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Published by: Angeline Montales on Oct 03, 2010
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TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Telephony II. Switching System III. Subscribers¶ Loop IV. Decibels and Noise Limits V. Telephone Traffic VI.

Numbering Concepts VII.Signaling VIII.Multiplexing

Telephony is the art of projecting a sound wave into a given apparatus, transforming the sound wave into an electrical wave, passing the electrical wave over a wire or channel and then transforming the electrical wave back into sound wave. Three Functional Parts: 1. Subscriber 2. Exchange 3. Interexchange Telephone Set is an instrument used to transmit and receive information or calls sequentially or simultaneously, thus permitting one party to communicate with another

Main Functions of a Telephone Set:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. to call the local exchange to transmit the desired subscriber's number to receive different tone signals to transmit and receive speech to order the clearing of the connection

Telephone Set Wires
1. Tip: Green ± used to transmit the signal 2. Ring: Red ± used to receive the signals from the far end 3. Slave: Yellow ± used as a spare or for special purpose applications 4. Ground: Black or White

Parts of a Telephone Set
1. Transmitter (mouthpiece) ± used to converts sound wave to electrical wave 2. Receiver (earpiece) ± used to converts the varying electric current that represents the transmitted speech signal into an audible sound that will recreate the voice. 3. Ringer (bell) ± a signaling system from the telephone exchange to a called phone to impart that a call should be answered. 4. Switch-hook (plunger) ± a part of telephone where the handset is place when not in used and lifted up the phone when making a call.

Two Switch Hook Conditions of a Telephone
1. On-hook Condition ± when the telephone is idle, the switch is open and no dc current flowing through the line. 2. Off-hook Condition ± when the telephone handset is lifted up from the cradle, the current is flowing through the line, the telephone resistance appears between the tip and the ring causes the loop to close and alerts the central office to supply current and the dial tone.

Dial Pad (keypad) ± a part of telephone where a desire subscribers number can be dialed. Rotary Dial Pad is marked from 0 to 9 with each number representing a corresponding number of pulses that would be generated once the dial number is rotated from a starting position towards the fixed point. .5. Pulse Dialing is defined as a momentary on-hook condition that causes loop making and breaking from the telephone set dialer toward the central office. Dialing ± referred to as addressing a telephone system. Two Type of Dialing 1.

Break ± circuit opened/on-hook condition. 60 % (make and break time = 0. Also known as Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) dialing or touch tone dialing.1 sec) Interdigit Delay ± continuous make of 500 ms 2.State of Pulses: 1. 697 Hz 770 Hz 852 Hz 941 Hz 1209 Hz 1 4 7 * 1336 Hz 2 5 8 0 1477 Hz 3 6 9 # 1633 Hz A B C D . Tone Dialing is a type of dialing employing two tones or two frequencies to represent a single digit. 40 % 2. Make ± circuit closed/off-hook.

Problem Solving: 1. Protection Circuits Over-voltage Protection ± it protects the circuit for over voltage supply coming from the central office. Polarity Reversal ± it protects the circuit from any reversed voltage polarity. How long does it take to dial 765-8340 in second using pulse dialing? 2. How about if using a touch-tone dialing? How long does it take to dial the same number in 1? .6.

1889. Strowger. Types of Switching: 1. 2. electromechanical in nature. It is the oldest automatic switching system. Manual Control System ± a call is being carried out by an operator using switchboards and wires with jack. Progressive Control or Step by Step Switching ± also known as Strowger Switching System. in which intelligence is located in relays mounted on each switch.Switching a method of connecting the calling party to the called party. named after the inventor Almon B. .

3.It also known as direct control switch with three stages: 1. It utilizes a switching matrix. Connectors ± are switches that complete the connection to the called party. to route telephone calls. Switch Train ± consists of selectors arranged to operate in a sequence connecting the calling line to the connector group of the called line. Common Control Switching Also known as Crossbar Switching System. . It is a switching system. still mechanical in nature but the intelligence of the system is separated from the actual switch. Line Equipment. 3. which externally managed by common control.includes the line finder 2.

Call hold . The final generation is known as digital switch. Abbreviated Dialing 6. It is a switching system control is in electronic circuit instead of mechanical devices. Stored Program Control (SPC) or Electronic Switching System (ESS) Is the first generation ESS was employed in the year 1960. Call forwarding 4. Call waiting 2. Malicious Call Trace 7. Caller ID 3.4. Automatic Call back 9. Teleconferencing 5. Features of digital switches: 1. Video conferencing 8. and the network or matrix is replaced with tiny glasses-encapsulated reed switches.

