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When meeting someone who suffers from persistent pain, one key question that often arises is: “How do you cope with the pain?” Attempts to understand pain coping have been a major focus of psychosocial pain research and clinical practice for the past two decades. Much of the interest in pain coping can be traced back to the emergence of more sophisticated models of pain (e.g., the gate control theory, the neuromatrix theory). These models show that pain is a complex, multidimensional experience that not only has a sensory component, but also cognitive, affective, and motivational/behavioral components. The menstrual period is a natural phenomenon that occurs throughout the reproductive years of every woman. Most females experience some degree of pain and discomfort in their menstruation period. Most women have experienced in their lifetime the painful sensation when their monthly period comes. The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea (painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin) is difficult to determine because of different definitions of the condition. It occurs an estimated vary from 45% to 95% of the women population today (Farquhar,2006).
However, dysmenorrhoea seems to be the most common gynaecological condition in women regardless of age and nationality. It disrupts daily activity for 1-2 days and absenteeism from work and school as a result of intolerable pain (13% to 51% women have been absent at least once and 5% to 14% are often absent owing to the severity of symptoms) (Weissman, 2005) Dysmenorrhoea, especially when it is severe, is associated with a restriction of activity and absence from school or work. Yet despite this substantial effect on their quality of life and general well being, few women with dysmenorrhoea seek treatment as they believe it would not help. As a common gynaecologic problem many remedies are done to get relieved from the discomfort. Some try natural remedies for cramps, heat exercise, bed rest, self massage, aromatherapy and pills. If the pain becomes intolerable some may consult a medical practitioner. Women may get temporary relieved from the cramp brought about by this practices but the problem is still there every month. And sometimes pain may increase from the previous experiences. Dysmenorrhoea is perceived by women as a temporary setback to her daily activities and will tolerate as much pain as she can. Some are even tolerable that it may persist for years without seeking medical help or relief. Some have even considered dysmenorrhoea as part of being a woman.
The study described how the adolescents cope up with dysmenorrhea that is why the researchers decided to conduct the study since most of the researchers belong to the same age bracket and have the same experience. Background of the study Dysmenorrhea is defined as difficult menstrual flow or painful menstruation. The term dysmenorrhea is derived from the Greek words dys, meaning difficult/painful/abnormal, meno, meaning month, and rrhea, meaning flow. Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecologic complaints in young women who present to clinicians.1 The optimal management of this symptom depends on an understanding of the underlying cause. Dysmenorrhea is classified as primary (spasmodic) or secondary (congestive). Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as menstrual pain not associated with macroscopic pelvic pathology (ie, absence of pelvic disease). It typically occurs in the first few years after menarche3 and affects up to 50% of postpubescent females. Secondary dysmenorrhea is defined as menstrual pain resulting from anatomic and/or macroscopic pelvic pathology, such as that seen in women with endometriosis or chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. This condition is most often observed in women aged 30-45 years.
The following risk factors have been associated with more severe episodes of dysmenorrheal: Earlier age at menarche, long menstrual periods, heavy menstrual flow, smoking and positive family history Obesity and alcohol consumption were found to be associated with dysmenorrhea in some (not all) studies. Physical activity and the duration of the menstrual cycle do not appear to be associated with increased menstrual pain. Theoretical Framework
One of the common abnormalities that a woman mat experience during menstrual period is dysmenorrhea. This painful menstruation that may lead to discomfort is considered a stress. Selye (1956) defined stress as wear and tear on the body. He developed his framework to explain the physiologic response to stress which is “stress-adaptation model”. According to his theory, stressor is any positive or negative occurrence or any emotion requiring response. Interaction with the environment and others in evitably produces stress, depending on individual perception and definition of the stressor (schwecke, 2007). Stressful events often create demands with which individuals cannot effectively cope. Ineffective coping and creation of additional problems results in additional stress and can lead to physical illness or
health. Stress is a state produced by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging. client variable. and role function.mental illness or both. lines of resistance. normal line of defense. self concept. Individual are described as human beings under stress (in this research dysmenorrhea represent the stressors) and the individual’s goal is to adapt to that stress. Human needs are created with interrelated adaptive models: physiologic needs. as it viewed the major process on behavioral science concept with the individual described as the participant in bio-psychosocial adaptive system. the researchers considered the “adaptation theory” of sister calista roy. threatening or damaging to a person’s dynamic balance or equilibrium. reconstitution and nursing which are physiologic and psychological responses to a stressor in a normal system. reaction. This focuses on interrelationships between the 5 . stressor. According to the theory of betty Neumann. Roy identifies four key concepts which are the person. the system model describe the concepts of basic structures. prevention. and lastly nursing promotion of adaptive response. Environment. environment. state or process of being and becoming an integrated and whole person. health. flexible line of defense. In this study. recipient of nursing care. conditions circumstances and influences that surround and affect the development and behavior of person and group.
