# Notes for an Introductory Course On Electrical Machines and Drives

E.G.Strangas

MSU Electrical Machines and Drives Laboratory

Contents

Preface 1 Three Phase Circuits and Power 1.1 Electric Power with steady state sinusoidal quantities 1.2 Solving 1-phase problems 1.3 Three-phase Balanced Systems 1.4 Calculations in three-phase systems Magnetics 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The Governing Equations 2.3 Saturation and Hysteresis 2.4 Permanent Magnets 2.5 Faraday’s Law 2.6 Eddy Currents and Eddy Current Losses 2.7 Torque and Force Transformers 3.1 Description 3.2 The Ideal Transformer 3.3 Equivalent Circuit 3.4 Losses and Ratings 3.5 Per-unit System

ix 1 1 5 6 9 15 15 15 19 21 22 25 27 29 29 30 32 36 37
v

2

3

1 Geometry.1 Description 6.1.8 Multiple pole pairs Synchronous Machines and Drives 7. Symmetric Three-phase Currents 5.8 4 Transformer tests 3.7 3.5 Leakage Inductances and their Effects 6.6 Brushless DC Machines Line Controlled Rectiﬁers 8.1 1.2.2 Equivalent Circuit 7.6 3.3 Phasors and space vectors 5.vi CONTENTS 3. Fields.1 Current Space Vectors 5.3 Torque Development 6.4 Magnetizing current.2 One -Phase Full Wave Rectiﬁer 8.2 Short Circuit Test Three-phase Transformers Autotransformers 40 41 41 43 44 47 47 53 53 55 58 58 60 63 63 64 66 67 71 72 75 76 81 81 81 82 82 84 88 94 94 99 99 100 102 103 Concepts of Electrical Machines.4 Operation of the Induction Machine near Synchronous Speed 6. Voltages.3 Operation of the Machine Connected to a Bus of Constant Voltage and Frequency 7.4 Operation from a Source of Variable Frequency and Voltage 7.and 3-Phase circuits with diodes 8.1. and Currents Three-phase Windings 5.2 Permanent Magnet Rotor 7.1 Balanced.2 Stator Windings and Resulting Flux Density 5.2 Concept of Operation 6.1 Open Circuit Test 3.5 Controllers for PMAC Machines 7.1 Wound Rotor Carrying DC 7.6 Operating characteristics 6. DC motors 4.4 Controlled rectiﬁers with Thyristors 5 6 7 8 .7 Starting of Induction Motors 6.3 Three-phase Diode Rectiﬁers 8.6.6. Flux and Voltage Induction Machines 6.1 Design and Principle of Operation 7.

6 8.5 8.1 Inverter Mode Three-Phase Controlled Converters *Notes 104 104 106 107 109 109 111 Inverters 9.7 9 One phase Controlled Rectiﬁers 8.2 Three-phase Inverters .CONTENTS vii 8.5.1 1-phase Inverter 9.

.

nor to be used as a reference. leading to the basic understanding of modern machines and drives. Power Electronics and Electrical Drives. and electrical drives are discussed. who are taking their ﬁrst (and perhaps their last) course on the subject. Then models of the machines are developed. These notes do not aim to cover completely the subjects of Energy Conversion and Power Electronics. They are primarily to serve our students at MSU: they come to the course on Energy Conversion and Power Electronics with a solid background in Electric Circuits and Electromagnetics. power electronics or power systems. and plan to take further courses in the ﬁeld.STRANGAS E. E. Tinos ix . They are meant only to be an aid for the instructor who is working with intelligent and interested students. at the device and systems level. Equations are kept to a minimum. induced voltages and currents are developed in an electrical machine. Starting from basic concepts. and in the examples only the basic equations are used to solve simple problems. in terms of both simpliﬁed equations and of equivalent circuits. but plan a career in a different area (venturing as far as computer or mechanical engineering). not even to be useful for an advanced course. Michigan and Pyrgos. torque. and many want to acquire a basic working knowledge of the material. Power electronics are introduced. Other students are interested in continuing in the study of electrical machines and drives.Preface The purpose of these notes is be used to introduce Electrical Engineering students to Electrical Machines. In the present form this text is to be used solely for the purposes of teaching the introductory course on Energy Conversion and Power Electronics at MSU. Lansing.G. the student is led to understand how force. How successful this endeavor has been will be tested in the class and in practice.

the script letter. bold. and other obvious symbols we have: B Magnetic ﬂux Density (T) H Magnetic ﬁled intensity (A/m) Φ Flux (Wb) (with the problem that a capital letter is used to show a time dependent scalar) ﬂux linkages (of a coil. space vector) λ. but now bold. assuming it is periodic. Hence: √ v = 2V sinωt The capital letter. say v denotes a scalar time varying quantity. currents. Hence one can see v = 5 sin ωt or v = v sin ωt ˆ The same letter but capitalized denotes the rms value of the variable. Hence a script letter.A Note on Symbols Throughout this text an attempt has been made to use symbols in a consistent way. (·) Real and Imaginary part of · x .e. denotes a phasor: V = V ejθ Finally. rms. in this case a voltage. i. Λ. denotes a space vector. a time dependent vector resulting from three time dependent scalars: v = v1 + v2 ejγ + v3 ej2γ In addition to voltages. λ synchronous speed (in electrical degrees for machines with more than ωs two-poles) rotor speed (in electrical degrees for machines with more than two-poles) ωo ωm rotor speed (mechanical speed no matter how many poles) angular frequency of the rotor currents and voltages (in electrical deωr grees) T Torque (Nm) (·).

1 i(t) ¢  ¡ ¡ ¢ ¤ £¡ ¡£¤ Fig.1) 1 .1 Three Phase Circuits and Power Chapter Objectives In this chapter you will learn the following: • The concepts of power.1 + v(t) A simple load p(t) = i(t) · v(t) (1. 1. (real reactive and apparent) and power factor • The operation of three-phase systems and the characteristics of balanced loads in Y and in ∆ • How to solve problems for three-phase systems 1.1 ELECTRIC POWER WITH STEADY STATE SINUSOIDAL QUANTITIES We start from the basic equation for the instantaneous electric power supplied to a load as shown in ﬁgure 1.

2 Power at pf angle of 0o .5 i(t) 0 −0.7 0.8 0.5 0.5 0 −0.5 −1 2 1 u(t) 0 −1 −2 1. .9 1 0 0.4 0. The dashed line shows average power and as reactive power.ELECTRIC POWER WITH STEADY STATE SINUSOIDAL QUANTITIES 1 0.3 0.5 1 p(t) 0.4 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.3 0.6 0. in this case maximum 1 0.5 0. 1.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.5 −1 2 1 u(t) 0 −1 −2 1.5 0 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.9 1 0 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.5 0. 1.5 0 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.5 i(t) 0 −0.5 1 p(t) 0.1 0.5 0 −0.9 1 3 Fig.8 0.1 0.6 0.11) Reactive power carries more signiﬁcance than just a mathematical expression.3 Power at pf angle of 30o .3 0.9 1 0 0. It represents the energy oscillating in and out of an inductor or a capacitor and a source for this energy must exist.7 0.8 0.9 1 Fig. The dashed line shows average power.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0. Since the energy oscillation in an inductor is 1800 out of phase of the energy oscillating in a capacitor.1 0.4 0. Q Q = V I sin(φv − φi ) (1.4 0.7 0.5 0.

of course.8 0.5 0 p(t) −0. 1.8 0.1 0.5 −1 2 1 u(t) 0 −1 −2 0.2 the reactive power of the two have opposite signs by convention positive for an inductor.6 0.1 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.6 0. the opposite of that in ﬁgure 1.8 0.6 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.9 1 0 0.5 p(t) 0 −0.4 THREE PHASE CIRCUITS AND POWER 1 0.5 0. for the apparent power V A and for the reactive power V Ar.1 0.2 0.2 0. in this case zero 1 0.2 0.5 −1 0 0.7 0.5 0.9 1 0 0.9 1 Fig. The units for real power are.4 0.3 0.9 1 0 0.5 i(t) 0 −0. .3 0.4 0.5 −1 −1.8 0. negative for a capacitor.3 0.7 0.1 0.9 1 Fig.4 Power at pf angle of 90o .8 0.3 0.5 0. in this case negative.4 0.5 0. The dashed line shows average power.2 0.4 0. 1.2 0.7 0.5 i(t) 0 −0.9 1 0 0.5 0. The dashed line shows average power.6 0.5 −1 2 1 u(t) 0 −1 −2 1 0.1 0.3 0.4 0. W .6 0.5 0.7 0.5 0 0.5 Power at pf angle of 180o .

3V Ar (1.6W − j155.SOLVING 1-PHASE PROBLEMS 5 Using phasors for the current and voltage allows us to deﬁne complex power S as: S = VI∗ = V and ﬁnally S = P + jQ For example.6 shows the phasors for lagging and leading power factors and the corresponding complex power S.2 SOLVING 1-PHASE PROBLEMS Based on the discussion earlier we can construct the table below: Type of load Reactive Capacitive Resistive Reactive power Q>0 Q<0 Q=0 Power factor lagging leading 1 .14) φv (1. 1.13) it = π )A 4 then S = V I = 120 · 5 = 600W .12) I −φi (1. when v(t) = (2 · 120 · sin(377t + (2 · 5 · sin(377t + π )V 6 (1.17) Figure 1.6 (a) lagging and (b) leading power factor V 1.16) (1. P S jQ P V S I jQ I Fig.966 leading.15) (1. Also: S = VI∗ = 120 π/6 5 −π/4 = 579. while pf = cos(π/6 − π/4) = 0.

since the pf is leading. the current returning though node n is zero.6 THREE PHASE CIRCUITS AND POWER We also notice that if for a load we know any two of the four quantities. Qtotal = i Qi .9 A = V I∗ = 2000 0 · 50 −36. three-phase systems offer deﬁnite advantages: for the same power and voltage there is less copper in the windings.g. Generally in a system with more than one loads (or sources) real and reactive power balance.20) 2π ) 3 √ 2π 2V sin(ωt + φ + ) 3 2π 2π ) + sin(ωt + φ + )≡0 3 3 (1. pf . the load current would be IL = S/V = 100 · 103 /2 · 103 = 50A.19) connected as shown in ﬁgure 1.8. Ptotal = i Pi .e. They are: √ i1 (t) = 2I sin(ωt + φ) √ 2π 2I sin(ωt + φ − i2 (t) = ) (1. If the three impedances at the load are equal. but not apparent power. P .3 THREE-PHASE BALANCED SYSTEMS Compared to single phase systems. In the same case.8 leading. then: P = S · pf = 80kW −S 1 − pf 2 = −60kV Ar . then it is easy to prove that the current in the branch n − n is zero as well.9o = P + jQ = 80 · 103 W − j60 · 103 V Ar 1. e. and the total power absorbed remains constant rather than oscillate around its average value.e. we can calculate the other two. Let us take now three sinusoidal-current sources that have the same amplitude and frequency. if S = 100kV A. then: V I S = 2000 0 V o = 50 φi = 50 36. since: sin(ωt + φ) + sin(ωt − φ + Let us also take three voltage sources: va (t) = vb (t) = vc (t) = √ √ 2V sin(ωt + φ) 2V sin(ωt + φ − (1. but Stotal = i Si .8] Q = S sin(φv − φi ) Notice that here Q < 0.7.18) 3 √ 2π i3 (t) = 2I sin(ωt + φ + ) 3 If these three current sources are connected as shown in ﬁgure 1. if the load voltage were VL = 2000V . pf = 0. Q. If we use this voltage as reference. or Q = sin(φv − φi ) = sin [arccos 0. Here we have a ﬁrst reason why . i. the load is capacitive. i. but their phase angles differ by 1200 . S.

9 are said to be in Y or star. but they use three wires. For somebody who cannot see beyond the terminals of a Y or a ∆ load. Then the voltage between phases 1 and 2 can be shown either through trigonometry or vector geometry to be: . hence with a three-phase system the transmitted power can be tripled. ∆. 1. V2n = V φ− 3 . Y -connected. it is impossible to discern the type of connection of the load. and we can easily transform one to the other without any effect outside the load. as shown in ﬁgure 1. then they are said to be connected in Delta.THREE-PHASE BALANCED SYSTEMS 7 i1 i2 i3 n Fig. The three sources together supply three times the power that one source supplies. The wires of the three-phase system and the one-phase source carry the same current. If the loads are connected as shown in ﬁgure 1. three-phase systems are convenient to use. while the one source alone uses two.8 Zero neutral current in a voltage-fed.21) Let us take now a balanced system connected in Y .9. The loads of the system as shown in ﬁgure 1. while the amount of wires is only increased by 50%. The voltages 2π between the neutral and each of the three phase terminals are V1n = V φ . 1. Then the impedances of a Y and its equivalent ∆ symmetric loads are related by: ZY = 1 Z∆ 3 (1. and 2π V3n = V φ+ 3 . balanced system. We can therefore consider the two systems equivalent. or triangle.7 Zero neutral current in a Y -connected balanced system + v1 n’ ’ n + v2 v3 + Fig. but can only measure currents and voltages there.11.

If the power factor in one phase is pf = cos(φv − φi ). and it says that the rms value of the line-to-line √ voltage at a Y load.10. I23 = I φ− 3 and I31 = I φ+ 3 .8 THREE PHASE CIRCUITS AND POWER I1 3 1 3 + + I 12 + V1n V V 2n 3n I2 I1 1 I 31 1 V + 12 - I 12 I2 2 I 23 3 + + V 3n I3 V1n V 2 - V 2n 12 - + 2 Fig. It is obvious that the phase current is equal to the line current in the Y connection. Vll . for a connection in ∆. Vln . is 3 times that of the line-to-neutral or phase voltage. 1. 1. 2π 2π if the phase currents phasors are I12 = I φ .I12 I3 -I 23 I 31 I3 -V 3n V 23 V 31 V 1n V 12 I23 I12 I2 V 2n -V 3n V 23 V 1n V 3n -V 2n V 12 -V 2n I . then the total power to the system is: S3φ = P3φ + jQ3φ = 3V1 I∗ √ √ 1 3Vll Il cos(φv − φi ) + j 3Vll Il sin(φv − φi ) = (1. The power supplied to the system is three times the power supplied to each phase. then the current of .I12 I1 31 .23) Similarly. since the voltage and current amplitudes and the phase differences between them are the same in all three phases.10 Y Connected Loads: Voltage phasors V12 = V1 − V2 = √ 3V φ+ π 3 (1. the phase voltage is equal to the line voltage.9 -VVoltages and Currents Y Connected Loads: 1n V 31 V 2n V -V 3n 1n 2 + I2 .I23 31 I I12 I1 Fig.22) This is shown in the phasor diagrams of ﬁgure 1. On the other hand.

6o )) = 0.186kW. and power.24) To calculate the power in the three-phase. as shown in ﬁgure 1. voltages.1φ PL1φ pf 120 = 13.02 j1 + 7 + j5 o −40. in a three-phase system.814 lagging V .12 calculate the line-line voltage. 31 V 1n I23 S3φ = P3φ + jQ3φ = 3V1 I∗ √ 1 √ = I 3Vll Il cos(φv − φi ) + j 3Vll Il sin(φv − φi ) 12 I1 (1.I 12 3 I 31 I23 I12 I1 .847kV Ar o = cos(−5 − (−40. solve one of the three 1-phase systems. 1.02 −40. 2.I12 I1 = I12 − I31 = -I 23 I3 √ 3I φ− π 3 (1.11 12 + V V 2n I3 3n I2 2 I 23 I 31 3 + CALCULATIONS IN THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 9 1 V 1n 3n 23 V 1n I2 V 3n I 12 V 12 -V 2n 2 I 23 -I 23 I2 I 31 . We can simplify these calculations if we follow the procedure below: 1.186 · 103 + j0. convert the results back to the ∆ systems. 3.13: I = Vln SL.4. First deal with only one phase as in the ﬁgure 1. connect a neutral conductor.6o A −5o = I Zl = 13.6 (7 + j5) = 111.+ + V1n V 12 2 -V 1n V 31 I1 V 2n -V 3n + V V 2n I3 Fig.97 = VL I∗ = 1.I 31 I3 + -V 1n ∆ Connected Loads: Voltages and Currents 31 line 1. transform the ∆ circuits to Y . QL1φ = 0.11 is: V 3n V 12 -V 2n I2 I . 4. Y connected load.25) 1.1 Example For the 3-phase system in ﬁgure 1. real power and power factor at the load. 1.847 · 103 = 1.4 CALCULATIONS IN THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS -I 31 It is often the case that calculations have to be made of quantities like currents.

4.14 ∆-connected load .97 = 193. calculate the power factor and real power at the load. 1. j1 Ω I L + 120V 7+j5 Ω ’ Fig. as well as the phase voltage and current.l−l PL. 1. The source voltage is 400V line-line.2 Example For the system in ﬁgure 1.10 THREE PHASE CIRCUITS AND POWER j1Ω + 120V 7+5j Ω n’ ’ n + + Fig.94V 0V 12 = 3.3φ = 2.541kV Ar 1. 1. QL.13 One phase of the same load For the three-phase system the load voltage (line-to-line). and real and reactive power are: VL. j1Ω + 18+j6 Ω n’ ’ + + Fig.56kW.3φ = √ 3 · 111.14.12 A problem with Y connected load.