Primary Exchange/Center ± a center to which local exchanges are connected and via which trunk connections are established 6. Tertiary Exchange/Center ± a center to which secondary centers are connected to establish trunk connections. International Exchange/Center ± a center to which the tertiary centers are connected to establish trunk connections and these center access the gateway facilities for international trunk connections. Tandem Exchange/Center ± an exchange used for connecting local exchange within a multi-exchange network. . 2. Secondary Exchange/Center ± a center to which the primary centers are connected to established a trunk connections 5. Local Exchange ± an exchange of a local network to which the subscribers are directly or indirectly connected 7.Exchange Hierarchy 1. Quaternary Exchange/Center ± a center to which tertiary centers are connected to establish trunks connections 3. 4.

Private Network ± telephone network privately owned by a certain organization. . Public Network ± anyone can be connected to it.Two Major Groups of Exchange 1. 2.

3. Basic Subscriber Loop Design Requirements: 1. . Also known as local loop. 2.Subscriber Loop .the connection between the telephone set and the central office switching equipment. crosstalk and any form of interference. 4. echo. Enough power or current An adjustable gain or loss in the loop Minimum power loss Minimum amount of noise.

Rtotal = R tel + R cable + R misc + R switch I= 24 mA to 60 mA ( optimal value is 35 mA ) R tel = 150 (old) = 600 to 900 ohms ( new) Ohm¶s Law: V=IR Where: R misc ± resistance of the main distribution frame plus drop wire resistance (neglected) R tel ± resistance of the telephone set R switch ± switching office equipment resistance R cable ± cable resistance used and varies according to size .

Normal Loop ± a simple design because there is no need to add any devices to amplify or attenuate the transmitted signal or to boost up the current to meet the design requirements. Limitations: R L • 1300 . the current in the loop reduced to less than 24 mA.Three Types of Design 1. off-premises extensions. loop range extender and voice repeater 3. Devices: Dial long lines. Devices: foreign exchange. Long Loop Design ± a device has to be added to increase the amount of current in the loop. R L ” 1300 2. Special Services Design ± when R L exceeds the 2800 ohms limit. private line circuits and wide area telephone service . Limitations: R switch is 1300 ohms. special equipment to permit proper voice transmission and proper performance of the circuit used.

Loading Coil ± coil of wire around a magnetically permeable core constituting inductances which can be inserted in a circuit at regular intervals to improve transmission. Non loaded Cable Loading ± is a scheme to improve transmission of cable pairs by the addition of inductive devices in series with the cable pair. use inductive loading Loaded Cable vs. 1. Non-loaded Cable ± a loop or cable pair without loading coil . by increasing conductor diameter 2.Common Methods to attain longer loops without exceeding loss limits: 1. Loaded Cable ± a loop with loading coil to extend the cable length 2. by using special devices 3.

The function of IR drop and conductivity of the loop conductor diameter and gauge. It is a function of the diameter and length of the wire pair. Reference: 1000 Hz ± North America = 8 dB 800 Hz ± Europe = 7 dB 2. Signaling Limit (Resistance Design) It is based on dc resistance.Subscriber loop length limits: 1. Attenuation Limit (Transmission Design) Attenuation ± refers to loop AC loss at reference frequency measured in decibels. Reference: Imin = 20 mA ± North America .



the switching office and the telephone set resistances has 400 ohms and 300 ohms respectively. . using 19 H 44 for the design of a subscriber loop for an 8 dB loss limit. determine the loop limit for this specification. Considering a North American standard will the subscriber have dial tone? What is the maximum loop resistance in order to maintain the dial tone or other signaling element on the cable pair? 2. If the central office supply is -48 volts. the total resistance is 2400 ohms. How many inductive coil should be added and what is the resistance equivalent of each loading coil.Problem Solving: 1. From the table.

current gain if I1 < I2. voltage gain if V1 < V2.is a one-tenth of a bel and was named in honor of Alexander Graham Bell -dB as a unit is not a definite or absolute unit of measurement.dB . power gain if P1 < P2. -used to express transmission gains and losses Mathematically: dB=10 log (P1/P2) if P1 > P2.decibel is a ratio of two power or voltage values and is a standard unit of measurement in the communications industry. power loss dB=20 log (V1/V2) if V1 > V2. . voltage loss dB=20 log (I1/I2) if I1 > I2. current loss .