Through this principle. This research support and understand if ever the individual demonstrates ineffective adaptive response. the theories emphasize the nurse responsibility is the promotion of health by reducing stress and enhance coping mechanism that can be derive from either internal or external sources. Promote other ways of coping and techniques of relaxation These theories helped the researches identify the stress in individual life and encouraged the patient cope with the change in environment. or threats that interfere with meeting life demands and rules 3. Outcomes are influenced by factors that are inside or outside the system. 6 .1. Age. the study sought to answers the following questions: 1. 1. Assisting the client to adapt to perceived stressors. Statement of the Problem This study aimed to determine the coping mechanism used by adolescents experiencing dysmenorrhea. Specifically. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.subsystems. Classify the adaptive mode being used by the client 2. changes.
2. 1. Mental Response 2. Type of family.3. Coping Mechanism 3.3. Social Response 2.1.2. Is there a significant difference between the adolescence coping mechanisms to dysmenorrheal when grouped according to their profile. To what extent do the respondents describe the coping mechanism they used to cope up with dysmenorrhea in terms of: 2.4. Age of menarche. HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY There are no significant differences between the adolescence coping mechanisms to dysmenorrhea when grouped according to their profile.4. Ordinal position in the family.1. 2. 1. Significance of the Studies The result of this study would give several benefits to the following people: 7 . Physical Response 2.
8 .Adolescent Experience Dysmenorrhea. This information would be valuable in improving evidence based practice. understand how this group of people cope up to assist them properly to achieve their goal. society and the increase prevalence of dysmenorrhea among this age population. It is a challenge to every nursing student in the field of Medicine to improve the health of individuals and find interventions to problems that could be addressed with the application of new technology to alleviate pain of the patients involved. The changes that the adolescent who experienced dysmenorrhea undergo as they continue their daily life activities and the awareness of the family. Nursing Professionals. The knowledge that they could get from this research encouraged the patients and their family as a support group to alleviate pain. This study can guide nursing professional to a better understanding on how to people experiencing dysmenorrhea and also this helps nurses or the allied health professional. Future Researcher. To the Researchers. This study can guide future researchers in the field of medicine and technology in order for them to assess the how patient cope in this crisis as a collaborative action of the team. This enables them to be knowledgeable regarding their own coping mechanism during these painful days of having this. Nursing Students.
The use of self-constructed questionnaire dealing with an assessment of their level of awareness towards on their coping mechanism during dysmenorrhea in relation to their profile. Bound by the understanding and truthfulness of the respondents who answered the questions. 9 . Dependent Variable Figure 1 The Schematic Diagram of the significant difference on the coping mechanism of patient whether poor and effective when grouped according to profile.. Limited to one hundred (100) respondents. Paradigm of the Study Independent Variables Age Age of Menarche Ordinal Position in the Family Type of Family Poor and Effective Coping mechanism of the individual during painful episode.Yanga’s Colleges Inc.Scope and Delimitations The scope of the study was a data survey gathering among high school students of Dr.
Respondents one who answers various legal proceedings and questions (Webster. Dysmenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation white most women experience minor pain during menstruation. or skill derived from observation or participation in events (Webster. practice. the following terms was used in the study: Adaptation a change or alteration design to assist in adjusting to a new situation and environment (Brunner & Suddarth. Pillitteri. 2008). Keltner. 2008). dysmenorrheal is diagnosed when the pain is so severe as to limit normal activities. 10 . Definition of Terms In the course of doing the study. 2008). Coping Mechanism any effort directed at stress management (N. It indicates that the dependent variable which is the profile and the dependent how these affect their coping mechanism. 2007). changes.The paradigm of this study shows how the profiles of the respondents affect their behavior in relation to their coping mechanism. 2007). Adolescence the time period between 13 years and 18 to 20 years (A. or require medication (Brunner & Suddarth. 2008). Experience knowledge.