The line to neutral voltage of the source √ is Vln = 400/ 3 = 231V .15 The same load converted to Y j1 Ω I L + 231V 6+j2 Ω ’ Fig. 1. What is the pf of load 2? .44/ 3 = 19.1o + 26.16 One phase of the Y load IL VL The power factor at the load is: = = 231 = 34.6o ) = 0.44 · 0.8 · 3 · 377.95 pf lagging.CALCULATIONS IN THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 11 First we convert the load to Y and work with one phase.22 · 34.88A √ = 217.8 −26. while the total load is ST = 1000kV A at 0.4. Load 1 draws from the system PL1 = 500kW at 0.17.44 j1 + 6 + j2 IL (6 + j2) = 217.948lag Converting back to ∆: Iφ Vll At the load P3φ = √ √ √ IL / 3 = 34.1o A V pf = cos(φv − φi ) = cos(−8.948 = 21.6o −8.22V = √ 3 · 377.3 Example Two loads are connected as shown in ﬁgure 1.8 pf lagging. j1 Ω + 231V 6+j2 Ω n’ ’ n + + Fig. 1.34kW 3Vll IL pf = 1.

pf1 = 0. Hence. SL2 4202 + 62. SL1 QL1 = = 500 · 103 = 625kV A 0.8 lag.752 . 1. PL1 = 500kW .75kV Ar (1.17 Two loads fed from the same source Note ﬁrst that for the total load we can add real and reactive power for each of the two loads: PT QT ST = PL1 + PL2 = QL1 + QL2 = SL1 + SL2 From the information we have for the total load PT QT = = ST pfT = 950kW ST sin(cos−1 0.26) QL2 and pfL2 = PL2 450 =√ = 0.8 2 2 SL1 − PL1 = 375kV Ar QL1 is again positive.12 THREE PHASE CIRCUITS AND POWER Power System Load 1 Ω load 2 Fig.25kV Ar Note positive QT since pf is lagging For the load L1.989 leading. since pf is lagging.95) = 312. PL2 = PT − PL1 = 450kW = QT − QL1 = −62.

There is no point in giving the phase of currents and voltages as answers. To calculate complex power using 1. i. 2. • To calculate real reactive and apparent Power when using formulae 1.10 1. these numbers are often wrong and anyway meaningless. not phase. • Notice two different and equally correct formulae for 3-phase power. The phase alone of a sinusoidal quantity does not really matter. real power.e. apparent power and power factor. by its graph.11 we have to use absolute not complex values of the currents and voltages. and. convert between phasor. As an exercise.CALCULATIONS IN THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 13 Notes • A sinusoidal signal can be described uniquely by: 1. • When solving a circuit to calculate currents and voltages. after we take one quantity (a voltage or a current) as reference. reactive power. often 0. • It is the phase difference that is important in power calculations. 1. as a phasor and the associated frequency.g. as e. . one of these descriptions is enough to produce the other two. We need it to solve circuit problems. currents and voltages. This is not the case for apparent power and of course not for power factor. especially for line-line voltages or currents in ∆ circuits. any two describe a load adequately. trigonometric expression and time plots of a sinusoid waveform.12 we do use complex currents and voltages and ﬁnd directly both real and reactive power. • In both 3-phase and 1-phase systems the sum of the real power and the sum of the reactive power of individual loads are equal respectively to the real and reactive power of the total load. we assign to it an arbitrary value. 3. • Of the four quantities. The other two can be calculated from them. use complex impedances. v(t) = 5 sin(2πf t + φv ).7.

.

First we use: ·B=0 (2.2 Magnetics Chapter Objectives In this chapter you will learn the following: • How Maxwell’s equations can be simpliﬁed to solve simple practical magnetic problems • The concepts of saturation and hysteresis of magnetic materials • The characteristics of permanent magnets and how they can be used to solve simple problems • How Faraday’s law can be used in simple windings and magnetic circuits • Power loss mechanisms in magnetic materials • How force and torque is developed in magnetic ﬁelds 2. We’ll list a few more assumptions as we move along.1 INTRODUCTION Since a good part of electromechanical energy conversion uses magnetic ﬁelds it is important early on to learn (or review) how to solve for the magnetic ﬁeld quantities in simple geometries and under certain assumptions.) are homogeneous and isotropic. steel etc. describing the characteristics of the magnetic ﬁeld at low frequencies. One such assumption is that the frequency of all the variables is low enough to neglect all displacement currents. aluminum. copper.2 THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS We start with Maxwell’s equations. Another is that the media (usually air. 2.1) 15 .

and a few hundred thousand for magnetic steel. we use the relationship between H. These stem from the assumption of existence of an average ﬂux path deﬁned within the geometry.4) where µ0 is the permeability of free space. .1 A simple magnetic circuit ﬁgure 2. Finally. The additional assumptions we’ll make in order to calculate the magnetic ﬁeld density everywhere are: • The magnetic ﬂux remains within the iron and a tube of air. We’ll use the equations above. for more complex geometries. Let’s tackle a problem to illustrate it all. and that all of its lines are closed. the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld.16 MAGNETICS the integral form of which is: B · dA ≡ 0 for any path. the induction or ﬂux density. Here we’ll limit ourselves to very simple geometries.1 we see an iron ring with cross section Ac . 2.3) where the closed loop is deﬁning the boundary of the surface A. but we’ll add boundary conditions and some more simpliﬁcations. Secondly we use H · dl = A (2.2) J · dA (2. along with the conditions on the boundary of our geometry deﬁne a boundary value problem. This means that there is no source of ﬂux. There is a variety of ways to solve a magnetic circuit problem. B = µr µ0 H (2. In i r g airgap Fig. deﬁned by the cross section of the iron and the length of the gap. 4π10−7 T m/A. and numerical methods. average diameter r. the average ﬂux path. the airgap. and B. carrying a current i. like Finite Elements Analysis. Analytical methods are available for relatively simple geometries. that has a gap of length g and a coil around it of N turns. and µr is the relative permeability of the material. 1 for air or vacuum. The equations given above. This tube is shown in dashed lines in the ﬁgure. shown in dash-dot. • The ﬂux ﬂows parallel to a line.

Φ = Ac B · dA = Bavg Ac . we write: H · dl = J · dA (2. Here we have to use two loops like the one above.2. But equation 2.5) where the second integral extends over any surface (a bubble) terminating on the path of integration. Since both the cross section and the ﬂux are the same in the iron and the air gap.2. together with the ﬁrst assumption assures us that for any cross section of the geometry the ﬂux. Following one ﬂux line. is constant. representing an iron core of depth d .THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS 17 • Flux density is uniform at any cross-section and perpendicular to it. then Biron µiron Hiron = = Bair µair Hair (2.6) and ﬁnally Hiron (2πr − g) + Hgap · g = N i µair (2πr − g) + g Hgap = N i µiron Ay H y1 Ac H y2 g H l c H r l y Fig. 2. the one coinciding with the average path. and we have .2 y A slightly complex magnetic circuit Let us address one more problem: calculate the magnetic ﬁeld in the airgap of ﬁgure 2.

3 to the closed surface shown shaded we also obtain: Bl Ay − Bc Ac − Br Ay = 0 and of course Bl = µ Hl .3. and the outer one.18 MAGNETICS a choice of possible three. current R. voltage. reluctance Electrical V .10) then we notice that we can replace the circuits above with the one in ﬁgure 2.9) (2.7) Applying equation 2. If we decide to use: Φ = R = F = BA l Aµ Ni (2. Bc = µ Hc . Magnetic F. ﬂux R. we can write: Hl · l + Hy1 · y + Hc · c + Hg · g + Hc · c + Hy1 · y Hl · h + 2Hy1 · y + Hr · l + 2Hy2 · y = Ni = Ni (2.8) (2. Br = µ Hr Bg = µ0 Hg The student can complete the problem. 2.2 .3 Equivalent electric circuit for the magnetic circuit in ﬁgure 2. or electromotive force I. resistance . magnetomotive force Φ. Taking the one that includes the legs of the left and in the center. with the following correspondence: R y1 R c1 R c2 R c3 R y2 Rl + - Rr Fig. We notice though something interesting: a similarity between Kirchoff’s equations and the equations above.

this time. Fig. One is the nonlinearity of the media in which the magnetic ﬁeld lives. Hence the power of the losses is proportional to this surface.4 Saturation in ferrous materials In addition to the phenomenon of saturation we have also to study the phenomenon of hysteresis in ferrous materials. The deﬁning difference is that if saturation existed alone. and the volume of iron. it increases with the maximum value of B: ˆ Physt = kf B x 1 < x < 2 (2.3 SATURATION AND HYSTERESIS Although for free space a equation 2. power is transferred to the iron. B in it.3 is linear. isotropic steel with the curves of 2.5. These curves show that the ﬂux density depends on the history of the magnetization of the material.SATURATION AND HYSTERESIS 19 This is of course a great simpliﬁcation for students who have spent a lot of effort on electrical circuits. We can describe the relationship between ﬁeld intensity. This nonlinearity makes the solution of direct problems a little more complex (problems of the type: for given ﬂux ﬁnd the necessary current) and the inverse problems more complex and sometimes impossible to solve without iterations (problems of the type: for given currents ﬁnd the ﬂux). ﬂux density for a give value of ﬁeld intensity. B) travels around the curve. When hysteresis is present. H depends also on the history of magnetic ﬂux density. we obtain the saturation curve of the iron. During i i. the ﬂux would be a unique function of the ﬁeld intensity. 2. 2. This dependence on history is called hysteresis.11) . in most ferrous materials this relationship is nonlinear. H and ﬂux density B in homogeneous. for a given value of B or H we can ﬁnd the other one and calculate the permeability µ = B/H. referred to as hysteresis losses. we see that when the current changes sinusoidally between the two values. Going back to one of the curves in 2. Physt .4. The energy of these losses for one cycle is proportional to the area inside the curve. particularly ferrous materials.5. the frequency. which in itself can be quite useful. the relationship between H and B can be described by a curve of the form shown in ﬁgure 2. Neglecting for the moment hysteresis. ˆ and −ˆ then the point corresponding to (H. From this curve. but there are some differences. If we replace the curve with that of the locus of the extrema.

The energy lost in one cycle includes these additional minor loop surfaces. but at one point. 2. H. H1 .20 MAGNETICS Fig. Fig. a minor hysteresis loop is created. ˆ decreases to H2 and then increases again to its maximum value. as shown in ﬁgure 2. when increasing towards H.6 Minor loops on a hysteresis curve .5 Hysteresis loops and saturation ˆ If the value of H.6. does so not monotonously. 2.

the length of the air gap is g = 1mm and the length of the iron is li = 20cm.7. corresponding to the equation: Bm = Hm + Hc Br Hc (2.1T . i.8 shows the characteristics of a variety of permanent magnets. The iron in the ring has became a permanent magnet.10 the length of the magnet is lm = 1cm.7 Hysteresis curve in magnetic steel 2. no current in an winding there will be some nonzero ﬂux density. In addition. but rather on a minor loop. Hc = 750kA/m. as shown on ﬁgure 2.6 that can be approximated with a straight line.1 Example In the magnetic circuit of ﬁgure 2. The value of the ﬁeld intensity at this point is −Hc . 2.4. The curve of a permanent magnet can be described by a straight line in the region of interest. 2. In practice a permanent magnet is operating not at the second quadrant of the hysteresis loop. Figure 2. it will take current in the winding pushing ﬂux in the opposite direction (negative current) in order to make the ﬂux zero. we notice that for H = 0. and look only at the second quadrant of the curve. What is the ﬂux density in the air gap if the iron has inﬁnite permeability and the cross section is uniform? .PERMANENT MAGNETS 21 B Br Hc H Fig. and one winding around it. For the magnet Br = 1.e.9.4 PERMANENT MAGNETS If we take a ring of iron with uniform cross section and a magnetic characteristic of the material that in ﬁgure 2.12) 2. Br .

a voltage is induced in this coil.22 MAGNETICS 1.1) · 6818 = 0 B = 0.8 Minor loops on a hysteresis curve Since the cross section is uniform.g.5 FARADAY’S LAW We’ll see now how voltage is generated in a coil and the effects it may have on a magnetic material. and there is no current: Hi · 0.0 0.2 -H (kA/m) Fig. is essential in calculating the transfer of energy through a magnetic ﬁeld. along with the previous chapter. B is the same everywhere. hence. First let’s start with the governing equation again. change of the ﬁeld or relative movement).11 .6 0. Bair 1 Hc g + (Bm − 1.4 1.2 + Hg · g + Hm · li = 0 for inﬁnite iron permeability Hi = 0. When ﬂux through a coil changes for whatever reason (e.2 1. 2. Figure 2.8 B (T) 0. This theory.77 + (B − 1.1) li = 0 µo Br ⇒ B · 795.4 0.985T 2.

2. Faraday’s law relates the electric and magnetic ﬁelds. 2.1 shows such a typical case.10 Magnetic circuit for Example 2.FARADAY’S LAW 23 B Br B m Hc H m H Fig.9 Finding the ﬂux density in a permanent magnet g l m Fig.4. In its integral form: E · dl = − C d dt B · dA A (2.13) .

11 Flux through a coil If a coil has more than one turns in series.5.8 · 377 sin(377t + ) V 2 e1 ˆ ⇒ E1 = √ = 500 · 0. What should be the rms value of it if the ﬂux density in the iron (rms) is 0.04 · 0.04m2 .24 MAGNETICS and in the cases we study it becomes: v(t) = dΦ(t) dt (2.04( 2 · 0.04 2 · 0. The cross section of the iron core is 0. we deﬁne as ﬂux linkages of the coil. the sum of the ﬂux through each turn. λ= i Φi (2.14) V Φ Fig. The winding labelled ‘primary’ has 500 turns.16) 2. 2.8T ? What is the current in the coil? The voltage induced in the coil will be But if ˆ ˆ B(t) = B sin(2πf t) ⇒ Φ(t) = AB sin(2πf t) √ ⇒ Φ(t) = 0. λ.8) sin(377t)W b dΦ e1 (t) = dt √ π ⇒ e1 (t) = 500 0. A sinusoidal voltage of 60Hz is applied to it.8 · 377 = 6032V 2 .1 Example For the magnetic circuit shown below µiron = µo · 105 . the air gap is 1mm and the length of the iron core at the average path is 1m.15) and then: v(t) = dλ(t) dt (2.

8 sin(377t) µo √ 2. and Joule losses.6 EDDY CURRENTS AND EDDY CURRENT LOSSES When the ﬂux through a solid ferrous material varies with time.819 sin(377t)A ⇒ I = √ = 1. 2. and losses are: . As the ﬂux changes. We can.286A 2 2 · 0. and has a resistance R. though. Since the ring is shorted.8 sin(377t)A/m = µo · 105 Finally 500 · i = 1 1 · 10−3 + 5 10 1 ˆ i ⇒ i = 1. but the method discussed above is not the appropriate one to calculate these losses.1 To calculate the current we integrate around the loop of the average path: Hiron l + Hair g = N i √ = Bair = 2 · 0. estimate that for sinusoidal ﬂux. Figure 2. Peddy = e2 /R. result. currents are induced in it.8 sin(377t)A/m µo √ 2 · 0. resulting into Joule losses. a current ﬂows in it. shown in grey. We can consider a multitude of such rings in the material. a voltage e = dΦ/dt is induced in the ring.5.8 sin(377t) √ biron ⇒ Hair = ⇒ Hiron 2 · 0.12 secondary Magnetic circuit for Example 2.13 gives a simple explanation: Let’s consider a ring of iron deﬁned within the material shown in black and a ﬂux Φ through it.EDDY CURRENTS AND EDDY CURRENT LOSSES 25 primary g Fig. voltage. the ﬂux.

19) .18) (2.14.26 MAGNETICS Fig. A typical way to decrease losses is to laminate the material.14 Laminated steel     © ¦   ¨¨¦¨§¥ ¢¤   ¡£ ! (2. Iron insulation Fig.13 Eddy currents in solid iron Φ = e = Peddy = ˆ ˆ Φ sin(ω t) = AB sin(ω t) ˆ ˆ ω Φ cos(ω t) = 2πAf B cos(ω t) 2 ˆ2 kf B which tells us that the losses are proportional to the square of both the ﬂux density and frequency. as shown in ﬁgure 2.17) (2. decreasing the paths of the currents and the total ﬂux through them. 2. 2.

ﬂux density Bm and ﬁeld intensity Hm in a permanent magnet. calculate forces using the Lorenz force equation.25) Notes • It is more reasonable to solve magnetic circuits starting from the integral form of Maxwell’s equations than ﬁnding equivalent resistance. an electrical source e. • There are two types of iron losses: eddy current losses that are proportional to the square of the frequency and the square of the ﬂux density. voltage and current. Wf = We + Wm (2. since Maxwell’s equations do not refer directly to them. or use directly the balance of energy. and hysteresis losses that are proportional to the frequency and to some power x of the ﬂux density. Alternatively.23) On the other hand. calculated. forces (or torques).22) This eq.12deﬁnes the relation between the variables. dxk . The most reasonable approach is to start from energy balance. In a mechanical system with a force F acting on a body and moving it at velocity v in its direction. Then the energy in the ﬁrles Wf is the sum of the energy that entered through electrical and mechanical sources. e.24) Since power has to balance.TORQUE AND FORCE 27 2. one can use the Maxwell stress tensor to ﬁnd forces or torques on enclosed volumes. if there is no change in the ﬁeld energy. the energies in the equation should be evaluated and from these. • Permanent magnets do not have ﬂux density equal to BR . supplying current i to a load provides electrical power Pelec Pelec = e · i (2. the power Pmech is Pmech = F · v (2.20) This in turn can lead to the calculation of the forces since K J fk dxk = k=1 j=1 ej ij dt − dWf (2.7 TORQUE AND FORCE Calculating these is quite more complex. rotating a body with angular velocity ωmech : Pmech = T · wmech (2. here F = liB.21) Hence for a small movement. Here we’ll use only this last method. . This also makes it easier to use saturation curves and permanent magnets. 2. Pelec = Pmech ⇒ T · wmech = e · i (2.g. fk . Equation 2. becomes for a rotating system with torque T .22. although starting from the same principles. balance the mechanical and electrical energies.

.

