations ................................. A: Representatives of the world's leading nations were sent to Bretton Woods in 1945. 1. The IMF was established mainly to promote international cooperation on monetary issues. The promotion of ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. The IMF expects to be paid back by chronic debtor-nations. Chronic debtor nations ___________________________________________ 3. The IMF will often ask these nations to take steps to decrease their imports. These nations ___________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. In the United States, prices and wages were frozen for a time IMF directors ordered that .................................................................... 5. A 10% surcharge was imposed on imports to persuade Europe and Japan to reduce trade barriers against American products. Aiming at _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

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6. The dollar was officially devalued ... There was ______________________________________________________ 7. The Japanese yen and the German mark were raised in value. The value of ____________________________________________________

8. When the U.S. trade position still did not improve enough in 1972, the fall of the dollar was made official. As no noticeable improvement of ___________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

9. Some economists argue that more potent methods must be used to correct long-term and deep-seated trade imbalances. Some economists stated that _______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 10. Limited supplies of gold relative to the world money supply have led to the need to find an alternative. It was necessary _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

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Prof. Carlos Augusto REVIEW OF VERB TENSES

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Choose the alternative to complete the dialog exchanges: 1. “Do you find it easy to get along with Ms. Appleton?” “She _________________ (to lead) a hard life so far, but she remains optimistic in spite of it all.” a) has led b) was leading “How come you know the meaning of ‘ad hoc”? “When we were in school we ..................... (to study) Latin for 4 years.” a) have studied b) studied “Tell me some things about your hometown.” “Belém ......................... (to change) so much since the last time we ................... (to visit) it I can hardly tell you anything.” a) has changed / visited b) was changing / were visiting “Yesterday I was already in the parking lot when I realized I had to go back to the office because I ..................... (to leave) the car keys in my desk drawer.” “Man, how absent-minded can you get!” a) have left b) had left “That Norwegian rock group you love is in Brazil.” “This is the third time they ................. (to come ) to Brazil.” a) will come b) have come “Did Ray join you for a cup of tea at 6 p.m.?” “He did. He ......................................... (to work) on the computer the whole afternoon.” a) was working b) had been working “Does your wife drink her tea with lemon.” “No. My wife is not used ........................ (to drink) her tea with lemon.” a) drink b) drinking “Let me see if I remember. You take your coffee black.” “Not any more. I used ............................. (to drink) my coffee black.” a) drink b) drinking

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CURSOS ON LINE 9.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

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“I heard that Mr. Ramos is retiring.” “We’ll miss having him around. Mr. Ramos ....................... (always/ to be) so helpful. a) has always been b) was being always “What was Sonia so worried about this morning?” “Her husband ......................... (to phone- neg.) her yet.” a) wasn’t phoning b) hadn’t phoned “How was it at the mall this morning?” “After we had been waiting for over an hour, my wife decided to buy the first dress she ....................... (to try on). a) had tried on b) has tried on “......................... (ever/ to visit) the museums in France?” “Not yet, but I plan to.” a) Have you ever visited b) Were you ever visiting “Hi, Peter. How long ........................... (to wait) for me?” “Not very long. I arrived about five minutes ago.” a) were you waiting b) have you been waiting “Would you consider trading in your old station wagon?” “I wouldn’t. I .................. (to have) it for 5 years and it looks brand new.” a) am having b) have had “When did your aunt Alice move to Bahia?” “She moved a year ago and she ....................... (to live) there ever since.” a) lives b) has been living “Did you do anything special last night?” “I .......................... (to watch) an interesting documentary on channel 51 when the lights went out.” a) watched b) was watching “I guess we’ll not be able to go anywhere this year on our vacations?” “And to think that this time last year we ..................... (to have) the time of our lives in Palma de Majorca.” a) were having b) have had

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 18.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