2007). 2008). Keltner. Stressor stimulus perceived by the individual or the organism as challenging. threatening or damaging (N.Stress a disruptive condition that occurs in response to adverse influences from the internal or external environment (Brunner & Suddarth. 11 .
Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Local Literature This chapter reviewed some related relative and studies which is relevant to the research. not requiring analgesic. The review dealt with foreign and local literatures that were considered significant in the current study regarding the coping mechanisms of adolescent who experienced dysmenorrhoea. score 3. The goal of the study is to estimate the current status of young women with menstrual disorders. painful. requiring analgesic. All participants were further divided into subsequent groups as having premenstrual symptoms or not and those having regular 12 . the relation among dysmenorrhea. not relieved by analgesic). score 2. Subjects ranging from 18 to 20 years old were recruited from 522 female students at Ashiya College in Japan. irregular menstruation and premenstrual symptoms was investigated by a questionnaire. painful. they conducted research on young Japanese College Students with Dysmenorrhea Have High Frequency of Irregular Menstruation. The intensity of dysmenorrhea was classified into 3 grades (score 1. According to the study of Tomoko Fujiwara and Rieko Nakata (2007).
it confirmed that considerable numbers of young women in Japan have irregular menstruation and premenstrual symptoms. In conclusion to their study. Dysmenorrhea scores in the students with premenstrual symptoms or irregular menstruation were significantly higher than those without these symptoms. these results should be noted from the perspective of future reproductive function. From these findings.or irregular menstruation. There was no significant relation in the incidence between premenstrual symptoms and irregular menstruation. this study notably suggests that some organic diseases causing dysmenorrhea are latently proceeding in young Japanese women with premenstrual symptoms. Since dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome may influence QOL in women not only in the present but also in the future. female students reporting premenstrual symptoms also complained of higher intensity of menstrual pains. Foreign Literature United States 13 . These findings suggest that considerable numbers of young women with dysmenorrhea are associated with premenstrual symptoms. Although this study did not show any significant relation between irregular menstruation and premenstrual symptoms.
Klein and Litt reported a prevalence of dysmenorrhea of 59. and its reported prevalence has been highly variable. The prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea in porous women are reportedly significantly lower in many but not all studies. 12% described it as severe. A survey of 113 patients in a family practice setting showed a prevalence of dysmenorrhea of 29-44%. 37%. Primary dysmenorrhea peaks in late adolescence and the early 20s. as moderate. Of patients reporting pain.7%. Although black adolescents reported no increased incidence of 14 . Dysmenorrhea caused 14% of patients to miss school frequently. In an epidemiologic study of an adolescent population (aged 12-17 y). No significant difference with respect to prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea was found between nulligravid women and those in whom pregnancy had been terminated by either spontaneous or induced abortion. and 49%. may confound the prevalence.1 The use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). as mild. The incidence falls with increasing age and with increasing parity. both of which are effective in ameliorating symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea. but prevalence rates as high as 90% in women aged 18-45 years have been reported.Dysmenorrhea may affect more than half of menstruating women.
dysmenorrhea. even after adjusting for socioeconomic status. 15 .6%) than whites (12. they were absent from school more frequently (23.3%).
Surveys are used extensively in the social and natural sciences to assess attitudes and opinions on a variety of subjects.g. Bulacan. Research Design The study utilized the descriptive method . instrumentation and validation. sources of data. Interviews or questionnaires commonly include an assortment of forcedchoice questions (e. Yanga’s Colleges Inc.Chapter III METHODS AND PROCEDURES OF THE STUDY This chapter presents the six important features of a research design namely: design.. 16 .It enabled the researcher through the use of a survey to gather information on how high school students at Dr. data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of data. True-False) or open-ended to which subjects are asked to respond. This provides the plan and structure of the research. Wakas Bocaue. Surveys are particularly useful when researchers are interested in collecting data on aspects of behavior that are difficult to observe directly (such as how they cope during the pain) and when it is desirable to sample a large number of subjects. population of the study.
. high school students chosen in said area.. Research Locale The study was conducted at Dr. Respondents were grouped in Dr. Yanga’s Colleges Inc. Yanga’s Colleges Inc. This also provided the respondents the chance to ask 17 . One hundred (100) students chosen for the accuracy of the study. Sources of Data Primary sources of data for drawing conclusions and inferences came from the personal information sheet and the respondents (High School Students) answer in the constructed questionnaires.Yanga’s Colleges Inc. Wakas Bocaue. they secured a letter of consent from their research coordinator to ask permission from the owner of the said school before Sampling Non probability sampling was employed to determine subject respondents. High School Department Wakas Bocaue. Bulacan was chosen as the subject institution.The respondent of this study involve adolescent girls at Dr. Bulacan. Using non-probability sampling. The questionnaire was delivered in the form of an interview schedule to facilitate efficient interaction between the researchers and the respondents.