In addition. • Experimentally determine the transformer parameters given its ratings. These wires enter the transformer through bushings that provide isolation between the wires and the tank. 3. used to both increase the dielectric strength of the paper and to transfer heat from the core-coil assembly to the outer walls of the tank to the air. Often the insulation is paper. We’ll introduce and work with the per unit system and will cover three-phase transformers as well. After working on this chapter. and the whole assembly may be immersed in insulating oil.3 Transformers Although transformers have no moving parts. they can provide matching of impedances. most probably made with copper.1 shows the cutout of a typical distribution transformer 29 . they are essential to electromechanical energy conversion. and can be distributed and used safely. In this chapter we’ll start from basic concepts and build the equations and circuits corresponding ﬁrst to an ideal transformer and then to typical transformers in use. • Calculate the losses. Inside the tank there is an iron core linking coils. and insulated.1 DESCRIPTION When we see a transformer on a utility pole all we see is a cylinder with a few wires sticking out. and regulate the ﬂow of power (real or reactive) in a network. you’ll be able to: • Choose the correct rating and characteristics of a transformer for a speciﬁc application. The system of insulation is also associated with that of cooling the core/coil assembly. and voltage regulation of a transformer under speciﬁc operating conditions. Figure 3. efﬁciency. They make it possible to increase or decrease the voltage so that power can be transmitted at a voltage level that results in low costs.

and the transformer offers no exception.30 TRANSFORMERS HV bushing Surge suppressor LV bushing Insulating oil Core Coil Fig.2 THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER Few ideal versions of human constructions exist.2 Magnetic Circuit of an ideal transformer in the core changes. inducing a voltage in the coils. so is the dotted terminal of the other coil. This is the transformer one learns about in high school. Let us take an iron core with inﬁnite permeability and two coils wound around it (with zero resistance). 3. 3. Notice only one HV bushing and lightning 3.1 arrester Cutaway view of a single phase distribution transformer. one with N1 and the other with N2 turns. . as shown in ﬁgure 3. and a large number of assumptions. We assign dots at one terminal of each coil in the following fashion: if the ﬂux Φm + e1 i1 i2 + e2 Fig. An ideal transformer is based on very simple concepts.2. Or. current into dotted terminals produces ﬂux in the same direction. All the magnetic ﬂux is to remain in the iron. and the dotted terminal of one coil is positive with respect its other terminal. the corollary to this.

a two port network. is established in the iron. A two-port network that contains it and impedances can E replaced by an be E1 V2 2 V1 equivalent other. and since B is ﬁnite and µiron is inﬁnite. i1 into the dotted terminal of coil 1. The symbol of a network that is deﬁned by these two equations is in the ﬁgure 3. then: N1 · i1 (t) − N2 i2 (t) = H · l (3. Voltages will be induced in these two coils: e1 (t) e2 (t) and dividing: N1 e1 (t) = e2 (t) N2 (3. 3.THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER 31 Assume that somehow a time varying ﬂux.3.3) = = dΦ dλ1 = N1 dt dt dλ2 dΦ = N2 dt dt (3. An ideal transformer has an N1 Fig. Then the ﬂux linkages in each coil will be λ1 = N1 Φ(t) and λ2 = N2 Φ(t). but so is the existence of an ideal transformer. as discussed below. Seen as a two port network N1 N2 Z’ I2 + I1 + V1 Z + I2 + E2 N1 N2 Z’ + E2 N1 N2 I2 I1 E1 + + V2 V 1 + E1 N1 N2 + E2 V2 I1 + V1 (a) + E1 (b) + V2 Fig.5) i2 N1 Equations 3. If currents ﬂowing in the direction shown.2) On the other hand.4a.3 and 3.5 describe this ideal transformer.1) (3. Φ(t). and i2 out of the dotted terminal of coil 2. then H = 0.3 I1 + N2 Symbol for an ideal transformer Z I2 + + + interesting characteristic. 3.4) but B = µiron H.4 Transferring an impedance from one side to the other of an ideal transformer . currents ﬂowing in the coils are related to the ﬁeld intensity H. We recognize that this is practically impossible. Consider the circuit in ﬁgure 3. Finally: i1 N2 = (3.

First we’ll relax the assumption that the permeability of the iron is inﬁnite. the voltage sources by (N2 /N1 ) and the current sources by (N1 /N2 ). while keeping the topology the same.8) which could describe the circuit in ﬁgure 3. ex ? N1 N2 ’ i1 i2 + e2 - - ideal transformer Fig.5 shows this.7) Z (3.6) (3.10) (3. but rather it becomes: N1 i1 − N2 i2 = RΦm (3. i1 + e1 i 1.ex will just balance the right hand side.9) where R is the reluctance of the path around the core of the transformer and Φm the ﬂux on this path. i1. we can split i1 to two components: one i1 .12) N1 i1.4b. 3. and the other.ex = N1 i1 (t) − N2 i2 (t) = .11) (3. i1 .ex RΦm H ·l (3. we can write: e1 e2 v2 = u1 − i1 Z N2 N2 N2 = e1 = u1 − i1 Z N1 N1 N1 = e2 = N2 N2 N2 e1 = u1 − i2 N1 N1 N1 2 (3. Generally a circuit on a side 1 can be transferred to side 2 by multiplying its component impedances by (N2 /N1 )2 . Figure 3. will satisfy the ideal transformer equation.32 TRANSFORMERS with variables v1 . 3. v2 . In that case equation 3. To preserve the ideal transformer equations as part of our new transformer.4 does not revert to 3.3 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT To develop the equivalent circuit for a transformer we’ll gradually relax the assumptions that we had ﬁrst imposed.5 First step to include magnetizing current i1 = i1 + i1. i2 .5.

ex i2 + + e1 N1 N2 e2 - ideal transformer Fig.6 Ideal transformer plus magnetizing branch to remain in the iron as shown in ﬁgure 3. designed to point out these ﬂuxes. This is the case shown here.13) (3.15) Since the current i1.ex .ex = R dt = N1 (3. then it should be related only to the current there. Φl1 . where Lm = R Let us now relax the assumption that all the ﬂux has i1 ’ i1 i 1. leakage ﬂux 2. Fig.ex ﬂows through something. This idea gives rise to the 2 N1 equivalent circuit in ﬁgure 3.7 If the currents in the two windings were to have cancelling values of N · i. we can consider that this something could be an inductance. 3. Φl2 .7. 3.14) (3. and for coil 2.6. i1. magnetizing ﬂux. leakage ﬂux 1. the ﬂux that leaks out of the core and links only coil 1. Since Φl1 links only coil 1. Let us call the ﬂux in the iron Φm . . where the voltage across it is proportional to its derivative.ex /R) = N1 dt 2 N1 di1.EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 33 We can replace the current source. then the only ﬂux left would be the leakage ﬂuxes. with something simpler if we remember that the rate of change of ﬂux Φm is related to the induced voltage e1 : e1 dΦm dt d (N1 i1. and the same should be true for the second leakage ﬂux.

If we deﬁne Ll1 = N1 2 Rl1 . Ll2 = 19µH. and the power there is P2 = 20kW .wdg = 1. These losses (at least the eddy-current ones) are proportional to the square of the ﬂux. Rc = 160kΩ.1 Example Let us now use this equivalent circuit to solve a problem. R2. V2 = 120V . so do the leakage ﬂuxes.16) (3.wdg . and a voltage is induced in each coil: dλ1 = N1 dt dλ2 e2 = = N2 dt e1 = . some resistance to represent iron losses.7kΩ X1 = 7.6Ω.wdg . Ll2 = i1 2 N1 Rl2 .9. Since this resembles the losses of a resistance supplied by 1 voltage e1 .wdg = i2 R2. Xm = Lm ∗ 2π60 = 169. assume that the voltage at the low voltage side is 60Hz. R1.wdg = i2 R1.18) (3. then we can arrive to the equivalent circuit in ﬁgure 3. and 2 2.92Ω X2 = 7.wdg = 1. we can develop the equivalent circuit 3. dΦm dt dΦm dt dΦl1 = e1 + dt dΦl2 + N2 = e2 + dt + N1 2 N1 Rl1 2 N2 Rl2 di1 dt di2 dt (3.19) .8 Equivalent circuit of a transformer plus magnetizing and leakage inductances circuit we have to add: 1. Calculate the voltage at the high voltage side and the efﬁciency of the transformer. But the ﬂux is proportional to the square of the induced voltage e1 .34 TRANSFORMERS Φl1 = N1 i1 /Rl1 Φl2 = N2 i2 /Rl2 (3.8. The winding (ohmic) resistance in each coil. ex v1 L l2 e 1 v2 - - - Ideal transformer Fig. 3. R2.3. at pf = 0. Ll1 = 21mH. 1 P22.44mΩ. To this ’ i1 i2 + e2 N1 N2 L l2 + + i 1. Lm = 450H. hence Piron = ke2 . with R1.wdg . with losses P1. 3.85 lagging.17) where Rl1 and Rl2 correspond to paths that are partially in the iron and partially in the air. Assume that the transformer has a turns ratio of 4000/120.wdg .16mΩ . As these currents change.

08W 0.1336 −31.9 Equivalent circuit for a real transformer From the power the load: I2 = PL /(VL pf ) −31.83V N2 N2 I1 = I2 = 5.64W Ploss = Pwdg.0254 − j0. 2 + v2 - e1 - Ideal transformer i1 i2 L l1 + R wdg.7 + j34.6 = 65.08W Pout 20kW Pout = = = 0.80 = 196.1 = I1 Rwdg.80 A E2 = V2 + I2 (Rwdg.1017A N1 1 1 I1.2 + jXl2 ) = 120.1 + Pwdg.82 /(160 · 103 ) = 101.9182 · 1.045V N1 E1 = E2 = 4032.2 = I2 Rwdg.001 − j3.132 · 1.125A V1 = E1 + I1 (Rwdg.2 = 196.1 + jXl.2 e2 L l2 + v2 N1 : N2 (a) Fig.39W 2 Pwdg. ex Rc i1 ’ 35 i2 + + e2 N1 N2 Ll2 R wdg.98 + j1.ex + I1 = 5.0236A Rc jXm I1 = I1.90 V .0255 − j3.5 + j69. 3.37W 2 Pcore = E1 /Rc = 4032.1 ) = 4065.1 v1 + Rc Lm e1 + R wdg.2 + Pcore = 213.ex = E1 + = 0.2V = 4066 The power losses are concentrated in the windings and core: 2 Pwdg.1 = 5.9895 η= Pin (Pout + Ploss ) 20kW + 213.EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT i1 + v1 R wdg.1 L l2 i1.44 · 10−3 = 55.

1. the power losses in the core (iron losses) increase with the voltage e1 (or e2 ). These considerations allow us to modify the equivalent circuit in ﬁgure 3. total voltage drops on the winding resistances and leakage inductances do not exceed in typical transformers 6% of the rated voltage.0235A Rc jXm I1 = I1. i. and c.80 A E2 = V2 I1 = I2 · = 5 + j3.ex + I1 = 5. The ratio of the rated currents. Typically a transformer is described by its rated voltages. beyond which the temperature of the hottest spot in the transformer will rise above the point that will decrease dramatically the life of the insulation. and these limits are the voltage limits of the transformer.80 N1 N2 N1 N2 2 2 Rwdg.10a.102A N1 N2 = 4000V E1 = E2 · I1. resulting in limits to the currents I1 and I2 .36 TRANSFORMERS 3.1336 N2 N1 −31. b. 3. we solve the circuit: I2 = PL /(VL · pf ) −31.e. Instead of the transformer rated currents. These losses cannot be allowed to exceed a limit.4 LOSSES AND RATINGS Again for a given frequency.0259 − j3.ex = E1 1 1 + = 0.1 + then.10b. Under maximum (rated) current. Its effect therefore on the voltage drop on the leakage inductance and winding resistance is negligible. Similarly. is the inverse of the ratio of the voltages if we neglect the magnetizing current.2 = 3.ex . and their effect on the magnetizing current can be neglected. Firs let’s calculate the combined impedances: Rwdg = Rwdg. a transformer is described by its rated apparent power: SN = E1N I1N = E2N I2N (3.1 Example Let us now use these new equivalent circuits to solve the previous problem 3. maximum current and voltage.3.20) Under rated conditions.4.0258 − j0. that give both the limits and turns ratio. winding Joule losses have to be limited. The effect therefore of the winding current on the voltages E1 and E2 is small. in typical transformers the magnetizing current I1. I1N /I2N .125A 10 V1 = E1 + I1 (Rwdg + jXl ) = 4065 + j69.2 = 15. We’ll use the circuit in 3.2Ω Xl. to obtain the slightly inaccurate but much more useful equivalent circuits in ﬁgures 3. Limits therefore are put to E1 and E2 (with a ratio of N1 /N2 ).45V = 4065 V . does not exceed 1% of the current in the transformer. E1N and E2N .8759Ω = 196.1 + Xl = Xl.9.

so one hopes that it simpliﬁes the solution more than it complicates it. the per unit system makes no sense.9894 (Pout + Ploss ) 20kW + 221. and use all the power and circuit equations with these per unit quantities. We deﬁne a base system of quantities. At ﬁrst attempt.2 L l2 i2 + v1 Rc Lm + ’ ’ ’ + e1 + e2 + v2 i1 N1 : N2 R’ wdg.11W Pout 20kW = = = 0.1 L l1 N1 : N2 ’ ’ R wdg.10 disappears.PER-UNIT SYSTEM 37 i1 i2 R wdg.79W Pcore = V12 /Rc = 103.2 L l2 i2 + v1 + e1 + e2 ’ R’ c ’ Lm + v2 N1 : N2 Fig.10 Simpliﬁed equivalent circuits of a transformer The power losses are concentrated in the windings and core: Pwdg = I1 Rwdg = 110. In the process the ideal transformer in 3.g. the range of values of parameters is almost the same for small and big transformers.1 L’l1 R wdg. has a some other advantages. Working in p. e. Working in the per unit system adds steps to the solution process.5 PER-UNIT SYSTEM The idea behind the per unit system is quite simple.411W η= Pout Pin 3.2 e2 L l2 + v2 i1 R wdg. express everything as a percentage (actually per unit) of these quantities.u. 3.1 L l1 + e1 + v1 Rc Lm + R wdg.32W Ploss = Pwdg + Pcore = 214. Let us look at an example: .

3. ZL. solve in the pu system. deﬁne a consistent system of values for base.e.6 · 500 = 800W The second solution was a bit longer and appears to not be worth the effort. since the transformer most of the time operates at rated voltage (making the pu voltage unity).570 ) = 1. Convert back to the SI system IL = IL.894 · cos(26.pu = (10 + j5)/5 = 2 + j1 pu. 2. Notice that the base impedances on the two sides are related: Z1.b 2 V1. Here we’ll need a base system for each side of the ideal transformer.b Z2.b = I2.894 ZL. and Pb = Vb · Ib = 500W .25) (3. Ib = 10A.24) N2 N1 Z1.23) ⇒ S1b = V1b I1b i. Let us choose Vb = 50V . Solution 1 the current will be IL = and the power will be PL = VL IL · pf = 100 · 8.pu 2 + j1 −26.94 = ZL 10 + j5 −26.26) .pu · Ib = 0.570 VL 100 = 8.38 TRANSFORMERS 3.pu = VL /Bb = 2pu. IL.b I1.5.b V2. Convert everything to pu. the two base apparent powers are the same. the ratio of the voltage and current bases should satisfy: V1b N1 = V2b N2 I1b N2 = I2b N1 = V2b I2b = S2b (3. above 1pu.pu · pf = 2 · 0. We often choose as bases the rated quantities of the transformer on each side. This means that Zb = Vb /Ib = 5Ω.94 · cos(26. as are the two base real and reactive powers.pu · Pb = 1. Sb = 500V A.1 Example A load has impedance 10 + j5Ω and is fed by a voltage of 100V .b (3.pu 2 = = 0.94A Pl = PL.b N2 N1 2 (3.21) (3. Calculate the current and power at the load.894 · 10 = 8. and the currents and power are seldom above rated. 1.pu = VL. Qb = 500V Ar.570 A pu PL. VL. but be shrewder in choosing our bases. but in order for them to be consistent.6 pu 4.22) (3.b = = = V1. Let us now apply this method to a transformer.57) = 800W Solution 2 Let’s use the per unit system.b I1. This is convenient.pu = VLp u IL.b Z2.

N2 .11 Equivalent circuits of a transformer in pu some added information: 3. with Rwdg.pu This observation leads to an ideal transformer where the voltages and currents on one side are identical to the voltages and currents on the other side. regardless on which side it is.1 L l1 R wdg.1 = 1. the elimination of the ideal transformer. they get multiplied or divided by the square of the turns ratio.pu = I2. but so does the base impedance. Rwdg. with i1 i2 R wdg.6Ω. Also we notice.48Ω I2b . b.11 a. The voltage at the low voltage side is 60Hz.2 Example A transformer is rated 30kV A. i. 1.5A 4 · 103 2 V1b = = 533Ω S1b = 120V = S1b = 30kV A S2b = = 250A V2b V2b = = 0. Rc = 160kΩ.e. 3.5. V2 = 120V .1 L l1 R wdg. is equal to the ratio of the current bases on the two sides on the ideal transformer.pu and similarly. hence N1 the pu value of an impedance stays the same. First calculate the impedances of the equivalent circuit: V1b S1b I1b Z1b V2b S2b I2b Z2b = 4000V = 30kV A 30 · 103 = = 7. 4000V /120V . 3.2 L l2 + v 1 ’ + Rc Lm v2 + v 1 Rc Lm ’ + v2 (a) (b) Fig. I1.PER-UNIT SYSTEM 39 We notice that as we move impedances from the one side of the transformer to the other. Ll1 = 21mH. Ll2 = 19µH.44mΩ. Lm = 450H.85 lagging. Let us solve again the same problem as before.2 L l2 2 i1 i2 R wdg. and the equivalent circuits of ﬁg. then E1. Calculate the voltage at the high voltage side and the efﬁciency of the transformer.pu = E2. at pf = 0. and the power there is P2 = 20kW . that since the ratio of the voltages of the ideal transformer is E1 /E2 = N1 /N2 .2 = 1.

pu Rwdg.4. with its frequency.2.0188pu V1 V1 + = 0.0031pu Rc jXm Im + I2 = 0.0034 − j0.017 pu Z1b 2π60Ll2 = 0.pu Xl1. is dimensionless.003 pu = Rwdg.416 pu 2 I2 (Rwdg.6 TRANSFORMER TESTS We are usually given a transformer. The efﬁciency.pu Then the load: V2.wdg and R2.. but without the values of its impedances. V1 is 0 V1 = V1.wdg . we cannot separate the values of the primary and secondary resistances and reactances. Convert back to SI. First we notice that if the relative values are as described in section 3.pu V1b = 4069 1 V 3.pu = = V2 = 1pu V2b P2 = 0.06701 − j0. power and voltage ratings. We’ll drop the pu symbol from the parameters and variables: I2 V1 Im I1 Pwdg Pcore η = = = = = = = P2 = 0. if we have to choose from many) or to design a system.pu P2.666 − j0.g.pu Xm.0172 + j0.003 pu 2π60Ll1 = = 0.413pu V2 · pf V2 + I [Rwdg.1.01149 pu = Z2b Rc = = 300 pu Z1b 2π60Llm = 318pu = Z1b 3. Here we’ll work on ﬁnding the equivalent circuit of a transformer.pu Rc. hence it stays the same. η. through two tests.40 TRANSFORMERS 2. Convert everything to per unit: First the parameters: Rwdg. in order to calculate voltage regulation.2 + j(Xl1 + Xl2 )] = 1.9894 Pwdg + Pcore + P2 arccos(pf ) 4. efﬁciency etc.2 ) = 0.1 /Z1b = 0.pu Xl2. Solve in the pu system. We will lump R1.1 + Rewg.6667pu S2b = Rwdg. It is often important to know these impedances. The voltage.0037 pu V12 = 0. in order to evaluate the transformer (e.1 + Rwdg.0034pu Rc P2 = 0.2 /Z2b = 0. We’ll use the results of these test in the per-unit system.