dBm -means that the 0-dB point reference in 1 mW or dB above or below the reference power of one milliwatt. log (AxB)= log A + log B 2.Properties of logarithm 1. dBm=10 log (P1/P2) where: P2 is one milliwatt 2. dBk -dB in reference (above or below) one kilowatt. log (1)= 0 5. dBw -reference with one watt. dBw=10 log (P1/P2) where: P2 is one watt 3.log B 3. dBk=10 log (P1/P2) where: P2 is one kilowatt 4. log (A/B)= log A .log A Power Levels (an actual or definite amount of power) 1. log (A-1)= log (1/A) =0-log A= . log (Ax)=x log A 4. dBv -represents the voltage level in dB with reference to 1 volt dBv=20 log (V1/V2) where: v2 is one volt Power Levels (an actual or definite amount of power) .

dBaO=dBa. dBc=10 log (P1/Pc). Noise level that has same interfering effect in a F1A handset as a -85 dBm. voltage & current respectively 2. 1000 Hz tone dBa= pure test tone (in dBm) +85 dBa= F1A weighted noise (in dBm) + 82 dBa= 601A/F1A weighted (in dBm) + 77 3.1. dBa -dB above an adjusted reference noise. dBc -dB with reference to the nominal carrier value. dBaO -dB adjusted at 0 dBm level point. dBc=20 log (V1/Vc)=20 log (I1/Ic) where: Pc .test point level .TPL where: TPL.Vc & Ic -Carrier power. The dBa0 value state the noise would be test point level had been 0 dBm.

The dBrnC value states what the noise would be if test level had been 0 dBm dBrnCO=dBrnC. C-message weighted. dBrn= 10 log (Po/1pWp) where: 1pWp= 1 picowatt 5. 1000 Hz tone dBrnC= pure test tone (in dBm)+90 dBrnC= F1A weighted noise (in dBa)+6 dBrnC= 601A/F1A weighted (in dBa)+6 dBrnC=10 log pWp where: pwp= picowatt 6.test point level .TPL where: TPL. dBrnC-dB above reference noise. 1000 Hz tone. Noise level that has same interfering effect with Cweighting as a -90 dBm. Noise level that has same interfering effect in a 144 Handset as a -90 dBm. 144 weighted. dBrnCO -dBrnC at 0 dBm level point.4. dBrn -dB above or below reference noise.

Actual amount of power (similar to dBm) as measured on a VU meter specifically damped to give meaningful readings of voice and music. not a definite amount of power.Definition of Terms pWp . 1000 Hz. dBm= dBm dB dBm + dBmdB INVALID!!! . Important Points to Remember ³dBm´ -is a symbol used to indicate the level of a signal in the system. A definite amount of noise power as measured with psophometric weighted network.difference between two powers. Power at one point compared to power at some reference point. psophometrically weighted. Relative Level . VU .picowatt. Standard Test tone is 0dBm. ³dB´ -is the symbol used to indicate the gain or the loss in the system.pure signal at a single frequency. ³dB´ and ³dBm´ can be added and subtracted as one unit from the other. Test Tone . relative to 1 mW.

What is the level of the signal at the output of the amplifier if the input signal value is 1mW and if the gain of the amplifier is 3dB? 2.3 x 10 -5 W (b) 160 mV 1mV (c) 3mA 0. What is the noise level in dBm at the output of the amplifier if the noise power is given by 10-3 W? 3. calculate the voltage received 1000 miles away. Calculate the loss in dB. The loss of a cable is measured by applying a signal at one end and measuring the result at the other end. Signal applied Signal measured (a) 10 W 0. Impedance of the two cable ends are equal. 4. Convert 13mW to (a) dBm (b) dBrn. If the attenuation in a telephone cable is 1dB/mile and the transmitted voltage is 1 volt.Problem Solving: 1.1 x 10 -4 A .

Mathematically: A= C x T Where: A=Traffic flow. .TELEPHONE TRAFFIC 1. Erlang C=Calling rate per hour T=The average holding time per call. 2. switch or other paths. Traffic The total occupied time of circuit. Traffic Intensity The product of all calls and the average holding time of all calls.