Yanga’s Colleges Inc. time way given for respondents to accomplish the forms with the researchers’ standing by to answer questions that needs clarification. Wakas Bocaue. respondents were approached and if found amenable’ they were introduced to the survey objectives. for recognition and acknowledgement of our presence in the high school department.. During the survey proper. Yanga’s college.questions about menstruation and pain . Research Instrument Used Letter of the intent of conduct a survey were made by the subject adviser and by the dean of college of nursing of Dr. Population of the Study The respondents of the study were composed of one hundred (100) selected at the Dr. Inc. Yanga’s colleges. The Likert scale was used to quantify the respondents’ responses to the ways of coping 18 . Bulacan. these were addressed to these were addressed the principal of the high school department of Dr. After screening. and articles from websites.. The study utilized a five point Likert scale questionnaire on the formulated factors raised in the statement of the problem. Inc.Secondary sources of data for this study came from books.
with the dysmenorrheal ranging from a maximum of 5 presenting ALWAYS to a minimum of 1 representing NEVER. interpretation using the following formulas: 1. The guide questionnaires were the main source of the study. Since the questionnaires are a researcher prepared opinion for. A test-retest method was undertaken before the formal/Actual implementation of the survey to determine the validity and reliability of the survey at separate locale similar to the intended locale on 10 respondents. tabulated. These questionnaires were written in English language but were translated to Filipino as they go through the survey. it does not have a tried and tested formula. and processed the gathered data for presentation. the researchers organized. It is used to 19 . Statistical Statement of Data After the questionnaires have been retrieved. Frequency and Percentage is a measure of the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. The preliminary test further aims that the respondent consistently comprehend and that the survey will eventually provide a determination of the extent of the utilization of coping mechanism of adolescent with dysmenorrheal.
and sample standard 20 .describe how part relates to its whole. Weighted Mean. Pearson's r.The statistic is defined as the sum of the products of the standard scores of the two measures divided by the degrees of freedom.are the standard score. It is used as a measure of central tendency by using the formula: ΣfX WM = ------N Where: WM = is the weighted mean ΣfX = is the sum of the product of the scores and the frequency N = is the number of respondents 3. To describe the profile of the respondents % = f x 100 n where f = is the frequency of response n = is the number of respondents 2. sample mean.
standard score. and population standard deviation (calculated using n in the covariance denominator).5 1-1. Analysis and Interpretation of Data 21 .5 Interpretation Always Often Sometimes Seldom Never Chapter IV Presentation.5 1.5 2.The result obtained is equivalent to dividing the between the two variables by the product of their standard deviations. Where X = the observed data for the independent variable Y= the observed data for the dependent variable N=size of the sample R= the degree of relationship between x and y Interpretation Scale on Coping Mechanism of Adolescents Experiencing Dysmennorhea Scale 5 4 3 2 1 Range 4.51-4.51-2. are the population mean.51-5 3.deviation (calculated using n − 1 in the denominator).51-3.
Bocaue Bulacan. It was an observation that the majority of the respondents were young adults and probably this was the average stage where female is ready body changes occur.Yanga’s Colleges Inc.. Table 1 Age of the Respondents Age 13-15 years old 16-18 years old Total Frequency 48 52 100 Percentage.00% of them are 16-18 years.00% are 13-15 years old and 52 or 52.00 100. % 48.00 52. This chapter serves as the basis for formulating conclusions and recommendation.This chapter present the analysis and interpretation of results that were obtained through the use of questionnaire that was given to 100(One Hundred) students of Dr. Table 2 Age of Menarche 22 .00 The table shows that among 100 respondents were 48 or 48.
00% 44.00% of girls had their first menstruation (menarche) were 9-10 years old. % 26.00% were 13-14 years old. % . 26 or 26. Table 3 Ordinal Position in the Family Position Frequency 23 Percentage. 44 or 44. The result shows that most of the girls having their first menstruation at age of 11-14 years old which is normal.00% 100.00% 30.00 The table shows.Age 9-10 years old 11-12 years old 13-14 years old Total Frequency 26 44 30 100 Percentage.00% were 11-12 years old and 30 or 30.