2 Short Circuit Test To calculate the remaining part of the equivalent circuit.e the values of Rwdg and Xl . using the equivalent circuit of ﬁgure 3.1455A.29 and 3. we calculate: Poc Ioc Ioc = = Voc 2 1 = Rc Rc Voc Voc + Rc jXm 1 1 2 + Rc Xm 2 (3. 3. The current that ﬂows is primarily determined by the impedances Xm and Rc . We often apply voltage to the high voltage side. but the current is rated.30 can give us the values of the parameters in the horizontal part of the equivalent circuit of a transformer. i. The short circuit test. performed with the high voltage side open.11b and neglecting the voltage drop on the horizontal part of the circuit. 3.1 Example A 60Hz transformer is rated 30kV A. Dropping the subscript pu. On the open circuited side of the transformer rated voltage appears. Rwdg .28) Equations 3. Using the equivalent circuit of ﬁgure 3. since (with the ratings of the transformer in our example) is it easier to apply 120V .79V . as well as Xl1 and Xl2 . This will leave four quantities to be determined.30) Isc (Rwdg + jXl ) 1· 2 Rwdg + Xl2 Equations 3.27 and 3.29) (3. On the other side. .6.6. 4000V /120V . and it is much lower than rated. Ioc = 1. It is reasonable to apply this voltage to the low voltage side. We will use these two measurements to calculate the values of Rc and Xm .TRANSFORMER TESTS 41 together. The open circuit test.27) = 1 (3.6.1 Open Circuit Test We leave one side of the transformer open circuited.11a. since a) the applied voltage need not be high and b) the rated current on this side is low. allow us to use the results of the short circuit test to calculate the vertical (core) branch of the transformer equivalent circuit. gives Psc = 180W . we short circuit one side of the transformer and apply rated current to the other. We measure the voltage of that side and the power drawn. Xl .28. 3. gives Poc = 100W . Calculate the equivalent circuit of the transformer in per unit. Vsc = 129. but we just have to be careful not to close the circuit ourselves. rather than 4000V . Rc and Xm . while to the other we apply rated voltage (i. Voc = 1pu) and measure current and power. performed with the low voltage side shorted.e. (the short-circuited one) the voltage is of course zero. we notice that: Psc Vsc Vsc = = = 2 Isc Rwdg = 1 · Rwdg (3.

006pu |Vsc | = Poc = |Isc | · |Rwdg + jXl | = 1 · 2 Voc 12 ⇒ Rc = = 300pu Rc Poc 2 Rwdg + Xl2 ⇒ Xl = 2 2 Vsc − Rwdg = 0.6.2 Example A 60Hz transformer is rated 30kV A.0324pu 4000 100 = 0. dropping the pu subscript: Psc = 2 2 Isc Rwdg ⇒ Rwdg = Psc /Isc = 1 · Psc = 0.42 TRANSFORMERS First deﬁne bases: V1b S1b I1b Z1b V2b S2b I2b Z2b Convert now everything to per unit: Psc.0318pu |Ioc | = Voc Voc + = Rc jXm 1 1 + 2 ⇒ Xm = 2 Rc Xm 1 2 Ioc − 1 2 Rc = 318pu A more typical problem is of the type: 3.pu Poc. The rated iron losses are 100W and the rated winding losses are 180W .1455 = 0.8pf lagging.pu Ioc.48Ω = I1b Let’s calculate now. 20kW at 0. Its short circuit impedance is 0. 4000V /120V .0324pu and the open circuit current is 0.006ppu 30 · 103 129.79 = 0.5A 4 · 103 2 V1b = 533Ω = S1b = 120V = S1b = 30kV A S1b = = 250A V2b V1b = 0. Calculate the efﬁciency and the necessary primary voltage when the load at the secondary is at rated voltage.pu = = = = 180 = 0.0046pu 250 = 4000V = 30kV A 30 · 103 = = 7.003333pu 30 · 103 1.pu Vsc.0046pu. .

8333 = 0. We use the voltage V2 as reference: V2 I2 V1 Pwdg Pc η = = = = = = V2 = 1pu 0.00183pu ⇒ V1 = 1. the rated power of the three-phase transformer is three times that of the one-phase transformers. we work with phasors.034pu P2 = 0. For ∆ connection.31) (3.6667 = 1 · I2 · 0. hence: 20 · 103 P2 = = 0. but it does not give us insight into the magnetic circuit of the three-phase transformer.5pu V2 + I2 (Rwdg + jXl ) = 1.6667pu 30 · 103 but the power at the load is: P2 = V2 I2 pf ⇒ 0.THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS 43 Working in pu: Zsc Psc ⇒ Xl Poc Ioc = = = = = 0. let us work with the load and circuit.7 THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS We’ll study now three-phase transformers. The load power is 20kW . we convert the voltage to SI 3.986 P2 + Pwdg + Pc V1 = V1.8 ⇒ I2 = 0.021 · 4000 = 4080V cos−1 0.8333pu Then to solve the circuit.0062pu V12 /Rc = 0.0199 + j0. considering as consisting of three identical one-phase transformers.6667 − j0.32) (3.8 Finally.02pu 2 I2 · Rwdg = 0. This method is accurate as far as equivalent circuits and two-port models are our interest.0324pu Rwdg = 180 = 6 · 10−3 pu 30 · 103 2 2 Zsc − Rwdg = 0. The primaries and the secondaries of the one-phase transformers can be connected either in ∆ or in Y . In either case.pu · Vb1 = 1.017pu 1 1 1 ⇒ Rc = = = 300pu Rc Poc 100/30 · 103 1 1 + 2 ⇒ Xm = 1 2 Rc Xm 2 Ioc − 1 = 318pu 2 Rc Having ﬁnished with the transformer data.33) (3.34) . Vll = V1φ √ Il = 3I1φ For Y connection √ Vll = 3V1φ Il = I1φ (3.

3.14. but rather connected as shown in ﬁgure 3. It is clear form this ﬁgure that the .44 TRANSFORMERS i1 V1 i2 V2 i1 V 1 i2 V2 i1 V 1 i2 V2 i1 V1 i2 V2 i1 V1 i2 V2 i1 V1 i2 V2 (a) (b) Fig.12 Y − Y and Y − ∆ Connections of three-phase Transformers i1 V1 i2 V2 i1 V1 i2 V2 i1 V1 i2 V2 i1 V1 i2 V2 i1 V1 i2 V2 i1 V1 i2 V2 (a) (b) Fig. 3.8 AUTOTRANSFORMERS An autotransformer is a transformer where the two windings (of turns N1 and N2 ) are not isolated from each other.13 ∆ − Y and ∆ − ∆ Connections of three-phase Transformers 3.

3. As the voltage drop in the leakage inductance and winding resistances are small. ¡   ¡ I -I ¡   V + N V ¡ I . no current would ﬂow through that coil. • Most transformers operate under or near rated voltage. These savings come at a serious disadvantage. tests. This characteristic leads to a signiﬁcant reduction in size of an autotransformer compared to a similarly rated transformer. especially if the primary and secondary voltages are of the same order of magnitude. The main issue then is to calculate the ratings and the voltages and currents of each. So if the voltage ratio where 1. I1 − I2 . • Three-phase transformers can be considered to be made of three single-phase transformers for the purposes of these notes.14 An Autotransformer Notes • To understand the operation of transformers we have to use both the Biot-Savart Law and Faraday’s law.35) (3. while the coil of turns N2 carries the (vectorial) sum of the two currents.AUTOTRANSFORMERS 45 voltage ratio in an autotransformer is V1 N1 + N2 = V2 N2 while the current ratio is N1 + N2 I2 = I1 N2 (3.   I +   N Fig.and short-circuit test are just that. the loss of isolation between the two sides.36) The interesting part is that the coil of turns of N1 carries current I1 . They provide the parameters that deﬁne the operation of the transformer. the iron losses under such operation transformer are close to rated. • The open.

46 TRANSFORMERS • Autotransformers are used mostly to vary the voltage a little. . It is seldom that an autotransformer will have a voltage ratio greater than two.

if the rotor were to rotate at a constant angular velocity.3 shows how the ﬂux linkages of the coil through the coil would change. We’ll study DC machines here. DC machines although complex in construction. DC motors DC machines have faded from use due to their relatively high cost and increased maintenance requirements. In the center part of the window there is an iron cylinder (called rotor).4 Concepts of Electrical Machines. the ﬂux through the coil changes. ˆ λ = Φ cos [ωt] (4. for two reasons: 1. can be useful in establishing the concepts of emf and torque development. its center part) a ˆ uniform magnetic ﬂux is established. through which (i. Figure 4. In doing so we will develop basic steady-state equations. again starting from fundamentals of the electromagnetic ﬁeld.1 This geometry describes an outer iron window (stator).e. ω.2 shows consecutive locations of the rotor and we can see that the ﬂux through the coil changes both in value and direction. Nevertheless. parallel to its axis.1) 47 . or a permanent magnet) is not important here. AND CURRENTS Let us start with the geometry shown in ﬁgure 4. We are going to see the same equations in ‘Brushless DC’ motors. 2. FIELDS. A coil of one turn is wound diametrically around the cylinder. say Φ. 4. VOLTAGES. The top graph of ﬁgure 4. and are described by simple equations. when we discuss synchronous AC machines. they remain good examples for electromechanical systems used for control.1 GEOMETRY. The magnetic ﬁelds in them. free to rotate around its axis. at a conceptual level. How this is done (a current in a coil. along with the voltage and torque equations can be used easily to develop the ideas of ﬁeld orientation. As the cylinder and its coil rotate.

2. the brushes make contact with the opposite segments just as the induced voltage goes through zero and switches sign. and hence rotating with it. If a number of coils are placed on the rotor. Although this can be done electronically.3.3) + + 5 + . vcoil . The coil is connected not to the DC source or load. (4. vcoil = dλ ˆ = −Φω sin (ωt) dt (4. The points marked there correspond to the position of the rotor in ﬁgure4.1 Geometry of an elementary DC motor 4 + + + 5 1 2 3 4 Fig. a very old mechanical method exists.4.48 CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES. 4.6.2) shown in the second graph of ﬁgure 4. the total induced voltage to the coils.5 shows the induced voltage and the terminal voltage seen at the voltmeter of ﬁgure 4. DC MOTORS + 1 + 2 + 3 + Fig.e. E will be: ˆ E = k Φω where k is proportional to the number of coils. then a voltage will be induced in this coil. Two ‘brushes’. as shown in ﬁgure 4.2 Flux through a coil of a rotating DC machine Since the ﬂux linking the coil changes with time. since this is a DC machine. each connected to a commutator segment. 4. i. conducting pieces of material (often carbon/copper) are stationary and sliding on these ring segments as shown in ﬁgure 4. This alternating voltage has to somehow be rectiﬁed. solidly attached to it and the rotor. As it rotates. Figure 4.4 The structure of the ring segments is called a commutator. but to two ring segments.

E · i = Tω ˆ k Φωi = T ω ˆ T = k Φi (4.5 −1 −1. the induced voltage and terminal voltage will be related by: Vterm Vterm = E − ig Rwdg = E + im Rwdg f or a generator f or a motor (4. Its stator resistance is 2Ω.5 3 4 1 5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Fig. when connected to a 100V source and to no load runs at 1200rpm.5) (4. Since at no load the torque is zero and T = kΦi = Ki.GEOMETRY.7) (4.5 1 0. then the current is zero as well. Points 1 – 5 represent the coil positions.4) (4.5 −1 −1. What should be the torque and current if it is fed from a 220V supply and its speed is 1500rpm? Assume that the ﬁeld is constant.2. VOLTAGES.7.8) 4. The ﬁrst piece of information gives us the constant k. AND CURRENTS 49 1.25.5 5 2 3 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1.5 1 1 0.5 vcoil 0 2 −0. FIELDS.3 Flux and voltage in a coil of the DC machine in 4.1.5 λcoil 0 4 −0.6) If the electrical machine is connected to a load or a source as in ﬁgure4. 4. Going back to equation 2.1 Example A DC motor. This means that for this operation: V = E = kΦω = Kω .

4 A coil of a DC motor and a commutator with brushes 1.5 vcoil 0 −0. 4.5 1 0. 4.66rad/s 60 . or in SI units: ω = 1200 2π = 125.50 CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES. DC MOTORS V Stationary Brush Copper Half Ring rotating with the coil B Coil Fig.5 −1 −1.5 Induced voltage in a coil and terminal voltage in an elementary DC machine but ω is 1200 rpm.5 1 0.5 vterm 0 −0.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Fig.5 −1 −1.

FIELDS.GEOMETRY. AND CURRENTS 51 + + + + + + + - - - - Fig.66 ⇒ K = 0.796V s At the operating point of interest: ωo = 1500rpm = 1500 For a motor: V ⇒ 220 ⇒I ⇒T = E + IR = 125 + I · 2Ω = 47.7 Circuit with a DC machine And 100V = K · 125. VOLTAGES.6 Coils on the rotor of DC machine i m i g Load R wdg or Source E Fig.81N m 2π = 157. 4.5A = KI = 37. 4.08rad/s ⇒ E = Kω = 125V 60 - - - - + + - .

DC MOTORS Notes • The ﬁeld of the DC motor can be created either by a DC current or a permanent magnet. Hence if the same current ﬂows in both windings.52 CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES. hairdryers. . torque will remain in the same direction. power drills). it could be AC and the motor will not reverse (e. • if the direction of current in the stator and in the rotor reverse together. • These two ﬁelds. are both stationary (despite rotation) and perpendicular to each other.g. the one coming from the stator and the one coming from the moving rotor.

we can ﬁnd the total ﬂux by adding the individual ﬂuxes.5 Three-phase Windings Understanding the geometry and operation of windings in AC machines is essential in understanding how these machines operate. a space vector. and if we assume the magnetic medium to be linear. This means that we could produce the same ﬂux by having only one coil.1) Each current produces a ﬂux in the direction of the coil axis. 1200 and 2400 .2) We call i. To calculate the direction of the resultant one coil and the current it should carry. deﬁned thus. Then their vectorial sum will be: i=i φ = i1 + i2 ej120 + i3 ej240 0 0 (5. all we have to do is create three vectors. (or Space Phasors) in its general form. Let us assume that the coils are placed at angles 00 . By projecting the three constituting currents on the horizontal and vertical axis.1 CURRENT SPACE VECTORS Let us assume that in a uniformly permeable space we have placed three identical windings as shown in ﬁgure 5. 5. We require that: i1 (t) + i2 (t) + i3 (t) ≡ 0 (5.1. identical to the three. carrying an appropriate current. Figure 5. Each carries a time dependent current. The amplitude of the vectors will be that of the current of each coil. i2 (t) and i3 (t).2 shows such a set of coils carrying for i1 = 5A. we can ﬁnd the real (id = [i]) and imaginary (iq = [i]) parts of 53 . i2 and i3 are functions of time. and we notice that if the currents i1 . so will be the amplitude and the angle of i. We introduce here the concept of Space Vectors. and we see how they are applied to three-phase windings. The sum of these vectors will give the direction of the total ﬂux and hence of the one coil that will replace the three. i1 (t). but placed in the direction of the total ﬂux. i2 = −8A and i3 − = 3A and the resultant coil. each in the direction of one coil. and of amplitude equal to the current of each coil.

5. from the deﬁnition of the current space vector we can reconstruct the constituent currents: i1 (t) i2 (t) i3 (t) γ 2 [i(t)] 3 2 = [i(t)e−jγ ] 3 2 = [i(t)e−j2γ ] 3 2π = 1200 = rad 3 = (5. Also.4) .3) (5.2 Currents in three windings (a).54 THREE-PHASE WINDINGS Φ 2 Ι 2 I1 Φ 1 Ι3 Φ 3 Φ Fig. 5. Resultant space vector (b).1 Three phase concentrated windings 5A 3A I1 __ I 3A 3A 5A -8A -8A 5A I1 I I2 -8A __ I __ I3 I2 __ I3 Φ (c) (a) (b) Fig. and corresponding winding position (c) it.

3 A Stator Lamination Stator Winding Stator Airgap Rotor Fig.3 shows a typical stator cross-section.4. Figure 5. they are sinusoidally distributed as shown in ﬁgure 5. which is surrounds a rotor. 5. Sinusoidal distribution means that the number of .5 shows the windings in such a case. 5. the stator.2 STATOR WINDINGS AND RESULTING FLUX DENSITY Fig.4 A sinusoidal winding on the stator Assume now that these windings are placed in a ﬁxed structure. Instead of being concentrated. but for the present we’ll consider the stator as a steel tube. Figure 5.STATOR WINDINGS AND RESULTING FLUX DENSITY 55 5.