Call Second (Cs)-One Cs is the quantity represented by one or more calls having an aggregate duration of 1 second. 6. 4. 5. Call Minute (Cm).One Cm is the quantity represented by one or more call aggregate of 1 minute. Agner Krakup Erlang 2. 3. Equated Busy Hour Call (EBHC)-One EBHC is the average intensity in one or more traffic paths occupied in the busy hour by one 2 minute call or for an aggregate duration of 2 minutes. Conversion: 1 Erlang=1 Ch=3600 Cs=36 CCs=60 Cm=30 EBHC . Erlang-Preferred unit named after the Danish Mathematician. Call Hour (Ch)-One Ch is the quantity represented by one or more calling having an aggregate duration of 1 hour. Cent Call Second (CCs)-One CCs is the quantity represented by one 100¶s call or by aggregate of 100 Cs of traffic.Traffic Units: 1.

3. a call offered to a group of trunks or circuits will fail to find an idle circuit at the first attempt. Mathematically: Unit: Td= A/t CCs/BH or Erlang/BH 4. Call Congestion: P=number of lost calls/total number of offered calls. Typical GOS: P=0. . that.01 An average of one call out of 100 will be blocked or lost during busy hour. Grade of service A measure of the probability. during a specified period of peak traffic. 5. Traffic Density Traffic per unit time.

Calls per traffic source. whether or not the attempt is successful. 4. Attempt Any effort on the part of a traffic source to seize a circuit.Definition of Terms 1. Traffic Rate The busy hour traffic density per traffic source. Calling Rate The number of calls per unit time. . Call Any actual engagement or seizure of a circuit. Traffic Refers to the average of all user requests being serviced by the network. switch or other traffic channel. 5. 3. 2. Density per traffic source. switch or other traffic channel.

Holding time Length of time during which call engages a traffic path or channel. Call Concentration The ratio of the busy hour to the total day calls. 9. 7. Busy Hour The continuous 60 minute period in a day during which the highest usage occurs. Every free inlet is at all times able to test every outlet. Full availability Each inlet has access to any outlet. 8.Definition of Terms 6. . 10. It is the reciprocal of length of day. Lost Calls or Blocked Calls Refers to calls that fail at the first trial.

Offered Traffic The volume of traffic offered by the switch. Limited Availability When not all the free outlets in a switching system can be reached by inlets.Definition of Terms 11. 12. . 13. Occupation Time The total amount of time that a circuit is occupied. 14. Carried Traffic The volume of traffic actually carried by the switch.

Numbering Area ± area which any two subscribers use the same dialing procedure to reach another subscriber in the telephone network. Country Code ± combination of one to three digits characterizing the called country. . 2. Trunk Code or Area Code ± digit or combination of digits (not including the trunk prefix) characterizing the called numbering area with a country. 4. Subscriber Number ± number to be dialed or called to reach a subscriber in the same local network or numbering area. Trunk Prefix or Toll Access Code ± digit or combination of digits to be dialed by a calling subscriber in his own country but outside his own numbering area. 3.NUMBERING CONCEPT Definition Terms: 1. 5.

If the numbering is 7 digits. it would start from 000000 to 999999.NUMBERING CONCEPT Numbering Functions: 1. Call routing 2. . Activates necessary apparatus for charging If the numbering is 6 digits. it would start from 0000000 to 9999999. Addressing of called and calling party 3.

Country Code 3. Telephone Number . 2.NUMBERING CONCEPT Numbering Concepts: 1. Area Code 4. International Telephone Number CCITT Recommendation E161 recommends that not more than 12 digits make up an international number. Non-uniform Numbering ± a scheme in which the subscriber numbers vary within a given numbering area. 4 Elements: 1. International access code 2. Uniform Numbering ± a scheme in which the length of the subscriber numbers are uniform inside a given numbering area. This excludes the international prefix that switches the call to the transmit exchange for international calls.

Flat Rate ± fixed fee for unlimited number of calls.NUMBERING CONCEPT Charging of Call: 1. Toll Ticketing ± accounts for individual calls. . 2. 2. a computer or an operator notes which subscriber has called to whom. Two Ways of Time Zone Metering 1. Message ± number calls is counted on a call meter. Charging Long Distance Calls ± dependent upon duration and distance. where and for how long. Bulk Billing (Multi-metering) ± a call meter counts how many rate pulses are received during the call.

Channel and Circuits Types: 1. 2. with the line directly between the two locations or routed through a serving central office. Leased (Dedicated) Circuit ± a permanent circuit for private use within a communication network. . Switched Circuit ± a call is automatically switched through to its destination after dialing has been completed.