28 or 28.00% 34.00% 100. Table 5 24 .00%. second were 22 or 22.00% 30. Table 4 Type of Family Age Nuclear Family Extended Family Total Frequency 66 34 100 Percentage.First Second Third Fourth Others Total 20 22 28 30 0 100 20.00% 22.00%. but it is also observed that there are 34 or 34.00% 0 100. % 66.00 This table shows that the majority among the respondents were from a nuclear family which yield 66 or 66.00% were third and lastly the majority which is fourth position were 30 or 30.00%. the first position were 20 or 20.00%.00 The table shows that the ordinal position in the family.00% 28.00% were from extended family it means Filipino traditions regarding family closely knitted are being practice.
08 .94 1 3. I feel like people pity me I feel like 2. I fee like there is something wrong with me 4. Mental Response 1.68 get embarrassed in front of people 5. B. 5. I feel like people are talking about 2.16 2.52 2.26 3.54 Sometimes Seldom Often Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes 3 4 me 5.64 3. Physical Response 1. I feel like vomiting.71 2.6 2. I do not like going out with friends 2. I like being alone in my room 25 3.26 3 2.56 3. I easily get tired 3. I eat less. I get embarrassed in front of people I 2. I experience abdominal pain 2.I experience a headache 4.26 people pity me C.82 2.5 2. I have difficulty in making decision 3. Social Response 1.Behavioral Responses and Coping Mechanism of Adolescent Experiencing Dysmenorrhea Responses Weighted Mean Interpretation Rank A. I easily get into a fight 4. I have difficulty in sleeping 2. I don’t like to talk to anyone 3.28 2.92 2.
66 3. Base on the social response with the total weighted mean of 3. I go for a walk to relieve pain 5.D. I do regular exercise to reduce pain 3. I drink pain reliever to ease pain Average Weighted Mean 2.38 2. Coping Mechanism 1. I take Herbal products or medicines. difficulty of having decision and feeling of uneasy. get easily tired. I change my diet to reduce pain 4.93 Often Sometimes Sometimes Base on the results.26 with an 26 .92 2. headache eat less and a feeling to vomit also experience by them during their menstruation. I listen to relaxing music/watch TV to forget pain 6. the behavioral responses of the respondents who are experiencing dysmenorrheal their physical response shows of the weighted mean of 2.92 2. and dietary supplements 2. Base on their mental response the weighted mean yield which 2. I keep myself busy to forget pain 7.38 2.34 1. dysmenorrheal problem really affects the respondents in that matter.71 with an interpretation of sometimes it means that the respondents during their menstruation sometimes experience difficulty to fall asleep.48 Sometimes Seldom Seldom Seldom Seldom 2 4.3 Often 3.82 with the interpretation of sometimes it means sometimes they experience of abdominal pain.
keeping themselves busy is also try to alleviate pain with the computed weighted mean of 3.38.38 as interpreted of seldom.interpretation of sometimes.Yanga’s Colleges Inc. High School Department in Wakas. 27 . 2.66 with is often and lastly sometimes they are taking pain reliever with computed weighted mean of 3. walking to relieve pain also being done with a computed weighted mean of 2.3 which if very often use. The respondents coping with the use of herbal medicines with weighted mean of 2.34 interpreted as seldom. listening to music and watching television are doing to forget the pain they are experiencing with the computed weighted mean of 4. the respondents didn’t get mingle with their friends and lack of interaction people around them.92 as interpreted of seldom. regular exercise also doing by them to alleviate pain during the painful episode with weighted mean of 2. it means sometimes they also bothered by this situation in terms of social response.92 with an interpretation of sometimes. Base on the result regarding their coping mechanism during the painful days of having dysmenorrheal problem the computed total weighted mean which. Bulacan have their different coping mechanisms to fight the painful experience on dysmenorrhea.48 with an interpretation of seldom. changing diet is also one of the respondent’s mechanisms with the yield of weighted mean 1. It was an observation that respondents/sudents of Dr.