5.6.5. To ﬁnd the ﬂux density in the airgap Current in positive direction Airgap θ Stator Current in negative direction Fig. For the same machine and conditions as in 5. then Hiron = 0 and: θ+π 2Hg1 (θ)g 2Bg1 (θ) g µ0 = θ i1 ns1 (φ)dφ i1 Ns cos θ i1 Ns µ0 cos θ 2g (5.56 THREE-PHASE WINDINGS turns dNs covering an angle dθ at a position θ and divided by dθ is a sinusoidal function of the angle θ. ns (θ) and ﬂux density. This path is deﬁned by the angle θ and we can notice that because of symmetry the ﬂux density at the two airgap segments in the path is the same. Bg (θ) in cartesian coordinates with θ in the horizontal axis. 5.6 it reaches a maximum at angle θ = 0. If the current i1 were to vary sinusoidally in time. maintaining its space proﬁle but changing only in amplitude. If we assume the permeability of iron to be inﬁnite. ns1 (θ).7 shows the plots of turns density. the ﬂux density would also change in time. but as shown in ﬁgure 5.5 Rotor Stator winding Integration path to calculate ﬂux density in the airgap between rotor and stator we choose an integration path as shown in ﬁgure 5. This turns density. This would be considered a wave. the ﬂux density in the air gap varies sinusoidally with angle. is then: dns = ns1 (θ) = ns sin θ ˆ dθ and for a total number of turns Ns in the winding: π Ns = 0 ns1 (θ)dθ ⇒ ns1 (θ) = Ns sin θ 2 We now assign to the winding we are discussing a current i1 .5) = Bg1 (θ) = This means that for a given current i1 in the coil. as it .

STATOR WINDINGS AND RESULTING FLUX DENSITY 57 Fig. Consider now an additional winding. but rotated with respect to it by 1200 .6 Sketch of the ﬂux in the airgap 1 ns(θ) 0 −1 0 90 180 270 360 1 Bg(θ) 0 −1 0 90 180 θ 270 360 Fig. 5. The nodes of the wave. θ changes in time and space. will remain at 900 and 2700 . then the airgap ﬂux density . If a current i2 is ﬂowing in this winding. identical to the ﬁrst. For a current in this winding we’ll get a similar airgap ﬂux density as before. while the extrema of the ﬂux will remain at 00 and 1800 . 5. but with nodes at 900 + 1200 and at 2700 + 1200 . where the ﬂux density is zero.7 Turns density on the stator and air gap ﬂux density vs.

with a maximum value B = 3 2I N0 .58 THREE-PHASE WINDINGS 2π 3 . as shown in ﬁgure 5. the ﬂux could be due instead to only one sinusoidally distributed winding with the same number of turns. I = Iejφ0 .6) Similarly. we get yet another sinusoidally distributed airgap ﬂux density.9) 3 2 √ √ 4π 2 i3 = 2I cos(ωs t − φ1 + )= Is ej(ωs t−4π/3) + Is e−j(ωs t−4π/3) 3 2 where I is the phasor corresponding to the current in phase 1. i3 form a balanced three-phase system of frequency fs = ωs /2π. and current. i2 . Symmetric Three-phase Currents If the currents i1 . This wave travels around the 2 µ stator at a constant speed ωs . due to it will follow a form similar to equation 5.10) 5.1 φ(t) = i1 (t) + i2 (t)ej120 + i3 (t)ej240 0 0 Balanced. describes one sinusoidally varying current. of frequency ω. i(t). The resultant space vector is √ √ π 3 2 jωs t 3 2 j(ωs t+φ1 ) is (t) = Ie = Ie I = Iej(φ1 + 2 ) 2 2 2 2 The resulting ﬂux density wave is then: 3 √ Ns µ0 2I cos(ωs t + φ1 − θ) (5. rotated yet another 1200 and carrying current i3 .8 B(θ.3 PHASORS AND SPACE VECTORS It is easy at this point to confuse space vectors and phasors. A √ current phasor. The location. a third winding.11) 2 2g √ s ˆ which shows a travelling wave. t) = (5. amplitude 2I and initial phase φ0 . that could equivalently come from a winding placed at an angle φ and carrying current i: Bg (θ) = Bg1 (θ) + Bg2 (θ) + Bg3 (θ) = i Ns µ0 cos(θ + φ) 2g (5.2. We can .5 but rotated 1200 = Bg2 (θ) = i2 Ns µ0 2π cos(θ − ) 2g 3 (5. will produce airgap ﬂux density: 4π Ns µ0 Bg3 (θ) = i3 cos(θ − ) (5.7) 2g 3 Superimposing these three ﬂux densities. of this winding can be determined from the current space vector: i(t) = i(t) 5. then we can write: √ √ 2 i1 = 2I cos(ωs t + φ1 ) = Is ejωs t + Is e−jωs t 2 √ √ 2π 2 i2 = 2I cos(ωs t − φ1 + )= Is ej(ωs t−2π/3) + Is e−j(ωs t−2π/3) (5.8) This means that as the currents change. φ(t).

5A = −0. These currents are implicitly in windings symmetrically placed. 5.PHASORS AND SPACE VECTORS 1 59 t1 t2 t3 Bgθ) 0 −1 0 90 180 θ 270 360 Fig. but the currents themselves are not necessarily sinusoidal. When these constituent currents form a balanced. the relationship between the phasor of one current and the space vector is shown in equation 5. Choose an initial phase angle such that: i1 (t) = i2 (t) = i2 (t) = When ωt = 0.8 Airgap ﬂux density proﬁle.9a. rotating at constant speed. rms value of 1/ 2A. no rotation is described by it.5A 1 cos(ωt)A 1 cos(ωt − 2π/3)A 1 cos(ωt − 4π/3)A . symmetric system.e. as shown in ﬁgure 5.3.3. i1 i2 i3 = 1A = −0. In that case. On the other hand. 5. Generally the amplitude and angle of the space vector changes with time. the deﬁnition of a current space vector requires three currents that sum to zero.1 Example √ Let us take three balanced sinusoidal currents with amplitude 1. but no speciﬁc pattern is a priori deﬁned. t3 > t2 > t1 reconstruct the sinusoid from the phasor: √ √ 2 i(t) = Iejωt + I∗ e−jωt = 2I cos(ωt + φ0 ) = 2 Iejωt (5. of frequency ωs .12) Although rotation is implicit in the deﬁnition of the phasor.10. i. then the resultant space vector is of constant amplitude. We can reconstruct the three currents that constitute the space vector from equation 5.

i1 i2 i3 = 0.60 THREE-PHASE WINDINGS i = i1 + i2 ej120 + i3 ej240 = 1. The ﬂux through this coil is: θ θ+ Φ(t. resulting in lower ﬂux linkages with the phase 1 windings.10c the ﬂux linkages with the phase 1 winding are zero.766A (a) (b) Fig.9 Space vector movement for sinusoidal. using Faraday’s law.5A i 2 = -0. When the ﬂux has rotated 900 .939A = −0. FLUX AND VOLTAGE Let us now see what results this rotating ﬂux has on the windings.766A = −0.4 MAGNETIZING CURRENT. To calculate the ﬂux linkages λ we have to take a turn of the winding. as shown in ﬁgure 5.9b. φ)dA = lr θ−π Bg (t. 5.10b.11.9397A 1 i 2 = -0. symmetric three-phase currents 5. φ)dφ (5. For example. as shown in ﬁgure 5. when the current is maximum in phase 1. θ) = θ−π Bg (t. linking all of the turns in phase 1.5 and later. the ﬂux is as shown in ﬁgure 5. placed at angle θ. when ωt = 200 = π/9 rad. so the ﬂux linkages for these turns are: dλ = ns (θ)dθ · Φ(θ) .5A 3 i =-0.10a.174A 0 0 0 0 0 A i = i1 + i2 ej120 + i3 ej240 = 1.1737A 3 _ i i 1 = 1A i = 0. We look again at our three real stationary windings linked by a rotating ﬂux.13) But the number of turns linked by this ﬂux is dns (θ) = ns (θ)dθ. as in 5. From this point on we’ll use sinusoidal symmetric three-phase quantities.5 200 A _ i i = -0. the ﬂux has rotated as shown in ﬁgure 5. Later.

5. FLUX AND VOLTAGE 61 (a) (b) (c) Fig. The ﬂux linkages of the other two coils. are identical to that of coil 1. With these three quantities we can create a ﬂux-linkage space vector.11 Flux linkages of one turn To ﬁnd the ﬂux linkages λ1 for all of the coil. λ . we have to integrate the ﬂux linkages over all turns of coil 1: π λ1 = 0 λ(θ)dθ giving us at the end: λ1 (t) = 2 √ √ Ns lr 3πµ0 2I cos(ωt + φ1 ) = LM 2I cos(ωt + φ1 ) 8g (5. 2 and 3.10 Rotating ﬂux and ﬂux linkages with phase 1 Fig. and lagging in time by 1200 and 2400 . 5.MAGNETIZING CURRENT.14) which means that the ﬂux linkages in coil 1 are in phase with the current in this coil and proportional to it. λ ≡ λ1 + λ2 ej120 + λ3 ej240 = LM i 0 0 (5. a voltage is induced in each of these coils. The induced voltage in each coil is 900 ahead of the current in it. and in our case sinusoidally.15) Since the ﬂux linkages of each coil vary. bringing to mind .

62

THREE-PHASE WINDINGS

the relationship of current and voltage of an inductor. Notice though, that it is not just the current in the winding that causes the ﬂux linkages and the induced voltages, but rather the current in all three windings. Still, we call the constant LM magnetizing inductance. e1 (t) e2 (t) e3 (t) = = = √ dλ1 = ω 2I cos(ωt + φ1 + dt √ dλ2 = ω 2I cos(ωt + φ1 + dt √ dλ3 = ω 2I cos(ωt + φ1 + dt π ) 2 π − 2 π − 2

2π ) 3 4π ) 2

(5.16)

and of course we can deﬁne voltage space vectors e: e = e1 + e2 ej120 + e3 ej240 = jωLM i
0 0

(5.17)

Note that the ﬂux linkage space vector λ is aligned with the current space vector, while the voltage space vector e is ahead of both by 900 . This agrees with the fact that the individual phase voltages lead the currents by 900 , as shown in ﬁgure 5.12.

e i ωt
Fig. 5.12 Magnetizing current, ﬂux-linkage and induced voltage space vectors

λ

6
Induction Machines
Induction machines are often described as the ‘workhorse of industry’. This clic` reﬂects the reality e of the qualities of these machines. They are cheap to manufacture, rugged and reliable and ﬁnd their way in most possible applications. Variable speed drives require inexpensive power electronics and computer hardware, and allowed induction machines to become more versatile. In particular, vector or ﬁeld-oriented control allows induction motors to replace DC motors in many applications

6.1 DESCRIPTION The stator of an induction machine is a typical three-phase one, as described in the previous chapter. The rotor can be one of two major types. Either a) it is wound in a fashion similar to that of the stator with the terminals led to slip rings on the shaft, as shown in ﬁgure 6.1, or b) it is made with shorted

Slip Rings Rotor

Shaft

Fig. 6.1

Wound rotor slip rings and connections

bars. Figure 6.2 shows the rotor of such a machine, while ﬁgures 6.3 show the shorted bars and the laminations. The picture of the rotor bars is not easy to obtain, since the bars are formed by casting aluminum in the openings of the rotor laminations. In this case the iron laminations were chemically removed.
63

64

INDUCTION MACHINES

Fig. 6.2

Rotor for squirrel cage induction motor

(a) Rotor bars and rings

(b) Rotor

Fig. 6.3

Rotor Components of a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor

6.2

CONCEPT OF OPERATION

As these rotor windings or bars rotate within the magnetic ﬁeld created by the stator magnetizing currents, voltages are induced in them. If the rotor were to stand still, then the induced voltages would be very similar to those induced in the stator windings. In the case of squirrel cage rotor, the voltage induced in the bars will be slightly out of phase with the voltage in the next one, since the ﬂux linkages will change in it after a short delay. If the rotor is moving at synchronous speed, together with the ﬁeld, no voltage will be induced in the bars or the windings.

1) Since a voltage is induced in the bars. where 2πfr = ωs − ω0 .3) ρ These currents are out of phase in different bars. but now each bar. It will also be the case for uniformly distributed rotor bars.4) (6.CONCEPT OF OPERATION 65 7 6 5 4 1 3 2 13 B g 1 e(t) 0 bar 1 bar 2 bar 7 bar 3 −1 0 90 19 (a) Rotor bars in the stator ﬁeld 180 t 270 360 (b) Voltages in rotor bars Fig. To simplify the analysis we can consider the rotor as one winding carrying currents sinusoidally distributed in space. and the rotor speed ω0 . as shown in ﬁgure 6. currents will ﬂow in them. and these are short-circuited.5 a: J = J(θ) = 1 (ωs − ω0 ) · Bg (θ) ρ 1 ˆ (ωs − ω0 )Bg sin(θ) ρ (6. just like the induced voltages.5) We can replace the bars with a conductive cylinder as shown in ﬁgure 6.4 Generally when the synchronous speed is ωs = 2πfs .6) .5 b. the frequency of the induced voltages will be fr .2) (6. We deﬁne as slip s the ratio: ωs − ω0 s= ωs (6. Maxwell’s equation becomes here: − → − − → E = → × Bg v → where − is the relative velocity of the rotor with respect to the ﬁeld: v v = (ωs − ω0 )r (6. The − → current density J (θ) will be: − → → 1− J (θ) = E (6. located at an angle θ will carry different current. 6. This will be clearly the case for a wound rotor.

ωs = ω0 . and at synchronous speed.e. π A = nrotor bars d2 = 2πrde (6. i. 6. while the stator is fed by a three-phase system of voltages.7) since the ﬂux density is perpendicular to the current.43rad/s fr = 115Hz or = 5Hz 6.2.3 TORQUE DEVELOPMENT We can now calculate forces and torque on the rotor. the depth of the motor. We’ll use the formulae: F = Bli. hence s = 1.5 Current Distribution in equivalent conducting sheet At starting the speed is zero.8) 4 nrotor bars d2 de = (6. T =F ·r (6.66 INDUCTION MACHINES + + + + + + + + + + + B g + B g + + + + + + Equivalent Conducting Sheet + + + + (a) Currents in rotor bars (b) Equivalent Current Sheet in Rotor Fig. A is the cross section of all the bars. at 60Hz. What are the possible frequencies of the rotor voltages? At 3300 rpm 2π ωo = 3300 = 345.6rad/s while ωs = 377rad/s 60 These two speeds can be in the opposite or the same direction. hence: ωr = ωs − ωo = 377 ± 345.58rad/s or 31.6 = 722. As l we’ll use the length of the conductor. Above synchronous speed s < 0.1 Example The rotor of a two-pole 3-phase induction machine rotates at 3300rpm. and when the rotor rotates in a direction opposite of the magnetic ﬁeld s > 1. We consider an equivalent thickness of the conducting sheet de . hence s = 0. 6.9) 8r .

11 are important we should focus more on the variables.10 the torque is proportional to the frequency of the rotor currents. This is so since the torque comes from the interaction of the ﬂux density Bg and the rotor currents. (ωs − ω0 ) and the square of the ﬂux density.11 gives us torque as a function of more accessible quantities. On the other hand. stator induced voltage Es and frequency ωs . This is so. At rotor speeds near synchronous. 6. We notice that in equation 6.11) Although the constants in equations 6.4 OPERATION OF THE INDUCTION MACHINE NEAR SYNCHRONOUS SPEED We already determined that the voltages induced in the rotor bars are of slip frequency. so we can use the relationship between ﬂux density (or ﬂux linkages) and rotor voltage and ﬁnally get: T = 8 rde 2 π Ns ρl Λ2 (ωs − ω0 ) s where Λs = Es ωs (6. = (Jde r dθ)Bg = r dF θ=2π ˆ Bg = Bg sin(θ) = θ=0 dT = 2πr2 lde ρ ˆ2 Bg (ωs − ω0 ) (6. but at very low frequencies. .6 Calculation of Torque For a small angle dθ at an angle θ. this frequency. we calculate the contribution to the total force and torque: dF dF dT T = (JdA) · Bg · l. But the rotor currents are induced (induction motor) due to the ﬂux Bg and the relative speed ωs − ω0 . 6.OPERATION OF THE INDUCTION MACHINE NEAR SYNCHRONOUS SPEED 67 d de dθ r θ (a) (b) Fig. equation 6. ﬂux (or ﬂux linkages) and frequency. fr is quite small.10) Flux density in the airgap is not an easy quantity to work with. since there is a very simple and direct relationship between stator induced voltage. The rotor bars in a squirrel cage machine possess resistance and leakage inductance. fr = (ωs − ω0 )/(2π).10 and 6.

Additional currents.8. isr will ﬂow in the stator windings in order to cancel the ﬂux due to the rotor currents. airgap ﬂux and rotor currents These rotor currents.r + + + Bg + + + + + + + B g ir + + + i + + + s + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + (b) Space Vectors of the Rotor and Stator Currents and induced voltages Fig. 6. which is 900 out of phase of the magnetizing ﬂux. In 6.7 Stator Magnetizing Current. The rotor currents therefore are limited near synchronous speed by the rotor resistance only. es .m + + + is + + + + + + + + + i s.68 INDUCTION MACHINES i.8 Rotor and Stator Currents in an Induction Motor . ir produce additional airgap ﬂux. These are perpendicular to the stator magnetizing current and in phase with the space vectors of the voltages induced in the stator as shown in ﬁgure 6. But the stator voltage. 6. The induced rotor-bar voltages and currents form space vectors. we can neglect this inductance. These currents are shown in ﬁgures 6.e near synchronous speed. (a) Rotor Current and Stator Current Components + + i s. is applied externally and it is proportional to and 900 out of phase of the airgap ﬂux.m + + + + + Bg + + + + + + ir + + + + + + + + + + + Fig.9 the corresponding space vectors are shown.7 and ﬁgure i s.