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“When was it exactly that Derek decided to step on the gas?” “The moment he looked out of the window and saw that another car ....................... (to follow) us.” a) was following b) has followed “Hey, Albert. Did you miss your bus?” “When I got to the terminal, my bus .................... (to leave) already.” a) was left b) had left “Do you know when Denise started studying English?” “She started studying it when she was a child and she ............................ (to practice) it ever since. a) has been practicing b) had practiced “How can you be so optimistic about the future?” “I guarantee that things will be different a year from now. To begin with, I ..................... (to finish) paying the mortgage on my apartment by then.” a) will have finished b) will finish “Did you manage to talk to Sally today?” “No. Sally .................... (to be) pretty busy lately.” a) was b) has been “What is one thing that you remember about Jean?” “She ......................... (to play) chess very well when she was in college.” a) played b) was playing “Agatha asked me for another twenty bucks.” “She is a helpless case. She ................................. (always/to borrow) money from her friends.” a) is always borrowing b) had always borrowed “Do you know where Dennis ............................. (always/ to get off)?” “As far as I can remember, at this very station.” a) will always get off b) always gets off “Was it clear to you what Debbie commented on at the meeting?” “I don’t know what Debbie ............................. (to mean) by that” a) meant b) was meaning

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 27.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-20-

“Why did Oswald decide to quit?” “He says he is not used to .................... (to be treated) so rudely.” a) be treated b) being treated “I’m going over to see Carl.” “By going there at such a late hour you .................... (to ask) for trouble.” a) are asking b) were asking “Why are you asking me not to call you up tomorrow morning?” “I ........................... (to sleep) the whole morning.” a) was sleeping b) will be sleeping “How long have you been teaching English?” “By next July I ....................... (to teach) for more than 37 years.” a) will teach b) will have being teaching “What did your father use to do?” “My Dad ........................... (to work) for Banco do Brasil for 35 years. before he ............................. (to retire) in 1976.” a) worked / retired b) has been working has retired “Does anybody else in your family work for Banco do Brasil?” “My youngest brother ............ (to work) for Banco do Brasil since 1983.” a) has been working b) is working “I wanted to see Mr. Dobson. Could you please see if he is in?” “He ............................. (just/to leave).” a) has just left b) is just left “I’m telling you that I have an appointment with Mr. Dobson.” “I’m afraid he ......................... (to leave) a minute ago.” a) left b) has left “Are you sure you ........................... (to be) here before?” “Quite sure, why?” a) were b) have been

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE ERRATA: AULA 1

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-21-

Houve um erro neste quadro de conjugação do past simple dos verbos. Naquela correria do cutting and pasting (cola e copia), Não fiz a revisão do resumo abaixo e os verbos que deveriam ter retornado á forma básica nos exemplos walk e sleep saíram errado. Agradeço ao aluno /a aluna que me chamou a atenção para este furo no FORUM. Abaixo reproduzo o quadro como deveria ter aparecido antes. Sorry, Guys!

VERB TENSES – A SUMMARY
RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS

3.1

PAST SIMPLE

Utilizemos as expressões walk fast (=caminhar rápido), onde o verbo walk é regular e ‘sleep late (=dormir tarde) com o verbo irregular sleep. AFFIRMATIVE I / You / He / She / It / We / They walked fast // slept late

NB: Como você observa, há somente uma forma do verbo regular, walked, e uma forma do verbo irregular: slept. Lembre-se : infelizmente as formas do passado e do particípio passado dos verbos irregulares devem ser memorizadas. Veja material suplementar a esta aula. QUESTIONS Did I / You / He / She / It / We / They walk fast // sleep late?

NB: Atenção pois o auxiliar ‘did’ vai indicar que a pergunta formulada está no passado. O verbo principal retorna à forma básica (walk, sleeep) NEGATIVE I / You / He / She / It / We / They did not walk fast // sleep late

NB: Atenção, pois ao auxiliar ‘did’ segue-se a partícula negativa ‘not’ que indicará a forma negativa. O verbo principal retorna à forma básica (walk, sleep) Did not =didn’t A seguir você tem o teste simulado, mock test, para o qual venho chamando tanto sua atenção. Só o faça depois de ter revisado todas as lições. Estabeleça um tempo razoável, realista, para fazê-lo. Continuaremos a nos comunicar na área livre do ‘Ponto’, OK!. Good Luck, everybody!
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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-22-