50 (0.30-0.29 0.78 which has an interpretation of High Positive Correlation since the sign of r is positive a direct relationship is present between the two variables there is significant a direct relationship is present between the two variables there is significant on the effectiveness of their own mechanisms to alleviate pain during dysmenorrheal problem when grouped according to effective the decision was accepted. There are respondents who experience their mechanisms to fight the pain are ineffective with the computed r value of 0.Table 6 The Effectively of the Coping Mechanisms during Dysmenorrhea Coping Mechanisms Mean X1 Mean X2 Mean Differenc e Effective 0.0.62 2.50.30 (0.70) Moderate Positive (negative) Correlation 0.50) Low Positive (negative) Correlation 0.34 0.52 Accepted Range of Value 0.70.00to -0. when grouped according a computed r value of 0.090 (-0.00) Very High Positive (negative) Correlation 0.90 – 1.9 to -1.46 Comput ed rvalue 0.70 (-0.00 (-0.70 to -0.30) Little if any Correlation As shown in Table 6.30-0.50 to -0.78 High Positive Correlation Moderate Positive Correlation Accepted Interpretation Decision Ineffective 2..52 which has an interpretation of 28 . for the difference in the affectivity of the respondents coping mechanisms.90) High Positive (negative) Correlation 0.28 0.00-0.75 0.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 29 . Conclusions and Recommendations The major purpose of this study was to determine the Behavioral Responses and Coping Mechanism of Adolescent Experiencing Dysmenorrhea at the Dr. Bulacan. Yanga’s Colleges Inc. Chapter V SUMMARY. Wakas Bocaue Bocaue..Moderate Positive Correlation since the sign of r is positive a direct relationship between the two variables is significant which is accepted. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Summary and Findings.
Age of Menarche.00% of them are 16-18 years.00%.00% were 11-12 years old and 30 or 30. The result shows that most of the girls having their first menstruation at age of 11-14 years old which is normal.00% were third and lastly the majority which is fourth position were 30 or 30. 28 or 28. Type of Family.the result is 26 or 26.00%.00% of girls had their first menstruation (menarche) were 9-10 years old. but it is also observed that there are 34 or 34.00% are 13-15 years old and 52 or 52. the first position were 20 or 20.00%. 2. second were 22 or 22.00%. Age.00% were from extended family it means Filipino traditions regarding family closely knitted are being practice. It was an observation that the majority of the respondents were young adults and probably this was the average stage where female is ready body changes occur.among 100 respondents were 48 or 48. the following are results that were obtained based on the statement of the problem: 1. 3. 4. 44 or 44.the result shows that the ordinal position in the family. Ordinal Position in the Family.After careful study was made in the gathered data.the majority among the respondents were from a nuclear family which yield 66 or 66. 30 .00% were 13-14 years old.
headache eat less and a feeling to vomit also experience by them during their menstruation.82 with the interpretation of sometimes it means sometimes they experience of abdominal pain. Base on the result regarding their coping mechanism during the painful days of having dysmenorrheal problem the computed total weighted mean which. Behavioral Responses and Coping Mechanism of Adolescent Experiencing Dysmenorrheathe behavioral responses of the respondents who are experiencing dysmenorrheal their physical response shows of the weighted mean of 2.38 as interpreted of seldom. it means sometimes they also bothered by this situation in terms of social response.26 with an interpretation of sometimes. The respondents coping with the use of herbal medicines with weighted mean of 2. regular exercise also doing by them to alleviate pain during the painful episode with weighted mean of 2.34 interpreted as seldom. difficulty of having decision and feeling of uneasy.71 with an interpretation of sometimes it means that the respondents during their menstruation sometimes experience difficulty to fall asleep.5. Base on the social response with the total weighted mean of 3. the respondents didn’t get mingle with their friends and lack of interaction people around them. 2. dysmenorrheal problem really affects the respondents in that matter. changing diet is also one of the respondent’s mechanisms with the yield of weighted 31 . Base on their mental response the weighted mean yield which 2. get easily tired.92 with an interpretation of sometimes.
walking to relieve pain also being done with a computed weighted mean of 2. Bulacan have their different coping mechanisms to fight the painful experience on dysmenorrhea. It was an observation that respondents/sudents of Dr.92 as interpreted of seldom.mean 1.3 which if very often use.respondents are mostly ranges from 16-18 years old the result shows that this is the time that girls undergoing physical changes and they are not just ignore what they feel when pain come out during their menstruation. In terms of Age. listening to music and watching television are doing to forget the pain they are experiencing with the computed weighted mean of 4. keeping themselves busy is also try to alleviate pain with the computed weighted mean of 3. 32 .Yanga’s Colleges Inc. CONCLUSIONS Based on the findings of this study.66 with is often and lastly sometimes they are taking pain reliever with computed weighted mean of 3.38. High School Department in Wakas.48 with an interpretation of seldom. because they are on the right age they find thing to alleviate this pain. the researchers therefore offer the following conclusions: 1.