This curve is accurate as long as the speed does not vary more than ±5% around the rated synchronous speed ωs . • The amplitude of the magnetizing component of the stator current is proportional to the stator frequency. ir .11. .10 reﬂects these considerations. i2m . I s1 + es Fig. the amplitude of this component of the stator currents.9 Space-Vectors of the Stator and Rotor Current and Induced Voltages There are a few things we should observe here: • isr is 900 ahead of ism . Figure 6. i3r . • Since isr1 is equal to the rotor current (through a factor). ωr = ωs − ω0 . • We can. The relationship between speed. and ism1 will ﬂow through an inductor. leading by 900 the magnetizing currents i1m . i2r . or. we expect that the rotor will develop a torque according to equation 6. or proportional to the developed torque. 6. i3m . isr1 and one 900 behind it. ω0 and torque around synchronous speed is shown in ﬁgure 6. therefore split the stator current of one phase. into two components: One in phase with the voltage. the stator magnetizing current.OPERATION OF THE INDUCTION MACHINE NEAR SYNCHRONOUS SPEED i isr= R i es s 69 B g i sm i r Fig. balanced sinusoidal voltage. it will be inversely proportional to ωs − ωr . ism1 . this means that isr1 will ﬂow through a resistor. The ﬁrst reﬂects the rotor current. In an equivalent circuit. is proportional to the current in the rotor. is1 . better. while the second depends on the voltage and frequency.11. isr .10 I sr i sm Xm Rr ωs ωs 0 −ω Equivalent circuit of one stator phase If we supply our induction motor with a three-phase. 6. This means that it corresponds to currents in windings i1r . which in turn is proportional to the ﬂux and the slip speed. fs and induced voltage. proportional to ωs /(ωs − ωr ). On the other hand.

We already know the relationship of the magnetizing current. 6. At what speed and slip is the developed torque 28N m? .1 Example A 2-pole three-phase induction motor is connected in Y and is fed from a 60Hz.15) (6. and relating phasors instead of space vectors.16) Here Pg is the power transferred to the resistance RR ωsωs 0 .12) ρ This current density corresponds to a space vector ir that is opposite to the isr in the stator.4.11 that when the speed exceeds synchronous. Let us now relate the currents ir and isr with the same induced voltage. Figure 6. the torque produced by the machine is of opposite direction than the speed.70 INDUCTION MACHINES T ωs ω0 Fig. represented by the losses on resistance RR . the machine operates as a generator.13) while the stator voltage es is also related to the ﬂux density Bg . −ω indicating that mechanical power is absorbed in the induction machine.e. developing a torque opposite to the rotation (counter torque) and transferring power from the shaft to the electrical system. we obtain: Es = RR ωs Isr ωs − ωo (6. substituting into 6. Note that the resistance RR ωsω0 0 can be negative. − → The current density on the rotor conducting sheet J is related to the value of the airgap ﬂux − → density B g through: − → 1 → − J = (ωs − ω0 ) B g (6. This current space vector will correspond to the same current density: J = isr Ns 1 rd (6.12. Of this power −ω a portion is converted to mechanical power represented by losses on resistance RR ωsω0 0 . through the airgap. 6.14) Using this formulation we arrive at the formula for the torque: T =3 2 Es 1 ωs − ω0 Λ2 3Pg = 3 s ωr = ωs RR ωs RR ωs (6. and the −ω remaining is losses in the rotor resistance. Its amplitude is: π es = ωs Ns lrBg 2 Finally. 208V (l − l) system.1125Ω.11 Torque-speed characteristic near synchronous speed We notice in 6. i. Its equivalent one-phase rotor resistance is RR = 0. Ism to the induced voltage Esm through our analysis of the three-phase windings.12 shows this split in the equivalent circuit.

6. producing voltages in these windings 900 ahead of the stator and rotor currents and proportional to the amplitude of these currents and their frequency.364 377 0. the frequency of the rotor currents.13 Complete equivalent circuit of one stator phase T 28 s ωo = = = = 3 3 Vs ωs 2 1 ωr with Vs = 120V RR 2 1 120 ωr ⇒ ωr = 10.13.12 Rs + Vs I s1 Equivalent circuit of one stator phase separating the loss and torque rotor components X ls + Es i sm Xm I sr X lr RR RR ω0 ωs 0 −ω RR ωs ωs 0 −ω Fig. The rotor leakage ﬂux can be modelled in the rotor circuit with an inductance Lls .LEAKAGE INDUCTANCES AND THEIR EFFECTS 71 I s1 I sr RR Xm RR ω0 ωs 0 −ω RR i sm ωs ωs 0 −ω Fig. In addition to this ﬂux there are ﬂux components which link only the stator or the rotor windings and are proportional to the currents there. as well. since the equivalent circuit we are using is of the stator. as shown in the complete 1-phase equivalent circuit in ﬁgure 6. This is simple to model for the stator windings.0275 ωs 377 ωs − ωr = 366.1125 ωr 10. and we can model the effects of this ﬂux with only an inductance.5 LEAKAGE INDUCTANCES AND THEIR EFFECTS In the previous discussion we assumed that all the ﬂux crosses the airgap and links both the stator and rotor windings. It turns out that when we try to see its effects on the stator we can model it with an inductance Llr at frequency fs .364a = = 0. 6.6rad/s 6. . but corresponding to frequency of −ω fr = ωs2π 0 .

16. the machine is in generating mode. pf T Is 0 ω ωmaxT ωN ωs Fig.14 Torque. 3. still hold. There are a few interesting point on this curve.16 for the torque. curves.72 INDUCTION MACHINES Here Es is the phasor of the voltage induced into the rotor windings from the airgap ﬂux. but give us slightly different results: We can develop torque-speed curves.6 OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Figure 6. For speed ω0 ≤ 0. The machine is often designed to operate as a motor. calculating power Pg .f. and the operating point is near or exactly where the power factor is maximized. and the machine is in breaking mode. speed 6. Let us concentrate now on the region 0 ≤ ωo ≤ ωs . for speed ωs ≥ ωs the speed and torque are of opposite signs. 6. and using equation 6. The torque equations discussed earlier. For speed 0 ≤ ωo ≤ ωs the torque is of the same sign as the speed. It is for this .14 shows these characteristics for a wide range of speeds. current. Figure 6. current and power factor of an induction motor vs. and the machine operates as a motor. It is clear that there are three areas of interest: 1. 2.14 shows the developed torque. and on the corresponding current and p. and power factor of an induction motor over a speed range from below zero (slip > 1) to above synchronous (slip < 0). and the current amplitude is reasonable. Notice that the current is very high. solving the equivalent circuit. torque and speed have opposite signs. resulting in high winding losses. while Vs is the phasor of the applied 1-phase stator voltage. 6. by selecting speeds.

current. If the developed torque at starting is not adequately higher than the load starting torque. we ﬁnd that maximum torque will occur when: RR smaxT smaxT = = (RT h ) + (XT h + Xlr ) RR 2 RT h + (XT h + Xlr ) 2 2 2 or (6.17. When designing an application it is this point that we have to consider primarily: Will the torque sufﬁce. We can study this point if we take the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the left part of the stator equivalent circuit. the accelerating torque will be small and it may take too long to reach the operating point. ( slip s = 1) where the torque is not necessarily high. but the current often is. will the efﬁciency and power factor be acceptable? A second point of interest is starting. since the torque is proportional to it. the starting current is often 3-5 times the rated current of the machine. and equating the derivative to 0. power factor and torque. we have to make sure that this starting torque is adequate to overcome the load torque. Vs .20) . their difference. Tmax . 6. Rs . rated speed.e. Using the formula 6. and fuses or circuit breakers may operate.15. This will give us the circuit in ﬁgure 6. When selecting a motor for an application. corresponding to speed ωT max . i.17) The maximum torque will develop when the airgap power.15 Equivalent circuit of the stator with Thevenin equivalent of the stator components point that the motor characteristics are given on the nameplate. A third point of interest is the maximum torque. is maximum. We can ﬁnd it by analytically calculating torque as a function of slip. the power delivered to RR /s. This means that the current will remain high for a long time. This point is interesting.18) (6. Pg . In addition. including.19) giving maximum torque: Tmax = 3 1 2ωs 2 VT h RT h + 2 RT h + (XT h + Xlr ) 2 (6.OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS 73 R + V Th − Th X Th X lr RR RR ω 0 ωs 0 −ω RR I sr ωs ωs 0 −ω Fig. since points to the right of it correspond in general to stable operating conditions. while point to its left correspond to unstable operating conditions. Taking derivative of 6. Xls and Xm . which may also include a static component.16 we arrive at: T =3 1 ωs RT h + 2 VT h RR 2 s RR s + (XT h + Xlr ) 2 (6.

we can develop simple formulae for Tmax and ωT max . so if the rotor resistance is increased. as shown in ﬁgure 6. for a constant ﬂux s Λs = Es is independent of frequency and proportional to the resistance RR . the maximum torque will also stay the same. and more complex in squirrel cage motor. To do so we have to assume operation near synchronous speed. where that value of RR ωsωs o is much larger than ωs Llr . . but as long as the voltage amplitude changes so that the ﬂux stays the same. ωr = ωs − ωT max .16.21) If we neglect both the stator resistance and the magnetizing inductance.22) Vs ωs 2 Vs ωs 1 3 (ωs − ωT max ) = RR 2 1 Lls + Llr (6.74 INDUCTION MACHINES RR=2*r1 RR=r1 T ω RR=r1 I RR=2*r1 ω Fig. This is called Constant Volts per Hertz Operation and it is a ﬁrst approach to controlling the speed of the motor through its supply. while decreasing the starting current. If we have convenient ways to increase the rotor resistance. we can increase the starting torque.23) We notice here that the slip frequency at this torque. In the formulae developed we notice that the maximum torque is a function of the ﬂux. by using double or deep rotor bars. the torque-speed characteristic is shifted to the left. We already know ω that this resistance is proportional to the rotor resistance. −ω ωT max Tmax = ωs − 3 2 RR Llr + Lls 2 (6. This means that we can change the frequency of the stator voltage. Figure 6.17 shows this. Increasing the rotor resistance can be easily accomplished in a wound-rotor machine.16 Effect of changing rotor resistance on the torque-speed and current speed characteristic If we neglect the stator resistance we can easily show that the general formula for the torque becomes: T = Tmax s sT max 2 + sT max s (6. 6.

26) (6. A commonly used method is to use a motor designed to operate with the stator windings connected in ∆. and have it connected in Y at starting.7 STARTING OF INDUCTION MOTORS To avoid the problems associated with starting (too high current.16 discussed earlier. One can notice that while the stator current is proportional to the in voltage. torque will be proportional to its square. It is important to notice that the torque calculated from the approximate equation is grossly incorrect away from synchronous speed. T =3 2 Es 1 ωs − ω0 Λ2 ωr 3Pg =3 s = ωs RR ωs RR ωs Figure 6.∆ 3 1 Ts. 6.Y = √ Vs.24) .STARTING OF INDUCTION MOTORS 75 load T fs=20Hz fs=35Hz fs=50Hz ω Is ω Fig.Speed characteristic of changing frequency while keeping ﬂux constant Near synchronous speed the effect of the rotor leakage inductance can be neglected. 6.∆ 3 (6. both developed torque and line current will decrease by the square of the turns ratio of the transformer.Y = Ts. as discussed earlier. An easy way to decrease the starting current is to decrease the stator terminal voltage.17 Effect on the Torque . As the voltage ratio is. a variety of techniques are available.18 shows both exact and approximate torque-speed characteristics. If a transformer is used to accomplish this.25) (6. This assumption gives us the approximate torque-speed equation 6. 1 Vs. too low torque).∆ 3 then 1 Is.Y = √ Is.

while decreasing the starting current. and provide better efﬁciency.∆ 3 (6.Y = 1 Iline.19 Y .18 Exact and approximate torque-speed characteristics I line. Iline = √ 3Iph .27) Once the machine has approached the desired operating point. 6. 6. If we recall the pictures of the ﬂux in AC machines we have seen. 6. we can reconﬁgure the connection to ∆.76 INDUCTION MACHINES T 0 ωmaxT ωs ω Fig. we can notice that the ﬂux has a relatively long path to travel in the stator making the stator heavy and lossy.8 MULTIPLE POLE PAIRS If we consider that an induction machine will operate close to synchronous speed (3000rpm for 50Hz and 3600rpm for 60Hz) we may ﬁnd that the speed of the machine is too high for an application.Delta starting of an induction motor But in a ∆ connection. This decrease in current is often adequate to allow a motor to start at low load starting torque.Y + I line∆ I sY + VsY - V ll - I s∆ + V s∆ - + Vll Fig. as shown in ﬁgure 6. . Using a variable frequency and voltage supply we could comfortable increase the starting torque. leading to: Iline.17.

in one period of the voltage the ﬂux will travel p ws rad/s. the torque near the synchronous speed is: T =3 2 p Es 1 ωs − ω0 p Λ2 ωr p Pg s =3 =3 2 ωs RR ωs 2 RR 2 ωs . while we keep the term ωo as the rotor speed of a two pole motor. ωm .MULTIPLE POLE PAIRS 77 Fig. While increasing the number of poles results in a decrease of the synchronous and operating speeds of the machine. while for a 6 pole machine. If the 2 machine has p poles. We generally measure ωm in rad/s. and operating close to rated conditions. 2 ωo p ωs − p ωm ωs − ω0 2 s= = ωs ωs ωm = (6.31) Similarly. 6.30) This means that for a 4 pole machine. A result is that there is room for four rather than two coil sides of each phase. Hence the rotor speed corresponding to synchronous will be ωsm : ωsm = 2 ωs p (6. We retain the same deﬁnition for slip based on the electrical speed ω0 .20 Equivalent windings for a 6 pole induction motor A machine with more than one pole pair is quite similar to that with only one. The difference is that for example in a 4 pole machine each side of a sinusoidally distributed winding of one phase covers only 900 instead of 1800 . mechanical speed of the rotor. Figure 6. it also results in an increase of the developed torque of the machine by the same ratio. while we measure ω0 in electrical rad/s. the corrected torque formula will be T =3 p Pm p Pg =3 2 ωs 2 ω0 (6.28) We introduce now the actual. the speed will be near 1200rpm. Hence. The effects of a large number of poles on the operation of the machine are easy to predict.29) (6. or p/2 pairs of poles. supplied from a source of at 60Hz.20 shows at one instant the equivalent windings resulting from the the three phase windings. the speed will be near 1800rpm.

starting current and starting power factor under rated voltage. Rs = 3.1Ω. 60Hz.2 Example A 3-phase 2-pole induction motor is rated 190V . and Xls = 3Ω.8 ωs ⇒ fs = = p 3 2 1·3 Vs ωs 2 1 ωr RR 2 1 ωr ⇒ ωr = 20.3 Example A 3-phase 4-pole induction machine is rated 230V . and has Rr = 6.1 + j3] + j190||(6. At starting s = 1: Is IR T 190 √ / {[3. LM = 35mH.2mH.57A = 0.1 + j3 + j190] = 0.66 2 s 110 = 64.8. Calculate the motor starting torque. 60Hz.6 2 = 3 =3 = 2.78 INDUCTION MACHINES while the previously developed formulas for maximum torque will become: Tmax = 3 and Tmax 3p 22 Vs ωs p 1 2 2ωs 2 2 VT h RT h + 2 RT h + (XT h + Xlr ) 2 2 (6.4V or 110Vl−l = 35Hz ⇒ Vs = 220.8.8N m. What is the voltage and frequency of the source? (Hint: Calculate ﬁrst the slip).33) 6.06 3 0 j190 = Is = 6.8.36N m ωs 2 377 2 = −54. and has Rr = 6. It is operating from a variable speed variable frequency source at a speed of 1910rpm. and Xls = 3Ω. under a constant V /f policy and the developed torque is 0.1 Example A 3-phase 2-pole induction motor is rated 190V .7 −52. T 0.1Ω. and Lls = 1. The ratio Vs /ωs stays 110/377. It is operated as a generator .6 p rad = ωm + ωR = 220.66 377 110 377 6. Under no load the speed is synchronous and s = 0: Is Is pf = 110/ [3.6Ω.5mH.32) 3p 1 (ωs − ωT max ) = RR 22 Vs ωs 1 Lls + Llr (6. XM = 190Ω. Rs = 3.50 A 2.191Ω.6Ω. What will be the current and power factor if no load is connected to the shaft? 1. Xlr = 10Ω.72 · 6. Xlr = 10Ω.6 A 6.6 + j10)} = 7. 60Hz it is connected in Y .6 + j10 + j190 Pgap p 6. Rs = 0. XM = 190Ω.65 rad/s 6. it is connected in Y .10 A 6. Llr = 1.57 = 0.016lagging −89.2Ω. It is connected in Y and it has Rr = 0.

14 rad/s Now we can ﬁnd the synchronous speed.8/377.941kW = 3 · 27.8 ωr 377 0. T = 3 p 2 Vs ωs 2 1 ωr RR 2 ⇒ −59 = ⇒ ωr = 3·2 1 132.9 Is = 144/ [0.22 0.191 −15. Its speed is 2036rpm.22 5.5Hz ⇒ Vs = 65. Xls = 0. What is the efﬁciency of this generator? (Hint: here power in is mechanical. Pm Protor.617)] = 30 IR = 27.loss − Pstator.MULTIPLE POLE PAIRS 79 connected to a variable frequency/variable voltage source.2 A A Notice that with generation operation RR < 0.5 · 60 = ωm ωs ⇒ fs rad/s We have to recalculate the impedances of the equivalent circuit for the frequency of 65. with counter-torque of 59N m. calculate ﬁrst the slip) Although we do not know the voltage or the frequency.191 = 423W = 3 · 302 0. We can calculate now losses etc.loss ⇒ Pout ⇒η = 3 · 27.3 2 60 132 = 144V = 65.919 = Pm .2 = 540W = Pm − Protor.14 = 411.3 = 14. by adding slip and rotor speeds: p 2π · 2036 + ωr = 2 − 15.191 − 5. power out is electrical. we know their ratio since it is always 132.5Hz: Xm = 35 · 10−3 · 411.49 + j14.617Ω ωm p 2 = −5.38 = 11.4||(0.38Ω ωr −1480 −166.49Ω.38 + j0.980kW Pout = 0. RR Xlr = 0.loss Pstator.2 + j0.loss = 10.4Ω.