MOCK TEST
TESTE SIMULADO

Read the text below then choose the best option to answer questions 1 to 3. Betting on Ben On February 1st, barring any unforeseen hiccups in his Senate confirmation, Ben Bernanke will become the most powerful central banker in the world, replacing Alan Greenspan as chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. Nominating Mr Bernanke on Monday October 24th, George Bush said he was the “right man” to replace a “legend”. Wall Street seems to agree. Financial pundits have heaped praise on Mr Bush’s choice. Stock prices rose on the news, the dollar held steady and although bond prices fell - yields on ten-year Treasuries hit a six-month high of 4.5% on Tuesday and rose thereafter. When Mr Greenspan was named as Paul Volcker’s successor in 1987, stocks fell and bonds had their worst day in five years. What explains the Bernanke bullishness? Relief, for one thing. Many on Wall Street fretted that Mr Bush might opt for a financial version of Harriet Miers, his recent Supreme Court nomination, to succeed Mr Greenspan, favouring ideological fealty more than independence and ability. (Tellingly, Ms Miers withdrew on Thursday.) Instead, he chose a man with dazzling academic credentials, a short but successful stint as a Washington policymaker and little partisan baggage. Mr Bernanke is one of America’s foremost monetary economists. He was a Fed governor between 2002 and 2005, moving from that job to become chairman of Mr Bush’s Council of Economic Advisers. Whereas Mr Greenspan was regarded as a partisan figure before he became chairman of the Fed, few of Mr Bernanke’s academic peers even knew he was a Republican until he moved to the White House. (From Economist.com) access: 26/10/05 Visit: www.economist.com/agenda/displaystory 1. Mr. Bernanke’s nomination by president Bush a) was welcomed by financial experts. d) confirmed the worries by many on Wall Street. b) might be the financial version of Ms. Harriet Miers. c) was frowned upon by the Senate. d) confirmed the worries by many on Wall Street. e) caused considerable controversy.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-23-

2. All of these can be said about Mr. Greenspan, except that he a) has been Chairman of the Fed for 18 years now. b) is considered a legend by President Bush. c) must have been indirectly responsible for Mr. Bernanke’s nomination. d) had been an active republican before being the Fed’s Chairman. e) succeeded Paul Volker as Chairman of the Fed. 3. Many on Wall Street a) were relieved that President Bush favoured ideological fealty. b) feared President Bush might choose a long time policymaker. c) were skeptical of President Bush’s capacity to replace a legend. d) knew that President Bush’s choice would cause stock prices to fall. e) were worried about President Bush’s choice for the Fed. Read the text below then choose the best option to answer questions 4 to 7. You’re hired Meet your airline’s latest employee: you. You may not have noticed, but you are also now working for your phone company and your bank. Why? Because of the growth of the self-service economy, in which companies are offloading work on to their own customers. It is, you could say, the ultimate in outsourcing. Self-service can have benefits both for companies and customers alike. It is already changing business practices in many industries, and seems likely to become even more widespread in future. (…) Self-service appeals to companies for an obvious reason: it saves money. The hallmark of all of these self-service transactions is that they take place with little or no human contact. The customer does the work once done by an employee, and does not expect to be paid. So to work well, self-service requires the marriage of customers with machines and software. That union, says Esteban Kolsky of Gartner, a consultancy, is now doing for the service sector what mass production once did for manufacturing: automating processes and significantly cutting costs. “From the corporate side you hear, we want to make sure the customer gets what he wants,” or whatever, but, bottom line, it does reduce costs:' says Mr. Kolsky. Francie Mendelsohn of Summit Research, a consultancy based in Rockville, Maryland, agrees. “People don’t like to admit it, but self-service is used to reduce head count and therefore improve the bottom line,” she says. It's not politically correct, but it's the truth.” (From The Economist Technology quarterly,
Sept. 18th, p. 16-Reports)

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-24-

4. According to the author a) self-service brings more harm than benefits to the consumer. b) the most common business practice in the future tends to be self-service. c) self-service has become a more and more disseminated business practice. d) companies offloading work on their customers are growing. e) the ultimate way to reduce unemployment is self-service.