most of the respondents are youngest so the means of their coping mechanisms also affect by their family which surrounds them. In terms of Age of Menarche. It means their coping mechanisms also affect by them. Sometimes their sisters are advising them to take herbal medicines to minimize the pain they are suffering for. It was an observation base on the result that majority of the respondents 11-12 years old which yield 44 or 44.it was an observation that 34 or 34. In terms of Behavioral Responses and Coping Mechanism of Adolescent Experiencing Dysmenorrhea. In terms of Type of Family. So instead of thinking for themselves to have their own coping ordinal position influences as big factor.the ages from 11-14 years of age are the right time for girls to have their first menstruation.2.it was an observation that respondents have their own coping mechanisms to minimize the pain during their menstruation days there are effective and sometimes they use the ineffective one so they are still searching for the effective for them to cope with the pain they feel. 5.00% having menarche. In terms of Ordinal Position in the Family3. Ordinal Position in the Family. 4. RECOMMENDATIONS 33 .00% among the 100 respondents are from an extended family. so therefore. the physical changes in terms of menstruation is the right time for them. 3.
RECOMMENDATIONS 1. 2.1. hence. Those similar studies on the same topic are pursued among other public and private hospitals both in the urban and rural areas around the country are made to further collaborate the findings that has been documented in this study. That the issue of gender that men are mostly prone to have cancer but our results indicated that it was alarming that women were continuously government to have different women types of cancers. 3. on must have community education prevention specific types of cancer. 34 . 4. This will enable medical professionals to get a good census on the perception and attitude of oncology nurses and related to compliance to therapeutic regimen of cancer patient. That a more resolute orientation to educate the cancer patient on the importance of necessary chemotherapy be pursued to disseminate the benefits of this. That a more resolute orientation to educate the female adolescents on the importance of clinic visit be pursued to disseminate the benefits of this. For newly researches we want you to further study what are the factors that interfere cancer patient to comply on therapeutic regimen.
4. For newly researches we want you to further study what are the other factors that interfere female to educate themselves regarding this problem.Keltner (2007) Weissman (2005) Schwecke (2007) 35 . 3.2. Those similar studies on the same topic are pursued among other public and private clinics both in the urban and rural areas around the country are made to further collaborate the findings that has been documented in this study. Community leaders must educate women community education regarding the proper care and coping during the dysmenorrheal problem. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Brunner & Suddarth (2008) Pilliteri (2007) N. This will enable medical professionals to get a good census on the coping mechanisms of female who are experiencing pain during menstruation.
Electronic Sources http://www. Bocaue.org/wiki/Dysmenorrhea APPENDICES Appendix A Survey Questionnaire Dear Respondent. We are nursing students from Dr. Wakas.healthsystem. Bulacan and we are currently making a research paper as part of our requirements in our subject Nursing Research.virginia. We would like to solicit your participation in 36 .edu/uvahealth/peds_adolescent/dysmn. Yanga’s Colleges Inc.cf m http://wikipedia. Our research topic is the “Behavioral Responses and Coping Mechanism of Adolescent Experiencing Dysmenorrhea”.
please specify ___________ ( ) Extended Family ) Nuclear Family Part II Direction: Put a check mark ( √ ) on the space provided for that best correspond to your choice. 37 . Your participation and cooperation will be highly appreciated. Thank you.the survey we are conducting. Age : ( ( Part I ) 13-15 years old ) 16-18 years old Age of Menarche: ( ( ( ) 9-10 years old ) 11-12 years ) 13-15years Ordinal Position in the Family: ( ( ( ( ( Type of Family: ( ) 1st child ) 2nd child ) 3rd child ) 4th child ) others.