.

but rather that their amplitude is zero. 81 .1 Wound Rotor Carrying DC In this case the rotor steel structure can be either cylindrical. The rotor can be one of two distinct types: 7. since they are more efﬁcient and lighter. but can be an attractive alternative to induction machines. Here we’ll limit ourselves to discussing only cylindrical rotors. like that in ﬁgure 7. Small synchronous motors with permanent magnets in the rotor. Machines operating on this principle are called synchronous machines. rated a few hundred M V A. In this case torque will be developed only at this speed. the average torque will be zero. or through a rectiﬁed voltage of an inside-out synchronous generator mounted on the same shaft. The reason an induction motor produces no torque at synchronous speed is not that the currents are DC. Large synchronous motors are not very common. and almost all power generation is through these machines.1 DESIGN AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION The stator of a synchronous machine is of the type that we have already discussed. In either of these cases the rotor winding carries DC. the frequency of the currents in the rotor decreases.e. are rapidly replacing induction motors in automotive. It is possible to operate a three-phase machine at synchronous speed if DC is externally applied to the rotor and the rotor is rotated at synchronous speed. or salient like the one in 7.1.1b. as does the amplitude of these currents. if the rotor is rotated at speeds other than synchronous.7 Synchronous Machines and Drives We noticed in discussing induction machines that as the rotor approaches synchronous speed. and cover a great variety. provided to it through slip rings. industrial and residential applications. 7. rather than coils with DC. with three windings carrying a three-phase system of currents. As generators they can be quite large. i.1a.

The rotor is itself such a winding. sinusoidally distributed.2 Permanent Magnet Rotor In this case instead of supplying DC to the rotor we create a magnetic ﬁeld attached to it by adding magnets on the rotor. a real one. rotating at synchronous speed and currying current equal to the magnitude of the stator-current space vector. and all have the following effects: • The rotor ﬂux can no longer be controlled externally. It produces an airgap ﬂux. • The machine becomes simpler to construct.3) (7.1 7. carrying DC and rotating at synchronous speed. 7. Its angle φR would be the same as the angle of the rotor position: φR = ωs t + φR0 The stator current space vector has amplitude: |is | = 3√ 2Is 2 (7. We have discussed already how the currents in the stator produce ﬂux.2 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT The ﬂux in the air gap can be considered to be due to two sources: the stator currents. There are many ways to do this.2. giving a space vector iR .82 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES AND DRIVES + Sinusoidally Distributed Winding Concentrated Winding + (a) Cylindrical rotor (b) Salient pole rotor Fig. which could also be produced by an additional set of three phase stator currents. as shown in ﬁgure 7. The amplitude of this space vector would be: |iF | = Ns if NR (7. It is deﬁned uniquely by the magnets and the geometry. 7.2) .1. at least for small sizes. Remember that this ﬂux could also be produced by one equivalent winding.1) where Ns is the number of the stator turns of the one equivalent winding and NR is the number of the turns in the rotor winding. and the rotor currents or permanent magnet.

is proportional to the current iM . if . In this case we can create an equivalent circuit for the stator.4. and power angle. Figure 7. the angle between Is and Vs . is 900 ahead of the magnetizing current space vector.4) The airgap ﬂux then is produced by both these current space vectors (rotor and stator). This is so since iM is what causes all the airgap ﬂux that links the stator and induces es . We call β. A few relationships to notice here: • The space vector of the voltages induced in the stator. We call θ the power factor angle. Here IF is the stator AC current.2 Possible magnet placements in PMAC motors where Is is the rms current of one phase.EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 83 Fig. i. In our analysis we can use as reference either the stator voltage. Is . that if it were to ﬂow in the stator windings would have the same effects as the rotor current. E3 . es . 7. . or the stator current. δ. Vs . E2 . iM .3. This ﬂux induces in the stator windings a voltage. For a given frequency. φis = ωs t + φis0 (7. The stator current space vector will have an instantaneous angle. 7. es . the amplitude of this voltage. the angle between Vs and IF . In quasi steady-state everything is sinusoidal and the voltage space vector corresponds to three phase voltages E1 . There are some angles to notice in this ﬁgure. es .e. that between IF and IS .

7. .5. that is constant and cannot be controlled. 7. if . There are two modes of operation of a synchronous machine.3 Stator equivalent circuit for a synchronous machine I S θ δ β α V s I M I F Fig. by making a few modiﬁcations to the equivalent circuit as shown in ﬁgure 7. carrying a Direct Current.84 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES AND DRIVES I S I M I jX M F =I F + β V - S E S Fig. that we’ll study: 7.4 Phasor diagram of an synchronous machine • A permanent magnet machine can be considered equivalent to that with a winding.3 OPERATION OF THE MACHINE CONNECTED TO A BUS OF CONSTANT VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY This is usually the case for large synchronous generators or motors. We can consider any bus as one of constant voltage.

Pout = T ωs p .jX S + I S I M I jX M F =I F β V S - jX S + I S jX S I S jX M β V F =jX M I F I M I jX M F =I F β + + OPERATION OF THE MACHINE CONNECTED TO A BUS OF CONSTANT VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY V S V - 85 - S jX S + I S I M I jX M F =I F jX S + I S jX M β V F =jX M I F V S + I S I M jX M I j(X M +X S ) F β β + V S V - S - j(X M +X ) S I F = - + (a) Original Equivalent Circuit with non-zero bus impedance + S jX S I S jX M I S + V F =jX I M VF S β V - (b) The same circuit with Thevenin Equivalent of the Synchronous Machine I M j(X M +X ) S I F = j(X jX M I +X S ) F β M (c) Bqack to the Norton Equivalent circuit resulting in a modiﬁed Equivalent Circuit - I S + Fig. β − 900 is the angle between the rotor axis and the magnetizing current space vector (same as the airgap ﬂux). as shown in ﬁgure 7.7a.6 we can see that the power. Positive torque is developed that brings the rotor back to synchronous speed. but now ahead of the ﬂux. When there is no torque this angle is 0. the rotor falls behind the ﬂux. Since this voltage space vector is 900 ahead of the space vector of the magnetizing current. and most of the time we can neglect the stator resistance. corresponding to cos β = ±1. As it accelerates (with the ﬂux rotating at constant speed) the ﬂux falls behind the rotor. But this product is the projection of IF on the horizontal axis. Let us discuss now the effect of varying the ﬁeld current while keeping the power constant. making the rotor slow down and rotate again at synchronous speed.5) (7. The only input variables are the 2 torque. the rotor decelerates. but when external torque is applied to the rotor in the direction of rotation the rotor will accelerate.6. All power then is converted to mechanical power and: P P IM Vs = 3Vs Is cos θ = T ωs = −3Vs IF cos β = Is + IF = jXm IM 2 p (7. when load torque is applied to the rotor. Similarly. which affects output power. but now rotating behind the stator ﬂux. also shown in ﬁgure 7.5 means that at the same time the tip of Is travels on another vertical line. Remember that β is the angle between the axis of the rotor winding. and the ﬁeld current.7) (7. the magnetizing current IM is constant. From equation 7. . T . since it is tied to the voltage Vs . varies sinusoidally with the angle β.6) (7. the rotor rotates aligned with the ﬂux. when power and voltage are kept constant.e. the product IF cos β remains constant as well. Similarly. Let us assume that the machine is operated so that the power to it varies while the frequency and ﬁeld current remain constant. equation 7. i. the tip of IF travels on a vertical line. This means that as the ﬁeld current changes while power stays the same. the machine cannot develop adequate torque and it loses synchronization.7a. which is proportional to IF . From equation 7. the angle β decreases beyond −900 . and negative torque is developed. i. In both cases when the load torque on a motor or the torque of the prime mover in a generator increases beyond a maximum. and the stator voltage space vector. 7. if .8) In this operation Vs and ωs (and therefore speed) remain constant. and therefore the torque.e.5 I M Accounting for system impedance in the model of a Synchronous Machine I F = j(X jX M I M +X S ) F β V S j(X M +X ) S - Synchronous machines are very efﬁcient. as it does so. Since this is synchronous machine the speed will not vary with the load.

. the power factor becomes leading and the machine produces reactive power.7a that once the ﬁeld current has exceeded a value speciﬁc to the power level. 7. 7. which always absorbs reactive power.86 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES AND DRIVES Motor Generator T −π −π/2 π/2 β Fig.6 Torque and angle β in a synchronous motor I I S1 G1 I S3 I S2 V s I S2 V s I I F3 S3 I S1 I F1 I I I F2 M I F2 M I F3 I F1 (a) Varying the ﬁeld current in a Synchronous motor under constant Power (b) Varying the ﬁeld current in a Synchronous Generator under constant Power Fig.7 It is clear from ﬁgure 7. This is different from the operation of an induction machine.

3. • The machine is operated as a motor and is absorbing 110kW at 0.89 p.89 from the stator voltage we can calculate IM and from it IF .OPERATION OF THE MACHINE CONNECTED TO A BUS OF CONSTANT VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY 87 When the machine operates as a generator.1 A 1328 · 0.8: I 27.4Ω 2300 Vs = √ = 1328V 3 0 110 · 103 /3 Is = 27. is outside the range −900 < θ < 900 . Using ﬁgure 7.4 0 IF = IM − IS = 42 −131 A Is ⇒ if = = 23.9: .1 0 S V s -131 0 I I F M Fig. The ratio of the AC stator equivalent current to the rotor DC is IF /if = 1. 0 1328 = 17. leading. 0.82 pf leading.4A 1.2 = 75. Draw the corresponding phasor diagrams. Here the angle between stator voltage and stator current deﬁned in the direction shown in the equivalent circuit. Figure 7.8 The magnetizing inductance of the machine is 200mH. 7. 7.8 XM = 2π60 · 0.62 −90 A 75.8 IM = • Repeat for operation as generator at 110kW .7b shows this operation for both leading and lagging load power factor.10 = 31 27.1 Example A 3-phase Y -connected synchronous machine is fed from a 2300V .f. the input power is negative. 60Hz. Calculate the required ﬁeld current and the load angle. Using ﬁgure 7.

88

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES AND DRIVES

I

G

35 0 3.56 0 I F V s

-145

0

I

S

I

M

Fig. 7.9

Ig = 33.735 A ⇒ IS = 33.7

−1450 3.560

A

IF = IM − IS = 27.66 A ⇒ if = 15.37A • What is the maximum power the machine above can produce (or absorb) when operating as a generator and at the ﬁeld current just calculated? We know that absorbed and produced power is: P = −3Vs IF cos β for if = 15.37A we have IF = 27.66A, and P becomes maximum for β = 0, hence: P = 3 · 1328 · 27.66 = 110.2kW • If the terminal voltage remains at 2300V , 60Hz, what is the minimal ﬁeld current required to maintain operation as a motor with load 70kW ? Again here: P = 2 · Vs If cos β = 3 · 1328 · IF = 70 · 103 W ⇒ IF = 17.57A

7.4

OPERATION FROM A SOURCE OF VARIABLE FREQUENCY AND VOLTAGE

This operation requires that our synchronous machine is supplied by an inverter. The operation now is entirely different than before. We no longer have an inﬁnite bus, but rather whatever stator voltage or current and frequency we desire. Moreover, with a space-vector controlled inverter, the phase of this voltage or current can be arbitrarily set at any instant i.e. we can deﬁne the stator current

OPERATION FROM A SOURCE OF VARIABLE FREQUENCY AND VOLTAGE

89

or voltage space vector, and obtain it at will. The considerations for the motor operation are also different: • There is no concern for absorbing or supplying reactive power. Instead, there is a limit on the total stator current, determined by thermal considerations. • There is a limit to the maximum voltage the source can supply, which leads to modiﬁcations of the machine mode of operation at high speeds. Operation from source of variable frequency and voltage is most common for Permanent Magnet Machines, where the value of |IF | is constant. In simple terms, when the machine is starting as a motor the frequency applied should be zero, but the voltage space vector should be of such angle with respect to the rotor that torque is developed. as discussed in the previous section. As torque develops, the machine accelerates, and the applied stator currents have to create a rotating space vector leading the rotor ﬂux. Voltage and frequency have to be increased, so that this torque is maintained. It is important therefore to monitor the position of the rotor in order to determine the location of the stator current or voltage space vector. Two possible control techniques are implemented: either voltage control, where the stator voltage space vector is determined and applied, or current control, where he stator current space vector is applied. For a ﬁxed stator voltage and power (and torque) level, the stator losses are minimal when the stator voltage and current are in phase. Figure 7.10 shows this condition.
θ I S V β s

I

F I M

Fig. 7.10

Operation of a synchronous PM drive at constant voltage and Frequency

Notice that as the power changes with the voltage constant two things happen: 1. The voltage space vector varies in amplitude and the magnetizing current changes with it. 2. The amplitude of IF stays constant, but its angle with respect to the voltage changes. From the developed torque and speed we can calculate the frequency, the values of IM and IS , and the angle between the stator voltage space vector and the rotor, since T
2 IF

= =

3p 3p Vs Is = LM IM Is 2ωs 2 2 2 IM + Is

(7.9) (7.10)

and IF is a constant in PM machines.

90

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES AND DRIVES

More common though is the case when the stator voltage is not constant. Here we monitor the position of the rotor and since the rotor ﬂux and rotor space current are attached to it, we are actually monitoring the position of IF . To make matters simple we use this current rather than the stator voltage as reference, as shown in ﬁgure 7.11.
jI s X M Vs jI F X M

Is

IM

θ γ

IF

Fig. 7.11

Operation of a synchronous PM drive below base speed

Although previous formulae for power and torque are still true they are not as useful. We create new formulae that have the stator current Is and magnetizing current IM as variables. We also use the angle γ, between IF and Is , since we can control it. Starting from what we already know: Pg = [Vs I∗ ] = [jXM (IF + Is )I∗ ] F F ∗ ∗ = [jXM IF IF ] + [jXM Is IF ] = XM [Is I∗ ] = XM Is IF sin γ F (7.11) (7.12) (7.13)

For a given torque minimum losses require minimum value of the stator current. To minimize the value of Is with constant power and IF we choose γ = 90o and arrive at: Pg = XM [Is I∗ ] = XM Is IF F p Pg p p T =3 = 3 LM [Is I∗ ] = 3 LM Is IF F 2 ωs 2 2 (7.14) (7.15)

which means that for constant power the projection of the stator current on an axis perpendicular to IM is constant. As the rotor speed increases, even if IM stays constant, the stator voltage Vs = ωs Lm Is increases. At some speed ωsB , the required voltage exceeds the maximum the power source can provide. We call this speed base speed; To increase the speed beyond it we no longer keep γ = 90o . On the other hand at that speed we know that the voltage has reached its upper limit Vs = Vs,max , therefore the value of IM = Vs,max /XM is known. In this case, equations 7.9 and 7.10 become: 3p 3p Vs Is cos θ = LM IM Is cos θ 2ωs 2 2 2 = IM + Is + 2IM Is sin θ =

T
2 IF

(7.16) (7.17)

5 · 10−3 · 310 = 243.12 Field weakening of a PM AC motor. • The machine is operated as a generator at rated frequency. From the current triangle: 2 2 2 IM = IF − Is ⇒ IM = 3102 − 72.5mH and its equivalent ﬁeld source current is 310A. 7. Its magnetizing inductance is 2. four pole. 50Hz. √ The rated phase voltage is Vs = 400/ 3 = 231V and the rated stator current is Is = 50 · 103 /3 · 231 = 72. Note that we calculate torque from power: P p p T = = 3 LM ωs 2 2 P = 3XM IS IF sin γ p [IS I∗ ] = 3 LM Is IF sin γ F 2 (7. but the second one has γ > 90o and lower Vs .2A.13. We can neglect stator resistance. Figure 7. 50kV A.OPERATION FROM A SOURCE OF VARIABLE FREQUENCY AND VOLTAGE jI s1 X M V s1 I M2 I s2 I s1 γ γ 2 1 91 jI F X M I M1 jI s2 X M V s2 θ1 θ 2 IF Fig.18) (7.19) 7.12 shows such an operation with the variables having the subscript 1.4. With no load and at rated frequency the phase voltage is: Vs = ωs LM IF = 2π50 · 2. What should be the voltage and frequency in order to provide torque of 300N m at 600rpm. variable frequency source. The two diagrams at are at the same frequency. as in ﬁgure 7.5A and the stator voltage is: Vs = ωs LM IM = 236. Y connected permanent magnet synchronous machine is rated 400V .5V I the motor is operated at power factor. if again we have unity power factor? . the stator current is collinear with the stator voltage.8V • The machine is now operated as a variable speed drive motor from a variable voltage.72 = 301. Determine the maximum and minimum values of the stator phase voltage as the load current is varied from zero to rated value at unity power factor.1 Example A 3-phase.

3-phase Permanent Magnet synchronous generator is rated 230V (l-l) 10kV A.13 The machine has four poles.2 Example A 2-pole.6 · 10−3 = 1.1V 2 ωs T = 18. First a test is performed: The rotor is externally driven at rated speed with the stator open circuited and the line-line voltage is measured at 240V . Based on the result of this test determine the stator voltage and power angle when the stator current.9A 3 .508Ω 240 Vs = |IM XM | = √ ⇒ IM = 91. so ωs = p 2π 600 = 20Hz 2 60 Torque can be expressed as a function of input power: T =3 p 1 p 3p Vs Is pf = 3 (ωs LM IM )Is = LM IM Is = 300N m 2 ωs 2ωs 2 2 2 2 IF = IM + Is = 3002 In addition to this equation we have from the current triangle for unity pf: These two equations.92 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES AND DRIVES I S I g V s I M I F Fig. solved together will give IM IM = 303A = 66 Is = 66A Is = 303A or which leads to phase voltage and torque: Vs Pm = = ωs LM IM = 95. voltage and frequency are rated and the power factor of the load is 0.84kW p 7.4.9 lagging. 7.6mH. 400Hz. From the test: XM = ωs LM = 2π400 · 0. Its magnetizing inductance is 0.