5. From the corporate point of view self-service a) saves money in the process. b) is politically incorrect. c) grants consumers satisfaction. d) reduces unemployment. e) improves the company’s products. 6. When the author says “The hallmark of all of these self-service transactions …” (L-9) he is referring to a) what they represent to the companies. b) how time-saving they are. c) how fashionable they are. d) what they have in common. e) the existing disparities. 7. What mass production once did for manufacturing, nowadays self service is doing for the a) modern consumers’ comfort. b) manufacturing sector. c) new job offers. d) big corporations. e) service sector.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-25-

Read the text below then choose the best option to answer questions 8 to 10. Amazon: Good, Just Not Good Enough Solid third-quarter results didn't match the second quarter - and for investors anticipating another pleasant surprise, that was the problem Harry Potter’s magic may have dazzled book buyers over the summer, but it failed to sway Amazon investors Oct. 25. Despite selling 1.6 million copies of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince in the third quarter, the online retailer reported that a $40 million legal settlement whacked net income, which fell 44%, to $30 million. And a holiday season forecast that merely matched analysts' expectations sent investors fleeing, knocking down shares by almost 8% in extended trading. Pottermania did keep Amazon’s sales growth humming, at 27%, to $1.86 billion. And as earnings disappointments go, this one was relatively minor. Absent the legal settlement, Amazon would have reported a 12-cent-a-share profit, 2 cents above analysts’ estimates. (by Robert Hof)
http://www.businesswek.com/print/technology/content/

8. You can affirm that a) Harry Potter’s magic may have enchanted Amazon investors. b) heavy legal expenses hit Amazon’s net income. c) Amazon may report a 12-cent-a-share profit. d) growth derived from Harry Potter’s book sales caused minor damage. e) the second quarter results were no match for the ones in the 3rd quarter. 9. The author’s use of despite (L-4), 1st pr indicates a) opposition and it may be replaced by however. b) concession and it may be replaced by though c) result and it may be replaced by thus. d) addition and it may be replaced by also e) emphasis and it may be replaced by indeed. 10. When the author says, “…sent investors fleeing” (L-8) the underlined word means that investors a) were suspicious of quarter results. b) were confused about prospects. c) were attracted by profits. d) failed to invest as expected. e) could be helpless.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto ANSWERS

-26-

VOCABULARY PRE-TEST a. 3 // b. 1 // c. 2 // d. 5 // e. 4 // f. 8 // g. 6 // h. 7 PAST SIMPLE the world’s leading nations sent representatives (L-1) // It had 170 members (L-9/10) // The conference at Bretton Woods also provided for ( L- ) // the US proposed that Germany and Japan (L-18/19) // These nations were reluctant to act, and when they did (L- 21) // The purpose was to persuade Europe and Japan (L-25) // the U.S. trade position still did not improve enough … (L- 29/30) // the world reverted to flexible exchange rates. (L-29/30) PRESENT SIMPLE The IMF extends short-term credit to nations (L-11) // The IMF expects to be paid back (L-13) // Some economists argue that (L-32) PRESENT PERFECT the agreement has since been abandoned (L-18) // Limited supplies of gold … have led to the need (L-39 / 40) // The IMF has responded by agreeing (L- 41) FUTURE SIMPLE The IMF will often ask these nations (L-14) PASSIVE VOICE The IMF was established then (L- 3) // fixed exchange rates was devised. (L-4) // The fixed value of the dollar was abandoned (L-22) // prices and wages were frozen for a time (L-24) // and a 10% surcharge was imposed on imports (L – 24/25) // A world conference was called (L-27) // The dollar was officially devalued (L-28) // the fall of the dollar was made official (L-30) // more potent methods must be used (L-32) ...ING FORMS a) leading (adjetivo) em ‘the world’s leading nations (= as nações mais importantes do mundo ) // b) managing (adjetivo) em ‘a managing director ‘ (= um diretor gerente) // c) continuing (gerúncio) em’the American trade deficit continuing to grow (= o déficit de comércio norte-americando continuando a crescer) // d) determining (gerúndio) em ‘supply and demand determining the value (=oferta e procura determinando o valor // e) drawing (adjetivo) em special drawing rights (= direitos especiais de saque // f) floating ( adjetivo em today’s free-floating situation ( a situação do câmbio flutuante de hoje // g) agreeing (forma ...ing forçada pelo uso da preposição by) em ‘The IMF has
responded by agreeing (= O FMI reagiu ao concordar...) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-27-