5 = Always 4 = Often 3 = Sometimes 2 = Seldom 1 = Never Physical Response I experience abdominal pain I easily get tired I experience a headache I eat less I feel like vomitting 1 2 3 4 5 Mental Response I have difficulty in sleeping I have difficulty in making decision I fee like there is something wrong with me I feel like people are talking about me I feel like people pity me 1 2 3 4 5 Social Response 38 1 2 3 4 5 .
and dietary supplements I do regular exercise to reduce pain I change my diet to reduce pain I go for a walk to relieve pain I listen to relaxing music/watch TV to forget pain I keep myself busy to forget pain I drink pain reliever to ease pain Dear Respondent.I do not like going out with friends I don’t like to talk to anyone I easily get into a fight I get embarrassed in front of people I like being alone in my room Coping Mechanism I take Herbal products or medicines. 1 2 3 4 5 39 .
please specify ___________ ( ) Extended Family ) Nuclear Family 40 . Wakas. Yanga’s Colleges Inc. Your participation and cooperation will be highly appreciated. Thank you.We are nursing students from Dr. We would like to solicit your participation in the survey we are conducting. Bocaue. Part I Age : ( ) 13-15 years old ( ) 16-18 years old Age of Menarche: ( ( ( ) 9-10 years old ) 11-12 years ) 13-15years Ordinal Position in the Family: ( ( ( ( ( Type of Family: ( ) 1st child ) 2nd child ) 3rd child ) 4th child ) others. Our research topic is the “Behavioral Responses and Coping Mechanism of Adolescent Experiencing Dysmenorrhea”. Bulacan and we are currently making a research paper as part of our requirements in our subject Nursing Research.
Part II Direction: Put a check mark ( √ ) on the space provided for that best correspond to your choice. 5 = Always 4 = Often 3 = Sometimes 2 = Seldom 1 = Never Physical Response I experience abdominal pain I easily get tired I experience a headache I eat less I feel like vomitting 1 2 3 4 5 Mental Response I have difficulty in sleeping I have difficulty in making decision I fee like there is something wrong with me I feel like people are talking about me 1 2 3 4 5 41 .
and dietary supplements I do regular exercise to reduce pain I change my diet to reduce pain I go for a walk to relieve pain I listen to relaxing music/watch TV to forget pain 1 2 3 4 5 42 .I feel like people pity me Social Response I do not like going out with friends I don’t like to talk to anyone I easily get into a fight I get embarrassed in front of people I like being alone in my room 1 2 3 4 5 Coping Mechanism I take Herbal products or medicines.
Our research topic is the “Behavioral Responses and Coping Mechanism of Adolescent Experiencing Dysmenorrhea”. Yanga’s Colleges Inc. We are nursing students from Dr. Bocaue. Thank you.I keep myself busy to forget pain I drink pain reliever to ease pain Appendix B Tally Sheet Dear Respondent. Part I Age: (48) 13-15 years old (52) 16-18 years old 43 . Bulacan and we are currently making a research paper as part of our requirements in our subject Nursing Research. Wakas. Your participation and cooperation will be highly appreciated. We would like to solicit your participation in the survey we are conducting.
5 = Always 4 = Often 3 = Sometimes 2 = Seldom 44 . please specify ___________ Type of Family: (66) Nuclear Family (34) Extended Family Part II Direction: Put a check mark ( √ ) on the space provided for that best correspond to your choice.Age of Menarche: (26) 9-10 years old (44) 11-12 years (30) 13-15years Ordinal Position in the Family: (20) 1st child (22) 2nd child (28) 3rd child (30) 4th child (0) others.
1 = Never Physical Response I experience abdominal pain I easily get tired I experience a headache I eat less I feel like vomiting 1 40 6 8 24 26 2 16 16 10 20 30 3 30 32 36 28 20 4 6 8 16 10 14 5 8 38 30 8 10 Mental Response I have difficulty in sleeping I have difficulty in making decision I fee like there is something wrong with me I feel like people are talking about me I feel like people pity me 1 28 14 14 20 30 2 20 16 16 32 10 3 22 30 48 30 32 4 20 20 8 10 10 5 10 20 14 8 8 Social Response I do not like going out with friends I don’t like to talk to anyone I easily get into a fight 1 28 36 24 2 10 14 12 3 16 16 22 4 26 22 30 5 20 12 12 45 .
and dietary supplements I do regular exercise to reduce pain I change my diet to reduce pain I go for a walk to relieve pain I listen to relaxing music/watch TV to forget pain I keep myself busy to forget pain I drink pain reliever to ease pain 1 38 34 44 20 0 4 20 2 20 18 16 16 3 6 8 3 14 38 32 38 4 38 20 4 22 0 4 18 5 24 18 5 6 10 4 2 52 28 34 46 .I get embarrassed in front of people I like being alone in my room 32 20 14 12 16 30 30 16 8 22 Coping Mechanism I take Herbal products or medicines.