Multi-story masonry buildings are very popular in China as residence, school, administration, hospital and hotel etc. In the past earthquake disasters, many multi-story masonry buildings damaged, even collapse as no or not enough earthquake-resistant fortifications is considered. The lateral load resistant capacity and deformation capacity of masonry walls are the research target in the EQTAP project 1.3 to evaluate the seismic characteristics of the existed masonry buildings. Nine masonry wall specimens were cast using the mortar in different strength and tested under equivalent lateral cyclic or monotonic load to simulate the masonry walls from lower to upper stories or subjected to different normal stress. As shown in Figure 1, the specimen of masonry wall is laid on an I-shaped RC footing beam. The masonry wall is topped by a RC beam connected with actuator for applying lateral loading to the specimen. Between the oil jack and the top beam, rollers are placed to minimize the friction force due to the lateral displacement of the top beam and specimen. The vertical load through the jacks is first applied up to the designed value at the beginning of the test, and then is kept as constant load during the test. The specimens are subjected to sine-function cyclic loading with each loading cycle time of 50 seconds. The lateral loading path is designed by loading step before reaching the estimated specimen maximum resistance and displacement step after reaching the estimated resistance.

1 Actuator
Layer 23 Loading side

Oil jack

Far side


Specimen 1 2
Longitudinal bricklayer

Layer 1




1 RC top beam (loading beam) 2 RC footing beam

A Actuator load cell B Actuator displacement output C~G Displacement transducer

240 1350 11
Transverse bricklayer


Fig. 1: Illustration of the Loading Test System and Specimen Outline


18 2.171 1. Number in parentheses indicates the average mortar strength from mortar cube test results.8 0.1 6.63 Average 3.5 M5 M10 M15 X308 (18.558 0.88).22 9.0 0. fvE0 = the average shear stress from the test results according to the maximum load.75) X206 (5.8 X108 (2.01 Table 3 Specimen X102 RX102 (Repaired) XX210 RXX210 (Repaired) X308 RX308 (Repaired) 90±2 90±2 Even Even ≥ 480 ≥ 480 ≥ 440 ≥ 420 The Maximum Load Pu and the Corresponding Displacement δ σ0 (MPa) 0.206 0.9 8.206 0.13±0.259 0.01 0.343 0. The 2 .171 1.27 2.796 0.86 3.0 XX210 (3.331 0.0 0.09 0.674 0.54 Table 4 Comparison of the Shear Strength from the Test Results and from Design Code Suggestion fv0 fvE0 σ0 σ0 fv0 ζ N0 ζ N 0 fv0 λ0 = f vE0 ζ N 0 f v0 Specimen (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) X102 RX102 XX210 RXX210 X308 RX308 0.105 0.27) RX102* X202 (5. fv0 = the design shear strength of masonry wall calculated based on the test mortar strength.18 >0.11 >0.17 In the Table 4.46 0.45 0. Table 2 Material Properties of the Glass Fiber Wrap for Repairing the Cracked Wall Product series Thickness Width Breaking strength (N/Strip 25×100mm) Textile number (mm) (cm) Weft Warp CW130−900 CW130−1000 0.682 δ (mm) 6.874 1.438 0.09 9.09) σ0 = 0. Main results are shown as follows: Table 1: List of Specimens with the Mortar Strength and Normal Stress (MPa) Design mortar strength M2.2) RX308* σ0 = 0.27) σ0 = 1.2 1.15 3.331 0.0 1.09) Y210 (9.796 0.0 1.59 0. ζN0 = the influence factor based on the masonry wall average normal stress.13±0.8 0. λ0 = the ratio of the tested strength to the calculated strength.259 0.674 0.2 1.44 1. three specimens with cracks on the wall after the test.558 0.09) * Glass fiber repaired specimens.15 2. were repaired by bonding glass fiber wrap by epoxide-resin glue on the surface of the wall. The test results of the repaired walls show that the repaired wall specimens can basically recover the original lateral load resistant capacity.2 X102 (2.682 3.6 σ0 = 0.2 0.343 0.Among these specimens.874 1.8 0.22 2.438 1.09 0.1 δ/H (%) 0.105 0.9 5.8 Pu (kN) 247 238 573 485 402 491 fvE0 (MPa) 0.2 0. RXX210* X210 (5.27 0.09) X208 (5.2 4.27 3.11 0. σ0 = Normal stress.09 <4.8 8.44 <4.35 0.