...ED FORMS a) forced (adjetivo) em ‘a system of fixed exchange rates’ (=um sistema de taxas de câmbio fixas) // b) specialized (adjetivo) em ‘The IMF is a specialized agency’ (=O FMI é uma agência especializada.// c) increased (adjetivo) em ‘usually increased exports’ (= as exportações geralmente incrementadas ) // d) provided (past tense) em ‘at Bretton Woods also provided for’ ( Bretton Woods também forneceu // e) abandoned (past participle) em ‘this part of the agreement has since been abandoned (= esta parte do acordo foi desde então abandonada) // f) raised (particípio passado) em ‘Japanese yen and German mark were raised in value (=o iene japonês e o marco alemão foram valorizados) // g) prescribed (adjetivo) em ‘fluctuate up to a certain prescribed level’
(=flutuar até um certo nivel pre-erstabelecido)

MODAL VERBS
can (L-13) – em can enter into consultations (pode iniciar consultas com) tem essa prerrogativa, essa capacidade - portanto: capacity must (L-32) em more potent must be used (=tem que ser usado, há essa necessidade - portanto necessity. would (L-35) em would mark a compromise (= marcaria, indicaria um acordo) espresso a hiótese futura do nosso futuro do pretérito - portanto hipótese futura. can (L-36) em can cause pode causar, tem essa possibilidade portanto possibility.

REFERENCE
it (L- 9) the IMF ( o FMI) // its (L- 10) the IMF ( o FMI) // their (L- 20) Germany’s and Japan’s currencies // their (L- 42) member nations

WORDS IN FAMILIES Verb advise finance correct OFFICIALIZE increase impose compare persuade know SPECIALIZE Noun ADVICE finance CORRECTION officialization increase IMPOSITION comparison persuasion KNOWLEDGE specialization Adjective advisable financial corrected officialized increasing imposed COMPARABLE PERSUASIVE unknown special adverb advisably FINANCIALLY correctly officially INCREASINGLY imposingly comparably persuasively knowingly specially

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-28-

HANDLING YOUR MONEY Pre test: a. 6 // b. 7 // c. 8 // d. 2 // e. 4 // f. 3 // g. 1 // h. 5 // i. 10 // j. 9 MC questions: 1. D // 2. E // 3. A // 4. C // 5. B PHRASAL VERBS 1. take over [acquire] // 2. looking forward to [await with pleasure] 3. cash in on [profit from] // 4. fight off [defeat] // 5. made up [invented] // 6. adhere to [respected] // 7. gotten away with [succeeded in doing sth. wrong] // 8. Rely/count on [trust] // 9. look after [protect] // 10. built up [accumulated] // 11. acted on advice [follow] // 12. take up [accept] // 13. Fell through [collapse] // 14. drawing up [preparing] // 15. branch out [diversify] MATCH : A & B a. (4) // b. (5)// c. (2) // d. (1) // e. (3) MATCH : C & D f. (9) // g. (8) // h. (7) // i. (10) // j. (6) FALSE FRIENDS 1. [REPEALED] Tenho certeza de que a lei foi revogada. Não é mais válida. 2. [EXTENUATING] Há algumas circunstâncias atenuantes no caso dele que devem ser levadas em consideração pelo juiz. 3. [LUXURY] Em muitos lugares o automóvel não é um luxo e sim uma necessidade. 4. [BALANCE] Já que você não pagou o total da fatura terá que pagar o saldo remanescente com juros. 5. [RECORD] Ele passou a manter um registro mais preciso de suas despesa. 6. [COSTUME] Ninguém me havia dito que se tratava de uma festa à fantasia. Portanto, eu vestia um terno. 7. [FABRIC] A área foi apelidado de ‘Vale do Silício’ por causa do material básico usado nos componentes dos computadores. 8. [UNION] Líderes sindicais em conjunto com trabalhadores insatisfeitos, entraram em greve. 9. [AFFLUENT] Mr. Penn apresentou-nos aos seu sócio rico da Noruega. 10. [CARGO] Se a carga não fosse ilegal não haveria tantos homens carregando rifles a bordo do navio. 11. {PARTIES] Agora que as duas partes envolvidas estão de acordo o contrato poderá ser assinado. 12. {ATTEND] Infelizmente não muitas pessoas se inscreveram para assistir à palestra do Prof. Haskin sobre Desenvolvimento Econômico.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-29-