SIGNALING Refers to specific signals on the transmission line that are used for controlling the connection from the calling telephone to the called telephone and signals that are used to indicate the status of a call as it is being interconnected Provides a means for operating and supervising a telephone communication system Established connections. announces incoming calls and reports the fact that a line is busy .

Supervisory Signals *used to convey information regarding switchboards conditions 3. Ringing Signals *used to operate a visible or audible alarm to alert someone of an incoming call 2. Address Signals *used dialing or digital information which is necessary to establish the desire connections .Signaling Functions 1.

Reverse Battery *loop signaling is accomplished by reversing the polarity of the battery on the line to indicate supervisory conditions 3.Subscriber Loop Signaling. 2. High-Low Method *by representing the on-hook and off-hook condition in terms of resistance values .3 Methods 1. Wet-Dry *signaling information is indicated by the presence (wet) and the absence (dry) of a battery and ground condition on the line at the called end of the trunk.

M lead transmit battery or ground to the distant end of the circuits and while incoming signals are received on the E lead as either a ground or open condition 2. usually 1600.Other Signaling Method 1. In-band Signaling *signaling tones are transmitted within the speech band. Out Band Signaling *make use of one or more AC tones which lie within the passband of the transmission facility but just outside the voice band 3. 2400 or 2600 Hz . E & M Signaling *employs 2 leads to connect the signaling equipment to trunk circuit.

If error is tolerable. if more than 3 errors occur for a period of 10 second. An error detector monitors error rate in the signaling channel. Alternate Channel Signaling *2 channels are used. Common Channel Signaling (CCS) *all signaling for a number of voice path is carried over one channel. a line switch unit automatically switches the signaling channel information to the alternate voice channel switches. one carries the signaling signal while other carriers the voice signal. . the signaling and the alternate-channel information to the signal element. the system is normal.Other Signaling Method 4. instead of within each individual channel 5.

5 Sec-OFF 2 Sec.ON/ 4 Sec.Telephone Audible Tone Signaling Frequency (Hz) 440 480 X X X X Dial Tone Busy Tone Ringing Tone 350 X 620 X Cadence continuous 0.OFF .5 Sec-ON/ 0.

Multiplexer The device that accepts many inputs but will only give one output. Demultiplexer The device that accepts one input but separate the signals into many outputs.MULTIPLEXING The process of transmitting two or more signals over the same communication channel. Different Types of Multiplexing FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing TDM Time Division Multiplexing WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing .

FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING Analog scheme for multiplexing (input is analog and the output is still analog) A method of multiplexing in which the total frequency spectrum available is divided into channels. Introduce in the telephone networks in 1930s. . Applications: Frequency Modulation and Telemetry. each which occupies a particular frequency range all of the time.

Composed of 12 voice band channels 60-108 kHz Basic Super Group The third level in the FDM hierarchy Composed of 60 Voice channels. 0-4000 Hz Basic Group Next higher level in the FDM hierarchy. For voice transmission utilizing voice band frequencies. Voice band frequency: 300-3400 Hz. From 312-552 kHz .FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING Message Channel Basic building block of the FDM hierarchy.

Jumbo Group The Fifth Level in the FDM Hierarchy Consists of 3600 Voice channels Super Jumbo Group The sixth in the FDM hierarchy Consists of 10800 voice channels .FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING Basic Master Group The fourth level in the FDM hierarchy Composed of 6000 Voice band channels.

of Voiceband channels 12 60 600 3600 10800 No.FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING For CCITT Level Basic Group Basic Super Group Basic Master Group Jumbo Group Super Jumbo Group For AT&T: Level Group Super Group Master Group Super Master Group No. of Voiceband Channels 12 60 300 900 .

TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING A type of multiplexing wherein each signal can occupy the entire bandwidth of the channel but transmitted for only a brief period of time. This process is known as interleaving. A frame is one complete cycle of operation. Operation: To transmit multiple digital signals. and then the third channel as well transmits 8 bits and so on. the data to be transmitted is formatted into serial data words. . One byte may be transmitted during the time interval assigned to a particular channel. One channel transmit 8 bits and then halts while the next channel transmits 8 bits. It is used for both digital and analog signal inputs but the output is digital. Each timeslot might contain 1 byte from each channel.



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