34 19.14o − 90o ) = 0.92 ⇒ IM = 100A ¡ £ ¨§£ Fig. the angle between Is and IF .436 = 91. The minimum current Is will exist when γ = (Is .946lagging .5kW at 100Hz with minimum stator current Is . 7. IF ) = 90o . 2-pole motor has IF = 40 and XM = 0.OPERATION FROM A SOURCE OF VARIABLE FREQUENCY AND VOLTAGE 93 but at no load IF = IM = 91. Y connected.102A 3Vll 3 · 230 pf = 0. three-phase.15o ¦ §£ ¤¥£ ¡¢  V pf = cos(109. the speed.9 · 40 o o = IF + Is = 40 + 13.12 the power factor is: 109.84o from the geometry of the current triangle: 2 2 IM + Is − 2IM IS cos 2 ⇒⇒ IM + 25.14 Phasor diagram for this example 7. to the problem: At the operating point Is = √ S 10 · 103 =√ = 25. Then: P = 3XM Is IF ⇒ Is = ⇒ IM 1500 = 13. the stator voltage (line-neutral) and the power factor.15 A ⇒ Vs = jωs LM IM = 38. 1.4.9A and it is constant Now that we found IF .89A 3 · 0.3 Example A permanent magnet.9Ω at 100Hz.89 90 = 42.12 − 2 · 25. calculate this current. If it is absorbing P = 1.1 · IM π 2 + θ = IF 2 · 0.9 ⇒ θ = −25.

12 109.18o ) = 0.5 CONTROLLERS FOR PMAC MACHINES Figure 7. an inverter and a controller.5kW .997leading o IM = 19.15 = = 36.12 · 40 o ⇒ β = −109. P = 1.32 3 · 38.12V . Calculate again the angle between Is and IF .83 jXM j 115 0. It requires a DC power supply.15 ©¨§  7. Now the motor absorbs the same power at at the voltage calculated in the previous question. usually a rectiﬁer fed from an AC source.6 BRUSHLESS DC MACHINES While it would be difﬁcult to ﬁnd the difference between a PM AC machine described above and a brushless DC machine by just looking at them.18o A A ¡ £ ¡ ¢  ¡ £ ©¨§   ¡   Fig.15o 113.14o ⇒ Vs = 38.12 109. and the power factor. Figure 7. P = −3Vs IF cos β ⇒ cos β = − 1500 = −0.14o − 113. 7.16 shows a typical controller for an AC Machine. the speed.16 the power factor is now pf = cos(109.94 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES AND DRIVES 2. This can be accomplished by having stator current no longer at a minimum value and γ = 90o . It is desired to increase the motor speed to 6900rpm while keeping power the same. but at frequency 115Hz. the concept of operation is quite different as is  Phasor diagram for this example ¤ £ ¦ ¥£ ¥£ ¤ ¥£ ¦ .17 shows in a slightly higher detail the controller 7.14 A Vs 38.9 100 Is = IM − IF = 13. but the supplied voltage has reached its upper limit of Vs = 38.

BRUSHLESS DC MACHINES 95 ¨¤    \$ # %  ! "¡ ( 89 ' 7 A@2 ¡  ¡¤ ¤¥ ¨§ C 2 7B 34 15 '6 2 2 01 ( &' )' ©¡  ¦ £¡ ¦ 4 15 '6 & P 4Q Q ¡  ¦ £ ¦ ' 7 8 75 ( 4 (( PA 2 2 ¢£ ¦ D E F ¡ ¡ ¦  I I ¨ E H¡ ¦G Fig.19. As the stator currents interact with the ﬂux coming from the magnet torque is developed. The windings in the stator in a brushless DC machine are not sinusoidally distributed but instead they are concentrated. It should be clear that for the same direction of ﬂux. and the calculation of i∗ .g. through Pulse Width Modulation % ££ & ) ¡ ¥ 3 12          # ¦ £¤   ¢¡£¤ £¤ ¥ 4 4 ¦ £ . • A fast supply that will provide currents to the appropriate stator windings as determined by the ﬂux direction.3 sa sb sc the analysis. To accomplish this the following are needed: • Sensors on the stator that sense the direction of the ﬂux coming from the rotor.16 Generic Controller for a PMAC Machine  ¨ ¤ ¥ 5¦ £¡© \$% © ¥ £¤ & § ¨ ! £¥    ¡ ¥¤   ¨     ¨§  ¨§ £¥ ¨© ¦§ ¨© ¦§ " ) ¥ ¡ # ¤% ¥ 0 '() # ¤) ¥ 0 Fig. The calculations for Is are based on equation 7. each occupying one third of the pole pitch. and therefore in reduction of total torque. i∗ . i∗ are calculated from the space vector Is from equations 5. e. currents in opposite directions result in opposite forces. The ﬂux density on the magnet surface and in the airgap is also not sinusoidally distributed over the magnet but almost uniform in the air gap. 7. 7.17 Field Oriented controller for a PMAC Machine. • A way to control these currents. This in turn makes it necessary that all the current in the stator above the rotor is in the same direction.

a little later The formulae that describe the operation of the system are quite simple.20) At the same time.18 Energizing the windings in a brushless DC motor (a) Switch positions Fig. the rotating ﬂux induces a voltage in the energized windings: E =k·ω Finally the terminal voltage differs from the induced voltage by a resistive voltage drop: Vterm = E + Is R (7. (a) Switch positions Fig. and outputs the desired currents in the stator Figures 7.22) (7. the stator currents and the switches of the supply inverter for two rotor positions.18 and 7. 7. 7.21)   ¢ ¡   ¢ ¡ (b) Machine cross section (b) Machine cross section . the ﬂux direction in the stator and the stator currents.19 show the rotor positions.96 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES AND DRIVES • A controller with inputs the desired speed. The developed torque is proportional to the stator currents: T = k · Is (7.19 Energizing the windings in a brushless DC motor.

it is called brushless DC motor .6.BRUSHLESS DC MACHINES 97 These equations are similar to those of a DC motor 4.4.4 . This is the reason that although this machine is entirely different from a DC motor.

.

a diode is used and the load purely resistive.8 Line Controlled Rectiﬁers The idea here is to draw power from a 1-phase or 3-phase system to provide with DC a load. a battery we want to charge). as shown in ﬁgure 8. The characteristics of the systems here are among others. the current ﬂows through the diode and the voltage of the source equals the voltage of the load.AND 3-PHASE CIRCUITS WITH DIODES If the source is 1-phase. Fig.1 things are simple.2. that the devices used will turn themselves off (commutate) and that the systems draw reactive power from the loads. as in ﬁgure 8. the diode will continue to conduct even when the load voltage becomes negative as long as the current is maintained. 8.1 Simple circuit with Diode and resistive Load 99 . 8. If the load includes an inductance and a source (e.g.1 1. When the source voltage is positive.

2 ONE -PHASE FULL WAVE RECTIFIER More common is a single phase diode bridge rectiﬁer 8. On the other hand the RMS value of the output voltage will be Vs = Vd (8. Similarly. or as a resistor.9Id (8.2) containing components of higher frequency. If we analyze these waveforms. representing the case of minimum line inductance.3) π . but rather it changes abruptly between Id and −Id . 2√ Is1 = 2Id = 0. representing the case of a large inductance that keeps the current through it almost constant.4. 8.1) where Vs is the RMS value of the input AC voltage. The load can be modelled with one of two extremes: either as a constant current source.2 Smple Circuit with Diode and inductive load with voltage source 8.100 LINE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS Fig.3. on the AC side the current is not sinusoidal.9Vs (8. the output voltage will have a DC component Vdo : Vdo = 2√ 2Vs π 0. We’ll study the ﬁrst case with AC and DC side current and voltage waveforms shown in ﬁgure 8.

8.3 One-phase full wave rectiﬁer Fig.1. 8. . This will lead to a decrease of the output DC voltage below what is expected from formula 8.4 Waveforms for a one-phase full wave rectiﬁer with inductive load and again the RMS values are the same Id = Is Giving a total harmonic distortion T HD = 2 2 Is − Is1 ∼ = 48.4) (8.ONE -PHASE FULL WAVE RECTIFIER 101 Fig.5) It is important to notice that if the source has some inductance (and it usually does) commutation will be delayed after the voltage has reached zero.5.43% Is1 (8. until the current has dropped to zero as shown in ﬁgure 8.

without using 12 but rather 6 diodes. 8.3 THREE-PHASE DIODE RECTIFIERS The circuit of ﬁgure 8.3 can be modiﬁed to handle three phases.8) Again.35VLL π (8.7 shows the AC side currents and DC side voltage for the case of high load inductance. the DC voltage will be less than that predicted by equation 8.78Id π (8. .e.7) while the fundamental current. causing a voltage loss.102 LINE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS Fig.6 it is obvious that on the AC side the rms current.6.816Id 3 (8.e. the current at power frequency is: Is1 = 1√ 6Id = 0. i. Is is Is = 2 Id = 0. i.6. Similar analysis as before shows that on the DC side the voltage is: Vdo = 3√ 2VLL = 1. inductance on the AC side will delay commutation.6) From ﬁgure 8. as shown in ﬁgure 8. Figure 8.5 One-phase full wave rectiﬁer with inductive load and source inductance 8.

Also.CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS WITH THYRISTORS 103 Fig.4 CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS WITH THYRISTORS Thyristors give us the ability to vary the DC voltage. the thyristor has to be forward biased and a gate pulse provided to its gate. Remember that to make a thyristor start conducting. 8. 8.6 Three-phase full-wave rectiﬁer with diodes Fig.7 Waveforms of a three-phase full-wave rectiﬁer with diodes and inductive load 8. to turn .

and return to zero. now with thyristors instead of diodes. then power will be transferred from the DC to the AC side. trr .10) We should notice in ﬁgure 8. 8. leading to a lagging power factor.8 shows the same 1-phase bridge we have already studied. Each pair of thyristors is turned off immediately (or shortly) after the other pair is turned on by gating. The voltage on the D side can reverse polarity when .8 One-phase full wave converter with Thyristors that for diode circuits will give: Vdo = 2√ 2Vs cos α = 0.9) and the relation for the currents is the same Is1 = (8. P = Vs Is1 cos α = Vd Id 8.9Id π (8.9Vs cos α π 2√ 2Id = 0. hence so is the fundamental of the current. corresponding to the time we delay triggering the thyristors after they became forward biased. On the AC side the power is carried only by the fundamental. only the DC component of the voltage carries power.5 ONE PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS Figure 8.1 Inverter Mode (8. 8.5. Thyristors 1 and 2 are triggered together and of course so are 3 and 4.9 that the current waveform on the AC side is offset i time with respect to the corresponding voltage by the same angle α.9 shows the output voltage and input current waveforms. since there is no harmonic content in the current. and ﬁgure 8. On the DC side. Analysis similar to Fig.104 LINE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS off a thyristor the current through it has to reverse direction for a short period of time. since there are no harmonics in the voltage. In this ﬁgure α is the delay angle.11) If somehow the current on the DC side is sustained even if the voltage reverses polarity.

ONE PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS

105

Fig. 8.9

Waveforms of One-phase full wave converter with Thyristors

the delay angle exceeds 900 , as long as the current is maintained. This can only happen when the load voltage is as shown in ﬁgure 8.10, e.g. a battery.

Fig. 8.10

Operation of a one-phase controlled Converter as an inverter

106

LINE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS

8.6 THREE-PHASE CONTROLLED CONVERTERS

Fig. 8.11

Schematic of a three-phase Full-Wave Converter

Fig. 8.12

Waveforms of a Three-phase Full-Wave Converter

As with diodes, only six thyristors are needed to accommodate three phases. Figure 8.11 shows the schematic of the system, and ﬁgure 8.12 shows the output voltage waveform. The delay angle α is again measured from the point that a thyristor becomes forward biased, but in this case the point is at the intersection of the voltage waveforms of two different phases. The voltage on the DC side

*NOTES

107

3√ 2VLL cos α = 1.35VLL cos α π while the power for both the AC and the DC side is √ P = Vd Ido = 1.35Vll Id cos α = 3Vll Is1 cos α Vdo = which leads to: Is1 = 0.78Id

is then:

(8.12)

(8.13) (8.14)

Again if the delay angle α is extended beyond 900 , the converter transfers power from the DC side to the AC side, becoming an inverter. We should keep in mind, though, that even in this case the converter is drawing reactive power from the AC side.

8.7 *NOTES 1. For both 1-phase and 3-phase controlled rectiﬁer delay in α creates a phase displacement of the phase current with respect to the phase voltage, equal to α. The cosine of this angle is the power factor of the ﬁrst harmonic. 2. For both motor and generator modes the controlled rectiﬁer absorbs reactive power from the three-phase AC system, although it can either absorb or produce real power. It also needs the power line to commutate the thyristors. This means that inverter operation is possible only when the rectiﬁer is connected to a power line. 3. When a DC motor or a battery is connected to the terminals of a controlled rectiﬁer and α becomes greater then 900 , the terminal DC voltage changes polarity, but the direction of the current stays the same. This means that in order for the rectiﬁer to draw power from battery or a motor that operates as a generator turning in the same direction, the terminals haver to be switched.

.

3.e. Deciding which switch to close in order to obtain a certain waveform will be 2 determined by the PWM comparison shown in ﬁgure 9.9 Inverters Although the AC-to-DC converters we have already studied can transfer power from the DC side to the AC system. though.1) Vcontrol Vtri (9. 9. BJTs IGBTs and MOSFETs. We deﬁne as the frequency modulation index the ratio of the frequencies of the carrier (triangular wave) to the control signal: mf = and as amplitude modulation index: ma = Two comments here: 1. the output voltage VAo will be 1 Vd . Figure 9. they require the presence of such an AC system in order to commutate the thyristors and provide the required reactive power. ﬁltered and then inverted to provide an output of desired voltage and frequency. like GTOs. To illustrate the point better.1 shows a typical application of a complete system. The output voltage in ﬁgure 9. where the supply power of constant voltage and frequency is rectiﬁed. When the upper switch TA+ is closed. which allows the transfer of power from the DC source to any AC load. We’ll study ﬁrst the operation of a single phase inverter and then we’ll expand to three-phases. does. 109 fs f1 (9.2 shows the operation of on leg of the inverter regardless of the number of phases.3 at ﬁrst look does not resemble the expected waveform (i. the input DC voltage is divided into two equal parts.2) . 2 it will be − 1 Vd . and when the lower switch TA− is closed. and one can ﬁlter out the higher harmonics.1 1-PHASE INVERTER Figure 9. the control signal). In this chapter we’ll study a similar system using devices that we can turn both on and off. Its fundamental.

3 PWM scheme to determine which switch should be closed . 9.1 Typical variable voltage and frequency system supplied from a power system Fig. 9.2 One leg of an inverter Fig.110 INVERTERS Fig. 9.

we use a synchronized carrier signal with mf an integer and multiple of 3.2 THREE-PHASE INVERTERS For three-phase loads.6) (9. Its RMS value. Allowing this current to ﬂow is the job of the antiparallel diodes. each with an antiparallel diode. require the current to continue to ﬂow after a switch has been turned off. the output voltage increases also but not linearly with it. though. Then the rms value of the output voltage will be: ma Vd Vo1 = √ = 0. The output voltage will oscillate between +Vd and −Vd and the amplitude of the fundamental of the output voltage will be a linear ˆ function of the amplitude index Vo = mVd as long as ma ≤ 1. Figure 9.45Io1 pf (9. Inductive loads. and can reach 4 peak value of π Vd when the reference signal becomes inﬁnite and the output a square wave.4.353ma Vd (9. then will be: √ 2 2 Vd Vo1 = = 0.5) 9.THREE-PHASE INVERTERS 111 Fig.5 shows a schematic of this system: The basic PWM scheme for a three-phase inverter has one common carrier and three separate control waveforms. It has four controlled switches.3) 2 2 When ma increases beyond 1. it makes more sense to use a three-phase inverter.45V d (9.4 One-phase full wave inverter 2.7) (9. The switches in the inverter can conduct only in one direction. 9. If the waveforms we want to achieve are sinusoidal and the frequency modulation index mf is low.4) π 2 Equating the power of the DC side with that of the AC side P = Vd Id0 = Vo1 Io1 pf Hence for normal PWM Id0 = 0.353ma Io1 pf and for square wave Id0 = 0. A full bridge inverter is shown in ﬁgure 9. . and diagonally placed switches operate together. rather than three one-phase inverters.

6 Three-phase Pulse Width Modulation .5 Three-phase. 9. 9.112 INVERTERS Fig. full-wave inverter Fig.

shown for one leg of the inverter in ﬁgure 9.06ma Io1 pf and for square wave Id0 = 1.10) P = Vd Id0 = 3Vll1 Io1 pf Hence for normal PWM Id0 = 1.12) Finally. the rms value of the fundamental of the output voltage is a linear function of it: √ 3 VLL1 = √ ma Vd 0. when the control voltage becomes inﬁnite. we can either impose a fast controller on the voltage waveform.9) 2π 2 In this case the output voltage becomes rectangular and the operation is called 6-step operation.8 (9.612ma Vd (9. driven by the error in between the current signal and reference. or we can apply a hysteresis band controller.THREE-PHASE INVERTERS 113 Fig.11) .7 6-step operation of a PWM inverter As long as ma is less than 1.78Vd (9.35Io1 pf (9. 9. Equating the power on the DC and AC sides we obtain: Equating the power of the DC side with that of the AC side √ (9. If it is not the output voltage waveform we want to control. as shown in ﬁgure 9. the rms value of the fundamental of the output voltage becomes: √ 3 4 Vd VLL1 = √ 0. there other ways to control the operation of an inverter. but rather the current.8) 2 2 On the other hand.7b.

8 Current control with hysteresis band . 9.114 INVERTERS Fig.

i.e. The higher this frequency is the easier to ﬁlter out these harmonics. increasing the switching frequency increases proportionally the switching losses. i. The current then ﬂows through the antiparallel diode of the bottom switch. after the top switch has been turned off. 13. 7.THREE-PHASE INVERTERS 115 Notes • With a sine-triangle PWM the harmonics of the output voltage s are of frequency around nfs . where n is an integer and fs is the frequency of the carrier (triangle) waveform. For 6-step operation of a 3-phase inverter the harmonics are even except the triplen ones. 11. returning power to the DC link. The same happens of course when the bottom switch is turned off and the current ﬂows through the antiparallel diode of the top switch. • When the load of an inverter is inductive the current in each phase remains positive after the voltage in that phase became negative. 17 etc.e. On the other hand. they are of order 5. .