LIGHTEN UP Os personagens são o ex-presidente dos EUA Ronald Reagan e o ex-premier soviético Gorbachev no momento da assinatura de um tratado de não proliferação de armas. No primeiro take só aparece o provérbio, e no segundo vê-se que é um anúncio da caneta Parker. Veja se conseguiu entender o provérbio assim: ‘A pena é mais poderosa que a espada.’ O criador do anúncio publicitário faz um jogo inteligente com as palavras onde a sugestão de que os dois mandatários estariam usando a caneta Parker é muito forte. SAME OR DIFFERENT? 1. (S) // 2. (S) // 3. (D) very few students (= muito poucos alunos)/ quite a few students (= bastantes alunos) // 4. (S) // 5. (S) // 6. (D) Uma coisa é não conseguir aprender cálculo porque é difícil demais para você; a outra, é não conseguir memorizar cálculos // 7. (D) em a, está dito que Brenda era uma das piores dançarinas do grupo, na verdade, a pior // no segundo, diz que Brenda era uma dançarina muito ruim, Hoje em dia ela é a pior do grupo. PARAPHRASING Model: Representatives of the world's leading nations were sent to Bretton Woods in 1945. [Comment: foi necessário usar uma estrutura de passive voice com a nova ordenação dos termos da frase] 1. The promotion of international cooperation on monetary issues was one of the IMF’s main goals (or: aims, objectives) 2. Chronic debtor nations must pay the IMF back. 3. These nations will often be asked to take steps to decrease their imports. 4. IMF directors ordered that prices and wages be frozen fro a time. 5. Aiming at persuading Europe and Japan to reduce trade barriers against American products a 10% surcharge was imposed. 6. There was an official devaluation of the dollar. 7. The value of the Japanese yen and the German mark was raised. 8. As no noticeable improvement of the U.S. trade position still did not occur in 1972, the fall of the dollar was made official. 9. Some economists stated that more potent methods had to be used to correct long-term and deep-seated trade imbalances. 10. It was necessary to find an alternative to limited supplies of gold relative to the world money supply.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-30-

VERB TENSES REVIEW 1.- has led 3.- has changed/visited 5.- have come 7.- drinking 9.- has always been 11.- had tried on 13.- have you been waiting 15.- has been living 17.- were having 19.- had left 21.- will have finished 23.- played 25.- always gets off 27.- being treated 29.- will be sleeping 31.- worked/ retired 33.- has just left 2.- studied 4.- had left 6.- had been working 8.- drink 10.- had not phoned 12.-Have you ever visited 14.- have had 16.- was watching 18.- was following 20.- has been practicing 22.- has been 24.- is always borrowing 26.- meant 28.- are asking 30.- will have been teaching 32.- has been working 34.- left 35.- have been

MOCK TEST
Answers / Respostas 1. A 2. C 6. D 7. E 3. E 8. B 4. C 9. B 5. A 10. D

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE AULA 10

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-31-

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcançados.

TÓPICOS & OBJETIVOS
Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientização para:

I– II –

Reading Text: The IMF
Texto para leitura 1: O FMI

Analysis of text 1 - Review of: verb tenses, passive voice, …ing forms, -ed forms, modal verbs, reference, word families
Análise do texto1 – revisão de tempoos verbais, voz passiva, ...ing formas, ed formas, verbos modais, referência, famílias de palavras...

III – Comparative Forms of adjectives
Grau comparativo dos adjetivos

IV VVI -

A final look at false friends
Uma última olhada nos falsos amigos

Study of text 2: Vocabulary pre--test, reading questions
Estudo do texto 2: pré-teste de vocabulário, questões de compreensão

Vocabulary Build Up – Phrasal verbs, discourse markers
Construção de vocabulário – phrasal verbs, marcadores do discurso

VII– Lighten up! An ad
Relaxe! Um anúncio

VIII – Same or different? // Paraphrasing
Igual ou diferente? // Paráfrases

IX– X–

Review of verb tenses - practice
Revisão dos tempos verbais - exercício

Last but not least: MOCK TEST
Por fim, mas não menos importante: TESTE SIMULADO

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

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