3 Municipal Female School (No. The thickness of the gable walls at the south and north end of the building is 370mm and the number is 240mm for the east and west bearing walls.2 .8m wide as the span of roof truss in east-west direction. damage began from the place where cracks had occurred in the former test.9m long as 7 bays of 3. the rehabilitated masonry walls repaired by glass fiber wrap can recover the ultimate shear strength of the original wall. The bottom chord is in an elevation of about 5. It was overhauled and transformed into an indoor stadium with donation form alumnus in 1980’s.17.3 MFS and a foreign-funded enterprise) planned to transform the building. Fig. The plane view.14m deep under the ground and the distance between edge of the footing and the wall is 720mm.average ratio of fvE0/ζN0 fv0 is 3. INTRODUCTION TO THE STRENGTHENING TARGET Constructed in 1928.3m) are found.3 MFS). For the repaired and retested specimens. the load resistant capability of specimen decreased abruptly. 2 The Envelope Skeleton Curves of Specimen Load-Deflection Relations 2. The walls are built with clay brick and lime mortar. No tie beam or tie column is found. to be used as classrooms. demanding that there should be no exterior change while constructing an interior attic which is totally separated from the original building and served as the second story.7m in south-north direction and 13. From Fig. The walls of the building are basically in good condition except for structural deformation featured by cracks at the following three positions: 3 . which is a single-story (partially two-story) composite structure built with bricks and wood. The upper surface of the footing is 1. The foundation takes the form of offset footing. Shanghai Changning International School (SCIS) Stadium used to be the gymnasium of the No. SCIS (co-funded by No. At the exterior side of the walls where the roof trusses are supported brick piers with cross-sectional size of 490mm×490mm (which decreases to 240mm ×490mm above the elevation of 3. When the glass fiber crossing the cracks peeled off and broke with sound. The building is 25. north elevation and sectional view of the buildings are shown in the figures.9m above the ground. The roof trusses are supported on walls through connection with pre-embed wood block in the walls.

0mm. 2) A vertical crack located between top of the entrance and the upper ventilating widow is found in the north gable wall. should be taken in this regard as pouring with epoxide-resin glue and then bonding high-strength glass fiber polymer wraps to the surfaces of cracked walls are suggested to insure integrity. SUGGESTIONS ON STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING The new interior structure has no influence on the original buildings as it is completely separated from the original building.5 (7. it’s estimated that shear strength of the walls is not lower than that of the M2. As a result. After being checked carefully. the following strengthening measures are suggested: Firstly.5 MPa).5 MPa) to M2. as the gable walls are also suggested to be bonded with high-strength glass fiber polymer wrap on the interior surfaces above the bottom chord of roof truss as the gable walls is quite high with 12m. The first two cracks reflect the poor integrity due to the lack of construction measure such as tie beam.5MPa). Strengthening measures. The width of this crack is around 0. 4 . At the position where the dismantled stairs of the original house was supported the load is comparatively large thus producing the last type of cracks. Testing the brick strength according to the ‘Sintering Brick’ (GB/T 5101-1998). Adopting bricks with M7. On the basis of the site investigation. mortar with M1.5 MPa) cement-lime mortar. it is observed that the actual brick size is different from standard brick size(240mm×115mm×53mm) and the brick strength is not lower than MU7. comparatively higher shear strength and lower compression strength than ordinary cement-lime mortar.5 MPa) and foundations capacity as 90 kPa. therefore. The computational results show both satisfaction of upper structure and foundations according to the local Code of Shanghai. the presence of cracks in walls may weaken the structural. Tests by single shear jack accordance with the ‘Technical standard for site testing of engineering’ (GB/T 50315-2000) are conducted on the south gable wall and the east between-two-window walls. The mortar used is lime mortar with better viscosity.1) A vertical crack penetrating the wall is found in the south gable wall and the maximum width is 1. At the same time.5 MPa). Secondly.5 (1. 3. structural calculation and taking requirements of the school authorities into consideration. the major problem here is that the building suffers the lack of tie beam to satisfy the constructional measures of the current Code.5 (1. Tie column and two levels of reinforced concrete tie beams should be added inside the brick wall so as to increase integrity of the structure. Quality of the mortar is ordinary with the strength estimated by hand-feeling ranges from M1.5 (2. 3) Diagonal cracks are found in the west walls filled between the lower corner of north windows and the ground and have extended to the north gable wall.3mm. the wood roof truss system including link rods are considered to be basically intact except that some longitudinal cracks are found in some of the rods of the wood truss.5 (2.5(the compressive strength is 7. where there was the dismantled stairs.

(China).. together with adding some tie columns and beams in side the brick masonry wall. [3] China National Standard: Seismic Design Code for Building GBJ 1189.. Zhuhui Lu. 4th Multi-lateral Workshop on Development of Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Technologies and their Integration for the Asia-Pacific Region(EQTAP). China Building Industry Publisher. 1991. Xilin Lu. built in 1920’s. 5.(Japan).Thirdly. and the School stadium has been put into operation after then. Experimental Study on Seismic Resistant Capacity of Masonry Walls. Kangning Li. some rods of the roof truss with cracks need to be repaired by pouring epoxide-resin glue and bonding with high-strength glass fiber polymer wrap. In the strengthening practice of the building. [2] China National Standard: Structure Design Code for Masonry GBJ 388. China Building Industry Publisher. & Tetsuo Kubo. has not been engineered and could not meet the seismic requirement of current Code. 4. high strength glass fiber polymer was used to strengthen the masonry walls by bonding it on interior surfaces of gable walls above the elevation of bottom chord.. 5 . CONCLUSIONS (1) The retrofitting method for masonry walls by using glass fiber polymer is very effective to enhance the seismic resistant capacity of existing masonry structures which are widely used in the seismic region of Asia-Pacific countries. REFERENCE [1] Dagen Weng. (3) The retrofitting project of Shanghai Changning International School has been completed in 2001. (2) The retrofitting method developed in this paper sponsored by EQTAP program has been successfully applied to an old building which. Xiaosong Ren. 1991.

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